WorldWideScience

Sample records for density flow plunging

  1. Flow Measurements of a Plunging Wing in Unsteady Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengel, Jesse; Nathan, Rungun; Cheng, Bo; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2017-11-01

    Despite the great progress in their design and control, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are tremendously troubled while flying in turbulent environments, which are common in the lower atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). A nominally 2D plunging wing was developed and tested in the presence of unsteady wake to investigate the effect of the flow disturbances on vorticity fields. The experiments were conducted in a water channel facility with test section width of 0.76 m, and a water depth of 0.6 m. The unsteady wake in the form of von Kármán Vortex Street was generated by a cylinder located upstream of the plunging wing. The plunge amplitude and frequency of the oscillation were adjusted to bracket the range of Strouhal numbers relevant to the biological locomotion (0.25PIV) was employed to quantitatively study the effect of unsteady wake on the flow measurements of the plunging wing.

  2. Flow structure and vorticity transport on a plunging wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslam Panah, Azar

    The structure and dynamics of the flow field created by a plunging flat plate airfoil are investigated at a chord Reynolds number of 10,000 while varying plunge amplitude and Strouhal number. Digital particle image velocimetry measurements are used to characterize the shedding patterns and the interactions between the leading and trailing edge vortex structures (LEV and TEV), resulting in the development of a wake classification system based on the nature and timing of interactions between the leading- and trailing-edge vortices. The convection speed of the LEV and its resulting interaction with the TEV is primarily dependent on reduced frequency; however, at Strouhal numbers above approximately 0.4, a significant influence of Strouhal number (or plunge amplitude) is observed in which LEV convection is retarded, and the contribution of the LEV to the wake is diminished. It is shown that this effect is caused by an enhanced interaction between the LEV and the airfoil surface, due to a significant increase in the strength of the vortices in this Strouhal number range, for all plunge amplitudes investigated. Comparison with low-Reynolds-number studies of plunging airfoil aerodynamics reveals a high degree of consistency and suggests applicability of the classification system beyond the range examined in the present work. Some important differences are also observed. The three-dimensional flow field was characterized for a plunging two-dimensional flat-plate airfoil using three-dimensional reconstructions of planar PIV data. Whereas the phase-averaged description of the flow field shows the secondary vortex penetrating the leading-edge shear layer to terminate LEV formation on the airfoil, time-resolved, instantaneous PIV measurements show a continuous and growing entrainment of secondary vorticity into the shear layer and LEV. A planar control volume analysis on the airfoil indicated that the generation of secondary vorticity produced approximately one half the

  3. Flow and sediment transport induced by a plunging solitary wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Sen, M.Berke; Karagali, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    Two parallel experiments involving the evolution and runup of plunging solitary waves on a sloping bed were conducted: (1) a rigid-bed experiment, allowing direct (hot film) measurements of bed shear stresses, and (2) a sediment-bed experiment, allowing for the measurement of pore-water pressures...

  4. Pool-Type Fishways: Two Different Morpho-Ecological Cyprinid Species Facing Plunging and Streaming Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M.; Katopodis, Christos; Pinheiro, António; Ferreira, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Fish are particularly sensitive to connectivity loss as their ability to reach spawning grounds is seriously affected. The most common way to circumvent a barrier to longitudinal connectivity, and to mitigate its impacts, is to implement a fish passage device. However, these structures are often non-effective for species with different morphological and ecological characteristics so there is a need to determine optimum dimensioning values and hydraulic parameters. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and performance of two species with different ecological characteristics (Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei–bottom oriented, and Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus–water column) in a full-scale experimental pool-type fishway that offers two different flow regimes–plunging and streaming. Results showed that both species passed through the surface notch more readily during streaming flow than during plunging flow. The surface oriented species used the surface notch more readily in streaming flow, and both species were more successful in moving upstream in streaming flow than in plunging flow. Streaming flow enhances upstream movement of both species, and seems the most suitable for fishways in river systems where a wide range of fish morpho-ecological traits are found. PMID:23741465

  5. Active flow control of the laminar separation bubble on a plunging airfoil near stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Arth; Agate, Mark; Little, Jesse; Fasel, Hermann

    2017-11-01

    The effects of small amplitude (A/c = 0.048) high frequency (πfc/U∞ = 0.70) plunging motion on the X-56A airfoil are examined experimentally at Re = 200,000 for 12° angle of attack (CL,MAX = 12.25°) . The purpose of this research is to study the aerodynamic influence of structural motion when the wing is vibrating close to its eigenfrequency near static stall. Specific focus is placed on the laminar separation bubble (LSB) near the leading edge and its control via plasma actuation. In the baseline case, the leading edge bubble bursts during the oscillation cycle causing moment stall. A collaborative computational effort has shown that small amplitude forcing at a frequency that is most amplified by the primary instability of the LSB (FLSB+= 1, Fc+= 52) generates coherent spanwise vortices that entrain freestream momentum, thus reducing separation all while maintaining a laminar flow state. Results (PIV and surface pressure) indicate that a similar control mechanism is effective in the experiments. This is significant given the existence of freestream turbulence in the wind tunnel which has been shown to limit the efficacy of this active flow control technique in a model problem using Direct Numerical Simulation. The implications of these results are discussed.

  6. The influence of pool geometry and induced flow patterns in rock scour by high-velocity plunging jets

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Manso, Pedro Filipe de; Schleiss, Anton

    2007-01-01

    The dissipation of energy of flood discharges from water releasing structures of dams is often done by plunging jets diffusing in water and impacting on the riverbed downstream. The construction of expensive concrete structures for energy dissipation can be avoided but the assessment of the scour evolution is mandatory for dam safety. The scour growth rate and shape depend on the riverbed geology. The geometry of scour may influence the turbulent flow pattern in the pool, the dynamic loadings...

  7. Assessment of three turbulence model performances in predicting water jet flow plunging into a liquid pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidouni Kendil Faiza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current study is to numerically investigate, through computational fluid dynamics modeling, a water jet injected vertically downward through a straight circular pipe into a water bath. The study also aims to obtain a better understanding of jet behavior, air entrainment and the dispersion of bubbles in the developing flow region. For these purposes, three dimensional air and water flows were modeled using the volume of fluid technique. The equations in question were formulated using the density and viscosity of a 'gas-liquid mixture', described in terms of the phase volume fraction. Three turbulence models with a high Reynolds number have been considered i. e. the standard k-e model, realizable k-e model, and Reynolds stress model. The predicted flow patterns for the realizable k-e model match well with experimental measurements found in available literature. Nevertheless, some discrepancies regarding velocity relaxation and turbulent momentum distribution in the pool are still observed for both the standard k-e and the Reynolds stress model.

  8. Modeling of a pitching and plunging airfoil using experimental flow field and load measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshin, Victor; Seifert, Avraham

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the current paper is to outline a low-order modeling procedure of a heaving airfoil in a still fluid using experimental measurements. Due to its relative simplicity, the proposed procedure is applicable for the analysis of flow fields within complex and unsteady geometries and it is suitable for analyzing the data obtained by experimentation. Currently, this procedure is used to model and predict the flow field evolution using a small number of low profile load sensors and flow field measurements. A time delay neural network is used to estimate the flow field. The neural network estimates the amplitudes of the most energetic modes using four sensory inputs. The modes are calculated using proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field data obtained experimentally by time-resolved, phase-locked particle imaging velocimetry. To permit the use of proper orthogonal decomposition, the measured flow field is mapped onto a stationary domain using volume preserving transformation. The analysis performed by the model showed good estimation quality within the parameter range used in the training procedure. However, the performance deteriorates for cases out of this range. This situation indicates that, to improve the robustness of the model, both the decomposition and the training data sets must be diverse in terms of input parameter space. In addition, the results suggest that the property of volume preservation of the mapping does not affect the model quality as long as the model is not based on the Galerkin approximation. Thus, it may be relaxed for cases with more complex geometry and kinematics.

  9. Ready for the plunge!

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Herman Ten Kate, Project Leader for the ATLAS magnet system, standing in front of the truck transporting the magnet across the Route de Meyrin.Every time any part of the ATLAS detector is moved, it’s quite a spectacle! On Tuesday 29 May, the first end-cap of the ATLAS toroid magnet left Building 180, bound for Point 1. The 240-ton behemoth covered the two short kilometres in no less than five hours. Traffic was interrupted on the Route de Meyrin while the exceptional load was wheeled to its final destination. One of the technical challenges was to keep the magnet horizontal throughout the operation and, to achieve this, computers permanently monitored the magnet’s angles of displacement and hydraulic jacks rectified any tilt. But the most hazardous part of operation remains the 80-m plunge into the ATLAS cavern.

  10. Taking the plunge

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 8 and 15 October, 58 people took the plunge and headed to the Varembé swimming pool in Geneva for their first taste of scuba diving at one of the CERN scuba club’s free trial dives. Club president Alberto Pace, left, taking a new recruit on his first dive. The CERN scuba club was making waves down at the Varembe swimming pool on Wednesday 15 October. Thirty-six people turned up to the club’s second free trial dive. "It was fantastic," said Jörg, one of the new recruits, after his first ever dive. "I’ve always wanted to try diving and this was a free lesson, so I thought I would come and have a go." Fourteen of the club’s fully qualified instructors were there to give one-on-one tuition. After a first dive in the normal pool the new divers moved into the deep pool. Some took to the water like fish, and at one point an impromptu game of aqua-Frisbee broke out, five metres below the surface. Richard Catherall, who organi...

  11. Sediment transport through self-adjusting, bedrock-walled waterfall plunge pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Many waterfalls have deep plunge pools that are often partially or fully filled with sediment. Sediment fill may control plunge-pool bedrock erosion rates, partially determine habitat availability for aquatic organisms, and affect sediment routing and debris flow initiation. Currently, there exists no mechanistic model to describe sediment transport through waterfall plunge pools. Here we develop an analytical model to predict steady-state plunge-pool depth and sediment-transport capacity by combining existing jet theory with sediment transport mechanics. Our model predicts plunge-pool sediment-transport capacity increases with increasing river discharge, flow velocity, and waterfall drop height and decreases with increasing plunge-pool depth, radius, and grain size. We tested the model using flume experiments under varying waterfall and plunge-pool geometries, flow hydraulics, and sediment size. The model and experiments show that through morphodynamic feedbacks, plunge pools aggrade to reach shallower equilibrium pool depths in response to increases in imposed sediment supply. Our theory for steady-state pool depth matches the experiments with an R2 value of 0.8, with discrepancies likely due to model simplifications of the hydraulics and sediment transport. Analysis of 75 waterfalls suggests that the water depths in natural plunge pools are strongly influenced by upstream sediment supply, and our model provides a mass-conserving framework to predict sediment and water storage in waterfall plunge pools for sediment routing, habitat assessment, and bedrock erosion modeling.

  12. Controls on Filling and Evacuation of Sediment in Waterfall Plunge Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Many waterfalls are characterized by the presence of deep plunge pools that experience periods of sediment fill and evacuation. These cycles of sediment fill are a first order control on the relative magnitude of lateral versus vertical erosion at the base of waterfalls, as vertical incision requires cover-free plunge pools to expose the bedrock floor, while lateral erosion can occur when pools are partially filled and plunge-pool walls are exposed. Currently, there exists no mechanistic model describing sediment transport through waterfall plunge pools, limiting our ability to predict waterfall retreat. To address this knowledge gap, we performed detailed laboratory experiments measuring plunge-pool sediment transport capacity (Qsc_pool) under varying waterfall and plunge-pool geometries, flow hydraulics, and sediment size. Our experimental plunge-pool sediment transport capacity measurements match well with a mechanistic model we developed which combines existing waterfall jet theory with a modified Rouse profile to predict sediment transport capacity as a function of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration at the plunge-pool lip. Comparing the transport capacity of plunge pools to lower gradient portions of rivers (Qsc_river) shows that, for transport limited conditions, plunge pools fill with sediment under modest water discharges when Qsc_river > Qsc_pool, and empty to bedrock under high discharges when Qsc_pool > Qsc_river. These results are consistent with field observations of sand-filled plunge pools with downstream boulder rims, implying filling and excavation of plunge pools over single-storm timescales. Thus, partial filling of waterfall plunge pools may provide a mechanism to promote lateral undercutting and retreat of waterfalls in homogeneous rock in which plunge-pool vertical incision occurs during brief large floods that expose bedrock, whereas lateral erosion may prevail during smaller events.

  13. Measurements of air entrainment by vertical plunging liquid jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hammoumi, M.; Achard, J. L.; Davoust, L.

    2002-06-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the air-entrainment process by a vertical plunging liquid jet. A non-dimensional physical analysis, inspired by the literature on the stability of free jets submitted to an aerodynamic interaction, was developed and yielded two correlation equations for the laminar and the turbulent plunging jets. These correlation equations allow the volumetric flow rate of the air carryunder represented by the Weber number of entrainment We n to be predicted. The plunging jets under consideration issued from circular tubes long enough to achieve a fully developed flow at the outlet. A sensitive technique based on a rising soap meniscus was developed to measure directly the volumetric flow rate of the air carryunder. Our data are compared with other experimental data available in the literature; they also stand as a possible database for future theoretical modelling.

  14. Measurements of air entrainment by vertical plunging liquid jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hammoumi, M. [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Departement de Physique, Laboratoire de Mecanique Appliquee, Fes (Morocco); Achard, J.L.; Davoust, L. [Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), Grenoble (France)

    2002-06-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the air-entrainment process by a vertical plunging liquid jet. A non-dimensional physical analysis, inspired by the literature on the stability of free jets submitted to an aerodynamic interaction, was developed and yielded two correlation equations for the laminar and the turbulent plunging jets. These correlation equations allow the volumetric flow rate of the air carryunder represented by the Weber number of entrainment We{sub n} to be predicted. The plunging jets under consideration issued from circular tubes long enough to achieve a fully developed flow at the outlet. A sensitive technique based on a rising soap meniscus was developed to measure directly the volumetric flow rate of the air carryunder. Our data are compared with other experimental data available in the literature; they also stand as a possible database for future theoretical modelling. (orig.)

  15. Simulation of turbid underflows generated by the plunging of a river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ahmed; Imran, Jasim

    2001-07-01

    When the density of sediment-laden river water exceeds that of the lake or ocean into which it discharges, the river plunges to the bottom of the receiving water body and continues to flow as a hyperpycnal flow. These particle-laden underflows, also known as turbidity currents, can travel remarkable distances and profoundly influence the seabed morphology from shoreline to abyss by depositing, eroding, and dispersing large quantities of sediment particles. Here we present a new approach to investigating the transformation of a plunging river flow into a turbidity current. Unlike previous workers using experimental and numerical treatments, we consider the evolution of a turbidity current from a river as different stages of a single flow process. From initial commotion to final stabilization, the transformation of a river (open channel flow) into a density-driven current (hyperpycnal flow) is captured in its entirety by a numerical model. Successful implementation of the model in laboratory and field cases has revealed the dynamics of a complex geophysical flow that is extremely difficult to observe in the field or model in the laboratory.

  16. The Plunge Phase of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, John C.

    2005-01-01

    The many advantages of Friction Stir Welding have led to a relatively rapid acceptance in the often conservative welding community. Because the process is so different from traditional fusion welding, with which most investigators are most familiar, there remain many aspects of FSW for which there is no clear consensus. For example, the well known onion rings seen in transverse sections have been variously interpreted as grain size variations, variation in density of second phase particles and parts of the carousel of material rotating with the pin that have been shed from the carousel. Using Orientation Imaging Microscopy, Schneider has recently noted that the onion rings have a different orientation (and hence etch differently) than the surrounding material, and this orientation is consistent with slip plane orientations at the edge of the carousel. Likewise, the forces and torque exerted by the FSW tool on the work piece largely remain unaccounted for. Although these forces are routinely measured by investigators with commercial instrumented welders, they are rarely reported or even qualitatively analyzed. This paper will introduce a model based on a carousel or disk of material that rotates with the tool to estimate the torque and plunge force required to plunge a tool into the work piece. A stationary tool is modeled rather than the moving tool because effects such as thermal transients and metallurgical changes in the sample (primarily aging in aluminum) can be more easily accounted for. It is believed, however, that with some modifications the model should be applicable to a moving tool also.

  17. Bedforms formed by experimental supercritical density flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Hajime; Izumi, Norihiro; Yokokawa, Miwa; Muto, Tetsuji

    2014-05-01

    This study reveals characteristics and formative conditions of bedforms produced by saline density flows in supercritical flow conditions, especially focusing on the mechanism of the formation of plane bed. The motion of sediment particles forming bedforms was resolved by high-speed cameras (1/1000 frame/seconds). Experimental density flows were produced by mixtures of salt water (1.01-1.04 in density) and plastic particles (1.5 in specific density, 140 or 240 mm in diameter). Salt water and plastic particles are analogue materials of muddy water and sand particles in turbidity currents respectively. Acrylic flume (4.0 m long, 2.0 cm wide and 0.5 m deep) was submerged in an experimental tank (6.0 m long, 1.8 m wide and 1.2 m deep) that was filled by clear water. Features of bedforms were observed when the bed state in the flume reached equilibrium condition. The experimental conditions range 1.5-4.2 in densimetric Froude number and 0.2-0.8 in Shields dimensionless stress. We report the two major discoveries as a result of the flume experiments: (1) Plane bed under Froude-supercritical flows and (2) Geometrical characteristics of cyclic steps formed by density flows. (1) Plane bed was formed under the condition of supercritical flow regime. In previous studies, plane bed has been known to be formed by subcritical unidirectional flows (ca. 0.8 in Froude number). However, this study implies that plane bed can also be formed by supercritical conditions with high Shields dimensionless stress (>0.4) and very high Froude number (> 4.0). This discovery may suggest that previous estimations of paleo-hydraulic conditions of parallel lamination in turbidites should be reconsidered. The previous experimental studies and data from high-speed camera suggest that the region of plane bed formation coincides with the region of the sheet flow developments. The particle transport in sheet flow (thick bedload layer) induces transform of profile of flow shear stress, which may be

  18. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the

  19. Fast plunges into Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadar, Shahar [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Porfyriadis, Achilleas P.; Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Most extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals of small compact objects into supermassive black holes end with a fast plunge from an eccentric last stable orbit. For rapidly rotating black holes such fast plunges may be studied in the context of the Kerr/CFT correspondence because they occur in the near-horizon region where dynamics are governed by the infinite dimensional conformal symmetry. In this paper we use conformal transformations to analytically solve for the radiation emitted from fast plunges into near-extreme Kerr black holes. We find perfect agreement between the gravity and CFT computations.

  20. Flow visualization of a low density hypersonic flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, B.S.; Jumper, E.J.; Walters, E.; Segalman, T.Y.; Founds, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    Characteristics of laser induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) in low density hypersonic flows are being investigated for use as a diagnostic technique. At low pressures, doppler broadening dominates the iodine absorption profile producing a fluorescence signal that is primarily temperature and velocity dependent. From this dependency, a low pressure flow field has the potential to be mapped for its velocity and temperature fields. The theory for relating iodine emission to the velocity and temperature fields of a hypersonic flow is discussed in this paper. Experimental observations are made of a fluorescencing free expansion and qualitatively related to the theory. 7 refs

  1. Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk, E-mail: tomasz.kozlowski@pwr.wroc.pl, E-mail: henryk.kudela@pwr.wroc.pl [Department of Numerical Modelling of Flows, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish. (paper)

  2. Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish.

  3. Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozłowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish. (paper)

  4. THE DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN TURBULENT BISTABLE FLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo

    2013-01-01

    We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function (Σ-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100 pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50 pc. At low densities (n ∼ –3 ), the n-PDF is well described by a lognormal distribution for an average local Mach number ranging from ∼0.2 to ∼5.5. As a consequence of the nonlinear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution of the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well-known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n ∼> 7.1 cm –3 ) goes from ∼1.1 to ∼16.9 and the shape of the high-density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case, the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities, the Σ-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all of the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different from those of the isothermal case.

  5. A modified airfoil-based piezoaeroelastic energy harvester with double plunge degrees of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yining Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, a piezoaeroelastic energy harvester based on an airfoil with double plunge degrees of freedom is proposed to additionally take advantage of the vibrational energy of the airfoil pitch motion. An analytical model of the proposed energy harvesting system is built and compared with an equivalent model using the well-explored pitch-plunge configuration. The dynamic response and average power output of the harvester are numerically studied as the flow velocity exceeds the cut-in speed (flutter speed. It is found that the harvester with double-plunge configuration generates 4%–10% more power with varying flow velocities while reducing 6% of the cut-in speed than its counterpart.

  6. Influencing parameters and the behaviour of flows of varying density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plate, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution aims at presenting the principles of density flows in brief, and, if possible, in a non-mathematical way. This task is made difficult by the fact that there is no comprohensive work on the subject. For two-dimensional density flows, a brief communication has been published in German recently. This publication is referred to for details and literature references. The contribution is only concerned with demonstrating the difference between density flows and homogeneous fluid flows and with presenting the possibilities which exist to calculate density flows. In this context, the rendering restricts itself only to horizontal discharging processes. (orig.) [de

  7. Giant plunging ranula: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ha; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin [Dept. of School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Chang Hyeon; Park, Jin Woo [Dept. of Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    A ranula is a bluish, transparent, and thin-walled swelling in the floor of the mouth. They originate from the extravasation and subsequent accumulation of saliva from the sublingual gland. Ranulas are usually limited to the sublingual space but they sometimes extend to the submandibular space and parapharyngeal space, which is defined as a plunging ranula. A 21-year-old woman presented with a complaint of a large swelling in the left submandibular region. On contrast-enhanced CT images, it dissected across the midline, and extended to the parapharyngeal space posteriorly and to the submandibular space inferiorly. Several septa and a fluid-fluid level within the lesion were also demonstrated. We diagnosed this lesion as a ranula rather than cystic hygroma due to the location of its center and its sublingual tail sign. As plunging ranula and cystic hygroma are managed with different surgical approaches, it is important to differentiate them radiologically.

  8. Influence of Thickness Variation on the Flapping Performance of Symmetric NACA Airfoils in Plunging Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyu Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the impact of airfoil thickness on flapping performance, the unsteady flow fields of a family of airfoils from an NACA0002 airfoil to an NACA0020 airfoil in a pure plunging motion and a series of altered NACA0012 airfoils in a pure plunging motion were simulated using computational fluid dynamics techniques. The “class function/shape function transformation“ parametric method was employed to decide the coordinates of these altered NACA0012 airfoils. Under specified plunging kinematics, it is observed that the increase of an airfoil thickness can reduce the leading edge vortex (LEV in strength and delay the LEV shedding. The increase of the maximum thickness can enhance the time-averaged thrust coefficient and the propulsive efficiency without lift reduction. As the maximum thickness location moves towards the leading edge, the airfoil obtains a larger time-averaged thrust coefficient and a higher propulsive efficiency without changing the lift coefficient.

  9. Plunging ranula of the submandibular area

    OpenAIRE

    Mahnaz Sheikhi; Faranak Jalalian; Roghayeh Rashidipoor; Farzaneh Mosavat

    2011-01-01

    The term ?ranula? is used to describe a diffuse swelling in the floor of the mouth caused by either a mucous extravasation or, less commonly, a mucous retention cyst derived from the major sublingual or submandibular salivary glands. The most common presentation of ranula is a painless, slow-growing, soft, and movable mass located in the floor of the mouth. Ranula may be simple or plunging. Simple ranula often present as masses in the floor of the mouth, limited to the mucous membranes. Divin...

  10. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  11. Isospectral Flows for the Inhomogeneous String Density Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Andrzej Z.; Szmigielski, Jacek

    2018-02-01

    We derive isospectral flows of the mass density in the string boundary value problem corresponding to general boundary conditions. In particular, we show that certain class of rational flows produces in a suitable limit all flows generated by polynomials in negative powers of the spectral parameter. We illustrate the theory with concrete examples of isospectral flows of discrete mass densities which we prove to be Hamiltonian and for which we provide explicit solutions of equations of motion in terms of Stieltjes continued fractions and Hankel determinants.

  12. Effects of Electron Flow Current Density on Flow Impedance of Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yong; Zou Wen-Kang; Song Sheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    In modern pulsed power systems, magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) are used to couple power between the driver and the load. The circuit parameters of MITLs are well understood by employing the concept of flow impedance derived from Maxwell's equations and pressure balance across the flow. However, the electron density in an MITL is always taken as constant in the application of flow impedance. Thus effects of electron flow current density (product of electron density and drift velocity) in an MITL are neglected. We calculate the flow impedances of an MITL and compare them under three classical MITL theories, in which the electron density profile and electron flow current density are different from each other. It is found that the assumption of constant electron density profile in the calculation of the flow impedance is not always valid. The electron density profile and the electron flow current density have significant effects on flow impedance of the MITL. The details of the electron flow current density and its effects on the operation impedance of the MITL should be addressed more explicitly by experiments and theories in the future. (nuclear physics)

  13. Gravitational waves from plunges into Gargantua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Fransen, Kwinten; Hertog, Thomas; Long, Jiang

    2018-05-01

    We analytically compute time domain gravitational waveforms produced in the final stages of extreme mass ratio inspirals of non-spinning compact objects into supermassive nearly extremal Kerr black holes. Conformal symmetry relates all corotating equatorial orbits in the geodesic approximation to circular orbits through complex conformal transformations. We use this to obtain the time domain Teukolsky perturbations for generic equatorial corotating plunges in closed form. The resulting gravitational waveforms consist of an intermediate polynomial ringdown phase in which the decay rate depends on the impact parameters, followed by an exponential quasi-normal mode decay. The waveform amplitude exhibits critical behavior when the orbital angular momentum tends to a minimal value determined by the innermost stable circular orbit. We show that either near-critical or large angular momentum leads to a significant extension of the LISA observable volume of gravitational wave sources of this kind.

  14. High energy density redox flow device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  15. Determining the Limiting Current Density of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yu Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs are used as energy storage systems for intermittent renewable power sources. The performance of VRFBs depends on materials of key components and operating conditions, such as current density, electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition. Mass transfer overpotential is affected by the electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition, which is related to the limiting current density. In order to investigate the effect of operating conditions on mass transport overpotential, this study established a relationship between the limiting current density and operating conditions. First, electrolyte solutions with different states of charge were prepared and used for a single cell to obtain discharging polarization curves under various operating conditions. The experimental results were then analyzed and are discussed in this paper. Finally, this paper proposes a limiting current density as a function of operating conditions. The result helps predict the effect of operating condition on the cell performance in a mathematical model.

  16. Plunging ranula of the submandibular area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Jalalian, Faranak; Rashidipoor, Roghayeh; Mosavat, Farzaneh

    2011-01-01

    The term “ranula” is used to describe a diffuse swelling in the floor of the mouth caused by either a mucous extravasation or, less commonly, a mucous retention cyst derived from the major sublingual or submandibular salivary glands. The most common presentation of ranula is a painless, slow-growing, soft, and movable mass located in the floor of the mouth. Ranula may be simple or plunging. Simple ranula often present as masses in the floor of the mouth, limited to the mucous membranes. Diving ranulas extend through the facial plans, usually posterior to the mylohyoid muscle into the neck, and present as cervical masses. Thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cleft cyst, cystic hygroma, submandibular sialadenitis, intramuscular hemangioma, cystic or neoplastic thyroid disease might be included in differential diagnosis. A variety of surgical procedures have been quoted in the literature ranging from marsupialization, excision of the ranula, sclerotherapy, and excision of the sublingual gland. The recurrence rate varies according to the procedure performed. PMID:23372589

  17. Plunging ranula of the submandibular area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "ranula" is used to describe a diffuse swelling in the floor of the mouth caused by either a mucous extravasation or, less commonly, a mucous retention cyst derived from the major sublingual or submandibular salivary glands. The most common presentation of ranula is a painless, slow-growing, soft, and movable mass located in the floor of the mouth. Ranula may be simple or plunging. Simple ranula often present as masses in the floor of the mouth, limited to the mucous membranes. Diving ranulas extend through the facial plans, usually posterior to the mylohyoid muscle into the neck, and present as cervical masses. Thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cleft cyst, cystic hygroma, submandibular sialadenitis, intramuscular hemangioma, cystic or neoplastic thyroid disease might be included in differential diagnosis. A variety of surgical procedures have been quoted in the literature ranging from marsupialization, excision of the ranula, sclerotherapy, and excision of the sublingual gland. The recurrence rate varies according to the procedure performed.

  18. Postfragmentation density function for bacterial aggregates in laminar flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Erin; Dzul, Steve; Solomon, Michael; Younger, John; Bortz, David M

    2011-04-01

    The postfragmentation probability density of daughter flocs is one of the least well-understood aspects of modeling flocculation. We use three-dimensional positional data of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial flocs in suspension and the knowledge of hydrodynamic properties of a laminar flow field to construct a probability density function of floc volumes after a fragmentation event. We provide computational results which predict that the primary fragmentation mechanism for large flocs is erosion. The postfragmentation probability density function has a strong dependence on the size of the original floc and indicates that most fragmentation events result in clumps of one to three bacteria eroding from the original floc. We also provide numerical evidence that exhaustive fragmentation yields a limiting density inconsistent with the log-normal density predicted in the literature, most likely due to the heterogeneous nature of K. pneumoniae flocs. To support our conclusions, artificial flocs were generated and display similar postfragmentation density and exhaustive fragmentation. ©2011 American Physical Society

  19. Mixing of high density solution in vertical upward flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Hosogi, Nobuyoshi; Komada, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiki

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been performed in order to provide fundamental data and a numerical calculation model on the mixing of boric acid solution, injected from the standby liquid control system (SLCS), under a low natural circulation flow during an ATWS in a BWR. First, fundamental experiments on the mixing of high-density solution in vertically-upward water flow have been performed by using a small apparatus. Mixing patterns observed in the experiments have been classified to two groups, i.e. complete mixing (entrainment) and incomplete mixing (entrainment). In the complete mixing, the injected high-density solution is mixed (entrained) completely into the vertically-upward water flow. From the experiments, the minimum water flow rates in which the complete mixing (entrainment) is achieved have been obtained for various solution densities and solution injection rates. Secondly, two-dimensional numerical calculations have been performed. A continuity equation for total fluid, momentum equations in two directions and a continuity equation for solute are solved by using the finite difference method for discretization method and by following the MAC method for solution procedure. The calculations have predicted nearly the minimum water flow rate in which the complete mixing is achieved, while the calculations have been performed only for one combination of the solution density and solution injection rate until now. (author)

  20. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  1. Density scaling and quasiuniversality of flow-event statistics for athermal plastic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerner, Edan; Bailey, Nicholas; Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Athermal steady-state plastic flows were simulated for the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system and its repulsive version in which the sign of the attractive terms is changed to a plus. Properties evaluated include the distributions of energy drops, stress drops, and strain intervals between...... the flow events. We show that simulations at a single density in conjunction with an equilibrium-liquid simulation at the same density allow one to predict the plastic flow-event statistics at other densities. This is done by applying the recently established “hidden scale invariance” of simple liquids...

  2. EVALUATION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT INFLUENCE ON SUBURBAN TRAFFIC FLOW DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horbachov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Study results of the human settlement influence on the traffic flow density in suburban service of international, national and regional roads of Ukraine are presented. The possibility of an adequate description of suburban traffic flows in the vicinity of large cities is established, depending on the city population and link remoteness from the city center. The possibility is determined on the basis of obtained models to define the prognosis value of the intensity and specific maintenance of freight and passenger transport flows.

  3. Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...

  4. The down canyon evolution of submarine sediment density flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Clare, M. A.; Cartigny, M.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine density flows, known as turbidity currents, transfer globally significant volumes of terrestrial and shelf sediments, organic carbon, nutrients and fresher-water into the deep ocean. Understanding such flows has wide implications for global organic carbon cycling, the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, seabed infrastructure hazard assessments, and interpreting geological archives of Earth history. Only river systems transport comparable volumes of sediment over such large areas of the globe. Despite their clear importance, there are remarkably few direct measurements of these oceanic turbidity currents in action. Here we present results from the multi-institution Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) which deployed multiple moorings along the axis of Monterey Canyon (offshore California). An array of six moorings, with downward looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) were positioned along the canyon axis from 290 m to 1850 m water depth. The ADCPs reveal the internal flow structure of submarine density flows at each site. We use a novel inversion method to reconstruct the suspended sediment concentration and flow stratification field during each event. Together the six moorings provide the first ever views of the internal structural evolution of turbidity current events as they evolve down system. Across the total 18-month period of deployment at least 15 submarine sediment density flows were measured with velocities up to 8.1 m/sec, with three of these flows extending 50 kms down the canyon beyond the 1850 m water depth mooring. We use these novel data to highlight the controls on ignition, interval structure and collapse of individual events and discuss the implications for the functioning and deposits produced by these enigmatic flows.

  5. Elliptic flow from Coulomb interaction and low density elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuliang; Li, Qingfeng; Wang, Fuqiang

    2018-04-01

    In high energy heavy ion collisions and interacting cold atom systems, large elliptic flow anisotropies have been observed. For the large opacity (ρ σ L ˜103 ) of the latter hydrodynamics is a natural consequence, but for the small opacity (ρ σ L ˜1 ) of the former the hydrodynamic description is questionable. To shed light onto the situation, we simulate the expansion of a low density argon ion (or atom) system, initially trapped in an elliptical region, under the Coulomb interaction (or elastic scattering). Significant elliptic anisotropy is found in both cases, and the anisotropy depends on the initial spatial eccentricity and the density of the system. The results may provide insights into the physics of anisotropic flow in high energy heavy ion collisions and its role in the study of quantum chromodynamics.

  6. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  7. Energy density, stopping and flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorge, H.; von Keitz, A.; Mattiello, R.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1990-01-01

    The Lorentz invariant molecular dynamics approach (RQMD) is employed to investigate the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions at energies (E kin = 10AGeV hor-ellipsis 200AGeV). The calculations for various nucleus nucleus reactions show a high degree of stopping power. The importance of secondary rescattering at these beam energies is demonstrated. The computed nucleon rapidity distributions are compared to available experimental data. It is demonstrated that nonlinear, collective effects like full stopping of target and projectile and matter flow could be expected for heavy projectiles only. For nuclear collisions in the Booster era at BNL and for the lead beam at CERN SPS the authors predict a stimulating future: then a nearly equilibrated, long lived (8 fm/c) macroscopic volume of very high energy density (> 1 GeV/fm 3 ) and baryon density (> 5 times ground state density) is produced

  8. Numerical study of free pulsed jet flow with variable density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriaa, Wassim [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)], E-mail: kriaawass@yahoo.fr; Cheikh, Habib Ben; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, 60 rue Juliot Curie Technopole de Chateau-Gombert 13453, Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2008-05-15

    In this work, we propose a numerical study of a free pulsed plane jet with variable density in unsteady and laminar modes. At the nozzle exit, the flow is characterized by a uniform temperature and submitted to a longitudinal and periodic velocity disturbance: u = u{sub 0}(1 + A sin({omega}t)). A finite difference method is performed to solve the equations governing this flow type. The discussion relates to the effect of the most significant parameters, such as the pulsation frequency and amplitude, on the flow characteristic fields. The effects of Reynolds and Galileo numbers was also examined. The results show that the pulsation affects the flow in the vicinity of the nozzle, and further, the results of the unsteady mode join those of the steady non-pulsed jet. The results state also that the Strouhal number has no influence on the flow mixture degree, whereas the amplitude of pulsation affects, in a remarkable way, the mixture and, consequently, the concentration core length.

  9. Turbulent behaviour of non-cohesive sediment gravity flows at unexpectedly high flow density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Megan; Baas, Jaco H.; Malarkey, Jonathan; Kane, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Experimental lock exchange-type turbidity currents laden with non-cohesive silica-flour were found to be highly dynamic at remarkably high suspended sediment concentrations. These experiments were conducted to produce sediment gravity flows of volumetric concentrations ranging from 1% to 52%, to study how changes in suspended sediment concentration affects the head velocities and run-out distances of these flows, in natural seawater. Increasing the volumetric concentration of suspended silica-flour, C, up to C = 46%, within the flows led to a progressive increase in the maximum head velocity. This relationship suggests that suspended sediment concentration intensifies the density difference between the turbulent suspension and the ambient water, which drives the flow, even if almost half of the available space is occupied by sediment particles. However, from C = 46% to C = 52% a rapid reduction in the maximum head velocity was measured. It is inferred that at C = 46%, friction from grain-to-grain interactions begins to attenuate turbulence within the flows. At C > 46%, the frictional stresses become progressively more dominant over the turbulent forces and excess density, thus producing lower maximum head velocities. This grain interaction process started to rapidly reduce the run-out distance of the silica-flour flows at equally high concentrations of C ≥ 47%. All flows with C tank, but the head velocities gradually reduced along the tank. Bagnold (1954, 1963) estimated that, for sand flows, grain-to-grain interactions start to become important in modulating turbulence at C > 9%. Yet, the critical flow concentration at which turbulence modulation commenced for these silica-flour laden flows appeared to be much higher. We suggest that Bagnold's 9% criterion cannot be applied to flows that carry fine-grained sediment, because turbulent forces are more important than dispersive forces, and frictional forces start to affect the flows only at concentrations just

  10. Stratified flows with variable density: mathematical modelling and numerical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Javier; Navas-Montilla, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Stratified flows appear in a wide variety of fundamental problems in hydrological and geophysical sciences. They may involve from hyperconcentrated floods carrying sediment causing collapse, landslides and debris flows, to suspended material in turbidity currents where turbulence is a key process. Also, in stratified flows variable horizontal density is present. Depending on the case, density varies according to the volumetric concentration of different components or species that can represent transported or suspended materials or soluble substances. Multilayer approaches based on the shallow water equations provide suitable models but are not free from difficulties when moving to the numerical resolution of the governing equations. Considering the variety of temporal and spatial scales, transfer of mass and energy among layers may strongly differ from one case to another. As a consequence, in order to provide accurate solutions, very high order methods of proved quality are demanded. Under these complex scenarios it is necessary to observe that the numerical solution provides the expected order of accuracy but also converges to the physically based solution, which is not an easy task. To this purpose, this work will focus in the use of Energy balanced augmented solvers, in particular, the Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. References: J. Murillo , P. García-Navarro, Wave Riemann description of friction terms in unsteady shallow flows: Application to water and mud/debris floods. J. Comput. Phys. 231 (2012) 1963-2001. J. Murillo B. Latorre, P. García-Navarro. A Riemann solver for unsteady computation of 2D shallow flows with variable density. J. Comput. Phys.231 (2012) 4775-4807. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Energy balanced numerical schemes with very high order. The Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. Application to the shallow water equations, J. Comput. Phys. 290 (2015) 188-218. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Asymptotically and exactly energy balanced augmented flux

  11. The Entropy Solutions for the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards Traffic Flow Model with a Discontinuous Flow-Density Relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Yadong; Wong, S. C; Zhang, Mengping; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2007-01-01

    ...) traffic flow model with a flow-density relationship which is piecewise quadratic, concave, but not continuous at the junction points where two quadratic polynomials meet, and with piecewise linear...

  12. Experimental study of pitching and plunging airfoils at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Yeon Sik; Bernal, Luis P. [University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Measurements of the unsteady flow structure and force time history of pitching and plunging SD7003 and flat plate airfoils at low Reynolds numbers are presented. The airfoils were pitched and plunged in the effective angle of attack range of 2.4 -13.6 (shallow-stall kinematics) and -6 to 22 (deep-stall kinematics). The shallow-stall kinematics results for the SD7003 airfoil show attached flow and laminar-to-turbulent transition at low effective angle of attack during the down stroke motion, while the flat plate model exhibits leading edge separation. Strong Re-number effects were found for the SD7003 airfoil which produced approximately 25 % increase in the peak lift coefficient at Re = 10,000 compared to higher Re flows. The flat plate airfoil showed reduced Re effects due to leading edge separation at the sharper leading edge, and the measured peak lift coefficient was higher than that predicted by unsteady potential flow theory. The deep-stall kinematics resulted in leading edge separation that led to formation of a large leading edge vortex (LEV) and a small trailing edge vortex (TEV) for both airfoils. The measured peak lift coefficient was significantly higher ({proportional_to}50 %) than that for the shallow-stall kinematics. The effect of airfoil shape on lift force was greater than the Re effect. Turbulence statistics were measured as a function of phase using ensemble averages. The results show anisotropic turbulence for the LEV and isotropic turbulence for the TEV. Comparison of unsteady potential flow theory with the experimental data showed better agreement by using the quasi-steady approximation, or setting C(k) = 1 in Theodorsen theory, for leading edge-separated flows. (orig.)

  13. Cylindrical plunge grinding of difficult to grind materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshikatsu; Uno, Yoshiyuki; Kayahara, Masayuki.

    1983-01-01

    Cylindrical plunge grinding processes of titanium alloy and nickel-base superalloys with various kinds of conventional grinding wheels, which are known as difficult to grind materials, are experimentally investigated, analyzing size generation process, grinding force, surface roughness, wheel wear, grinding ratio and so on. For grinding titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, GC grinding wheel yields most superior grinding results which leads to lower grinding force, smaller residual stock, less wheel wear and higher grinding ratio up to about 3 with GC 80 L 9 V wheel. Then, for grinding nickelbase superalloys Waspaloy and Rene 41, WA 150 L 9 V wheel yields better grinding results in surface roughness, wheel wear, grinding ratio without chatter vibration though grinding force is higher, and the grinding ratio about 3 is obtained. Furthermore, higher plunge speed and speed ratio result in higher grinding efficiency though grinding force, surface roughness, wheel wear increase for grinding titanium alloy and nickel-base superalloys. (author)

  14. The epidemiology of plunging ranula in South Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Seung Joon; Zeng, Irene S L; Morton, Randall P

    2016-12-01

    Estimate the incidence rate and provide basic descriptive epidemiologic characteristics of plunging ranulas in a multi-ethnic population. Case series with chart review. The study group comprised all Counties Manukau Health (CMH, Manukau City, Auckland, New Zealand) patients presenting to the CMH Department of Otolaryngology with a diagnosis of plunging ranula from January 2001 to December 2013, as recorded in the departmental case register. Non-CMH domicile patients were excluded. South Auckland comprised the base population, as serviced by CMH. The 2006 New Zealand census data was used for population demographics. A total of 134 cases of plunging ranula were identified. The overall annual crude incidence rate was 2.4 per 100,000 person-years. The gender specific incidence rate for males was 3.2 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5. 3.9) and for females was 2.0 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.6). The overall age-adjusted annual incidence rate was 2.6 per 100,000 (95% CI: 2.1, 3.0). The age-adjusted incidence was highest among Maori (6.7 per 100,000, 95% CI 4.9, 8.4), followed by Pacific Island (4.4 per 100,000, 95% CI 3.2, 5.6), Asian (0.7 per 100,000, 95% CI 0.2, 1.2), and European population (0.6 per 100,000, 95% CI 0.3, 0.8). We have quantified for the first time the age-specific and age-adjusted incidence rates for plunging ranula by gender and ethnicity. The results show a likely underlying genetic predisposition for this condition, possibly with a superimposed environmental acquired factor relating to external, minor blunt trauma to the neck. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2739-2743, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. A Mechanistic Model of Waterfall Plunge Pool Erosion into Bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-11-01

    Landscapes often respond to changes in climate and tectonics through the formation and upstream propagation of knickzones composed of waterfalls. Little work has been done on the mechanics of waterfall erosion, and instead most landscape-scale models neglect waterfalls or use rules for river erosion, such as stream power, that may not be applicable to waterfalls. Here we develop a physically based model to predict waterfall plunge pool erosion into rock by abrasion from particle impacts and test the model against flume experiments. Both the model and experiments show that evolving plunge pools have initially high vertical erosion rates due to energetic particle impacts, and erosion slows and eventually ceases as pools deepen and deposition protects the pool floor from further erosion. Lateral erosion can continue after deposition on the pool floor, but it occurs at slow rates that become negligible as pools widen. Our work points to the importance of vertical drilling of successive plunge pools to drive upstream knickzone propagation in homogenous rock, rather than the classic mechanism of headwall undercutting. For a series of vertically drilling waterfalls, we find that upstream knickzone propagation is faster under higher combined water and sediment fluxes and for knickzones composed of many waterfalls that are closely spaced. Our model differs significantly from stream-power-based erosion rules in that steeper knickzones can retreat faster or more slowly depending on the number and spacing of waterfalls within a knickzone, which has implications for interpreting climatic and tectonic history through analysis of river longitudinal profiles.

  16. Heat generation during plunge stage in friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić Darko M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the heat generation in the Al alloy Al2024-T3 plate under different rotating speeds and plunge speeds during the plunge stage of friction stir welding (FSW. A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM is developed in the commercial code ABAQUS/Explicit using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, the Johnson-Cook material law and Coulomb’s Law of friction. The heat generation in FSW can be divided into two parts: frictional heat generated by the tool and heat generated by material deformation near the pin and the tool shoulder region. Numerical results obtained in this work indicate a more prominent influence from the friction-generated heat. The slip rate of the tool relative to the workpiece material is related to this portion of heat. The material velocity, on the other hand, is related to the heat generated by plastic deformation. Increasing the plunging speed of the tool decreases the friction-generated heat and increases the amount of deformation-generated heat, while increasing the tool rotating speed has the opposite influence on both heat portions. Numerical results are compared with the experimental ones, in order to validate the numerical model, and a good agreement is obtained.

  17. The `Henry Problem' of `density-driven' groundwater flow versus Tothian `groundwater flow systems' with variable density: A review of the influential Biscayne aquifer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, K. U.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal groundwater flow investigations at the Biscayne Bay, south of Miami, Florida, gave rise to the concept of density-driven flow of seawater into coastal aquifers creating a saltwater wedge. Within that wedge, convection-driven return flow of seawater and a dispersion zone were assumed by Cooper et al. (1964) to be the cause of the Biscayne aquifer `sea water wedge'. This conclusion was based on the chloride distribution within the aquifer and on an analytical model concept assuming convection flow within a confined aquifer without taking non-chemical field data into consideration. This concept was later labelled the `Henry Problem', which any numerical variable density flow program must be able to simulate to be considered acceptable. Both, `density-driven flow' and Tothian `groundwater flow systems' (with or without variable density conditions) are driven by gravitation. The difference between the two are the boundary conditions. 'Density-driven flow' occurs under hydrostatic boundary conditions while Tothian `groundwater flow systems' occur under hydrodynamic boundary conditions. Revisiting the Cooper et al. (1964) publication with its record of piezometric field data (heads) showed that the so-called sea water wedge has been caused by discharging deep saline groundwater driven by gravitational flow and not by denser sea water. Density driven flow of seawater into the aquifer was not found reflected in the head measurements for low and high tide conditions which had been taken contemporaneously with the chloride measurements. These head measurements had not been included in the flow interpretation. The very same head measurements indicated a clear dividing line between shallow local fresh groundwater flow and saline deep groundwater flow without the existence of a dispersion zone or a convection cell. The Biscayne situation emphasizes the need for any chemical interpretation of flow pattern to be supported by head data as energy indicators of flow fields

  18. Density effect on the mixing efficiency and flow modes in T-shaped micromixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobasov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow patterns and mixing of liquids with different densities in T-shaped micromixers are numerically investigated at Reynolds number range from 1 to 250. The density ratio of the mixing media varies from 1 to 2; its effect on the flow structure and the mixing is studied. The dependences of the mixing efficiency and the pressure difference in this mixer on the density ratio and the Reynolds number are obtained. It is shown that the density ratio has a considerable effect on the flow structure, especially before the transition from the symmetric to the asymmetric flow pattern.

  19. Controlled Aerodynamic Loads on an Airfoil in Coupled Pitch/Plunge by Transitory Regulation of Trapped Vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuehan; Crittenden, Thomas; Glezer, Ari

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads on an airfoil moving in coupled, time-periodic pitch-plunge beyond the static stall margin are controlled using transitory regulation of trapped vorticity concentrations. Actuation is effected by a spanwise array of integrated miniature chemical (combustion based) impulse actuators that are triggered intermittently during the airfoil's motion and have a characteristic time scale that is an order of magnitude shorter than the airfoil's convective time scale. Each actuation pulse effects momentary interruption and suspension of the vorticity flux with sufficient control authority to alter the airfoil's global aerodynamic characteristics throughout its motion cycle. The effects of the actuation are assessed using time-dependent measurements of the lift and pitching moment coupled with time-resolved particle image velocimetry over the airfoil and in its near wake that is acquired phased-locked to its motion. It is shown that while the presence of the pitch-coupled plunge delays lift and moment stall during upstroke, it also delays flow reattachment during the downstroke and results in significant degradation of the pitch stability. These aerodynamic shortcomings are mitigated using superposition of a limited number of pulses that are staged during the pitch/plunge cycle and lead to enhancement of cycle lift and pitch stability, and reduces the cycle hysteresis and peak pitching moment.

  20. Interfacial bubbles formed by plunging thin liquid films in a pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; David, Richard; Delvert, Alexandre; Gicquel, Eric; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    We show that the immersion of a horizontally suspended thin film of liquid in a pool of the same fluid creates an interfacial bubble, that is, a bubble at the liquid-air interface. Varying the fluid properties, the film's size, and its immersion velocity, our experiments unveil two formation regimes characterized by either a visco-capillary or an inertio-capillary mechanism that controls the size of a produced bubble. To rationalize these results, we compare the pressure exerted by the air flow under a plunging film with the Laplace pressure needed to generate film dimpling, which subsequently yields air entrapment and the production of a bubble. This physical model explains the power-law variations of the bubble size with the governing dimensionless number for each regime.

  1. Wake structure and similar behavior of wake profiles downstream of a plunging airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. DAVARI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Very limited attention has already been paid to the velocity behavior in the wake region in unsteady aerodynamic problems. A series of tests has been performed on a flapping airfoil in a subsonic wind tunnel to study the wake structure for different sets of mean angle of attack, plunging amplitude and reduced frequency. In this study, the velocity profiles in the wake for various oscillation parameters have been measured using a wide shoulder rake, especially designed for the present experiments. The airfoil under consideration was a critical section of a 660 kW wind turbine. The results show that for a flapping airfoil the wake structure can be of drag producing type, thrust producing or neutral, depending on the mean angle of attack, oscillation amplitude and reduced frequency. In a thrust producing wake, a high-momentum high-velocity jet flow is formed in the core region of the wake instead of the conventional low-momentum flow. As a result, the drag force normally experienced by the body due to the momentum deficit would be replaced by a thrust force. According to the results, the momentum loss in the wake decreases as the reduced frequency increases. The thrust producing wake pattern for the flapping airfoil has been observed for sufficiently low angles of attack in the absence of the viscous effects. This phenomenon has also been observed for either high oscillation amplitudes or high reduced frequencies. According to the results, for different reduced frequencies and plunging amplitudes, such that the product of them be a constant, the velocity profiles exhibit similar behavior and coalesce on each other. This similarity parameter works excellently at small angles of attack. However, at near stall boundaries, the similarity is not as evident as before.

  2. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n plu , which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v gas is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n plu ∝ log(v gas ). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity

  3. Modeling density-driven flow in porous media principles, numerics, software

    CERN Document Server

    Holzbecher, Ekkehard O

    1998-01-01

    Modeling of flow and transport in groundwater has become an important focus of scientific research in recent years. Most contributions to this subject deal with flow situations, where density and viscosity changes in the fluid are neglected. This restriction may not always be justified. The models presented in the book demonstrate immpressingly that the flow pattern may be completely different when density changes are taken into account. The main applications of the models are: thermal and saline convection, geothermal flow, saltwater intrusion, flow through salt formations etc. This book not only presents basic theory, but the reader can also test his knowledge by applying the included software and can set up own models.

  4. assessment of traffic flow on enugu highways using speed density

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Corresponding author, tel: +234 – 806 – 435 – 0200 ... construction, maintenance and optimization of the highways using the ...... Research Part A: Policy and Practice 29(4), 273-281. 1995. ... relationships: Quality and Theory of Traffic Flow.

  5. Studying and modelling variable density turbulent flows for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabard, J.P.; Simonin, O.; Caruso, A.; Delalondre, C.; Dalsecco, S.; Mechitoua, N.

    1996-07-01

    Industrial applications are presented in the various fields of interest for EDF. A first example deals with transferred electric arcs couplings flow and thermal transfer in the arc and in the bath of metal and is related with applications of electricity. The second one is the combustion modelling in burners of fossil power plants. The last one comes from the nuclear power plants and concerns the stratified flows in a nuclear reactor building. (K.A.). 18 refs.

  6. Studying and modelling variable density turbulent flows for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabard, J.P.; Simonin, O.; Caruso, A.; Delalondre, C.; Dalsecco, S.; Mechitoua, N.

