Weyer, K. U.
2017-12-01
Coastal groundwater flow investigations at the Biscayne Bay, south of Miami, Florida, gave rise to the concept of density-driven flow of seawater into coastal aquifers creating a saltwater wedge. Within that wedge, convection-driven return flow of seawater and a dispersion zone were assumed by Cooper et al. (1964) to be the cause of the Biscayne aquifer `sea water wedge'. This conclusion was based on the chloride distribution within the aquifer and on an analytical model concept assuming convection flow within a confined aquifer without taking non-chemical field data into consideration. This concept was later labelled the `Henry Problem', which any numerical variable density flow program must be able to simulate to be considered acceptable. Both, `density-driven flow' and Tothian `groundwater flow systems' (with or without variable density conditions) are driven by gravitation. The difference between the two are the boundary conditions. 'Density-driven flow' occurs under hydrostatic boundary conditions while Tothian `groundwater flow systems' occur under hydrodynamic boundary conditions. Revisiting the Cooper et al. (1964) publication with its record of piezometric field data (heads) showed that the so-called sea water wedge has been caused by discharging deep saline groundwater driven by gravitational flow and not by denser sea water. Density driven flow of seawater into the aquifer was not found reflected in the head measurements for low and high tide conditions which had been taken contemporaneously with the chloride measurements. These head measurements had not been included in the flow interpretation. The very same head measurements indicated a clear dividing line between shallow local fresh groundwater flow and saline deep groundwater flow without the existence of a dispersion zone or a convection cell. The Biscayne situation emphasizes the need for any chemical interpretation of flow pattern to be supported by head data as energy indicators of flow fields
A finite volume method for density driven flows in porous media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hilhorst Danielle
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we apply a semi-implicit finite volume method for the numerical simulation of density driven flows in porous media; this amounts to solving a nonlinear convection-diffusion parabolic equation for the concentration coupled with an elliptic equation for the pressure. We compute the solutions for two specific problems: a problem involving a rotating interface between salt and fresh water and the classical but difficult Henry’s problem. All solutions are compared to results obtained by running FEflow, a commercial software package for the simulation of groundwater flow, mass and heat transfer in porous media.
T-junction cross-flow mixing with thermally driven density stratification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kickhofel, John, E-mail: jkickhofel@gmail.com [Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Selvam, P. Karthick, E-mail: karthick.selvam@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Laurien, Eckart, E-mail: eckart.laurien@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kulenovic, Rudi, E-mail: rudi.kulenovic@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)
2016-12-01
Highlights: • Mesh sensor for realistic nuclear thermal hydraulic scenarios is demonstrated. • Flow temperature behavior across a wide range of Richardson numbers measured. • Upstream stratified flow in the T-junction results in a thermal shock scenario. • Large, stable near-wall thermal gradients exist in spite of turbulent flows. - Abstract: As a means of further elucidating turbulence- and stratification-driven thermal fatigue in the vicinity of T-junctions in nuclear power plants, a series of experiments have been conducted at the high temperature high pressure fluid–structure interaction T-junction facility of the University of Stuttgart with novel fluid measurement instrumentation. T-junction mixing with large fluid temperature gradients results in complex flow behavior, the result of density driven effects. Deionized water mixing at temperature differences of up to 232 K at 7 MPa pressure have been investigated in a T-junction with main pipe diameter 71.8 mm and branch line diameter 38.9 mm. The experiments have been performed with fixed flow rates of 0.4 kg/s in the main pipe and 0.1 kg/s in the branch line. A novel electrode-mesh sensor compatible with the DN80 PN100 pipeline upstream and downstream of the T-junction has been utilized as a temperature sensor providing a high density information in the pipe cross-section in both space and time. Additionally, in-flow and in-wall thermocouples quantify the damping of thermal fluctuations by the wall material. The results indicate that large inflow temperature differences lead to strong turbulence damping, and ultimately stable stratification extending both downstream and upstream of the T-junction resulting in large local thermal gradients.
The enigmatic ultra-long run-out of seafloor density driven flows
Dorrell, R. M.
2017-12-01
Dilute, particulate-laden, density-driven flows - turbidity currents - are a predominant mechanism for transporting sediment from source to sink in deep marine environments. These flows sculpt channels on the seafloor and, as evidenced by a wealth of bathymetric data, can travel for >1000km, forming some of the largest sedimentary landforms on the planet. For turbidity currents to travel such large dsitances, sediment must be self-maintained in suspension, i.e., be in a state of autosuspension. It has been shown that such self-maintained sediment suspensions can only occur whilst inertial forces are greater than gravitational forces, entailing supercritical flow. This conclusion is paradoxical, as inertia dominated flows rapidly entrain fluid, thereby thickening and slowing to become subcritical. However, current theory can only truly be applied to the proximal upper slope regions of seafloor channels where incised flows are fully confined. This contrasts with the distal reaches of long run out turbidity current systems, where the flow is only partially confined through self-channelization. Here it is shown that overspill of partially confined flow has a significant effect on the hydro- and morphodynamics of turbidity current systems. A new model is derived that shows that channel overspill acts to negate the effects of ambient fluid entrainment: a dynamic balance that limits increases in flow depth and maintains supercritical flow throughout the channel. In the new model mass, momentum and energy conservation is modulated by flow overspill onto channel banks, necessarily requiring description of the vertical structure of the flow. Analysis of continuously stratified steady state flow dynamics shows that the integration of overspill and stratification is necessary to enable maintained autosuspension and thus predict the ultra-long run-out of turbidity currents.
Negara, Ardiansyah
2014-04-21
Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density is smaller than the hosting brine. This motivates an upward motion and eventually CO2 is trapped beneath the cap rock. The trapped CO2 slowly dissolves into the brine causing the density of the mixture to become larger than the host brine. This causes gravitational instabilities that is propagated and magnified with time. In this kind of density-driven flows, the CO2-rich brines migrate downward while the brines with low CO2 concentration move upward. With respect to the properties of the subsurface aquifers, there are instances where saline formations can possess anisotropy with respect to their hydraulic properties. Such anisotropy can have significant effect on the onset and propagation of flow instabilities. Anisotropy is predicted to be more influential in dictating the direction of the convective flow. To account for permeability anisotropy, the method of multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) in the framework of finite differences schemes is used. The MPFA method requires more point stencil than the traditional two-point flux approximation (TPFA). For example, calculation of one flux component requires 6-point stencil and 18-point stencil in 2-D and 3-D cases, respectively. As consequence, the matrix of coefficient for obtaining the pressure fields will be quite complex. Therefore, we combine the MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field technique in which the problem is reduced to solving multitude of local problems and the global matrix of coefficients is constructed automatically, which significantly reduces the complexity. We present several numerical scenarios of density-driven flow simulation in homogeneous, layered, and heterogeneous anisotropic porous media. The numerical results emphasize the
Simulation of density-driven flow in heterogeneous and fractured porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grillo, A. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). DISMA; Logashenko, D. [Steinbeis Research Center, Oelbronn (Germany); Stichel, S.; Wittum, G. [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). G-CSC
2015-07-01
The study of fractured porous media is an important and challenging problem in hydrogeology. One of the difficulties is that mathematical models have to account for heterogeneity introduced by fractures in hydrogeological media. Heterogeneity may strongly influence the physical processes taking place in these media. Moreover, the thickness of the fractures, which is usually negligible in comparison with the size of the whole domain, and the complicated geometry of fracture networks reduce essentially the efficiency of numerical methods. In order to overcome these difficulties, fractures are sometimes considered as objects of reduced dimensionality (surfaces in three dimensions), and the field equations are averaged along the fracture width. Fractures are assumed to be thin regions of space filled with a porous material whose properties differ from those of the porous medium enclosing them. The interfaces separating the fractures from the embedding medium are assumed to be ideal. We consider two approaches: (i) the fractures have the same dimension, d, as the embedding medium and are said to be d-dimensional; (ii) the fractures are considered as (d-1)-dimensional manifolds, and the equations of density-driven flow are found by averaging the d-dimensional laws over the fracture width. We show that the second approach is a valid alternative to the first one. For this purpose, we perform numerical experiments using a finite-volume discretization for both approaches. The results obtained by the two methods are in good agreement with each other. We derive a criterion for the validity of the simplified representation. The criterion characterizes the transition of a mainly parallel flow to a rotational flow, which cannot be reasonably approximated using a d-1 dimensional representation. We further present a numerical algorithm using adaptive dimensional representation.
Modeling density-driven flow in porous media principles, numerics, software
Holzbecher, Ekkehard O
1998-01-01
Modeling of flow and transport in groundwater has become an important focus of scientific research in recent years. Most contributions to this subject deal with flow situations, where density and viscosity changes in the fluid are neglected. This restriction may not always be justified. The models presented in the book demonstrate immpressingly that the flow pattern may be completely different when density changes are taken into account. The main applications of the models are: thermal and saline convection, geothermal flow, saltwater intrusion, flow through salt formations etc. This book not only presents basic theory, but the reader can also test his knowledge by applying the included software and can set up own models.
Supersonic shear flows in laser driven high-energy-density plasmas created by the Nike laser
Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Plewa, T.
2008-11-01
In high-energy-density (HED) plasmas the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability plays an important role in the evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) unstable interfaces, as well as material interfaces that experience the passage one or multiple oblique shocks. Despite the potentially important role of the KH instability few experiments have been carried out to explore its behavior in the high-energy-density regime. We report on the evolution of a supersonic shear flow that is generated by the release of a high velocity (>100 km/s) aluminum plasma onto a CRF foam (ρ = 0.1 g/cc) surface. In order to seed the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability various two-dimensional sinusoidal perturbations (λ = 100, 200, and 300 μm with peak-to-valley amplitudes of 10, 20, and 30 μm respectively) have been machined into the foam surface. This experiment was performed using the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Cánovas
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Density-driven flow and heat transport processes in 2-D porous media scenarios are governed by coupled, non-linear, partial differential equations that normally have to be solved numerically. In the present work, a model based on the network method simulation is designed and applied to simulate these processes, providing steady state patterns that demonstrate its computational power and reliability. The design is relatively simple and needs very few rules. Two applications in which heat is transported by natural convection in confined and saturated media are studied: slender boxes heated from below (a kind of Bénard problem and partially heated horizontal plates in rectangular domains (the Elder problem. The streamfunction and temperature patterns show that the results are coherent with those of other authors: steady state patterns and heat transfer depend both on the Rayleigh number and on the characteristic Darcy velocity derived from the values of the hydrological, thermal and geometrical parameters of the problems.
Negara, Ardiansyah; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2014-01-01
Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density
Pressure Driven Poiseuille Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stotz, Ingo Leonardo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, D. Rhodri
2018-01-01
The Pacific plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians–Japan, Marianas–Izu–Bonin and Tonga–Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub–Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e. Couette flow...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Henry de Frahan, M. T.; Johnsen, E.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D.
2014-01-01
In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ∼50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and the subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaquet, O.; Siegel, P.
2004-09-01
A hydrogeological model was developed for Beberg with the aim of evaluating the impact of a repository (for the operational and post-closure phases) while accounting for the effects of density-driven flow. Two embedded scales were taken into account for this modelling study: a local scale at which the granitic medium was considered as a continuum and a repository scale, where the medium is fractured and therefore was regarded to be discrete. The following step-wise approach was established to model density-driven flow at both repository and local scale: (a) modelling fracture networks at the repository scale, (b) upscaling the hydraulic properties to a continuum at local scale and (c) modelling density-driven flow to evaluate repository impact at local scale. The results demonstrate the strong impact of the repository on the flow field during the phase of operation. The distribution of the salt concentration is affected by a large upcoming effect with increased relative concentration and by the presence of fracture zones carrying freshwater from the surface. The concentrations obtained for the reference case, expressed in terms of percentage with respect to the maximum (prescribed) value in the model, are as follows: ca 30% for the phase of desaturation, and ca 20% for the resaturation phase. For the reference case, the impact of repository operations appears no longer visible after a resaturation period of about 20 years after repository closure; under resaturation conditions, evidence of the operational phase has already disappeared in terms of the observed hydraulic and concentration fields. Sensitivity calculations have proven the importance of explicitly discretising repository tunnels when assessing resaturation time and maximum concentration values. Furthermore, the definition of a fixed potential as boundary condition along the model's top surface is likely to provide underestimated values for the maximum concentration and overestimated flow rates in the
Regulation of ETG turbulence by TEM driven zonal flows
Asahi, Yuuichi; Ishizawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji
2013-10-01
Anomalous heat transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It is found that the ETG turbulence can be suppressed by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs). The TEMs appear in a statistically steady state of ETG turbulence and generate zonal flows, while its growth rate is much smaller than those of ETGs. The TEM-driven zonal flows with lower radial wave numbers are more strongly generated than those driven by ETG modes, because of the higher zonal flow response to a density source term. An ExB shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is strong enough to suppress the long-wavelength ETG modes which make the main contribution to the turbulent transport.
Onset of density-driven instabilities in fractured aquifers
Jafari Raad, Seyed Mostafa; Hassanzadeh, Hassan
2018-04-01
Linear stability analysis is conducted to study the onset of density-driven convection involved in solubility trapping of C O2 in fractured aquifers. The effect of physical properties of a fracture network on the stability of a diffusive boundary layer in a saturated fractured porous media is investigated using the dual porosity concept. Linear stability analysis results show that both fracture interporosity flow and fracture storativity play an important role in the stability behavior of the system. It is shown that a diffusive boundary layer under the gravity field in fractured porous media with lower fracture storativity and/or higher fracture interporosity flow coefficient is more stable. We present scaling relations for the onset of convective instability in fractured aquifers with single and variable matrix block size distribution. These findings improve our understanding of density-driven flow in fractured aquifers and are important in the estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage site characterization and screening.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komuro, Atsushi; Konno, Kaiki; Ando, Akira; Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro; Tanaka, Naoki; Nonomura, Taku; Asai, Keisuke
2017-01-01
Gas-density perturbations near an airfoil surface generated by a nanosecond dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuator (ns-DBDPA) are visualized using a high-speed Schlieren imaging method. Wind-tunnel experiments are conducted for a wind speed of 20 m s −1 with an NACA0015 airfoil whose chord length is 100 mm. The results show that the ns-DBDPA first generates a pressure wave and then stochastic perturbations of the gas density near the leading edge of the airfoil. Two structures with different characteristics are observed in the stochastic perturbations. One structure propagates along the boundary between the shear layer and the main flow at a speed close to that of the main flow. The other propagates more slowly on the surface of the airfoil and causes mixing between the main and shear flows. It is observed that these two heated structures interact with each other, resulting in a recovery in the negative pressure coefficient at the leading edge of the airfoil. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J.
2010-01-01
Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Driven Cavity Flows
Verstappen, R.; Wissink, J.G.; Veldman, A.E.P.