    1996-07-01

    Industrial applications are presented in the various fields of interest for EDF. A first example deals with transferred electric arcs couplings flow and thermal transfer in the arc and in the bath of metal and is related with applications of electricity. The second one is the combustion modelling in burners of fossil power plants. The last one comes from the nuclear power plants and concerns the stratified flows in a nuclear reactor building. (K.A.)

  7. Models for turbulent flows with variable density and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.P.

    1980-01-01

    Models for transport processes and combustion in turbulent flows are outlined with emphasis on the situation where the fuel and air are injected separately. Attention is restricted to relatively simple flames. The flows investigated are high Reynolds number, single-phase, turbulent high-temperature flames in which radiative heat transfer can be considered negligible. Attention is given to the lower order closure models, algebraic stress and flux models, the k-epsilon turbulence model, the diffusion flame approximation, and finite rate reaction mechanisms

  8. A Classification of Clay-Rich Subaqueous Density Flow Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermidas, N.; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Jacinto, Ricardo Silva; Luthi, S.M.; Toth, Ferenc; Pohl, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a classification for subaqueous clay-laden sediment gravity flows. A series of laboratory flume experiments were performed using 9%, 15%, and 21% sediment mixture concentrations composed of sand, silt, clay, and tap water, on varying bed slopes of 6°, 8°, and 9.5°, and with

  9. High-energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage.

  10. High–energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage. PMID:26702440

  11. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-03

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Extracting a mix parameter from 2D radiography of variable density flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Susan; Doss, Forrest; Livescu, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    A methodology is presented for extracting quantities related to the statistical description of the mixing state from the 2D radiographic image of a flow. X-ray attenuation through a target flow is given by the Beer-Lambert law which exponentially damps the incident beam intensity by a factor proportional to the density, opacity and thickness of the target. By making reasonable assumptions for the mean density, opacity and effective thickness of the target flow, we estimate the contribution of density fluctuations to the attenuation. The fluctuations thus inferred may be used to form the correlation of density and specific-volume, averaged across the thickness of the flow in the direction of the beam. This correlation function, denoted by b in RANS modeling, quantifies turbulent mixing in variable density flows. The scheme is tested using DNS data computed for variable-density buoyancy-driven mixing. We quantify the deficits in the extracted value of b due to target thickness, Atwood number, and modeled noise in the incident beam. This analysis corroborates the proposed scheme to infer the mix parameter from thin targets at moderate to low Atwood numbers. The scheme is then applied to an image of counter-shear flow obtained from experiments at the National Ignition Facility. US Department of Energy.

  13. flowPeaks: a fast unsupervised clustering for flow cytometry data via K-means and density peak finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yongchao; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2012-08-01

    For flow cytometry data, there are two common approaches to the unsupervised clustering problem: one is based on the finite mixture model and the other on spatial exploration of the histograms. The former is computationally slow and has difficulty to identify clusters of irregular shapes. The latter approach cannot be applied directly to high-dimensional data as the computational time and memory become unmanageable and the estimated histogram is unreliable. An algorithm without these two problems would be very useful. In this article, we combine ideas from the finite mixture model and histogram spatial exploration. This new algorithm, which we call flowPeaks, can be applied directly to high-dimensional data and identify irregular shape clusters. The algorithm first uses K-means algorithm with a large K to partition the cell population into many small clusters. These partitioned data allow the generation of a smoothed density function using the finite mixture model. All local peaks are exhaustively searched by exploring the density function and the cells are clustered by the associated local peak. The algorithm flowPeaks is automatic, fast and reliable and robust to cluster shape and outliers. This algorithm has been applied to flow cytometry data and it has been compared with state of the art algorithms, including Misty Mountain, FLOCK, flowMeans, flowMerge and FLAME. The R package flowPeaks is available at https://github.com/yongchao/flowPeaks. yongchao.ge@mssm.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. UF6 Density and Mass Flow Measurements for Enrichment Plants using Acoustic Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, Morris S.; Smith, Leon E.; Warren, Glen A.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Moran, Traci L.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Longoni, Gianluca

    2017-09-01

    A key enabling capability for enrichment plant safeguards being considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is high-accuracy, noninvasive, unattended measurement of UF6 gas density and mass flow rate. Acoustic techniques are currently used to noninvasively monitor gas flow in industrial applications; however, the operating pressures at gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are roughly two orders magnitude below the capabilities of commercial instrumentation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is refining acoustic techniques for estimating density and mass flow rate of UF6 gas in scenarios typical of GCEPs, with the goal of achieving 1% measurement accuracy. Proof-of-concept laboratory measurements using a surrogate gas for UF6 have demonstrated signatures sensitive to gas density at low operating pressures such as 10–50 Torr, which were observed over the background acoustic interference. Current efforts involve developing a test bed for conducting acoustic measurements on flowing SF6 gas at representative flow rates and pressures to ascertain the viability of conducting gas flow measurements under these conditions. Density and flow measurements will be conducted to support the evaluation. If successful, the approach could enable an unattended, noninvasive approach to measure mass flow in unit header pipes of GCEPs.

  15. Exploring the Relationship of Exit Flow and Jam Density in Panic Scenarios Using Animal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, A.; Sarvi, M.; Duives, D.C.; Ejtemai, O.; Aghabayk, K.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies investigating crowd dynamics in panic situations. They used measures such as exit flow rate to explore the exit performance in evacuation scenarios. However, there is limited research exploring the relationship of exit flow rate and density behind the exit for panic scenarios.

  16. Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa Pollination and Potential for Gene Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Brunet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In outcrossing crops like alfalfa, various bee species can contribute to pollination and gene flow in seed production fields. With the increasing use of transgenic crops, it becomes important to determine the role of these distinct pollinators on alfalfa pollination and gene flow. The current study examines the relative contribution of honeybees, three bumble bee species, and three solitary bee species to pollination and gene flow in alfalfa. Two wild solitary bee species and one wild bumble bee species were best at tripping flowers, while the two managed pollinators commonly used in alfalfa seed production, honeybees and leaf cutting bees, had the lowest tripping rate. Honeybees had the greatest potential for gene flow and risk of transgene escape relative to the other pollinators. For honeybees, gene flow and risk of transgene escape were not affected by plant density although for the three bumble bee species gene flow and risk of transgene escape were the greatest in high-density fields.

  17. Flow and breakup in extension of low-density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Fasano, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The breakup during the extension of a low-density polyethylene Lupolen 1840D, as observed experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011), was investigated. This was observed during the extension of an circular cylinder with radius R0 = 4 mm and length L0 = 5mm....... The sample was attached to two flat end plates, separated exponentially in time to extend the samples. A numerical method based on a Lagrangian kinematics description in a continuum mechanical framework was used to calculate the extension of an initially cylindrically shaped sample with and without small...... the error bars as reported experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011). At low extensional rates, the measurements were considerably above the calculated ones. A very small relative suppression in the surface (0.1%) was required to achieve an agreement with all measurements...

  18. Density based topology optimization of turbulent flow heat transfer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilgen, Sümer Bartug; Dilgen, Cetin Batur; Fuhrman, David R.

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this article is on topology optimization of heat sinks with turbulent forced convection. The goal is to demonstrate the extendibility, and the scalability of a previously developed fluid solver to coupled multi-physics and large 3D problems. The gradients of the objective and the con...... in the optimization process, while also demonstrating extension of the methodology to include coupling of heat transfer with turbulent flows.......The focus of this article is on topology optimization of heat sinks with turbulent forced convection. The goal is to demonstrate the extendibility, and the scalability of a previously developed fluid solver to coupled multi-physics and large 3D problems. The gradients of the objective...

  19. Measurements of low density, high velocity flow by electron beam fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Takeo; Takanishi, Masaya; Yasuhara, Michiru

    1981-01-01

    A low density chamber with an electron gun system was made for the measurements of low density, high velocity (high Mach number) flow. This apparatus is a continuous running facility. The number density and the rotational temperature in the underexpanding free jet of nitrogen were measured along the axis of the jet by the electron beam fluorescence technique. The measurements were carried out from the vicinity of the exit of the jet to far downstream of the first Mach disk. Rotational nonequilibrium phenomena were observed in the hypersonic flow field as well as in the shock wave (Mach disk). (author)

  20. The role of density discontinuity in the inviscid instability of two-phase parallel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, M.; Ashgriz, N.

    2014-02-01

    We re-examine the inviscid instability of two-phase parallel flows with piecewise linear velocity profiles. Although such configuration has been theoretically investigated, we employ the concept of waves resonance to physically interpret the instability mechanism as well as the essential role of density discontinuity in the flow. Upon performing linear stability analysis, we demonstrate the existence of neutrally stable "density" and "density-vorticity" waves which are emerged due to the density jump in the flow, in addition to the well-known vorticity waves. Such waves are capable of resonating with each other to form unstable modes in the flow. Although unstable modes in this study are classified as the "shear instability" type, we demonstrate that they are not necessarily of the Rayleigh type. The results also show that the density can have both stabilizing and destabilizing effects on the flow stability. We verify that the difference in the resonating pair of neutral waves leads to such distinct behavior of the density variation.

  1. Tomographic reconstruction of the time-averaged density distribution in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of time-average density and density distribution in a two-phase flow field. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model-independent method of obtaining flow-field density information. A tomographic densitometer system for the measurement of two-phase flow has two unique problems: a limited number of data values and a correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid. These problems were studied both experimentally through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically through computer generation of simulated data. The prototype data were taken on phantoms constructed of all Plexiglas and Plexiglas laminated with wood and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data are compared with reconstructions from the simulated data. Also presented are some representative results in a horizontal air/water flow

  2. Assessment of Nucleation Site Density Models for CFD Simulations of Subcooled Flow Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, N. H.; Chu, I. C.; Euh, D. J.; Song, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    The framework of a CFD simulation of subcooled flow boiling basically includes a block of wall boiling models communicating with governing equations of a two-phase flow via parameters like temperature, rate of phasic change, etc. In the block of wall boiling models, a heat flux partitioning model, which describes how the heat is taken away from a heated surface, is combined with models quantifying boiling parameters, i.e. nucleation site density, and bubble departure diameter and frequency. It is realized that the nucleation site density is an important parameter for predicting the subcooled flow boiling. The number of nucleation sites per unit area decides the influence region of each heat transfer mechanism. The variation of the nucleation site density will mutually change the dynamics of vapor bubbles formed at these sites. In addition, the nucleation site density is needed as one initial and boundary condition to solve the interfacial area transport equation. A lot of effort has been devoted to mathematically formulate the nucleation site density. As a consequence, numerous correlations of the nucleation site density are available in the literature. These correlations are commonly quite different in their mathematical form as well as application range. Some correlations of the nucleation site density have been applied successfully to CFD simulations of several specific subcooled boiling flows, but in combination with different correlations of the bubble departure diameter and frequency. In addition, the values of the nucleation site density, and bubble departure diameter and frequency obtained from simulations for a same problem are relatively different, depending on which models are used, even when global characteristics, e.g., void fraction and mean bubble diameter, agree well with experimental values. It is realized that having a good CFD simulations of the subcooled flow boiling requires a detailed validations of all the models used. Owing to the importance

  3. Density Distribution of Liquid Argon in Nano-channel Poiseuille Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jiangwei; Wang, Yuyi; Zhou, Zhe-Wei

    2017-11-01

    The density layering parallel to the boundaries of liquid has been measured in many experiments and also observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this study, a detail and systematic investigation of density distribution in nano-scale Poiseuille flows is carried out. Through analyzing the difference of density distribution curves obtained under different conditions, the influence of interaction parameters, configuration form of solid wall and temperature on the layering are investigated. The internal mechanism is also explored in this paper. The detail description of the density distribution results and simulation algorithm is given. National natural science foundation (A020405).

  4. On the implicit density based OpenFOAM solver for turbulent compressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Jiří

    The contribution deals with the development of coupled implicit density based solver for compressible flows in the framework of open source package OpenFOAM. However the standard distribution of OpenFOAM contains several ready-made segregated solvers for compressible flows, the performance of those solvers is rather week in the case of transonic flows. Therefore we extend the work of Shen [15] and we develop an implicit semi-coupled solver. The main flow field variables are updated using lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel method (LU-SGS) whereas the turbulence model variables are updated using implicit Euler method.

  5. Kaimo bendruomenių plėtra Plungės rajone

    OpenAIRE

    Jankauskienė, Aida; Ališauskas, Kęstutis

    2008-01-01

    Involvement of local residents into community activities allows for a deeper view of the problems of the own village and seeing the advantages, disadvantages and the unused opportunities. The study aims at an examination of the needs of residents of Plungė district, evaluation of community activity possibilities and identification of rural communities’ development priorities. The analysis of the needs of rural communities of Plungė district showed their striving for development of their activ...

  6. Void fraction prediction in two-phase flows independent of the liquid phase density changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazemi, E.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Roshani, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray densitometry is a frequently used non-invasive method to determine void fraction in two-phase gas liquid pipe flows. Performance of flow meters using gamma-ray attenuation depends strongly on the fluid properties. Variations of the fluid properties such as density in situations where temperature and pressure fluctuate would cause significant errors in determination of the void fraction in two-phase flows. A conventional solution overcoming such an obstacle is periodical recalibration which is a difficult task. This paper presents a method based on dual modality densitometry using Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which offers the advantage of measuring the void fraction independent of the liquid phase changes. An experimental setup was implemented to generate the required input data for training the network. ANNs were trained on the registered counts of the transmission and scattering detectors in different liquid phase densities and void fractions. Void fractions were predicted by ANNs with mean relative error of less than 0.45% in density variations range of 0.735 up to 0.98 gcm −3 . Applying this method would improve the performance of two-phase flow meters and eliminates the necessity of periodical recalibration. - Highlights: • Void fraction was predicted independent of density changes. • Recorded counts of detectors/void fraction were used as inputs/output of ANN. • ANN eliminated necessity of recalibration in changeable density of two-phase flows

  7. Prolonged river water pollution due to variable-density flow and solute transport in the riverbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangqiu; Tang, Hongwu; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    A laboratory experiment and numerical modeling were used to examine effects of density gradients on hyporheic flow and solute transport under the condition of a solute pulse input to a river with regular bed forms. Relatively low-density gradients due to an initial salt pulse concentration of 1.55 kg m-3 applied in the experiment were found to modulate significantly the pore-water flow and solute transport in the riverbed. Such density gradients increased downward flow and solute transport in the riverbed by factors up to 1.6. This resulted in a 12.2% increase in the total salt transfer from the water column to the riverbed over the salt pulse period. As the solute pulse passed, the effect of the density gradients reversed, slowing down the release of the solute back to the river water by a factor of 3.7. Numerical modeling indicated that these density effects intensified as salt concentrations in the water column increased. Simulations further showed that the density gradients might even lead to unstable flow and result in solute fingers in the bed of large bed forms. The slow release of solute from the bed back to the river led to a long tail of solute concentration in the river water. These findings have implications for assessment of impact of pollution events on river systems, in particular, long-term effects on both the river water and riverbed due to the hyporheic exchange.

  8. Effect of liquid density differences on boiling two-phase flow stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Masahiro; Manera, Annalisa; Bragt, David D.B.; Hagen, Tim H.J.J. van der; Kruijf, Willy J.M.de

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of considering liquid density dependence on local fluid temperature in the thermal-hydraulic stability, a linear stability analysis is performed for a boiling natural circulation loop with an adiabatic riser. Type-I and Type-II instabilities were to investigate according to Fukuda-Kobori's classification. Type-I instability is dominant when the flow quality is low, while Type-II instability is relevant at high flow quality. Type-II instability is well known as the typical density wave oscillation. Neglecting liquid density differences yields estimates of Type-II instability margins that are too small, due to both a change in system-dynamics features and in the operational point. On the other hand, neglecting liquid density differences yields estimates of Type-I stability margins that are too large, especially due to a change in the operational point. Neglecting density differences is thus non-conservative in this case. Therefore, it is highly recommended to include liquid density dependence on the fluid subcooling in the stability analysis if a flow loop with an adiabatic rise is operated under the condition of low flow quality. (author)

  9. Compressible Flow Phenomena at Inception of Lateral Density Currents Fed by Collapsing Gas-Particle Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Sweeney, Matthew R.

    2018-02-01

    Many geological flows are sourced by falling gas-particle mixtures, such as during collapse of lava domes, and impulsive eruptive jets, and sustained columns, and rock falls. The transition from vertical to lateral flow is complex due to the range of coupling between particles of different sizes and densities and the carrier gas, and due to the potential for compressible flow phenomena. We use multiphase modeling to explore these dynamics. In mixtures with small particles, and with subsonic speeds, particles follow the gas such that outgoing lateral flows have similar particle concentration and speed as the vertical flows. Large particles concentrate immediately upon impact and move laterally away as granular flows overridden by a high-speed jet of expelled gas. When a falling flow is supersonic, a bow shock develops above the impact zone, and this produces a zone of high pressure from which lateral flows emerge as overpressured wall jets. The jets form complex structures as the mixtures expand and accelerate and then recompress through a recompression zone that mimics a Mach disk shock in ideal gas jets. In mixtures with moderate to high ratios of fine to coarse particles, the latter tend to follow fine particles through the expansion-recompression flow fields because of particle-particle drag. Expansion within the flow fields can lead to locally reduced gas pressure that could enhance substrate erosion in natural flows. The recompression zones form at distances, and have peak pressures, that are roughly proportional to the Mach numbers of impacting flows.

  10. Triton-3He relative and differential flows and the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Gaochan; Li, Baoan; Chen, Liewen

    2010-01-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence after-burner we study the triton- 3 He relative and differential transverse flows in semi-central 132 Sn + 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. We find that the triton- 3 He pairs carry interesting information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy. (author)

  11. Clinical application of OCTA in observation of macular blood flow density in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Using optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTAto observe the changes and clinical significance of macular blood flow density in patients with diabetic retinopathy(DR.METHODS: Totally 47 eyes(28 patientswith diabetic retinopathy(DRwere enrolled in the DR group. According to the international clinical grading criteria of diabetic retinopathy, 30 eyes(19 patientswith non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy were classified as the NPDR group, and 17 eyes(11 patientswith proliferative diabetic retinopathy were classified as PDR group. A total of 46(27 subjectshealthy eyes with matched age were enrolled in the control group. All the subjects underwent the 3mm×3mm scanning of macular retina by optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA, obtaining 4 levels of macular blood flow density map. The macular blood flow density at 3 levels, including superficial retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillaries layer, were measured. RESULTS: The macular blood flow density of superfical retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillaries layer in DR group were 0.4963±0.0840, 0.4798±0.0801 and 0.5290±0.0528, respectively. Among them, the blood flow density of each layer were 0.5064±0.0843,0.4983±0.0766,0.5345±0.0529, respectively, for the NPDR group, and were 0.4786±0.0830, 0.4473±0.0778,0.5192±0.0526, respectively, for the PDR group. For the control group, the density of each layers were 0.5919±0.0704, 0.6301±0.0527, 0.5691±0.0169, respectively. The macular blood flow density was significantly different in the superficial retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillary layer between the control group and the NPDR group, as well as the PDR group and the DR group(total PP=0.029, but not in the superficial retina layer and choroid capillary layer(P=0.236, 0.268. CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the macular blood flow density of superficial retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillary

  12. Simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of temperature and density using laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen in combination with Q-branch Raman scattering of nitrogen and oxygen is demonstrated in a low-speed air flow. The lowest density and temperature measured in the experiment correspond to the freestream values at Mach 5 in the Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for stagnation conditions of 100 atm and 1000 K. The experimental results demonstrate the viability of the optical technique for measurements that support the study of compressible turbulence and the validation of numerical codes in supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel flows.

  13. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  14. Computational and experimental characterization of a liquid jet plunging into a quiescent pool at shallow inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Suraj S.; Trujillo, Mario F.; Wu Xiongjun; Chahine, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Jet impingement at shallow angles results in periodic cavity formation. ► Velocity profile affected both by buoyancy and splashing in the near field. ► Momentum diffusion leads to a velocity maximum at the gas–liquid interface for the far field. - Abstract: A circular water jet (Re = 1.6 × 10 5 ; We = 8.8 × 10 3 ) plunging at shallow angles (θ ≈ 12.5°) into a quiescent pool is investigated computationally and experimentally. A surprising finding from the work is that cavities, of the order of jet diameter, are formed periodically in the impact location, even though the impinging flow is smooth and completely devoid of such a periodicity. Computational prediction of these frequencies was compared with experimental findings, yielding excellent agreement. The region in the vicinity of the impact is characterized by strong churning due to splashing and formation of air cavities. Measured velocity profiles indicate a concentration of momentum beneath the free surface slightly beyond the impact location (X/D j ≈ 14), with a subsequent shift towards the free surface further downstream of this point (X/D j ≈ 30). This shift is due primarily to the action of buoyancy on the cavity/bubble population. Comparisons of the mean velocity profile between simulations and experiments are performed, yielding good agreement, with the exception of the relatively small churning flow region. Further downstream (X/D j ≳ 40), the flow develops mostly due to diffusion and the location of peak velocity coincides with the free surface. In this region, the free surface acts as an adiabatic boundary and restricts momentum diffusion, causing the peak velocity to occur at the free surface.

  15. Measurement of the temperature of density maximum of water solutions using a convective flow technique

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, M.F.; McGlynn, D.; Mooney, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A technique is described which yields an accurate measurement of the temperature of density maximum of fluids which exhibit such anomalous behaviour. The method relies on the detection of changes in convective flow in a rectangular cavity containing the test fluid.The normal single-cell convection which occurs in the presence of a horizontal temperature gradient changes to a double cell configuration in the vicinity of the density maximum, and this transition manifests itself in changes in th...

  16. Fuel density effect on near nozzle flow field in small laminar coflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Flow characteristics in small coflow diffusion flames were investigated with a particular focus on the near-nozzle region and on the buoyancy force exerted on fuels with densities lighter and heavier than air (methane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane). The flow-fields were visualized through the trajectories of seed particles. The particle image velocimetry technique was also adopted for quantitative velocity field measurements. The results showed that the buoyancy force exerted on the fuel as well as on burnt gas significantly distorted the near-nozzle flow-fields. In the fuels with densities heavier than air, recirculation zones were formed very close to the nozzle, emphasizing the importance of the relative density of the fuel to that of the air on the flow-field. Nozzle heating influenced the near-nozzle flow-field particularly among lighter fuels (methane and ethylene). Numerical simulations were also conducted, focusing specifically on the effect of specifying inlet boundary conditions for fuel. The results showed that a fuel inlet boundary with a fully developed velocity profile for cases with long tubes should be specified inside the fuel tube to permit satisfactory prediction of the flow-field. The calculated temperature fields also indicated the importance of the selection of the location of the inlet boundary, especially in testing various combustion models that include soot in small coflow diffusion flames. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  17. Method and apparatus for simultaneous determination of fluid mass flow rate, mean velocity and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining fluid mass flow rate and density. In one aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through a straight cantilevered tube in which transient oscillation has been induced, thus generating Coriolis damping forces on the tube. The decay rate and frequency of the resulting damped oscillation are measured, and the fluid mass flow rate and density are determined therefrom. In another aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through the cantilevered tube while an electrically powered device imparts steady-state harmonic excitation to the tube. This generates Coriolis tube-damping forces which are dependent on the mass flow rate of the fluid. Means are provided to respond to incipient flow-induced changes in the amplitude of vibration by changing the power input to the excitation device as required to sustain the original amplitude of vibration. The fluid mass flow rate and density are determined from the required change in power input. The invention provides stable, rapid, and accurate measurements. It does not require bending of the fluid flow

  18. Ultrasonic density detector for vessel and reactor core two-phase flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arave, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia

  19. Density scaling and quasiuniversality of flow-event statistics for athermal plastic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, E.; Bailey, N.P.; Dyre, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Athermal steady-state plastic flows were simulated for the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system and its repulsive version in which the sign of the attractive terms is changed to a plus. Properties evaluated include the distributions of energy drops, stress drops, and strain intervals between the

  20. Benchmarking variable-density flow in saturated and unsaturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Morel, Carlos Roberto; Cremer, Clemens; Graf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In natural environments, fluid density and viscosity can be affected by spatial and temporal variations of solute concentration and/or temperature. These variations can occur, for example, due to salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers, leachate infiltration from waste disposal sites and upconing of saline water from deep aquifers. As a consequence, potentially unstable situations may exist in which a dense fluid overlies a less dense fluid. This situation can produce instabilities that manifest as dense plume fingers that move vertically downwards counterbalanced by vertical upwards flow of the less dense fluid. Resulting free convection increases solute transport rates over large distances and times relative to constant-density flow. Therefore, the understanding of free convection is relevant for the protection of freshwater aquifer systems. The results from a laboratory experiment of saturated and unsaturated variable-density flow and solute transport (Simmons et al., Transp. Porous Medium, 2002) are used as the physical basis to define a mathematical benchmark. The HydroGeoSphere code coupled with PEST are used to estimate the optimal parameter set capable of reproducing the physical model. A grid convergency analysis (in space and time) is also undertaken in order to obtain the adequate spatial and temporal discretizations. The new mathematical benchmark is useful for model comparison and testing of variable-density variably saturated flow in porous media.

  1. Displacement of one Newtonian fluid by another: density effects in axial annular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) finite elementtechnique is used to simulate 3D displacement oftwo immiscible Newtonian fluids in vertical annular wells. For equally viscous fluids the effect of distinct fluid densities is investigated in the region of low to intermediate Reynolds numbers......, the efficiency of the displacement is analysed for various flow situations....

  2. Dynamics of compressible gas-liquid flows with a stiff density ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Julien

    1999-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of transient two-phase flows when the ratio of the two densities is stiff. At first, we review briefly some of the basic principles about two-phase flow, hyperbolicity and the finite volume method. Then we develop a perturbation method, based on the stiffness of the density ratio, to examine the Eigen-structure of two-fluid models. Indeed, in such models, complex phasic interactions yield a complex Eigen-structure which may raise numerous problems in simulations. We show that our approach provides a convenient frame to study the hyperbolicity of such models. At this stage, advanced numerical tests are computed showing the efficiency of our approach in the context of unstructured multidimensional meshes. Our tests are validated for non-equilibrium flows using experimental data or through mesh refinements. At last, we use the scaling of the densities to analyse how momentum is transferred between phases in the context of bubbly flows. We study the relevance of a stiff relaxation term related to the ratio of the densities using linear stability properties and Chapman-Enskog expansions. Our results and some numerical computations tends to show that such a system is apparently well-posed despite being 'weakly' hyperbolic. (author) [fr

  3. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  4. The influence of tributary flow density differences on the hydrodynamic behavior of a confluent meander bend and implications for flow mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Horacio S.; Díaz Lozada, José M.; García, Carlos M.; Szupiany, Ricardo N.; Best, Jim; Pagot, Mariana

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of tributary flow density differences on hydrodynamics and mixing at a confluent meander bend. A detailed field characterization is performed using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) for quantification of the 3D flow field, flow discharge and bathymetry, as well as CTD measurements (conductivity, temperature, depth) to characterize the patterns of mixing. Satellite images of the confluence taken at complementary times to the field surveys were analyzed to evaluate the confluence hydrodynamics at different flow conditions. The results illustrate the differences in hydrodynamics and mixing length in relation to confluences with equal density tributaries. At low-density differences, and higher discharge ratio (Qr) between the two rivers, the flow is similar to equi-density confluent meander bends. In contrast, at high-density differences (low Qr), the tributary flow is confined to near the confluence but the density difference causes the flow to move across channel. In this case, the density difference causes the lateral spread of the tributary flow to be greater than at a greater Qr when the density difference is less. These results illustrate the potential importance of density differences between tributaries in determining the rate and spatial extent of mixing and sediment dispersal at confluent meander bends.

  5. Simulating variable-density flows with time-consistent integration of Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyi; Pantano, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    In this talk, we present several features of a high-order semi-implicit variable-density low-Mach Navier-Stokes solver. A new formulation to solve pressure Poisson-like equation of variable-density flows is highlighted. With this formulation of the numerical method, we are able to solve all variables with a uniform order of accuracy in time (consistent with the time integrator being used). The solver is primarily designed to perform direct numerical simulations for turbulent premixed flames. Therefore, we also address other important elements, such as energy-stable boundary conditions, synthetic turbulence generation, and flame anchoring method. Numerical examples include classical non-reacting constant/variable-density flows, as well as turbulent premixed flames.

  6. Application of reconstructive tomography to the measurement of density distribution in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Berggren, M.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of average density and density distribution in multiphase flows. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model independent method of obtaining flow field density information. The unique features of interest in application of a practical tomographic densitometer system are the limited number of data values and the correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid (0.5 by 0.5 cm). These features were studied both experimentally, through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically, through computer generation of simulated data. Prototypical data were taken on phantoms constructed of Plexiglas and laminated Plexiglas, wood, and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data were compared with reconstructions from the simulated data

  7. Hydrogen consumption and power density in a co-flow planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Moussa, Hocine; Zitouni, Bariza [Laboratoire d' etude des systemes energetiques industriels (LESEI), Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Oulmi, Kafia [Laboratoire de chimie et de chimie de l' environnement, Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf [CDER, BP. 62 Route de l' Observatoire. Bouzareah. Alger (Algeria); Mandin, Philippe [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), LECA, UMR 7575 CNRS-ENSCP Paris 6 (France)

    2009-06-15

    In the present work, power density and hydrogen consumption in a co-flow planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are studied according to the inlet functional parameters; such as the operational temperature, the operational pressure, the flow rates and the mass fractions of the species. Furthermore, the effect of the cell size is investigated. The results of a zero and a one-dimensional numerical electro-dynamic model predict the remaining quantity of the fed hydrogen at the output of the anode flow channel. The remaining hydrogen quantities and the SOFC's power density obtained are discussed as a function of the inlet functional parameters, the geometrical configuration of the cell and several operating cell voltages values. (author)

  8. Parametric Study on the Characteristics of Multiphase Laminar Flow with Density Difference in Various Microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, Seung Ho; Kim, Dong Sung; Choi, Young Ki

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have performed a parametric study on the characteristics of multiphase laminar flow with density difference in various microchannels. The interface between multiphase fluids is rotated by the gravitational forces induced by density difference. The numerical simulations were carried out via commercial CFD package to study the characteristics of multiphase laminar flow. The results of the numerical simulations in this study were verified by comparing with the previously reported experimental results in the literature. We have also proposed a new dimensionless relationship between dimensionless rotation angle of interface and dimensionless parameters are proposed for square microchannels with various aspect ratios. The dimensionless relationship could be widely applied to the reliable design of various microfluidic devices dealing with multiphase laminar flow

  9. Effect of density step on stirring properties of a strain flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M; Paranthoen, P

    2009-01-01

    The influence of steep density gradient on stirring properties of a strain flow is addressed by considering the problem in which an interface separating two regions with different constant densities is stabilized within a stagnation-point flow. The existence of an analytic solution for the two-dimensional incompressible flow field allows the exact derivation of the velocity gradient tensor and of parameters describing the local flow topology. Stirring properties are affected not only by vorticity production and jump of strain intensity at the interface, but also by rotation of strain principal axes resulting from anisotropy of pressure Hessian. The strain persistence parameter, which measures the respective effects of strain and effective rotation (vorticity plus rotation rate of strain basis), reveals a complex structure. In particular, for large values of the density ratio, it indicates dominating effective rotation in a restricted area past the interface. Information on flow structure derived from the Okubo-Weiss parameter, by contrast, is less detailed. The influence of the density step on stirring properties is assessed by the Lagrangian evolution of the gradient of a passive scalar. Even for a moderate density ratio, alignment of the scalar gradient and growth rate of its norm are deeply altered. Past the interface effective rotation indeed drives the scalar gradient to align with a direction determined by the local strain persistence parameter, away from the compressional strain direction. The jump of strain intensity at the interface, however, opposes the lessening effect of the latter mechanism on the growth rate of the scalar gradient norm and promotes the rise of the gradient.

  10. A Classification of Subaqueous Density Flows Based on Transformations From Proximal to Distal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermidas, Navid; Eggenhuisen, Joris; Luthi, Stefan; Silva Jacinto, Ricardo; Toth, Ferenc; Pohl, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Transformations of a subaqueous density flow from proximal to distal regions are investigated. A classification of these transformations based on the state of the free shear and boundary layers and existence of a plug layer during transition from a debris flow to a turbidity current is presented. A connection between the emplaced deposit by the flow and the relevant flow type is drawn through the results obtained from a series of laboratory flume experiments. These were performed using 9%, 15%, and 21% sediment mixture concentrations composed of sand, silt, clay, and tap water, on varying bed slopes of 6°, 8°, and 9.5°, and with discharge rates of 10[m3/h] and 15[m3/h]. Stress-controlled rheometry experiments were performed on the mixtures to obtain apparent viscosity data. A classification was developed based on the imposed flow conditions, where a cohesive flow may fall within one of five distinct flow types: 1) a cohesive plug flow (PF) with a laminar free shear and boundary layers, 2) a top transitional plug flow (TTPF) containing a turbulent free shear layer, a plug layer, and a laminar boundary layer, 3) a complete transitional plug flow (CTPF) consisting of a turbulent free shear and boundary layers and a plug, 4) a transitional turbidity current (TTC) with a turbulent free shear layer and a laminar boundary layer, and, 5) a completely turbulent turbidity current (TC). During the experiments, flow type PF resulted in en masse deposition of a thick uniform ungraded muddy sand mixture, which was emplaced once the yield stress overcame the gravitational forces within the tail region of the flow. Flow type TTPF resulted in deposition of a thin ungraded basal clean sand layer during the run. This layer was covered by a muddy sand deposit from the tail. Flow type TTC did not deposit any sediment during the run. A uniform muddy sand mixture was emplaced by the tail of the flow. Flow type TC resulted in deposition of poorly sorted massive bottom sand layer. This

  11. Primary treatment of pediatric plunging ranula with nonsurgical sclerotherapy using OK-432 (Picibanil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Kim, Hyo Sun

    2008-09-01

    Although surgery is the first choice of therapy for plunging ranula, it is associated with technical difficulties, morbidity and recurrence. Plunging ranula may be also primarily treated with nonsurgical sclerotherapy, but there is little experience in pediatric patients. We, therefore, assessed the efficacy of OK-432 sclerotherapy for pediatric plunging ranula. Nine children with plunging ranula were prospectively treated with intracystic injections of OK-432. At the outpatient clinic, the ranula was punctured in the neck and aspirated mucus was replaced with 0.1-0.2mg OK-432 solution. The size of the ranula was compared before and after sclerotherapy. Total or nearly total shrinkage was observed in 6 of 9 patients; marked reduction (>50% of original size) in 2; and partial reduction (<50% of original size) in 1. At a mean follow-up of 26 months after last sclerotherapy, recurrence was observed in only 1 patient; this patient showed complete response after reinjection of OK-432 solution. No significant complications were observed, with only fever and mild local pain observed in 4 patients for 2-4 days after treatment. OK-432 sclerotherapy is safe and effective in the treatment of pediatric plunging ranula. Sclerotherapy may become a primary treatment modality prior to surgery.

  12. The enigmatic ultra-long run-out of seafloor density driven flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Dilute, particulate-laden, density-driven flows - turbidity currents - are a predominant mechanism for transporting sediment from source to sink in deep marine environments. These flows sculpt channels on the seafloor and, as evidenced by a wealth of bathymetric data, can travel for >1000km, forming some of the largest sedimentary landforms on the planet. For turbidity currents to travel such large dsitances, sediment must be self-maintained in suspension, i.e., be in a state of autosuspension. It has been shown that such self-maintained sediment suspensions can only occur whilst inertial forces are greater than gravitational forces, entailing supercritical flow. This conclusion is paradoxical, as inertia dominated flows rapidly entrain fluid, thereby thickening and slowing to become subcritical. However, current theory can only truly be applied to the proximal upper slope regions of seafloor channels where incised flows are fully confined. This contrasts with the distal reaches of long run out turbidity current systems, where the flow is only partially confined through self-channelization. Here it is shown that overspill of partially confined flow has a significant effect on the hydro- and morphodynamics of turbidity current systems. A new model is derived that shows that channel overspill acts to negate the effects of ambient fluid entrainment: a dynamic balance that limits increases in flow depth and maintains supercritical flow throughout the channel. In the new model mass, momentum and energy conservation is modulated by flow overspill onto channel banks, necessarily requiring description of the vertical structure of the flow. Analysis of continuously stratified steady state flow dynamics shows that the integration of overspill and stratification is necessary to enable maintained autosuspension and thus predict the ultra-long run-out of turbidity currents.

  13. U.S., non-U.S. outlays to rise in '98, but oil price plunge clouds spending outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Capital spending by oil and gas companies in and outside the US will rise in 1998, but that forecast may be jeopardized by the continuing plunge in oil prices. For operations in the US, oil and gas company capital spending is expected to move up in 1998 for the fourth year in a row. If the money is spent, it will be the highest industry investment level since 1985. Strong oil and gas prices and increased volumes have boosted company cash flow and profits the last few years, fueling increased spending. However, the near-term outlook has now been clouded by economic turmoil in a number of Asian countries and the recent collapse of oil prices. The paper discusses oil and gas prices, US upstream spending, US non-exploration and production spending, capital spending in Canada, and spending outside US and Canada

  14. Complex C: A Low-Metallicity, High-Velocity Cloud Plunging into the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Todd M.; Wakker, Bart P.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Bowers, C. W.; Danks, A. C.; Green, R. F.; Heap, S. R.; Joseph, C. L.; Kaiser, M. E.; Linsky, J. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2003-06-01

    We present evidence that high-velocity cloud (HVC) complex C is a low-metallicity gas cloud that is plunging toward the disk and beginning to interact with the ambient gas that surrounds the Milky Way. This evidence begins with a new high-resolution (7 km s-1 FWHM) echelle spectrum of 3C 351 obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). 3C 351 lies behind the low-latitude edge of complex C, and the new spectrum provides accurate measurements of O I, Si II, Al II, Fe II, and Si III absorption lines at the velocity of complex C; N I, S II, Si IV, and C IV are not detected at 3 σ significance in complex C proper. However, Si IV and C IV as well as O I, Al II, Si II and Si III absorption lines are clearly present at somewhat higher velocities associated with a ``high-velocity ridge'' (HVR) of 21 cm emission. This high-velocity ridge has a similar morphology to and is roughly centered on complex C proper. The similarities of the absorption-line ratios in the HVR and complex C suggest that these structures are intimately related. In complex C proper we find [O/H]=-0.76+0.23-0.21. For other species the measured column densities indicate that ionization corrections are important. We use collisional and photoionization models to derive ionization corrections; in both models we find that the overall metallicity Z=0.1-0.3 Zsolar in complex C proper, but nitrogen must be underabundant. The iron abundance indicates that the complex C contains very little dust. The size and density implied by the ionization models indicate that the absorbing gas is not gravitationally confined. The gas could be pressure confined by an external medium, but alternatively we may be viewing the leading edge of the HVC, which is ablating and dissipating as it plunges into the Milky Way. O VI column densities observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) toward nine QSOs/AGNs behind complex C support this conclusion: N(O VI) is highest near 3C 351, and the O VI/H I

  15. Turbulence in nearly incompressible fluids: density spectrum, flows, correlations and implication to the interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dastgeer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstellar scintillation and angular radio wave broadening measurements show that interstellar and solar wind (electron density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k-5/3 power spectrum extending over many decades in wavenumber space. The ubiquity of the Kolmogorov-like interstellar medium (ISM density spectrum led to an explanation based on coupling incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluctuations to density fluctuations through a 'pseudosound' relation within the context of 'nearly incompressible' (NI hydrodynamics (HD and MHD models. The NI theory provides a fundamentally different explanation for the observed ISM density spectrum in that the density fluctuations can be a consequence of passive scalar convection due to background incompressible fluctuations. The theory further predicts generation of long-scale structures and various correlations between the density, temperature and the (magneto acoustic as well as convective pressure fluctuations in the compressible ISM fluids in different thermal regimes that are determined purely by the thermal fluctuation level. In this paper, we present the results of our two dimensional nonlinear fluid simulations, exploring various nonlinear aspects that lead to inertial range ISM turbulence within the context of a NI hydrodymanics model. In qualitative agreement with the NI predictions and the in-situ observations, we find that i the density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like spectrum via a passive convection in the field of the background incompressible fluctuations, ii the compressible ISM fluctuations form long scale flows and structures, and iii the density and the temperature fluctuations are anti-correlated.

  16. Modeling Bubble Flow and Current Density Distribution in an Alkaline Electrolysis Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandra S. Jupudi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bubbles on the current density distribution over the electrodes of an alkaline electrolyzer cell is studied using a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model. Model includes Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow methodology to model the multiphase flow of Hydrogen and Oxygen with water and the behavior of each phase is accounted for using first principle. Hydrogen/Oxygen evolution, flow field and current density distribution are incorporated in the model to account for the complicated physics involved in the process. Fluent 6.2 is used to solve two-phase flow and electrochemistry is incorporated using UDF (User Defined Function feature of Fluent. Model is validated with mesh refinement study and by comparison with experimental measurements. Model is found to replicate the effect of cell voltage and inter-electrode gap (distance between the electrodes on current density accurately. Further, model is found to capture the existence of optimum cell height. The validated model is expected to be a very useful tool in the design and optimization of alkaline electrolyzer cells.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of reactant gases mass flow rates on power density in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, E. E.; Taymaz, I.

    2018-03-01

    In this study it was experimentally investigated the effect of mass flow rates of reactant gases which is one of the most important operational parameters of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell on power density. The channel type is serpentine and single PEM fuel cell has an active area of 25 cm2. Design-Expert 8.0 (trial version) was used with four variables to investigate the effect of variables on the response using. Cell temperature, hydrogen mass flow rate, oxygen mass flow rate and humidification temperature were selected as independent variables. In addition, the power density was used as response to determine the combined effects of these variables. It was kept constant cell and humidification temperatures while changing mass flow rates of reactant gases. From the results an increase occurred in power density with increasing the hydrogen flow rates. But oxygen flow rate does not have a significant effect on power density within determined mass flow rates.

  18. Impact of variations in mangrove pneumatophore density on boundary flow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilditch, C. A.; Horstman, E.; Bryan, K. R.; Mullarney, J. C.; Eager, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove forests are common in subtropical and tropical environments, providing ecosystem services such as processing nutrients, carbon sequestration and coastal protection. Many of these services are dependent on the interaction between the aerial roots (pneumatophores), which extend upward from the seabed, and the boundary layer flows. Here, we present results from a series of laboratory experiments using natural Avicennia spp. pneumatophores ( 6 mm diameter, 7 cm high) at 3 different densities (71-268 m-2). Pneumatophore densities and positioning were quantified using photo quadrats from a fringing mangrove habitat (Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand). Natural pneumatophore covers were reconstructed over a 4.0 m test section in a recirculating flume using harvested roots. Two different flow speeds (10/15 cm/s) and three water depths (12/21/30 cm), were tested, providing a range of conditions from a partially emergent to a fully submerged canopy. Calculations using a*d*Cd, where a is frontal area per unit volume, d is structure height and Cd is the drag coefficient, assumed to be 1, suggest skimming flow should occur at an average pneumatophore spacing of <10 cm. However, our preliminary results show that flow still penetrates substantially (up to 3.5 m) into the canopy even at the highest density, suggesting that Avicennia pneumatophores in these fringing environments can both enhance or reduce the shear stress at the seabed depending on density. Avicennia roots spread radially from individual trees, and so pneumatophore densities can vary considerably over short distances. Our results show that this spreading behavior may significantly affect the morphological development of the seaward fringe of a forest.

  19. CFD based investigation on the impact acceleration when a gannet impacts with water during plunge diving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T M; Yang, X B; Liang, J H; Yao, G C; Zhao, W D

    2013-01-01

    Plunge diving is the most commonly used feeding method of a gannet, which can make the gannet transit from air to water rapidly and successfully. A large impact acceleration can be generated due to the air-to-water transition. However, the impact acceleration experienced by the gannet during plunge diving has not been studied. In this paper, this issue is investigated by using the CFD method. The effect of the dropping height and the water-entry inclination angle on the impact acceleration is considered. The results reveal that the impact acceleration along the longitudinal body axis increases with either of the two parameters. The peak time decreases with the dropping height. A quadratic relation is found between the peak impact acceleration and the initial water-entry velocity. According to the computation, when the dropping height is 30 m (most of gannets plunge from about this height), the peak impact acceleration can reach about 23 times the gravitational acceleration, which will exert a considerable force on the gannet body. Furthermore, the pressure distribution of different water-entry inclination angles indicates that the large pressure asymmetry caused by a small oblique angle may lead to a large impact acceleration in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal body axis and cause damage to the neck of the gannet, which partly explains the reason why a gannet performing a high plunge diving in nature enters water with a large oblique angle from the perspective of impact mechanics. The investigation on the plunge-diving behavior in this paper will inspire and promote the development of a biomimetic amphibious robot that transits from air to water with the plunge-diving mode. (paper)

  20. Fundamental research of two-phase flows with high liquid/gas density ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Hibiki, Takashi; Saito, Yasushi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Tohru

    2000-07-01

    In order to analyze the boiling of a fuel-steel mixture pool formed during the core disruptive accident in a fast breeder reactor, it is important to understand the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase pools containing molten reactor materials. Since the liquid/gas density ratio is high, the characteristics of such two-phase flows may differ from those of ordinary flows such as water/air flow. In this study, as a fundamental research of two-phase flows with a high liquid/gas density ratio, the experiments were performed to visualize and measure molten metal (lead-bismuth)/nitrogen gas two-phase flows using a neutron radiography technique. From these experiments, fundamental data such as bubble shapes, void fractions and liquid velocity fields were obtained. In addition, the momentum exchange model of SIMMER-III, which has been developed by JNC, was assessed and improved using the experimental data. In the visualization by neutron radiography, it was found that deformed ellipsoidal bubbles could be seen with smaller gas flux or lower void fractions, and spherical cap bubbles could be seen with larger gas flux or higher void fractions. In addition, a correlation applicable to SIMMER-III was proposed through a comparison between the experimental data and traditional empirical correlations. Furthermore, a visualization experiment using gold-cadmium tracer particles showed that the image processing technique used in the quantification of void fractions is applicable to the measurement of the liquid velocity fields. On the other hand, in the analysis by SIMMER-III, it was confirmed that the original momentum exchange model was appropriate for ellipsoidal bobby flows and that the accuracy of SIMMER-III for cap bubbly flows was much improved with the proposed correlation. Moreover, a new procedure, in which the appropriate drag coefficient could be automatically selected according to bubble shape, was developed. The SIMMER-III code improved through this study can

  1. A blended pressure/density based method for the computation of incompressible and compressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossow, C.-C.

    2003-01-01

    An alternative method to low speed preconditioning for the computation of nearly incompressible flows with compressible methods is developed. For this approach the leading terms of the flux difference splitting (FDS) approximate Riemann solver are analyzed in the incompressible limit. In combination with the requirement of the velocity field to be divergence-free, an elliptic equation to solve for a pressure correction to enforce the divergence-free velocity field on the discrete level is derived. The pressure correction equation established is shown to be equivalent to classical methods for incompressible flows. In order to allow the computation of flows at all speeds, a blending technique for the transition from the incompressible, pressure based formulation to the compressible, density based formulation is established. It is found necessary to use preconditioning with this blending technique to account for a remaining 'compressible' contribution in the incompressible limit, and a suitable matrix directly applicable to conservative residuals is derived. Thus, a coherent framework is established to cover the discretization of both incompressible and compressible flows. Compared with standard preconditioning techniques, the blended pressure/density based approach showed improved robustness for high lift flows close to separation

  2. Global solution to the 3D inhomogeneous nematic liquid crystal flows with variable density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianpeng; Liu, Qiao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the global existence and uniqueness of solution to the 3D inhomogeneous incompressible nematic liquid crystal flows with variable density in the framework of Besov spaces. It is proved that there exists a global and unique solution to the nematic liquid crystal flows if the initial data (ρ0 - 1 ,u0 ,n0 -e3) ∈ M (B˙p,1 3/p - 1 (R3)) × B˙p,1 3/p - 1 (R3) × B˙p,1 3/p (R3) with 1 ≤ p < 6, and satisfies

  3. A finite volume method for density driven flows in porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilhorst Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply a semi-implicit finite volume method for the numerical simulation of density driven flows in porous media; this amounts to solving a nonlinear convection-diffusion parabolic equation for the concentration coupled with an elliptic equation for the pressure. We compute the solutions for two specific problems: a problem involving a rotating interface between salt and fresh water and the classical but difficult Henry’s problem. All solutions are compared to results obtained by running FEflow, a commercial software package for the simulation of groundwater flow, mass and heat transfer in porous media.

  4. [Dynamics of sap flow density in stems of typical desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum and its responses to environmental variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-qin; Ji, Xi-bin; Jin, Bo-wen

    2016-02-01

    Independent measurements of stem sap flow in stems of Calligonum mongolicum and environmental variables using commercial sap flow gauges and a micrometeorological monitoring system, respectively, were made to simulate the variation of sap flow density in the middle range of Hexi Corridor, Northwest China during June to September, 2014. The results showed that the diurnal process of sap flow density in C. mongolicum showed a broad unimodal change, and the maximum sap flow density reached about 30 minutes after the maximum of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) , while about 120 minutes before the maximum of temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). During the studying period, sap flow density closely related with atmosphere evapor-transpiration demand, and mainly affected by PAR, temperature and VPD. The model was developed which directly linked the sap flow density with climatic variables, and good correlation between measured and simulated sap flow density was observed in different climate conditions. The accuracy of simulation was significantly improved if the time-lag effect was taken into consideration, while this model underestimated low and nighttime sap flow densities, which was probably caused by plant physiological characteristics.

  5. Distribution characteristics of terrestrial heat flow density in Jiyang depression of Shengli Oilfield, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Yuling; WANG; Liangshu; LIU; Shaowen; LI; Cheng; HAN

    2004-01-01

    Based on the geo-temperature data of 13 systematically continuous temperature log curves and 700 testing oil boreholes in Jiyang depression, Shengli Oilfield, and the measured thermal conductivities of 47 rock samples, the terrestrial heat flow densities of 114 boreholes of Jiyang depression and its surrounding areas are determined, including 13 of those data derived from systemically continuous temperature logging. The results show that Jiyang depression has a relatively high background heat flow with an average value (65.8 ± 5.4) mW/m2. The lateral variation of heat flow in basin has negative correlation with basement depth. Moreover, heat flow of uplift areas with shallower basement is high, so are those of regions with volcanic rocks, and those of depression areas with deep basement are relatively low. The heat flow densities of different structural units of Jiyang depression can be summarized as follows: The average heat flow value of Zhanhua sag is (67.4 ± 5.3) mW/m2, higher than that of the whole basin, that of Dongying sag is (66.0 ± 6.1) mW/m2, and that of Chezhen sag is (65.1 ± 3.7) mW/m2. It is apparent that these latter two values are approximate to the average value of the whole Jiyang depression,while the average value of Huimin sag is (63.6±5.0) mW/m2, lower than that of the whole basin. In fact, the basement depth and the distribution framework of uplift and depression areas are all controlled by the process of lithosphere extension. In addition, the distribution of volcanic rocks in basin is also relatively close to this extension geodynamic process. In summary, the distribution characteristics of terrestrial heat flow of Jiyang depression is determined by the Cenozoic tectono-thermal events of this region.

  6. Sum rules and spectral density flow in QCD and in superconformal theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantini Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the signature of the anomalous breaking of the superconformal symmetry in N${\\cal N}$ = 1 super Yang Mills theory and its manifestation in the form of anomaly poles. Moreover, we describe the massive deformations of the N${\\cal N}$ = 1 theory and the spectral densities of the corresponding anomaly form factors. These are characterized by spectral densities which flow with the mass deformation and turn the continuum contributions from the two-particle cuts of the intermediate states into poles, with a single sum rule satisfied by each component. The poles can be interpreted as signaling the exchange of a composite axion/dilaton/dilatino (ADD multiplet in the effective Lagrangian. We conclude that global anomalous currents characterized by a single flow in the perturbative picture always predict the existence of composite interpolating fields.

  7. Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almenara, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Saviron, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs

  8. Probability density function modeling of scalar mixing from concentrated sources in turbulent channel flow

    OpenAIRE

    Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Dispersion of a passive scalar from concentrated sources in fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied with the probability density function (PDF) method. The joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and scalar concentration is represented by a large number of Lagrangian particles. A stochastic near-wall PDF model combines the generalized Langevin model of Haworth & Pope with Durbin's method of elliptic relaxation to provide a mathematically exact treatment of convective and viscous ...