Direct numerical simulations of 2D driven cavity flows have been performed. The simulations exhibit that the flow converges to a periodically oscillating state at Re=11,000, and reveal that the dynamics is chaotic at Re=22,000. The dimension of the attractor and the Kolmogorov entropy have been
Convection flows driven by laser heating of a liquid layer
Rivière , David; Selva , Bertrand; Chraibi , Hamza; Delabre , Ulysse; Delville , Jean-Pierre
2016-01-01
International audience; When a fluid is heated by the absorption of a continuous laser wave, the fluid density decreases in the heated area. This induces a pressure gradient that generates internal motion of the fluid. Due to mass conservation, convection eddies emerge in the sample. To investigate these laser-driven bulk flows at the microscopic scale, we built a setup to perform temperature measurements with a fluorescent-sensitive dye on the one hand, and measured the flow pattern at diffe...
Pressure-driven peristaltic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mingalev, S V; Lyubimov, D V; Lyubimova, T P
2013-01-01
The peristaltic motion of an incompressible fluid in two-dimensional channel is investigated. Instead of fixing the law of wall's coordinate variation, the law of pressure variation on the wall is fixed and the border's coordinate changes to provide the law of pressure variation on the wall. In case of small amplitude of pressure-variation on the wall A, expansion wave propagates along the length of channel and the wave results in the peristaltic transport of fluid. In the case of large A, the channel divides into two parts. The small pulsating part in the end of the tube creates the flow as a human heart, while the other big part loses this function. The solution of problem for the first peristaltic mode is stable, while the solution for the second 'heart' mode is unstable and depends heavily on boundary conditions.
THE DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN TURBULENT BISTABLE FLOWS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo
2013-01-01
We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function (Σ-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100 pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50 pc. At low densities (n ∼ –3 ), the n-PDF is well described by a lognormal distribution for an average local Mach number ranging from ∼0.2 to ∼5.5. As a consequence of the nonlinear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution of the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well-known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n ∼> 7.1 cm –3 ) goes from ∼1.1 to ∼16.9 and the shape of the high-density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case, the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities, the Σ-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all of the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different from those of the isothermal case.
Solar Dynamo Driven by Periodic Flow Oscillation
Mayr, Hans G.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have proposed that the periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle is determined by wave mean flow interactions analogous to those driving the Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the Earth's atmosphere. Upward propagating gravity waves would produce oscillating flows near the top of the radiation zone that in turn would drive a kinematic dynamo to generate the 22-year solar magnetic cycle. The dynamo we propose is built on a given time independent magnetic field B, which allows us to estimate the time dependent, oscillating components of the magnetic field, (Delta)B. The toroidal magnetic field (Delta)B(sub phi) is directly driven by zonal flow and is relatively large in the source region, (Delta)(sub phi)/B(sub Theta) much greater than 1. Consistent with observations, this field peaks at low latitudes and has opposite polarities in both hemispheres. The oscillating poloidal magnetic field component, (Delta)B(sub Theta), is driven by the meridional circulation, which is difficult to assess without a numerical model that properly accounts for the solar atmosphere dynamics. Scale-analysis suggests that (Delta)B(sub Theta) is small compared to B(sub Theta) in the dynamo region. Relative to B(sub Theta), however, the oscillating magnetic field perturbations are expected to be transported more rapidly upwards in the convection zone to the solar surface. As a result, (Delta)B(sub Theta) (and (Delta)B(sub phi)) should grow relative to B(sub Theta), so that the magnetic fields reverse at the surface as observed. Since the meridional and zonai flow oscillations are out of phase, the poloidal magnetic field peaks during times when the toroidal field reverses direction, which is observed. With the proposed wave driven flow oscillation, the magnitude of the oscillating poloidal magnetic field increases with the mean rotation rate of the fluid. This is consistent with the Bode-Blackett empirical scaling law, which reveals that in massive astrophysical bodies the magnetic moment tends
Homogeneous purely buoyancy driven turbulent flow
Arakeri, Jaywant; Cholemari, Murali; Pawar, Shashikant
2010-11-01
An unstable density difference across a long vertical tube open at both ends leads to convection that is axially homogeneous with a linear density gradient. We report results from such tube convection experiments, with driving density caused by salt concentration difference or temperature difference. At high enough Rayleigh numbers (Ra) the convection is turbulent with zero mean flow and zero mean Reynolds shear stresses; thus turbulent production is purely by buoyancy. We observe different regimes of turbulent convection. At very high Ra the Nusselt number scales as the square root of the Rayleigh number, giving the so-called "ultimate regime" of convection predicted for Rayleigh-Benard convection in limit of infinite Ra. Turbulent convection at intermediate Ra, the Nusselt number scales as Ra^0.3. In both regimes, the flux and the Taylor scale Reynolds number are more than order of magnitude larger than those obtained in Rayleigh-Benard convection. Absence of a mean flow makes this an ideal flow to study shear free turbulence near a wall.
Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Intrator, T. P., E-mail: intrator@lanl.gov; Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dorf, L. [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Sun, X. [University of Science and Technology, Hefei (China)
2014-04-15
Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.
Perspectives on continuum flow models for force-driven nano-channel liquid flows
Beskok, Ali; Ghorbanian, Jafar; Celebi, Alper
2017-11-01
A phenomenological continuum model is developed using systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of force-driven liquid argon flows confined in gold nano-channels at a fixed thermodynamic state. Well known density layering near the walls leads to the definition of an effective channel height and a density deficit parameter. While the former defines the slip-plane, the latter parameter relates channel averaged density with the desired thermodynamic state value. Definitions of these new parameters require a single MD simulation performed for a specific liquid-solid pair at the desired thermodynamic state and used for calibration of model parameters. Combined with our observations of constant slip-length and kinematic viscosity, the model accurately predicts the velocity distribution and volumetric and mass flow rates for force-driven liquid flows in different height nano-channels. Model is verified for liquid argon flow at distinct thermodynamic states and using various argon-gold interaction strengths. Further verification is performed for water flow in silica and gold nano-channels, exhibiting slip lengths of 1.2 nm and 15.5 nm, respectively. Excellent agreements between the model and the MD simulations are reported for channel heights as small as 3 nm for various liquid-solid pairs.
Bedforms formed by experimental supercritical density flows
Naruse, Hajime; Izumi, Norihiro; Yokokawa, Miwa; Muto, Tetsuji
2014-05-01
This study reveals characteristics and formative conditions of bedforms produced by saline density flows in supercritical flow conditions, especially focusing on the mechanism of the formation of plane bed. The motion of sediment particles forming bedforms was resolved by high-speed cameras (1/1000 frame/seconds). Experimental density flows were produced by mixtures of salt water (1.01-1.04 in density) and plastic particles (1.5 in specific density, 140 or 240 mm in diameter). Salt water and plastic particles are analogue materials of muddy water and sand particles in turbidity currents respectively. Acrylic flume (4.0 m long, 2.0 cm wide and 0.5 m deep) was submerged in an experimental tank (6.0 m long, 1.8 m wide and 1.2 m deep) that was filled by clear water. Features of bedforms were observed when the bed state in the flume reached equilibrium condition. The experimental conditions range 1.5-4.2 in densimetric Froude number and 0.2-0.8 in Shields dimensionless stress. We report the two major discoveries as a result of the flume experiments: (1) Plane bed under Froude-supercritical flows and (2) Geometrical characteristics of cyclic steps formed by density flows. (1) Plane bed was formed under the condition of supercritical flow regime. In previous studies, plane bed has been known to be formed by subcritical unidirectional flows (ca. 0.8 in Froude number). However, this study implies that plane bed can also be formed by supercritical conditions with high Shields dimensionless stress (>0.4) and very high Froude number (> 4.0). This discovery may suggest that previous estimations of paleo-hydraulic conditions of parallel lamination in turbidites should be reconsidered. The previous experimental studies and data from high-speed camera suggest that the region of plane bed formation coincides with the region of the sheet flow developments. The particle transport in sheet flow (thick bedload layer) induces transform of profile of flow shear stress, which may be
Libration-driven flows in ellipsoidal shells
Lemasquerier, D.; Grannan, A. M.; Vidal, J.; Cébron, D.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.; Aurnou, J. M.
2017-09-01
Planets and satellites can undergo physical librations, which consist of forced periodic variations in their rotation rate induced by gravitational interactions with nearby bodies. This mechanical forcing may drive turbulence in interior fluid layers such as subsurface oceans and metallic liquid cores through a libration-driven elliptical instability (LDEI) that refers to the resonance of two inertial modes with the libration-induced base flow. LDEI has been studied in the case of a full ellipsoid. Here we address for the first time the question of the persistence of LDEI in the more geophysically relevant ellipsoidal shell geometries. In the experimental setup, an ellipsoidal container with spherical inner cores of different sizes is filled with water. Direct side view flow visualizations are made in the librating frame using Kalliroscope particles. A Fourier analysis of the light intensity fluctuations extracted from recorded movies shows that the presence of an inner core leads to spatial heterogeneities but does not prevent LDEI. Particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulations are performed on selected cases to confirm our results. Additionally, our survey at a fixed forcing frequency and variable rotation period (i.e., variable Ekman number, E) shows that the libration amplitude at the instability threshold varies as ˜E0.65. This scaling is explained by a competition between surface and bulk dissipation. When extrapolating to planetary interior conditions, this leads to the E1/2 scaling commonly considered. We argue that Enceladus' subsurface ocean and the core of the exoplanet 55 CnC e should both be unstable to LDEI.
Montague, James A.; Pinder, George F.; Gonyea, Jay V.; Hipko, Scott; Watts, Richard
2018-05-01
Magnetic resonance imaging is used to observe solute transport in a 40 cm long, 26 cm diameter sand column that contained a central core of low permeability silica surrounded by higher permeability well-sorted sand. Low concentrations (2.9 g/L) of Magnevist, a gadolinium based contrast agent, produce density driven convection within the column when it starts in an unstable state. The unstable state, for this experiment, exists when higher density contrast agent is present above the lower density water. We implement a numerical model in OpenFOAM to reproduce the observed fluid flow and transport from a density difference of 0.3%. The experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in observing three-dimensional gravity-driven convective-dispersive transport behaviors in medium scale experiments.
Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.
2002-01-01
This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the
Limiting density ratios in piston-driven compressions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.
1985-07-01
By using global energy and pressure balance applied to a shock model it is shown that for a piston-driven fast compression, the maximum compression ratio is not dependent on the absolute magnitude of the piston power, but rather on the power pulse shape. Specific cases are considered and a maximum density compression ratio of 27 is obtained for a square-pulse power compressing a spherical pellet with specific heat ratio of 5/3. Double pulsing enhances the density compression ratio to 1750 in the case of linearly rising compression pulses. Using this method further enhancement by multiple pulsing becomes obvious. (author)
Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field
Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves
2016-10-01
Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.
Cilia driven flow networks in the brain
Wang, Yong; Faubel, Regina; Westendorf, Chrsitian; Eichele, Gregor; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
Neurons exchange soluble substances via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system. The walls of the ventricular cavities are covered with motile cilia that constantly beat and thereby induce a directional flow. We recently discovered that cilia in the third ventricle generate a complex flow pattern leading to partitioning of the ventricular volume and site-directed transport paths along the walls. Transient and daily recurrent alterations in the cilia beating direction lead to changes in the flow pattern. This has consequences for delivery of CSF components along the near wall flow. The contribution of this cilia-induced flow to overall CSF flow remains to be investigated. The state-of-art lattice Boltzmann method is adapted for studying the CFS flow. The 3D geometry of the third ventricle at high resolution was reconstructed. Simulation of CSF flow without cilia in this geometry confirmed that the previous idea about unidirectional flow does not explain how different components of CSF can be delivered to their various target sites. We study the contribution of the cilia-induced flow pattern to overall CSF flow and identify target areas for site-specific delivery of CSF-constituents with respect to the temporal changes.
Flow visualization of a low density hypersonic flow field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masson, B.S.; Jumper, E.J.; Walters, E.; Segalman, T.Y.; Founds, N.D.
1989-01-01
Characteristics of laser induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) in low density hypersonic flows are being investigated for use as a diagnostic technique. At low pressures, doppler broadening dominates the iodine absorption profile producing a fluorescence signal that is primarily temperature and velocity dependent. From this dependency, a low pressure flow field has the potential to be mapped for its velocity and temperature fields. The theory for relating iodine emission to the velocity and temperature fields of a hypersonic flow is discussed in this paper. Experimental observations are made of a fluorescencing free expansion and qualitatively related to the theory. 7 refs
Biased and flow driven Brownian motion in periodic channels
Martens, S.; Straube, A.; Schmid, G.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Hänggi, P.
2012-02-01
In this talk we will present an expansion of the common Fick-Jacobs approximation to hydrodynamically as well as by external forces driven Brownian transport in two-dimensional channels exhibiting smoothly varying periodic cross-section. We employ an asymptotic analysis to the components of the flow field and to stationary probability density for finding the particles within the channel in a geometric parameter. We demonstrate that the problem of biased Brownian dynamics in a confined 2D geometry can be replaced by Brownian motion in an effective periodic one-dimensional potential ψ(x) which takes the external bias, the change of the local channel width, and the flow velocity component in longitudinal direction into account. In addition, we study the influence of the external force magnitude, respectively, the pressure drop of the fluid on the particle transport quantities like the averaged velocity and the effective diffusion coefficient. The critical ratio between the external force and pressure drop where the average velocity equals zero is identified and the dependence of the latter on the channel geometry is derived. Analytic findings are confirmed by numerical simulations of the particle dynamics in a reflection symmetric sinusoidal channel.
Transversely driven charge density waves in NbSe3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markovic, N.; Dohmen, M.A.H.; Zant, H.S.J. van der
1999-01-01
We have studied the charge density wave (CDW) transport in the presence of a single-particle current flowing transversely to the sliding direction of the CDW. The depinning threshold field was found to decrease exponentially with the transverse current, allowing the CDWs to slide even at very low bias fields. The CDW transport is ohmic in this novel, nonequilibrium regime. The results from thin NbSe 3 crystals are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Micro Coriolis mass flow sensor driven by external piezo ceramic
Zeng, Yaxiang; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad
2017-01-01
We have realized a micro Coriolis mass flow meter driven with an external piezo ceramic. The piezoelec tric ceramic is glued on top of sensor chip with a inertial weight on top of the piezo ceramic. Its ability to measure mass flow is characterized by a laser Doppler vibrometer. Our measurement with
CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer
2007-04-18
This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.
Density ratios in compressions driven by radiation pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.
1988-01-01
It has been suggested that in the cannonball scheme of laser compression the pellet may be considered to be compressed by the 'brute force' of the radiation pressure. For such a radiation-driven compression, an energy balance method is applied to give an equation fixing the radius compression ratio K which is a key parameter for such intense compressions. A shock model is used to yield specific results. For a square-pulse driving power compressing a spherical pellet with a specific heat ratio of 5/3, a density compression ratio Γ of 27 is computed. Double (stepped) pulsing with linearly rising power enhances Γ to 1750. The value of Γ is not dependent on the absolute magnitude of the piston power, as long as this is large enough. Further enhancement of compression by multiple (stepped) pulsing becomes obvious. The enhanced compression increases the energy gain factor G for a 100 μm DT pellet driven by radiation power of 10 16 W from 6 for a square pulse power with 0.5 MJ absorbed energy to 90 for a double (stepped) linearly rising pulse with absorbed energy of 0.4 MJ assuming perfect coupling efficiency. (author)
Homogeneous wave turbulence driven by tidal flows
Favier, B.; Le Reun, T.; Barker, A.; Le Bars, M.
2017-12-01
When a moon orbits around a planet, the rotation of the induced tidal bulge drives a homogeneous, periodic, large-scale flow. The combination of such an excitation with the rotating motion of the planet has been shown to drive parametric resonance of a pair of inertial waves in a mechanism called the elliptical instability. Geophysical fluid layers can also be stratified: this is the case for instance of the Earth's oceans and, as suggested by several studies, of the upper part of the Earth's liquid Outer Core. We thus investigate the stability of a rotating and stratified layer undergoing tidal distortion in the limit where either rotation or stratification is dominant. We show that the periodic tidal flow drives a parametric subharmonic resonance of inertial (resp. internal) waves in the rotating (resp. stratified) case. The instability saturates into a wave turbulence pervading the whole fluid layer. In such a state, the instability mechanism conveys the tidal energy from the large scale tidal flow to the resonant modes, which then feed a succession of triadic resonances also generating small spatial scales. In the rotating case, we observe a kinetic energy spectrum with a k-2 slope for which the Coriolis force is dominant at all spatial scales. In the stratified case, where the timescale separation is increased between the tidal excitation and the Brunt-Väisälä frequencies, the temporal spectrum decays with a ω-2 power law up to the cut-off frequency beyond which waves do not exist. This result is reminiscent of the Garrett and Munk spectrum measured in the oceans and theoretically described as a manifestation of internal wave turbulence. In addition to revealing an instability driving homogeneous turbulence in geophysical fluid layers, our approach is also an efficient numerical tool to investigate the possibly universal properties of wave turbulence in a geophysical context.
Mixing driven by transient buoyancy flows. I. Kinematics
Duval, W. M. B.; Zhong, H.; Batur, C.
2018-05-01
Mixing of two miscible liquids juxtaposed inside a cavity initially separated by a divider, whose buoyancy-driven motion is initiated via impulsive perturbation of divider motion that can generate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, is investigated experimentally. The measured Lagrangian history of interface motion that contains the continuum mechanics of mixing shows self-similar nearly Gaussian length stretch distribution for a wide range of control parameters encompassing an approximate Hele-Shaw cell to a three-dimensional cavity. Because of the initial configuration of the interface which is parallel to the gravitational field, we show that at critical initial potential energy mixing occurs through the stretching of the interface, which shows frontogenesis, and folding, owing to an overturning motion that results in unstable density stratification and produces an ideal condition for the growth of the single wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The initial perturbation of the interface and flow field generates the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and causes kinks at the interface, which grow into deep fingers during overturning motion and unfold into local whorl structures that merge and self-organize into the Rayleigh-Taylor morphology (RTM) structure. For a range of parametric space that yields two-dimensional flows, the unfolding of the instability through a supercritical bifurcation yields an asymmetric pairwise structure exhibiting smooth RTM that transitions to RTM fronts with fractal structures that contain small length scales for increasing Peclet numbers. The late stage of the RTM structure unfolds into an internal breakwave that breaks down through wall and internal collision and sets up the condition for self-induced sloshing that decays exponentially as the two fluids become stably stratified with a diffusive region indicating local molecular diffusion.
Artificial cognitive memory—changing from density driven to functionality driven
Shi, L. P.; Yi, K. J.; Ramanathan, K.; Zhao, R.; Ning, N.; Ding, D.; Chong, T. C.
2011-03-01
Increasing density based on bit size reduction is currently a main driving force for the development of data storage technologies. However, it is expected that all of the current available storage technologies might approach their physical limits in around 15 to 20 years due to miniaturization. To further advance the storage technologies, it is required to explore a new development trend that is different from density driven. One possible direction is to derive insights from biological counterparts. Unlike physical memories that have a single function of data storage, human memory is versatile. It contributes to functions of data storage, information processing, and most importantly, cognitive functions such as adaptation, learning, perception, knowledge generation, etc. In this paper, a brief review of current data storage technologies are presented, followed by discussions of future storage technology development trend. We expect that the driving force will evolve from density to functionality, and new memory modules associated with additional functions other than only data storage will appear. As an initial step toward building a future generation memory technology, we propose Artificial Cognitive Memory (ACM), a memory based intelligent system. We also present the characteristics of ACM, new technologies that can be used to develop ACM components such as bioinspired element cells (silicon, memristor, phase change, etc.), and possible methodologies to construct a biologically inspired hierarchical system.
Hydrodynamics of piston-driven laminar pulsating flow: Part 2. Fully developed flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aygun, Cemalettin; Aydin, Orhan
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The piston-driven laminar pulsating flow in a pipe is studied. • Fully developed flow is examined analytically, numerically and experimentally. • An increase in F results an increase in the amplitude of the centerline velocity. • The characters of the radial velocity profiles critically depend on both the frequency and the phase angle. • The near/off-wall flow reversals are observed for F = 105, 226 and 402. - Abstract: Piston-driven pulsating flow is a specific type of pressure-driven pulsating flows. In this study, piston-driven laminar pulsating flow in a pipe is studied. This study mainly exists of two parts: developing flow and fully developed flow. In this part, hydrodynamically fully developed flow is examined analytically, numerically and experimentally. A constant value of the time-averaged Reynolds number is considered, Re = 1000. In the theoretical studies, both analytical and numerical, an inlet velocity profile representing the experimental case, i.e., the piston driven flow, is assumed. In the experiments, in the hydrodynamically fully developed region, radial velocity distribution and pressure drop are obtained using hot-wire anemometer and pressure transmitter, respectively. The effect pulsation frequency on the friction coefficient as well as velocity profiles are obtained. A good agreement is observed among analytical, numerical and experimental results
Numerical and Experimental Study of Electromagnetically Driven Vortical Flows
Kenjeres, S.; Verdoold, J.; Tummers, M.J.; Hanjalic, K.; Kleijn, C.R.
2009-01-01
The paper reports on numerical and experimental investigations of electromagnetically driven vortical flows of an electrically conductive fluid in a generic setup. Two different configurations of permanent magnets are considered: a 3-magnet configuration in which the resulting Lorentz force is
Direct Numerical Simulations of turbulent flow in a driven cavity
Verstappen, R.; Wissink, J.G.; Cazemier, W.; Veldman, A.E.P.
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of 2 and 3D turbulent flows in a lid-driven cavity have been performed. DNS are numerical solutions of the unsteady (here: incompressible) Navier-Stokes equations that compute the evolution of all dynamically significant scales of motion. In view of the large
ON THE ANALYSIS OF IMPEDANCE-DRIVEN REVERSE FLOW DYNAMICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LEE V. C.-C.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Impedance pump is a simple valve-less pumping mechanism, where an elastic tube is joined to a more rigid tube, at both ends. By inducing a periodic asymmetrical compression on the elastic tube will produce a unidirectional flow within the system. This pumping concept offers a low energy, low noise alternative, which makes it an effective driving mechanism, especially for micro-fluidic systems. In addition, the wave-based mechanism through which pumping occurs infers many benefits in terms of simplicity of design and manufacturing. Adjustment of simple parameters such as the excitation frequencies or compression locations will reverse the direction of flow, providing a very versatile range of flow outputs. This paper describes the experimental analysis of such impedance-driven flow with emphasis on the dynamical study of the reverse flow in open-loop environment. In this study, tapered section with converging steps is introduced at both ends of the elastic tube to amplify the magnitude of reverse flow. Study conducted shows that the reverse peak flow is rather significant with estimate of 23% lower than the forward peak flow. The flow dynamics on the other hand has shown to exhibit different characteristics as per the forward peak flow. The flow characteristics is then studied and showed that the tapered sections altered the impedance within the system and hence induce a higher flow in the reverse direction.
Backward flow in a surface tension driven micropump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju, Jongil; Park, Joong Yull; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun; Kim, Hyundong; Berthier, Erwin; Beebe, David J
2008-01-01
A surface tension driven micropump harnessing the pressure difference generated by drops of different curvature radii proves to be a simple and attractive passive method to drive fluid flow in microdevices. Here we observed the appearance of backward flow when the initial sizes of the droplets at the inlet and outlet ports are similar. To explain this phenomenon several hypotheses have been investigated. Consideration of the inertia of the fluid in the channel revealed that it alone is insufficient to explain the observed backward flow. We discovered that rotational flow inside the outlet droplet could be a source of inertia, explaining the generation of the backward flow. In addition, we have experimentally determined that the ratio of the volumes of the initial outlet drop and inlet drop correlates with the occurrence of the backward flow. (note)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others
2016-11-01
Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.
Density-ratio effects on buoyancy-driven variable-density turbulent mixing
Aslangil, Denis; Livescu, Daniel; Banerjee, Arindam
2017-11-01
Density-ratio effects on the turbulent mixing of two incompressible, miscible fluids with different densities subject to constant acceleration are studied by means of high-resolution Direct Numerical Simulations. In a triply periodic domain, turbulence is generated by stirring in response to the differential buoyancy forces within the flow. Later, as the fluids become molecularly mixed, dissipation starts to overcome turbulence generation by bouyancy. Thus, the flow evolution includes both turbulence growth and decay, and it displays features present in the core region of the mixing layer of the Rayleigh-Taylor as well as Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We extend the previous studies by investigating a broad range of density-ratio, from 1-14.4:1, corresponding to Atwood numbers of 0.05-0.87. Here, we focus on the Atwood number dependence of mixing-efficiency, that is defined based on the energy-conversion ratios from potential energy to total and turbulent kinetic energies, the decay characteristics of buoyancy-assisted variable-density homogeneous turbulence, and the effects of high density-ratios on the turbulence structure and mixing process. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-SSAA (DE-NA0003195) and NSF CAREER (#1453056) awards.
Hydrodynamic bifurcation in electro-osmotically driven periodic flows
Morozov, Alexander; Marenduzzo, Davide; Larson, Ronald G.
2018-06-01
In this paper, we report an inertial instability that occurs in electro-osmotically driven channel flows. We assume that the charge motion under the influence of an externally applied electric field is confined to a small vicinity of the channel walls that, effectively, drives a bulk flow through a prescribed slip velocity at the boundaries. Here, we study spatially periodic wall velocity modulations in a two-dimensional straight channel numerically. At low slip velocities, the bulk flow consists of a set of vortices along each wall that are left-right symmetric, while at sufficiently high slip velocities, this flow loses its stability through a supercritical bifurcation. Surprisingly, the flow state that bifurcates from a left-right symmetric base flow has a rather strong mean component along the channel, which is similar to pressure-driven velocity profiles. The instability sets in at rather small Reynolds numbers of about 20-30, and we discuss its potential applications in microfluidic devices.
Influencing parameters and the behaviour of flows of varying density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plate, E.J.
1975-01-01
The contribution aims at presenting the principles of density flows in brief, and, if possible, in a non-mathematical way. This task is made difficult by the fact that there is no comprohensive work on the subject. For two-dimensional density flows, a brief communication has been published in German recently. This publication is referred to for details and literature references. The contribution is only concerned with demonstrating the difference between density flows and homogeneous fluid flows and with presenting the possibilities which exist to calculate density flows. In this context, the rendering restricts itself only to horizontal discharging processes. (orig.) [de
Tidally-driven Surface Flow in a Georgia Estuarine Saltmarsh
Young, D.; Bruder, B. L.; Haas, K. A.; Webster, D. R.
2016-02-01
Estuarine saltmarshes are diverse, valuable, and productive ecosystems. Vegetation dampens wave and current energy, thereby allowing the estuaries to serve as a nursery habitat for shellfish and fish species. Tidally-driven flow transports nutrients into and out of the estuary, nourishing inshore and offshore vegetation and animals. The effects of vegetation on the marsh hydrodynamics and on the estuary creek and channel flow are, unfortunately, poorly understood, and the knowledge that does exist primarily originates from modeling studies. Field studies addressing marsh surface flows are limited due to the difficulty of accurately measuring the water surface elevation and acquiring concurrent velocity measurements in the dense marsh vegetation. This study partially bridges the gap between the model observations of marsh flow driven by water surface elevation gradients and flume studies of flow through vegetation. Three current meters and three pressure transducers were deployed for three days along a transect perpendicular to the main channel (Little Ogeechee River) in a saltmarsh adjacent to Rose Dhu Island (Savannah, Georgia, USA). The pressure transducer locations were surveyed daily with static GPS yielding highly accurate water surface elevation data. During flood and ebb tide, water surface elevation differences between the marsh and Little Ogeechee River were observed up to 15 cm and pressure gradients were observed up to 0.0017 m of water surface elevation drop per m of linear distance. The resulting channel-to-saltmarsh pressure gradients substantially affected tidal currents at all current meters. At one current meter, the velocity was nearly perpendicular to the Little Ogeechee River bank. The velocity at this location was effectively modeled as a balance between the pressure gradient and marsh vegetation-induced drag force using the Darcy-Weisbach/Lindner's equations developed for flow-through-vegetation analysis in open channel flow.
Farrell, L. L.; McGovern, P. J.; Morgan, J. K.