  9. Hand grip strength and maximum peak expiratory flow: determinants of bone mineral density of adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Lee-Andruske, Cynthia; de Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Almonacid-Fierro, Alejandro; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2018-03-02

    Maintaining and building healthy bones during the lifetime requires a complicated interaction between a number of physiological and lifestyle factors. Our goal of this study was to analyze the association between hand grip strength and the maximum peak expiratory flow with bone mineral density and content in adolescent students. The research team studied 1427 adolescent students of both sexes (750 males and 677 females) between the ages of 11.0 and 18.9 years in the Maule Region of Talca (Chile). Weight, standing height, sitting height, hand grip strength (HGS), and maximum peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured. Furthermore, bone mineral density (BMD) and total body bone mineral content (BMC) were determined by using the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Hand grip strength and PEF were categorized in tertiles (lowest, middle, and highest). Linear regression was performed in steps to analyze the relationship between the variables. Differences between categories were determined through ANOVA. In males, the hand grip strength explained 18-19% of the BMD and 20-23% of the BMC. For the females, the percentage of variation occurred between 12 and 13% of the BMD and 17-18% of the BMC. The variation of PEF for the males was observed as 33% of the BMD and 36% of the BMC. For the females, both the BMD and BMC showed a variation of 19%. The HGS and PEF were divided into three categories (lowest, middle, and highest). In both cases, significant differences occurred in bone density health between the three categories. In conclusion, the HGS and the PEF related positively to the bone density health of both sexes of adolescent students. The adolescents with poor values for hand grip strength and expiratory flow showed reduced values of BMD and BMC for the total body. Furthermore, the PEF had a greater influence on bone density health with respect to the HGS of the adolescents of both sexes.

  10. Estimation of Engine Intake Air Mass Flow using a generic Speed-Density method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtíšek Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of real driving emissions (RDE from internal combustion engines under real-world operation using portable, onboard monitoring systems (PEMS is becoming an increasingly important tool aiding the assessment of the effects of new fuels and technologies on environment and human health. The knowledge of exhaust flow is one of the prerequisites for successful RDE measurement with PEMS. One of the simplest approaches for estimating the exhaust flow from virtually any engine is its computation from the intake air flow, which is calculated from measured engine rpm and intake manifold charge pressure and temperature using a generic speed-density algorithm, applicable to most contemporary four-cycle engines. In this work, a generic speed-density algorithm was compared against several reference methods on representative European production engines - a gasoline port-injected automobile engine, two turbocharged diesel automobile engines, and a heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine. The overall results suggest that the uncertainty of the generic speed-density method is on the order of 10% throughout most of the engine operating range, but increasing to tens of percent where high-volume exhaust gas recirculation is used. For non-EGR engines, such uncertainty is acceptable for many simpler and screening measurements, and may be, where desired, reduced by engine-specific calibration.

  11. Applications of Low Density Flow Techniques and Catalytic Recombination at the Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.

    2000-01-01

    The talk presents a brief background on defInitions of catalysis and effects associated with chemically nonequilibrium and low-density flows of aerospace interest. Applications of catalytic recombination on surfaces in dissociated flow are given, including aero heating on reentry spacecraft thermal protection surfaces and reflection of plume flow on pressure distributions associated with the space station. Examples include aero heating predictions for the X-38 test vehicle, the inlet of a proposed gas-sampling probe used in high enthalpy test facilities, and a parabolic body at angle of attack. The effect of accommodation coefficients on thruster induced pressure distributions is also included. Examples of tools used include simple aero heating formulas based on boundary layer solutions, an engineering approximation that uses axisymmetric viscous shock layer flow to simulate full three dimensional flow, full computational fluid dynamics, and direct simulation Monte-Carlo calculations. Methods of determining catalytic recombination rates in arc jet flow are discus ed. An area of catalysis not fully understood is the formation of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with gas phase or nano-size metal particles. The Johnson Space Center is making SWNTs using both a laser ablation technique and an electric arc vaporization technique.

  12. Reactive flow modeling of initial density effect on divergence JB-9014 detonation driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Huang, Kuibang; Zheng, Miao

    2016-06-01

    A serious of experiments were designed and the results were represented in this paper, in which 2mm thickness cooper shells were impacted by explosives named JB-9014 with different densities, and the surface velocities of the OFHC shells were measured. The comparison of experimental data shows the free surface velocity of the OFHC shell increase with the IHE density. Numerical modeling, which occupied phenomenological reactive flow rate model using the two-dimensional Lagrange hydrodynamic code, were carried out to simulate the above experiments, and empirical adjustments on detonation velocity and pressure and Pier Tang's adjustments on EOS of detonation products were both introduced in our numerical simulation work. The computational results agree well with that of experiments, and the numerical results with original parameters of products and the adjusted ones of JB-9014 could describe the density effect distinctly.

  13. Genetic search for an optimal power flow solution from a high density cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarnath, R.V. [Hi-Tech College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Ramana, N.V. [JNTU College of Engineering, Jagityala (India)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposed a novel method to solve optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The method is based on a genetic algorithm (GA) search from a High Density Cluster (GAHDC). The algorithm of the proposed method includes 3 stages, notably (1) a suboptimal solution is obtained via a conventional analytical method, (2) a high density cluster, which consists of other suboptimal data points from the first stage, is formed using a density-based cluster algorithm, and (3) a genetic algorithm based search is carried out for the exact optimal solution from a low population sized, high density cluster. The final optimal solution thoroughly satisfies the well defined fitness function. A standard IEEE 30-bus test system was considered for the simulation study. Numerical results were presented and compared with the results of other approaches. It was concluded that although there is not much difference in numerical values, the proposed method has the advantage of minimal computational effort and reduced CPU time. As such, the method would be suitable for online applications such as the present Optimal Power Flow problem. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Relaxation of potential, flows, and density in the edge plasma of Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Dufkova, E.; Duran, I.; Stoeckel, J.; Hidalgo, C.

    2004-01-01

    Decay times of plasma flows and plasma profiles have been measured after a sudden biasing switch-off in experiments on the Castor tokamak. A biased electrode has been used to polarize the edge plasma. The edge plasma potential and flows have been characterized by means of Langmuir and Mach probes, the radiation was measured using an array of bolometers. Potential profiles and poloidal flows can be well fitted by an exponential decay time in the range of 10 - 30 μs when the electrode biasing is turned off in the Castor tokamak. The radiation shows a slower time scale (about 1 ms), which is linked to the evolution in the plasma density and particle confinement. (authors)

  15. Too Fast, Too Furious: A Galaxy's Fatal Plunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Trailing 200,000-light-year-long streamers of seething gas, a galaxy that was once like our Milky Way is being shredded as it plunges at 4.5 million miles per hour through the heart of a distant cluster of galaxies. In this unusually violent collision with ambient cluster gas, the galaxy is stripped down to its skeletal spiral arms as it is eviscerated of fresh hydrogen for making new stars. The galaxy's untimely demise is offering new clues to solving the mystery of what happens to spiral galaxies in a violent universe. Views of the early universe show that spiral galaxies were once much more abundant in rich clusters of galaxies. But they seem to have been vanishing over cosmic time. Where have these "missing bodies" gone? Astronomers are using a wide range of telescopes and analysis techniques to conduct a "CSI" or Crime Scene Investigator-style look at what is happening to this galaxy inside its cluster's rough neighborhood. "It's a clear case of galaxy assault and battery," says William Keel of the University of Alabama. "This is the first time we have a full suite of results from such disparate techniques showing the crime being committed, and the modus operandi." Keel and colleagues are laying out the "forensic evidence" of the galaxy's late life, in a series of presentations today in Atlanta, Ga., at the 203rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society. Astronomers have assembled the evidence by combining a variety of diagnostic observations from telescopes analyzing the galaxy's appearance in X-ray, optical, and radio light. Parallel observations at different wavelengths trace how stars, gas, and dust are being tossed around and torn from the fragile galaxy, called C153. Though such "distressed" galaxies have been seen before, this one's demise is unusually swift and violent. The galaxy belongs to a cluster of galaxies that slammed into another cluster about 100 million years ago. This galaxy took the brunt of the beating as it fell along a trajectory

  16. T-junction cross-flow mixing with thermally driven density stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kickhofel, John, E-mail: jkickhofel@gmail.com [Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Selvam, P. Karthick, E-mail: karthick.selvam@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Laurien, Eckart, E-mail: eckart.laurien@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kulenovic, Rudi, E-mail: rudi.kulenovic@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Mesh sensor for realistic nuclear thermal hydraulic scenarios is demonstrated. • Flow temperature behavior across a wide range of Richardson numbers measured. • Upstream stratified flow in the T-junction results in a thermal shock scenario. • Large, stable near-wall thermal gradients exist in spite of turbulent flows. - Abstract: As a means of further elucidating turbulence- and stratification-driven thermal fatigue in the vicinity of T-junctions in nuclear power plants, a series of experiments have been conducted at the high temperature high pressure fluid–structure interaction T-junction facility of the University of Stuttgart with novel fluid measurement instrumentation. T-junction mixing with large fluid temperature gradients results in complex flow behavior, the result of density driven effects. Deionized water mixing at temperature differences of up to 232 K at 7 MPa pressure have been investigated in a T-junction with main pipe diameter 71.8 mm and branch line diameter 38.9 mm. The experiments have been performed with fixed flow rates of 0.4 kg/s in the main pipe and 0.1 kg/s in the branch line. A novel electrode-mesh sensor compatible with the DN80 PN100 pipeline upstream and downstream of the T-junction has been utilized as a temperature sensor providing a high density information in the pipe cross-section in both space and time. Additionally, in-flow and in-wall thermocouples quantify the damping of thermal fluctuations by the wall material. The results indicate that large inflow temperature differences lead to strong turbulence damping, and ultimately stable stratification extending both downstream and upstream of the T-junction resulting in large local thermal gradients.

  17. A study of plunging breaker mechanics by PIV measurements and a Navier-Stokes solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I. M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of a surf-zone plunging breaker are studied from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements and a numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations, using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. An additional numerical model using a Boundary-Integral Method (BIM) is also used in order...

  18. Plunging ranulas: high-resolution ultrasound for diagnosis and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Prabha; Jain, Ravi; Morton, Randall P.; Ahmad, Zahoor

    2010-01-01

    We see a high incidence of plunging ranulas, particularly in Maori and Polynesian populations. We have investigated the usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of plunging ranulas and present our findings. Thirty-three new cases were examined over 4 years (June 2004 to October 2008). High-resolution ultrasound was very successful in determining the extent of the plunging ranula, confirming the cystic nature of the lesion, assessing the status of the mylohyoid muscle (a defect demonstrated in 100% of our cases) and evaluating the sublingual gland for rupture or herniation. Correlation with surgical findings was available for 30 cases. There was excellent ultrasonographic and surgical correlation, particularly with respect to submandibular space cystic collection (29 of 30 cases, 96.7%) and mylohyoid defects (27 of 30 cases, 90%). With the considerations of cost, accessibility and the fact that many of our patients are young (median of 20 years), ultrasound is recommended as the preferred examination for plunging ranula. (orig.)

  19. Plunging ranulas: high-resolution ultrasound for diagnosis and surgical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Prabha [Middlemore Hospital, Counties Manakau, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 93311, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Jain, Ravi [Waikato Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hamilton (New Zealand); Morton, Randall P.; Ahmad, Zahoor [Middlemore Hospital, Counties Manakau, Department of ENT Surgery, P.O. Box 93311, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-06-15

    We see a high incidence of plunging ranulas, particularly in Maori and Polynesian populations. We have investigated the usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of plunging ranulas and present our findings. Thirty-three new cases were examined over 4 years (June 2004 to October 2008). High-resolution ultrasound was very successful in determining the extent of the plunging ranula, confirming the cystic nature of the lesion, assessing the status of the mylohyoid muscle (a defect demonstrated in 100% of our cases) and evaluating the sublingual gland for rupture or herniation. Correlation with surgical findings was available for 30 cases. There was excellent ultrasonographic and surgical correlation, particularly with respect to submandibular space cystic collection (29 of 30 cases, 96.7%) and mylohyoid defects (27 of 30 cases, 90%). With the considerations of cost, accessibility and the fact that many of our patients are young (median of 20 years), ultrasound is recommended as the preferred examination for plunging ranula. (orig.)

  20. Distribution of E/N and N/e/ in a cross-flow electric discharge laser. [electric field to neutral gas density and electron number density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, J. W., Jr.; Lancashire, R. B.; Manista, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements have been conducted of the effect of the convection of ions and electrons on the discharge characteristics in a large scale laser. The results are presented for one particular distribution of ballast resistance. Values of electric field, current density, input power density, ratio of electric field to neutral gas density (E/N), and electron number density were calculated on the basis of measurements of the discharge properties. In a number of graphs, the E/N ratio, current density, power density, and electron density are plotted as a function of row number (downstream position) with total discharge current and gas velocity as parameters. From the dependence of the current distribution on the total current, it appears that the electron production in the first two rows significantly affects the current flowing in the succeeding rows.

  1. A scalable geometric multigrid solver for nonsymmetric elliptic systems with application to variable-density flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaily, M.; Jofre, L.; Mani, A.; Iaccarino, G.

    2018-03-01

    A geometric multigrid algorithm is introduced for solving nonsymmetric linear systems resulting from the discretization of the variable density Navier-Stokes equations on nonuniform structured rectilinear grids and high-Reynolds number flows. The restriction operation is defined such that the resulting system on the coarser grids is symmetric, thereby allowing for the use of efficient smoother algorithms. To achieve an optimal rate of convergence, the sequence of interpolation and restriction operations are determined through a dynamic procedure. A parallel partitioning strategy is introduced to minimize communication while maintaining the load balance between all processors. To test the proposed algorithm, we consider two cases: 1) homogeneous isotropic turbulence discretized on uniform grids and 2) turbulent duct flow discretized on stretched grids. Testing the algorithm on systems with up to a billion unknowns shows that the cost varies linearly with the number of unknowns. This O (N) behavior confirms the robustness of the proposed multigrid method regarding ill-conditioning of large systems characteristic of multiscale high-Reynolds number turbulent flows. The robustness of our method to density variations is established by considering cases where density varies sharply in space by a factor of up to 104, showing its applicability to two-phase flow problems. Strong and weak scalability studies are carried out, employing up to 30,000 processors, to examine the parallel performance of our implementation. Excellent scalability of our solver is shown for a granularity as low as 104 to 105 unknowns per processor. At its tested peak throughput, it solves approximately 4 billion unknowns per second employing over 16,000 processors with a parallel efficiency higher than 50%.

  2. Some aspects of regional flow of variable-density groundwater in crystalline basement rock of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, C.I.; Andersson, Johan

    1991-12-01

    The distribution of saltwaters in the Baltic shield in Sweden is consistent with ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing and depends on the geometry and connectivity of conductive structures at both regional and local scales, and on the surface topography. Numerical simulation of regional variable-density fluid flow during Holocene land-rise and coastal regression shows that the existence of any old saltwater, whether derived from submarine recharge in regions below Sweden's highest post-glacial coastline or geochemical processes, is an indication either of slow fluid movements through the bedrock over long times, or of long travel distances through fracture systems before arriving at measurement points. During the land-rise period, regional flow is not affected by the variable density of fluids in the upper few kilometers of the shield and the topography of the water table is the only driving force. The spatial distribution of meteoric flushing water and pre-Holocene waters may be complex, with the possibility of relatively fresh water in fracture zones below salty units even at depths of a few kilometers. The domination of the topographic driving force implies that deep saltwater is not necessarily stagnant, and significant saltwater flows may be expected to occur in well-connected horizons even at depth. Local topography variation and fracture zone location combine to create a complex flow field in which local topographic driving forces extend to considerable depth in some areas, whereas regional topographic forces predominate in others. Thus, a pattern may be difficult to discern in measurements of the regional saltwater distribution, although it is clear that the coastal region is the major zone of discharge for deeper pre-Holocene fluids. During the land-rise period, regional flow equilibrates with changing climatic conditions and coastal positions, while the distribution of flushing water and older waters lags and will perpetually change between successive

  3. Density-Driven Flow Simulation in Anisotropic Porous Media: Application to CO2 Geological Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2014-04-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density is smaller than the hosting brine. This motivates an upward motion and eventually CO2 is trapped beneath the cap rock. The trapped CO2 slowly dissolves into the brine causing the density of the mixture to become larger than the host brine. This causes gravitational instabilities that is propagated and magnified with time. In this kind of density-driven flows, the CO2-rich brines migrate downward while the brines with low CO2 concentration move upward. With respect to the properties of the subsurface aquifers, there are instances where saline formations can possess anisotropy with respect to their hydraulic properties. Such anisotropy can have significant effect on the onset and propagation of flow instabilities. Anisotropy is predicted to be more influential in dictating the direction of the convective flow. To account for permeability anisotropy, the method of multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) in the framework of finite differences schemes is used. The MPFA method requires more point stencil than the traditional two-point flux approximation (TPFA). For example, calculation of one flux component requires 6-point stencil and 18-point stencil in 2-D and 3-D cases, respectively. As consequence, the matrix of coefficient for obtaining the pressure fields will be quite complex. Therefore, we combine the MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field technique in which the problem is reduced to solving multitude of local problems and the global matrix of coefficients is constructed automatically, which significantly reduces the complexity. We present several numerical scenarios of density-driven flow simulation in homogeneous, layered, and heterogeneous anisotropic porous media. The numerical results emphasize the

  4. Characterizing the performance of an affordable, multichannel conductivity probe for density measurements in stratified flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Balaji; Carminati, Marco; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    In stratified flows, conductivity (combined with temperature) is often used to measure density. The conductivity probes typically used can resolve very fine spatial scales, but on the downside they are fragile, expensive, sensitive to environmental noise and have only single channel capability. Recently a low-cost, robust, arduino-based probe called Conduino was developed, which can be valuable in a wide range of applications where resolving extremely small spatial scales is not needed. This probe uses micro-USB connectors as actual conductivity sensors with a custom designed electronic board for simultaneous acquisition from multiple probes, with conductivity resolution comparable to commercially available PME conductivity probe. A detailed assessment of performance of this Conduino probe is described here. To establish time response and sensitivity as a function of electrode geometry, we build a variety of shapes for different kinds of applications, with tip spacing ranging from 0.5-2.5 mm, and with electrode length ranging from 2.3-6 mm. We set up a two-layer density profile and traverse it rapidly, yielding a time response comparable to PME. The Conduino's multi-channel capability is used to operate probe arrays, which helps to construct density fields in stratified flows.

  5. DSMC simulation and experimental validation of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Shang, Yuhe; Wu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow is developed. Three collision molecular models, including hard sphere (HS), variable hard sphere (VHS), and variable soft sphere (VSS), are employed in the DSMC study. The simulations of double-cone and Edney's type IV hypersonic shock interactions in low density flow are performed. Comparisons between DSMC and experimental data are conducted. Investigation of the double-cone hypersonic flow shows that three collision molecular models can predict the trend of pressure coefficient and the Stanton number. HS model shows the best agreement between DSMC simulation and experiment among three collision molecular models. Also, it shows that the agreement between DSMC and experiment is generally good for HS and VHS models in Edney's type IV shock interaction. However, it fails in the VSS model. Both double-cone and Edney's type IV shock interaction simulations show that the DSMC errors depend on the Knudsen number and the models employed for intermolecular interaction. With the increase in the Knudsen number, the DSMC error is decreased. The error is the smallest in HS compared with those in the VHS and VSS models. When the Knudsen number is in the level of 10(-4), the DSMC errors, for pressure coefficient, the Stanton number, and the scale of interaction region, are controlled within 10%.

  6. Memory effects in microscopic traffic models and wide scattering in flow-density data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Martin; Helbing, Dirk

    2003-10-01

    By means of microscopic simulations we show that noninstantaneous adaptation of the driving behavior to the traffic situation together with the conventional method to measure flow-density data provides a possible explanation for the observed inverse-λ shape and the wide scattering of flow-density data in “synchronized” congested traffic. We model a memory effect in the response of drivers to the traffic situation for a wide class of car-following models by introducing an additional dynamical variable (the “subjective level of service”) describing the adaptation of drivers to the surrounding traffic situation during the past few minutes and couple this internal state to parameters of the underlying model that are related to the driving style. For illustration, we use the intelligent-driver model (IDM) as the underlying model, characterize the level of service solely by the velocity, and couple the internal variable to the IDM parameter “time gap” to model an increase of the time gap in congested traffic (“frustration effect”), which is supported by single-vehicle data. We simulate open systems with a bottleneck and obtain flow-density data by implementing “virtual detectors.” The shape, relative size, and apparent “stochasticity” of the region of the scattered data points agree nearly quantitatively with empirical data. Wide scattering is even observed for identical vehicles, although the proposed model is a time-continuous, deterministic, single-lane car-following model with a unique fundamental diagram.

  7. Measurements of density, temperature, and their fluctuations in turbulent supersonic flow using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Douglas G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, and their turbulent fluctuation levels were obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment are compared with previous measurements obtained in the same facility using conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique. Densities and temperatures measured with the current technique agree with the previous surveys to within 3 percent and 2 percent, respectively. The fluctuation amplitudes for both variables agree with the measurements obtained using the earlier spectroscopic technique and show evidence of an unsteady, weak shock wave that perturbs the boundary layer.

  8. Coherent structure in geostrophic flow under density stratification; Mippei seisoka ni aru chikoryu no soshiki kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, S.; Iida, O.; Nagano, Y. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-10-25

    The coherent structure and relevant heat transport in geostrophic flows under various density stratification has been studied by using both direct numerical simulation and rapid distortion theory. It is found that in a neutrally stratified flow under system rotation, the temperature fluctuations become very close to two-dimensional and their variation is very small in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation. Under the stable stratification, the velocity and temperature fluctuations tend to oscillate with the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. Under the unstable stratification, on the other hand, vortex columns are formed in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation. However, the generation of the elongated vortex columns cannot be predicted by the rapid distortion theory. The non-linear term is required to generate these characteristic vortex columns. 11 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  9. State of charge monitoring of vanadium redox flow batteries using half cell potentials and electrolyte density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressel, Simon; Bill, Florian; Holtz, Lucas; Janshen, Niklas; Chica, Antonio; Flower, Thomas; Weidlich, Claudia; Struckmann, Thorsten

    2018-02-01

    The operation of vanadium redox flow batteries requires reliable in situ state of charge (SOC) monitoring. In this study, two SOC estimation approaches for the negative half cell are investigated. First, in situ open circuit potential measurements are combined with Coulomb counting in a one-step calibration of SOC and Nernst potential which doesn't need additional reference SOCs. In-sample and out-of-sample SOCs are estimated and analyzed, estimation errors ≤ 0.04 are obtained. In the second approach, temperature corrected in situ electrolyte density measurements are used for the first time in vanadium redox flow batteries for SOC estimation. In-sample and out-of-sample SOC estimation errors ≤ 0.04 demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Both methods allow recalibration during battery operation. The actual capacity obtained from SOC calibration can be used in a state of health model.

  10. Density waves in a lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model with the anticipation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Min; Sun Di-Hua; Tian Chuan

    2012-01-01

    By introducing the traffic anticipation effect in the real world into the original lattice hydrodynamic model, we present a new anticipation effect lattice hydrodynamic (AELH) model, and obtain the linear stability condition of the model by applying the linear stability theory. Through nonlinear analysis, we derive the Burgers equation and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, to describe the propagating behaviour of traffic density waves in the stable and the metastable regions, respectively. The good agreement between simulation results and analytical results shows that the stability of traffic flow can be enhanced when the anticipation effect is considered. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. A high-energy-density redox flow battery based on zinc/polyhalide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Lai, Qinzhi; Zhang, Jianlu; Zhang, Huamin

    2012-05-01

    Zn and the Art of Battery Development: A zinc/polyhalide redox flow battery employs Br(-) /ClBr(2-) and Zn/Zn(2+) redox couples in its positive and negative half-cells, respectively. The performance of the battery is evaluated by charge-discharge cycling tests and reveals a high energy efficiency of 81%, based on a Coulombic efficiency of 96% and voltage efficiency of 84%. The new battery technology can provide high performance and energy density at an acceptable cost. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Basic Study for Active Nucleation Site Density Evaluation in Subcooled Flow Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In Cheol; Song, Chul Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been performed on a active nucleation site density (ANSD) due to its governing influence on a heat transfer. However, most of the studies were focused on pool boiling conditions. Kocamustafaogullari and Ishii developed an ANSD correlation from a parametric study of the existing pool boiling data. Also, they extended the correlation to a convective flow boiling condition by adopting the nucleation suppression factor of Chen's heat transfer correlation. However, the appropriateness of applying the Chen's suppression factor to an ANSD correlation was not fully validated because there was not enough experimental data on ANSD in the forced convective flow boiling. Basu et al. performed forced convective boiling experiments and proposed a correlation of ANSD which is the only correlation based on experimental data for a forced convective boiling. They concluded that the ANSD is only dependent on the static contact angle and the wall superheat, and is independent of the flow rate and the subcooling, which contradict the general acceptance of the nucleation suppression in the forced convective boiling. It seems that no reliable ANSD correlation or model is available for a forced convective boiling. In the present study, the effect of the flow velocity on the suppression of the nucleation site was examined, and the effectiveness of a Brewster reflection technique for the identification of the nucleation site was also examined

  13. Effect of stable-density stratification on counter gradient flux of a homogeneous shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lida, Oaki; Nagano, Yasutaka [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear flow under stable-density stratification to study the buoyancy effects on the heat and momentum transfer. These numerical data were compared with those of a turbulent channel flow to investigate the similarity between the near-wall turbulence and the homogeneous shear flow. We also investigated the generation mechanism of the persistent CGFs (counter gradient fluxes) appearing at the higher wavenumbers of the cospectrum, and lasting over a long time without oscillation. Spatially, the persistent CGFs are associated with the longitudinal vortical structure, which is elongated in the streamwise direction and typically observed in both homogeneous shear flow and near-wall turbulence. The CGFs appear at both the top and bottom of this longitudinal vortical structure, and expand horizontally with an increase in the Richardson number. It was found that the production and turbulent-diffusion terms are responsible for the distribution of the Reynolds shear stress including the persistent CGFs. The buoyancy term, combined with the swirling motion of the vortex, contributes to expand the persistent CGF regions and decrease the down gradient fluxes. (author)

  14. Surface heat flow density at the Phlegrean Fields caldera (southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, Gennardo [Naples Univ., Dept. of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples (Italy); De Lorenzo, Salvatore; Mongelli, Francesco; Tramacere, Antonio; Zito, Gianmaria [Bari Univ., Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Bari (Italy)

    1998-08-01

    The Phlegrean Fields areas is a Holocene caldera located west of Naples, southern Italy. The recent post caldera activity is characterised by several eruptive centers inside the collapsed areas. In order to investigate the still active volcanic processes, surface heat flow measurement were carried out in 1995 in 30 sites of the Phlegrean Fields and a heat flow map compiled. Filtering of the map reveals some well-defined anomalies superimposed on a general southward-increasing trend. Local anomalies are related to small magma bodies, whereas the observed general trend has been attributed to the effect of ground-water flow. This effect was calculated and removed. The undisturbed mean value of the surface heat flow density in the eastern sector is 149mW/m{sup 2}, which is above the regional value of 85mW/m{sup 2} assigned to the eastern part of the Tyrrhenian Sea, and which is probably influenced by a very large, deep magmatic body. (Author)

  15. Coupled hydromechanical paleoclimate analyses of density-dependant groundwater flow in discretely fractured crystalline rock settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normani, S. D.; Sykes, J. F.; Jensen, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    A high resolution sub-regional scale (84 km2) density-dependent, fracture zone network groundwater flow model with hydromechanical coupling and pseudo-permafrost, was developed from a larger 5734 km2 regional scale groundwater flow model of a Canadian Shield setting in fractured crystalline rock. The objective of the work is to illustrate aspects of regional and sub-regional groundwater flow that are relevant to the long-term performance of a hypothetical nuclear fuel repository. The discrete fracture dual continuum numerical model FRAC3DVS-OPG was used for all simulations. A discrete fracture zone network model delineated from surface features was superimposed onto an 789887 element flow domain mesh. Orthogonal fracture faces (between adjacent finite element grid blocks) were used to best represent the irregular discrete fracture zone network. The crystalline rock between these structural discontinuities was assigned properties characteristic of those reported for the Canadian Shield at the Underground Research Laboratory at Pinawa, Manitoba. Interconnectivity of permeable fracture features is an important pathway for the possibly relatively rapid migration of average water particles and subsequent reduction in residence times. The multiple 121000 year North American continental scale paleoclimate simulations are provided by W.R. Peltier using the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model (UofT GSM). Values of ice sheet normal stress, and proglacial lake depth from the UofT GSM are applied to the sub-regional model as surface boundary conditions, using a freshwater head equivalent to the normal stress imposed by the ice sheet at its base. Permafrost depth is applied as a permeability reduction to both three-dimensional grid blocks and fractures that lie within the time varying permafrost zone. Two different paleoclimate simulations are applied to the sub-regional model to investigate the effect on the depth of glacial meltwater migration into the subsurface. In

  16. Near-Bed Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget Under a Large-Scale Plunging Breaking Wave Over a Fixed Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Joep; van der A, Dominic A.; Cáceres, Iván.; Hurther, David; McLelland, Stuart J.; Ribberink, Jan S.; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Hydrodynamics under regular plunging breaking waves over a fixed breaker bar were studied in a large-scale wave flume. A previous paper reported on the outer flow hydrodynamics; the present paper focuses on the turbulence dynamics near the bed (up to 0.10 m from the bed). Velocities were measured with high spatial and temporal resolution using a two component laser Doppler anemometer. The results show that even at close distance from the bed (1 mm), the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) increases by a factor five between the shoaling, and breaking regions because of invasion of wave breaking turbulence. The sign and phase behavior of the time-dependent Reynolds shear stresses at elevations up to approximately 0.02 m from the bed (roughly twice the elevation of the boundary layer overshoot) are mainly controlled by local bed-shear-generated turbulence, but at higher elevations Reynolds stresses are controlled by wave breaking turbulence. The measurements are subsequently analyzed to investigate the TKE budget at wave-averaged and intrawave time scales. Horizontal and vertical turbulence advection, production, and dissipation are the major terms. A two-dimensional wave-averaged circulation drives advection of wave breaking turbulence through the near-bed layer, resulting in a net downward influx in the bar trough region, followed by seaward advection along the bar's shoreward slope, and an upward outflux above the bar crest. The strongly nonuniform flow across the bar combined with the presence of anisotropic turbulence enhances turbulent production rates near the bed.

  17. Phase-field-based lattice Boltzmann modeling of large-density-ratio two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Xu, Jiangrong; Chen, Jiangxing; Wang, Huili; Chai, Zhenhua; Shi, Baochang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and accurate lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for immiscible two-phase flows, which is able to deal with large density contrasts. This model utilizes two LB equations, one of which is used to solve the conservative Allen-Cahn equation, and the other is adopted to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A forcing distribution function is elaborately designed in the LB equation for the Navier-Stokes equations, which make it much simpler than the existing LB models. In addition, the proposed model can achieve superior numerical accuracy compared with previous Allen-Cahn type of LB models. Several benchmark two-phase problems, including static droplet, layered Poiseuille flow, and spinodal decomposition are simulated to validate the present LB model. It is found that the present model can achieve relatively small spurious velocity in the LB community, and the obtained numerical results also show good agreement with the analytical solutions or some available results. Lastly, we use the present model to investigate the droplet impact on a thin liquid film with a large density ratio of 1000 and the Reynolds number ranging from 20 to 500. The fascinating phenomena of droplet splashing is successfully reproduced by the present model and the numerically predicted spreading radius exhibits to obey the power law reported in the literature.

  18. Low Density Lipoprotein and Non-Newtonian Oscillating Flow Biomechanical Parameters for Normal Human Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D

    2016-04-01

    The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.

  19. Numerical Investigation of Multiple-, Interacting-Scale Variable-Density Ground Water Flow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosler, D.; Ibaraki, M.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of our study is to elucidate the nonlinear processes that are important for multiple-, interacting-scale flow and solute transport in subsurface environments. In particular, we are focusing on the influence of small-scale instability development on variable-density ground water flow behavior in large-scale systems. Convective mixing caused by these instabilities may mix the fluids to a greater extent than would be the case with classical, Fickian dispersion. Most current numerical schemes for interpreting field-scale variable-density flow systems do not explicitly account for the complexities caused by small-scale instabilities and treat such processes as "lumped" Fickian dispersive mixing. Such approaches may greatly underestimate the mixing behavior and misrepresent the overall large-scale flow field dynamics. The specific objectives of our study are: (i) to develop an adaptive (spatial and temporal scales) three-dimensional numerical model that is fully capable of simulating field-scale variable-density flow systems with fine resolution (~1 cm); and (ii) to evaluate the importance of scale-dependent process interactions by performing a series of simulations on different problem scales ranging from laboratory experiments to field settings, including an aquifer storage and freshwater recovery (ASR) system similar to those planned for the Florida Everglades and in-situ contaminant remediation systems. We are examining (1) methods to create instabilities in field-scale systems, (2) porous media heterogeneity effects, and (3) the relation between heterogeneity characteristics (e.g., permeability variance and correlation length scales) and the mixing scales that develop for varying degrees of unstable stratification. Applications of our work include the design of new water supply and conservation measures (e.g., ASR systems), assessment of saltwater intrusion problems in coastal aquifers, and the design of in-situ remediation systems for aquifer restoration

  20. Anaesthetic management in a case of large plunging ranula with difficult airway: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Kumar Sethi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plunging ranula is a mucous retention cyst found on the floor of mouth which arises from the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands extending to lateral aspect of neck, which may often cause potential airway obstruction leading to difficulty in airway management. A forty year old female patient was admitted to our hospital with large, painless swelling in the floor of mouth extending to the lateral part of body of mandible and neck. This intraoral swelling distorted the normal airway anatomy thus making airway management difficult as the patient was planned for excision of swelling under general anaesthesia. So we present a case of successful management of a difficult airway by using awake fibre optic intubation in a patient posted for excision of a large plunging ranula under general anaesthesia.

  1. Large Eddy Simulations of Compositional Density Currents Flowing Over a Mobile Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrousi, Foteini; Zordan, Jessica; Leonardi, Alessandro; Juez, Carmelo; Zanello, Francesca; Armenio, Vincenzo; Franca, Mário J.

    2017-04-01

    Density currents are a ubiquitous phenomenon caused by natural events or anthropogenic activities, and play an important role in the global sediment cycle; they are agents of long distance sediment transport in lakes, seas and oceans. Density gradients induced by salinity, temperature differences, or by the presence of suspended material are all possible triggers of a current. Such flows can travel long distances while eroding or depositing bed materials. This can provoke rapid topological changes, which makes the estimation of their transport capacity of prime interest for environmental engineering. Despite their relevance, field data regarding their dynamics is limited due to density currents scattered and unpredictable occurrence in nature. For this reason, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have been a preferred way to investigate sediment transport processes associated to density currents. The study of entrainment and deposition processes requires detailed data of velocities spatial and temporal distributions in the boundary layer and bed shear stress, which are troublesome to obtain in laboratory. Motivated by this, we present 3D wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of density currents generated by lock-exchange. The currents travel over a smooth flat bed, which includes a section composed by erodible fine sediment susceptible of eroding. Several sediment sizes and initial density gradients are considered. The grid is set to resolve the velocity field within the boundary layer of the current (a tiny fraction of the total height), which in turn allows to obtain predictions of the bed shear stress. The numerical outcomes are compared with experimental data obtained with an analogous laboratory setting. In laboratory experiments salinity was chosen for generating the initial density gradient in order to facilitate the identification of entrained particles, since salt does not hinder the possibility to track suspended particles. Under these

  2. EUROMECH colloquium 377. Stability and control of shear flows with strong temperature or density gradients. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The topics discussed comprise the onset of instability in heated free jets and jets with density gradients, flow past heated/cooled boundaries, atmospheric shear flow, and mathematical modeling of laminar-turbulent transition phenomena. Three contributions have been input to INIS. (P.A.)

  3. Variable-density ground-water flow and paleohydrology in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) region, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Variable-density groundwater flow was studied near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. An analysis of the relative magnitude of pressure-related and density-related flow-driving forces indicates that density-related gravity effects are not significant at the plant and to the west but are significant in areas to the north, northeast, and south. A regional-scale model of variable-density groundwater flow in the Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation indicates that the flow velocities are relatively rapid west of the site and extremely slow east and northeast of the site. In the transition zone between those two extremes, which includes the plant, velocities are highly variable. Sensitivity simulations indicates that the central and western parts of the region, including the plant, are fairly well isolated from the eastern and northeastern boundaries. Vertical-flux simulations indicate that as much as 25% of total inflow to the Culebra could be entering as vertical flow, with most of this flow occurring west of the plant. A simple cross-sectional model was developed to examine the flow system as it drains through time following recharge during a past glacial pluvial. This model indicates that the system as a whole drains very slowly and that it apparently could have sustained flow from purely transient drainage following recharge of the system during the Pleistocene

  4. New technological developments provide deep-sea sediment density flow insights: the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, T. C.; Kieft, B.; Chaffey, M. R.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Herlien, R.; Bird, L.; Klimov, D.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Caress, D. W.; Sumner, E. J.; Simmons, S.; Parsons, D. R.; Talling, P.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Xu, J.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) deployed an array of instruments along the Monterey Canyon floor to characterize the structure, velocity and frequency of sediment flows. CCE utilized novel technologies developed at MBARI to capture sediment flow data in unprecedented detail. 1. The Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) at 1850 meters depth housed 3 ADCPs at 3 different frequencies, CTD, current meter, oxygen optode, fluorometer/backscatter sensor, and logged data at 10 second intervals or faster. The SIN included an acoustic modem for communication with shore through a Wave Glider relay, and provided high-resolution measurements of three flow events during three successive deployments over 1.5 years. 2. Beachball-sized Benthic Event Detectors (BEDs) were deployed on or under the seafloor to measure the characteristics of sediment density flows. Each BED recorded data from a pressure sensor and a 3-axis accelerometer and gyro to characterize motions during transport events (e.g. tumble vs rotation). An acoustic modem capable of operating through more than a meter of sediment enabled communications with a ship or autonomous surface vehicle. Multiple BEDs were deployed at various depths in the canyon during CCE, detecting and measuring many transport events; one BED moved 9 km down canyon in 50 minutes during one event. 3. Wave Glider Hot Spot (HS), equipped with acoustic and RF modems, acted as data relay between SIN, BEDs and shore, and acoustically located BEDs after sediment density flows.. In some cases HS relayed BED motion data to shore within a few hours of the event. HS provided an acoustic console to the SIN, allowing shore-based users to check SIN health and status, perform maintenance, etc. 4. Mapping operations were conducted 4 times at the SIN site to quantify depositional and erosional patterns, utilizing a prototype ultra-high-resolution mapping system on the ROV Doc Ricketts. The system consists of a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar, a 3

  5. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 3 Plunge Depth of a 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. Phase 3 featured a composite tank head that was tested at a range of heights to verify the ability to predict structural failure of composites. To support planning for Phase 3, a test series was conducted with an aluminum tank head dropped from heights of 2, 6, 10, and 12 feet to verify that the test article would not impact the bottom of the test pool. This report focuses on the comparisons of the measured plunge depths to LS-DYNA predictions. The results for the tank head model demonstrated the following. 1. LS-DYNA provides accurate predictions for peak accelerations. 2. LS-DYNA consistently under-predicts plunge depth. An allowance of at least 20% should be added to the LS-DYNA predictions. 3. The LS-DYNA predictions for plunge depth are relatively insensitive to the fluid-structure coupling stiffness.

  6. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  7. Direct sampling during multiple sediment density flows reveals dynamic sediment transport and depositional environment in Monterey submarine canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Rosenberger, K. J.; McGann, M.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Simmons, S.; Clare, M. A.; Carvajal, C.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Sumner, E.; Cartigny, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment density flows were directly sampled with a coupled sediment trap-ADCP-instrument mooring array to evaluate the character and frequency of turbidity current events through Monterey Canyon, offshore California. This novel experiment aimed to provide links between globally significant sediment density flow processes and their resulting deposits. Eight to ten Anderson sediment traps were repeatedly deployed at 10 to 300 meters above the seafloor on six moorings anchored at 290 to 1850 meters water depth in the Monterey Canyon axial channel during 6-month deployments (October 2015 - April 2017). Anderson sediment traps include a funnel and intervalometer (discs released at set time intervals) above a meter-long tube, which preserves fine-scale stratigraphy and chronology. Photographs, multi-sensor logs, CT scans, and grain size analyses reveal layers from multiple sediment density flow events that carried sediment ranging from fine sand to granules. More sediment accumulation from sediment density flows, and from between flows, occurred in the upper canyon ( 300 - 800 m water depth) compared to the lower canyon ( 1300 - 1850 m water depth). Sediment accumulated in the traps during sediment density flows is sandy and becomes finer down-canyon. In the lower canyon where sediment directly sampled from density flows are clearly distinguished within the trap tubes, sands have sharp basal contacts, normal grading, and muddy tops that exhibit late-stage pulses. In at least two of the sediment density flows, the simultaneous low velocity and high backscatter measured by the ADCPs suggest that the trap only captured the collapsing end of a sediment density flow event. In the upper canyon, accumulation between sediment density flow events is twice as fast compared to the lower canyon; it is characterized by sub-cm-scale layers in muddy sediment that appear to have accumulated with daily to sub-daily frequency, likely related to known internal tidal dynamics also measured

  8. Effect of Sleeve Plunge Depth on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding of 2198 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yumei; Shi, Yao; Ji, Shude; Wang, Yue; Li, Zhengwei

    2017-10-01

    Refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) is a new spot welding technology, by which spot joint without keyhole can be obtained. In this work, RFSSW was used to join 2-mm-thick 2198-T8 aluminum alloy sheets and effects of the sleeve plunge depth on microstructure and lap shear properties of the joints were mainly discussed. Results showed that when using small plunge depths of 2.4 and 2.6 mm, joints showed good formation and no defects were observed. Incomplete refilling defect was observed with increasing plunge depth due to material loss during welding. Size of the grains at sleeve-affected zone (SAZ) is smaller than that at the pin-affected zone, and the size becomes bigger with increasing the plunge depth. More secondary phase particles can be observed at SAZ with increasing the sleeve plunge depth. The lap shear failure load firstly increased and then decreased with increasing the sleeve plunge depth. The maximum failure load of 9819 N was attained with plug fracture mode when using 2.6 mm. Fracture morphologies show ductile fracture mode.

  9. Effect of tool plunge depth on reinforcement particles distribution in surface composite fabrication via friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rathee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix surface composites are gaining alluring role especially in aerospace, defence, and marine industries. Friction stir processing (FSP is a promising novel solid state technique for surface composites fabrication. In this study, AA6061/SiC surface composites were fabricated and the effect of tool plunge depth on pattern of reinforcement particles dispersion in metal matrix was investigated. Six varying tool plunge depths were chosen at constant levels of shoulder diameter and tool tilt angle to observe the exclusive effect of plunge variation. Process parameters chosen for the experimentation are speed of rotation, travel speed and tool tilt angle which were taken as 1400 rpm, 40 mm/min, and 2.5°respectively. Macro and the microstructural study were performed using stereo zoom and optical microscope respectively. Results reflected that lower plunge depth levels lead to insufficient heat generation and cavity formation towards the stir zone center. On the other hand, higher levels of plunge depth result in ejection of reinforcement particles and even sticking of material to tool shoulder. Thus, an optimal plunge depth is needed in developing defect free surface composites.

  10. Low-density, radiatively inefficient rotating-accretion flow on to a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Haiman, Zoltán; Kuiper, Rolf

    2018-05-01

    We study low-density axisymmetric accretion flows on to black holes (BHs) with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, adopting the α-viscosity prescription. When the gas angular momentum is low enough to form a rotationally supported disc within the Bondi radius (RB), we find a global steady accretion solution. The solution consists of a rotational equilibrium distribution around r ˜ RB, where the density follows ρ ∝ (1 + RB/r)3/2, surrounding a geometrically thick and optically thin accretion disc at the centrifugal radius RC(flows (ρ ∝ r-1/2). In the inner solution, the gas inflow rate decreases towards the centre due to convection (\\dot{M}∝ r), and the net accretion rate (including both inflows and outflows) is strongly suppressed by several orders of magnitude from the Bondi accretion rate \\dot{M}_B. The net accretion rate depends on the viscous strength, following \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B∝ (α /0.01)^{0.6}. This solution holds for low accretion rates of \\dot{M}_B/\\dot{M}_Edd≲ 10^{-3} having minimal radiation cooling, where \\dot{M}_Edd is the Eddington accretion rate. In a hot plasma at the bottom (r < 10-3 RB), thermal conduction would dominate the convective energy flux. Since suppression of the accretion by convection ceases, the final BH feeding rate is found to be \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B˜ 10^{-3}-10-2. This rate is as low as \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_Edd˜ 10^{-7}-10-6 inferred for SgrA* and the nuclear BHs in M31 and M87, and can explain their low luminosities, without invoking any feedback mechanism.

  11. Development of a pressure based vortex-shedding meter: measuring unsteady mass-flow in variable density gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C L; Winroth, M; Alfredsson, P H

    2016-01-01

    An entirely pressure-based vortex-shedding meter has been designed for use in practical time-dependent flows. The meter is capable of measuring mass-flow rate in variable density gases in spite of the fact that fluid temperature is not directly measured. Unlike other vortex meters, a pressure based meter is incredibly robust and may be used in industrial type flows; an environment wholly unsuitable for hot-wires for example. The meter has been tested in a number of static and dynamic flow cases, across a range of mass-flow rates and pressures. The accuracy of the meter is typically better than about 3% in a static flow and resolves the fluctuating mass-flow with an accuracy that is better than or equivalent to a hot-wire method. (paper)

  12. Options for refractive index and viscosity matching to study variable density flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Simon A.; Guillemain, Anaïs; McCleney, Amy B.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2018-02-01

    Variable density flows are often studied by mixing two miscible aqueous solutions of different densities. To perform optical diagnostics in such environments, the refractive index of the fluids must be matched, which can be achieved by carefully choosing the two solutes and the concentration of the solutions. To separate the effects of buoyancy forces and viscosity variations, it is desirable to match the viscosity of the two solutions in addition to their refractive index. In this manuscript, several pairs of index matched fluids are compared in terms of viscosity matching, monetary cost, and practical use. Two fluid pairs are studied in detail, with two aqueous solutions (binary solutions of water and a salt or alcohol) mixed into a ternary solution. In each case: an aqueous solution of isopropanol mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) and an aqueous solution of glycerol mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium sulfate (Na_2SO_4). The first fluid pair allows reaching high-density differences at low cost, but brings a large difference in dynamic viscosity. The second allows matching dynamic viscosity and refractive index simultaneously, at reasonable cost. For each of these four solutes, the density, kinematic viscosity, and refractive index are measured versus concentration and temperature, as well as wavelength for the refractive index. To investigate non-linear effects when two index-matched, binary solutions are mixed, the ternary solutions formed are also analyzed. Results show that density and refractive index follow a linear variation with concentration. However, the viscosity of the isopropanol and NaCl pair deviates from the linear law and has to be considered. Empirical correlations and their coefficients are given to create index-matched fluids at a chosen temperature and wavelength. Finally, the effectiveness of the refractive index matching is illustrated with particle image velocimetry measurements performed for a buoyant jet in a

  13. Scaling Properties of Particle Density Fields Formed in Simulated Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of particle concentrations in fully developed 3D turbulence were carried out in order to study the nonuniform structure of the particle density field. Three steady-state turbulent fluid fields with Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers (Re(sub lambda)) of 40, 80 and 140 were generated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with pseudospectral methods. Large scale forcing was used to drive the turbulence and maintain temporal stationarity. The response of the particles to the fluid was parameterized by the particle Stokes number St, defined as the ratio of the particle's stopping time to the mean period of eddies on the Kolmogorov scale (eta). In this paper, we consider only passive particles optimally coupled to these eddies (St approx. = 1) because of their tendency to concentrate more than particles with lesser or greater St values. The trajectories of up to 70 million particles were tracked in the equilibrated turbulent flows until the particle concentration field reached a statistically stationary state. The nonuniform structure of the concentration fields was characterized by the multifractal singularity spectrum, f(alpha), derived from measures obtained after binning particles into cells ranging from 2(eta) to 15(eta) in size. We observed strong systematic variations of f(alpha) across this scale range in all three simulations and conclude that the particle concentration field is not statistically self similar across the scale range explored. However, spectra obtained at the 2(eta), 4(eta), and 8(eta) scales of each flow case were found to be qualitatively similar. This result suggests that the local structure of the particle concentration field may be flow-Independent. The singularity spectra found for 2n-sized cells were used to predict concentration distributions in good agreement with those obtained directly from the particle data. This Singularity spectrum has a shape similar to the analogous spectrum derived for the

  14. Laser reflection method for determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith P.; Kurian, Job

    2006-03-01

    The details of laser reflection method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows are presented. The method is employed to determine the shear stress due to impingement of a low density supersonic free jet issuing out from a convergent divergent nozzle on a flat plate. The plate is smeared with a thin oil film and kept parallel to the nozzle axis. For a thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer, the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope generated by the shear force is done using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of the oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM. From the oil film slope history, calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. The range of Knudsen numbers investigated is from 0.028 to 0.516. Pressure ratio across the nozzle varied from 3,500 to 8,500 giving highly under expanded free jets. The measured values of shear, in the overlapping region of experimental parameters, show fair agreement with those obtained by force balance method and laser interferometric method.

  15. A Diffuse Interface Model for Incompressible Two-Phase Flow with Large Density Ratios

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yu; Wodo, Olga; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore numerical simulations of incompressible and immiscible two-phase flows. The description of the fluid–fluid interface is introduced via a diffuse interface approach. The two-phase fluid system is represented by a coupled Cahn–Hilliard Navier–Stokes set of equations. We discuss challenges and approaches to solving this coupled set of equations using a stabilized finite element formulation, especially in the case of a large density ratio between the two fluids. Specific features that enabled efficient solution of the equations include: (i) a conservative form of the convective term in the Cahn–Hilliard equation which ensures mass conservation of both fluid components; (ii) a continuous formula to compute the interfacial surface tension which results in lower requirement on the spatial resolution of the interface; and (iii) a four-step fractional scheme to decouple pressure from velocity in the Navier–Stokes equation. These are integrated with standard streamline-upwind Petrov–Galerkin stabilization to avoid spurious oscillations. We perform numerical tests to determine the minimal resolution of spatial discretization. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy of the framework using the analytical results of Prosperetti for a damped oscillating interface between two fluids with a density contrast.

  16. A Diffuse Interface Model for Incompressible Two-Phase Flow with Large Density Ratios

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yu

    2016-10-04

    In this chapter, we explore numerical simulations of incompressible and immiscible two-phase flows. The description of the fluid–fluid interface is introduced via a diffuse interface approach. The two-phase fluid system is represented by a coupled Cahn–Hilliard Navier–Stokes set of equations. We discuss challenges and approaches to solving this coupled set of equations using a stabilized finite element formulation, especially in the case of a large density ratio between the two fluids. Specific features that enabled efficient solution of the equations include: (i) a conservative form of the convective term in the Cahn–Hilliard equation which ensures mass conservation of both fluid components; (ii) a continuous formula to compute the interfacial surface tension which results in lower requirement on the spatial resolution of the interface; and (iii) a four-step fractional scheme to decouple pressure from velocity in the Navier–Stokes equation. These are integrated with standard streamline-upwind Petrov–Galerkin stabilization to avoid spurious oscillations. We perform numerical tests to determine the minimal resolution of spatial discretization. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy of the framework using the analytical results of Prosperetti for a damped oscillating interface between two fluids with a density contrast.

  17. Supersonic shear flows in laser driven high-energy-density plasmas created by the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Plewa, T.

    2008-11-01

    In high-energy-density (HED) plasmas the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability plays an important role in the evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) unstable interfaces, as well as material interfaces that experience the passage one or multiple oblique shocks. Despite the potentially important role of the KH instability few experiments have been carried out to explore its behavior in the high-energy-density regime. We report on the evolution of a supersonic shear flow that is generated by the release of a high velocity (>100 km/s) aluminum plasma onto a CRF foam (ρ = 0.1 g/cc) surface. In order to seed the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability various two-dimensional sinusoidal perturbations (λ = 100, 200, and 300 μm with peak-to-valley amplitudes of 10, 20, and 30 μm respectively) have been machined into the foam surface. This experiment was performed using the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  18. Modeling of isothermal bubbly flow with interfacial area transport equation and bubble number density approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Salih [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Erguen, Sule [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Barik, Muhammet; Kocar, Cemil; Soekmen, Cemal Niyazi [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, isothermal turbulent bubbly flow is mechanistically modeled. For the modeling, Fluent version 6.3.26 is used as the computational fluid dynamics solver. First, the mechanistic models that simulate the interphase momentum transfer between the gas (bubbles) and liquid (continuous) phases are investigated, and proper models for the known flow conditions are selected. Second, an interfacial area transport equation (IATE) solution is added to Fluent's solution scheme in order to model the interphase momentum transfer mechanisms. In addition to solving IATE, bubble number density (BND) approach is also added to Fluent and this approach is also used in the simulations. Different source/sink models derived for the IATE and BND models are also investigated. The simulations of experiments based on the available data in literature are performed by using IATE and BND models in two and three-dimensions. The results show that the simulations performed by using IATE and BND models agree with each other and with the experimental data. The simulations performed in three-dimensions give better agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Modeling of isothermal bubbly flow with interfacial area transport equation and bubble number density approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Salih; Erguen, Sule; Barik, Muhammet; Kocar, Cemil; Soekmen, Cemal Niyazi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, isothermal turbulent bubbly flow is mechanistically modeled. For the modeling, Fluent version 6.3.26 is used as the computational fluid dynamics solver. First, the mechanistic models that simulate the interphase momentum transfer between the gas (bubbles) and liquid (continuous) phases are investigated, and proper models for the known flow conditions are selected. Second, an interfacial area transport equation (IATE) solution is added to Fluent's solution scheme in order to model the interphase momentum transfer mechanisms. In addition to solving IATE, bubble number density (BND) approach is also added to Fluent and this approach is also used in the simulations. Different source/sink models derived for the IATE and BND models are also investigated. The simulations of experiments based on the available data in literature are performed by using IATE and BND models in two and three-dimensions. The results show that the simulations performed by using IATE and BND models agree with each other and with the experimental data. The simulations performed in three-dimensions give better agreement with the experimental data

  20. Parameter scaling toward high-energy density in a quasi-steady flow Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Sheared axial flows are utilized by the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment to stabilize MHD instabilities. The pinches formed are 50 cm long with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 cm. The plasma is generated in a coaxial acceleration region, similar to a Marshall gun, which provides a steady supply of plasma for approximately 100 us. The power to the plasma is partially decoupled between the acceleration and pinch assembly regions through the use of separate power supplies. Adiabatic scaling of the Bennett relation gives targets for future devices to reach high-energy density conditions or fusion reactors. The applicability of an adiabatic assumption is explored and work is done experimentally to clarify the plasma compression process, which may be more generally polytropic. The device is capable of a much larger parameter space than previous machine iterations, allowing flexibility in the initial conditions of the compression process to preserve stability. This work is supported by DoE FES and NNSA.

  1. Entropy Filtered Density Function for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mehdi

    Analysis of local entropy generation is an effective means to optimize the performance of energy and combustion systems by minimizing the irreversibilities in transport processes. Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to describe entropy transport and generation in turbulent reacting flows. The entropy transport equation in LES contains several unclosed terms. These are the subgrid scale (SGS) entropy flux and entropy generation caused by irreversible processes: heat conduction, mass diffusion, chemical reaction and viscous dissipation. The SGS effects are taken into account using a novel methodology based on the filtered density function (FDF). This methodology, entitled entropy FDF (En-FDF), is developed and utilized in the form of joint entropy-velocity-scalar-turbulent frequency FDF and the marginal scalar-entropy FDF, both of which contain the chemical reaction effects in a closed form. The former constitutes the most comprehensive form of the En-FDF and provides closure for all the unclosed filtered moments. This methodology is applied for LES of a turbulent shear layer involving transport of passive scalars. Predictions show favor- able agreements with the data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the same layer. The marginal En-FDF accounts for entropy generation effects as well as scalar and entropy statistics. This methodology is applied to a turbulent nonpremixed jet flame (Sandia Flame D) and predictions are validated against experimental data. In both flows, sources of irreversibility are predicted and analyzed.

  2. A Novel Quasi-3D Method for Cascade Flow Considering Axial Velocity Density Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Quanyong; Huang, Xudong

    2018-03-01

    A novel quasi-3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method of mid-span flow simulation for compressor cascades is proposed. Two dimension (2D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is shown facing challenge in predicting mid-span flow with a unity Axial Velocity Density Ratio (AVDR). Three dimension (3D) RANS solution also shows distinct discrepancies if the AVDR is not predicted correctly. In this paper, 2D and 3D CFD results discrepancies are analyzed and a novel quasi-3D CFD method is proposed. The new quasi-3D model is derived by reducing 3D RANS Finite Volume Method (FVM) discretization over a one-spanwise-layer structured mesh cell. The sidewall effect is considered by two parts. The first part is explicit interface fluxes of mass, momentum and energy as well as turbulence. The second part is a cell boundary scaling factor representing sidewall boundary layer contraction. The performance of the novel quasi-3D method is validated on mid-span pressure distribution, pressure loss and shock prediction of two typical cascades. The results show good agreement with the experiment data on cascade SJ301-20 and cascade AC6-10 at all test condition. The proposed quasi-3D method shows superior accuracy over traditional 2D RANS method and 3D RANS method in performance prediction of compressor cascade.

  3. Simulation of density-driven flow in heterogeneous and fractured porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, A. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). DISMA; Logashenko, D. [Steinbeis Research Center, Oelbronn (Germany); Stichel, S.; Wittum, G. [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). G-CSC

    2015-07-01

    The study of fractured porous media is an important and challenging problem in hydrogeology. One of the difficulties is that mathematical models have to account for heterogeneity introduced by fractures in hydrogeological media. Heterogeneity may strongly influence the physical processes taking place in these media. Moreover, the thickness of the fractures, which is usually negligible in comparison with the size of the whole domain, and the complicated geometry of fracture networks reduce essentially the efficiency of numerical methods. In order to overcome these difficulties, fractures are sometimes considered as objects of reduced dimensionality (surfaces in three dimensions), and the field equations are averaged along the fracture width. Fractures are assumed to be thin regions of space filled with a porous material whose properties differ from those of the porous medium enclosing them. The interfaces separating the fractures from the embedding medium are assumed to be ideal. We consider two approaches: (i) the fractures have the same dimension, d, as the embedding medium and are said to be d-dimensional; (ii) the fractures are considered as (d-1)-dimensional manifolds, and the equations of density-driven flow are found by averaging the d-dimensional laws over the fracture width. We show that the second approach is a valid alternative to the first one. For this purpose, we perform numerical experiments using a finite-volume discretization for both approaches. The results obtained by the two methods are in good agreement with each other. We derive a criterion for the validity of the simplified representation. The criterion characterizes the transition of a mainly parallel flow to a rotational flow, which cannot be reasonably approximated using a d-1 dimensional representation. We further present a numerical algorithm using adaptive dimensional representation.

  4. Inertia and compressibility effects on density waves and Ledinegg phenomena in two-phase flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruspini, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The stability influence of piping fluid inertia on two-phase instabilities is studied. ► Inlet inertia stabilizes the system while outlet inertia destabilizes it. ► High-order modes oscillations are found and analyzed. ► The effect of compressible volumes in the system is studied. ► Inlet compressibility destabilizes the system while outlet comp. stabilizes it. - Abstract: The most common kind of static and dynamic two-phase flow instabilities namely Ledinegg and density wave oscillations are studied. A new model to study two-phase flow instabilities taking into account general parameters from real systems is proposed. The stability influence of external parameters such as the fluid inertia and the presence of compressible gases in the system is analyzed. High-order oscillation modes are found to be related with the fluid inertia of external piping. The occurrence of high-order modes in experimental works is analyzed with focus on the results presented in this work. Moreover, both inertia and compressibility are proven to have a high impact on the stability limits of the systems. The performed study is done by modeling the boiling channel using a one dimensional equilibrium model. An incompressible transient model describes the evolution of the flow and pressure in the non-heated regions and an ideal gas model is used to simulate the compressible volumes in the system. The use of wavelet decomposition analysis is proven to be an efficient tool in stability analysis of several frequencies oscillations.

  5. Flow behind an exponential shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric perfect gas with magnetic field and variable density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G; Sahu, P K

    2016-01-01

    A self-similar model for one-dimensional unsteady isothermal and adiabatic flows behind a strong exponential shock wave driven out by a cylindrical piston moving with time according to an exponential law in an ideal gas in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field and variable density is discussed in a rotating atmosphere. The ambient medium is assumed to possess radial, axial and azimuthal component of fluid velocities. The initial density, the fluid velocities and magnetic field of the ambient medium are assumed to be varying with time according to an exponential law. The gas is taken to be non-viscous having infinite electrical conductivity. Solutions are obtained, in both the cases, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal or adiabatic by taking into account the components of vorticity vector. The effects of the variation of the initial density index, adiabatic exponent of the gas and the Alfven-Mach number on the flow-field behind the shock wave are investigated. It is found that the presence of the magnetic field have decaying effects on the shock wave. Also, it is observed that the effect of an increase in the magnetic field strength is more impressive in the case of adiabatic flow than in the case of isothermal flow. The assumption of zero temperature gradient brings a profound change in the density, non-dimensional azimuthal and axial components of vorticity vector distributions in comparison to those in the case of adiabatic flow. A comparison is made between isothermal and adiabatic flows. It is obtained that an increase in the initial density variation index, adiabatic exponent and strength of the magnetic field decrease the shock strength.

  6. Triton-3He relative and differential flows as probes of the nuclear symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Gaochan; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Zhang Xunchao

    2009-01-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence afterburner, we study the triton- 3 He (t- 3 He) ratio with both relative and differential transverse flows in semicentral 132 Sn+ 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. The neutron-proton ratios with relative and differential flows are also discussed as a reference. We find that similar to the neutron-proton pairs, the t- 3 He pairs also carry interesting information regarding the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Moreover, the nuclear symmetry energy affects more strongly the t- 3 He relative and differential flows than the π - /π + ratio in the same reaction. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  7. Flow-cytometric determination of high-density-lipoprotein binding sites on human leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, G.; Wulf, G.; Bruening, T.A.; Assmann, G.

    1987-01-01

    In this method, leukocytes were isolated from 6 mL of EDTA-blood by density-gradient centrifugation and subsequently incubated with rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC)-conjugated high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The receptor-bound conjugate particles were determined by fluorescent flow cytometry and compared with 125 I-labeled HDL binding data for the same cells. Human granulocytes express the highest number of HDL binding sites (9.4 x 10(4)/cell), followed by monocytes (7.3 x 10(4)/cell) and lymphocytes (4.0 x 10(4)/cell). Compared with conventional analysis of binding of 125 I-labeled HDL in tissue-culture dishes, the present determination revealed significantly lower values for nonspecific binding. In competition studies, the conjugate competes for the same binding sites as 125 I-labeled HDL. With the use of tetranitromethane-treated HDL3, which fails to compete for the HDL receptor sites while nonspecific binding is not affected, we could clearly distinguish between 37 degrees C surface binding and specific 37 degrees C uptake of RITC-HDL3, confirming that the HDL receptor leads bound HDL particles into an intracellular pathway rather than acting as a docking type of receptor. Patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia showed a significantly higher number of HDL binding sites in the granulocyte population but normal in lymphocytes and monocytes, indicating increased uptake of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins. In patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, HDL binding was increased in all three cell types, indicating increased cholesterol uptake and increased cholesterol synthesis. The present method allows rapid determination of HDL binding sites in leukocytes from patients with various forms of hyper- and dyslipoproteinemias

  8. The influence of current speed and vegetation density on flow structure in two macrotidal eelgrass canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The influence of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on near-bed currents, turbulence, and drag was investigated at three sites in two eelgrass canopies of differing density and at one unvegetated site in the San Juan archipelago of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Eelgrass blade length exceeded 1 m. Velocity profiles up to 1.5 m above the sea floor were collected over a spring-neap tidal cycle with a downward-looking pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profiler above the canopies and two acoustic Doppler velocimeters within the canopies. The eelgrass attenuated currents by a minimum of 40%, and by more than 70% at the most densely vegetated site. Attenuation decreased with increasing current speed. The data were compared to the shear-layer model of vegetated flows and the displaced logarithmic model. Velocity profiles outside the meadows were logarithmic. Within the canopies, most profiles were consistent with the shear-layer model, with a logarithmic layer above the canopy. However, at the less-dense sites, when currents were strong, shear at the sea floor and above the canopy was significant relative to shear at the top of the canopy, and the velocity profiles more closely resembled those in a rough-wall boundary layer. Turbulence was strong at the canopy top and decreased with height. Friction velocity at the canopy top was 1.5–2 times greater than at the unvegetated, sandy site. The coefficient of drag CD on the overlying flow derived from the logarithmic velocity profile above the canopy, was 3–8 times greater than at the unvegetated site (0.01–0.023 vs. 2.9 × 10−3).

  9. Evaluation of cerebral intravascular blood flow by time density curve study of intravenous digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Toru; Kogure, Kyuya (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine); Sekine, Teiko; Satoh, Kei; Endoh, Minoru; Tsuburaya, Kenji; Hoshi, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    Time density curve (TDC) can be reconstructed from the data of intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA). We evaluated peak time (PT) and modal transit time (MOTT) of the TDC as the probable indicator of cerebral intravascular blood flow. Cerebral IVDSA and single photon emission CT (SPECT) were performed on 12 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, which consisted of 3 internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions, one middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, one anterior cerebral artery (ACA) branch occlusion and 7 lacunar infarctions. We classified former 4 patients as occlusion group and latter 8 as reference group. In 3 patients (2 ICA and one MCA occlusions), SPECT study revealed definite hypoaccumulation in the MCA territory of occlusive side. Two regions of interest (ROI) were placed on the territories of right and left middle cerebral arteries in the frontal view of cerebral IVDSA. Digital data processor fitted {gamma} curve to the TDC of each ROI, and calculated PT and MOTT. The absolute lateralities of PT and MOTT of MCA territory was significantly (p<0.05) larger in occlusion group than reference group. Patients with hypoaccumulation in SPECT had significantly (p<0.02) larger laterality of MOTT than patients with isoaccumulation. One ICA occluded patient without hypoaccumulation in corresponding MCA territory had relatively small laterality of MOTT similar to the patients of ACA branch occlusion and lacunar infarction. These results suggest that PT and MOTT are possible to detect the laterality of the intravascular blood flow in MCA territories caused by major artery occlusion. Cerebral TDC study of IVDSA may be useful in some clinical therapeutic situations such as hemodilution or intra-arterial thrombolysis, and worth further clinical evaluation. (author).

  10. Correlation Between Contrast Time-Density Time on Digital Subtraction Angiography and Flow: An in Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunozzi, Denise; Shakur, Sophia F; Ismail, Rahim; Linninger, Andreas; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Charbel, Fady T; Alaraj, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides an excellent anatomic characterization of cerebral vasculature, but hemodynamic assessment is often qualitative and subjective. Various clinical algorithms have been produced to semiquantify flow from the data obtained from DSA, but few have tested them against reliable flow values. An arched flow model was created and injected with contrast material. Seventeen injections were acquired in anterior-posterior and lateral DSA projections, and 4 injections were acquired in oblique projection. Image intensity change over the angiogram cycle of each DSA run was analyzed through a custom MATLAB code. Time-density plots obtained were divided into 3 components (time-density times, TDTs): TDT 10%-100% (time needed for contrast material to change image intensity from 10% to 100%), TDT 100%-10% (time needed for contrast material to change image intensity from 100% to 10%), and TDT 25%-25% (time needed for contrast material to change from 25% image intensity to 25%). Time-density index (TDI) was defined as model cross-sectional area to TDT ratio, and it was measured against different flow rates. TDI 10%-100% , TDI 100%-10% , and TDI 25%-25% all correlated significantly with flow (P < 0.001). TDI 10%-100% , TDI 100%-10% , and TDI 25%-25% showed, respectively, a correlation coefficient of 0.91, 0.91, and 0.97 in the anterior-posterior DSA projections (P < 0.001). In the lateral DSA projection, TDI 100%-10% showed a weaker correlation (r = 0.57; P = 0.03). Also in the oblique DSA projection, TDIs correlated significantly with flow. TDI on DSA correlates significantly with flow. Although in vitro studies might overlook conditions that occur in patients, this method appears to correlate with the flow and could offer a semiquantitative method to evaluate the cerebral blood flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetic and dynamic probability-density-function descriptions of disperse turbulent two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minier, Jean-Pierre; Profeta, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This article analyzes the status of two classical one-particle probability density function (PDF) descriptions of the dynamics of discrete particles dispersed in turbulent flows. The first PDF formulation considers only the process made up by particle position and velocity Zp=(xp,Up) and is represented by its PDF p (t ;yp,Vp) which is the solution of a kinetic PDF equation obtained through a flux closure based on the Furutsu-Novikov theorem. The second PDF formulation includes fluid variables into the particle state vector, for example, the fluid velocity seen by particles Zp=(xp,Up,Us) , and, consequently, handles an extended PDF p (t ;yp,Vp,Vs) which is the solution of a dynamic PDF equation. For high-Reynolds-number fluid flows, a typical formulation of the latter category relies on a Langevin model for the trajectories of the fluid seen or, conversely, on a Fokker-Planck equation for the extended PDF. In the present work, a new derivation of the kinetic PDF equation is worked out and new physical expressions of the dispersion tensors entering the kinetic PDF equation are obtained by starting from the extended PDF and integrating over the fluid seen. This demonstrates that, under the same assumption of a Gaussian colored noise and irrespective of the specific stochastic model chosen for the fluid seen, the kinetic PDF description is the marginal of a dynamic PDF one. However, a detailed analysis reveals that kinetic PDF models of particle dynamics in turbulent flows described by statistical correlations constitute incomplete stand-alone PDF descriptions and, moreover, that present kinetic-PDF equations are mathematically ill posed. This is shown to be the consequence of the non-Markovian characteristic of the stochastic process retained to describe the system and the use of an external colored noise. Furthermore, developments bring out that well-posed PDF descriptions are essentially due to a proper choice of the variables selected to describe physical systems

  12. Probability density function modeling of scalar mixing from concentrated sources in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2007-11-01

    Dispersion of a passive scalar from concentrated sources in fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied with the probability density function (PDF) method. The joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and scalar concentration is represented by a large number of Lagrangian particles. A stochastic near-wall PDF model combines the generalized Langevin model of Haworth and Pope [Phys. Fluids 29, 387 (1986)] with Durbin's [J. Fluid Mech. 249, 465 (1993)] method of elliptic relaxation to provide a mathematically exact treatment of convective and viscous transport with a nonlocal representation of the near-wall Reynolds stress anisotropy. The presence of walls is incorporated through the imposition of no-slip and impermeability conditions on particles without the use of damping or wall-functions. Information on the turbulent time scale is supplied by the gamma-distribution model of van Slooten et al. [Phys. Fluids 10, 246 (1998)]. Two different micromixing models are compared that incorporate the effect of small scale mixing on the transported scalar: the widely used interaction by exchange with the mean and the interaction by exchange with the conditional mean model. Single-point velocity and concentration statistics are compared to direct numerical simulation and experimental data at Reτ=1080 based on the friction velocity and the channel half width. The joint model accurately reproduces a wide variety of conditional and unconditional statistics in both physical and composition space.

  13. The relationship of carbonate-siliceous-pelitic uranium deposits with the plunging portions of down-faulted zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guihua; Liu Shouzhi; Zhou Huawen.

    1985-01-01

    Five uranium deposits of carbonate-siliceous-pelitic type occurred in different geological setting are studied. The geological data suggest that this type of uranium deposits is mostly located in the plunging portions of down-faulted zones. The cause of this kind of occurrence is tentatively discussed. It is proposed that uraniferous strata are the uranium source in deposits. The infiltration under arid climatic conditions promoted the uranium concentration up to ore grade. The mesozoic-cenozoic era which is characterized by the arid climate was the main ore-forming period. The converging condition of ground water in the plunging portions of down-faulted zones was better. Therefore, the plunging portions of down-faulted zones were more favourable for uranium ore formation compared with that of the uplifting portions. The preservation is the most important ore-controlling factor under the neotectonic movement and the plunging portions are the most favourable in this sence. The recognition criteria for the plunging portions of down-faulted zones which can be used in uranium exploration are proposed

  14. Reduction effect of neutral density on the excitation of turbulent drift waves in a linear magnetized plasma with flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitou, Y.; Yonesu, A.; Shinohara, S.; Ignatenko, M. V.; Kasuya, N.; Kawaguchi, M.; Terasaka, K.; Nishijima, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of reducing the neutral density to reach strong drift wave turbulence is clarified from the results of the extended magnetohydrodynamics and Monte Carlo simulations in a linear magnetized plasma. An upper bound of the neutral density relating to the ion-neutral collision frequency for the excitation of drift wave instability is shown, and the necessary flow velocity to excite this instability is also estimated from the neutral distributions. Measurements of the Mach number and the electron density distributions using Mach probe in the large mirror device (LMD) of Kyushu University [S. Shinohara et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 37, 1015 (1995)] are reported as well. The obtained results show a controllability of the neutral density and provide the basis for neutral density reduction and a possibility to excite strong drift wave turbulence in the LMD

  15. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed.

  16. The plunge in German electricity futures prices – Analysis using a parsimonious fundamental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallabis, Thomas; Pape, Christian; Weber, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The German market has seen a plunge in wholesale electricity prices from 2007 until 2014, with base futures prices dropping by more than 40%. This is frequently attributed to the unexpected high increase in renewable power generation. Using a parsimonious fundamental model, we determine the respective impact of supply and demand shocks on electricity futures prices. The used methodology is based on a piecewise linear approximation of the supply stack and time-varying price-inelastic demand. This parsimonious model is able to replicate electricity futures prices and discover non-linear dependencies in futures price formation. We show that emission prices have a higher impact on power prices than renewable penetration. Changes in renewables, demand and installed capacities turn out to be similarly important for explaining the decrease in operation margins of conventional power plants. We thus argue for the establishment of an independent authority to stabilize emission prices. - Highlights: •We build a parsimonious fundamental model based on a piecewise linear bid stack. •We use the model to investigate impact factors for the plunge in German futures prices. •Largest impact by CO_2 price developments followed by demand and renewable feed-in. •Power plant operating profits strongly affected by demand and renewables. •We argue that stabilizing CO_2 emission prices could provide better market signals.

  17. Effect of aspect ratio in free-swimming plunging flexible plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Using three dimensional fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction simulations, we investigate the free swimming of plunging elastic rectangular plates with aspect ratios ranging from 0.5 to 5 in a viscous fluid with Reynolds number 250. We find that maximum velocity occurs near the first natural frequency regardless of aspect ratio, while the maximum swimming economy occurs away from the first natural frequency and corresponds to a specific swimmer bending pattern characterized by reduced displacement of the swimmer's center of mass. Furthermore, we find that swimmers with wider span are both faster and more economical than narrow swimmers. These faster speeds are due to decreased drag for low aspect ratio plunging swimmers, which is in agreement with a recently proposed vortex-induced drag model that suggests that the smaller relative size of side vortices in low aspect ratio swimmers creates less drag per unit width. Our results are useful for the design of small autonomous micro-swimming devices and also provide insights on the physics of aquatic locomotion using oscillating fins.

  18. Improving the plunge grinding technology efficiency through a rigid scheme use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Рябенков

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases of grinding technology researches results form the basis of this work. It has been shown that grinding efficiency increase can be achieved through the use of new kinematic grinding schemes and progressive designs of abrasive tools. However, not enough attention is paid to the calculation of the main technological machining parameters with due regard to separate processes of cutting and friction at grinding, thus restricting the effective application of these kinematic grinding schemes and scientifically grounded selection of optimal processing conditions. In this paper a mathematical model has been developed for determining the material removal rate and cutting force at plunge grinding, what made it possible to substantiate reducing the power strength at grinding and to increase productivity. Calculations revealed that the cutting force at plunge grinding is conditioned by the disk bond friction against the material being processed, the intensity of which in the course of processing time increases proportionally due to an increase of elastic movements in the technological system. Proceeding from these results the optimum grinding conditions based on the use of the abrasive disk that works under self-sharpening conditions, thus eliminating the disk bond friction against the material being processed, have been grounded. In this case, the abrasive disk provides complete removal of the processed material supplied to the cutting zone at the nominal speed of a workpiece movement. Also the ability to reduce cutting forces through the increase of the disk speed and the workpiece speed ratio has been shown

  19. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation: Field programming using density and viscosity gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1118, č. 2 (2006), s. 253-260 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : gravitational field flow fractionation * focusing elution mode * carrier liquid density Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2006

  20. Strongly coupled single-phase flow problems: Effects of density variation, hydrodynamic dispersion, and first order decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    We have developed TOUGH2 modules for strongly coupled flow and transport that include full hydrodynamic dispersion. T2DM models tow-dimensional flow and transport in systems with variable salinity, while T32DMR includes radionuclide transport with first-order decay of a parent-daughter chain of radionuclide components in variable salinity systems. T2DM has been applied to a variety of coupled flow problems including the pure solutal convection problem of Elder and the mixed free and forced convection salt-dome flow problem. In the Elder and salt-dome flow problems, density changes of up to 20% caused by brine concentration variations lead to strong coupling between the velocity and brine concentration fields. T2DM efficiently calculates flow and transport for these problems. We have applied T2DMR to the dispersive transport and decay of radionuclide tracers in flow fields with permeability heterogeneities and recirculating flows. Coupling in these problems occurs by velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion. Our results show that the maximum daughter species concentration may occur fully within a recirculating or low-velocity region. In all of the problems, we observe very efficient handling of the strongly coupled flow and transport processes.

  1. Repeat Mapping in the Lower Monterey Submarine Canyon Sheds Light on Morphological Change During Discrete Sediment Density Flow Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Paull, C. K.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE), a multi-institutional collaboration effort, was designed to monitor the passage of sediment density flows along the axis of Monterey Canyon, offshore California, between 200 and 1850 m water depth. An array of moorings and sensors were deployed for three 6-month periods from October 2015 to April 2017. Aligned with the CCE deployments, repeat high-resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys of the Monterey Canyon floor were conducted with a mapping AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle). The AUV carried a Reson 7125 multibeam echosounder (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m). An inertial navigation system combined with a Doppler velocity logger allowed the AUV to fly pre-programmed grids at 3 knots, while maintaining an altitude of 50 m above the seafloor, to obtain a nominal line spacing of 130 m. The floor and lower flanks of the canyon between 200 to 540 m and 1350 to 1880 m water depths were mapped six times during the CCE. These repeat maps are subtracted to create bathymetry difference grids to show morphological change. Coupling the sensor observations with the bathymetric surveys, the CCE successfully documented sediment density flow events as well as the associated changes in seafloor morphology. Between repeat surveys, three sediment density flow events reached the lower canyon, extending to at least 1850 m water depth. On January 15, 2016, a particularly large density flow traveled more than 50 km down Monterey Canyon. Unlike in the upper canyon where this event caused wholesale reorganization of geomorphological features, changes to the lower canyon morphology involved a more moderate re-sculpting of the features. The effect of a sediment density flow of known magnitude and duration on the seafloor morphology has never been documented in a deep-sea setting before.

  2. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Direct Measurements of the Evolution and Impact of Sediment Density Flows as they Pass Through Monterey Submarine Canyon, Offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Talling, P.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Xu, J.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Barry, J.; Chaffey, M. R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Gales, J. A.; McGann, M.; McCann, M. P.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment density flows flushing through submarine canyons carry globally significant amounts of material into the deep sea to form many of the largest sediment accumulations on Earth. Despite their global significance, these flows remain poorly understood because they have rarely been directly measured. Here we provide an initial overview of the recently completed Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE), which was undertaken specifically to provide detailed measurements of sediment density flows and their impact on seafloor morphology and sedimentology. No previous study has deployed as extensive an array of monitoring sensors along a turbidity current pathway. During the 18 months of the CCE, at least 15 sediment density flows were recorded within the axis of Monterey Canyon. Because no external triggers (i.e., earthquakes or floods) correlate with these flows, they must have originated as failures in the canyon floor or canyon flanks. Three flows ignited and ran out for > 50 km from water depths of 1,860 m, reaching velocities up to 8.1 m/s. The rest of the flows died out within the array. During these events, large objects on or in the canyon floor were displaced substantial distances downslope, including a 7.1 km downslope movement of an entire mooring; a 4.6 km displacement of an 860 kg instrument frame followed by repeated down canyon displacements of this same frame after it was entombed in sediment; and multiple depth changes of man-made boulders containing acceleration and pressure sensors. During this same time interval the canyon floor was mapped six times with autonomous underwater vehicles covering the canyon thalweg at the upper and lower end of the instrument array (200-540 and 1350-1880 m water depths). The repeated mapping surveys reveal that flows caused +3 to -3 m bathymetric changes within a continuous clearly defined 200 m wide swath running along the canyon axis in 540 m water depth. This study shows that sediment density flows caused massive

  4. Flow topology adjacent to a fast moving contact line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royon, A.; Ehrhard, P.

    2001-10-01

    Coating processes are commonly used in industry. In the present report the physical mechanisms involved in such wetting phenomena are investigated (a) by a numerical and (b) by an experimental approach in a plane section perpendicular to the contact line. The problem relates to a tape plunging vertically into a pool of two immiscible fluids. The equations and boundary conditions describing the problem are treated in non-dimensional form. Several simplifications are introduced to obtain a first approximative solution to the problem. The relevant parameters are the viscosity ratio V V , the density ratio D V and the Reynolds number of the heavy fluid, Re 1 . By a variation of the viscosity ratio or of the Reynolds number we demonstrate the existence of three typical flow structures: (1) stagnation point streamline in the light fluid, (2) stagnation point streamline in the heavy fluid or (3) transition flow with stagnation point streamlines in both fluids. The structure changes continuously from a complex flow in the light fluid to a complex flow in the heavy fluid by an increase of the viscosity ratio or by an increase of the Reynolds number in the heavy fluid. The mechanisms of the transitions, involving a thickening of the viscous boundary layer and inertial effects, are discussed in detail. The solution only weakly depends on the density ratio. In the experiment a PE-tape plunges into a pool of (a) silicone oil M1000 and air, (b) water and silicone oil M50 or (c) water and silicone oil M10. The experimental investigations confirm the existence of the two limit structures, namely a stagnation point streamline in air for the combination (a) or a stagnation point streamline in water for the combination (b). Even the transition from one flow structure to the other is observed with an increase of the Reynolds number for the combination (c). (orig.)

  5. Large-eddy-simulation approach in understanding flow structures of 2D turbulent density currents over sloping surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayamatullah, M.; Rao Pillalamarri, Narasimha; Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2018-04-01

    A numerical investigation was performed to understand the flow dynamics of 2D density currents over sloping surfaces. Large eddy simulation was conducted for lock-exchange (L-E) release currents and overflows. 2D Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the Boussinesq approximation. The effects of the lock aspect-ratio (height/length of lock), slope, and Reynolds number on the flow structures and turbulence mixing have been analyzed. Results have confirmed buoyancy within the head of the two-dimensional currents is not conserved which contradicts the classical thermal theory. The lock aspect-ratio dictates the fraction of initial buoyancy which is carried by the head of the current at the beginning of the slumping (horizontal) and accelerating phase (over a slope), which has important implications on turbulence kinetic energy production, and hence mixing in the current. For L-E flows over a slope, increasing slope angle enhances the turbulence production. Increasing slope results in shear reversal within the density current resulting in shear-instabilities. Differences in turbulence production mechanisms and flow structures exist between the L-E and constant-flux release currents resulting in significant differences in the flow characteristics between different releases.

  6. A novel method to create high density stratification with matching refractive index for optical flow investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Benedikt; Manera, Annalisa; Petrov, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Turbulent mixing in stratified environments represents a challenging task in experimental turbulence research, especially when large density gradients are desired. When optical measurement techniques like particle image velocimetry (PIV) are applied to stratified liquids, it is common practice to combine two aqueous solutions with different density but equal refractive index, to suppress particle image deflections. While refractive image matching (RIM) has been developed in the late 1970s, the achieved limit of 4% density ratio was not rivalled up to day. In the present work, we report a methodology, based on the behavior of excess properties and their change in a multicomponent system while mixing, that allows RIM for solutions with higher density differences. The methodology is then successfully demonstrated using a ternary combination of water, isopropanol and glycerol, for which RIM in presence of a density ratio of 8.6% has been achieved. Qualitative PIV results of a turbulent buoyant jet with 8.6% density ratio are shown.

  7. Final Report. Hydrodynamics by high-energy-density plasma flow and hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinetics of a surf-zone plunging breaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I.M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades both the qualitative and quantitative understanding of breaking waves in the surf zone have greatly increased. This is due to the advances in experimental and numerical techniques. However, few comparisons between these two different investigative techniques...... for surfzone breaking waves have been reported. In this study, a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinematics of a surf-zone plunging breaker. The full-field velocity measuring technique known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used in the experiments...... was found for all comparisons: free-surface elevations, velocity vector maps, velocity profiles and velocity-magnitude contours. However, some small discrepancies were observed. In the free-surface elevation comparisons, a slight time lag was observed in the numerical results and it is suggested...

  9. A dynamic model of cylindrical plunge grinding process for chatter phenomena investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajmert Paweł

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, chatter vibrations in the cylindrical plunge grinding process are investigated. An improved model of the grinding process was developed which is able to simulate self-excited vibrations due to a regenerative effect on the workpiece and the grinding wheel surface. The model includes a finite-element model of the workpiece, two degrees of freedom model of the grinding wheel headstock and a model of wheel-workpiece geometrical interferences. The model allows to studying the influence of different factors, i.e. workpiece and machine parameters as well as grinding conditions on the stability limit and a chatter vibration growth rate. At the end, simulation results are shown and compared with exemplified real grinding results.

  10. Toolpath strategy for cutter life improvement in plunge milling of AISI H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesta, E. Y. T.; Avicenna; hilmy, I.; Daud, M. R. H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Machinability of AISI H13 tool steel is a prominent issue since the material has the characteristics of high hardenability, excellent wear resistance, and hot toughness. A method of improving cutter life of AISI H13 tool steel plunge milling by alternating the toolpath and cutting conditions is proposed. Taguchi orthogonal array with L9 (3^4) resolution will be employed with one categorical factor of toolpath strategy (TS) and three numeric factors of cutting speed (Vc), radial depth of cut (ae ), and chip load (fz ). It is expected that there are significant differences for each application of toolpath strategy and each cutting condition factor toward the cutting force and tool wear mechanism of the machining process, and medial axis transform toolpath could provide a better tool life improvement by a reduction of cutting force during machining.

  11. The Quantitative Measurements of Vascular Density and Flow Areas of Macula Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Normal Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Fadakar, Kaveh; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-06-01

    The quantification of the density of macular vascular networks and blood flow areas in the foveal and parafoveal area in healthy subjects using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Cross-sectional, prospective study in an institutional setting at the Retina Services of Farabi Eye Hospital. One hundred twelve normal volunteers with no known ocular or systemic disease were included, including patient numbers (one or both eyes), selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, and masking. En face angiogram OCTA was performed on a 3 mm × 3 mm region centered on the macula. Automated thresholding and measuring algorithm method for foveal and parafoveal blood flow and vascular density (VD) were used. The density of macular vascular networks and blood flow area in the foveal and parafoveal area were measured. A total of 224 healthy eyes from 112 subjects with a mean age of 36.4 years ± 11.3 years were included. In the foveal region, the VD of the superficial capillary network (sCN) was significantly higher than that of the deep capillary network (dCN) (31.1% ± 5.5% vs. 28.3% ± 7.2%; P < .001), whereas in the parafoveal area, VD was higher in the dCN (62.24% ± 2.8% vs. 56.5% ± 2.5%; P < .001). Flow area in the 1-mm radius circle in the sCN was less than in the dCN. Superficial foveal avascular zone (sFAZ) size was negatively correlated with the VD of the foveal sCN, but in the deep FAZ (dFAZ) was not correlated with VD or blood flow area of the fovea. There was no difference between measured VD and blood flow surface area in both eyes of the subjects. OCTA could be used as a noninvasive, repeatable, layer-free method in quantitative evaluation of VD and blood flow of macular area. The normal quantities of the vascular plexus density and flow will help in better understanding the pathophysiological basis of the vascular disease of retina. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:478-486.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK

  12. Low crop plant population densities promote pollen-mediated gene flow in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Christian J; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L; Van Acker, Rene C

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic wheat is currently being field tested with the intent of eventual commercialization. The development of wheat genotypes with novel traits has raised concerns regarding the presence of volunteer wheat populations and the role they may play in facilitating transgene movement. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated the potential of spring wheat plant population density and crop height to minimize gene flow from a herbicide-resistant (HR) volunteer population to a non-HR crop. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between the HR volunteer wheat population and four conventional spring wheat genotypes varying in height was assessed over a range of plant population densities. Natural hybridization events between the two cultivars were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) families. PMGF was strongly associated with crop yield components, but showed no association with flowering synchrony. Maximum observed PMGF was always less than 0.6%, regardless of crop height and density. The frequency of PMGF in spring wheat decreased exponentially with increasing plant population density, but showed no dependence on either crop genotype or height. However, increasing plant densities beyond the recommended planting rate of 300 cropped wheat plants m(-2) provided no obvious benefit to reducing PMGF. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a critical plant density of 175-200 cropped wheat plants m(-2) below which PMGF frequencies rise exponentially with decreasing plant density. These results will be useful in the development of mechanistic models and best management practices that collectively facilitate the coexistence of transgenic and nontransgenic wheat crops.

  13. Investigation of electrodes under flow of a submicrosecond current pulse with linear density up to 3 MA/cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitskii, A. V.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Sasorov, P. V.; Tkachenko, S. I.; Frolov, I. N.

    2016-01-01

    The states of current-carrying elements at the transmission of megaampere current into load are studied. It is determined that the expansion velocity of plasma generated at the outer surface of cylindrical tubes produced of stainless steel, at flowing through them of submicrosecond current pulses with linear density of 3 MA/cm is 5.5 km/s. The evolution of various modes of instability is analyzed.

  14. Single-pulse measurement of density and temperature in a turbulent, supersonic flow using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Nonintrusive measurements of density and temperature and their turbulent fluctuation levels have been obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment compare favorably with previous measurements obtained in the same facility from conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique.

  15. Experimental determination of droplet size and density field in condensing flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamanna, G.; van Poppel, J.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    2002-01-01

    We report a detailed experimental characterization of the process of homogeneous condensation in supersonic expanding flow. In our experiments, the supersaturated mixture expands in a Laval nozzle, where, depending on the initial conditions, a steady or periodically oscillating flow may evolve due

  16. Visualization and measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with large density difference using thermal neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Hibiki, T.; Mishima, K.; Nishihara, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Kanda, K.; Tobita, Y.; Konishi, K.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1998-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor there is a possibility of boiling of fuel-steel mixture in the containment pool. In relation to safety evaluation on severe accident, it is indispensable to evaluate the recriticality of melted core. Gas-liquid two-phase flow with a large density difference is formed due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture. Although the large density difference may affect the basic characteristics of two-phase flow, little work has been performed so far on two-phase flow with large density difference has not been performed well. In this study, visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow were performed by using neutron radiography. The effect of the large density difference between gas and liquid phases on the basic flow characteristics of two-phase flow was clarified. (author)

  17. Observation and modeling of mixing-layer development in high-energy-density, blast-wave-driven shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Henry de Frahan, M. T.; Johnsen, E.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ∼50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and the subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description

  18. Three Dimensional Simulations of Multiphase Flows Using a Lattice Boltzmann Method Suitable for High Density Ratios - 12126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokaltun, Seckin; McDaniel, Dwayne; Roelant, David [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Multiphase flows involving gas and liquid phases can be observed in engineering operations at various Department of Energy sites, such as mixing of slurries using pulsed-air mixers and hydrogen gas generation in liquid waste tanks etc. The dynamics of the gas phase in the liquid domain play an important role in the mixing effectiveness of the pulsed-air mixers or in the level of gas pressure build-up in waste tanks. To understand such effects, computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD) can be utilized by developing a three-dimensional computerized multiphase flow model that can predict accurately the behavior of gas motion inside liquid-filled tanks by solving the governing mathematical equations that represent the physics of the phenomena. In this paper, such a CFD method, lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), is presented that can model multiphase flows accurately and efficiently. LBM is favored over traditional Navier-Stokes based computational models since interfacial forces are handled more effectively in LBM. The LBM is easier to program, more efficient to solve on parallel computers, and has the ability to capture the interface between different fluid phases intrinsically. The LBM used in this paper can solve for the incompressible and viscous flow field in three dimensions, while at the same time, solve the Cahn-Hillard equation to track the position of the gas-liquid interface specifically when the density and viscosity ratios between the two fluids are high. This feature is of primary importance since the previous LBM models proposed for multiphase flows become unstable when the density ratio is larger than 10. The ability to provide stable and accurate simulations at large density ratios becomes important when the simulation case involves fluids such as air and water with a density ratio around 1000 that are common to many engineering problems. In order to demonstrate the capability of the 3D LBM method at high density ratios, a static bubble simulation is

  19. Mass flows and angular momentum density for px + ipy paired fermions in a harmonic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Michael; Anduaga, Inaki

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple two-dimensional model of a p x + ip y superfluid in which the mass flow that gives rise to the intrinsic angular momentum is easily calculated by numerical diagonalization of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes operator. We find that, at zero temperature and for constant director l, the mass flow closely follows the Ishikawa-Mermin-Muzikar formula j mass =1/2 curl/(ρhl/2)

  20. Estimation of Engine Intake Air Mass Flow using a generic Speed-Density method

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšek Michal; Kotek Martin

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of real driving emissions (RDE) from internal combustion engines under real-world operation using portable, onboard monitoring systems (PEMS) is becoming an increasingly important tool aiding the assessment of the effects of new fuels and technologies on environment and human health. The knowledge of exhaust flow is one of the prerequisites for successful RDE measurement with PEMS. One of the simplest approaches for estimating the exhaust flow from virtually any engine is its comp...

  1. Progress Toward Affordable High Fidelity Combustion Simulations Using Filtered Density Functions for Hypersonic Flows in Complex Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Pisciuneri, Patrick H.; Yilmaz, S. Levent

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of subgrid scale (SGS) closures based on a filtered density function (FDF) for large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. The FDF is the counterpart of the probability density function (PDF) method, which has proven effective in Reynolds averaged simulations (RAS). However, while systematic progress is being made advancing the FDF models for relatively simple flows and lab-scale flames, the application of these methods in complex geometries and high speed, wall-bounded flows with shocks remains a challenge. The key difficulties are the significant computational cost associated with solving the FDF transport equation and numerically stiff finite rate chemistry. For LES/FDF methods to make a more significant impact in practical applications a pragmatic approach must be taken that significantly reduces the computational cost while maintaining high modeling fidelity. An example of one such ongoing effort is at the NASA Langley Research Center, where the first generation FDF models, namely the scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) are being implemented into VULCAN, a production-quality RAS and LES solver widely used for design of high speed propulsion flowpaths. This effort leverages internal and external collaborations to reduce the overall computational cost of high fidelity simulations in VULCAN by: implementing high order methods that allow reduction in the total number of computational cells without loss in accuracy; implementing first generation of high fidelity scalar PDF/FDF models applicable to high-speed compressible flows; coupling RAS/PDF and LES/FDF into a hybrid framework to efficiently and accurately model the effects of combustion in the vicinity of the walls; developing efficient Lagrangian particle tracking algorithms to support robust solutions of the FDF equations for high speed flows; and utilizing finite rate chemistry parametrization, such as flamelet models, to reduce

  2. The Quantitative Measurements of Vascular Density and Flow Area of Optic Nerve Head Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Fadakar, Kaveh; Faghihi, Houshangh; Sabour, Siamak; Ghassemi, Fariba

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular density (VD) and the flow area on optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area, and the impact of age and sex using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in healthy human subjects. Both eyes of each volunteer were scanned by an RTVue XR Avanti; Optovue with OCTA using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm technique. Masked graders evaluated enface angiodisc OCTA data. The flow area of ONH and the VD were automatically calculated. A total of 79 eyes of patients with a mean age of 37.03±11.27 were examined. The total ONH (papillary and peripapillary) area VD was 56.03%±4.55%. The flow area of the ONH was 1.74±0.10 mm/1.34 mm. The temporal and inferotemporal peripapillary VD was different between male and female patients. Increasing age causes some changes in the flow area of the ONH and the papillary VD from the third to the fourth decade (analysis of variance test; P<0.05). A normal quantitative database of the flow area and VD of the papillary and peripapillary area, obtained by RTVue XR with OCT angiography technique, is presented here.

  3. A review and assessment of variable density ground water flow effects on plume formation at UMTRA project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A standard assumption when evaluating the migration of plumes in ground water is that the impacted ground water has the same density as the native ground water. Thus density is assumed to be constant, and does not influence plume migration. This assumption is valid only for water with relatively low total dissolved solids (TDS) or a low difference in TDS between water introduced from milling processes and native ground water. Analyses in the literature suggest that relatively minor density differences can significantly affect plume migration. Density differences as small as 0.3 percent are known to cause noticeable effects on the plume migration path. The primary effect of density on plume migration is deeper migration than would be expected in the arid environments typically present at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, where little or no natural recharge is available to drive the plume into the aquifer. It is also possible that at some UMTRA Project sites, a synergistic affect occurred during milling operations, where the mounding created by tailings drainage (which created a downward vertical gradient) and the density contrast between the process water and native ground water acted together, driving constituents deeper into the aquifer than either process would alone. Numerical experiments were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey saturated unsaturated transport (SUTRA) model. This is a finite-element model capable of simulating the effects of variable fluid density on ground water flow and solute transport. The simulated aquifer parameters generally are representative of the Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site where some of the highest TDS water from processing has been observed

  4. Determination of heat transfer coefficients in plastic French straws plunged in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M Victoria; Sansinena, M; Chirife, J; Zaritzky, N

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of the thermodynamic process during the cooling of reproductive biological systems is important to assess and optimize the cryopreservation procedures. The time-temperature curve of a sample immersed in liquid nitrogen enables the calculation of cooling rates and helps to determine whether it is vitrified or undergoes phase change transition. When dealing with cryogenic liquids, the temperature difference between the solid and the sample is high enough to cause boiling of the liquid, and the sample can undergo different regimes such as film and/or nucleate pool boiling. In the present work, the surface heat transfer coefficients (h) for plastic French straws plunged in liquid nitrogen were determined using the measurement of time-temperature curves. When straws filled with ice were used the cooling curve showed an abrupt slope change which was attributed to the transition of film into nucleate pool boiling regime. The h value that fitted each stage of the cooling process was calculated using a numerical finite element program that solves the heat transfer partial differential equation under transient conditions. In the cooling process corresponding to film boiling regime, the h that best fitted experimental results was h=148.12±5.4 W/m(2) K and for nucleate-boiling h=1355±51 W/m(2) K. These values were further validated by predicting the time-temperature curve for French straws filled with a biological fluid system (bovine semen-extender) which undergoes freezing. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and predicted temperature profiles, further confirming the accuracy of the h values previously determined for the ice-filled straw. These coefficients were corroborated using literature correlations. The determination of the boiling regimes that govern the cooling process when plunging straws in liquid nitrogen constitutes an important issue when trying to optimize cryopreservation procedures. Furthermore, this information can lead to

  5. The effect of the gas-liquid density ratio on the liquid film thickness in vertical upward annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Okuyama, Kunito

    2010-01-01

    Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provide the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρ L /ρ G =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it was found that liquid film thickness characteristics including the effect of liquid/gas density ratios were well correlated with a gas Weber number and the liquid Reynolds number in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρ L /ρ G : 31-763, We: 10-1800, Re L : 500-2200). (author)

  6. Real time estimation of generation, extinction and flow of muscle fibre action potentials in high density surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesin, Luca

    2015-02-01

    Developing a real time method to estimate generation, extinction and propagation of muscle fibre action potentials from bi-dimensional and high density surface electromyogram (EMG). A multi-frame generalization of an optical flow technique including a source term is considered. A model describing generation, extinction and propagation of action potentials is fit to epochs of surface EMG. The algorithm is tested on simulations of high density surface EMG (inter-electrode distance equal to 5mm) from finite length fibres generated using a multi-layer volume conductor model. The flow and source term estimated from interference EMG reflect the anatomy of the muscle, i.e. the direction of the fibres (2° of average estimation error) and the positions of innervation zone and tendons under the electrode grid (mean errors of about 1 and 2mm, respectively). The global conduction velocity of the action potentials from motor units under the detection system is also obtained from the estimated flow. The processing time is about 1 ms per channel for an epoch of EMG of duration 150 ms. A new real time image processing algorithm is proposed to investigate muscle anatomy and activity. Potential applications are proposed in prosthesis control, automatic detection of optimal channels for EMG index extraction and biofeedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental research on density wave oscillation of steam-water two-phase flow in parallel inclined internally ribbed pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Chen Tingkuan; Luo Yushan; Yin Fei; Liu Weimin

    2005-01-01

    At p=3-10 MPa, G=300-600 kg/(m 2 ·s), Δt sub =30-90 degree C, and q=0-190 kW/m 2 , the experiments on steam-water two-phase flow instabilities have been performed. The test sections are parallel inclined internally ribbed pipes with an outer diameter of φ38.1 mm, a wall thinkness of 7.5 mm, a obliquity of 19.5 and a length more than 15 m length. Based on the experimental results, the effects of pressure, mass velocity, inlet subcooling and asymmetrical heat flux on steam-water two-phase flow density wave oscillation were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the flow system were more stable as pressure increased. As an increase in mass velocity, critical heat flux increased but critical steam quality decreased. Inlet subcooling had a monotone effect on density wave oscillation, when inlet subcooling decreased, critical heat flux decreased. Under a certain working condition, critical heat flux on asymmetrically heating parallel pipes is higher than that on symmetrically heating parallel pipes, that means the system with symmetrically heating parallel pips was more stable. (authors)

  8. Higher-order anisotropies in the Buda-Lund model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Csanad, Mate [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Csoergo, Tamas [Wigner RCP, Budapest (Hungary); KRF, Gyoengyoes (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    The Buda-Lund hydro model describes an expanding ellipsoidal fireball, and fits the observed elliptic flow and oscillating HBT radii successfully. Due to fluctuations in energy depositions, the fireball shape however fluctuates on an event-by-event basis. The transverse plane asymmetry can be translated into a series of multipole anisotropy coefficients. These anisotropies then result in measurable momentum-space anisotropies, to be measured with respect to their respective symmetry planes. In this paper we detail an extension of the Buda-Lund model to multipole anisotropies and investigate the resulting flow coefficients and oscillations of HBT radii. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of density wave instability in counter-flow steam generators using STEAMFREQ-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1986-01-01

    The STEAMFREQ-X computer model was developed to provide a more comprehensive modeling of the different phenomena that are important to stability analysis of counter-flow steam generators. It uses a frequency-domain analysis and considers heat-flux/flow coupling between the primary and secondary fluids in space and time. Predictions by STEAMFREQ-X were compared with data from both a multi-channel liquid-sodium heated steam generator and a set of single pipe test data. Predicted outlet steam qualities at instability thresholds were within 15% of experimental data for all test points. (orig.)

  10. Density-Driven Flow Simulation in Anisotropic Porous Media: Application to CO2 Geological Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density

  11. Egg fertilisation in a freshwater mussel: effects of distance, flow and male density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler L. Mosley; Wendell R. Haag; James A. Stoeckel

    2014-01-01

    1. Small or sparse populations can experience Allee effects if egg fertilisation is reduced because of a shortage of sperm. 2. Freshwater mussels are spermcasters that often occur as sparse, patchy populations. Previous studies suggested that sperm shortage limits these populations unless facultative hermaphroditism and selffertilisation occur at low density...

  12. Fluid dynamic modeling and numerical simulation of low-density hypersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H. K.; Wong, Eric Y.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of a viscous shock-layer and several related versions of continuum theories/methods are examined for their adequacy as a viable framework to study flow physics and aerothermodynamics of relevance to sustained hypersonic flights. Considering the flat plate at angle of attack, or the wedge, as a generic example for the major aerodynamic component of a hypersonic vehicle, the relative importance of the molecular-transport effects behind the shock (in the form of the 'shock slip') and the wall-slip effects are studied. In the flow regime where the shock-transition-zone thickness remains small compared to the shock radius of curvature, a quasi-one-dimensional shock structure under the Burnett/thirteen-moment approximation, as well as particulate/collisional models, can be consistently developed. The fully viscous version of the shock-layer model is shown to provide the crucial boundary condition downstream the shock in this case. The gas-kinetic basis of the continuum description for the flow behind the bow shock, and certain features affecting the non-equilibrium flow chemistry, are also discussed.