2008-12-01
We have carried out 2-D numerical simulations using the discrete element method (DEM) to investigate density-driven deformation in volcanic edifices on Earth (e.g., Hawaii) and Mars (e.g., Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons). Located within volcanoes are series of magma chambers, reservoirs, and conduits where magma travels and collects. As magma differentiates, dense minerals settle out, building thick accumulations referred to as cumulates that can flow ductilely due to stresses imparted by gravity. To simulate this process, we construct granular piles subject to Coulomb frictional rheology, incrementally capture internal rectangular regions to which higher densities and lower interparticle friction values are assigned (analogs for denser, weaker cumulates), and then bond the granular edifice. Thus, following each growth increment, the edifice is allowed to relax gravitationally with a reconfigured weak cumulate core. The presence and outward spreading of the cumulate causes the development of distinctive structural and stratigraphic patterns. We obtained a range of volcanic shapes that vary from broad, shallowly dipping flanks reminiscent of those of Olympus Mons, to short, steep surface slopes more similar to Arsia Mons. Edifices lacking internal cumulate exhibit relatively horizontal strata compared to the high-angle, inward dipping strata that develops within the cumulate-bearing edifices. Our simulated volcanoes also illustrate a variety of gravity driven deformation features, including regions of thrust faulting within the flanks and large-scale flank collapses, as observed in Hawaii and inferred on Olympus Mons. We also see significant summit subsidence, and of particular interest, distinct summit calderas. The broad, flat caldera and convex upward profile of Arsia Mons appears to be well-simulated by cumulate-driven volcanic spreading. In contrast, the concave upward slopes of Olympus Mons are more challenging to reproduce, and instead are attributed to volcanic
Pulsatile pressure driven rarefied gas flow in long rectangular ducts
Tsimpoukis, Alexandros; Valougeorgis, Dimitris
2018-04-01
The pulsatile pressure driven fully developed flow of a rarefied gas through an orthogonal duct is investigated, based on the time-dependent linear Bhatnagar, Gross, and Krook equation, by decomposing the flow into its steady and oscillatory parts. The investigation is focused on the oscillatory part, which is characterized by the gas rarefaction and oscillation parameters, the duct aspect ratio, and the accommodation coefficient. As the oscillation frequency is increased, the amplitude of all macroscopic quantities is decreased, while their phase angle lag is increased reaching the limiting value of π/2. As the gas becomes more rarefied, higher frequencies are needed to trigger this behavior. At small and moderate frequencies, there is a critical degree of gas rarefaction, where a maximum flow rate is obtained. As the duct aspect ratio is decreased and tends to zero, the flow rate and mean wall shear stress amplitudes are increased, while their phase angle lags are slightly affected. The accommodation coefficient has a significant effect on the amplitude and a very weak one on the phase angle of the macroscopic quantities. The computation of the inertia and viscous forces clarifies when the flow consists of only one oscillating viscous region or of two regions, namely, the inviscid piston flow in the core and the oscillating Stokes layer at the wall with the velocity overshooting. Finally, the time average oscillatory pumping power is increased as the oscillation frequency is reduced and its maximum value is one half of the corresponding steady one.
On fluid flow driven by topography in a librating body
Wu, C.; Roberts, P. H.
2009-12-01
Currently considerable effort and resources are being devoted to studies of Mercury, the Moon and Europa. Measuring the libration of these bodies can provide significant knowledge about their internal structures and physical properties; see Williams et al., 2001, Peale et al., 2002, Wu et al., 2007. To interpret such observations, it is important to understand better how libration affects the motion of the fluid in their interiors. To this end, Noir et al. (2009) investigated, via laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, the flow in a fluid filling a rotating spherical cavity driven by an axial oscillation of the container about a diameter. More realistically, the cavity is better represented by a triaxial ellipsoid. We may then distinguish between topographic and axisymmetricli libration. The latter refers to libration about a symmetry axis of the container which is therefore only viscously coupled to the fluid. In topographic libration, pressure forces on the boundary also affect the fluid motions in the cavity. We describe results from preliminary studies of topographic libration obtained through numerical simulation of incompressible fluid motion in an oblate spheroidal cavity with a libration axis perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the container. The computer code is a modification of one recently developed to study precessionally-driven flows in a spheroidal body of fluid (Wu and Roberts, 2009). It advances the flow in time using finite differences on overlapping grids; in this way the numerical difficulty known as the pole problem, is completely avoided.
Turbulent mixed buoyancy driven flow and heat transfer in lid driven enclosure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Anil Kumar
2015-01-01
Turbulent mixed buoyancy driven flow and heat transfer of air in lid driven rectangular enclosure has been investigated for Grashof number in the range of 10 8 to 10 11 and for Richardson number 0.1, 1 and 10. Steady two dimensional Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations and conservation equations of mass and energy, coupled with the Boussinesq approximation, are solved. The spatial derivatives in the equations are discretized using the finite-element method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used to resolve pressure-velocity coupling. Turbulence is modeled with the k-ω closure model with physical boundary conditions along with the Boussinesq approximation, for the flow and heat transfer. The predicted results are validated against benchmark solutions reported in literature. The results include stream lines and temperature fields are presented to understand flow and heat transfer characteristics. There is a marked reduction in mean Nusselt number (about 58%) as the Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 10 for the case of Ra=10 10 signifying the effect of reduction of top lid velocity resulting in reduction of turbulent mixing. (author)
Osmotically driven flows in microchannels separated by a semipermeable membrane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kåre Hartvig; Lee, J.; Bohr, Tomas
2009-01-01
We have fabricated lab-on-a-chip systems with microchannels separated by integrated membranes allowing for osmotically driven microflows. We have investigated these flows experimentally by studying the dynamics and structure of the front of a sugar solution travelling in 200 mu m wide and 50-200 mu...... m deep microchannels. We find that the sugar front travels at a constant speed, and that this speed is proportional to the concentration of the sugar solution and inversely proportional to the depth of the channel. We propose a theoretical model, which, in the limit of low axial flow resistance......, predicts that the sugar front should indeed travel with a constant velocity. The model also predicts an inverse relationship between the depth of the channel and the speed, and a linear relation between the sugar concentration and the speed. We thus find good qualitative agreement between the experimental...
Extracting a mix parameter from 2D radiography of variable density flow
Kurien, Susan; Doss, Forrest; Livescu, Daniel
2017-11-01
A methodology is presented for extracting quantities related to the statistical description of the mixing state from the 2D radiographic image of a flow. X-ray attenuation through a target flow is given by the Beer-Lambert law which exponentially damps the incident beam intensity by a factor proportional to the density, opacity and thickness of the target. By making reasonable assumptions for the mean density, opacity and effective thickness of the target flow, we estimate the contribution of density fluctuations to the attenuation. The fluctuations thus inferred may be used to form the correlation of density and specific-volume, averaged across the thickness of the flow in the direction of the beam. This correlation function, denoted by b in RANS modeling, quantifies turbulent mixing in variable density flows. The scheme is tested using DNS data computed for variable-density buoyancy-driven mixing. We quantify the deficits in the extracted value of b due to target thickness, Atwood number, and modeled noise in the incident beam. This analysis corroborates the proposed scheme to infer the mix parameter from thin targets at moderate to low Atwood numbers. The scheme is then applied to an image of counter-shear flow obtained from experiments at the National Ignition Facility. US Department of Energy.
Implementation of 252Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Yong; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Li Jiansheng; Ye Cenming
2012-01-01
The principle of 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement method is introduced. A measurement system and platform is realized accordingly, which is a combination of hardware and software, for measuring nuclear parameters. The detection method of neutron pulses based on an ultra-high-speed data acquisition card (three channels, 1 GHz sampling rate, 1 ns synchronization) is described, and the data processing process and the power spectrum density algorithm on PC are designed. This 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system can effectively obtain the nuclear tag parameters of nuclear random processes, such as correlation function and power spectrum density. (authors)
A frozen record of density-driven crustal overturn in lava lakes: The example of Kilauea Iki 1959
Stovall, W.K.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Harris, A.J.L.; Swanson, D.A.
2009-01-01
Lava lakes are found at basaltic volcanoes on Earth and other planetary bodies. Density-driven crustal foundering leading to surface renewal occurs repeatedly throughout the life of a lava lake. This process has been observed and described in a qualitative sense, but due to dangerous conditions, no data has been acquired to evaluate the densities of the units involved. Kilauea Iki pit crater in Hawai'i houses a lava lake erupted during a 2 month period in 1959. Part of the surface of the Kilauea Iki lake now preserves the frozen record of a final, incomplete, crustal-overturn cycle. We mapped this region and sampled portions of the foundering crust, as well as overriding and underlying lava, to constrain the density of the units involved in the overturn process. Overturn is driven by the advance of a flow front of fresh, low-density lava over an older, higher density surface crust. The advance of the front causes the older crust to break up, founder, and dive downwards into the lake to expose new, hot, low-density lava. We find density differences of 200 to 740 kg/m3 between the foundering crust and over-riding and under-lying lava respectively. In this case, crustal overturn is driven by large density differences between the foundering and resurfacing units. These differences lead, inevitably, to frequent crustal renewal: simple density differences between the surface crust and underlying lake lava make the upper layers of the lake highly unstable. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.
Numerical modeling of buoyancy-driven turbulent flows in enclosures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsieh, K.J.; Lien, F.S.
2004-01-01
Modeling turbulent natural convection in enclosures with differentially heated vertical walls is numerically challenging, in particular, when low-Reynolds-number (low-Re) models are adopted. When the turbulence level in the core region of cavity is low, most low-Re models, particular those showing good performance for bypass transitional flows, tend to relaminarize the flow and, as a consequence, significantly underpredict the near-wall turbulence intensities and boundary-layer thickness. Another challenge associated with low-turbulence buoyancy-driven flows in enclosures is its inherent unsteadiness, which can pose convergence problems when a steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation is solved. In the present study, an unsteady RANS approach in conjunction with the low-Re k-ε model of Lien and Leschziner [Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 12 (1999) 1] is initially adopted and the predicted flow field is found effectively relaminarized. To overcome this difficulty, likely caused by the low-Re functions in the ε-equation, the two-layer approach is attempted, in which ε is prescribed algebraically using the one-equation k-l model of Wolfshtein [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 12 (1969) 301]. The two-layer approach combined with a quadratic stress-strain relation gives overall the best performance in terms of mean velocities, temperature and turbulence quantities
Analysis of IBW-driven plasma flows in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, L.A.; Jaeger, E.F.; D'Azevedo, E.F.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carlsson, J.A.; Carter, M.D.; Cesario, R.
2001-01-01
Both theory and experiment have suggested that damping of Ion Bernstein Waves (IBWs) at ion cyclotron frequency harmonics could drive poloidal flows and lead to enhanced confinement for tokamaks. However, the early analyses were based on Reynolds stress closures of moment equations. More rigorous, finite Larmor radius (FLR) expansions of the radio frequency (RF) kinetic pressure for low harmonic interactions indicated that the Reynolds stress approximation was not generally valid, and resulted in significant changes in the plasma flow response. These changes were largest for wave interactions driven by finite Larmour radius effects. To provide a better assessment of higher harmonic interactions and IBW flow drive prospects, the electromagnetic (E and M) and RF kinetic force models are extended with no assumptions regarding the smallness of the ion Larmor radius. For both models, a spectral-width approximation was used to make the numerical analysis tractable. In addition, it was necessary to include the effects of plasma equilibrium gradients on the plasma conductivity and the RF-induced momentum in order to conserve energy and momentum. The analysis of high-harmonic IBW interactions for TFTR and FTU parameters indicates significant poloidal flow shears (relative to turbulence correlation times) for power levels available in present experiments. Recent advances in all-orders calculations of E and M fields in 2-D are also discussed. (author)
Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation
Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex
2013-06-01
Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.
Numerical Study of the Buoyancy-Driven Flow in a Four-Electrode Rectangular Electrochemical Cell
Sun, Zhanyu; Agafonov, Vadim; Rice, Catherine; Bindler, Jacob
2009-11-01
Two-dimensional numerical simulation is done on the buoyancy-driven flow in a four-electrode rectangular electrochemical cell. Two kinds of electrode layouts, the anode-cathode-cathode-anode (ACCA) and the cathode-anode-anode-cathode (CAAC) layouts, are studied. In the ACCA layout, the two anodes are placed close to the channel outlets while the two cathodes are located between the two anodes. The CAAC layout can be converted from the ACCA layout by applying higher electric potential on the two middle electrodes. Density gradient was generated by the electrodic reaction I3^-+2e^- =3I^-. When the electrochemical cell is accelerated axially, buoyancy-driven flow occurs. In our model, electro-neutrality is assumed except at the electrodes. The Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and the Nernst-Planck equations are employed to model the momentum and mass transports, respectively. It is found that under a given axial acceleration, the electrolyte density between the two middle electrodes determines the bulk flow through the electrochemical cell. The cathodic current difference is found to be able to measure the applied acceleration. Other important electro-hydrodynamic characteristics are also discussed.
Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems
Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David
2015-01-01
We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of
Isospectral Flows for the Inhomogeneous String Density Problem
Górski, Andrzej Z.; Szmigielski, Jacek
2018-02-01
We derive isospectral flows of the mass density in the string boundary value problem corresponding to general boundary conditions. In particular, we show that certain class of rational flows produces in a suitable limit all flows generated by polynomials in negative powers of the spectral parameter. We illustrate the theory with concrete examples of isospectral flows of discrete mass densities which we prove to be Hamiltonian and for which we provide explicit solutions of equations of motion in terms of Stieltjes continued fractions and Hankel determinants.
Density Driven Removal of Sediment from a Buoyant Muddy Plume
Rouhnia, M.; Strom, K.
2014-12-01
Experiments were conducted to study the effect of settling driven instabilities on sediment removal from hypopycnal plumes. Traditional approaches scale removal rates with particle settling velocity however, it has been suggested that the removal from buoyant suspensions happens at higher rates. The enhancement of removal is likely due to gravitational instabilities, such as fingering, at two-fluid interface. Previous studies have all sought to suppress flocculation, and no simple model exists to predict the removal rates under the effect of such instabilities. This study examines whether or not flocculation hampers instability formation and presents a simple removal rate model accounting for gravitational instabilities. A buoyant suspension of flocculated Kaolinite overlying a base of clear saltwater was investigated in a laboratory tank. Concentration was continuously measured in both layers with a pair of OBS sensors, and interface was monitored with digital cameras. Snapshots from the video were used to measure finger velocity. Samples of flocculated particles at the interface were extracted to retrieve floc size data using a floc camera. Flocculation did not stop creation of settling-driven fingers. A simple cylinder-based force balance model was capable of predicting finger velocity. Analogy of fingering process of fine grained suspensions to thermal plume formation and the concept of Grashof number enabled us to model finger spacing as a function of initial concentration. Finally, from geometry, the effective cross-sectional area was correlated to finger spacing. Reformulating the outward flux expression was done by substitution of finger velocity, rather than particle settling velocity, and finger area instead of total area. A box model along with the proposed outward flux was used to predict the SSC in buoyant layer. The model quantifies removal flux based on the initial SSC and is in good agreement with the experimental data.
A new lattice Boltzmann equation to simulate density-driven convection of carbon dioxide
Allen, Rebecca
2013-01-01
The storage of CO2 in fluid-filled geological formations has been carried out for more than a decade in locations around the world. After CO2 has been injected into the aquifer and has moved laterally under the aquifer\\'s cap-rock, density-driven convection becomes an important transport process to model. However, the challenge lies in simulating this transport process accurately with high spatial resolution and low CPU cost. This issue can be addressed by using the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) to formulate a model for a similar scenario when a solute diffuses into a fluid and density differences lead to convective mixing. The LBE is a promising alternative to the traditional methods of computational fluid dynamics. Rather than discretizing the system of partial differential equations of classical continuum mechanics directly, the LBE is derived from a velocity-space truncation of the Boltzmann equation of classical kinetic theory. We propose an extension to the LBE, which can accurately predict the transport of dissolved CO2 in water, as a step towards fluid-filled porous media simulations. This is achieved by coupling two LBEs, one for the fluid flow and one for the convection and diffusion of CO2. Unlike existing lattice Boltzmann equations for porous media flow, our model is derived from a system of moment equations and a Crank-Nicolson discretization of the velocity-truncated Boltzmann equation. The forcing terms are updated locally without the need for additional central difference approximation. Therefore our model preserves all the computational advantages of the single-phase lattice Boltzmann equation and is formally second-order accurate in both space and time. Our new model also features a novel implementation of boundary conditions, which is simple to implement and does not suffer from the grid-dependent error that is present in the standard "bounce-back" condition. The significance of using the LBE in this work lies in the ability to efficiently
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Yong; Zou Wen-Kang; Song Sheng-Yi
2011-01-01
In modern pulsed power systems, magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) are used to couple power between the driver and the load. The circuit parameters of MITLs are well understood by employing the concept of flow impedance derived from Maxwell's equations and pressure balance across the flow. However, the electron density in an MITL is always taken as constant in the application of flow impedance. Thus effects of electron flow current density (product of electron density and drift velocity) in an MITL are neglected. We calculate the flow impedances of an MITL and compare them under three classical MITL theories, in which the electron density profile and electron flow current density are different from each other. It is found that the assumption of constant electron density profile in the calculation of the flow impedance is not always valid. The electron density profile and the electron flow current density have significant effects on flow impedance of the MITL. The details of the electron flow current density and its effects on the operation impedance of the MITL should be addressed more explicitly by experiments and theories in the future. (nuclear physics)
Transitional inertialess instabilities in driven multilayer channel flows
Papaefthymiou, Evangelos; Papageorgiou, Demetrios
2016-11-01
We study the nonlinear stability of viscous, immiscible multilayer flows in channels driven both by a pressure gradient and/or gravity in a slightly inclined channel. Three fluid phases are present with two internal interfaces. Novel weakly nonlinear models of coupled evolution equations are derived and we concentrate on inertialess flows with stably stratified fluids, with and without surface tension. These are 2 × 2 systems of second-order semilinear parabolic PDEs that can exhibit inertialess instabilities due to resonances between the interfaces - mathematically this is manifested by a transition from hyperbolic to elliptic behavior of the nonlinear flux functions. We consider flows that are linearly stable (i.e the nonlinear fluxes are hyperbolic initially) and use the theory of nonlinear systems of conservation laws to obtain a criterion (which can be verified easily) that can predict nonlinear stability or instability (i.e. nonlinear fluxes encounter ellipticity as they evolve spatiotemporally) at large times. In the former case the solution decays asymptotically to its base state, and in the latter nonlinear traveling waves emerge. EPSRC Grant Numbers EP/K041134 and EP/L020564.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Y.; Kaye, S.M.; Mazzucato, E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R.E.; Domier, C.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.C.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Smith, D.R.; Yuh, H.
2011-01-01
In this letter we report the first clear experimental observation of density gradient stabilization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in a fusion plasma. It is observed that longer wavelength modes, k (perpendicular) ρ s ∼< 10, are most stabilized by density gradient, and the stabilization is accompanied by about a factor of two decrease in the plasma effective thermal diffusivity.
The analysis of repository-heat-driven hydrothermal flow at Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.
1993-01-01
To safely and permanently store high-level nuclear waste, the potential Yucca Mountain repository site must mitigate the release and transport of radionuclides for tens of thousands of years. In the failure scenario of greatest concern, water would contact the waste package (WP), accelerate its failure rate, and eventually transport radionuclides to the water table. In a concept called the ''extended-dry repository,'' decay heat arising from radioactive waste extends the time before liquid water can contact a WP. Recent modeling and theoretical advances in nonisothermal, multiphase fracture-matrix flow have demonstrated (1) the critical importance of capillary pressure disequilibrium between fracture and matrix flow, and (2) that radioactive decay heat plays a dominant role in the ability of the engineered and natural barriers to contain and isolate radionuclides. Our analyses indicate that the thermo-hydrological performance of both the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) will be dominated by repository-heat-driven hydrothermal flow for tens of thousands of years. For thermal loads resulting in extended-dry repository conditions, UZ performance is primarily sensitive to the thermal properties and thermal loading conditions and much less sensitive to the highly spatially and temporally variable ambient hydrologic properties and conditions. The magnitude of repository-heat-driven buoyancy flow in the SZ is far more dependent on the total mass of emplaced spent nuclear fuel (SNF) than on the details of SNF emplacement, such as the Areal Power Density [(APD) expressed in kill/acre] or SNF age
Mixing and entrainment in hydraulically driven stratified sill flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Pratt, Larry; Helfrich, Karl
2004-01-01
The investigation involves the hydraulic behaviour of a dense layer of fluid flowing over an obstacle and subject to entrainment of mass and momentum from a dynamically inactive (but possibly moving) overlying fluid. An approach based on the use of reduced gravity, shallow-water theory with a cross......-interface entrainment velocity is compared with numerical simulations based on a model with continuously varying stratification and velocity. The locations of critical flow (hydraulic control) in the continuous model are estimated by observing the direction of propagation of small-amplitude long-wave disturbances...... that the reduced gravity model systematically underestimates inertia and overestimates buoyancy. These differences are quantified by shape coefficients that measure the vertical non-uniformities of the density and horizontal velocity that arise, in part, by incomplete mixing of entrained mass and momentum over...
DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.
2010-01-01
Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K + beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.
PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2016-11-10
Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.
PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafikov, Roman R.
2016-01-01
Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.
High energy density redox flow device
Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa
2014-05-13
Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.
Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.
2011-01-01
As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983
Anomalous Chained Turbulence in Actively Driven Flows on Spheres
Mickelin, Oscar; Słomka, Jonasz; Burns, Keaton J.; Lecoanet, Daniel; Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Faria, Luiz M.; Dunkel, Jörn
2018-04-01
Recent experiments demonstrate the importance of substrate curvature for actively forced fluid dynamics. Yet, the covariant formulation and analysis of continuum models for nonequilibrium flows on curved surfaces still poses theoretical challenges. Here, we introduce and study a generalized covariant Navier-Stokes model for fluid flows driven by active stresses in nonplanar geometries. The analytical tractability of the theory is demonstrated through exact stationary solutions for the case of a spherical bubble geometry. Direct numerical simulations reveal a curvature-induced transition from a burst phase to an anomalous turbulent phase that differs distinctly from externally forced classical 2D Kolmogorov turbulence. This new type of active turbulence is characterized by the self-assembly of finite-size vortices into linked chains of antiferromagnetic order, which percolate through the entire fluid domain, forming an active dynamic network. The coherent motion of the vortex chain network provides an efficient mechanism for upward energy transfer from smaller to larger scales, presenting an alternative to the conventional energy cascade in classical 2D turbulence.
Maxworthy, T.
1997-08-01
A simple three-layer model of the dynamics of partially enclosed seas, driven by a surface buoyancy flux, is presented. It contains two major elements, a hydraulic constraint at the exit contraction and friction in the interior of the main body of the sea; both together determine the vertical structure and magnitudes of the interior flow variables, i.e. velocity and density. Application of the model to the large-scale dynamics of the Red Sea gives results that are not in disagreement with observation once the model is applied, also, to predict the dense outflow from the Gulf of Suez. The latter appears to be the agent responsible for the formation of dense bottom water in this system. Also, the model is reasonably successful in predicting the density of the outflow from the Persian Gulf, and can be applied to any number of other examples of convectively driven flow in long, narrow channels, with or without sills and constrictions at their exits.
Determining the Limiting Current Density of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jen-Yu Chen
2014-09-01
Full Text Available All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs are used as energy storage systems for intermittent renewable power sources. The performance of VRFBs depends on materials of key components and operating conditions, such as current density, electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition. Mass transfer overpotential is affected by the electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition, which is related to the limiting current density. In order to investigate the effect of operating conditions on mass transport overpotential, this study established a relationship between the limiting current density and operating conditions. First, electrolyte solutions with different states of charge were prepared and used for a single cell to obtain discharging polarization curves under various operating conditions. The experimental results were then analyzed and are discussed in this paper. Finally, this paper proposes a limiting current density as a function of operating conditions. The result helps predict the effect of operating condition on the cell performance in a mathematical model.
Polar cap flow channel events: spontaneous and driven responses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. E. Sandholt
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We present two case studies of specific flow channel events appearing at the dusk and/or dawn polar cap boundary during passage at Earth of interplanetary (IP coronal mass ejections (ICMEs on 10 January and 25 July 2004. The channels of enhanced (>1 km/s antisunward convection are documented by SuperDARN radars and dawn-dusk crossings of the polar cap by the DMSP F13 satellite. The relationship with Birkeland currents (C1–C2 located poleward of the traditional R1–R2 currents is demonstrated. The convection events are manifest in ground magnetic deflections obtained from the IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects Svalbard chain of ground magnetometer stations located within 71–76° MLAT. By combining the ionospheric convection data and the ground magnetograms we are able to study the temporal behaviour of the convection events. In the two ICME case studies the convection events belong to two different categories, i.e., directly driven and spontaneous events. In the 10 January case two sharp southward turnings of the ICME magnetic field excited corresponding convection events as detected by IMAGE and SuperDARN. We use this case to determine the ground magnetic signature of enhanced flow channel events (the NH-dusk/By<0 variant. In the 25 July case a several-hour-long interval of steady southwest ICME field (Bz<0; By<0 gave rise to a long series of spontaneous convection events as detected by IMAGE when the ground stations swept through the 12:00–18:00 MLT sector. From the ground-satellite conjunction on 25 July we infer the pulsed nature of the polar cap ionospheric flow channel events in this case. The typical duration of these convection enhancements in the polar cap is 10 min.
Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Zhang, Xinde; Fautrelle, Yves
2016-04-01
In this study, an Archimedean helical permanent magnetic field was constructed and its driving effects on liquid metal were examined. A magnetic stirrer was constructed using a series of arc-like magnets. The helical distribution of its magnetic field, which was confirmed via Gauss probe measurements and numerical simulations, can be considered a combination of rotating and traveling magnetic fields. The characteristics of the flow patterns, particularly the transitions between the meridian secondary flow (two vortices) and the global axial flow (one vortex), driven by this magnetic field were quantitatively measured using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The transient and modulated flow behaviors will be presented in a companion article. The D/ H dimension ratio was used to characterize the transitions of these two flow patterns. The results demonstrated that the flow patterns depend on not only the intrinsic structure of the magnetic field, e.g., the helix lead angle, but also the performance parameters, e.g., the dimensional ratio of the liquid bulk. The notable opposing roles of these two flow patterns in the improvement of macrosegregations when imposing such magnetic fields near the solidifying front were qualitatively addressed.
A numerical study of secondary flow and large eddies in a driven cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yau, Y. H.; Badarudin, A. [University of Malaya, Lumpur (Malaysia); Rubini, P. A. [University of Hull, East Yorkshire (United Kingdom)
2012-01-15
This paper reports on the application of a newly developed LES flow solver to compute a true three-dimensional flow. The research also investigates the behavior of turbulence statistics by comparing transient simulation results to available data based on experiments and simulations. An extensive discussion on the results such as energy spectrum, velocity profiles and time trace of velocities is carried out in the research as well. Based on the results obtained, the application of the flow solver for a turbulent three-dimensional driven cavity flow by using three grids with varying densities is proven. In addition, the research successfully verifies that in many instances computational results agreed reasonably well with the reference data, and the changes in the statistical properties of turbulence with respect to time are closely related to the changes in the flow structure and strength of vortices. The focus of this study is on the prediction of a subgrid scale Reynolds shear stress profiles, and the results show that the standard model is able to reproduce general trends measured from experiments. Furthermore, in certain areas inside the cavity the computed shear stress values are in close agreement with experimental data.
A numerical study of secondary flow and large eddies in a driven cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yau, Y. H.; Badarudin, A.; Rubini, P. A.
2012-01-01
This paper reports on the application of a newly developed LES flow solver to compute a true three-dimensional flow. The research also investigates the behavior of turbulence statistics by comparing transient simulation results to available data based on experiments and simulations. An extensive discussion on the results such as energy spectrum, velocity profiles and time trace of velocities is carried out in the research as well. Based on the results obtained, the application of the flow solver for a turbulent three-dimensional driven cavity flow by using three grids with varying densities is proven. In addition, the research successfully verifies that in many instances computational results agreed reasonably well with the reference data, and the changes in the statistical properties of turbulence with respect to time are closely related to the changes in the flow structure and strength of vortices. The focus of this study is on the prediction of a subgrid scale Reynolds shear stress profiles, and the results show that the standard model is able to reproduce general trends measured from experiments. Furthermore, in certain areas inside the cavity the computed shear stress values are in close agreement with experimental data
Postfragmentation density function for bacterial aggregates in laminar flow.
Byrne, Erin; Dzul, Steve; Solomon, Michael; Younger, John; Bortz, David M
2011-04-01
The postfragmentation probability density of daughter flocs is one of the least well-understood aspects of modeling flocculation. We use three-dimensional positional data of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial flocs in suspension and the knowledge of hydrodynamic properties of a laminar flow field to construct a probability density function of floc volumes after a fragmentation event. We provide computational results which predict that the primary fragmentation mechanism for large flocs is erosion. The postfragmentation probability density function has a strong dependence on the size of the original floc and indicates that most fragmentation events result in clumps of one to three bacteria eroding from the original floc. We also provide numerical evidence that exhaustive fragmentation yields a limiting density inconsistent with the log-normal density predicted in the literature, most likely due to the heterogeneous nature of K. pneumoniae flocs. To support our conclusions, artificial flocs were generated and display similar postfragmentation density and exhaustive fragmentation. ©2011 American Physical Society
Mixing of high density solution in vertical upward flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Hosogi, Nobuyoshi; Komada, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiki
1999-01-01
Experimental and analytical studies have been performed in order to provide fundamental data and a numerical calculation model on the mixing of boric acid solution, injected from the standby liquid control system (SLCS), under a low natural circulation flow during an ATWS in a BWR. First, fundamental experiments on the mixing of high-density solution in vertically-upward water flow have been performed by using a small apparatus. Mixing patterns observed in the experiments have been classified to two groups, i.e. complete mixing (entrainment) and incomplete mixing (entrainment). In the complete mixing, the injected high-density solution is mixed (entrained) completely into the vertically-upward water flow. From the experiments, the minimum water flow rates in which the complete mixing (entrainment) is achieved have been obtained for various solution densities and solution injection rates. Secondly, two-dimensional numerical calculations have been performed. A continuity equation for total fluid, momentum equations in two directions and a continuity equation for solute are solved by using the finite difference method for discretization method and by following the MAC method for solution procedure. The calculations have predicted nearly the minimum water flow rate in which the complete mixing is achieved, while the calculations have been performed only for one combination of the solution density and solution injection rate until now. (author)
Physics of radiation-driven islands near the tokamak density limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, D.A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; White, R.B.