  13. Exact solutions to traffic density estimation problems involving the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model using mixed integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a new mixed integer programming formulation of the traffic density estimation problem in highways modeled by the Lighthill Whitham Richards equation. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using an Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation result in linear constraints, albeit with unknown integers. We then pose the problem of estimating the density at the initial time given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then present a numerical implementation of the method using experimental flow and probe data obtained during Mobile Century experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Exact solutions to traffic density estimation problems involving the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model using mixed integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a new mixed integer programming formulation of the traffic density estimation problem in highways modeled by the Lighthill Whitham Richards equation. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using an Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation result in linear constraints, albeit with unknown integers. We then pose the problem of estimating the density at the initial time given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then present a numerical implementation of the method using experimental flow and probe data obtained during Mobile Century experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Mean flow generated by an internal wave packet impinging on the interface between two layers of fluid with continuous density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, John P. [The University of New Hampshire, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kingsbury Hall, Durham, NH (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Internal waves propagating in an idealized two-layer atmosphere are studied numerically. The governing equations are the inviscid anelastic equations for a perfect gas atmosphere. The numerical formulation eliminates all variables in the linear terms except vertical velocity, which are then treated implicitly. Nonlinear terms are treated explicitly. The basic state is a two-layer flow with continuous density at the interface. Each layer has a unique constant for the Brunt-Vaeisaelae frequency. Waves are forced at the bottom of the domain, are periodic in the horizontal direction, and form a finite wave packet in the vertical. The results show that the wave packet forms a mean flow that is confined to the interface region that persists long after the wave packet has moved away. Large-amplitude waves are forced to break beneath the interface. (orig.)

  16. Experimental study and numerical modelling of density currents resulting from thermal transients in a non rectilinear pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viollet, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The present study found its motivation in the application to sodium secondary bond of Fast Reactors. The field of application of the methods proposed in this report is larger and can include, by example, the study of some fluid flows in pipes of water cooled reactors. In a U-shaped pipe (the water experiment STRATUS), are studied the density effects following a change in the inlet temperature. Stratus reproduces at the scale 1/4 the geometry of the U situated at the Super Phenix Steam generator outlet. When the flow rate is small and the temperature difference high, thermal stratifications appear. The two-dimensional numerical modelling (computer code ULYSSE) uses finite difference methods with a curvilinear grid, and k-epsilon models for turbulence. The computation allows to predict with good accuracy the phenomena which are observed from experiment [fr

  17. Adaptive finite element analysis of incompressible viscous flow using posteriori error estimation and control of node density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiki, Taturou; Yagawa, Genki; Okuda, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    The adaptive finite element method based on an 'a posteriori error estimation' is known to be a powerful technique for analyzing the engineering practical problems, since it excludes the instinctive aspect of the mesh subdivision and gives high accuracy with relatively low computational cost. In the adaptive procedure, both the error estimation and the mesh generation according to the error estimator are essential. In this paper, the adaptive procedure is realized by the automatic mesh generation based on the control of node density distribution, which is decided according to the error estimator. The global percentage error, CPU time, the degrees of freedom and the accuracy of the solution of the adaptive procedure are compared with those of the conventional method using regular meshes. Such numerical examples as the driven cavity flows of various Reynolds numbers and the flows around a cylinder have shown the very high performance of the proposed adaptive procedure. (author)

  18. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The effect of shear flow and the density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate in the dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amininasab, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2018-02-01

    Shear stress effect has been often neglected in calculation of the Weibel instability growth rate in laser-plasma interactions. In the present work, the role of the shear stress in the Weibel instability growth rate in the dense plasma with density gradient is explored. By increasing the density gradient, the shear stress threshold is increasing and the range of the propagation angles of growing modes is limited. Therefore, by increasing steps of the density gradient plasma near the relativistic electron beam-emitting region, the Weibel instability occurs at a higher stress flow. Calculations show that the minimum value of the stress rate threshold for linear polarization is greater than that of circular polarization. The Wiebel instability growth rate for linear polarization is 18.3 times circular polarization. One sees that for increasing stress and density gradient effects, there are smaller maximal growth rates for the range of the propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 < θ m i n < π and /3 π 2 < θ m i n < 2 π in circular polarized plasma.

  20. Bacterial growth, flow, and mixing shape human gut microbiota density and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldini, Markus; Cremer, Jonas; Hwa, Terence

    2018-03-13

    The human gut microbiota is highly dynamic, and host physiology and diet exert major influences on its composition. In our recent study, we integrated new quantitative measurements on bacterial growth physiology with a reanalysis of published data on human physiology to build a comprehensive modeling framework. This can generate predictions of how changes in different host factors influence microbiota composition. For instance, hydrodynamic forces in the colon, along with colonic water absorption that manifests as transit time, exert a major impact on microbiota density and composition. This can be mechanistically explained by their effect on colonic pH which directly affects microbiota competition for food. In this addendum, we describe the underlying analysis in more detail. In particular, we discuss the mixing dynamics of luminal content by wall contractions and its implications for bacterial growth and density, as well as the broader implications of our insights for the field of gut microbiota research.

  1. Monte Carlo modeling of electron density in hypersonic rarefied gas flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jin; Zhang, Yuhuai; Jiang, Jianzheng [State Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gas Dynamics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-12-09

    The electron density distribution around a vehicle employed in the RAM-C II flight test is calculated with the DSMC method. To resolve the mole fraction of electrons which is several orders lower than those of the primary species in the free stream, an algorithm named as trace species separation (TSS) is utilized. The TSS algorithm solves the primary and trace species separately, which is similar to the DSMC overlay techniques; however it generates new simulated molecules of trace species, such as ions and electrons in each cell, basing on the ionization and recombination rates directly, which differs from the DSMC overlay techniques based on probabilistic models. The electron density distributions computed by TSS agree well with the flight data measured in the RAM-C II test along a decent trajectory at three altitudes 81km, 76km, and 71km.

  2. Error Analysis of a Fractional Time-Stepping Technique for Incompressible Flows with Variable Density

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J.-L.; Salgado, Abner J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the convergence properties of a new fractional time-stepping technique for the solution of the variable density incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main feature of this method is that, contrary to other existing algorithms, the pressure is determined by just solving one Poisson equation per time step. First-order error estimates are proved, and stability of a formally second-order variant of the method is established. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Coupling amplified DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes to high-density SNP mapping in barley

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, Hana; Svensson, J.T.; Condamine, P.; Hřibová, Eva; Suchánková, Pavla; Bhat, P.R.; Bartoš, Jan; Šafář, Jan; Close, T.J.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 294 (2008), s. 1-9 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD521/05/H013; GA MŠk ME 884; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Flow cytometry * DNA amplification * Hordeum vulgare L. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2008

  4. Coupling amplified DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes to high-density SNP mapping in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Jan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow cytometry facilitates sorting of single chromosomes and chromosome arms which can be used for targeted genome analysis. However, the recovery of microgram amounts of DNA needed for some assays requires sorting of millions of chromosomes which is laborious and time consuming. Yet, many genomic applications such as development of genetic maps or physical mapping do not require large DNA fragments. In such cases time-consuming de novo sorting can be minimized by utilizing whole-genome amplification. Results Here we report a protocol optimized in barley including amplification of DNA from only ten thousand chromosomes, which can be isolated in less than one hour. Flow-sorted chromosomes were treated with proteinase K and amplified using Phi29 multiple displacement amplification (MDA. Overnight amplification in a 20-microlitre reaction produced 3.7 – 5.7 micrograms DNA with a majority of products between 5 and 30 kb. To determine the purity of sorted fractions and potential amplification bias we used quantitative PCR for specific genes on each chromosome. To extend the analysis to a whole genome level we performed an oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA for interrogation of 1524 loci, of which 1153 loci had known genetic map positions. Analysis of unamplified genomic DNA of barley cv. Akcent using this OPA resulted in 1426 markers with present calls. Comparison with three replicates of amplified genomic DNA revealed >99% concordance. DNA samples from amplified chromosome 1H and a fraction containing chromosomes 2H – 7H were examined. In addition to loci with known map positions, 349 loci with unknown map positions were included. Based on this analysis 40 new loci were mapped to 1H. Conclusion The results indicate a significant potential of using this approach for physical mapping. Moreover, the study showed that multiple displacement amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes is highly efficient and representative which

  5. Numerical Simulation of Density Current Evolution in a Diverging Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Javan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When a buoyant inflow of higher density enters a reservoir, it sinks below the ambient water and forms an underflow. Downstream of the plunge point, the flow becomes progressively diluted due to the fluid entrainment. This study seeks to explore the ability of 2D width-averaged unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS simulation approach for resolving density currents in an inclined diverging channel. 2D width-averaged unsteady RANS equations closed by a buoyancy-modified − turbulence model are integrated in time with a second-order fractional step approach coupled with a direct implicit method and discretized in space on a staggered mesh using a second-order accurate finite volume approach incorporating a high-resolution semi-Lagrangian technique for the convective terms. A series of 2D width-averaged unsteady simulations is carried out for density currents. Comparisons with the experimental measurements and the other numerical simulations show that the predictions of velocity and density field are with reasonable accuracy.

  6. Is there a clinical benefit with a smooth compensator design compared with a plunged compensator design for passive scattered protons?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabibian, Art A., E-mail: art.tabibian@gmail.com [University of Texas School of Allied Health-Medical Dosimetry, Houston, TX (United States); Powers, Adam; Dolormente, Keith; Oommen, Sneha; Tiwari, Akhil [University of Texas School of Allied Health-Medical Dosimetry, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer, Matt [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Li, Heng; Sahoo, Narayan; Wisdom, Paul [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Physics, Houston, TX (United States); Velasco, Kyle [Radiation Oncology Resources, Goshen, IN (United States); Erhart, Kevin; Stanley, Henry [Decimal, Inc, Sanford, FL (United States); Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc T. [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In proton therapy, passive scattered proton plans use compensators to conform the dose to the distal surface of the planning volume. These devices are custom made from acrylic or wax for each treatment field using either a plunge-drilled or smooth-milled compensator design. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a clinical benefit of generating passive scattered proton radiation treatment plans with the smooth compensator design. We generated 4 plans with different techniques using the smooth compensators. We chose 5 sites and 5 patients for each site for the range of dosimetric effects to show adequate sample. The plans were compared and evaluated using multicriteria (MCA) plan quality metrics for plan assessment and comparison using the Quality Reports [EMR] technology by Canis Lupus LLC. The average absolute difference for dosimetric metrics from the plunged-depth plan ranged from −4.7 to +3.0 and the average absolute performance results ranged from −6.6% to +3%. The manually edited smooth compensator plan yielded the best dosimetric metric, +3.0, and performance, + 3.0% compared to the plunged-depth plan. It was also superior to the other smooth compensator plans. Our results indicate that there are multiple approaches to achieve plans with smooth compensators similar to the plunged-depth plans. The smooth compensators with manual compensator edits yielded equal or better target coverage and normal tissue (NT) doses compared with the other smooth compensator techniques. Further studies are under investigation to evaluate the robustness of the smooth compensator design.

  7. Analysis of the tool plunge in friction stir welding - comparison of aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, plastic strain and heat generation during the plunge stage of the friction stir welding (FSW of high-strength aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351 are considered in this work. The plunging of the tool into the material is done at different rotating speeds. A three-dimensional finite element (FE model for thermomechanical simulation is developed. It is based on arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, and Johnson-Cook material law is used for modelling of material behaviour. From comparison of the numerical results for alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351, it can be seen that the former has more intensive heat generation from the plastic deformation, due to its higher strength. Friction heat generation is only slightly different for the two alloys. Therefore, temperatures in the working plate are higher in the alloy 2024 T3 for the same parameters of the plunge stage. Equivalent plastic strain is higher for 2024 T351 alloy, and the highest values are determined under the tool shoulder and around the tool pin. For the alloy 2024 T3, equivalent plastic strain is the highest in the influence zone of the tool pin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34016 i br. TR 35006

  8. Density-based global sensitivity analysis of sheet-flow travel time: Kinematic wave-based formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seiyed Mossa; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2018-04-01

    Despite advancements in developing physics-based formulations to estimate the sheet-flow travel time (tSHF), the quantification of the relative impacts of influential parameters on tSHF has not previously been considered. In this study, a brief review of the physics-based formulations to estimate tSHF including kinematic wave (K-W) theory in combination with Manning's roughness (K-M) and with Darcy-Weisbach friction formula (K-D) over single and multiple planes is provided. Then, the relative significance of input parameters to the developed approaches is quantified by a density-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The performance of K-M considering zero-upstream and uniform flow depth (so-called K-M1 and K-M2), and K-D formulae to estimate the tSHF over single plane surface were assessed using several sets of experimental data collected from the previous studies. The compatibility of the developed models to estimate tSHF over multiple planes considering temporal rainfall distributions of Natural Resources Conservation Service, NRCS (I, Ia, II, and III) are scrutinized by several real-world examples. The results obtained demonstrated that the main controlling parameters of tSHF through K-D and K-M formulae are the length of surface plane (mean sensitivity index T̂i = 0.72) and flow resistance (mean T̂i = 0.52), respectively. Conversely, the flow temperature and initial abstraction ratio of rainfall have the lowest influence on tSHF (mean T̂i is 0.11 and 0.12, respectively). The significant role of the flow regime on the estimation of tSHF over a single and a cascade of planes are also demonstrated. Results reveal that the K-D formulation provides more precise tSHF over the single plane surface with an average percentage of error, APE equal to 9.23% (the APE for K-M1 and K-M2 formulae were 13.8%, and 36.33%, respectively). The superiority of Manning-jointed formulae in estimation of tSHF is due to the incorporation of effects from different flow regimes as

  9. Electromagnetic energy density and stress tensor in a warm plasma with finite flow velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheong R.; Lee, Nam C.

    2004-01-01

    The expressions of the average of energy density and the average stress tensor of the electromagnetic field in a warm collisionless plasma moving with a finite velocity are obtained by using a microscopic method that uses the fluid description of plasma. The result contains terms involved with derivatives of the dielectric tensor with respect to the velocity, which explicitly represent the effects of the finite velocity of the medium. In the zero-velocity limit, the results reduce to the well-known expressions for a plasma at rest with temporal and spatial dispersion

  10. Higher-order anisotropies in the blast-wave model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimerman, Jakub [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Comenius University, FMPI, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tomasik, Boris [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Csanad, Mate; Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-08-15

    We formulate a generalisation of the blast-wave model which is suitable for the description of higher-order azimuthal anisotropies of the hadron production. The model includes anisotropy in the density profile as well as an anisotropy in the transverse expansion velocity field. We then study how these two kinds of anisotropies influence the single-particle distributions and the correlation radii of two-particle correlation functions. Particularly we focus on the third-order anisotropy and consideration is given averaging over different orientations of the event plane. (orig.)

  11. Structural elements of collapses in shallow water flows with horizontally nonuniform density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V. P., E-mail: v.goncharov@rambler.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (Russian Federation); Pavlov, V. I., E-mail: Vadim.Pavlov@univ-lille1.fr [Universite de Lille 1, UFR de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees-LML UMR 8107 (France)

    2013-10-15

    The mechanisms and structural elements of instability whose evolution results in the occurrence of the collapse are studied in the scope of the rotating shallow water model with a horizontally nonuniform density. The diagram stability based on the integral collapse criterion is suggested to explain system behavior in the space of constants of motion. Analysis of the instability shows that two collapse scenarios are possible. One scenario implies anisotropic collapse during which the contact area of a collapsing drop-like fragment with the bottom contracts into a rotating segment. The other implies isotropic contraction of the area into a point.

  12. A numerical study of variable density flow and mixing in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yin; Kahawita, René

    1994-10-01

    A numerical study of a negatively buoyant plume intruding into a neutrally stratified porous medium has been undertaken using finite different methods. Of particular interest has been to ascertain whether the experimentally observed gravitational instabilities that form along the lower edge of the plume are reproduced in the numerical model. The model has been found to faithfully reproduce the mean flow as well as the gravitational instabilities in the intruding plume. A linear stability analysis has confirmed the fact that the negatively buoyant plume is in fact gravitationally unstable and that the stability depends on two parameters: a concentration Rayleigh number and a characteristic length scale which is dependent on the transverse dispersivity.

  13. High-energy-density, aqueous, metal-polyiodide redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-08-29

    Improved metal-based redox flow batteries (RFBs) can utilize a metal and a divalent cation of the metal (M.sup.2+) as an active redox couple for a first electrode and electrolyte, respectively, in a first half-cell. For example, the metal can be Zn. The RFBs can also utilize a second electrolyte having I.sup.-, anions of I.sub.x (for x.gtoreq.3), or both in an aqueous solution, wherein the I.sup.- and the anions of I.sub.x (for x.gtoreq.3) compose an active redox couple in a second half-cell.

  14. A numerical model for density-and-viscosity-dependent flows in two-dimensional variably saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C.; Suidan, Makram T.; Venosa, Albert D.

    1999-04-01

    We present a formulation for water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media that accounts for the effects of the solute on water density and viscosity. The governing equations are cast in a dimensionless form that depends on six dimensionless groups of parameters. These equations are discretized in space using the Galerkin finite element formulation and integrated in time using the backward Euler scheme with mass lumping. The modified Picard method is used to linearize the water flow equation. The resulting numerical model, the MARUN model, is verified by comparison to published numerical results. It is then used to investigate beach hydraulics at seawater concentration (about 30 g l -1) in the context of nutrients delivery for bioremediation of oil spills on beaches. Numerical simulations that we conducted in a rectangular section of a hypothetical beach revealed that buoyancy in the unsaturated zone is significant in soils that are fine textured, with low anisotropy ratio, and/or exhibiting low physical dispersion. In such situations, application of dissolved nutrients to a contaminated beach in a freshwater solution is superior to their application in a seawater solution. Concentration-engendered viscosity effects were negligible with respect to concentration-engendered density effects for the cases that we considered.

  15. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for High-Energy Density, Aqueous Zinc-Polyiodide Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jian; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Reed, David; Liu, Jun; McGrail, Pete; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-07-13

    The new aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow battery (RFB) system with highly soluble active materials as well as ambipolar and bifunctional designs demonstrated significantly enhanced energy density, which shows great potential to reduce RFB cost. However, the poor kinetic reversibility and electrochemical activity of the redox reaction of I3(-)/I(-) couples on graphite felts (GFs) electrode can result in low energy efficiency. Two nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, that have high surface areas when introduced to GF surfaces accelerated the I3(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The flow cell with MOF-modified GFs serving as a positive electrode showed higher energy efficiency than the pristine GFs; increases of about 6.4% and 2.7% occurred at the current density of 30 mA/cm(2) for MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, respectively. Moreover, UiO-66-CH3 is more promising due to its excellent chemical stability in the weakly acidic electrolyte. This letter highlights a way for MOFs to be used in the field of RFBs.

  16. Study on the Weaving Behavior of High Density Bidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weaving area may be the critical risk place in the subway transfer station. When improving service level of the weaving area, the characteristic of pedestrian weaving behavior should be systemically discussed. This paper described the mechanism of weaving behavior on high density pedestrian which was analyzed by the collection data of controlled experiment. Different weaving behaviors were contrasted due to different volumes in the bidirectional passageway. Video analysis was conducted to extract pedestrian moving behavior and calibrate the movement data with SIMI Motion. Influence of the high density weaving pedestrian was studied based on the statistical results (e.g., velocity, walking distance, and journey time. Furthermore, the quantitative method by speed analysis was announced to discriminate the conflict point. The scopes of weaving area and impact area at different pedestrian volumes were revealed to analyze the pedestrian turning angle. The paper concluded that walking pedestrians are significantly influenced by the weaving conflict and trend to turn the moving direction to avoid the conflict in weaving area; the ratio of stable weaving area and impact area is 2 to 3. The conclusions do provide a method to evaluate the transfer station safety and a facility layout guidance to improve the capacity.

  17. SOFT X-RAY TEMPERATURE TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS FROM STARS ON DEEP PLUNGING ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lixin; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Miller, M. Coleman, E-mail: cosimo@umd.edu [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    One of the puzzles associated with tidal disruption event candidates (TDEs) is that there is a dichotomy between the color temperatures of a few × 10{sup 4} K for TDEs discovered with optical and UV telescopes and the color temperatures of a few × 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6} K for TDEs discovered with X-ray satellites. Here, we propose that high-temperature TDEs are produced when the tidal debris of a disrupted star self-intersects relatively close to the supermassive black hole, in contrast to the more distant self-intersection that leads to lower color temperatures. In particular, we note from simple ballistic considerations that greater apsidal precession in an orbit is the key to closer self-intersection. Thus, larger values of β, the ratio of the tidal radius to the pericenter distance of the initial orbit, are more likely to lead to higher temperatures of more compact disks that are super-Eddington and geometrically and optically thick. For a given star and β, apsidal precession also increases for larger black hole masses, but larger black hole masses imply a lower temperature at the Eddington luminosity. Thus, the expected dependence of the temperature on the mass of the black hole is non-monotonic. We find that in order to produce a soft X-ray temperature TDE, a deep plunging stellar orbit with β > 3 is needed and a black hole mass of ≲5 × 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} is favored. Although observations of TDEs are comparatively scarce and are likely dominated by selection effects, it is encouraging that both expectations are consistent with current data.

  18. Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjiva Lele

    2012-10-01

    The target of this SciDAC Science Application was to develop a new capability based on high-order and high-resolution schemes to simulate shock-turbulence interactions and multi-material mixing in planar and spherical geometries, and to study Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov turbulent mixing. These fundamental problems have direct application in high-speed engineering flows, such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions and scramjet combustion, and also in the natural occurrence of supernovae explosions. Another component of this project was the development of subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulations of flows involving shock-turbulence interaction and multi-material mixing, that were to be validated with the DNS databases generated during the program. The numerical codes developed are designed for massively-parallel computer architectures, ensuring good scaling performance. Their algorithms were validated by means of a sequence of benchmark problems. The original multi-stage plan for this five-year project included the following milestones: 1) refinement of numerical algorithms for application to the shock-turbulence interaction problem and multi-material mixing (years 1-2); 2) direct numerical simulations (DNS) of canonical shock-turbulence interaction (years 2-3), targeted at improving our understanding of the physics behind the combined two phenomena and also at guiding the development of SGS models; 3) large-eddy simulations (LES) of shock-turbulence interaction (years 3-5), improving SGS models based on the DNS obtained in the previous phase; 4) DNS of planar/spherical RM multi-material mixing (years 3-5), also with the two-fold objective of gaining insight into the relevant physics of this instability and aiding in devising new modeling strategies for multi-material mixing; 5) LES of planar/spherical RM mixing (years 4-5), integrating the improved SGS and multi-material models developed in stages 3 and 5. This final report is

  19. Study on spectral entropy of two-phase flow density wave instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zuoyi

    1992-05-01

    By using mathematic proof, spectral entropy calculations for simple examples and a practical two-phase flow system, it has been proved that under the same stochastic input, the output spectral entropy of a stable linear system is in maximum, while for an unstable linear system, its entropy is in relative lower level. Because the spectral entropy describes the output uncertainty of a system and the second law of thermodynamics rules the direction of natural tendency, the spontaneous process can develop only toward the direction of uncertainty increasing, and the opposite is impossible. It seems that the physical mechanism of the stability of a system can be explained as following: Any deviation from its original state of a stable system will reduce the spectral entropy and violate the natural tendency so that the system will return to original state. On the contrary, the deviation from its original state of an unstable system will increase the spectral entropy that will enhance the deviation and the system will be further away from its original state

  20. Chromospheric evaporation flows and density changes deduced from Hinode/EIS during an M1.6 flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gömöry, P.; Veronig, A. M.; Su, Y.; Temmer, M.; Thalmann, J. K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We study the response of the solar atmosphere during a GOES M1.6 flare using spectroscopic and imaging observations. In particular, we examine the evolution of the mass flows and electron density together with the energy input derived from hard X-ray (HXR) in the context of chromospheric evaporation. Methods: We analyzed high-cadence sit-and-stare observations acquired with the Hinode/EIS spectrometer in the Fe xiii 202.044 Å (log T = 6.2) and Fe xvi 262.980 Å (log T = 6.4) spectral lines to derive temporal variations of the line intensity, Doppler shifts, and electron density during the flare. We combined these data with HXR measurements acquired with RHESSI to derive the energy input to the lower atmosphere by flare-accelerated electrons. Results: During the flare impulsive phase, we observe no significant flows in the cooler Fe xiii line but strong upflows, up to 80-150 km s-1, in the hotter Fe xvi line. The largest Doppler shifts observed in the Fe xvi line were co-temporal with the sharp intensity peak. The electron density obtained from a Fe xiii line pair ratio exhibited fast increase (within two minutes) from the pre-flare level of 5.01 × 109 cm-3 to 3.16 × 1010 cm-3 during the flare peak. The nonthermal energy flux density deposited from the coronal acceleration site to the lower atmospheric layers during the flare peak was found to be 1.34 × 1010 erg s-1 cm-2 for a low-energy cut-off that was estimated to be 16 keV. During the decline flare phase, we found a secondary intensity and density peak of lower amplitude that was preceded by upflows of ~15 km s-1 that were detected in both lines. The flare was also accompanied by a filament eruption that was partly captured by the EIS observations. We derived Doppler velocities of 250-300 km s-1 for the upflowing filament material. Conclusions: The spectroscopic results for the flare peak are consistent with the scenario of explosive chromospheric evaporation, although a comparatively low value of the

  1. Numerical Simulation of Density-Driven Flow and Heat Transport Processes in Porous Media Using the Network Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cánovas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Density-driven flow and heat transport processes in 2-D porous media scenarios are governed by coupled, non-linear, partial differential equations that normally have to be solved numerically. In the present work, a model based on the network method simulation is designed and applied to simulate these processes, providing steady state patterns that demonstrate its computational power and reliability. The design is relatively simple and needs very few rules. Two applications in which heat is transported by natural convection in confined and saturated media are studied: slender boxes heated from below (a kind of Bénard problem and partially heated horizontal plates in rectangular domains (the Elder problem. The streamfunction and temperature patterns show that the results are coherent with those of other authors: steady state patterns and heat transfer depend both on the Rayleigh number and on the characteristic Darcy velocity derived from the values of the hydrological, thermal and geometrical parameters of the problems.

  2. Effects of density and force discretizations on spurious velocities in lattice Boltzmann equation for two-phase flows

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2014-04-28

    Spurious current emerging in the vicinity of phase interfaces is a well-known disadvantage of the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for two-phase flows. Previous analysis shows that this unphysical phenomenon comes from the force imbalance at discrete level inherited in LBE (Guo et al 2011 Phys. Rev. E 83 036707). Based on the analysis of the LBE free of checkerboard effects, in this work we further show that the force imbalance is caused by the different discretization stencils: the implicit one from the streaming process and the explicit one from the discretization of the force term. Particularly, the total contribution includes two parts, one from the difference between the intrinsically discretized density (or ideal gas pressure) gradient and the explicit ones in the force term, and the other from the explicit discretized chemical potential gradients in the intrinsically discretized force term. The former contribution is a special feature of LBE which was not realized previously.

  3. Boiling transition and the possibility of spontaneous nucleation under high subcooling and high mass flux density flow in a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Y.; Kuriyama, T.; Hirata, M.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling transition and inverted annular heat transfer for R-113 have been investigated experimentally in a horizontal tube of 1.2 X 10/sup -3/ meter inner diameter with heating length over inner diameter ratio of 50. Experiments cover a high mass flux density range, a high local subcooling range and a wide local pressure range. Heat transfer characteristics were obtained by using heat flux control steady-state apparatus. Film boiling treated here is limited to the case of inverted annular heat transfer with very thin vapor film, on the order of 10/sup -6/ meter. Moreover, film boiling region is always limited to a certain downstream part, since the system has a pressure gradient along the flow direction. Discussions are presented on the parametric trends of boiling heat transfer characteristic curves and characteristic points. The possible existence is suggested of a spontaneous nucleation control surface boiling phenomena. And boiling transition heat flux and inverted annular heat transfer were correlated

  4. Current density and polarization curves for radial flow field patterns applied to PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano-Andrade, S.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Spakovsky, M.R. von; Damian-Ascencio, C.E.; Rubio-Arana, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical solution of the current density and velocity fields of a 3-D PEM radial configuration fuel cell is presented. The energy, momentum and electrochemical equations are solved using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on a finite volume scheme. There are three cases of principal interest for this radial model: four channels, eight channels and twelve channels placed in a symmetrical path over the flow field plate. The figures for the current-voltage curves for the three models proposed are presented, and the main factors that affect the behavior of each of the curves are discussed. Velocity contours are presented for the three different models, showing how the fuel cell behavior is affected by the velocity variations in the radial configuration. All these results are presented for the case of high relative humidity. The favorable results obtained for this unconventional geometry seems to indicate that this geometry could replace the conventional commercial geometries currently in use.

  5. Density effects on turbulent boundary layer structure: From the atmosphere to hypersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Owen J. H.

    This dissertation examines the effects of density gradients on turbulent boundary layer statistics and structure using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Two distinct cases were examined: the thermally stable atmospheric surface layer characteristic of nocturnal or polar conditions, and the hypersonic bounder layer characteristic of high speed aircraft and reentering spacecraft. Previous experimental studies examining the effects of stability on turbulent boundary layers identified two regimes, weak and strong stability, separated by a critical bulk stratification with a collapse of near-wall turbulence thought to be intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. To examine the characteristics of these two regimes, PIV measurements were obtained in conjunction with the mean temperature profile in a low Reynolds number facility over smooth and rough surfaces. The turbulent stresses were found to scale with the wall shear stress in the weakly stable regime prior relaminarization at a critical stratification. Changes in profile shape were shown to correlate with the local stratification profile, and as a result, the collapse of near-wall turbulence is not intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. The critical bulk stratification was found to be sensitive to surface roughness and potentially Reynolds number, and not constant as previously thought. Further investigations examined turbulent boundary layer structure and changes to the motions that contribute to turbulent production. To study the characteristics of a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer at Mach 8, significant improvements were required to the implementation and error characterization of PIV. Limited resolution or dynamic range effects were minimized and the effects of high shear on cross-correlation routines were examined. Significantly, an examination of particle dynamics, subject to fluid inertia, compressibility and non-continuum effects, revealed that particle frequency responses to turbulence can be up to an

  6. Visualization and measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with large density difference using thermal neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Nishihara, H.; Tobita, Y.; Konishi, K.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor, there is a possibility of boiling of the fuel-steel mixture in the containment pool. In relation to safety evaluation on severe accident, it is indispensable to evaluate the possibility of re-criticality of melted core. Gas-liquid two-phase flow with a large liquid-to-gas density ratio is formed due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture. Although it is anticipated that the large density ratio may affect the basic characteristics of two-phase flow, little work has been performed so far on two-phase flow with a large liquid-to-gas density ratio. In this study, visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow were performed by using neutron radiography and image processing techniques. Then, the effect of large density difference between gas and liquid phases on the basic flow characteristics of two-phase flow was clarified

  7. Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning: Project Kaleidoscope-Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges Conference for Science Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    College and university science educators from across Connecticut gathered at Yale's West Campus in April 2010 for a Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) program entitled "Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning." Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and co-sponsored by the Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges (CCIC) and Yale's McDougal Graduate Teaching Center, the event was the latest in a PKAL series of one-day conferences aimed at equipping science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) instructors with effective approaches to engaging students and training future scientists.

  8. Analysis of non-linear aeroelastic response of a supersonic thick fin with plunging, pinching and flapping free-plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Alavi, S. M.; Salarieh, H.

    2013-07-01

    The flutter of a 3-D rigid fin with double-wedge section and free-play in flapping, plunging and pitching degrees-of-freedom operating in supersonic and hypersonic flight speed regimes have been considered. Aerodynamic model is obtained by local usage of the piston theory behind the shock and expansion analysis, and structural model is obtained based on Lagrange equation of motion. Such model presents fast, accurate algorithm for studying the aeroelastic behavior of the thick supersonic fin in time domain. Dynamic behavior of the fin is considered over large number of parameters that characterize the aeroelastic system. Results show that the free-play in the pitching, plunging and flapping degrees-of-freedom has significant effects on the oscillation exhibited by the aeroelastic system in the supersonic/hypersonic flight speed regimes. The simulations also show that the aeroelastic system behavior is greatly affected by some parameters, such as the Mach number, thickness, angle of attack, hinge position and sweep angle.

  9. The Influence of Non-Equilibrium Excitation on the Electron Density in One-Dimensional MFD Channel Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichert, K.; Kaeppeler, H. J. [Institut fuer Plasmaforschung der Technischen Hochschule Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1966-10-15

    In previous publications, a system of equations was derived from the gas-kinetic description of a multi-component reacting plasma and employed for the calculation of one-dimensional subsonic flows. This system is now extended to include non-equilibrium excitation. No thermal or chemical equilibrium between the various components of the plasma is assumed. The components of the plasma considered are a non-reacting working fluid, an alkali metal vapour as a seeding material, ions of this seeding substance, and electrons. Three levels for the excited states are introduced. The reactions considered are excitation and ionization by electron collisions, and photo-ionization, as well as the corresponding reverse processes. For the reaction velocities, analytical equations are introduced permitting insertion of any excitation or ionization cross-sections of either experimental or theoretical origin. The method employed had been previously suggested by one of the authors. As examples, the degrees of excitation and ionization in the flow of a helium working fluid with 1% caesium seeding through a channel against transverse magnetic fields of 15 and 40 kg at Mach numbers of 0.7 and 0.8, respectively, were calculated. The results of the calculations show that for relatively small magnetic fields there is no rapid rise of the ionization to Saha-equilibrium as a function of electron temperature. A comparison with the results of a calculation neglecting excitation shows that especially for relatively large magnetic fields non-equilibrium excitation has an essential influence on the electron density and its approach to equilibrium. Neglecting excitation, there results a nearly frozen behaviour of the degree of ionization within channel lengths of technical interest for small magnetic fields. (author)

  10. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flow measurement is a key aspect for understanding how plants use water and their impacts on the ecosystems. A variety of sensors have been developed to measure sap flow, each one with its unique characteristics. When the aim of a research is to have accurate tree water use calculations, with high temporal and spatial resolution (i.e. scaled), a sensor with high accuracy, high measurement efficiency, low signal-to-noise ratio and low price is ideal, but such has not been developed yet. Granier's thermal dissipation probes (TDP) have been widely used in many studies and various environmental conditions because of its simplicity, reliability, efficiency and low cost. However, it has two major flaws when is used in semi-arid environments and broad-stem tree species: it is often affected by high natural thermal gradients (NTG), which distorts the measurements, and it cannot measure the radial variability of sap-flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than two centimeters. The new, multi point heat field deformation sensor (HFD) is theoretically not affected by NTG, and it can measure the radial variability of the sap flow at different depths. However, its high cost is a serious limitation when simultaneous measurements are required in several trees (e.g. catchment-scale studies). The underlying challenge is to develop a monitoring schema in which HFD and TDP are combined to satisfy the needs of measurement efficiency and accuracy in water accounting. To assess the level of agreement between TDP and HFD methods in quantifying sap flow rates and temporal patterns on Quercus ilex (Q.i ) and Quercus pyrenaica trees (Q.p.), three measurement schemas: standard TDP, TDP-NTG-corrected and HFD were compared in dry season at the semi-arid Sardon area, near Salamanca in Spain in the period from June to September 2009. To correct TDP measurements with regard to radial sap flow variability, a radial sap flux density correction factor was applied and tested by adjusting TDP

  11. Application of support vector regression for optimization of vibration flow field of high-density polyethylene melts characterized by small angle light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Guangming

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the vibration flow field parameters of polymer melts in a visual slit die are optimized by using intelligent algorithm. Experimental small angle light scattering (SALS) patterns are shown to characterize the processing process. In order to capture the scattered light, a polarizer and an analyzer are placed before and after the polymer melts. The results reported in this study are obtained using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with rotation speed at 28 rpm. In addition, support vector regression (SVR) analytical method is introduced for optimization the parameters of vibration flow field. This work establishes the general applicability of SVR for predicting the optimal parameters of vibration flow field.

  12. The effect of fluid flow due to the crystal-melt density change on the growth of a parabolic isothermal dendrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Ivantsov (1947) analysis of an isolated isothermal dendrite (with zero surface tension) growing into a supercooled liquid is extended to include the effects of the fluid flow due to volume contraction or expansion upon solidification. For an axisymmetric paraboloidal dendrite, an analytic solution to the Navier-Stokes equations is obtained. The magnitude of the flow is proportional to the relative density change epsilon, and the flow becomes negligible far from the surface of the dendrite. The temperature field consistent with this flow can also be found explicitly. The well-known expression that relates the dimensionless supercooling to the Peclet number in the absence of fluid flow is modified for nonzero epsilon, but the effect is of order epsilon and hence is seen to be minor for most values of epsilon and dimensionless supercooling that occur in practice.

  13. Nitrogen-doped carbon spheres: A new high-energy-density and long-life pseudo-capacitive electrode material for electrochemical flow capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shujin; Wang, Miao; Xu, Xingtao; Li, Yandong; Li, Yanjiang; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2017-04-01

    One of the most challenging issues in developing electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) technology is the design and synthesis of active electrode materials with high energy density and long cycle life. However, in practical cases, the energy density and cycle ability obtained currently cannot meet the practical need. In this work, we propose a new active material, nitrogen-doped carbon spheres (NCSs), as flowable electrodes for EFC application. The NCSs were prepared via one-pot hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of resorcinol/formaldehyde as carbon precursors and melamine as nitrogen precursor, followed by carbonization in nitrogen flow at various temperatures. The results of EFC experiments demonstrate that NCSs obtained at 800°C exhibit a high energy density of 13.5Whkg -1 and an excellent cycle ability, indicating the superiority of NCSs for EFC application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A free-surface hydrodynamic model for density-stratified flow in the weakly to strongly non-hydrostatic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Colin Y.; Evans, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    A non-hydrostatic density-stratified hydrodynamic model with a free surface has been developed from the vorticity equations rather than the usual momentum equations. This approach has enabled the model to be obtained in two different forms, weakly non-hydrostatic and fully non-hydrostatic, with the computationally efficient weakly non-hydrostatic form applicable to motions having horizontal scales greater than the local water depth. The hydrodynamic model in both its weakly and fully non-hydrostatic forms is validated numerically using exact nonlinear non-hydrostatic solutions given by the Dubriel-Jacotin-Long equation for periodic internal gravity waves, internal solitary waves, and flow over a ridge. The numerical code is developed based on a semi-Lagrangian scheme and higher order finite-difference spatial differentiation and interpolation. To demonstrate the applicability of the model to coastal ocean situations, the problem of tidal generation of internal solitary waves at a shelf-break is considered. Simulations carried out with the model obtain the evolution of solitary wave generation and propagation consistent with past results. Moreover, the weakly non-hydrostatic simulation is shown to compare favorably with the fully non-hydrostatic simulation. The capability of the present model to simulate efficiently relatively large scale non-hydrostatic motions suggests that the weakly non-hydrostatic form of the model may be suitable for application in a large-area domain while the computationally intensive fully non-hydrostatic form of the model may be used in an embedded sub-domain where higher resolution is needed

  15. Turbulence and sheared flow dynamics during q95 and density scans across the L-H transition on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; McKee, George; Gohil, Punit; Schmitz, Lothar; Eldon, David; Grierson, Brian; Kriete, Matt; Rhodes, Terry; Petty, Craig

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of long wavelength density fluctuation characteristics have been obtained in the edge of Deuterium (D) plasmas across the L-H transition on DIII-D during density and q95 scans. The relative density fluctuation amplitude measured by Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) increases with higher q95. The power threshold is found to increase with plasma current (i.e., lower q95) but with complex density dependence: the largest increase of PLH is seen at ne 3.2e19 m-3. Interestingly, a dual counter-propagating mode is observed for cases when PLH is low. The existence of the dual mode is correlated with increasing flow shear. Estimation of the turbulence kinetic energy transfer from turbulence to the flow increases prior to the transition. The complex behaviors of the turbulence characteristics and dual frequency modes interactions impact the flow shear generation, the transition process and the power threshold scaling. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-08ER54999, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Effect of Coriolis and centrifugal forces on flow and heat transfer at high rotation number and high density ratio in non orthogonally internal cooling channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Berrabah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerical predictions of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer are performed for a two-pass square channel with 45° staggered ribs in non-orthogonally mode-rotation using the second moment closure model. At Reynolds number of 25,000, the rotation numbers studied were 0, 0.24, 0.35 and 1.00. The density ratios were 0.13, 0.23 and 0.50. The results show that at high buoyancy parameter and high rotation number with a low density ratio, the flow in the first passage is governed by the secondary flow induced by the rotation whereas the secondary flow induced by the skewed ribs was almost distorted. As a result the heat transfer rate is enhanced on both co-trailing and co-leading sides compared to low and medium rotation number. In contrast, for the second passage, the rotation slightly reduces the heat transfer rate on co-leading side at high rotation number with a low density ratio and degrades it significantly on both co-trailing and co-leading sides at high buoyancy parameter compared to the stationary, low and medium rotation numbers. The numerical results are in fair agreement with available experimental data in the bend region and the second passage, while in the first passage were overestimated at low and medium rotation numbers.

  17. Altered Right Ventricular Kinetic Energy Work Density and Viscous Energy Dissipation in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study Using 4D Flow MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Joyce Han

    Full Text Available Right ventricular (RV function has increasingly being recognized as an important predictor for morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The increased RV after-load increase RV work in PAH. We used time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI (4D flow MRI to derive RV kinetic energy (KE work density and energy loss in the pulmonary artery (PA to better characterize RV work in PAH patients.4D flow and standard cardiac cine images were obtained in ten functional class I/II patients with PAH and nine healthy subjects. For each individual, we calculated the RV KE work density and the amount of viscous dissipation in the PA.PAH patients had alterations in flow patterns in both the RV and the PA compared to healthy subjects. PAH subjects had significantly higher RV KE work density than healthy subjects (94.7±33.7 mJ/mL vs. 61.7±14.8 mJ/mL, p = 0.007 as well as a much greater percent PA energy loss (21.1±6.4% vs. 2.2±1.3%, p = 0.0001 throughout the cardiac cycle. RV KE work density and percent PA energy loss had mild and moderate correlations with RV ejection fraction.This study has quantified two kinetic energy metrics to assess RV function using 4D flow. RV KE work density and PA viscous energy loss not only distinguished healthy subjects from patients, but also provided distinction amongst PAH patients. These metrics hold promise as imaging markers for RV function.

  18. Altered Right Ventricular Kinetic Energy Work Density and Viscous Energy Dissipation in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study Using 4D Flow MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Q Joyce; Witschey, Walter R T; Fang-Yen, Christopher M; Arkles, Jeffrey S; Barker, Alex J; Forfia, Paul R; Han, Yuchi

    2015-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function has increasingly being recognized as an important predictor for morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The increased RV after-load increase RV work in PAH. We used time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI (4D flow MRI) to derive RV kinetic energy (KE) work density and energy loss in the pulmonary artery (PA) to better characterize RV work in PAH patients. 4D flow and standard cardiac cine images were obtained in ten functional class I/II patients with PAH and nine healthy subjects. For each individual, we calculated the RV KE work density and the amount of viscous dissipation in the PA. PAH patients had alterations in flow patterns in both the RV and the PA compared to healthy subjects. PAH subjects had significantly higher RV KE work density than healthy subjects (94.7±33.7 mJ/mL vs. 61.7±14.8 mJ/mL, p = 0.007) as well as a much greater percent PA energy loss (21.1±6.4% vs. 2.2±1.3%, p = 0.0001) throughout the cardiac cycle. RV KE work density and percent PA energy loss had mild and moderate correlations with RV ejection fraction. This study has quantified two kinetic energy metrics to assess RV function using 4D flow. RV KE work density and PA viscous energy loss not only distinguished healthy subjects from patients, but also provided distinction amongst PAH patients. These metrics hold promise as imaging markers for RV function.

  19. Impact of Variable-Density Flow on the Value-of-Information from Pressure and Concentration Data for Saline Aquifer Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Williams, J. R.; Juanes, R.; Kang, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an important solution for ensuring sustainable water resources and mitigating saline water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Accurate estimates of hydrogeological parameters in subsurface flow and solute transport models are critical for making predictions and managing aquifer systems. In the presence of a density difference between the injected freshwater and ambient saline groundwater, the pressure field is coupled to the spatial distribution of salinity distribution, and therefore experiences transient changes. The variable-density effects can be quantified by a mixed convection ratio between two characteristic types of convection: free convection due to density contrast, and forced convection due to a hydraulic gradient. We analyze the variable-density effects on the value-of-information of pressure and concentration data for saline aquifer characterization. An ensemble Kalman filter is used to estimate permeability fields by assimilating the data, and the performance of the estimation is analyzed in terms of the accuracy and the uncertainty of estimated permeability fields and the predictability of arrival times of breakthrough curves in a realistic push-pull setting. This study demonstrates that: 1. Injecting fluids with the velocity that balances the two characteristic convections maximizes the value of data for saline aquifer characterization; 2. The variable-density effects on the value of data for the inverse estimation decrease as the permeability heterogeneity increases; 3. The advantage of joint inversion of pressure and concentration data decreases as the coupling effects between flow and transport increase.

  20. Exploiting the Error-Correcting Capabilities of Low Density Parity Check Codes in Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Søgaard, Jacob; Salmistraro, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We consider Distributed Video Coding (DVC) in presence of communication errors. First, we present DVC side information generation based on a new method of optical flow driven frame interpolation, where a highly optimized TV-L1 algorithm is used for the flow calculations and combine three flows....... Thereafter methods for exploiting the error-correcting capabilities of the LDPCA code in DVC are investigated. The proposed frame interpolation includes a symmetric flow constraint to the standard forward-backward frame interpolation scheme, which improves quality and handling of large motion. The three...... flows are combined in one solution. The proposed frame interpolation method consistently outperforms an overlapped block motion compensation scheme and a previous TV-L1 optical flow frame interpolation method with an average PSNR improvement of 1.3 dB and 2.3 dB respectively. For a GOP size of 2...

  1. Modification and application of TOUGH2 as a variable-density, saturated-flow code and comparison to SWIFT II results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    Human intrusion scenarios at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) involve penetration of the repository and an underlying brine reservoir by a future borehole. Brine and gas from the brine reservoir and the repository may flow up the borehole and into the overlying Culebra formation, which is saturated with water containing different amounts of dissolved 'solids resulting in a spatially varying density. Current modeling approaches involve perturbing a steady-state Culebra flow field by inflow of gas and/or brine from a breach borehole that has passed through the repository. Previous studies simulating steady-state flow in the Culebra have been done. One specific study by LaVenue et al. (1990) used the SWIFT 2 code, a single-phase flow and transport code, to develop the steady-state flow field. Because gas may also be present in the fluids from the intrusion borehole, a two-phase code such as TOUGH2 can be used to determine the effect that emitted fluids may have on the steady-state Culebra flow field. Thus a comparison between TOUGH2 and SWIFT2 was prompted. In order to compare the two codes and to evaluate the influence of gas on flow in the Culebra, modifications were made to TOUGH2. Modifications were performed by the authors to allow for element-specific values of permeability, porosity, and elevation. The analysis also used a new equation of state module for a water-brine-air mixture, EOS7 (Pruess, 1991), which was developed to simulate variable water densities by assuming a miscible mixture of water and brine phases and allows for element-specific brine concentration in the INCON file

  2. Flow Cytometric Quantification of Peripheral Blood Cell β-Adrenergic Receptor Density and Urinary Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rose

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a heterogeneous disease characterized by severe angiogenic remodeling of the pulmonary artery wall and right ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, there is an increasing need for novel biomarkers to dissect disease heterogeneity, and predict treatment response. Although β-adrenergic receptor (βAR dysfunction is well documented in left heart disease while endothelial cell-derived microparticles (Ec-MPs are established biomarkers of angiogenic remodeling, methods for easy large clinical cohort analysis of these biomarkers are currently absent. Here we describe flow cytometric methods for quantification of βAR density on circulating white blood cells (WBC and Ec-MPs in urine samples that can be used as potential biomarkers of right heart failure in PAH. Biotinylated β-blocker alprenolol was synthesized and validated as a βAR specific probe that was combined with immunophenotyping to quantify βAR density in circulating WBC subsets. Ec-MPs obtained from urine samples were stained for annexin-V and CD144, and analyzed by a micro flow cytometer. Flow cytometric detection of alprenolol showed that βAR density was decreased in most WBC subsets in PAH samples compared to healthy controls. Ec-MPs in urine was increased in PAH compared to controls. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between Ec-MPs and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE in PAH patients. Therefore, flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood cell βAR density and urinary Ec-MPs may be useful as potential biomarkers of right ventricular function in PAH.

  3. Flow Cytometric Quantification of Peripheral Blood Cell β-Adrenergic Receptor Density and Urinary Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonathan A; Wanner, Nicholas; Cheong, Hoi I; Queisser, Kimberly; Barrett, Patrick; Park, Margaret; Hite, Corrine; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by severe angiogenic remodeling of the pulmonary artery wall and right ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, there is an increasing need for novel biomarkers to dissect disease heterogeneity, and predict treatment response. Although β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) dysfunction is well documented in left heart disease while endothelial cell-derived microparticles (Ec-MPs) are established biomarkers of angiogenic remodeling, methods for easy large clinical cohort analysis of these biomarkers are currently absent. Here we describe flow cytometric methods for quantification of βAR density on circulating white blood cells (WBC) and Ec-MPs in urine samples that can be used as potential biomarkers of right heart failure in PAH. Biotinylated β-blocker alprenolol was synthesized and validated as a βAR specific probe that was combined with immunophenotyping to quantify βAR density in circulating WBC subsets. Ec-MPs obtained from urine samples were stained for annexin-V and CD144, and analyzed by a micro flow cytometer. Flow cytometric detection of alprenolol showed that βAR density was decreased in most WBC subsets in PAH samples compared to healthy controls. Ec-MPs in urine was increased in PAH compared to controls. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between Ec-MPs and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in PAH patients. Therefore, flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood cell βAR density and urinary Ec-MPs may be useful as potential biomarkers of right ventricular function in PAH.

  4. Vitrification of human pronuclear oocytes by direct plunging into cooling agent: Non sterile liquid nitrogen vs. sterile liquid air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Todorov, Plamen; Seisenbayeva, Akerke; Toishibekov, Yerzhan; Isachenko, Evgenia; Rahimi, Gohar; Mallmann, Peter; Foth, Dolores; Merzenich, Markus

    2018-02-01

    In fact, a full sterilization of commercially-produced liquid nitrogen contaminated with different pathogens is not possible. The aim of this study was to compare the viability of human pronuclear oocytes subjected to cooling by direct submerging of open carrier in liquid nitrogen versus submerging in clean liquid air (aseptic system). One- and three-pronuclei stage embryos (n = 444) were cryopreserved by direct plunging into liquid nitrogen (vitrified) in ethylene glycol (15%), dimethylsulphoxide (15%) and 0.2M sucrose. Oocytes were exposed in 20, 33, 50 and 100% vitrification solution for 2, 1 and 1 min, and 30-50 s, respectively at room temperature. Then first part of oocytes (n = 225) were directly plunged into liquid nitrogen, and second part of oocytes (n = 219) into liquid air. Oocytes were thawed rapidly at a speed of 20,000 °C/min and then subsequently were placed into a graded series of sucrose solutions (0.5, 0.25, 0.12 and 0.06M) at 2.5 min intervals and cultured in vitro for 3 days. In both groups, the rate of high-quality embryos (Grade 6A: 6 blastomeres, no fragmentation; Grade 8A: 8 blastomeres, no fragmentation; Grade 8A compacting: 8 blastomeres, beginning of compacting) was noted. The rates of high-quality embryos developed from one-pronuclear oocytes vitrified by cooling in liquid nitrogen and liquid air were: 39.4% ± 0.6 and 38.7% ± 0.8, respectively (P > 0.1). These rates for three-pronuclear oocytes were: 45.8 ± 0.8% and 52.0 ± 0.7%, respectively (P liquid air (aseptic system) is a good alternative for using of not sterile liquid nitrogen. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Collision of an object in the transition from adiabatic inspiral to plunge around a Kerr black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Kimura, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    An inspiraling object of mass μ around a Kerr black hole of mass M(>>μ) experiences a continuous transition near the innermost stable circular orbit from adiabatic inspiral to plunge into the horizon as gravitational radiation extracts its energy and angular momentum. We investigate the collision of such an object with a generic counterpart around a Kerr black hole. We find that the angular momentum of the object is fine-tuned through gravitational radiation and that the high-velocity collision of the object with a generic counterpart naturally occurs around a nearly maximally rotating black hole. We also find that the center-of-mass energy can be far beyond the Planck energy for dark matter particles colliding around a stellar mass black hole and as high as 10 58 erg for stellar mass compact objects colliding around a supermassive black hole, where the present transition formalism is well justified. Therefore, rapidly rotating black holes can accelerate objects inspiraling around them to energy high enough to be of great physical interest.

  6. DETERMINATION OF CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AT THE OUTER SURFACE OF A CRYOVIAL BEING PLUNGED INTO LIQUID NITROGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Zhao, G; Tang, H Y; Jiang, Z D

    2015-01-01

    Cell survival upon cryopreservation is affected by the cooling rate. However, it is difficult to model the heat transfer process or to predict the cooling curve of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) solution due to the uncertainty of its convective heat transfer coefficient (h). To measure the h and to better understand the heat transfer process of cryovials filled with CPA solution being plunged in liquid nitrogen. The temperatures at three locations of the CPA solution in a cryovial were measured. Different h values were selected after the cooling process was modeled as natural convection heat transfer, the film boiling and the nucleate boiling, respectively. And the temperatures of the selected points are simulated based on the selected h values. h was determined when the simulated temperature best fitted the experimental temperature. When the experimental results were best fitted, according to natural convection heat transfer model, h(1) = 120 W/(m(2)·K) while due to film boiling and nucleate boiling regimes h(f) = 5 W/(m(2)·K) followed by h(n) = 245 W/(m(2)·K). These values were verified by the differential cooling rates at the three locations of a cryovial. The heat transfer process during cooling in liquid nitrogen is better modeled as film boiling followed by nucleate boiling.

  7. Experimental Investigation on Cutting Characteristics in Nanometric Plunge-Cutting of BK7 and Fused Silica Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei; Chen, Ming

    2015-03-27

    Ductile cutting are most widely used in fabricating high-quality optical glass components to achieve crack-free surfaces. For ultra-precision machining of brittle glass materials, critical undeformed chip thickness (CUCT) commonly plays a pivotal role in determining the transition point from ductile cutting to brittle cutting. In this research, cutting characteristics in nanometric cutting of BK7 and fused silica glasses, including machined surface morphology, surface roughness, cutting force and specific cutting energy, were investigated with nanometric plunge-cutting experiments. The same cutting speed of 300 mm/min was used in the experiments with single-crystal diamond tool. CUCT was determined according to the mentioned cutting characteristics. The results revealed that 320 nm was found as the CUCT in BK7 cutting and 50 nm was determined as the size effect of undeformed chip thickness. A high-quality machined surface could be obtained with the undeformed chip thickness between 50 and 320 nm at ductile cutting stage. Moreover, no CUCT was identified in fused silica cutting with the current cutting conditions, and brittle-fracture mechanism was confirmed as the predominant chip-separation mode throughout the nanometric cutting operation.

  8. Behavior of surface integrity in cylindrical plunge grinding using different cooling systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Roberto Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The superficial texture of the material can exert a decisive influence on the application and performance of the machined component. The conventional fluids used in grinding processes are environmental risk and can also be dangerous to the health. The disposal of these toxic fluids is expensive and the contamination in the proximities of the machines can present risks to the health for the personnel in the shop floor. This paper analyzes the performance of the minimum quantity lubricant (MQL technique and compares it with the conventional cooling method, developing an optimized fluid application method using a specially designed nozzle, through which a minimum amount of oil is sprayed in a compressed air flow. This paper also explores and discusses the concept of the MQL in the grinding process of hardened AISI 4340 steel. The performance of the MQL technique in grinding was evaluated based on an analysis of the surface integrity (roughness, microstructure and microhardness. As a result, it was realized that the MQL technique provides very similar characteristics to conventional process and can be applied in industry, thus contributing to an environment friendly manufacturing.

  9. Seabed Motion During Sediment Density Flows as Recorded by Displaced Man-Made Motion-Recording Boulders and a Heavy Instrument Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Kieft, B.; Bird, L.; Klimov, D.; Herlien, R.; Sherman, A.; McCann, M. P.; Sumner, E.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Maier, K. L.; Barry, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over a period of 18 months the Coordinated Canyon Experiment documented the passage of at least 15 sediment density flows in Monterey Canyon, offshore California, with an array of moorings and sensors placed from 200 m to 1,850 m water depths. Free-standing `smart' boulders (Benthic Event Detectors, BED) and a 1,000 Kg tripod with an Acoustic Monitoring Transponder (AMT) and a BED attached to it were deployed in the upper canyon to detect seabed motions during sediment density flows. BEDs consist of spheres made of a combination of metal, plastic and syntactic foam ballasted to 2.1 g/cm3 density, containing accelerometers along three orthogonal axes, a time recorder, and a pressure sensor inside a pressure case rated to 500 m water depth. Acceleration of ≥ 0.008 G triggers data collection at a recording rate of 50 Hz until motion stops. Built-in acoustic beacons and modems allow for BEDs to be relocated, and data to be downloaded, even when BEDs are buried in sediment to depths of >1 m. Over the course of the study, depth changes and velocities of 24 BED movements during 9 events were recorded. BEDs moved at the velocity of the propagation of the flows down canyon, as documented by the time of arrival of the flow at successive sensors, but sometimes travelled at lower speeds. Seven movements of the AMT tripod were also recorded. In the largest of these, the heavy AMT tripod was transported over a distance of 4.1 Km. For at least four of these seven motions the AMT temperature record indicates that the movements were initiated while the tripod was buried. In one particular event simultaneous movements of five BEDs over a 100 m depth range indicate that the entire seabed was in motion at the same time over a canyon distance of 3.5 Km. Reconstructions of instrument motions in this event from their internally recorded acceleration data show that the AMT displacement was at the front of the event and had no rotational component. In contrast, free standing BEDs at the

  10. Changes in wood density, wood anatomy and hydraulic properties of the xylem along the root-to-shoot flow path in tropical rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph; Brock, Nicolai; Horna, Viviana

    2013-02-01

    It is generally assumed that the largest vessels are occurring in the roots and that vessel diameters and the related hydraulic conductance in the xylem are decreasing acropetally from roots to leaves. With this study in five tree species of a perhumid tropical rainforest in Sulawesi (Indonesia), we searched for patterns in hydraulic architecture and axial conductivity along the flow path from small-diameter roots through strong roots and the trunk to distal sun-canopy twigs. Wood density differed by not more than 10% across the different flow path positions in a species, and branch and stem wood density were closely related in three of the five species. Other than wood density, the wood anatomical and xylem hydraulic traits varied in dependence on the position along the flow path, but were unrelated to wood density within a tree. In contrast to reports from conifers and certain dicotyledonous species, we found a hump-shaped variation in vessel diameter and sapwood area--specific conductivity along the flow path in all five species with a maximum in the trunk and strong roots and minima in both small roots and twigs; the vessel size depended on the diameter of the organ. This pattern might be an adaptation to the perhumid climate with a low risk of hydraulic failure. Despite a similar mean vessel diameter in small roots and twigs, the two distal organs, hydraulically weighted mean vessel diameters were on average 30% larger in small roots, resulting in ∼ 85% higher empirical and theoretical specific conductivities. Relative vessel lumen area in percent of sapwood area decreased linearly by 70% from roots to twigs, reflecting the increase in sclerenchymatic tissue and tracheids in acropetal direction in the xylem. Vessel size was more closely related to the organ diameter than to the distance along the root-to-shoot flow path. We conclude that (i) the five co-occurring tree species show convergent patterns in their hydraulic architecture despite different growth

  11. Free stream turbulence and density ratio effects on the interaction region of a jet in a cross flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, C. E.; Foss, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Jets of low temperature air are introduced into the aft sections of gas turbine combustors for the purpose of cooling the high temperature gases and quenching the combustion reactions. Research studies, motivated by this complex flow field, have been executed by introducing a heated jet into the cross stream of a wind tunnel. The investigation by Kamotani and Greber stands as a prime example of such investigations and it serves as the principal reference for the present study. The low disturbance level of the cross stream, in their study and in similar research investigations, is compatible with an interest in identifying the basic features of this flow field. The influence of the prototypes' strongly disturbed cross flow is not, however, made apparent in these prior investigations.

  12. Vertical pneumatic conveying in dilute and dense-phase flows: experimental study of the influence of particle density and diameter on fluid dynamic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narimatsu C.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of particle size and density on the fluid dynamic behavior of vertical gas-solid transport of Group D particles in a 53.4 mm diameter transport tube were studied. For the conditions tested, the experimental curves of pressure gradient versus air velocity presented a minimum pressure gradient point, which is associated with a change in the flow regime from dense to dilute phase. The increases in particle size from 1.00 to 3.68 mm and in density from 935 to 2500 kg/m³ caused an increase in pressure gradient for the dense-phase transport region, but were not relevant in dilute transport. The transition velocity between dense and dilute flow (Umin also increased with increasing particle density and diameter. An empirical equation was fitted for predicting transition air velocity for the transport of glass spheres. Additional experiments, covering a wider range of conditions and particles properties, are still needed to allow the fitting of a generalized equation for prediction of Umin.

  13. PYFLOW_2.0: a computer program for calculating flow properties and impact parameters of past dilute pyroclastic density currents based on field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioguardi, Fabio; Mele, Daniela

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents PYFLOW_2.0, a hazard tool for the calculation of the impact parameters of dilute pyroclastic density currents (DPDCs). DPDCs represent the dilute turbulent type of gravity flows that occur during explosive volcanic eruptions; their hazard is the result of their mobility and the capability to laterally impact buildings and infrastructures and to transport variable amounts of volcanic ash along the path. Starting from data coming from the analysis of deposits formed by DPDCs, PYFLOW_2.0 calculates the flow properties (e.g., velocity, bulk density, thickness) and impact parameters (dynamic pressure, deposition time) at the location of the sampled outcrop. Given the inherent uncertainties related to sampling, laboratory analyses, and modeling assumptions, the program provides ranges of variations and probability density functions of the impact parameters rather than single specific values; from these functions, the user can interrogate the program to obtain the value of the computed impact parameter at any specified exceedance probability. In this paper, the sedimentological models implemented in PYFLOW_2.0 are presented, program functionalities are briefly introduced, and two application examples are discussed so as to show the capabilities of the software in quantifying the impact of the analyzed DPDCs in terms of dynamic pressure, volcanic ash concentration, and residence time in the atmosphere. The software and user's manual are made available as a downloadable electronic supplement.

  14. Schlieren visualization of flow-field modification over an airfoil by near-surface gas-density perturbations generated by a nanosecond-pulse-driven plasma actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Konno, Kaiki; Ando, Akira; Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro; Tanaka, Naoki; Nonomura, Taku; Asai, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Gas-density perturbations near an airfoil surface generated by a nanosecond dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuator (ns-DBDPA) are visualized using a high-speed Schlieren imaging method. Wind-tunnel experiments are conducted for a wind speed of 20 m s −1 with an NACA0015 airfoil whose chord length is 100 mm. The results show that the ns-DBDPA first generates a pressure wave and then stochastic perturbations of the gas density near the leading edge of the airfoil. Two structures with different characteristics are observed in the stochastic perturbations. One structure propagates along the boundary between the shear layer and the main flow at a speed close to that of the main flow. The other propagates more slowly on the surface of the airfoil and causes mixing between the main and shear flows. It is observed that these two heated structures interact with each other, resulting in a recovery in the negative pressure coefficient at the leading edge of the airfoil. (paper)

  15. Short-term hyperglycemia increases endothelial glycocalyx permeability and acutely decreases lineal density of capillaries with flowing red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Coert J.; Demirci, Cihan; Koeman, Anneke; Vink, Hans; Ince, Can

    2005-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is becoming recognized as an important risk factor for microvascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that short-term hyperglycemia, either on the scale of hours or weeks, alters the barrier function and the volume of the endothelial glycocalyx and decreases functional capillary density

  16. Evolution of the vorticity-area density during the formation of coherent structures in two-dimensional flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capel, H.W.; Pasmanter, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown: (1) that in two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flows the vorticity-area distribution evolves according to an advection-diffusion equation with a negative, time dependent diffusion coefficient and (2) how to use the vorticity-stream function relations, i.e., the so-called

  17. Local-scale modelling of density-driven flow for the phases of repository operation and post-closure at Beberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquet, O.; Siegel, P.

    2004-09-01

    A hydrogeological model was developed for Beberg with the aim of evaluating the impact of a repository (for the operational and post-closure phases) while accounting for the effects of density-driven flow. Two embedded scales were taken into account for this modelling study: a local scale at which the granitic medium was considered as a continuum and a repository scale, where the medium is fractured and therefore was regarded to be discrete. The following step-wise approach was established to model density-driven flow at both repository and local scale: (a) modelling fracture networks at the repository scale, (b) upscaling the hydraulic properties to a continuum at local scale and (c) modelling density-driven flow to evaluate repository impact at local scale. The results demonstrate the strong impact of the repository on the flow field during the phase of operation. The distribution of the salt concentration is affected by a large upcoming effect with increased relative concentration and by the presence of fracture zones carrying freshwater from the surface. The concentrations obtained for the reference case, expressed in terms of percentage with respect to the maximum (prescribed) value in the model, are as follows: ca 30% for the phase of desaturation, and ca 20% for the resaturation phase. For the reference case, the impact of repository operations appears no longer visible after a resaturation period of about 20 years after repository closure; under resaturation conditions, evidence of the operational phase has already disappeared in terms of the observed hydraulic and concentration fields. Sensitivity calculations have proven the importance of explicitly discretising repository tunnels when assessing resaturation time and maximum concentration values. Furthermore, the definition of a fixed potential as boundary condition along the model's top surface is likely to provide underestimated values for the maximum concentration and overestimated flow rates in the

  18. A new high-performance 3D multiphase flow code to simulate volcanic blasts and pyroclastic density currents: example from the Boxing Day event, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongaro, T. E.; Clarke, A.; Neri, A.; Voight, B.; Widiwijayanti, C.

    2005-12-01

    For the first time the dynamics of directed blasts from explosive lava-dome decompression have been investigated by means of transient, multiphase flow simulations in 2D and 3D. Multiphase flow models developed for the analysis of pyroclastic dispersal from explosive eruptions have been so far limited to 2D axisymmetric or Cartesian formulations which cannot properly account for important 3D features of the volcanic system such as complex morphology and fluid turbulence. Here we use a new parallel multiphase flow code, named PDAC (Pyroclastic Dispersal Analysis Code) (Esposti Ongaro et al., 2005), able to simulate the transient and 3D thermofluid-dynamics of pyroclastic dispersal produced by collapsing columns and volcanic blasts. The code solves the equations of the multiparticle flow model of Neri et al. (2003) on 3D domains extending up to several kilometres in 3D and includes a new description of the boundary conditions over topography which is automatically acquired from a DEM. The initial conditions are represented by a compact volume of gas and pyroclasts, with clasts of different sizes and densities, at high temperature and pressure. Different dome porosities and pressurization models were tested in 2D to assess the sensitivity of the results to the distribution of initial gas pressure, and to the total mass and energy stored in the dome, prior to 3D modeling. The simulations have used topographies appropriate for the 1997 Boxing Day directed blast on Montserrat, which eradicated the village of St. Patricks. Some simulations tested the runout of pyroclastic density currents over the ocean surface, corresponding to observations of over-water surges to several km distances at both locations. The PDAC code was used to perform 3D simulations of the explosive event on the actual volcano topography. The results highlight the strong topographic control on the propagation of the dense pyroclastic flows, the triggering of thermal instabilities, and the elutriation

  19. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.; Alam, Aftab; Buschmann, Alejandro H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  20. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2014-03-19

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  1. Numerical simulations of counter-current two-phase flow experiments in a PWR hot leg model using an interfacial area density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Thomas, E-mail: t.hoehne@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Deendarlianto,; Lucas, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    In order to improve the understanding of counter-current two-phase flows and to validate new physical models, CFD simulations of 1/3rd scale model of the hot leg of a German Konvoi PWR with rectangular cross section was performed. Selected counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) were calculated with ANSYS CFX 12.1 using the multi-fluid Euler-Euler modeling approach. The transient calculations were carried out using a gas/liquid inhomogeneous multiphase flow model coupled with a k-{omega} turbulence model for each phase. In the simulation, the surface drag was approached by a new correlation inside the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density (AIAD) model. The AIAD model allows the detection of the morphological form of the two phase flow and the corresponding switching via a blending function of each correlation from one object pair to another. As a result this model can distinguish between bubbles, droplets and the free surface using the local liquid phase volume fraction value. A comparison with the high-speed video observations shows a good qualitative agreement. The results indicated that quantitative agreement of the CCFL characteristics between calculation and experimental data was obtained. The goal is to provide an easy usable AIAD framework for all Code users, with the possibility of the implementation of their own correlations.

  2. Numerical simulations of counter-current two-phase flow experiments in a PWR hot leg model using an interfacial area density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohne, T.; Deendarlianto; Vallee, C.; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M., E-mail: t.hoehne@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Inst. of Safety Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In order to improve the understanding of counter-current two-phase flows and to validate new physical models, CFD simulations of 1/3rd scale model of the hot leg of a German Konvoi PWR with rectangular cross section was performed. Selected counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden- Rossendorf (HZDR) were calculated with ANSYS CFX 12.1 using the multi-fluid Euler-Euler modeling approach. The transient calculations were carried out using a gas/liquid inhomogeneous multiphase flow model coupled with a SST turbulence model for each phase. In the simulation, the surface drag was approached by a new correlation inside the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density (AIAD) model. The AIAD model allows the detection of the morphological form of the two phase flow and the corresponding switching via a blending function of each correlation from one object pair to another. As a result this model can distinguish between bubbles, droplets and the free surface using the local liquid phase volume fraction value. A comparison with the high-speed video observations shows a good qualitative agreement. The results indicated that quantitative agreement of the CCFL characteristics between calculation and experimental data was obtained. The goal is to provide an easy usable AIAD framework for all ANSYS CFX users, with the possibility of the implementation of their own correlations. (author)

  3. Variable-density groundwater flow simulations and particle tracking. Numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Stigsson, Martin; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Urban [Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden, Forsmark and Simpevarp. The investigations started in 2002 and have been planned since the late 1990s. The work presented here investigates the possibility of using hydrogeochemical measurements in deep boreholes to reduce parameter uncertainty in a regional modelling of groundwater flow in fractured rock. The work was conducted with the aim of improving the palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Simpevarp area and to give recommendations to the preparations of the next version of the Preliminary Site Description (1.2). The study is based on a large number of numerical simulations of transient variable density groundwater flow through a strongly heterogeneous and anisotropic medium. The simulations were conducted with the computer code DarcyTools, the development of which has been funded by SKB. DarcyTools is a flexible porous media code specifically designed to treat groundwater flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock and it is noted that some of the features presented in this report are still under development or subjected to testing and verification. The simulations reveal the sensitivity of the results to different hydrogeological modelling assumptions, e.g. the sensitivity to the initial groundwater conditions at 10,000 BC, the size of the model domain and boundary conditions, and the hydraulic properties of deterministically and stochastically modelled deformation zones. The outcome of these simulations was compared with measured salinities and calculated relative proportions of different water types (mixing proportions) from measurements in two deep core drilled boreholes in the Laxemar subarea. In addition to the flow simulations, the statistics of flow related transport parameters were calculated for particle flowpaths from repository depth to ground surface for two subareas within the

  4. Variable-density groundwater flow simulations and particle tracking. Numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin; Berglund, Sten; Svensson, Urban

    2004-12-01

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden, Forsmark and Simpevarp. The investigations started in 2002 and have been planned since the late 1990s. The work presented here investigates the possibility of using hydrogeochemical measurements in deep boreholes to reduce parameter uncertainty in a regional modelling of groundwater flow in fractured rock. The work was conducted with the aim of improving the palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Simpevarp area and to give recommendations to the preparations of the next version of the Preliminary Site Description (1.2). The study is based on a large number of numerical simulations of transient variable density groundwater flow through a strongly heterogeneous and anisotropic medium. The simulations were conducted with the computer code DarcyTools, the development of which has been funded by SKB. DarcyTools is a flexible porous media code specifically designed to treat groundwater flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock and it is noted that some of the features presented in this report are still under development or subjected to testing and verification. The simulations reveal the sensitivity of the results to different hydrogeological modelling assumptions, e.g. the sensitivity to the initial groundwater conditions at 10,000 BC, the size of the model domain and boundary conditions, and the hydraulic properties of deterministically and stochastically modelled deformation zones. The outcome of these simulations was compared with measured salinities and calculated relative proportions of different water types (mixing proportions) from measurements in two deep core drilled boreholes in the Laxemar subarea. In addition to the flow simulations, the statistics of flow related transport parameters were calculated for particle flowpaths from repository depth to ground surface for two subareas within the

  5. Effects of CT Number-Derived Matrix Density on Preferential Flow 1 and Transport in a Macroporous Agricultural Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Moldrup, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    risks to public health. This study was focused on establishing links between the structural pore space and preferential transport using a combination of standard physical measurement methods for air and water permeabilities, breakthrough experiments, and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) on large soil...... columns. Substantial structural heterogeneity that resulted in significant variations of flow and tracer transport was observed, despite the textural similarity of investigated samples. Quantification of macropore characteristics with X-ray CT was useful but not sufficient to explain the variability...

  6. Assessment of the metabolic flow phenotype of primary colorectal cancer: correlations with microvessel density are influenced by the histological scoring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Vicky [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel [University College Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Engledow, Alec; Peck, Jacqui [University College Hospital, Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Shastry, Manu; Endozo, Raymondo; Meagher, Marie; Groves, Ashley M. [University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve [University College Hospital, Specialist Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate how the histological scoring of microvessel density affects correlations between integrated {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/perfusion CT parameters and CD105 microvessel density. A total of 53 patients were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Integrated {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/perfusion CT was successful in 45 patients, 35 of whom underwent surgery without intervening treatment. Tumour SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean} and regional blood flow (BF) were derived. Immunohistochemical staining for CD105 expression and analysis were performed for two hot spots, four hot spots and the Chalkley method. Correlations between metabolic flow parameters and CD105 expression were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation. Mean (SD) for tumour size was 38.5 (20.5) mm, for SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean} and BF it was 19.1 (4.5), 11.6 (2.5) and 85.4 (40.3) mL/min/100 g tissue, and for CD105 microvessel density it was 71.4 (23.6), 66.8 (22.9) and 6.18 (2.07) for two hot spots, four hot spots and the Chalkley method, respectively. Positive correlation between BF and CD105 expression was modest but higher for Chalkley than for four hot spots analysis (r = 0.38, P = 0.03; r = 0.33, P = 0.05, respectively). There were no significant correlations between metabolic parameters (SUV{sub max} or SUV{sub mean}) and CD105 expression (r = 0.08-0.22, P = 0.21-0.63). The histological analysis method affects correlations between tumour CD105 expression and BF but not SUV{sub max} or SUV{sub mean}. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of the metabolic flow phenotype of primary colorectal cancer: correlations with microvessel density are influenced by the histological scoring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Vicky; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Engledow, Alec; Peck, Jacqui; Shastry, Manu; Endozo, Raymondo; Meagher, Marie; Groves, Ashley M.; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how the histological scoring of microvessel density affects correlations between integrated 18 F-FDG-PET/perfusion CT parameters and CD105 microvessel density. A total of 53 patients were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Integrated 18 F-FDG-PET/perfusion CT was successful in 45 patients, 35 of whom underwent surgery without intervening treatment. Tumour SUV max , SUV mean and regional blood flow (BF) were derived. Immunohistochemical staining for CD105 expression and analysis were performed for two hot spots, four hot spots and the Chalkley method. Correlations between metabolic flow parameters and CD105 expression were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation. Mean (SD) for tumour size was 38.5 (20.5) mm, for SUV max , SUV mean and BF it was 19.1 (4.5), 11.6 (2.5) and 85.4 (40.3) mL/min/100 g tissue, and for CD105 microvessel density it was 71.4 (23.6), 66.8 (22.9) and 6.18 (2.07) for two hot spots, four hot spots and the Chalkley method, respectively. Positive correlation between BF and CD105 expression was modest but higher for Chalkley than for four hot spots analysis (r = 0.38, P = 0.03; r = 0.33, P = 0.05, respectively). There were no significant correlations between metabolic parameters (SUV max or SUV mean ) and CD105 expression (r = 0.08-0.22, P = 0.21-0.63). The histological analysis method affects correlations between tumour CD105 expression and BF but not SUV max or SUV mean . (orig.)

  8. Outflow of traffic from the national capital Kuala Lumpur to the north, south and east coast highways using flow, speed and density relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha; Nik Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim

    2016-01-01

    The functional relationships between flow (veh/km), density (veh/h) and speed (km/h) in traffic congestion have a long history of research. However, their findings and techniques persist to be relevant to this day. The analysis is pertinent, particularly in finding the best fit for the three major highways in Malaysia, namely the KL-Karak Highway, KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. The trans-logarithm function of density—speed model was compared to the classical models of Greenshields, Greenberg, Underwood and Drake et al. using data provided by the Transport Statistics Malaysia 2014. The results of regression analysis revealed that the Greenshields and Greenberg models were statistically signifi-cant. The trans-logarithm function was also tested and the results were nonetheless without exception. Its usefulness in addition to statistical significance related to the derived economic concepts of maximum speed and the related number of vehicles, flow and density and the limits of free speed were relevant in comparing the individual levels of traffic congestion between highways. For instance, KL-Karak Highway was least congested compared to KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. Their maximum speeds, based on three lanes carriage capacity of one direction, were 33.4 km/h for KL-Karak, 15.9 km/h for KL-Seremban, and 21.1 km/h for KL-Ipoh. Their corresponding flows were approxi-mated at 1080.9 veh/h, 1555.4 veh/h, and 1436.6 veh/h.

  9. Outflow of traffic from the national capital Kuala Lumpur to the north, south and east coast highways using flow, speed and density relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional relationships between flow (veh/km, density (veh/h and speed (km/h in traffic congestion have a long history of research. However, their findings and techniques persist to be relevant to this day. The analysis is pertinent, particularly in finding the best fit for the three major highways in Malaysia, namely the KL-Karak Highway, KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. The trans-logarithm function of density–speed model was compared to the classical models of Greenshields, Greenberg, Underwood and Drake et al. using data provided by the Transport Statistics Malaysia 2014. The results of regression analysis revealed that the Greenshields and Greenberg models were statistically significant. The trans-logarithm function was also tested and the results were nonetheless without exception. Its usefulness in addition to statistical significance related to the derived economic concepts of maximum speed and the related number of vehicles, flow and density and the limits of free speed were relevant in comparing the individual levels of traffic congestion between highways. For instance, KL-Karak Highway was least congested compared to KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. Their maximum speeds, based on three lanes carriage capacity of one direction, were 33.4 km/h for KL-Karak, 15.9 km/h for KL-Seremban, and 21.1 km/h for KL-Ipoh. Their corresponding flows were approximated at 1080.9 veh/h, 1555.4 veh/h, and 1436.6 veh/h.

  10. A numerical method for the quasi-incompressible Cahn–Hilliard–Navier–Stokes equations for variable density flows with a discrete energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Z.; Lin, P.; Lowengrub, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate numerically a diffuse interface model for the Navier–Stokes equation with fluid–fluid interface when the fluids have different densities [48]. Under minor reformulation of the system, we show that there is a continuous energy law underlying the system, assuming that all variables have reasonable regularities. It is shown in the literature that an energy law preserving method will perform better for multiphase problems. Thus for the reformulated system, we design a C 0 finite element method and a special temporal scheme where the energy law is preserved at the discrete level. Such a discrete energy law (almost the same as the continuous energy law) for this variable density two-phase flow model has never been established before with C 0 finite element. A Newton method is introduced to linearise the highly non-linear system of our discretization scheme. Some numerical experiments are carried out using the adaptive mesh to investigate the scenario of coalescing and rising drops with differing density ratio. The snapshots for the evolution of the interface together with the adaptive mesh at different times are presented to show that the evolution, including the break-up/pinch-off of the drop, can be handled smoothly by our numerical scheme. The discrete energy functional for the system is examined to show that the energy law at the discrete level is preserved by our scheme

  11. INTRAVAL Phase 2: Investigations into the influence of the density stratification on groundwater flow by the example of pumping test 'Weisses Moor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollrath, J.; Arens, G.

    1992-11-01

    After a short description of the pumping test the determination of the aquifer parameters permeability k, storage coefficient S and aquifer thickness b is described on the basis of the analytical THEIS-solution for the calculation of the drawdown of a well. The numerical computations with the computer codes SUTRA and ROCKFLOW based on this are described. The computations have led to the result that the drawdown values observed in the pumping test can be described with the assumptions based on the THEIS-solution. The computations considering the density stratification do not show significant differences compared to the freshwater computations. The influence of the arrangement of filter areas in the well or the distribution of the pumped water along that filter areas is greater than the influence of the computation as freshwater or salt-water model. However, the difference between the observed density of the pumped water and the computed density is in the range of 20 to 50% depending on the model variant. It can be concluded that the flow conditions for this pumping test cannot be validated with the simple approaches and models used. (orig.) [de

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow levels as measured by xenon-CT in vascular territorial low-density areas after subarachnoid hemorrhage are not always ischemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainardi, E.; Tagliaferri, M.F.; Compagnone, C.; Tanfani, A.; Cocciolo, F.; Targa, L.; Chieregato, A.; Battaglia, R.; Frattarelli, M.; Pascarella, R.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBV) in areas of CT hypoattenuation appearing in the postoperative period in patients treated for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using xenon-enhanced CT scanning (Xe-CT). We analyzed 15 patients (5 male and 10 female; mean age 49.7±12.1 years) with SAH on CT performed on admission to hospital and who showed a low-density area within a well-defined vascular territory on CT scans after clipping or coiling of a saccular aneurysm. All zones of hypoattenuation were larger than 1 cm 2 and showed signs of a mass effect suggesting a subacute phase of evolution. Two aneurysms were detected in two patients. Aneurysms were located in the middle cerebral artery (n=7), in the anterior communicating artery (n=6), in the internal carotid artery (n=3), and in the posterior communicating artery (n=1). Treatments were surgical (n=8), endovascular (n=2) or both (n=1). A total of 36 Xe-CT studies were performed and rCBF values were measured in two different regions of interest (ROI): the low-density area, and an area of normal-appearing brain tissue located symmetrically in the contralateral hemisphere. rCBF levels were significantly lower in the low-density area than in the contralateral normal-appearing area (P 55 ml/100 g per minute) in 2/36 lesions (5.6%). Our study confirmed that rCBF is reduced in new low-density lesions related to specific vascular territories. However, only about one-third of the lesions showed rCBF levels consistent with irreversible ischemia and in a relatively high proportion of lesions, rCBF levels indicated penumbral, oligemic and hyperemic areas. (orig.)

  13. Three-Dimensional Grain Shape-Fabric from Unconsolidated Pyroclastic Density Current Deposits: Implications for Extracting Flow Direction and Insights on Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, T. T.; Brand, B. D.; Sarrochi, D.; Pollock, N.

    2016-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges volcanologists face is the ability to extrapolate information about eruption dynamics and emplacement conditions from deposits. Pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits are particularly challenging given the wide range of initial current conditions, (e.g., granular, fluidized, concentrated, dilute), and rapid flow transformations due to interaction with evolving topography. Analysis of particle shape-fabric can be used to determine flow direction, and may help to understand the rheological characteristics of the flows. However, extracting shape-fabric information from outcrop (2D) apparent fabric is limited, especially when outcrop exposure is incomplete or lacks context. To better understand and quantify the complex flow dynamics reflected in PDC deposits, we study the complete shape-fabric data in 3D using oriented samples. In the field, the prospective sample is carved from the unconsolidated deposit in blocks, the dimensions of which depend on the average clast size in the sample. The sample is saturated in situ with a water-based sodium silicate solution, then wrapped in plaster-soaked gauze to form a protective cast. The orientation of the sample is recorded on the block faces. The samples dry for five days and are then extracted in intact blocks. In the lab, the sample is vacuum impregnated with sodium silicate and cured in an oven. The fully lithified sample is first cut along the plan view to identify orientations of the long axes of the grains (flow direction), and then cut in the two plains perpendicular to grain elongation. 3D fabric analysis is performed using high resolution images of the cut-faces using computer assisted image analysis software devoted to shape-fabric analysis. Here we present the results of samples taken from the 18 May 1980 PDC deposit facies, including massive, diffuse-stratified and cross-stratified lapilli tuff. We show a relationship between the strength of iso-orientation of the elongated

  14. Structure, alteration, and geochemistry of the Charlotte quartz vein stockwork, Mt Charlotte gold mine, Kalgoorlie, Australia: time constraints, down-plunge zonation, and fluid source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.

    2015-02-01

    The Kalgoorlie district in the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, comprises two world-class gold deposits: Mt Charlotte (144 t Au produced to 2013) in the northwest and the Golden Mile (1,670 t Au) in the southeast. Both occur in a folded greenschist-facies gabbro sill adjacent to the Golden Mile Fault (D2) in propylitic alteration associated with porphyry dikes. At Mt Charlotte, a shear array of fault-fill veins within the Golden Mile Fault indicates sinistral strike-slip during Golden Mile-type pyrite-telluride mineralization. The pipe-shaped Charlotte quartz vein stockwork, mined in bulk more than 1 km down plunge, is separated in time by barren D3 thrusts from Golden Mile mineralization and alteration, and occurs between two dextral strike-slip faults (D4). Movement on these faults generated an organized network of extension and shear fractures opened during the subsequent infiltration of high-pressure H2S-rich fluid at 2,655 ± 13 Ma (U-Pb xenotime). Gold was deposited during wall rock sulphidation in overlapping vein selvages zoned from deep albite-pyrrhotite (3 g/t Au) to upper muscovite-pyrite assemblages (5 g/t Au bulk grade). Chlorite and fluid inclusion thermometry indicate that this kilometre-scale zonation is due to fluid cooling from 410-440 °C at the base to 350-360 °C at the top of the orebody, while the greenstone terrane remained at 250 °C ambient temperature and at 300 MPa lithostatic pressure. The opened fractures filled with barren quartz and scheelite during the retrograde stage (300 °C) of the hydrothermal event. During fracture sealing, fluid flux was periodically restricted at the lower D3 thrust. Cycles of high and low up-flow, represented by juvenile H2O-CO2 and evolved H2O-CO2-CH4 fluid, respectively, are recorded by the REE and Sr isotope compositions of scheelite oscillatory zones. The temperature gradient measured in the vein stockwork points to a hot (>600 °C) fluid source 2-4 km below the mine workings, and several

  15. Simulation of variable-density flow and transport of reactive and nonreactive solutes during a tracer test at Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hubao; Schwartz, Frank W.; Wood, Warren W.; Garabedian, S.P.; LeBlanc, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    A multispecies numerical code was developed to simulate flow and mass transport with kinetic adsorption in variable-density flow systems. The two-dimensional code simulated the transport of bromide (Br−), a nonreactive tracer, and lithium (Li+), a reactive tracer, in a large-scale tracer test performed in a sand-and-gravel aquifer at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. A two-fraction kinetic adsorption model was implemented to simulate the interaction of Li+ with the aquifer solids. Initial estimates for some of the transport parameters were obtained from a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting procedure, where the breakthrough curves from column experiments were matched with one-dimensional theoretical models. The numerical code successfully simulated the basic characteristics of the two plumes in the tracer test. At early times the centers of mass of Br− and Li+ sank because the two plumes were closely coupled to the density-driven velocity field. At later times the rate of downward movement in the Br− plume due to gravity slowed significantly because of dilution by dispersion. The downward movement of the Li+ plume was negligible because the two plumes moved in locally different velocity regimes, where Li+ transport was retarded relative to Br−. The maximum extent of downward transport of the Li+ plume was less than that of the Br− plume. This study also found that at early times the downward movement of a plume created by a three-dimensional source could be much more extensive than the case with a two-dimensional source having the same cross-sectional area. The observed shape of the Br− plume at Cape Cod was simulated by adding two layers with different hydraulic conductivities at shallow depth across the region. The large dispersion and asymmetrical shape of the Li+ plume were simulated by including kinetic adsorption-desorption reactions.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Flow and Temperature Distributions of Density Currents in a River-Reservoir System under Upstream Releases with Different Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A calibrated three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code model was applied to simulate unsteady flow patterns and temperature distributions in the Bankhead river-reservoir system in Alabama, USA. A series of sensitivity model runs were performed under daily repeated large releases (DRLRs with different durations (2, 4 and 6 h from Smith Dam Tailrace (SDT when other model input variables were kept unchanged. The density currents in the river-reservoir system form at different reaches, are destroyed at upstream locations due to the flow momentum of the releases, and form again due to solar heating. DRLRs (140 m3/s with longer durations push the bottom cold water further downstream and maintain a cooler bottom water temperature. For the 6-h DRLR, the momentum effect definitely reaches Cordova (~43.7 km from SDT. Positive bottom velocity (density currents moving downstream is achieved 48.4%, 69.0% and 91.1% of the time with an average velocity of 0.017, 0.042 and 0.053 m/s at Cordova for the 2-h, 4-h and 6-h DRLR, respectively. Results show that DRLRs lasting for at least 4 h maintain lower water temperatures at Cordova. When the 4-h and 6-h DRLRs repeat for more than 6 and 10 days, respectively, bottom temperatures at Cordova become lower than those for the constant small release (2.83 m3/s. These large releases overwhelm the mixing effects due to inflow momentum and maintain temperature stratification at Cordova.

  17. Fertility and flow cytometric evaluations of frozen-thawed rooster semen in cryopreservation medium containing low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, A; Sharafi, M; Gourabi, H; Yekta, A Amiri; Esmaeili, V; Sharbatoghli, M; Janzamin, E; Hajnasrollahi, M; Mostafayi, F

    2015-01-01

    Frozen-thawed rooster semen is not reliable for use in artificial insemination in commercial stocks. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been assessed for effectiveness as a cryoprotectant in the extender to improve the quality of frozen-thawed rooster semen. Although LDL has been evaluated in a few studies in other species for semen cryopreservation, so far no study has been conducted to examine this cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of fowl semen. Thus, this study aims to analyze the effects of different concentrations of LDL (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) in a Beltsville extender for cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. In experiment 1, motion parameters, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, apoptosis status, and mitochondria activity were assessed after freeze-thawing. The highest quality frozen-thawed semen was selected to be used for evaluation of the fertility rate in experiment 2. Semen was collected from six roosters, twice weekly, then extended in a Beltsville extender that contained different concentrations of LDL as follows: 0% (control), 1% (Beltsville plus 1% LDL [BLDL1]), 2% (BLDL2), 4% (BLDL4), 6% (BLDL6), and 8% (BLDL8). Supplementation of the Beltsville extender with 4% LDL produced the most significant percentage of motility (43.1 ± 1.3), membrane integrity (59.4 ± 2.1),mitochondria activity (49.1 ± 1.19), and viable spermatozoa (45 ± 2.28) compared with the control treatment with the results of 22.7 ± 1.3 (motility), 38.4 ± 2.1 (membrane integrity), 40.25 ± 1.19 (mitochondrial activity), and 37.8 ± 2.28 (viability). In experiment 2, a significantly higher percentage of fertility rate was observed for frozen-thawed semen in the extender supplemented with 4% LDL (49.5 ± 1.6) compared with the control (29.2 ± 2.9). Progressive motility and acrosome integrity were not affected by LDL levels in the extenders. The results revealed that supplementation of the Beltsville extender with 4% LDL resulted in higher quality of frozen-thawed rooster

  18. Joint Calibration of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) with Tidal Pumping: Modeling Variable-density Groundwater Flow in Unconfined Coastal Aquifer of Apalachee Bay, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Hu, B.; Burnett, W.; Santos, I.

    2008-05-01

    Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) as an unseen phenomenon is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making quantification difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, and temporally variable, and thus makes the estimation of its magnitude and components is a challenging enterprise. A two-dimensional hydrogeological model is developed to the near-shore environment of an unconfined aquifer at a Florida coastal area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Intense geological survey and slug tests are set to investigate the heterogeneity of this layered aquifer. By applying SEAWAT2000, considering the uncertainties caused by changes of boundary conditions, a series of variable-density-flow models incorporates the tidal-influenced seawater recirculation and the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone under the dynamics of tidal pattern, tidal amplitude and variation of water table. These are thought as the contributing factors of tidal pumping and hydraulic gradient which are the driven forces of SGD. A tidal-influenced mixing zone in the near-shore aquifer shows the importance of tidal mechanism to flow and salt transport in the process of submarine pore water exchange. Freshwater ratio in SGD is also analyzed through the comparison of Submarine Groundwater Recharge and freshwater inflow. The joint calibration with other methods (natural tracer model and seepage meter) is also discussed.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of a coupled hydro-mechanical paleo-climate model of density-dependent groundwater flow in discretely fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normani, S.D.; Sykes, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    A high resolution three-dimensional sub-regional scale (104 km 2 ) density-dependent, discretely fractured groundwater flow model with hydro-mechanical coupling and pseudo-permafrost was developed from a larger 5734 km 2 regional-scale groundwater flow model of a Canadian Shield setting. The objective of the work is to determine the sensitivity of modelled groundwater system evolution to the hydro-mechanical parameters. The discrete fracture dual continuum numerical model FRAC3DVS-OPG was used for all simulations. A discrete fracture network model delineated from surface features was superimposed onto an approximate 790 000 element domain mesh with approximately 850 000 nodes. Orthogonal fracture faces (between adjacent finite element grid blocks) were used to best represent the irregular discrete fracture zone network. Interconnectivity of the permeable fracture zones is an important pathway for the possible migration and subsequent reduction in groundwater and contaminant residence times. The crystalline rock matrix between these structural discontinuities was assigned mechanical and flow properties characteristic of those reported for the Canadian Shield. The variation of total dissolved solids with depth was assigned using literature data for the Canadian Shield. Performance measures for the sensitivity analysis include equivalent freshwater heads, environmental heads, linear velocities, and depth of penetration by conservative non-decaying tracers released at the surface. A 121 000 year North American continental scale paleo-climate simulation was applied to the domain with ice-sheet histories estimated by the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model (UofT GSM). Hydro-mechanical coupling between the rock matrix and the pore fluid, due to the ice sheet normal stress, was included in the simulations. The flow model included the influence of vertical strain and assumed that areal loads were homogeneous. Permafrost depth was applied as a permeability reduction

  20. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model--Documentation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing

    2003-01-01

    SEAWAT-2000 is the latest release of the SEAWAT computer program for simulation of three-dimensional, variable-density, transient ground-water flow in porous media. SEAWAT-2000 was designed by combining a modified version of MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS into a single computer program. The code was developed using the MODFLOW-2000 concept of a process, which is defined as ?part of the code that solves a fundamental equation by a specified numerical method.? SEAWAT-2000 contains all of the processes distributed with MODFLOW-2000 and also includes the Variable-Density Flow Process (as an alternative to the constant-density Ground-Water Flow Process) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process. Processes may be active or inactive, depending on simulation objectives; however, not all processes are compatible. For example, the Sensitivity and Parameter Estimation Processes are not compatible with the Variable-Density Flow and Integrated MT3DMS Transport Processes. The SEAWAT-2000 computer code was tested with the common variable-density benchmark problems and also with problems representing evaporation from a salt lake and rotation of immiscible fluids.

  1. The basic research on a high-density ratio gas-liquid flow. 1995 fiscal year report on the study in advanced fundamental field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Nishihara, Hideaki; Hibiki, Takashi; Tobita, Yoshiharu.

    1996-05-01

    This study is the basic research on boiling behavior of mixing pool which consists of fuel and steel formed in the reactor core during the core damage accident of fast breeder reactor. This study is performed under the cooperative research between Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. and Res. Reactor Inst., Kyoto Univ.. The objective of this study is the visualization using the neutron radiography technique for the simulation test which injects bubbles from the bottom of molten metal pool. This experiments serves basic data such as bubble diameter, movement, and void fraction of a high-density ratio gas-liquid flow. In addition, these experimental data will be applied for the model verification and improvement of the SIMMER-III code. As a first year of the cooperative research, in this fiscal year, the visualization performance of the radiography technique was tested using the solid sample with the void space which simulated a bubble. The result of this experiment is described in this report. (author)

  2. Study on the stability of a single-phase natural circulation flow in a closed loop. Demonstrative experiments on the higher-mode density wave oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    Single-phase natural circulation loops are very important systems driven by the density variation generated thermally and have various applications in energy systems. Many theoretical and experimental works have been carried out on them and it has been known that the oscillatory instability can occur under some conditions. Most of the works on the oscillatory instability have been limited to specific geometry of the loops and they have paid attention only to the instability of fundamental mode, which has the period approximately equal to the item that the fluid goes round the loop, hereinafter referred to as the typical period. The author had applied the linear stability analysis to the simplified rectangular loop to investigate the basic stability characteristics of a natural circulation flow in a closed loop. The results indicate that various higher-mode oscillatory instabilities can be caused with a period approximately equal to one nth of the typical period according to parameters such as the pressure loss coefficient, the locations of a heat source and a heat sink, and so on. In this report, experimental tests were carried out and it was demonstrated that the higher-mode oscillatory instability can be caused with features as predicted in the analysis. The stability analysis was applied to the geometry of the experimental apparatus. The analytical results and those of experiments were compared with regard to the mode and the region of the parameters to be unstable and they have a good agreement qualitatively. (author)

  3. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  4. Flow in bedrock canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Jeremy G; Rennie, Colin D; Bomhof, James; Bradley, Ryan W; Little, Malcolm; Church, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in canyons. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock canyons. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser Canyon in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock canyons. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the canyons, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the canyon walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the canyon walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock canyons is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.

  5. Reversible flow of cholesteryl ester between high-density lipoproteins and triacylglycerol-rich particles is modulated by the fatty acid composition and concentration of triacylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C.R. Quintão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We determined the influence of fasting (FAST and feeding (FED on cholesteryl ester (CE flow between high-density lipoproteins (HDL and plasma apoB-lipoprotein and triacylglycerol (TG-rich emulsions (EM prepared with TG-fatty acids (FAs. TG-FAs of varying chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation were tested in the presence of a plasma fraction at d > 1.21 g/mL as the source of CE transfer protein. The transfer of CE from HDL to FED was greater than to FAST TG-rich acceptor lipoproteins, 18% and 14%, respectively. However, percent CE transfer from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins was similar for FED and FAST HDL. The CE transfer from HDL to EM depended on the EM TG-FA chain length. Furthermore, the chain length of the monounsaturated TG-containing EM showed a significant positive correlation of the CE transfer from HDL to EM (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001 and a negative correlation from EM to HDL (r = -041, P = 0.0088. Regarding the degree of EM TG-FAs unsaturation, among EMs containing C18, the CE transfer was lower from HDL to C18:2 compared to C18:1 and C18:3, 17.7%, 20.7%, and 20%, respectively. However, the CE transfer from EMs to HDL was higher to C18:2 than to C18:1 and C18:3, 83.7%, 51.2%, and 46.3%, respectively. Thus, the EM FA composition was found to be the rate-limiting factor regulating the transfer of CE from HDL. Consequently, the net transfer of CE between HDL and TG-rich particles depends on the specific arrangement of the TG acyl chains in the lipoprotein particle core.

  6. Topographic controls on pyroclastic density current dynamics: Insight from 18 May 1980 deposits at Mount St. Helens, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Bendaña, Sylvana; Self, Stephen; Pollock, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Our ability to interpret the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is critical for understanding the transport and depositional processes that control PDC dynamics. This paper focuses on the influence of slope on flow dynamics and criticality as recorded in PDC deposits from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (USA). PDC deposits are found along the steep flanks (10°-30°) and across the pumice plain ( 5°) up to 8 km north of the volcano. Granulometry, componentry and descriptions of depositional characteristics (e.g., bedform morphology) are recorded with distance from source. The pumice plain deposits are primarily thick (3-12 m), massive and poorly-sorted, and represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs. By contrast, the steep flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes. We propose that acceleration of the concentrated PDCs along the steep flanks resulted in thinning of the concentrated, basal region of the current(s). Enhanced entrainment of ambient air, and autofluidization from upward fluxes of air from substrate interstices and plunging breakers across rugged, irregular topography further inflated the currents to the point that the overriding turbulent region strongly influenced transport and depositional mechanisms. Acceleration in combination with partial confinement in slot canyons and high surface roughness would also increase basal shear stress, further promoting shear and traction transport in the basal region of the current. Conditions along the steep flank resulted in supercritical flow, as recorded by regressive bedforms, which gradually transitioned to subcritical flow downstream as the concentrated basal region thickness increased as a function of decreasing slope and flow energy. We also find that (1) PDCs were erosive into the underlying granular substrate along high slopes (> 25°) where currents were

  7. Experimental investigation of gas flow rate and electric field effect on refractive index and electron density distribution of cold atmospheric pressure-plasma by optical method, Moiré deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzadeh, Mohammad; Jamal, Fatemeh; Shariat, Mahdi

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, cold atmospheric-pressure (CAP) helium plasma jets are widely used in material processing devices in various industries. Researchers often use indirect and spectrometric methods for measuring the plasma parameters which are very expensive. In this paper, for the first time, characterization of CAP, i.e., finding its parameters such as refractive index and electron density distribution, was carried out using an optical method, Moiré deflectometry. This method is a wave front analysis technique based on geometric optics. The advantages of this method are simplicity, high accuracy, and low cost along with the non-contact, non-destructive, and direct measurement of CAP parameters. This method demonstrates that as the helium gas flow rate decreases, the refractive index increases. Also, we must note that the refractive index is larger in the gas flow consisting of different flow rates of plasma comparing with the gas flow without the plasma.

  8. Increasing the energy density of the non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery with new electrolytes; Neue Elektrolyte zur Steigerung der Energiedichte einer nicht-waessrigen Vanadium-Acetylacetonat-Redox-Flow-Batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Tatjana

    2015-07-01

    Redox flow battery (RFB) is a promising energy storage technology which is similar to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Currently, this electrochemical energy conversion device is used as a storage system for renewable energies or as uninterruptable power source. All-Vanadium-RFB (VRFB) and Zinc-Bromine-RFB are most well-known types of the aqueous RFB for these applications. But also the non-aqueous RFB is becoming more and more famous, because non-aqueous electrolytes offer wider operating temperature ranges, wider stable potential windows and a potentially higher energy density. However, current research studies show that the solubility of the most used redox active species is not sufficient. Therefore, present study aims to show concepts in order to solve this problem. Vanadium(III)acetylacetonate (V(acac){sub 3}) is used as active species, supported by tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate. In acetonitrile it shows two quasi-reversible redox couples and a cell potential ∝2.2 V. The maximum solubility is ∝0.6 M. In this work other solvents and solvent mixtures were examined with the objective of increasing the solubility of V(acac){sub 3}. In 1,3-dioxolane the solubility was e.g. 0.8 M, dimethyl sulfoxide showed good battery performance with the highest energy efficiency ∝44 %. Acetylacetone is able to regenerate V(acac){sub 3} from the side product that is formed by reaction with water. The new electrolyte solution consisting of acetonitrile, 1,3-dioxolane and dimethyl sulfoxide nearly doubled the solubility of V(acac){sub 3}. In galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, single cell V(acac){sub 3} RFB exhibited energy efficiency between 25-50 % depending an test conditions. Also, the influence of water and oxygen addition an electrolyte was investigated. Finally, experiments with different ambient temperatures show that V(acac){sub 3} RFB is able to operate at temperatures such as 0 C and -25 C.

  9. Test of an Hypothesis of Magnetization, Tilt and Flow in an Hypabyssal Intrusion, Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, S.; MacDonald, W. D.; Estrada, J. J.; Sierra, G. M.

    2002-05-01

    Magnetic remanence in the Miocene Clavijo intrusion in the Cauca Valley, adjacent to the Cordillera Central, plunges steeply northward (MacDonald et al., 1996). Assuming magnetization in a normal magnetic field, the expected remanence direction is approximately I= 10o, D= 000o; the observed remanence is I=84o, D=003o. The discrepancy could be explained by a 74o rotation about a horizontal E-W axis, i.e., about an axis normal to the nearby N-S trending Romeral fault zone. If the intrusion is the shallow feeder of a now-eroded andesitic volcano, then perhaps the paleovertical direction is preserved in flow lineations and provides a test of the tilt/rotation of the remanence. In combination, the steep remanence direction, vertical flow, and the inferred rotation of the volcanic neck lead to the hypothesis of a shallow-plunging southward lineation for this body. Using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a proxy for the flow lineation, it is predicted that the K1 (maximum susceptibility) axis in this body plunges gently south. This hypothesis was tested using approximately 50 oriented cores from 5 sites near the west margin of the Clavijo intrusion. The results suggest a NW plunging lineation, inconsistent with the initial hypothesis. However, a relatively consistent flow lineation is suggested by the K1 axes. If this flow axis represents paleovertical, it suggests moderate tilting of the Clavijo body towards the southeast. The results are encouraging enough to suggest that AMS may be useful for determining paleo-vertical in shallow volcanic necks and hypabyssal intrusions, and might ultimately be useful in a tilt-correction for such bodies. Other implications of the results will be discussed. MacDonald, WD, Estrada, JJ, Sierra, GM, Gonzalez, H, 1996, Late Cenozoic tectonics and paleomagnetism of North Cauca Basin intrusions, Colombian Andes: Dual rotation modes: Tectonophysics, v 261, p. 277-289.