2013-01-01
In previous work (Gates and Delgado-Aparicio 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 165004), the onset criterion for radiation-driven islands (Rebut et al 1985 Proc. 10th Int. Conf. on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1984 (London, UK, 1984) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 197) in combination with a simple cylindrical model of tokamak current channel behaviour was shown to be consistent with the empirical scaling of the tokamak density limit (Greenwald et al 1988 Nucl. Fusion 28 2199). A number of the unexplained phenomena at the density limit are consistent with this novel physics mechanism. In this work, a more formal theoretical underpinning, consistent with cylindrical tearing mode theory, is developed for the onset criteria of these modes. The appropriate derivation of the radiation-driven addition to the modified Rutherford equation (MRE) is discussed. Additionally, the ordering of the terms in the MRE is examined in a regime near the density limit. It is hoped that, given the apparent success of this simple model in explaining the observed global scalings, it will lead to a more comprehensive analysis of the possibility that radiation-driven islands are the physics mechanism responsible for the density limit. In particular, with modern diagnostic capabilities detailed measurements of current densities, electron densities and impurity concentrations at rational surfaces should be possible, enabling verification of the concepts described above. (paper)
High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)
2014-12-15
The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and
Robust Data-Driven Inference for Density-Weighted Average Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael
This paper presents a new data-driven bandwidth selector compatible with the small bandwidth asymptotics developed in Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009) for density- weighted average derivatives. The new bandwidth selector is of the plug-in variety, and is obtained based on a mean squared error...
Self-driven particles in linear flows and trapped in a harmonic potential
Sandoval, Mario; Hidalgo-Gonzalez, Julio C.; Jimenez-Aquino, Jose I.
2018-03-01
We present analytical expressions for the mean-square displacement of self-driven particles in general linear flows and trapped in a harmonic potential. The general expressions are applied to three types of linear flows, namely, shear flow, solid-body rotation flow, and extensional flow. By using Brownian dynamics simulations, the effect of trapping and external linear flows on the particles' distribution is also elucidated. These simulations also enabled us to validate our theoretical results.
Harvey, C. F.; Michael, H. A.
2017-12-01
We formulate the energy balance for coastal groundwater systems and apply it to: (1) Explain the energy driving offshore saline circulation cells, and; (2) Assess the accuracy of numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems. The flow of fresh groundwater to the ocean is driven by the loss of potential energy as groundwater drops from the elevation of the inland watertable, where recharge occurs, to discharge at sea level. This freshwater flow creates an underlying circulation cell of seawater, drawn into coastal aquifers offshore and discharging near shore, that adds to total submarine groundwater discharge. The saline water in the circulation cell enters and exits the aquifer through the sea floor at the same hydraulic potential. Existing theory explains that the saline circulation cell is driven by mixing of fresh and saline without any additional source of potential or mechanical power. This explanation raises a basic thermodynamic question: what is the source of energy that drives the saline circulation cell? Here, we resolve this question by building upon Hubbert's conception of hydraulic potential to formulate an energy balance for density-dependent flow and salt transport through an aquifer. We show that, because local energy dissipation within the aquifer is proportional to the square of the groundwater velocity, more groundwater flow may be driven through an aquifer for a given energy input if local variations in velocity are smoothed. Our numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems show that dispersion of salt across the fresh-saline interface spreads flow over larger volumes of the aquifer, smoothing the velocity field, and increasing total flow and submarine groundwater discharge without consuming more power. The energy balance also provides a criterion, in addition to conventional mass balances, for judging the accuracy of numerical solutions of non-linear density-dependent flow problems. Our results show that some numerical
Density scaling and quasiuniversality of flow-event statistics for athermal plastic flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lerner, Edan; Bailey, Nicholas; Dyre, J. C.
2014-01-01
Athermal steady-state plastic flows were simulated for the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system and its repulsive version in which the sign of the attractive terms is changed to a plus. Properties evaluated include the distributions of energy drops, stress drops, and strain intervals between...... the flow events. We show that simulations at a single density in conjunction with an equilibrium-liquid simulation at the same density allow one to predict the plastic flow-event statistics at other densities. This is done by applying the recently established “hidden scale invariance” of simple liquids...
EVALUATION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT INFLUENCE ON SUBURBAN TRAFFIC FLOW DENSITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Horbachov
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Study results of the human settlement influence on the traffic flow density in suburban service of international, national and regional roads of Ukraine are presented. The possibility of an adequate description of suburban traffic flows in the vicinity of large cities is established, depending on the city population and link remoteness from the city center. The possibility is determined on the basis of obtained models to define the prognosis value of the intensity and specific maintenance of freight and passenger transport flows.
Radiative effects on turbulent buoyancy-driven air flow in open square cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamora, B.; Kaiser, A.S.
2016-01-01
The effects of the radiative effects and the air variable properties (density, viscosity and thermal conductivity) on the buoyancy-driven flows established in open square cavities are investigated. Two-dimensional, laminar, transitional and turbulent simulations are obtained, considering both uniform wall temperature and uniform heat flux heating conditions. In transitional and turbulent cases, the low- Reynolds k-ω turbulence model is employed. The average Nusselt number and the dimensionless mass-flow rate have been obtained for a wide range of the Rayleigh number varying from 10 3 to 10 16 . The results obtained taking into account the variable thermophysical properties of air are compared to those calculated assuming constant properties and the Boussinesq approximation. In addition, the influence of considering surface radiative effects on the differences reached for the Nusselt number and the mass flow rate obtained with several intensities of heating is studied; specifically, the effects of thermal radiation on the appearance of the burnout phenomenon is analyzed. The changes produced in the flow patterns into the cavity when the radiative heat transfer and the effects of variation of properties are relevant, are also shown. (authors)
Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...
The down canyon evolution of submarine sediment density flows
Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Clare, M. A.; Cartigny, M.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.
2017-12-01
Submarine density flows, known as turbidity currents, transfer globally significant volumes of terrestrial and shelf sediments, organic carbon, nutrients and fresher-water into the deep ocean. Understanding such flows has wide implications for global organic carbon cycling, the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, seabed infrastructure hazard assessments, and interpreting geological archives of Earth history. Only river systems transport comparable volumes of sediment over such large areas of the globe. Despite their clear importance, there are remarkably few direct measurements of these oceanic turbidity currents in action. Here we present results from the multi-institution Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) which deployed multiple moorings along the axis of Monterey Canyon (offshore California). An array of six moorings, with downward looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) were positioned along the canyon axis from 290 m to 1850 m water depth. The ADCPs reveal the internal flow structure of submarine density flows at each site. We use a novel inversion method to reconstruct the suspended sediment concentration and flow stratification field during each event. Together the six moorings provide the first ever views of the internal structural evolution of turbidity current events as they evolve down system. Across the total 18-month period of deployment at least 15 submarine sediment density flows were measured with velocities up to 8.1 m/sec, with three of these flows extending 50 kms down the canyon beyond the 1850 m water depth mooring. We use these novel data to highlight the controls on ignition, interval structure and collapse of individual events and discuss the implications for the functioning and deposits produced by these enigmatic flows.
Ernst, D.
2015-11-01
We present new experiments and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations showing that density gradient driven TEM (DGTEM) turbulence dominates the inner core of H-Mode plasmas during strong electron heating. Thus α-heating may degrade inner core confinement in H-Mode plasmas with moderate density peaking. These DIII-D low torque quiescent H-mode experiments were designed to study DGTEM turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations using GYRO (and GENE) closely match not only particle, energy, and momentum fluxes, but also density fluctuation spectra, with and without ECH. Adding 3.4 MW ECH doubles Te /Ti from 0.5 to 1.0, which halves the linear TEM critical density gradient, locally flattening the density profile. Density fluctuations from Doppler backscattering (DBS) intensify near ρ = 0.3 during ECH, displaying a band of coherent fluctuations with adjacent toroidal mode numbers. GYRO closely reproduces the DBS spectrum and its change in shape and intensity with ECH, identifying these as coherent TEMs. Prior to ECH, parallel flow shear lowers the effective nonlinear DGTEM critical density gradient 50%, but is negligible during ECH, when transport displays extreme stiffness in the density gradient. GS2 predictions show the DGTEM can be suppressed, to avoid degradation with electron heating, by broadening the current density profile to attain q0 >qmin > 1 . A related experiment in the same regime varied the electron temperature gradient in the outer half-radius (ρ ~ 0 . 65) using ECH, revealing spatially coherent 2D mode structures in the Te fluctuations measured by ECE imaging. Fourier analysis with modulated ECH finds a threshold in Te profile stiffness. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-08ER54966 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.
The demography of climate-driven and density-regulated population dynamics in a perennial plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlgren, Johan; Bengstsson, Karin; Ehrlén, Johan
2016-01-01
Identifying the internal and external drivers of population dynamics is a key objective in ecology, currently accentuated by the need to forecast the effects of climate change on species distributions and abundances. The interplay between environmental and density effects is one particularly...... important aspect of such forecasts. We examined the simultaneous impact of climate and intraspecific density on vital rates of the dwarf shrub Fumana procumbens over 20 yr, using generalized additive mixed models. We then analyzed effects on population dynamics using integral projection models...... to be driven solely by the environment can overestimate extinction risks if there is density dependence. We conclude that density regulation can dampen effects of climate change on Fumana population size, and discuss the need to quantify density dependence in predictions of population responses...
Flow rate measurement of buoyancy-driven exchange flow by laser Doppler velocimeter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fumizawa, Motoo
1993-01-01
An experimental investigation was carried out for the buoyancy-driven exchange flow in a narrow vented cylinder concerning the air ingress process during a standing pipe rupture in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. In the present study, the evaluation method of exchange flow was developed by measuring the velocity distribution in the cylinder using a laser Doppler velocimeter. The experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure with nitrogen as a working fluid. Rayleigh numbers ranged from 2.0x10 4 to 2.1x10 5 . The exchange flow fluctuated irregularly with time and space in the cylinder. It was found that the exchange velocity distribution along the horizontal axis changed from one-hump to two-hump distribution with increasing Rayleigh number. In the case that the hemisphere wall was cooler than the heated disk, the volumetric exchange flow rate was smaller than that in the case where the hemisphere wall and the heated disk were at the same temperature. (author)
Flow-driven voltage generation in carbon nanotubes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The flow of various liquids and gases over single-walled carbon nanotube bundles induces an electrical signal (voltage/current) in the sample along the direction of the flow. The electrical response generated by the flow of liquids is found to be logarithmic in the flow speed over a wide range. In contrast, voltage generated ...
Dynamically adaptive data-driven simulation of extreme hydrological flows
Kumar Jain, Pushkar; Mandli, Kyle; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar; Dawson, Clint
2017-01-01
evacuation in real-time and through the development of resilient infrastructure based on knowledge of how systems respond to extreme events. Data-driven computational modeling is a critical technology underpinning these efforts. This investigation focuses
Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D.
1995-01-01
A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating heavy water moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to safeguard against a flow excursion in one of more of these parallel channels. During-full-power operation, limits safeguarded against a boiling flow excursion. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increased beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of the limiting power for previous long-term reactor operations
Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)
1995-09-01
A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating heavy water moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to safeguard against a flow excursion in one of more of these parallel channels. During-full-power operation, limits safeguarded against a boiling flow excursion. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increased beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of the limiting power for previous long-term reactor operations.
Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D.
1995-01-01
A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to prevent a flow excursion from occurring in one or more of these parallel channels. During full-power operation, limits prevented a boiling flow excursion from taking place. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increases beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of historical levels
Elliptic flow from Coulomb interaction and low density elastic scattering
Sun, Yuliang; Li, Qingfeng; Wang, Fuqiang
2018-04-01
In high energy heavy ion collisions and interacting cold atom systems, large elliptic flow anisotropies have been observed. For the large opacity (ρ σ L ˜103 ) of the latter hydrodynamics is a natural consequence, but for the small opacity (ρ σ L ˜1 ) of the former the hydrodynamic description is questionable. To shed light onto the situation, we simulate the expansion of a low density argon ion (or atom) system, initially trapped in an elliptical region, under the Coulomb interaction (or elastic scattering). Significant elliptic anisotropy is found in both cases, and the anisotropy depends on the initial spatial eccentricity and the density of the system. The results may provide insights into the physics of anisotropic flow in high energy heavy ion collisions and its role in the study of quantum chromodynamics.
Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries
Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.
Qian, S.Z.; Duval, J.F.L.
2006-01-01
A quantitative theory is proposed for the analysis of steady electroosmotically driven flows within conducting cylindrical microchannels. Beyond a threshold value of the electric field applied in the electrolyte Solution and parallel to the conducting surface, electrochemical oxidation and reduction
Short-term stream flow forecasting at Australian river sites using data-driven regression techniques
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Steyn, Melise
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a computationally efficient solution to stream flow forecasting for river basins where historical time series data are available. Two data-driven modeling techniques are investigated, namely support vector regression...
Energy density, stopping and flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorge, H.; von Keitz, A.; Mattiello, R.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.
1990-01-01
The Lorentz invariant molecular dynamics approach (RQMD) is employed to investigate the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions at energies (E kin = 10AGeV hor-ellipsis 200AGeV). The calculations for various nucleus nucleus reactions show a high degree of stopping power. The importance of secondary rescattering at these beam energies is demonstrated. The computed nucleon rapidity distributions are compared to available experimental data. It is demonstrated that nonlinear, collective effects like full stopping of target and projectile and matter flow could be expected for heavy projectiles only. For nuclear collisions in the Booster era at BNL and for the lead beam at CERN SPS the authors predict a stimulating future: then a nearly equilibrated, long lived (8 fm/c) macroscopic volume of very high energy density (> 1 GeV/fm 3 ) and baryon density (> 5 times ground state density) is produced
Intermittency and transition to chaos in the cubical lid-driven cavity flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loiseau, J-Ch [Department of Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Robinet, J-Ch [Laboratoire DynFluid, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, F-75013 Paris (France); Leriche, E, E-mail: loiseau@mech.kth.se [Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille, Université Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)
2016-12-15
Transition from steady state to intermittent chaos in the cubical lid-driven cavity flow is investigated numerically. Fully three-dimensional stability analyses have revealed that the flow experiences an Andronov–Poincaré–Hopf bifurcation at a critical Reynolds number Re {sub c} = 1914. As for the 2D-periodic lid-driven cavity flows, the unstable mode originates from a centrifugal instability of the primary vortex core. A Reynolds–Orr analysis reveals that the unstable perturbation relies on a combination of the lift-up and anti lift-up mechanisms to extract its energy from the base flow. Once linearly unstable, direct numerical simulations show that the flow is driven toward a primary limit cycle before eventually exhibiting intermittent chaotic dynamics. Though only one eigenpair of the linearized Navier–Stokes operator is unstable, the dynamics during the intermittencies are surprisingly well characterized by one of the stable eigenpairs. (paper)
Instabilities and spin-up behaviour of a rotating magnetic field driven flow in a rectangular cavity
Galindo, V.; Nauber, R.; Räbiger, D.; Franke, S.; Beyer, H.; Büttner, L.; Czarske, J.; Eckert, S.
2017-11-01
This study presents numerical simulations and experiments considering the flow of an electrically conducting fluid inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The investigations are focused on the spin-up, where a liquid metal (GaInSn) is suddenly exposed to an azimuthal body force generated by the RMF and the subsequent flow development. The numerical simulations rely on a semi-analytical expression for the induced electromagnetic force density in an electrically conducting medium inside a cuboid container with insulating walls. Velocity distributions in two perpendicular planes are measured using a novel dual-plane, two-component ultrasound array Doppler velocimeter with continuous data streaming, enabling long term measurements for investigating transient flows. This approach allows identifying the main emerging flow modes during the transition from stable to unstable flow regimes with exponentially growing velocity oscillations using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method. Characteristic frequencies in the oscillating flow regimes are determined in the super critical range above the critical magnetic Taylor number T ac≈1.26 ×1 05, where the transition from the steady double vortex structure of the secondary flow to an unstable regime with exponentially growing oscillations is detected. The mean flow structures and the temporal evolution of the flow predicted by the numerical simulations and observed in experiments are in very good agreement.
Numerical study of free pulsed jet flow with variable density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kriaa, Wassim [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)], E-mail: kriaawass@yahoo.fr; Cheikh, Habib Ben; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, 60 rue Juliot Curie Technopole de Chateau-Gombert 13453, Marseille Cedex 13 (France)
2008-05-15
In this work, we propose a numerical study of a free pulsed plane jet with variable density in unsteady and laminar modes. At the nozzle exit, the flow is characterized by a uniform temperature and submitted to a longitudinal and periodic velocity disturbance: u = u{sub 0}(1 + A sin({omega}t)). A finite difference method is performed to solve the equations governing this flow type. The discussion relates to the effect of the most significant parameters, such as the pulsation frequency and amplitude, on the flow characteristic fields. The effects of Reynolds and Galileo numbers was also examined. The results show that the pulsation affects the flow in the vicinity of the nozzle, and further, the results of the unsteady mode join those of the steady non-pulsed jet. The results state also that the Strouhal number has no influence on the flow mixture degree, whereas the amplitude of pulsation affects, in a remarkable way, the mixture and, consequently, the concentration core length.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyato, Naoaki; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li, Jiquan
2004-08-01
Global structure of zonal flows driven by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a global electromagnetic Landau fluid code. Characteristics of the coupled system of the zonal flows and the turbulence change with the safety factor q. In a low q region stationary zonal flows are excited and suppress the turbulence effectively. Coupling between zonal flows and poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations via a geodesic curvature makes the zonal flows oscillatory in a high q region. Also we identify energy transfer from the zonal flows to the turbulence via the poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations in the high q region. Therefore in the high q region the zonal flows cannot quench the turbulent transport completely. (author)
Laser driven supersonic flow over a compressible foam surface on the Nike lasera)
Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Plewa, T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Gillespie, R. S.; Weaver, J. L.; Visco, A.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.
2010-05-01
A laser driven millimeter-scale target was used to generate a supersonic shear layer in an attempt to create a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) unstable interface in a high-energy-density (HED) plasma. The KH instability is a fundamental fluid instability that remains unexplored in HED plasmas, which are relevant to the inertial confinement fusion and astrophysical environments. In the experiment presented here the Nike laser [S. P. Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] was used to create and drive Al plasma over a rippled foam surface. In response to the supersonic Al flow (Mach=2.6±1.1) shocks should form in the Al flow near the perturbations. The experimental data were used to infer the existence and location of these shocks. In addition, the interface perturbations show growth that has possible contributions from both KH and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. Since compressible shear layers exhibit smaller growth, it is important to use the KH growth rate derived from the compressible dispersion relation.
Laser driven supersonic flow over a compressible foam surface on the Nike laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Visco, A.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Velikovich, A. L.; Weaver, J. L.; Plewa, T.
2010-01-01
A laser driven millimeter-scale target was used to generate a supersonic shear layer in an attempt to create a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) unstable interface in a high-energy-density (HED) plasma. The KH instability is a fundamental fluid instability that remains unexplored in HED plasmas, which are relevant to the inertial confinement fusion and astrophysical environments. In the experiment presented here the Nike laser [S. P. Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] was used to create and drive Al plasma over a rippled foam surface. In response to the supersonic Al flow (Mach=2.6±1.1) shocks should form in the Al flow near the perturbations. The experimental data were used to infer the existence and location of these shocks. In addition, the interface perturbations show growth that has possible contributions from both KH and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. Since compressible shear layers exhibit smaller growth, it is important to use the KH growth rate derived from the compressible dispersion relation.
Two-dimensional PIC simulations of ion beam instabilities in Supernova-driven plasma flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Meli, A; Mastichiadis, A [Department of Physics, National University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos 15783 (Greece); Drury, L O C [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2 (Ireland)], E-mail: markd@tp4.rub.de
2008-06-15
Supernova remnant blast shells can reach the flow speed v{sub s} = 0.1c and shocks form at its front. Instabilities driven by shock-reflected ion beams heat the plasma in the foreshock, which may inject particles into diffusive acceleration. The ion beams can have the speed v{sub b} {approx} v{sub s}. For v{sub b} << v{sub s} the Buneman or upper-hybrid instabilities dominate, while for v{sub b} >> v{sub s} the filamentation and mixed modes grow faster. Here the relevant waves for v{sub b} {approx} v{sub s} are examined and how they interact nonlinearly with the particles. The collision of two plasma clouds at the speed v{sub s} is modelled with particle-in-cell simulations, which convect with them magnetic fields oriented perpendicular to their flow velocity vector. One simulation models equally dense clouds and the other one uses a density ratio of 2. Both simulations show upper-hybrid waves that are planar over large spatial intervals and that accelerate electrons to {approx}10 keV. The symmetric collision yields only short oscillatory wave pulses, while the asymmetric collision also produces large-scale electric fields, probably through a magnetic pressure gradient. The large-scale fields destroy the electron phase space holes and they accelerate the ions, which facilitates the formation of a precursor shock.
Flow Topology Transition via Global Bifurcation in Thermally Driven Turbulence
Xie, Yi-Chao; Ding, Guang-Yu; Xia, Ke-Qing
2018-05-01
We report an experimental observation of a flow topology transition via global bifurcation in a turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. This transition corresponds to a spontaneous symmetry breaking with the flow becomes more turbulent. Simultaneous measurements of the large-scale flow (LSF) structure and the heat transport show that the LSF bifurcates from a high heat transport efficiency quadrupole state to a less symmetric dipole state with a lower heat transport efficiency. In the transition zone, the system switches spontaneously and stochastically between the two long-lived metastable states.
Current density waves in open mesoscopic rings driven by time-periodic magnetic fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Conghua; Wei Lianfu
2010-01-01
Quantum coherent transport through open mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm rings (driven by static fluxes) have been studied extensively. Here, by using quantum waveguide theory and the Floquet theorem we investigate the quantum transport of electrons along an open mesoscopic ring threaded by a time-periodic magnetic flux. We predicate that current density waves could be excited along such an open ring. As a consequence, a net current could be generated along the lead with only one reservoir, if the lead additionally connects to such a normal-metal loop driven by the time-dependent flux. These phenomena could be explained by photon-assisted processes, due to the interaction between the transported electrons and the applied oscillating external fields. We also discuss how the time-average currents (along the ring and the lead) depend on the amplitude and frequency of the applied oscillating fluxes.
Convectively driven flow past an infinite moving vertical cylinder with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-10-01
Oct 1, 2013 ... tical cylinder with combined effects of heat and mass transfer is an ... presented a numerical study of free convective flow of a viscous ... models. The simultaneous effects of thermal and mass stratifications have application.
Thermally driven gas flow beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amter, S.; Lu, Ning; Ross, B.
1991-01-01
A coupled thermopneumatic model is developed for simulating heat transfer, rock-gas flow and carbon-14 travel time beneath Yucca Mountain, NV. The aim of this work is to understand the coupling of heat transfer and gas flow. Heat transfer in and near the potential repository region depends on several factors, including the geothermal gradient, climate, and local sources of heat such as radioactive wastes. Our numerical study shows that small temperature changes at the surface can change both the temperature field and the gas flow pattern beneath Yucca Mountain. A lateral temperature difference of 1 K is sufficient to create convection cells hundreds of meters in size. Differences in relative humidities between gas inside the mountain and air outside the mountain also significantly affect the gas flow field. 6 refs., 7 figs
Aircraft Proximity Maps Based on Data-Driven Flow Modeling
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the forecast increase in air traffic demand over the next decades, it is imperative to develop tools to provide traffic flow managers with the information...
Bowles, C. J.; Lawrence, R. L.; Noll, C.; Hancock, G. S.
2005-12-01
surface. Groundwater flow is redirected toward the stream. Moving downstream banks continue to widen, and the channel is up to 8 m wide and ~1.3 m deep ~100 m below the current knickpoint position. In the most downstream transects, the water table slopes gently toward the stream and remains ~1 m below the floodplain surface, equivalent to the depth of incision generated by knickpoint passage. Upstream of the knickpoint, overbank flooding occurs frequently, while below the knickpoint the majority of storm flow is contained within the incised channel and occupation of the floodplain is rare. The impact of incision to the riparian water table is dramatic, with a lowered water table and redirection of groundwater flow toward the stream. The incision is driven by suburbanization upstream of this riparian corridor, and has likely reduced the ability of this protected riparian system to improve the water quality of the suburban runoff that passes through it.
Asahi, Y.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.
2014-05-01
Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.
Turbulent behaviour of non-cohesive sediment gravity flows at unexpectedly high flow density
Baker, Megan; Baas, Jaco H.; Malarkey, Jonathan; Kane, Ian
2016-04-01
Experimental lock exchange-type turbidity currents laden with non-cohesive silica-flour were found to be highly dynamic at remarkably high suspended sediment concentrations. These experiments were conducted to produce sediment gravity flows of volumetric concentrations ranging from 1% to 52%, to study how changes in suspended sediment concentration affects the head velocities and run-out distances of these flows, in natural seawater. Increasing the volumetric concentration of suspended silica-flour, C, up to C = 46%, within the flows led to a progressive increase in the maximum head velocity. This relationship suggests that suspended sediment concentration intensifies the density difference between the turbulent suspension and the ambient water, which drives the flow, even if almost half of the available space is occupied by sediment particles. However, from C = 46% to C = 52% a rapid reduction in the maximum head velocity was measured. It is inferred that at C = 46%, friction from grain-to-grain interactions begins to attenuate turbulence within the flows. At C > 46%, the frictional stresses become progressively more dominant over the turbulent forces and excess density, thus producing lower maximum head velocities. This grain interaction process started to rapidly reduce the run-out distance of the silica-flour flows at equally high concentrations of C ≥ 47%. All flows with C tank, but the head velocities gradually reduced along the tank. Bagnold (1954, 1963) estimated that, for sand flows, grain-to-grain interactions start to become important in modulating turbulence at C > 9%. Yet, the critical flow concentration at which turbulence modulation commenced for these silica-flour laden flows appeared to be much higher. We suggest that Bagnold's 9% criterion cannot be applied to flows that carry fine-grained sediment, because turbulent forces are more important than dispersive forces, and frictional forces start to affect the flows only at concentrations just
Stratified flows with variable density: mathematical modelling and numerical challenges.
Murillo, Javier; Navas-Montilla, Adrian
2017-04-01
Stratified flows appear in a wide variety of fundamental problems in hydrological and geophysical sciences. They may involve from hyperconcentrated floods carrying sediment causing collapse, landslides and debris flows, to suspended material in turbidity currents where turbulence is a key process. Also, in stratified flows variable horizontal density is present. Depending on the case, density varies according to the volumetric concentration of different components or species that can represent transported or suspended materials or soluble substances. Multilayer approaches based on the shallow water equations provide suitable models but are not free from difficulties when moving to the numerical resolution of the governing equations. Considering the variety of temporal and spatial scales, transfer of mass and energy among layers may strongly differ from one case to another. As a consequence, in order to provide accurate solutions, very high order methods of proved quality are demanded. Under these complex scenarios it is necessary to observe that the numerical solution provides the expected order of accuracy but also converges to the physically based solution, which is not an easy task. To this purpose, this work will focus in the use of Energy balanced augmented solvers, in particular, the Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. References: J. Murillo , P. García-Navarro, Wave Riemann description of friction terms in unsteady shallow flows: Application to water and mud/debris floods. J. Comput. Phys. 231 (2012) 1963-2001. J. Murillo B. Latorre, P. García-Navarro. A Riemann solver for unsteady computation of 2D shallow flows with variable density. J. Comput. Phys.231 (2012) 4775-4807. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Energy balanced numerical schemes with very high order. The Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. Application to the shallow water equations, J. Comput. Phys. 290 (2015) 188-218. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Asymptotically and exactly energy balanced augmented flux
Field aligned flows driven by neutral puffing at MAST
Waters, I.; Frerichs, H.; Silburn, S.; Feng, Y.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Schmitz, O.
2018-06-01
Neutral deuterium gas puffing at the high field side of the mega ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is shown to drive carbon impurity flows that are aligned with the trajectory of the magnetic field lines in the plasma scrape-off-layer. These impurity flows were directly imaged with emissions from C2+ ions at MAST by coherence imaging spectroscopy and were qualitatively reproduced in deuterium plasmas by modeling with the EMC3-EIRENE plasma edge fluid and kinetic neutral transport code. A reduced one-dimensional momentum and particle balance shows that a localized increase in the static plasma pressure in front of the neutral gas puff yields an acceleration of the plasma due to local ionization. Perpendicular particle transport yields a decay from which a parallel length scale can be determined. Parameter scans in EMC3-EIRENE were carried out to determine the sensitivity of the deuterium plasma flow phenomena to local fueling and diffusion parameters and it is found that these flows robustly form across a wide variety of plasma conditions. Finally, efforts to couple this behavior in the background plasma directly to the impurity flows observed experimentally in MAST using a trace impurity model are discussed. These results provide insight into the fueling and exhaust features at this pivotal point of the radial and parallel particle flux balance, which is a major part of the plasma fueling and exhaust characteristics in a magnetically confined fusion device.