  10. CHANGES OF BUOYANT DENSITY DURING THE S-PHASE OF THE CELL-CYCLE - DIRECT EVIDENCE DEMONSTRATED IN ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA BY FLOW-CYTOMETRIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAENEN, S; HUIGES, W; MODDERMAN, E; HALIE, MR

    Studies with synchronized or exponentially growing bacteria and mammalian cell lines are not able to demonstrate small changes in buoyant density during the cell cycle. Flowcytometric analysis of density separated acute myeloid leukemia cells, a system not dependent on time-related variables, shows

  11. Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I; Flujo supersonico de un plasma con ondas de choque, un metodo de montecarlo para plasmas de baja densidad, I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almenara, E; Hidalgo, M; Saviron, J M

    1980-07-01

    This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs.

  12. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  13. Measurement of loose powder density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Ali, A.; Haider, A.; Farooque, M.

    2011-01-01

    Powder metallurgy is a conventional technique for making engineering articles from powders. Main objective is to produce final products with the highest possible uniform density, which depends on the initial loose powder characteristics. Producing, handling, characterizing and compacting materials in loose powder form are part of the manufacturing processes. Density of loose metallic or ceramic powder is an important parameter for die design. Loose powder density is required for calculating the exact mass of powder to fill the die cavity for producing intended green density of the powder compact. To fulfill this requirement of powder metallurgical processing, a loose powder density meter as per ASTM standards is designed and fabricated for measurement of density. The density of free flowing metallic powders can be determined using Hall flow meter funnel and density cup of 25 cm/sup 3/ volume. Density of metal powders like cobalt, manganese, spherical bronze and pure iron is measured and results are obtained with 99.9% accuracy. (author)

  14. Density-wave oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Bratianu, C.

    1979-01-01

    Boiling flow in a steam generator, a water-cooled reactor, and other multiphase processes can be subject to instabilities. It appears that the most predominant instabilities are the so-called density-wave oscillations. They can cause difficulties for three main reasons; they may induce burnout; they may cause mechanical vibrations of components; and they create system control problems. A comprehensive review is presented of experimental and theoretical studies concerning density-wave oscillations. (author)

  15. Effects of gas-flow structures on radical and etch-product density distributions on wafers in magnetomicrowave plasma etching reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegawa, Masato; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Fukuyama, Ryoji

    2001-01-01

    To achieve high etch rate, uniformity, good selectivity, and etch profile control across large diameter wafers, the distributions of ions, radicals, and etch products in magnetomicrowave high-etch-rate plasma etching reactors must be accurately controlled. In this work the effects of chamber heights, a focus ring around the wafer, and gas supply structures (or gas flow structures) on the radicals and etch products flux distribution onto the wafer were examined using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method and used to determine the optimal reactor geometry. The pressure uniformity on the wafer was less than ±1% when the chamber height was taller than 60 mm. The focus ring around the wafer produced uniform radical and etch-product fluxes but increased the etch-product flux on the wafer. A downward-flow gas-supply structure (type II) produced a more uniform radical distribution than that produced by a radial gas-supply structure (type I). The impact flow of the type II structure removed etch products from the wafer effectively and produced a uniform etch-product distribution even without the focus ring. Thus the downward-flow gas-supply structure (type II) was adopted in the design for the second-generation of a magnetomicrowave plasma etching reactor with a higher etching rate

  16. Buck Creek River Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

    2009-04-01

    Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

  17. Influence of Processing Parameters on the Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J. A.; Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid phase welding process that unites thermal and mechanical aspects to produce a high quality joint. The process variables are rpm, translational weld speed, and downward plunge force. The strain-temperature history of a metal element at each point on the cross-section of the weld is determined by the individual flow path taken by the particular filament of metal flowing around the tool as influenced by the process variables. The resulting properties of the weld are determined by the strain-temperature history. Thus to control FSW properties, improved understanding of the processing parameters on the metal flow path is necessary.

  18. Oxygen flow effects on electrical properties, stability, and density of states of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Su; Kai-Hsiang Yu, Eric; Shim, Dong-Hwan; Kong, Hyang-Shik; Bie, Linsen; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the origin of threshold voltage (Vth) shift of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs), a combination of bias-temperature stress (BTS) and multi-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were used to evaluate the impact of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) during a-IGZO deposition on TFT electrical properties, electrical stability, and density of states (DOS). The extracted sub-gap DOS was decomposed into exponential bandtail states and Gaussian-like deep-gap states. The peak density of Gaussian-like states is larger for higher PO2. We conclude that the Gaussian-like states are excess/weakly-bonded oxygen in the form of O0 or O1- ions acting as acceptor-like states and are at the origin of TFT threshold voltage shift during positive BTS.

  19. Erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows during channel avulsion and backfilling: Field examples from coarse-grained deepwater channel-levée complexes (Sandino Forearc Basin, southern Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jörg; Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2017-03-01

    Erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows can strongly impact the facies distribution and architecture of submarine fans. Field examples from coarse-grained channel-levée complexes from the Sandino Forearc Basin (southern Central America) show that cyclic-step and antidune deposits represent common sedimentary facies of these depositional systems and relate to the different stages of avulsion, bypass, levée construction and channel backfilling. During channel avulsion, large-scale scour-fill complexes (18 to 29 m deep, 18 to 25 m wide, 60 to > 120 m long) were incised by supercritical density flows. The multi-storey infill of the large-scale scour-fill complexes comprises amalgamated massive, normally coarse-tail graded or widely spaced subhorizontally stratified conglomerates and pebbly sandstones, interpreted as deposits of the hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic steps. The large-scale scour-fill complexes can be distinguished from small-scale channel fills based on the preservation of a steep upper margin and a coarse-grained infill comprising mainly amalgamated hydraulic-jump zone deposits. Channel fills include repeated successions deposited by cyclic steps with superimposed antidunes. The deposits of the hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic steps comprise regularly spaced scours (0.2 to 2.6 m deep, 0.8 to 23 m long) infilled by intraclast-rich conglomerates or pebbly sandstones, displaying normal coarse-tail grading or backsets. These deposits are laterally and vertically associated with subhorizontally stratified, low-angle cross-stratified or sinusoidally stratified sandstones and pebbly sandstones, which were deposited by antidunes on the stoss side of the cyclic steps during flow re-acceleration. The field examples indicate that so-called spaced stratified deposits may commonly represent antidune deposits with varying stratification styles controlled by the aggradation rate, grain-size distribution and amalgamation. The deposits of small-scale cyclic

  20. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  1. Genomic methods take the plunge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cammen, Kristina M.; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Carroll, Emma L.

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the application of genomic techniques to non-model organisms (NMOs) over the past decade has yielded numerous valuable contributions to evolutionary biology and ecology, many of which would not have been possible with traditional genetic markers. We review this recent...

  2. Flow Observations with Tufts and Lampblack of the Stalling of Four Typical Airfoil Sections in the NACA Variable-density Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Ira H; Sherman, Albert

    1938-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the stalling processes of four typical airfoil sections was made over the critical range of the Reynolds Number. Motion pictures were taken of the movements of small silk tufts on the airfoil surface as the angle of attack increased through a range of angles including the stall. The boundary-layer flow also at certain angles of attack was indicated by the patterns formed by a suspension of lampblack in oil brushed onto the airfoil surface. These observations were analyzed together with corresponding force-test measurements to derive a picture of the stalling processes of airfoils.

  3. Benthic Foraminifers identify the source of displaced sediment from a sediment density flow at 1840 m near the Seafloor Instrument Node of the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Barry, J.; Carvajal, C.; Clare, M. A.; Cartigny, M.; Chaffey, M. R.; Parsons, D. R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are found along the slopes of most continental margins and turbidity currents are thought to be the primary mechanism responsible for transporting sediment through them to deep-sea fans. The initiation sites of these flows are difficult to locate with any degree of precision from lithology alone. Fortunately, the presence of allochthonous microscopic remains, such as benthic foraminifers, can aid in the identification of the source of the displaced sediments. In Monterey Canyon, offshore California, a Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) and adjacent mooring in the Coordinated Canyon Experiment indicate that a February 2017 turbidity current reached 1840 m water depth. In April 2017, one push core was obtained on each of four sides of the SIN just outside its frame and six others from 30-100 m away. Each was cut into 1 cm slices, stained with rose Bengal, washed, and analyzed for their microscopic constituents. Material recovered included terrestrial debris (wood, leaves, seeds, highway safety spheres, and volcanic glass) as well as foraminiferal tests. Dead benthic foraminifers from the estuarine (0-10 m), inner shelf (0-50 m), outer shelf (50-150 m), slope break (150 m), upper bathyal (150-500 m), and middle bathyal (500-2000 m) biofacies were present, suggesting a staged progression of sediment downslope from the continental shelf and slope. Living (rose Bengal stained) foraminifers recovered represent estuarine (Ammonia tepida, Elphidium excavatum), inner shelf (Buccella frigida, B. tenerrima, Buliminella elegantissima, Cibicides fletcheri, Nonionella spp., Rotorbinella turbinata), and upper bathyal (Bolivina pacifica, B. spissa, Epistominella exigua, Uvigerina peregrina) species as well as an in-situ middle bathyal biofacies (Bolivina argentea, B. spissa, Buliminella tenuata, Epistominella pacifica, Globobulimina spp., Uvigerina peregrina, U. hispida). The presence of living allochthonous benthic foraminifers from these shallower biofacies suggests

  4. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  5. Effect of welding parameters (plunge depths of shoulder, pin geometry, and tool rotational speed) on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of friction stir spot welded aluminum 2024-T3 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Lali; Taheri, Morteza; Khodabandeh, Alireza [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of welding parameters on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 joined by friction stir spot welding. The welding parameters in this work are tool rotational speed, plunge depths of shoulder, and pin geometry. In accordance with the methods of previous investigations, the rotational speeds were set to 630 rpm to 2000 rpm. Two pin geometries with concave shoulder were used: triangular and cylindrical. The plunge depths of the shoulder were 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm. The shoulder diameter and pin height for both geometries were 14 and 2.4 mm, respectively. The diameter of the cylindrical and triangular pins was 5 mm. Results show that the parameters mentioned earlier influence fracture mode under tension shear loading. Two different fracture modes were observed during the examinations. Low-penetration depths and low-rotational speeds lead to shear fracture, whereas high values of these factors cause the tension-shear fracture mode. Fracture of the lower sheet sometimes occurs at high rotational speeds.

  6. OCTA在DR患者黄斑血流密度观察中的应用%Clinical application of OCTA in observation of macular blood flow density in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向湘; 马红婕; 唐仕波

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to observe the changes and clinical significance of macular blood flow density in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR).METHODS: Totally 47 eyes (28 patients) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) were enrolled in the DR group.According to the international clinical grading criteria of diabetic retinopathy, 30 eyes (19 patients) with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy were classified as the NPDR group, and 17 eyes (11 patients) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were classified as PDR group.A total of 46 (27 subjects) healthy eyes with matched age were enrolled in the control group.All the subjects underwent the 3mm×3mm scanning of macular retina by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), obtaining 4 levels of macular blood flow density map.The macular blood flow density at 3 levels, including superficial retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillaries layer, were measured.RESULTS: The macular blood flow density of superfical retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillaries layer in DR group were 0.4963±0.0840, 0.4798±0.0801 and 0.5290±0.0528, respectively.Among them, the blood flow density of each layer were 0.5064±0.0843,0.4983±0.0766,0.5345±0.0529, respectively, for the NPDR group, and were 0.4786±0.0830, 0.4473±0.0778,0.5192±0.0526, respectively, for the PDR group.For the control group, the density of each layers were 0.5919±0.0704, 0.6301±0.0527, 0.5691±0.0169, respectively.The macular blood flow density was significantly different in the superficial retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillary layer between the control group and the NPDR group, as well as the PDR group and the DR group (total P<0.001).Statistically significant difference was found between the NPDR group and the PDR group in the deep retina layer (P=0.029), but not in the superficial retina layer and choroid capillary layer (P=0.236, 0.268).CONCLUSION: Compared with the

  7. Effects of welding parameters on friction stir spot welding of high density polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Mustafa Kemal; Yukler, Ahmet Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic illustration of the cross section of a friction stir spot weld and (b) Geometry of the weld bonded area, x: nugget thickness and y: the thickness of the upper sheet. Highlights: → Welding parameters affect the FSSW nugget formation and the strength of the joint. → Melting of polyethylene occurred in the vicinity of the tool pin. → The joint that fractures with a pull nugget failure mode has a higher strength. -- Abstract: Friction stir spot welding parameters affect the weld strength of thermoplastics, such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets. The effects of the welding parameters on static strength of friction stir spot welds of high density polyethylene sheets were investigated. For maximizing the weld strength, the selection of welding parameters is very important. In lap-shear tests two fracture modes were observed; cross nugget failure and pull nugget failure. The tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth and dwell time were determined to be important in the joint formation and its strength. The joint which had a better strength fails with a pull nugget failure morphology. Weld cross section image analysis of the joints were done with a video spectral comparator. The plunge rate of the tool was determined to have a negligible effect on friction stir spot welding.

  8. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  9. Level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    For any applications of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions it is very important to obtain the parameters of the level density description from the reliable experimental data. The cumulative numbers of low-lying levels and the average spacings between neutron resonances are usually used as such data. The level density parameters fitted to such data are compiled in the RIPL Starter File for the tree models most frequently used in practical calculations: i) For the Gilber-Cameron model the parameters of the Beijing group, based on a rather recent compilations of the neutron resonance and low-lying level densities and included into the beijing-gc.dat file, are chosen as recommended. As alternative versions the parameters provided by other groups are given into the files: jaeri-gc.dat, bombay-gc.dat, obninsk-gc.dat. Additionally the iljinov-gc.dat, and mengoni-gc.dat files include sets of the level density parameters that take into account the damping of shell effects at high energies. ii) For the backed-shifted Fermi gas model the beijing-bs.dat file is selected as the recommended one. Alternative parameters of the Obninsk group are given in the obninsk-bs.dat file and those of Bombay in bombay-bs.dat. iii) For the generalized superfluid model the Obninsk group parameters included into the obninsk-bcs.dat file are chosen as recommended ones and the beijing-bcs.dat file is included as an alternative set of parameters. iv) For the microscopic approach to the level densities the files are: obninsk-micro.for -FORTRAN 77 source for the microscopical statistical level density code developed in Obninsk by Ignatyuk and coworkers, moller-levels.gz - Moeller single-particle level and ground state deformation data base, moller-levels.for -retrieval code for Moeller single-particle level scheme. (author)

  10. SU-G-IeP1-07: Inaccuracy of Lesion Blood Flow Quantification Related to the Proton Density Reference Image in Arterial Spin Labeling MRI of Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, M; Johnson, J; Hou, P; Liu, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cerebral blood flow quantification in arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI requires an estimate of the equilibrium magnetization of blood, which is often obtained by a set of proton density (PD) reference image. Normally, a constant blood-brain partition coefficient is assumed across the brain. However, this assumption may not be valid for brain lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lesion-related PD variations on ASL quantification in patients with brain tumors. Methods: MR images for posttreatment evaluation of 42 patients with brain tumors were retrospectively analyzed. These images were acquired on a 3T MRI scanner, including T2-weighted FLAIR, 3D pseudo-continuous ASL and post-contrast T1-weighted images. Anatomical images were coregistered with ASL images using the SPM software. Regions of interest (ROIs) of the enhancing and FLAIR lesions were manually drawn on the coregistered images. ROIs of the contralateral normal appearing tissues were also determined, with the consideration of approximating coil sensitivity patterns in lesion ROIs. Relative lesion blood flow (lesion/contralateral tissue) was calculated from both the CBF map (dependent on the PD) and the ΔM map for comparison. Results: The signal intensities in both enhancing and FLAIR lesions were significantly different than contralateral tissues on the PD reference image (p<0.001). The percent signal difference ranged from −15.9 to 19.2%, with a mean of 5.4% for the enhancing lesion, and from −2.8 to 22.9% with a mean of 10.1% for the FLAIR lesion. The high/low lesion-related PD signal resulted in inversely proportional under-/over-estimation of blood flow in both enhancing and FLAIR lesions. Conclusion: Significant signal differences were found between lesions and contralateral tissues in the PD reference image, which introduced errors in blood flow quantification in ASL. The error can be up to 20% in individual patients with an average of 5- 10% for the group of patients

  11. SU-G-IeP1-07: Inaccuracy of Lesion Blood Flow Quantification Related to the Proton Density Reference Image in Arterial Spin Labeling MRI of Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, M; Johnson, J; Hou, P; Liu, H [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cerebral blood flow quantification in arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI requires an estimate of the equilibrium magnetization of blood, which is often obtained by a set of proton density (PD) reference image. Normally, a constant blood-brain partition coefficient is assumed across the brain. However, this assumption may not be valid for brain lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lesion-related PD variations on ASL quantification in patients with brain tumors. Methods: MR images for posttreatment evaluation of 42 patients with brain tumors were retrospectively analyzed. These images were acquired on a 3T MRI scanner, including T2-weighted FLAIR, 3D pseudo-continuous ASL and post-contrast T1-weighted images. Anatomical images were coregistered with ASL images using the SPM software. Regions of interest (ROIs) of the enhancing and FLAIR lesions were manually drawn on the coregistered images. ROIs of the contralateral normal appearing tissues were also determined, with the consideration of approximating coil sensitivity patterns in lesion ROIs. Relative lesion blood flow (lesion/contralateral tissue) was calculated from both the CBF map (dependent on the PD) and the ΔM map for comparison. Results: The signal intensities in both enhancing and FLAIR lesions were significantly different than contralateral tissues on the PD reference image (p<0.001). The percent signal difference ranged from −15.9 to 19.2%, with a mean of 5.4% for the enhancing lesion, and from −2.8 to 22.9% with a mean of 10.1% for the FLAIR lesion. The high/low lesion-related PD signal resulted in inversely proportional under-/over-estimation of blood flow in both enhancing and FLAIR lesions. Conclusion: Significant signal differences were found between lesions and contralateral tissues in the PD reference image, which introduced errors in blood flow quantification in ASL. The error can be up to 20% in individual patients with an average of 5- 10% for the group of patients

  12. Fast response densitometer for measuring liquid density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Densitometer was developed which produces linear voltage proportional to changes in density of flowing liquid hydrogen. Unit has fast response time and good system stability, statistical variation, and thermal equilibrium. System accuracy is 2 percent of total density span. Basic design may be altered to include measurement of other flowing materials.

  13. A density-dependent flow and transport analysis of the effects of groundwater development in a freshwater lens of limited areal extent: The Geneva area (Florida, U.S.A.) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Sorab; Huyakorn, Peter S.; Robertson, John B.; McGurk, Brian

    1993-04-01

    The Geneva freshwater lens is an isolated flow system within the upper Floridan aquifer surrounded and underlain by brackish water. The lens is sustained entirely by recharge from a surficial aquifer and sits atop a regional flow system which discharges around the fringes of the lens along the St. Johns River. Continual development of groundwater supply in the Geneva area has raised the concern of how much additional pumping can be allowed from various sites within the lens without adversely impacting water quality by inducing the invasion or upconing of salty water. A numerical modeling study was conducted to address these water management issues. A density-dependent, finite-element flow and transport code, DSTRAM, was used for cross-sectional and three-dimensional (3-D) analyses of the Geneva lens system. The model incorporates an enhanced upstream weighted technique for the transport equation, improved Picard iterations over the nonlinearities, and robust preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) and ORTHOMIN techniques for solving the matrix equations. A steady-state model calibration was performed for existing conditions at the site. The cross-sectional (2-D) analysis was inadequate in accurately representing the system, since the 3-D effects were considerable. However, 2-D cross-sectional simulations are useful for preliminary assessments of certain scenarios, and for guidance in developing the 3-D model. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was performed on a number of key parameters. Natural groundwater discharge rates along the St. Johns River seem to be the most critical unknown and require better estimates for increased confidence in the conceptual model. Transient pumping scenarios were imposed on this system to observe the response of the lens and to determine well breakthrough for chlorides, if any. Pumping rates and distribution of pumping were significant factors in determining the quality of the water. Upconing of saline water contributes to high

  14. Flashing coupled density wave oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Zhang Youjie

    1997-07-01

    The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The phenomenon and mechanism of different kinds of two-phase flow instabilities, namely geyser instability, flashing instability and flashing coupled density wave instability are described. The especially interpreted flashing coupled density wave instability has never been studied well, it is analyzed by using a one-dimensional non-thermo equilibrium two-phase flow drift model computer code. Calculations are in good agreement with the experiment results. (5 refs.,5 figs., 1 tab.)

  15. Field-trip guide to Mount St. Helens, Washington - An overview of the eruptive history and petrology, tephra deposits, 1980 pyroclastic density current deposits, and the crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Clynne, Michael A.; Wright, Heather M.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Vallance, James W.; Sherrod, David R.; Kokelaar, B. Peter

    2017-08-02

    This field trip will provide an introduction to several fascinating features of Mount St. Helens. The trip begins with a rigorous hike of about 15 km from the Johnston Ridge Observatory (9 km north-northeast of the crater vent), across the 1980 Pumice Plain, to Windy Ridge (3.6 km northeast of the crater vent) to examine features that document the dynamics and progressive emplacement of pyroclastic flows. The next day, we examine classic tephra outcrops of the past 3,900 years and observe changes in thickness and character of these deposits as we traverse their respective lobes. We examine clasts in the deposits and discuss how the petrology and geochemistry of Mount St. Helens deposits reveal the evolution of the magmatic system through time. We also investigate the stratigraphy of the 1980 blast deposit and review the chronology of this iconic eruption as we travel through the remains of the blown-down forest. The third day is another rigorous hike, about 13 km round trip, climbing from the base of Windy Ridge (elevation 1,240 m) to the front of the Crater Glacier (elevation 1,700 m). En route we examine basaltic andesite and basalt lava flows emplaced between 1,800 and 1,700 years before present, a heterolithologic flow deposit produced as the 1980 blast and debris avalanche interacted, debris-avalanche hummocks that are stranded on the north flank and in the crater mouth, and shattered dacite lava domes that were emplaced between 3,900 and 2,600 years before present. These domes underlie the northern part of the volcano. In addition, within the crater we traverse well-preserved pyroclastic-flow deposits that were emplaced on the crater floor during the summer of 1980, and a beautiful natural section through the 1980 deposits in the upper canyon of the Loowit River.Before plunging into the field-trip log, we provide an overview of Mount St. Helens geology, geochemistry, petrology, and volcanology as background. The volcano has been referred to as a

  16. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  17. Elbow mass flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  18. A Graphical-User Interface for the U. S. Geological Survey's SUTRA Code using Argus ONE (for simulation of variable-density saturated-unsaturated ground-water flow with solute or energy transport)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Boldt, David; Shapiro, Allen M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a Graphical-User Interface (GUI) for SUTRA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model for saturated-unsaturated variable-fluid-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport,which combines a USGS-developed code that interfaces SUTRA with Argus ONE, a commercial software product developed by Argus Interware. This product, known as Argus Open Numerical Environments (Argus ONETM), is a programmable system with geographic-information-system-like (GIS-like) functionality that includes automated gridding and meshing capabilities for linking geospatial information with finite-difference and finite-element numerical model discretizations. The GUI for SUTRA is based on a public-domain Plug-In Extension (PIE) to Argus ONE that automates the use of ArgusONE to: automatically create the appropriate geospatial information coverages (information layers) for SUTRA, provide menus and dialogs for inputting geospatial information and simulation control parameters for SUTRA, and allow visualization of SUTRA simulation results. Following simulation control data and geospatial data input bythe user through the GUI, ArgusONE creates text files in a format required for normal input to SUTRA,and SUTRA can be executed within the Argus ONE environment. Then, hydraulic head, pressure, solute concentration, temperature, saturation and velocity results from the SUTRA simulation may be visualized. Although the GUI for SUTRA discussed in this report provides all of the graphical pre- and post-processor functions required for running SUTRA, it is also possible for advanced users to apply programmable features within Argus ONE to modify the GUI to meet the unique demands of particular ground-water modeling projects.

  19. X-ray measurements of water fog density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, A.L.

    1982-11-01

    Water-fog densities were measured in a laboratory experiment using x-ray diagnostics. Fog densities were measured, varying the flow rate, nozzle type, nozzle configuration, nozzle height above the x-ray beam, and water surface tension. Suspended water volume fractions between 0.0008 and 0.0074 percent were measured. The fog density increases approximately as the square root of the flow rate; the other parameters had little effect on the density

  20. Thermal flow regulator of refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinskij, S.I.; Savchenko, A.G.; Suplin, V.Z.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal flow regulator of refrigerant for helium flow-type temperature-controlled cryostats based on controlling the channel hydraulic resistance due to variation of the flow density and viscosity during liquid helium transformation into the gaseous state. Behind the regulator both two-phase flow and a heated gas can be produced. The regulator resolution is (7-15)x10 -4 l/mW of liquid helium

  1. 3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river.

  2. Current interruption by density depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.; Akasofu, S.I.

    1985-04-01

    Using a one-dimensional electrostatic particle code, we examine processes associated with current interruption in a collisionless plasma when a density depression is present along the current channel. Current interruption due to double layers was suggested by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) as a cause of solar flares. At a local density depression, plasma instabilities caused by an electron current flow are accentuated, leading to current disruption. Our simulation study encompasses a wide range of the parameters in such a way that under appropriate conditions, both the Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) regime and the Smith and Priest (1972) regime take place. In the latter regime the density depression decays into a stationary structure (''ion-acoustic layer'') which spawns a series of ion-acoustic ''solitons'' and ion phase space holes travelling upstream. A large inductance of the current circuit tends to enhance the plasma instabilities

  3. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  4. Capacitance densitometer for flow regime identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, R.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a capacitance densitometer for determining the flow regime of a two-phase flow system. A two-element capacitance densitometer is used in conjunction with a conventional single-beam gamma densitometer to unambiguously identify the prevailing flow regime and the average density of a flowing fluid

  5. Quantum wormhole as a Ricci flow

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The idea is considered that a quantum wormhole in a spacetime foam can be described as a Ricci flow. In this interpretation the Ricci flow is a statistical system and every metric in the Ricci flow is a microscopical state. The probability density of the microscopical state is connected with a Perelman's functional of a rescaled Ricci flow.

  6. Redox flow batteries with serpentine flow fields: Distributions of electrolyte flow reactant penetration into the porous carbon electrodes and effects on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.

    2018-04-01

    Redox flow batteries with flow field designs have been demonstrated to boost their capacities to deliver high current density and power density in medium and large-scale energy storage applications. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms involved with improved current density in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs have been not fully understood. Here we report a three-dimensional model of a serpentine flow field over a porous carbon electrode to examine the distributions of pressure driven electrolyte flow penetrations into the porous carbon electrodes. We also estimate the maximum current densities associated with stoichiometric availability of electrolyte reactant flow penetrations through the porous carbon electrodes. The results predict reasonably well observed experimental data without using any adjustable parameters. This fundamental work on electrolyte flow distributions of limiting reactant availability will contribute to a better understanding of limits on electrochemical performance in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs and should be helpful to optimizing flow batteries.

  7. Determination of aquifer roof extending under the sea from variable-density flow modelling of groundwater response to tidal loading: case study of the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianmei; Chen, Chongxi; Ji, Menrui

    The main task of studies on salt-water intrusion into coastal confined aquifers is to predict the position of the fresh- salt-water interface, which can be determined from the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea. Records of groundwater level affected by tides can be used to infer hydrological conditions and determine hydraulic parameters of an aquifer extending under the sea. In this paper, a three-dimensional, variable-density groundwater flow model has been developed to determine the equivalent roof length of an aquifer extending under the sea from the tidal-effected data of groundwater level in the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China. The seaward boundary is obtained by converging hydraulic head fluctuations observed in drill holes with calculated values, and the aquifer parameters in the extending zone are estimated. The impacts of aquifer roof length and aquifer parameters on the fluctuation of tidal groundwater are studied. It is concluded that the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea should correspond with certain aquifer parameters in the extrapolation zone. Therefore, the seaward boundary determined from tidal-effect information is the equivalent boundary in hydrodynamic characteristics rather than the true boundary of the confined aquifer Les sujets principaux des études d'instrusion saline dans les aquifères confinés en zone côtière sont la prédiction de la position de l'interface entre l'eau salée et l'eau fraîche, qui peut être déterminée à partir de l'extention du toit de l'aquifère sous la mer. Les enregistrements des niveaux des eaux souterraines influencés par les marées peuvent être utilisés pour préciser les conditions hydrologiques et déterminer les paramètres hydrauliques d'un aquifère possédant une extension sous la mer. Dans cet article, un modèle tridimensionnel comprenant des eaux souterraines de densité variable a été développé pour déterminer la longueur équivalente du toit

  8. Last piece of ATLAS takes the plunge

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday 29 February the second small wheel was lowered 100 metres underground into the ATLAS cavern in front of a captivated audience. Although called the "small wheels" they are small in name only - each wheel is 9.3 metres in diameter and weighs 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. This piece completes ATLAS’ muon spectrometer, which has the ability to accurately track particles to the width of a human hair. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and, five years later, this small wheel is the final large piece of the detector to take the subterranean voyage to its final resting place.

  9. Taking the Plunge: Districts Leap into Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Moving from a traditional desktop computing environment to a virtualized solution is a daunting task. In this article, the author presents case histories of three districts that have made the conversion to virtual computing to learn about their experiences: What prompted them to make the move, and what were their objectives? Which obstacles prove…

  10. Air entrainment by plunging water jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Sande, E.

    1974-01-01

    Gas entrainment caused by the impact of liquid jets upon liquid pool surfaces is a subject which has received too little attention. This well-known phenomenon,which occurs In nature and in numerous industrial operations, has only recently received interest from scientific workers. The influence on

  11. The dynamics of variable-density turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The dynamics of variable-density turbulent fluids are studied by direct numerical simulation. The flow is incompressible so that acoustic waves are decoupled from the problem, and implying that density is not a thermodynamic variable. Changes in density occur due to molecular mixing. The velocity field, is in general, divergent. A pseudo-spectral numerical technique is used to solve the equations of motion. Three-dimensional simulations are performed using a grid size of 128 3 grid points. Two types of problems are studied: (1) the decay of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, and (2) buoyancy-generated turbulence in a fluid with large density fluctuations. In the case of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, the overall statistical decay behavior, for the cases studied, is relatively unaffected by the presence of density variations when the initial density and velocity fields are statistically independent. The results for this case are in quantitative agreement with previous numerical and laboratory results. In this case, the initial density field has a bimodal probability density function (pdf) which evolves in time towards a Gaussian distribution. The pdf of the density field is symmetric about its mean value throughout its evolution. If the initial velocity and density fields are statistically dependent, however, the decay process is significantly affected by the density fluctuations. For the case of buoyancy-generated turbulence, variable-density departures from the Boussinesq approximation are studied. The results of the buoyancy-generated turbulence are compared with variable-density model predictions. Both a one-point (engineering) model and a two-point (spectral) model are tested against the numerical data. Some deficiencies in these variable-density models are discussed and modifications are suggested

  12. The relationship of thermospheric density anomaly with electron temperature, small-scale FAC, and ion up-flow in the cusp region, as observed by CHAMP and DMSP satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Kervalishvili

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present in a statistical study a comparison of thermospheric mass density enhancements (ρrel with electron temperature (Te, small-scale field-aligned currents (SSFACs, and vertical ion velocity (Vz at high latitudes around noon magnetic local time (MLT. Satellite data from CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload and DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program sampling the Northern Hemisphere during the years 2002–2005 are used. In a first step we investigate the distribution of the measured quantities in a magnetic latitude (MLat versus MLT frame. All considered variables exhibit prominent peak amplitudes in the cusp region. A superposed epoch analysis was performed to examine causal relationship between the quantities. The occurrence of a thermospheric relative mass density anomaly, ρrel >1.2, in the cusp region is defining an event. The location of the density peak is taken as a reference latitude (Δ MLat = 0°. Interestingly, all the considered quantities, SSFACs, Te, and Vz are co-located with the density anomaly. The amplitudes of the peaks exhibit different characters of seasonal variation. The average relative density enhancement of the more prominent density peaks considered in this study amounts to 1.33 during all seasons. As expected, SSFACs are largest in summer with average amplitudes equal to 2.56 μA m−2, decaying to 2.00 μA m−2 in winter. The event related enhancements of Te and Vz are both largest in winter (Δ Te =730 K, Vz =136 m s−1 and smallest in summer (Δ Te = 377 K, Vz = 57 m s−1. Based on the similarity of the seasonal behaviour we suggest a close relationship between these two quantities. A correlation analysis supports a linear relation with a high coefficient greater than or equal to 0.93, irrespective of season. Our preferred explanation is that dayside reconnection fuels Joule heating of the thermosphere causing air upwelling and at the same time heating of the electron gas that pulls up ions

  13. Application of low density from pig in subsea satellite well flow line; Utilizacao de pig-espuma de baixa densidade em linhas de producao de pocos-satelites submersos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Couto, Nilton Castro; Souza, Robson Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Divisao de Explotacao

    1995-01-01

    This work describes a new concept of pigging using low density form to prevent/removal of wax in subsea satellite well flowline. The methodology of wax control is world pioneer. The pigs are sent through a 2.5 in lift gas line, and through a wet x-mas tree, not designed to be pigged, and back through the flowline. (author) 2 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  15. Densities of carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, J.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The densities of arc-evaporated carbon target foils have been measured by several methods. The density depends upon the method used to measure it; for the same surface density, values obtained by different measurement techniques may differ by fifty percent or more. The most reliable density measurements are by flotation, yielding a density of 2.01±0.03 g cm -3 , and interferometric step height with the surface density known from auxiliary measurements, yielding a density of 2.61±0.4 g cm -3 . The difference between these density values mayy be due in part to the compressive stresses that carbon films have while still on their substrates, uncertainties in the optical calibration of surface densities of carbon foils, and systematic errors in step-height measurements. Mechanical thickness measurements by micrometer caliper are unreliable due to nonplanarity of these foils. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of the flowing afterglows of an N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} reduced-pressure discharge: setting the operating conditions to achieve a dominant late afterglow and correlating the NO{sub {beta}} UV intensity variation with the N and O atom densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudam, M K [Groupe de Physique des Plasmas, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal H3C 3J7, Quebec (Canada); Saoudi, B [Groupe de Physique des Plasmas, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal H3C 3J7, Quebec (Canada); Moisan, M [Groupe de Physique des Plasmas, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal H3C 3J7, Quebec (Canada); Ricard, A [Centre de Physique Atomique de Toulouse (CPAT), 118, route de Narbonne, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062-Toulouse (France)

    2007-03-21

    The flowing afterglow of an N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} discharge in the 0.6-10 Torr range is examined in the perspective of achieving sterilization of medical devices (MDs) under conditions ensuring maximum UV intensity with minimum damage to polymer-based MDs. The early afterglow is shown to be responsible for creating strong erosion damage, requiring that the sterilizer be operated in a dominant late-afterglow mode. These two types of afterglow can be characterized by optical emission spectroscopy: the early afterglow is distinguished by an intense emission from the N{sub 2}{sup +} 1st negative system (band head at 391.4 nm) while the late afterglow yields an overpopulation of the v' = 11 ro-vibrational level of the N{sub 2}(B) state, indicating a reduced contribution from the early afterglow N{sub 2} metastable species. We have studied the influence of operating conditions (pressure, O{sub 2} content in the N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} mixture, distance of the discharge from the entrance to the afterglow (sterilizer) chamber) in order to achieve a dominant late afterglow that also ensures maximum and almost uniform UV intensity in the sterilization chamber. As far as operating conditions are concerned, moving the plasma source sufficiently far from the chamber entrance is shown to be a practical means for significantly reducing the density of the characteristic species of the early afterglow. Using the NO titration method, we obtain the (absolute) densities of N and O atoms in the afterglow at the NO injection inlet, a few cm before the chamber entrance: the N atom density goes through a maximum at approximately 0.3-0.5% O{sub 2} and then decreases, while the O atom density increases regularly with the O{sub 2} percentage. The spatial variation of the N atom (relative) density in the chamber is obtained by recording the emission intensity from the 1st positive system at 580 nm: in the 2-5 Torr range, this density is quite uniform everywhere in the chamber. The (relative

  17. Oscillatory two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1974-12-01

    Two-phase flow instabilities are classified according to three criteria: the static or dynamic nature of the phenomenon, the necessity or not of a triggering phenomenon, and the pure or compound character of the phenomenon. Tables give the elementary instability phenomena, and the practical types of instability. Flow oscillations (or dynamic instabilities) share a number of characteristics which are dealt with, they are caused by the dynamic interactions between the flow parameters (flow rate, density, pressure, enthalpy and their distributions). Oscillation types are discussed: pure oscillations are density wave oscillations, acoustic oscillations may also occur, various compound oscillations involve either the density wave or the acoustic wave mechanism, interacting with some of the boundary conditions in the device. The analysis of slow oscillations has been made either by means of a simplified model (prediction of the thresholds) or of computer codes. Numerous computer codes are available [fr

  18. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...

  19. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  20. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Braff, W. A.; Bazant, M. Z.; Buie, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less, hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densiti...

  1. Achieving maximum baryon densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1984-01-01

    In continuing work on nuclear stopping power in the energy range E/sub lab/ approx. 10 GeV/nucleon, calculations were made of the energy and baryon densities that could be achieved in uranium-uranium collisions. Results are shown. The energy density reached could exceed 2 GeV/fm 3 and baryon densities could reach as high as ten times normal nuclear densities

  2. Crowding and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design and Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…

  3. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kh'yuitt, G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction into the problem of two-phase flows is presented. Flow regimes arizing in two-phase flows are described, and classification of these regimes is given. Structures of vertical and horizontal two-phase flows and a method of their identification using regime maps are considered. The limits of this method application are discussed. The flooding phenomena and phenomena of direction change (flow reversal) of the flow and interrelation of these phenomena as well as transitions from slug regime to churn one and from churn one to annular one in vertical flows are described. Problems of phase transitions and equilibrium are discussed. Flow regimes in tubes where evaporating liquid is running, are described [ru

  4. Centrifuge in space fluid flow visualization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype flow visualization system is constructed to examine buoyancy driven flows during centrifugation in space. An axial density gradient is formed by imposing a thermal gradient between the two ends of the test cell. Numerical computations for this geometry showed that the Prandtl number plays a limited part in determining the flow.

  5. Fluxon density waves in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Ustinov, A. V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the multiple fluxon dynamics stimulated by an external oscillating force applied at a boundary of a long Josephson junction are presented. The calculated IV characteristics agree well with a recent experimental observation of rf-induced satellite flux-flow steps. The volt...... density waves....

  6. CFD simulation of flow-induced vibration of an elastically supported airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlof Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced vibration of lifting or control surfaces in aircraft may lead to catastrophic consequences. Under certain circumstances, the interaction between the airflow and the elastic structure may lead to instability with energy transferred from the airflow to the structure and with exponentially increasing amplitudes of the structure. In the current work, a CFD simulation of an elastically supported NACA0015 airfoil with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge coupled with 2D incompressible airflow is presented. The geometry of the airfoil, mass, moment of inertia, location of the centroid, linear and torsional stiffness was matched to properties of a physical airfoil model used for wind-tunnel measurements. The simulations were run within the OpenFOAM computational package. The results of the CFD simulations were compared with the experimental data.

  7. Probability densities and Lévy densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler

    For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....

  8. TensorFlow Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Joshua V.; Langmore, Ian; Tran, Dustin; Brevdo, Eugene; Vasudevan, Srinivas; Moore, Dave; Patton, Brian; Alemi, Alex; Hoffman, Matt; Saurous, Rif A.

    2017-01-01

    The TensorFlow Distributions library implements a vision of probability theory adapted to the modern deep-learning paradigm of end-to-end differentiable computation. Building on two basic abstractions, it offers flexible building blocks for probabilistic computation. Distributions provide fast, numerically stable methods for generating samples and computing statistics, e.g., log density. Bijectors provide composable volume-tracking transformations with automatic caching. Together these enable...

  9. Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

  10. The impact of triggering mechanism on flow dynamics and depositional geometry: results from an experimental study of non-conservative density currents; Influencia do mecanismo de iniciacao na dinamica dos fluxos e na geometria dos depositos gerados: observacoes obtidas a partir de estudo experimental de correntes de densidade nao-conservativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manica, Rafael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas. Nucleo de Estudos de Correntes de Densidade]. E-mail: rmanica@portoweb.com.br; Del Rey, Antonio Cosme; Maestri, Rogerio Dornelles; Borges, Ana Luiza de Oliveira; Viana, Adriano Roessler

    2005-05-01

    This study presents 28 physical simulations of non-conservative density currents used to evaluate their depositional patterns. Two different triggering mechanisms were used: lock gate and fluid injection. The impact of specific gravity, material type and grain size on the mixture were also checked. Dynamic and geometric features, such as head velocity and head/body height, were recorded. Results show flow velocity increase as concentration grows; deposition volumes present a general tendency to exponential decline with distance; the grain size range of the deposits decreases towards the distal portion of the channel. The results obtained have showed the efficiency of physical modeling in the study of turbidites in allowing correlations to be defined between currents and deposition patterns. (author)

  11. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  12. Density limits in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1984-06-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to neutral hydrogen radiation and recycling is of great importance for the energy balance at the periphery. It is shown that the requirement for thermal equilibrium implies a constraint on the maximum attainable edge density. The relation to other density limits is discussed. The average plasma density is shown to be a strong function of the refuelling deposition profile. (author)

  13. Nuclear Level Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances

  14. Continuation of probability density functions using a generalized Lyapunov approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, S.; Viebahn, J. P.; Mulder, T. E.; Kuehn, C.; Wubs, F. W.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques from numerical bifurcation theory are very useful to study transitions between steady fluid flow patterns and the instabilities involved. Here, we provide computational methodology to use parameter continuation in determining probability density functions of systems of stochastic partial

  15. Measurement of true density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr-Brion, K.G.; Keen, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    System for determining the true density of a fluent mixture such as a liquid slurry, containing entrained gas, such as air comprises a restriction in pipe through which at least a part of the mixture is passed. Density measuring means such as gamma-ray detectors and source measure the apparent density of the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Solid-state pressure measuring devices are arranged to measure the pressure in the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Calculating means, such as a programmed microprocessor, determine the true density from these measurements using relationships given in the description. (author)

  16. High Power Density Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  17. Flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities. 8 refs

  18. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liles, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced

  19. Dust in flowing magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Birendra P.; Samarian, Alex A.; Vladimirov, Sergey V.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma flows occur in almost every laboratory device and interactions of flowing plasmas with near-wall impurities and/or dust significantly affects the efficiency and lifetime of such devices. The charged dust inside the magnetized flowing plasma moves primarily under the influence of the plasma drag and electric forces. Here, the charge on the dust, plasma potential, and plasma density are calculated self-consistently. The electrons are assumed non-Boltzmannian and the effect of electron magnetization and electron-atom collisions on the dust charge is calculated in a self-consistent fashion. For various plasma magnetization parameters viz. the ratio of the electron and ion cyclotron frequencies to their respective collision frequencies, plasma-atom and ionization frequencies, the evolution of the plasma potential and density in the flow region is investigated. The variation of the dust charge profile is shown to be a sensitive function of plasma parameters. (author)

  20. On density forecast evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, C.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, probability integral transforms (PITs) have been popular means for evaluating density forecasts. For an ideal density forecast, the PITs should be uniformly distributed on the unit interval and independent. However, this is only a necessary condition, and not a sufficient one, as

  1. Granular flows in constrained geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Tejas; Viswanathan, Koushik

    Confined geometries are widespread in granular processing applications. The deformation and flow fields in such a geometry, with non-trivial boundary conditions, determine the resultant mechanical properties of the material (local porosity, density, residual stresses etc.). We present experimental studies of deformation and plastic flow of a prototypical granular medium in different nontrivial geometries- flat-punch compression, Couette-shear flow and a rigid body sliding past a granular half-space. These geometries represent simplified scaled-down versions of common industrial configurations such as compaction and dredging. The corresponding granular flows show a rich variety of flow features, representing the entire gamut of material types, from elastic solids (beam buckling) to fluids (vortex-formation, boundary layers) and even plastically deforming metals (dead material zone, pile-up). The effect of changing particle-level properties (e.g., shape, size, density) on the observed flows is also explicitly demonstrated. Non-smooth contact dynamics particle simulations are shown to reproduce some of the observed flow features quantitatively. These results showcase some central challenges facing continuum-scale constitutive theories for dynamic granular flows.

  2. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...

  3. Flow Cells for Scalable Energy Conversion and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    This project is a response to current flow systems that are V-aqueous and not cost effective. It will hopefully enable high energy/ power density flow cells through rational materials and system design.

  4. Density variations in a reactor during liquid full dimerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bruijn, J.

    2000-01-01

    In a liquid full plug flow reactor during lower olefin dimerization, the assumption of constant density is not valid—the volume of a plug changes as it proceeds along the reactor. The observed kinetics depend on the density variation in the reactor as the conversion proceeds towards a distribution

  5. Low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B.N.; Anuradha, M.; Nageshwara Rao, P.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Ganguly, C.

    2000-01-01

    Low sintered density and density variation in sintered UO 2 were found to have been caused by non uniformity in the granule feed characteristics to the compacting press. The nitrogen impurity content of sintered UO 2 was found to be sintering furnace related and associated with low sintered density pellets. The problems of low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen could be solved by the replacement of the prevailing four punch precompaction by a single punch process; by the introduction of a vibro-sieve for the separation of fine particles from the press feed granules; by innovation in the powder feed shoe design for simultaneous and uniform dispensing of powder in all the die holes; by increasing the final compaction pressure and by modifying the gas flows and preheat temperature in the sintering furnace. (author)

  6. Current density tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that nonsymmetric second-rank current density tensors, related to the current densities induced by magnetic fields and nuclear magnetic dipole moments, are fundamental properties of a molecule. Together with magnetizability, nuclear magnetic shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, they completely characterize its response to magnetic perturbations. Gauge invariance, resolution into isotropic, deviatoric, and antisymmetric parts, and contributions of current density tensors to magnetic properties are discussed. The components of the second-rank tensor properties are rationalized via relationships explicitly connecting them to the direction of the induced current density vectors and to the components of the current density tensors. The contribution of the deviatoric part to the average value of magnetizability, nuclear shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, uniquely determined by the antisymmetric part of current density tensors, vanishes identically. The physical meaning of isotropic and anisotropic invariants of current density tensors has been investigated, and the connection between anisotropy magnitude and electron delocalization has been discussed.

  7. C/NOFS Satellite Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Plasma Instabilities Below the Equatorial F-Peak -- Evidence for Approximately 500 km-Scale Spread-F "Precursor" Waves Driven by Zonal Shear Flow and km-Scale, Narrow-Banded Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.

    2011-01-01

    As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983

  8. Density and energy of supernova remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy

    1977-12-01

    The effects of an interstellar magnetic field on the gas flow behind a strong shock front are considered. The ambient density and energy of supernova remnants are estimated from the intensity ratio of sulphur lines I(6717)/I(6731). It is found that, on average, the ambient density around galactic supernova remnants is 4 cm/sup -3/. The total energy appears to be the same for all supernova remnants (to within a factor = approximately 5). A mean value of 4 10/sup 51/ erg is found.

  9. Fish stocking density impacts tank hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Lunger, Angela; Laursen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The effect of stocking density upon the hydrodynamics of a circular tank, configured in a recirculation system, was investigated. Red drums Sciaenops ocellatus of approximately 140 g wet weight, were stocked at five rates varying from 0 to 12 kg m-3. The impact of the presence of fish upon tank...... hydrodynamics was established using in-tank-based Rhodamine WT fluorometry at a flow rate of 0.23 l s-1 (tank exchange rate of 1.9 h-1). With increasing numbers of animals, curvilinear relationships were observed for dispersion coefficients and tank mixing times. Stocking densities of 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-3...

  10. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, William A.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Buie, Cullen R.

    2013-08-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high-power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm-2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92% at 25% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high-power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  11. Intrinsic-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals

  12. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    The state of the art of the density functional formalism (DFT) is reviewed. The theory is quantum statistical in nature; its simplest version is the well-known Thomas-Fermi theory. The DFT is a powerful formalism in which one can treat the effect of interactions in inhomogeneous systems. After some introductory material, the DFT is outlined from the two basic theorems, and various generalizations of the theorems appropriate to several physical situations are pointed out. Next, various approximations to the density functionals are presented and some practical schemes, discussed; the approximations include an electron gas of almost constant density and an electron gas of slowly varying density. Then applications of DFT in various diverse areas of physics (atomic systems, plasmas, liquids, nuclear matter) are mentioned, and its strengths and weaknesses are pointed out. In conclusion, more recent developments of DFT are indicated

  13. Low Density Supersonic Decelerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...

  14. density functional theory approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YOGESH ERANDE

    2017-07-27

    Jul 27, 2017 ... a key role in all optical switching devices, since their optical properties can be .... optimized in the gas phase using Density Functional Theory. (DFT).39 The ...... The Mediation of Electrostatic Effects by Sol- vents J. Am. Chem.

  15. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  16. Density scaling for multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, A

    2011-01-01

    Generalized Kohn-Sham equations are presented for lowest-lying multiplets. The way of treating non-integer particle numbers is coupled with an earlier method of the author. The fundamental quantity of the theory is the subspace density. The Kohn-Sham equations are similar to the conventional Kohn-Sham equations. The difference is that the subspace density is used instead of the density and the Kohn-Sham potential is different for different subspaces. The exchange-correlation functional is studied using density scaling. It is shown that there exists a value of the scaling factor ζ for which the correlation energy disappears. Generalized OPM and Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) methods incorporating correlation are presented. The ζKLI method, being as simple as the original KLI method, is proposed for multiplets.

  17. Fission level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Fission level densities (or fissioning nucleus level densities at fission saddle deformations) are required for statistical model calculations of actinide fission cross sections. Back-shifted Fermi-Gas Model, Constant Temperature Model and Generalized Superfluid Model (GSM) are widely used for the description of level densities at stable deformations. These models provide approximately identical level density description at excitations close to the neutron binding energy. It is at low excitation energies that they are discrepant, while this energy region is crucial for fission cross section calculations. A drawback of back-shifted Fermi gas model and traditional constant temperature model approaches is that it is difficult to include in a consistent way pair correlations, collective effects and shell effects. Pair, shell and collective properties of nucleus do not reduce just to the renormalization of level density parameter a, but influence the energy dependence of level densities. These effects turn out to be important because they seem to depend upon deformation of either equilibrium or saddle-point. These effects are easily introduced within GSM approach. Fission barriers are another key ingredients involved in the fission cross section calculations. Fission level density and barrier parameters are strongly interdependent. This is the reason for including fission barrier parameters along with the fission level densities in the Starter File. The recommended file is maslov.dat - fission barrier parameters. Recent version of actinide fission barrier data obtained in Obninsk (obninsk.dat) should only be considered as a guide for selection of initial parameters. These data are included in the Starter File, together with the fission barrier parameters recommended by CNDC (beijing.dat), for completeness. (author)

  18. Density of liquid Ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared

  19. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  20. Safety characteristics of mid-sized MOX fueled liquid metal reactor core of high converter type in the initiating phase of unprotected loss of flow accident. Effect of low specific fuel power density on ULOF behavior brought by employment of large diameter fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masayoshi; Kawada, Kenichi; Niwa, Hajime

    2003-07-01

    Safety characteristics in core disruptive accidents (CDAs) of mid-sized MOX fueled liquid metal reactor core of high converter type have been examined by using the CDA initiating phase analysis code SAS4A. The design concept of high converter type reactor core has been studied as one of options in the category of sodium-cooled reactor in Phase II of Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System. An unprotected loss-of-flow accident (ULOF) has been selected as a representative CDA initiator for this study. A core concept of high converter type, which employed a large diameter fuel pin of 11.1 mm with 1.2 m core height to get a large fuel volume fraction in the core to achieve high internal conversion ratio was proposed in JFY2001. Each fuel subassembly of the core (abbreviated here as UPL120)was provided with an upper sodium plenum directly above the core to reduce the sodium void reactivity worth. Because of the large fuel pin diameter, average specific fuel power density (31 kW/kg-MOX) of UPL120 is about one half of those of conventional large MOX cores. The reactivity worth of sodium voiding is 6$ in the whole core, and -1$ in the all upper plenums. Initiating phase of ULOF accident in UPL120 under the conditions of nominal design and best estimate analysis resulted in a slightly super-prompt critical power burst. The causes of the super-prompt criticality have been identified twofold: (a) the low specific fuel power density of core reduced the effectiveness of prompt negative reactivity feedback of Doppler and axial fuel expansion effects upon increase in reactor power, and (b) the longer core height compared with conventional 1m cores brought, together with the lower specific power density, a remarkable delay in insertion of negative fuel dispersion reactivity after the onset of fuel disruption in sodium voided subassembly due to the lower linear heat rating in the top portion of the core. During the delay, burst-type fuel failures in sodium un

  1. Numerical simulation and analysis of cavitation flows in a double suction centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, G; Tan, L; Cao, S L; Jian, W; Liu, W W; Jiang, D J

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation is an unsteady phenomenon, which is nearly inevitable in pumps. It would degrade the pump performance, generate vibrations and noises, and even erode pump flow passage components. The double suction centrifugal pump at design flow rate and large flow rate is numerically simulated using the k-ω turbulence model and the mass transport cavitation model. As a result, the calculated variation of pump head with pump inlet pressure agreed well with the experimental data. The results demonstrate that the numerical model and method can accurately predict the cavitation flows in a double suction centrifugal pump. The cavitation characteristics are analysed in great details. In addition, based on the calculation results, the reason that the plunge of pump head curve is revealed. It is found that the steep fall of pump head happens when the cavity reaches the blade to blade throat and the micro-vortex group appears at the back of the blade suction side. At the same time, this practice can provide guidance for the optimal design of double suction pumps

  2. Transfer-Efficient Face Routing Using the Planar Graphs of Neighbors in High Density WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Seok Cho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Face routing has been adopted in wireless sensor networks (WSNs where topological changes occur frequently or maintaining full network information is difficult. For message forwarding in networks, a planar graph is used to prevent looping, and because long edges are removed by planarization and the resulting planar graph is composed of short edges, and messages are forwarded along multiple nodes connected by them even though they can be forwarded directly. To solve this, face routing using information on all nodes within 2-hop range was adopted to forward messages directly to the farthest node within radio range. However, as the density of the nodes increases, network performance plunges because message transfer nodes receive and process increased node information. To deal with this problem, we propose a new face routing using the planar graphs of neighboring nodes to improve transfer efficiency. It forwards a message directly to the farthest neighbor and reduces loads and processing time by distributing network graph construction and planarization to the neighbors. It also decreases the amount of location information to be transmitted by sending information on the planar graph nodes rather than on all neighboring nodes. Simulation results show that it significantly improves transfer efficiency.

  3. Statistical Moments in Variable Density Incompressible Mixing Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    59]. The algorithm uses an approximate projection method [16] with the interface modeled with the Immersed Boundary Method ( IBM ), as spread via a nu...and B. C. Watson . Taylor instability of finite surface waves. J. Fluid Mech., 7:177–193, 1960. [32] E. Fermi. Taylor instability of an

  4. Low Density Real Gas Flows About Hypersonic Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    equations with fully-coupled finite rate air chemistry. The development of the HYLDA code was motivated by the difficulty of current wind tunnel...2ps,,.,, - psj = , (3-30) PN. 2pNwa - pNead u Uadj v Vadj w T Wadj bc 2TLMau - TadJ where PS4 -- PSj if noncatalytic wall = calculated if catalytic wall

  5. Solidity of viscous liquids. IV. Density fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series exploring the physical consequences of the solidity of highly viscous liquids. It is argued that the two basic characteristics of a flow event (a jump between two energy minima in configuration space) are the local density change and the sum of all particle...... displacements. Based on this it is proposed that density fluctuations are described by a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation with rates in k space of the form C+Dk^2 with D>>C a^2 where a is the average intermolecular distance. The inequality expresses a long-wavelength dominance of the dynamics which...... with Debye behavior at low frequencies and an omega^{−1/2} decay of the loss at high frequencies. Finally, a general formalism for the description of viscous liquid dynamics, which supplements the density dynamics by including stress fields, a potential energy field, and molecular orientational fields...

  6. Obliquely propagating dust-density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models

  7. Gamma irradiation effects in low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Lilian S.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth E.L.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is obtained from ethylene gas polymerization, being one of the most commercialized polymers due to its versatility and low cost. It's a semi-crystalline polymer, usually inactive at room temperature, capable to attain temperatures within a 80 deg C - 100 deg C range, without changing its physical-chemical properties. LDPE has more resistance when compared to its equivalent High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). LDPE most common applications consist in manufacturing of laboratory materials, general containers, pipes, plastic bags, etc. Gamma radiation is used on polymers in order to modify mechanical and physical-chemical features according to utility purposes. This work aims to the study of gamma (γ) radiation interaction with low density polyethylene to evaluate changes in its physical-chemical properties. Polymer samples were exposed to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30kGy doses, at room temperature. Samples characterization employed Thermal Analysis, Melt Flow Index, Infrared Spectroscopy and Swelling tests. (author)

  8. Sensitivity of orthopositronium annihilation to density fluctuations in ethane gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, A.

    1982-01-01

    The annihilation rates of orthopositronium (o-Ps) and free positrons and positronium formation fractions have been measured in gaseous ethane at seven temperatures between 295 and 377 K for densities in the range 1.2-286 amagat. The pick off quenching rate of o-Ps is observed to vary with temperature at low densities of ethane. The observed behavior of the o-Ps annihilation rates with density and temperature is interpreted in terms of density fluctuations in ethane gas. A simple theoretical model is developed which explains the observed annihilation behavior reasonably well at those temperatures and densities where density fluctuations are small. The annihilation rates of flow-energy positrons indicate the formation of positron-ethane collision complexes and self-trapping of positrons in clusters of ethane molecules. The o-Ps yields appear to be independent of temperature and show a strong dependence on the density of the gas

  9. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  10. Flow chemistry vs. flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The flow mode of conducting chemical syntheses facilitates chemical processes through the use of on-line analytical monitoring of occurring reactions, the application of solid-supported reagents to minimize downstream processing and computerized control systems to perform multi-step sequences. They are exactly the same attributes as those of flow analysis, which has solid place in modern analytical chemistry in several last decades. The following review paper, based on 131 references to original papers as well as pre-selected reviews, presents basic aspects, selected instrumental achievements and developmental directions of a rapidly growing field of continuous flow chemical synthesis. Interestingly, many of them might be potentially employed in the development of new methods in flow analysis too. In this paper, examples of application of flow analytical measurements for on-line monitoring of flow syntheses have been indicated and perspectives for a wider application of real-time analytical measurements have been discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stochastic transport models for mixing in variable-density turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2011-11-01

    In variable-density (VD) turbulent mixing, where very-different- density materials coexist, the density fluctuations can be an order of magnitude larger than their mean. Density fluctuations are non-negligible in the inertia terms of the Navier-Stokes equation which has both quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Very different mixing rates of different materials give rise to large differential accelerations and some fundamentally new physics that is not seen in constant-density turbulence. In VD flows material mixing is active in a sense far stronger than that applied in the Boussinesq approximation of buoyantly-driven flows: the mass fraction fluctuations are coupled to each other and to the fluid momentum. Statistical modeling of VD mixing requires accounting for basic constraints that are not important in the small-density-fluctuation passive-scalar-mixing approximation: the unit-sum of mass fractions, bounded sample space, and the highly skewed nature of the probability densities become essential. We derive a transport equation for the joint probability of mass fractions, equivalent to a system of stochastic differential equations, that is consistent with VD mixing in multi-component turbulence and consistently reduces to passive scalar mixing in constant-density flows.

  12. Correlation and spectral density measurements by LDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper is intended to give a review on the state-of-the art in correlation and spectral density measurements by means of laser Doppler anemometry. As will be shown in detail the most important difference in performing this type of studies is the fact that laser anemometry relies on the presence of particles in the flow serving as flow velocity indicators. This means that, except in heavily seeded flows, the instantaneous velocity can only be sampled at random instants. This calls for new algorithms to calculate estimates of both correlation functions and power spectra. Various possibilities to handle the problem of random sampling have been developed in the past. They are explained from the theoretical point of view and the experimental aspects are detailed as far as they are different from conventional applications of laser anemometry

  13. High density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel development campaign that results in an aluminum plate-type fuel of unlimited LEU burnup capability with an uranium loading of 9 grams per cm 3 of meat should be considered an unqualified success. The current worldwide approved and accepted highest loading is 4.8 g cm -3 with U 3 Si 2 as fuel. High-density uranium compounds offer no real density advantage over U 3 Si 2 and have less desirable fabrication and performance characteristics as well. Of the higher-density compounds, U 3 Si has approximately a 30% higher uranium density but the density of the U 6 X compounds would yield the factor 1.5 needed to achieve 9 g cm -3 uranium loading. Unfortunately, irradiation tests proved these peritectic compounds have poor swelling behavior. It is for this reason that the authors are turning to uranium alloys. The reason pure uranium was not seriously considered as a dispersion fuel is mainly due to its high rate of growth and swelling at low temperatures. This problem was solved at least for relatively low burnup application in non-dispersion fuel elements with small additions of Si, Fe, and Al. This so called adjusted uranium has nearly the same density as pure α-uranium and it seems prudent to reconsider this alloy as a dispersant. Further modifications of uranium metal to achieve higher burnup swelling stability involve stabilization of the cubic γ phase at low temperatures where normally α phase exists. Several low neutron capture cross section elements such as Zr, Nb, Ti and Mo accomplish this in various degrees. The challenge is to produce a suitable form of fuel powder and develop a plate fabrication procedure, as well as obtain high burnup capability through irradiation testing

  14. Vortical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Ma, Hui-Yang; Zhou, Ming-De

    2015-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and intensive book for graduate students in fluid dynamics as well as scientists, engineers and applied mathematicians. Offering a systematic introduction to the physical theory of vortical flows at graduate level, it considers the theory of vortical flows as a branch of fluid dynamics focusing on shearing process in fluid motion, measured by vorticity. It studies vortical flows according to their natural evolution stages,from being generated to dissipated. As preparation, the first three chapters of the book provide background knowledge for entering vortical flows. The rest of the book deals with vortices and vortical flows, following their natural evolution stages. Of various vortices the primary form is layer-like vortices or shear layers, and secondary but stronger form is axial vortices mainly formed by the rolling up of shear layers. Problems are given at the end of each chapter and Appendix, some for helping understanding the basic theories, and some involving specific applications; but the emphasis of both is always on physical thinking.

  15. Vortical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). College of Engineering; Ma, Hui-Yang [Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Dept. of Physics; Zhou, Ming-De [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

    2015-11-01

    This book is a comprehensive and intensive book for graduate students in fluid dynamics as well as scientists, engineers and applied mathematicians. Offering a systematic introduction to the physical theory of vortical flows at graduate level, it considers the theory of vortical flows as a branch of fluid dynamics focusing on shearing process in fluid motion, measured by vorticity. It studies vortical flows according to their natural evolution stages,from being generated to dissipated. As preparation, the first three chapters of the book provide background knowledge for entering vortical flows. The rest of the book deals with vortices and vortical flows, following their natural evolution stages. Of various vortices the primary form is layer-like vortices or shear layers, and secondary but stronger form is axial vortices mainly formed by the rolling up of shear layers. Problems are given at the end of each chapter and Appendix, some for helping understanding the basic theories, and some involving specific applications; but the emphasis of both is always on physical thinking.

  16. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  17. Nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso Junior, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Experimental data show that the number of nuclear states increases rapidly with increasing excitation energy. The properties of highly excited nuclei are important for many nuclear reactions, mainly those that go via processes of the compound nucleus type. In this case, it is sufficient to know the statistical properties of the nuclear levels. First of them is the function of nuclear levels density. Several theoretical models which describe the level density are presented. The statistical mechanics and a quantum mechanics formalisms as well as semi-empirical results are analysed and discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Polarizable Density Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Steinmann, Casper; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We present a new QM/QM/MM-based model for calculating molecular properties and excited states of solute-solvent systems. We denote this new approach the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model and it represents an extension of our previously developed polarizable embedding (PE) strategy. The PDE...... model is a focused computational approach in which a core region of the system studied is represented by a quantum-chemical method, whereas the environment is divided into two other regions: an inner and an outer region. Molecules belonging to the inner region are described by their exact densities...

  19. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  20. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    OpenAIRE

    Van Noije, T. P. C.; Ernst, M. H.; Brito López, Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which shifts to smaller wave numbers (growing correlation length). Furthermore, the inclusion of longitudinal velocity fluctuations changes long-range correlations in the flow field qualitatively and exten...

  1. A Review Relevant to Turbomachinery Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Johnston

    1998-01-01

    “buoyancy” currents in cases where density gradients occur. Turbulence modification involves reduction (stabilization or increase (destabilization of turbulent Reynolds stresses by Coriolis forces; effects which areof special importance for the understanding and prediction of flows in radial and mixed flow pump and compressor rotors. Stabilization/destabilization effects are discussed by a selective review of the basic research literature on flows in straight, radial, rotating channels and diffusers.

  2. A Tryst With Density

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    best known for developing the density functional theory (DFT). This is an extremely ... lem that has become famous in popular culture is that of the planet. Tatooine. Fans of ... the Schrödinger equation (or, if relativistic effects are important, the Dirac .... it supplies a moral justification for one's subsequent endeav- ours along ...

  3. Density in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesin, Gert; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a fourth-grade unit on density which introduces a concept useful in the study of chemistry and procedures appropriate to the chemistry laboratory. The hands-on activities, which use simple equipment and household substances, are at the level of thinking Piaget describes as concrete operational. (BC)

  4. Destiny from density

    OpenAIRE

    Seewaldt, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of a signalling protein that regulates the accumulation of fat and connective tissue in breasts may help to explain why high mammographic density is linked to breast-cancer risk and may provide a marker for predicting this risk.

  5. Polarizable Density Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Peter; Kongsted, Jacob; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the performance of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model-a new multiscale computational approach designed for prediction and rationalization of general molecular properties of large and complex systems. We showcase how the PDE model very effectively handles the use of large...

  6. Inverted annular flow experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.

    1985-04-01

    Steady-state inverted annular flow of Freon 113 in up flow was established in a transparent test section. Using a special inlet configuration consisting of long aspect-ratio liquid nozzles coaxially centered within a heated quartz tube, idealized inverted annular flow initial geometry (cylindrical liquid core surrounded by coaxial annulus of gas) could be established. Inlet liquid and gas flowrates, liquid subcooling, and gas density (using various gas species) were measured and varied systematically. The hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid core, and the subsequent downstream break-up of this core into slugs, ligaments and/or droplets of various sizes, was observed. In general, for low inlet liquid velocities it was observed that after the initial formation of roll waves on the liquid core surface, an agitated region of high surface area, with attendant high momentum and energy transfers, occurs. This agitated region appears to propagate downsteam in a quasi-periodic pattern. Increased inlet liquid flow rates, and high gas annulus flow rates tend to diminish the significance of this agitated region. Observed inverted annular flow (and subsequent downstream flow pattern) hydrodynamic behavior is reported, and comparisons are drawn to data generated by previous experimenters studying post-CHF flow

  7. Flow induced crystallisation of penetrable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Alberto; Brader, Joseph M.

    2018-03-01

    For a system of Brownian particles interacting via a soft exponential potential we investigate the interaction between equilibrium crystallisation and spatially varying shear flow. For thermodynamic state points within the liquid part of the phase diagram, but close to the crystallisation phase boundary, we observe that imposing a Poiseuille flow can induce nonequilibrium crystalline ordering in regions of low shear gradient. The physical mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is shear-induced particle migration, which causes particles to drift preferentially towards the center of the flow channel, thus increasing the local density in the channel center. The method employed is classical dynamical density functional theory.

  8. Hemodynamics alter arterial low-density lipoprotein metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warty, V.S.; Calvo, W.J.; Berceli, S.A.; Pham, S.M.; Durham, S.J.; Tanksale, S.K.; Klein, E.C.; Herman, I.M.; Borovetz, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the role of hemodynamic factors on low-density lipoprotein transport and metabolism in the intact arterial wall. Freshly excised canine carotid blood vessels were exposed to well-defined pulsatile flow in vitro for continuous periods up to 20 hours. We chose to impose the following hemodynamic conditions on our test carotid arteries: normotension, hypertension (at physiologic flow conditions), and hypertension coupled with elevated flow of canine serum perfusate. In several experiments the effect of endothelial denudation was examined in carotid arteries exposed to normotensive pulsatile flow. A trapped ligand method was used for quantitating low-density lipoprotein uptake and metabolism in the arterial wall. The distribution of both intact and degraded low-density lipoprotein fractions was determined from measurements of radiolabelled low-density lipoprotein activity within thin radial sections of perfused arteries. Our results suggest that both hypertensive hemodynamic simulations exacerbate the uptake of low-density lipoprotein within the arterial wall (by a factor of three to nine). The percentage of low-density lipoprotein that undergoes irreversible degradation falls from 41% under normotensive conditions to below 30% when hypertensive conditions are imposed, indicating that degradative processes are not proportionally elevated with the accelerated influx. A similar pattern is observed for deendothelialized vessels

  9. Granular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2012-01-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing...... on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture....

  10. Density-ratio effects on buoyancy-driven variable-density turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslangil, Denis; Livescu, Daniel; Banerjee, Arindam

    2017-11-01

    Density-ratio effects on the turbulent mixing of two incompressible, miscible fluids with different densities subject to constant acceleration are studied by means of high-resolution Direct Numerical Simulations. In a triply periodic domain, turbulence is generated by stirring in response to the differential buoyancy forces within the flow. Later, as the fluids become molecularly mixed, dissipation starts to overcome turbulence generation by bouyancy. Thus, the flow evolution includes both turbulence growth and decay, and it displays features present in the core region of the mixing layer of the Rayleigh-Taylor as well as Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We extend the previous studies by investigating a broad range of density-ratio, from 1-14.4:1, corresponding to Atwood numbers of 0.05-0.87. Here, we focus on the Atwood number dependence of mixing-efficiency, that is defined based on the energy-conversion ratios from potential energy to total and turbulent kinetic energies, the decay characteristics of buoyancy-assisted variable-density homogeneous turbulence, and the effects of high density-ratios on the turbulence structure and mixing process. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-SSAA (DE-NA0003195) and NSF CAREER (#1453056) awards.

  11. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  12. Discrete density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug

    2016-01-01

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  13. Discrete density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug, E-mail: sismanal@itu.edu.tr

    2016-03-22

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  14. Density dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1994-01-01

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction is defined by an optimal fit to select on-and half-off-of-the-energy shell t-and g-matrices determined by solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations with the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as input. As such, it is seen to better reproduce the interaction on which it is based than other commonly used density dependent effective interactions. The new (medium modified) effective interaction when folded with appropriate density matrices, has been used to define proton- 12 C and proton- 16 O optical potentials. With them elastic scattering data are well fit and the medium effects identifiable. 23 refs., 8 figs

  15. Variable Kernel Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate some of the possibilities for improvement of univariate and multivariate kernel density estimates by varying the window over the domain of estimation, pointwise and globally. Two general approaches are to vary the window width by the point of estimation and by point of the sample observation. The first possibility is shown to be of little efficacy in one variable. In particular, nearest-neighbor estimators in all versions perform poorly in one and two dimensions, but begin to b...

  16. Density oscillations within hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Barshay, S.

    1976-01-01

    In models of extended hadrons, in which small bits of matter carrying charge and effective mass exist confined within a medium, oscillations in the matter density may occur. A way of investigating this possibility experimentally in high-energy hadron-hadron elastic diffraction scattering is suggested, and the effect is illustrated by examining some existing data which might be relevant to the question [fr

  17. Toward a Redefinition of Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Amos

    1975-01-01

    This paper suggests that in addition to the recent work indicating that crowding is a subjective phenomenon, an adequate definition of density must also include a subjective component since density is a complex phenomenon in itself. Included is a discussion of both physical density and perceived density. (Author/MA)

  18. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  19. Investigation of density-wave oscillation in parallel boiling channels under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Xiao; Xuejun Chen; Mingyuan Zhang

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on density-wave instability in parallel boiling channels. Experiments have been done in a high pressure steam-water loop. Different types of two-phase flow instabilities have been observed, including density-wave oscillation, pressure-drop type oscillation, thermal oscillation and secondary density-wave oscillation. The secondary density-wave oscillation appears at very low exit steam quality (less than 0.1) and at the positive portion of Δ P-G curves with both channels' flow rate oscillating in phase. Density-wave oscillation can appear at pressure up to 192 bar and disappear over 207 bar. (6 figures) (Author)

  20. Flow Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Lind

    2003-01-01

    Flow Game er et dialogspil, der kan bruges som ledelsesværktøj, ledertræning, samtaletræning, coachingtræning og ideudvikling m.m. Gennem dilemmakort provokeres en dialog og teori-U inspireret afklaring- og udviklingsproces, hvor der enten arbejdes på en gruppes eller et individs vision/innovatio......Flow Game er et dialogspil, der kan bruges som ledelsesværktøj, ledertræning, samtaletræning, coachingtræning og ideudvikling m.m. Gennem dilemmakort provokeres en dialog og teori-U inspireret afklaring- og udviklingsproces, hvor der enten arbejdes på en gruppes eller et individs vision...

  1. Effect of gas temperature on flow rate characteristics of an averaging pitot tube type flow meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Seung Hwa; Lee, Su Ryong; Lee, Choong Hoon [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The flow rate characteristics passing through an averaging Pitot tube (APT) while constantly controlling the flow temperature were studied through experiments and CFD simulations. At controlled temperatures of 25, 50, 75, and 100 .deg .C, the flow characteristics, in this case the upstream, downstream and static pressure at the APT flow meter probe, were measured as the flow rate was increased. The flow rate through the APT flow meter was represented using the H-parameter (hydraulic height) obtained by a combination of the differential pressure and the air density measured at the APT flow meter probe. Four types of H-parameters were defined depending on the specific combination. The flow rate and the upstream, downstream and static pressures measured at the APT flow meter while changing the H-parameters were simulated by means of CFD. The flow rate curves showed different features depending on which type of H-parameter was used. When using the constant air density value in a standard state to calculate the H-parameters, the flow rate increased linearly with the H-parameter and the slope of the flow rate curve according to the H-parameter increased as the controlled target air temperature was increased. When using different air density levels corresponding to each target air temperature to calculate the H-parameter, the slope of the flow rate curve according to the H-parameter was constant and the flow rate curve could be represented by a single line. The CFD simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The CFD simulations were performed while increasing the air temperature to 1200 K. The CFD simulation results for high air temperatures were similar to those at the low temperature ranging from 25 to 100 .deg. C.

  2. Effect of gas temperature on flow rate characteristics of an averaging pitot tube type flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Seung Hwa; Lee, Su Ryong; Lee, Choong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The flow rate characteristics passing through an averaging Pitot tube (APT) while constantly controlling the flow temperature were studied through experiments and CFD simulations. At controlled temperatures of 25, 50, 75, and 100 .deg .C, the flow characteristics, in this case the upstream, downstream and static pressure at the APT flow meter probe, were measured as the flow rate was increased. The flow rate through the APT flow meter was represented using the H-parameter (hydraulic height) obtained by a combination of the differential pressure and the air density measured at the APT flow meter probe. Four types of H-parameters were defined depending on the specific combination. The flow rate and the upstream, downstream and static pressures measured at the APT flow meter while changing the H-parameters were simulated by means of CFD. The flow rate curves showed different features depending on which type of H-parameter was used. When using the constant air density value in a standard state to calculate the H-parameters, the flow rate increased linearly with the H-parameter and the slope of the flow rate curve according to the H-parameter increased as the controlled target air temperature was increased. When using different air density levels corresponding to each target air temperature to calculate the H-parameter, the slope of the flow rate curve according to the H-parameter was constant and the flow rate curve could be represented by a single line. The CFD simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The CFD simulations were performed while increasing the air temperature to 1200 K. The CFD simulation results for high air temperatures were similar to those at the low temperature ranging from 25 to 100 .deg. C.

  3. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupuzs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given

  4. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  5. Inertial objects in complex flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Rayhan; Ho, George; Cavas, Samuel; Bao, Jialun; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    Chaotic Advection and Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents both describe stirring and transport in complex and time-dependent flows, but FTLE analysis has been largely limited to either purely kinematic flow models or high Reynolds number flow field data. The neglect of dynamic effects in FTLE and Lagrangian Coherent Structure studies has stymied detailed information about the role of pressure, Coriolis effects and object inertia. We present results of laboratory and numerical experiments on time-dependent and multi-gyre Stokes flows. In the lab, a time-dependent effectively two-dimensional low Re flow is used to distinguish transport properties of passive tracer from those of small paramagnetic spheres. Companion results of FTLE calculations for inertial particles in a time-dependent multi-gyre flow are presented, illustrating the critical roles of density, Stokes number and Coriolis forces on their transport. Results of Direct Numerical Simulations of fully resolved inertial objects (spheroids) immersed in a three dimensional (ABC) flow show the role of shape and finite size in inertial transport at small finite Re. We acknowledge support of NSF DMS-1418956.

  6. Self-contained filtered density function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, Arash G.; Pope, Stephen B.

    2017-01-01

    The filtered density function (FDF) closure is extended to a “self-contained” format to include the subgrid-scale (SGS) statistics of all of the hydro-thermo-chemical variables in turbulent flows. These are the thermodynamic pressure, the specific internal energy, the velocity vector, and the composition field. In this format, the model is comprehensive and facilitates large-eddy simulation (LES) of flows at both low and high compressibility levels. A transport equation is developed for the joint pressure-energy-velocity-composition filtered mass density function (PEVC-FMDF). In this equation, the effect of convection appears in closed form. The coupling of the hydrodynamics and thermochemistry is modeled via a set of stochastic differential equation for each of the transport variables. This yields a self-contained SGS closure. We demonstrated how LES is conducted of a turbulent shear flow with transport of a passive scalar. Finally, the consistency of the PEVC-FMDF formulation is established, and its overall predictive capability is appraised via comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data.

  7. Self-contained filtered density function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, A. G.; Nik, M. B.; Givi, P.; Livescu, D.; Pope, S. B.

    2017-09-01

    The filtered density function (FDF) closure is extended to a "self-contained" format to include the subgrid-scale (SGS) statistics of all of the hydro-thermo-chemical variables in turbulent flows. These are the thermodynamic pressure, the specific internal energy, the velocity vector, and the composition field. In this format, the model is comprehensive and facilitates large-eddy simulation (LES) of flows at both low and high compressibility levels. A transport equation is developed for the joint pressure-energy-velocity-composition filtered mass density function (PEVC-FMDF). In this equation, the effect of convection appears in closed form. The coupling of the hydrodynamics and thermochemistry is modeled via a set of stochastic differential equation for each of the transport variables. This yields a self-contained SGS closure. For demonstration, LES is conducted of a turbulent shear flow with transport of a passive scalar. The consistency of the PEVC-FMDF formulation is established, and its overall predictive capability is appraised via comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data.

  8. Method and apparatus for the separation of solid particles having different densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for separating solid particles of different densities, using a magnetic process fluid. The solid particles are thoroughly mixed in a small partial flow of the process fluid. The small turbulent partial flow is added to a large laminar partial flow of the process fluid, after

  9. Studies of thermal-hydrodynamic flow instability, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira

    1978-01-01

    In the flow system in which large density change occurs midway, sometimes steady flow cannot be maintained according to the conditions, and pulsating flow or the scamper of flow occurs. This phenomenon is called flow instability, and is noticed as one of the causes to obstruct the normal operation in boilers, BWRs and the steam generators for FBRs with parallel evaporating tube system. In the pulsating instability, there are density wave oscillation and pressure wave oscillation. The author has studied the density wave oscillation occurring in the steam generators for FBRs and in this paper, the role played by two-phase flow regarding the occurrence of flow instability, and the effect of the existence of interphase slip on the role played by two-phase flow are reported. The theoretical analysis and the results of the analysis taking a steam generator heated with sodium as the example are described. Regarding flow stability, two-phase flow part generates the variation of weight velocity with different phase in steam single phase part, accepting enthalpy variation in water single phase part. In this action, the effect of interphase slip was observed, and the variation of reverse phase is apt to occur in slip flow as compared with homogeneous flow. Accordingly, flow instability is apt to occur in slip flow. (Kako, I.)

  10. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  11. Air shower density spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.R.; Foster, J.M.; Hodson, A.L.; Hazen, W.E.; Hendel, A.Z.; Bull, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the differential local density spectrum have been made using a 1 m 2 discharge chamber mounted in the Leeds discharge chamber array. The results are fitted to a power law of the form h(δ)dδ = kδsup(-ν)dδ, where ν=2.47+-0.04; k=0.21 s - 1 , for 7 m - 2 - 2 ; ν=2.90+-0.22; k=2.18 s - 1 , for δ > 200 m - 2 . Details of the measurement techniques are given with particular reference to the treatment of closely-spaced discharges. A comparison of these results with previous experiments using different techniques is made

  12. Density limit study on the W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, P.; Giannone, L.; Stroth, U.

    1998-01-01

    Data from currentless NBI discharges in W7-AS strongly indicate that the maximum density for quasi-stationary operation is limited by detachment from limiters. The threshold density at the edge scales with P s 0.5 B 0.8 (with P s being the net power flow across the LCMS) which is consistent with an edge based analytic estimation presuming constant threshold downstream temperatures. (author)

  13. Gluon density in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  14. Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    can be written as â fj (t) =WO tanh( WIx (t)+bI)+bO, (38) where WI , WO are the input and output matrices, respectively, and bI and bO are the input...applications, present on envisioned airborne optical platforms . One of the problems is that all adaptive optical systems rely on mechanically moving some...of successfully controlling the optical aberration due to the flow over the aperture of airborne optical platforms . As outlined above, systems

  15. Astrophysical Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, James E.; King, Andrew

    2003-07-01

    Almost all conventional matter in the Universe is fluid, and fluid dynamics plays a crucial role in astrophysics. This new graduate textbook provides a basic understanding of the fluid dynamical processes relevant to astrophysics. The mathematics used to describe these processes is simplified to bring out the underlying physics. The authors cover many topics, including wave propagation, shocks, spherical flows, stellar oscillations, the instabilities caused by effects such as magnetic fields, thermal driving, gravity, shear flows, and the basic concepts of compressible fluid dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics. The authors are Directors of the UK Astrophysical Fluids Facility (UKAFF) at the University of Leicester, and editors of the Cambridge Astrophysics Series. This book has been developed from a course in astrophysical fluid dynamics taught at the University of Cambridge. It is suitable for graduate students in astrophysics, physics and applied mathematics, and requires only a basic familiarity with fluid dynamics.• Provides coverage of the fundamental fluid dynamical processes an astrophysical theorist needs to know • Introduces new mathematical theory and techniques in a straightforward manner • Includes end-of-chapter problems to illustrate the course and introduce additional ideas

  16. Anomalous evolution of Ar metastable density with electron density in high density Ar discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min; Chang, Hong-Young; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Shin, Yong-Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with plasma discharge power (electron density) was reported [A. M. Daltrini, S. A. Moshkalev, T. J. Morgan, R. B. Piejak, and W. G. Graham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Although the importance of the metastable atom and its density has been reported in a lot of literature, however, a basic physics behind the anomalous evolution of metastable density has not been clearly understood yet. In this study, we investigated a simple global model to elucidate the underlying physics of the anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with the electron density. On the basis of the proposed simple model, we reproduced the anomalous evolution of the metastable density and disclosed the detailed physics for the anomalous result. Drastic changes of dominant mechanisms for the population and depopulation processes of Ar metastable atoms with electron density, which take place even in relatively low electron density regime, is the clue to understand the result.

  17. Density-Functional formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, L.; Berrios-Pagan, I.; McGinn, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new Density-Functional formula is constructed for atoms. The kinetic energy of the electron is divided into two parts: the kinetic self-energy and the orthogonalization energy. Calculations were made for the total energies of neutral atoms, positive ions and for the He isoelectronic series. For neutral atoms the results match the Hartree-Fock energies within 1% for atoms with N 36 the results generally match the HF energies within 0.1%. For positive ions the results are fair; for the molecular applications a simplified model is developed in which the kinetic energy consists of the Weizsaecker term plus the Fermi energy reduced by a continuous function. (orig.) [de

  18. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.

    2010-01-01

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  19. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to first-principles electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). Electronic structure calculations have a crucial importance in the multi-scale modelling scheme of materials: not only do they enable one to accurately determine physical and chemical properties of materials, they also provide data for the adjustment of parameters (or potentials) in higher-scale methods such as classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, cluster dynamics, etc. Most of the properties of a solid depend on the behaviour of its electrons, and in order to model or predict them it is necessary to have an accurate method to compute the electronic structure. DFT is based on quantum theory and does not make use of any adjustable or empirical parameter: the only input data are the atomic number of the constituent atoms and some initial structural information. The complicated many-body problem of interacting electrons is replaced by an equivalent single electron problem, in which each electron is moving in an effective potential. DFT has been successfully applied to the determination of structural or dynamical properties (lattice structure, charge density, magnetisation, phonon spectra, etc.) of a wide variety of solids. Its efficiency was acknowledged by the attribution of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1998 to one of its authors, Walter Kohn. A particular attention is given in this chapter to the ability of DFT to model the physical properties of nuclear materials such as actinide compounds. The specificities of the 5f electrons of actinides will be presented, i.e., their more or less high degree of localisation around the nuclei and correlations. The limitations of the DFT to treat the strong 5f correlations are one of the main issues for the DFT modelling of nuclear fuels. Various methods that exist to better treat strongly correlated materials will finally be presented. (author)

  20. Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Jennifer K; Modugno, Francemary; Weissfeld, Joel L; Kuller, Lewis; Vogel, Victor; Constantino, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    .... However, not all women on HRT will experience an increase in breast density. We propose a novel hypothesis to explain in part the individual variability in breast density seen among women on HRT...

  1. Flow past a self-oscillating airfoil with two degrees of freedom: measurements and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlof Petr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on investigation of the unsteady subsonic airflow past an elastically supported airfoil for subcritical flow velocities and during the onset of the flutter instability. A physical model of the NACA0015 airfoil has been designed and manufactured, allowing motion with two degrees of freedom: pitching (rotation about the elastic axis and plunging (vertical motion. The structural mass and stiffness matrix can be tuned to certain extent, so that the natural frequencies of the two modes approach as needed. The model was placed in the measuring section of the wind tunnel in the aerodynamic laboratory of the Institute of Thermomechanics in Nový Knín, and subjected to low Mach number airflow up to the flow velocities when self-oscillation reach amplitudes dangerous for the structural integrity of the model. The motion of the airfoil was registered by a high-speed camera, with synchronous measurement of the mechanic vibration and discrete pressure sensors on the surface of the airfoil. The results of the measurements are presented together with numerical simulation results, based on a finite volume CFD model of airflow past a vibrating airfoil.

  2. Offshore Financial Centers in Global Capital Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyshyn Zoriana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to investigation of the place and role of offshore financial centers in financial globalization system, and of the reasons for using offshores in assets securitization mechanism. Numerous offshore and other preferential zones enabling to avoid the effective national and governmental tax regime are important attributes of global financial system and redistributive links of world financial flows. At present, around 70 countries and territories offer their offshore services for foreign capital, bank transactions, profitability from activities in financial markets proper. The global offshore business concentrates large amounts often having no relation to the country of origin, the so-called cosmopolitan capital (wandering. Although in the early 80's of the XXth century offshore companies were considered to control approximately 500 billion dollars, it was already in the early 90's that this amount doubled and was estimated as 1 trillion dollars. Today, from ⅓ to half of the world capital turnover goes through offshore business channels, and therefore, almost half of non-resident bank deposits are concentrated in world offshore centers. These are the world financial centers comprising international capital markets that provide for the accumulation and redistribution of world capital. From the process of reproduction (circulation of capital, the world financial centers plunge out the most homogeneous and mobile element — money, and freely manipulating with them, concentrate huge economic power in their hands. The role of world financial centers was also enhanced by the latest achievements in computer science, allowing execution of instant transactions and movement of huge amounts to any point of the world within the shortest possible time. The world financial centers consist not only of powerful banks and financial institutions operating on the international scene, but also have currency, stock and other exchanges as their

  3. Density limit in ASDEX discharges with peaked density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Niedermeyer, H.; Loch, R.; Mertens, V.; Mueller, E.R.; Soeldner, F.X.; Wagner, F.

    1989-01-01

    Results concerning the density limit in OH and NI-heated ASDEX discharges with the usually observed broad density profiles have been reported earlier: In ohmic discharges with high q a (q-cylindrical is used throughout this paper) the Murakami parameter (n e R/B t ) is a good scaling parameter. At the high densities edge cooling is observed causing the plasma to shrink until an m=2-instability terminates the discharge. When approaching q a =2 the density limit is no longer proportional to I p ; a minimum exists in n e,max (q a ) at q a ∼2.15. With NI-heating the density limit increases less than proportional to the heating power; the behaviour during the pre-disruptive phase is rather similar to the one of OH discharges. There are specific operating regimes on ASDEX leading to discharges with strongly peaked density profiles: the improved ohmic confinement regime, counter neutral injection, and multipellet injection. These regimes are characterized by enhanced energy and particle confinement. The operational limit in density for these discharges is, therefore, of great interest having furthermore in mind that high central densities are favourable in achieving high fusion yields. In addition, further insight into the mechanisms of the density limit observed in tokamaks may be obtained by comparing plasmas with rather different density profiles at their maximum attainable densities. 7 refs., 2 figs

  4. Traffic density determination and its applications using smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sayed Ahmed Al-Sobky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone is progressively becoming a dominant platform for many transportation applications. This paper introduces a new application for using smartphones to measure traffic density and speed. The proposed system consists of two smartphones and two cars, with observer to count vehicles between the two cars. This count is utilized with tracking data to give “measured” density and “measured” speed. The travel speed and manual traffic counts were used to derive “calculated” density. Measured density was validated against calculated one, and statistical t-test confirmed that the mean difference between two densities is not significant at 5% level. Calculated flow rates were also comparable to actual counts, with an average error of 8.2%. The proposed system was then applied to measure density on 6 of October Elevated Road in Egypt, and the level of service was determined accordingly on 15 road sections studied on this road. Furthermore, actual speed-density data were fitted using exponential model with R2 of 0.85. Advantages of proposed system qualify it for potential applications in developing countries where available resources limit installation of more costly systems. The application of proposed system is limited to daytime, uninterrupted flow conditions, and traffic streams with less percentage of heavy vehicles.

  5. Nonlinear drift waves in a dusty plasma with sheared flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vranjes, J. [K.U. Leuven (Belgium). Center for Plasma Astrophysics; Shukla, R.K. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik IV

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear properties of dust-modified drift waves and dust-drift waves in a dusty magnetoplasma with equilibrium sheared flows are examined. For this purpose, the relevant nonlinear equations for drift waves are analyzed for various profiles of the perpendicular and parallel plasma flows, and a variety of nonlinear solutions (viz. single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, tripolar and global vortices), which are driven by nommiform shear flows and nommiform dust density, is presented.

  6. Nonlinear drift waves in a dusty plasma with sheared flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranjes, J.; Shukla, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear properties of dust-modified drift waves and dust-drift waves in a dusty magnetoplasma with equilibrium sheared flows are examined. For this purpose, the relevant nonlinear equations for drift waves are analyzed for various profiles of the perpendicular and parallel plasma flows, and a variety of nonlinear solutions (viz. single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, tripolar and global vortices), which are driven by nommiform shear flows and nommiform dust density, is presented

  7. Experimental study on low pressure flow instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Wu Shaorong; Bo Jinhai; Zhang Youjie

    1997-05-01

    The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The flow behavior for a wide range of inlet subcooling, in which the flow undergoes from single phase to two phase, is described in a natural circulation system at low pressure (p = 0.1, 0.24 MPa). Several kinds of flow instability, e.g. subcooled boiling instability, subcooled boiling induced flashing instability, pure flashing instability as well as flashing coupled density wave instability and high frequency flow oscillation, are investigated. The mechanism of flashing and flashing concerned flow instability, which has never been studied well in this field, is especially interpreted. The experimental results show that, firstly, for a low pressure natural circulation system the two phase flow is unstable in most of inlet subcooling conditions, the two phase stable flow can only be reached at very low inlet subcooling; secondly, at high inlet subcooling the flow instability is dominated by subcooled boiling in the heated section, and at middle inlet subcooling is dominated by void flashing in the adiabatic long riser; thirdly, in two phase stable flow region the condition for boiling out of the core, namely, single phase flow in the heated section, two phase flow in the riser due to vapor flashing, can be realized. The experimental results are very important for the design and accident analysis of the vessel and swimming pool type natural circulation nuclear heating reactor. (7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.)

  8. STAR FORMATION IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS WITH COLLIDING FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi

    2015-01-01

    Using self-gravitational hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we investigated the evolution of high-density turbulent molecular clouds swept by a colliding flow. The interaction of shock waves due to turbulence produces networks of thin filamentary clouds with a sub-parsec width. The colliding flow accumulates the filamentary clouds into a sheet cloud and promotes active star formation for initially high-density clouds. Clouds with a colliding flow exhibit a finer filamentary network than clouds without a colliding flow. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the density and column density can be fitted by lognormal functions for clouds without colliding flow. When the initial turbulence is weak, the column density PDF has a power-law wing at high column densities. The colliding flow considerably deforms the PDF, such that the PDF exhibits a double peak. The stellar mass distributions reproduced here are consistent with the classical initial mass function with a power-law index of –1.35 when the initial clouds have a high density. The distribution of stellar velocities agrees with the gas velocity distribution, which can be fitted by Gaussian functions for clouds without colliding flow. For clouds with colliding flow, the velocity dispersion of gas tends to be larger than the stellar velocity dispersion. The signatures of colliding flows and turbulence appear in channel maps reconstructed from the simulation data. Clouds without colliding flow exhibit a cloud-scale velocity shear due to the turbulence. In contrast, clouds with colliding flow show a prominent anti-correlated distribution of thin filaments between the different velocity channels, suggesting collisions between the filamentary clouds

  9. STAR FORMATION IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS WITH COLLIDING FLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    Using self-gravitational hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we investigated the evolution of high-density turbulent molecular clouds swept by a colliding flow. The interaction of shock waves due to turbulence produces networks of thin filamentary clouds with a sub-parsec width. The colliding flow accumulates the filamentary clouds into a sheet cloud and promotes active star formation for initially high-density clouds. Clouds with a colliding flow exhibit a finer filamentary network than clouds without a colliding flow. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the density and column density can be fitted by lognormal functions for clouds without colliding flow. When the initial turbulence is weak, the column density PDF has a power-law wing at high column densities. The colliding flow considerably deforms the PDF, such that the PDF exhibits a double peak. The stellar mass distributions reproduced here are consistent with the classical initial mass function with a power-law index of –1.35 when the initial clouds have a high density. The distribution of stellar velocities agrees with the gas velocity distribution, which can be fitted by Gaussian functions for clouds without colliding flow. For clouds with colliding flow, the velocity dispersion of gas tends to be larger than the stellar velocity dispersion. The signatures of colliding flows and turbulence appear in channel maps reconstructed from the simulation data. Clouds without colliding flow exhibit a cloud-scale velocity shear due to the turbulence. In contrast, clouds with colliding flow show a prominent anti-correlated distribution of thin filaments between the different velocity channels, suggesting collisions between the filamentary clouds.

  10. The analysis of two-phase flow and heat transfer using a multidimensional, four field, two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahey, Richard T.; Drew, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the prediction of multidimensional multiphase flow and heat transfer phenomena using a four field, two-fluid model. It is shown that accurate mechanistic computational fluid dynamic (CFD) predictions are possible for a wide variety of adiabatic and diabatic flows using this computational model. In particular, the model is able to predict the bubbly air/water upflow data of Serizawa (Serizawa, A., 1974. Fluid dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow. Ph.D. thesis, (Nuclear Engineering), Kyoto University, Japan), the downflow data of Wang et al. (Wang, S.K., Lee, S.J., Lahey Jr., R.T., Jones, O.C., 1987. 3-D turbulence structure and phase distribution measurements in bubbly two-phase flows. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 13 (3), 327-343), the isosceles triangle upflow data of Lopez de Bertodano et al. (Lopez de Bertodano, M., Lahey Jr., R.T., Jones, O.C., 1994b. Phase distribution in bubbly two-phase flow in vertical ducts. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 20 (5), 805-818), the heated annular R-113 subcooled boiling data of Velidandala, et al. (Velidandla, V., Pulta, S., Roy, P., Kaira, S.P., 1995. Velocity field in turbulent subcooled boiling flow. ASME Preprint HTD-314, 107-123) and the R-113 CHF data of Hino and Ueda (Hino, R., Ueda, T., 1985. Studies on heat transfer and flow characteristics in subcooled boiling-part 2, flow characteristics. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 11, 283-297). It can also predict external two-phase flows, such as those for spreading two-phase jets (Bonetto, F., Lahey Jr., R.T., 1993. An experimental study on air carryunder due to a plunging liquid jet. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 19 (2), 281-294) and multiphase flows around the hull of naval surface ships (Carrica, P.M., Bonetto, F., Drew, D.A., Lahey, R.T., 1999. A polydispersed model for bubbly two-phase flow around a surface ship. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 25 (2), 257-305)

  11. Smoothing densities under shape constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Paul Laurie; Meise, Monika

    2009-01-01

    In Davies and Kovac (2004) the taut string method was proposed for calculating a density which is consistent with the data and has the minimum number of peaks. The main disadvantage of the taut string density is that it is piecewise constant. In this paper a procedure is presented which gives a smoother density by minimizing the total variation of a derivative of the density subject to the number, positions and heights of the local extreme values obtained from the taut string density. 2...

  12. Morphodynamics of supercritical high-density turbidity currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Seafloor and outcrop observations combined with numerical and physical experiments show that turbidity currents are likely 1) to be in a supercritical flow state and 2) to carry high sediment concentrations (being of high-density). The thesis starts with an experimental study of bedforms

  13. Interfacial stick–slip transition in hydroxyapatite filled high density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    flow curves of composites and that of unfilled system remain identical. Filler addition lowers the .... Injection moulding grade high density polyethylene,. HD6070EA, was ... rheometer (Rosand Precision Ltd., UK) using version. 6⋅10 software. .... Bagley E B, Cabbot I M and West D C 1958 J. Appl. Phys. 29. 109. Blyler L L and ...

  14. CSR of Lanzhou and nuclear physics at high densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Pengfei; Zhao Weiqin

    1999-01-01

    The possibility to produce highly dense nuclear matter at CSR of Lanzhou and the corresponding signals at final state are discussed. Especially, the maximum baryon density reached at CSR is estimated, and the subthreshold production and hadronic flow risen from the partial restoration of chiral symmetry at CSR energies are analyzed

  15. High density hydrogen research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The interest in the properties of very dense hydrogen is prompted by its abundance in Saturn and Jupiter and its importance in laser fusion studies. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the metallic form of hydrogen may be a superconductor at relatively high temperatures and/or exist in a metastable phase at ambient pressure. For ten years or more, laboratories have been developing the techniques to study hydrogen in the megabar region (1 megabar = 100 GPa). Three major approaches to study dense hydrogen experimentally have been used, static presses, shockwave compression, and magnetic compression. Static tchniques have crossed the megabar threshold in stiff materials but have not yet been convincingly successful in very compressible hydrogen. Single and double shockwave techniques have improved the precision of the pressure, volume, temperature Equation of State (EOS) of molecular hydrogen (deuterium) up to near 1 Mbar. Multiple shockwave and magnetic techniques have compressed hydrogen to several megabars and densities in the range of the metallic phase. The net result is that hydrogen becomes conducting at a pressure between 2 and 4 megabars. Hence, the possibility of making a significant amount of hydrogen into a metal in a static press remains a formidable challenge. The success of such experiments will hopefully answer the questions about hydrogen's metallic vs. conducting molecular phase, superconductivity, and metastability. 4 figures, 15 references

  16. Swirling flow and its influence on dc arcs in a duo-flow hybrid circuit breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, K Y; Lee, H S; Yan, J D; Fang, M T C; Park, K Y

    2009-01-01

    The effects of swirling flow on the behaviour of dc SF 6 arcs in a duo-flow nozzle are computationally investigated in the electric current range 3-7 kA. A swirling flow is produced by the interaction of the magnetic field of a current-carrying coil and the plasma. Results show that a strong swirling flow is generated in regions where a large radial current density exists as a result of the conducting arc column rapidly changing its radial dimension. The presence of the swirling flow reduces the axis pressure, modifies the arc shape and slightly lowers the arc voltage (2-5%) in comparison with the case without considering the swirling flow. The different natures of swirling flows in a plasma jet/arc heater and in a hybrid circuit breaker are also discussed.

  17. Onset of density-driven instabilities in fractured aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Raad, Seyed Mostafa; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Linear stability analysis is conducted to study the onset of density-driven convection involved in solubility trapping of C O2 in fractured aquifers. The effect of physical properties of a fracture network on the stability of a diffusive boundary layer in a saturated fractured porous media is investigated using the dual porosity concept. Linear stability analysis results show that both fracture interporosity flow and fracture storativity play an important role in the stability behavior of the system. It is shown that a diffusive boundary layer under the gravity field in fractured porous media with lower fracture storativity and/or higher fracture interporosity flow coefficient is more stable. We present scaling relations for the onset of convective instability in fractured aquifers with single and variable matrix block size distribution. These findings improve our understanding of density-driven flow in fractured aquifers and are important in the estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage site characterization and screening.

  18. Density limit experiments on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucella, G.; Tudisco, O.; Apicella, M.L.; Apruzzese, G.; Artaserse, G.; Belli, F.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Buratti, P.; Calabrò, G.; Castaldo, C.; Cianfarani, C.; Cocilovo, V.; Dimatteo, L.; Esposito, B.; Frigione, D.; Gabellieri, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Bin, W.; Granucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main problems in tokamak fusion devices concerns the capability to operate at a high plasma density, which is observed to be limited by the appearance of catastrophic events causing loss of plasma confinement. The commonly used empirical scaling law for the density limit is the Greenwald limit, predicting that the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord depends only on the average plasma current density. However, the Greenwald density limit has been exceeded in tokamak experiments in the case of peaked density profiles, indicating that the edge density is the real parameter responsible for the density limit. Recently, it has been shown on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) that the Greenwald density limit is exceeded in gas-fuelled discharges with a high value of the edge safety factor. In order to understand this behaviour, dedicated density limit experiments were performed on FTU, in which the high density domain was explored in a wide range of values of plasma current (I p = 500–900 kA) and toroidal magnetic field (B T = 4–8 T). These experiments confirm the edge nature of the density limit, as a Greenwald-like scaling holds for the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a peripheral chord passing at r/a ≃ 4/5. On the other hand, the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord does not depend on the average plasma current density and essentially depends on the toroidal magnetic field only. This behaviour is explained in terms of density profile peaking in the high density domain, with a peaking factor at the disruption depending on the edge safety factor. The possibility that the MARFE (multifaced asymmetric radiation from the edge) phenomenon is the cause of the peaking has been considered, with the MARFE believed to form a channel for the penetration of the neutral particles into deeper layers of the plasma. Finally, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis has shown that also the central line

  19. Resolvability of regional density structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convectivemotion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravityprovide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling,making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assessif 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within thecrust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we performprincipal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish theextent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrainedindependently. Since the density imprint we observe is not exclusively linked to travel times and amplitudes of specific phases,we consider waveform differences between complete seismograms. We test the method using a known smooth model of the crust and seismograms with clear Love and Rayleigh waves, showing that - as expected - the first principal kernel maximizes sensitivity to SH and SV velocity structure, respectively, and that the leakage between S velocity, P velocity and density parameter spaces is minimal in the chosen setup. Next, we apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density

  20. Super liquid density target designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.L.; Bailey, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The success of laser fusion depends on obtaining near isentropic compression of fuel to very high densities and igniting this fuel. To date, the results of laser fusion experiments have been based mainly on the exploding pusher implosion of fusion capsules consisting of thin glass microballoons (wall thickness of less than 1 micron) filled with low density DT gas (initial density of a few mg/cc). Maximum DT densities of a few tenths of g/cc and temperatures of a few keV have been achieved in these experiments. We will discuss the results of LASNEX target design calculations for targets which: (a) can compress fuel to much higher densities using the capabilities of existing Nd-glass systems at LLL; (b) allow experimental measurement of the peak fuel density achieved