Dynamically adaptive data-driven simulation of extreme hydrological flows
Kumar Jain, Pushkar; Mandli, Kyle; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar; Dawson, Clint
2018-02-01
Hydrological hazards such as storm surges, tsunamis, and rainfall-induced flooding are physically complex events that are costly in loss of human life and economic productivity. Many such disasters could be mitigated through improved emergency evacuation in real-time and through the development of resilient infrastructure based on knowledge of how systems respond to extreme events. Data-driven computational modeling is a critical technology underpinning these efforts. This investigation focuses on the novel combination of methodologies in forward simulation and data assimilation. The forward geophysical model utilizes adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), a process by which a computational mesh can adapt in time and space based on the current state of a simulation. The forward solution is combined with ensemble based data assimilation methods, whereby observations from an event are assimilated into the forward simulation to improve the veracity of the solution, or used to invert for uncertain physical parameters. The novelty in our approach is the tight two-way coupling of AMR and ensemble filtering techniques. The technology is tested using actual data from the Chile tsunami event of February 27, 2010. These advances offer the promise of significantly transforming data-driven, real-time modeling of hydrological hazards, with potentially broader applications in other science domains.
Dynamically adaptive data-driven simulation of extreme hydrological flows
Kumar Jain, Pushkar
2017-12-27
Hydrological hazards such as storm surges, tsunamis, and rainfall-induced flooding are physically complex events that are costly in loss of human life and economic productivity. Many such disasters could be mitigated through improved emergency evacuation in real-time and through the development of resilient infrastructure based on knowledge of how systems respond to extreme events. Data-driven computational modeling is a critical technology underpinning these efforts. This investigation focuses on the novel combination of methodologies in forward simulation and data assimilation. The forward geophysical model utilizes adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), a process by which a computational mesh can adapt in time and space based on the current state of a simulation. The forward solution is combined with ensemble based data assimilation methods, whereby observations from an event are assimilated into the forward simulation to improve the veracity of the solution, or used to invert for uncertain physical parameters. The novelty in our approach is the tight two-way coupling of AMR and ensemble filtering techniques. The technology is tested using actual data from the Chile tsunami event of February 27, 2010. These advances offer the promise of significantly transforming data-driven, real-time modeling of hydrological hazards, with potentially broader applications in other science domains.
Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams
Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.
2012-12-01
Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this
Ion waves driven by shear flow in a relativistic degenerate ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of matter inside dense stellar media [10,11]. Various studies on low-frequency dynam- ... eracy pressure given by Chandrasekhar in his classic work [22,23]. Chandrasekhar's momentous discovery ... ∇n0, where v0 and n0 are unperturbed quantities, i.e., streaming speed and number density, respectively. For sim- plicity ...
Electron heating caused by parametrically driven turbulence near the critical density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Estabrook, K.G.
1986-01-01
Microwave-driven experiments and particle simulation calculations are presented that model s-polarized laser light incident on a pellet. In the microwave experiments, the incident microwaves are observed to decay into ion and electron waves near the critical density if the microwave power is above a well-defined threshold. Significant absorption, thermal electron heating, and hot electron generation are observed for microwave powers above a few times threshold. Strong absorption, strong profile modification, strongly heated hot electrons with a Maxwellian distribution, a hot-electron temperature that increases slowly with power, and a hot-electron density that is almost constant, are all observed in both the microwave experiments and simulation calculations for high powers. In addition, the thermal electrons are strongly heated for high powers in the microwave experiments
Bifurcation analysis of incompressible flow in a driven cavity
Wubs, F.W.; Tiesinga, G.; Veldman, A.E.P.
2000-01-01
Knowledge of the transition point of steady to periodic flow and the frequency occurring hereafter is becoming increasingly more important in engineering applications. By the Newton-Picard method - a method related to the recursive projection method - periodic solutions can be computed, which makes
BRIEF COMMUNICATION: On the drift kinetic equation driven by plasma flows
Shaing, K. C.
2010-07-01
A drift kinetic equation that is driven by plasma flows has previously been derived by Shaing and Spong 1990 (Phys. Fluids B 2 1190). The terms that are driven by particle speed that is parallel to the magnetic field B have been neglected. Here, such terms are discussed to examine their importance to the equation and to show that these terms do not contribute to the calculations of plasma viscosity in large aspect ratio toroidal plasmas, e.g. tokamaks and stellarators.
Surface Tension Driven Instability in the Regime of Stokes Flow
Yao, Zhenwei; Bowick, Mark; Xing, Xiangjun
2010-03-01
A cylinder of liquid inside another liquid is unstable towards droplet formation. This instability is driven by minimization of surface tension energy and was analyzed first by [1,2] and then by [3]. We revisit this problem in the limit of small Laplace number, where the inertial of liquids can be completely ignored. The stream function is found to obey biharmonic equation, and its analytic solutions are found. We rederive Tomotika's main results, and also obtain many new analytic results about the velocity fields. We also apply our formalism to study the recent experiment on toroidal liquid droplet[4]. Our framework shall have many applications in micro-fluidics. [1] L.Rayleigh, On The Instability of A Cylinder of Viscous Liquid Under Capillary Force, Scientific Papers, Cambridge, Vol.III, 1902. [2] L.Rayleigh, On The Instability of Cylindrical Fluid Surfaces, Scientific Papers, Cambridge, Vol.III, 1902. [3] S.Tomotika, On the Instability of a Cylindrical Thread of a Viscous Liquid surround by Another Viscous Fluid, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Volume 150, Issue 870, pp. 322-337. [4] E.Pairam and A.Fern'andez-Nieves, Generation and Stability of Toroidal Droplets in a Viscous Liquid, Physical Review Letters 102, 234501 (2009).
Heat flow in chains driven by thermal noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fogedby, Hans C; Imparato, Alberto
2012-01-01
We consider the large deviation function for a classical harmonic chain composed of N particles driven at the end points by heat reservoirs, first derived in the quantum regime by Saito and Dhar (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 180601) and in the classical regime by Saito and Dhar (2011 Phys. Rev. E 83 041121) and Kundu et al (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P03007). Within a Langevin description we perform this calculation on the basis of a standard path integral calculation in Fourier space. The cumulant generating function yielding the large deviation function is given in terms of a transmission Green's function and is consistent with the fluctuation theorem. We find a simple expression for the tails of the heat distribution, which turns out to decay exponentially. We, moreover, consider an extension of a single-particle model suggested by Derrida and Brunet (2005 Einstein Aujourd'hui (Les Ulis: EDP Sciences)) and discuss the two-particle case. We also discuss the limit for large N and present a closed expression for the cumulant generating function. Finally, we present a derivation of the fluctuation theorem on the basis of a Fokker–Planck description. This result is not restricted to the harmonic case but is valid for a general interaction potential between the particles
A Review of Some Recent Studies on Buoyancy Driven Flows in an Urban Environment
Bodhisatta Hajra
2014-01-01
This paper reviews some recent studies (after 2000) pertaining to buoyancy driven flows in nature and thier use in reducing air pollution levels in a city (city ventilation). Natural convection flows occur due to the heating and cooling of various urban surfaces (e.g., mountain slopes), leading to upslope and downslope flows. Such flows can have a significant effect on city ventilation which has been the subject of study in the recent times due to increased pollution levels in a city. A major...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lu, Yadong; Wong, S. C; Zhang, Mengping; Shu, Chi-Wang
2007-01-01
...) traffic flow model with a flow-density relationship which is piecewise quadratic, concave, but not continuous at the junction points where two quadratic polynomials meet, and with piecewise linear...
Diffusion and mixing in gravity-driven dense granular flows.
Choi, Jaehyuk; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rosales, Rodolfo R; Bazant, Martin Z
2004-04-30
We study the transport properties of particles draining from a silo using imaging and direct particle tracking. The particle displacements show a universal transition from superdiffusion to normal diffusion, as a function of the distance fallen, independent of the flow speed. In the superdiffusive (but sub-ballistic) regime, which occurs before a particle falls through its diameter, the displacements have fat-tailed and anisotropic distributions. In the diffusive regime, we observe very slow cage breaking and Péclet numbers of order 100, contrary to the only previous microscopic model (based on diffusing voids). Overall, our experiments show that diffusion and mixing are dominated by geometry, consistent with long-lasting contacts but not thermal collisions, as in normal fluids.
CURVATURE-DRIVEN MOLECULAR FLOW ON MEMBRANE SURFACE.
Mikucki, Michael; Zhou, Y C
2017-01-01
This work presents a mathematical model for the localization of multiple species of diffusion molecules on membrane surfaces. Morphological change of bilayer membrane in vivo is generally modulated by proteins. Most of these modulations are associated with the localization of related proteins in the crowded lipid environments. We start with the energetic description of the distributions of molecules on curved membrane surface, and define the spontaneous curvature of bilayer membrane as a function of the molecule concentrations on membrane surfaces. A drift-diffusion equation governs the gradient flow of the surface molecule concentrations. We recast the energetic formulation and the related governing equations by using an Eulerian phase field description to define membrane morphology. Computational simulations with the proposed mathematical model and related numerical techniques predict (i) the molecular localization on static membrane surfaces at locations with preferred mean curvatures, and (ii) the generation of preferred mean curvature which in turn drives the molecular localization.
Averaging processes in granular flows driven by gravity
Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne
2016-04-01
One of the more promising theoretical frames to analyse the two-phase granular flows is offered by the similarity of their rheology with the kinetic theory of gases [1]. Granular flows can be considered a macroscopic equivalent of the molecular case: the collisions among molecules are compared to the collisions among grains at a macroscopic scale [2,3]. However there are important statistical differences in dealing with the two applications. In the two-phase fluid mechanics, there are two main types of average: the phasic average and the mass weighed average [4]. The kinetic theories assume that the size of atoms is so small, that the number of molecules in a control volume is infinite. With this assumption, the concentration (number of particles n) doesn't change during the averaging process and the two definitions of average coincide. This hypothesis is no more true in granular flows: contrary to gases, the dimension of a single particle becomes comparable to that of the control volume. For this reason, in a single realization the number of grain is constant and the two averages coincide; on the contrary, for more than one realization, n is no more constant and the two types of average lead to different results. Therefore, the ensamble average used in the standard kinetic theory (which usually is the phasic average) is suitable for the single realization, but not for several realization, as already pointed out in [5,6]. In the literature, three main length scales have been identified [7]: the smallest is the particles size, the intermediate consists in the local averaging (in order to describe some instability phenomena or secondary circulation) and the largest arises from phenomena such as large eddies in turbulence. Our aim is to solve the intermediate scale, by applying the mass weighted average, when dealing with more than one realizations. This statistical approach leads to additional diffusive terms in the continuity equation: starting from experimental
Nonlinear entropy transfer in ETG-TEM turbulence via TEM driven zonal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asahi, Yuuichi; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Ishizawa, Akihiro; Sugama, Hideo; Watanabe, Tomohiko
2015-01-01
Nonlinear interplay of the electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes and the trapped electron modes (TEMs) was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulation. Focusing on the situation where both TEMs and ETG modes are linearly unstable, the effects of TEM-driven zonal flows on ETG turbulence were examined by means of entropy transfer analysis. In a statistically steady turbulence where the TEM driven zonal flows are dominant, it turned out that the zonal flows meditate the entropy transfer of the ETG modes from the low to high radial wavenumber regions. The successive entropy transfer broadens the potential fluctuation spectrum in the radial wavenumber direction. In contrast, in the situation where ETG modes are unstable but TEMs are stable, the pure ETG turbulence does not produce strong zonal flows, leading to a rather narrow spectrum in the radial wavenumber space and a higher transport level. (author)
Kitagawa, Shinya; Tsuda, Takao
2003-05-02
The behavior of neutral sample solutes in pressurized flow driven electrochromatography using a mixed stationary phase, which consisted of ODS and anion-exchange (ODS-SAX), was studied. Applications of both positive and negative voltage on a column induced increases in retention factors of sample solutes. The direction of an electroosmotic flow under applications of positive and negative voltage were the same, therefore, the sign of the surface charge density under positive and negative voltage was opposite. We proposed a new equation for the relationship between applied voltage and surface charge density, and the practical electroosmotic flow conformed to this equation. Studying the electroosmotic flow using our proposed equation revealed that the applied negative voltage accelerates the protonation of the quaternary ammonium group and dissociation of the silanol group on packing materials. The retention behavior of a neutral solute was affected by the existence of the charged functional groups. We propose that this phenomenon is applicable to the control of the retention behavior of a sample solute using an electric field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farajzadeh, R. [Shell International Exploration and Production, Houston, TX (United States); Ranganathan, P.; Zitha, P.L.J.; Bruining, J. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)
2010-07-01
This paper investigated the effect of heterogeneity on the character of natural-convection flow of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in aquifers and on the dissolution rate of CO{sub 2} in brine, contributing to a better understanding of the effect of heterogeneity on CO{sub 2} mass transfer in aquifers, which is necessary for efficient storage of CO{sub 2} in aquifers. The aquifer permeability, which is in practice heterogeneous, largely governs the efficiency of mixing in density-driven natural convection. The aquifer's degree of permeability variance and the correlation length informs the character of flow-driven mixing processes. Numerical simulation was used to identify different flow regimes of a density-driven natural flow regime. Heterogeneous fields were generated using a spectral method that allows the use of power-law variograms. From the simulations it was observed that the rate of mass transfer of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into water is higher for heterogeneous media. The formulation of the physical model and related equations and the method for generating the permeability fields were described. The simulation results indicated that gravity-induced fingering is the dominant pattern in low heterogeneity, but fingering will not occur in realistic porous media. The results also showed that the permeability field structure dominates at moderate heterogeneity, and that the flow is dispersive at high heterogeneity when the correlation length of the field is small. Heterogeneous media facilitate a larger rate of CO{sub 2} dissolution than homogenous media, which means that the former can store larger volumes of CO{sub 2}. 49 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs.
QUICK-FIRE: Plasma flow driven implosion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, W.L.; Bigelow, W.S.; Degnan, J.H.
1985-01-01
High speed plasma implosions involving megajoules of energy, and sub-microsecond implosion times are expected to require additional stages of power conditioning between realistic primary energy sources and the implosion system. Plasma flow switches and vacuum inductive stores represent attractive alternates to the high speed fuse and atmospheric store techniques which have been previously reported for powering such plasma experiments. In experiments being conducted at the Air Force Weapons Lab, a washer shaped plasma accelerated to 7-10 cm/microsecond in a coaxial plasma gun configuration, represents the moving element in a vacuum store/power conditioning system of 16.5 nH inductance which stores 1-1.5 MJ at 12-14 MA. At the end of the coaxial gun, the moving element transits the 2cm axial length of the cylindrical implosion gap in 200-400 nS, delivering the magnetic energy to the implosion foil, accelerating the imploding plasma to speeds of 30-40 cm/microsecond in 350-450 nS, and delivering a projected 400 KJ of kinetic energy to the implosion
Studies on modelling of bubble driven flows in chemical reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grevskott, Sverre
1997-12-31
Multiphase reactors are widely used in the process industry, especially in the petrochemical industry. They very often are characterized by very good thermal control and high heat transfer coefficients against heating and cooling surfaces. This thesis first reviews recent advances in bubble column modelling, focusing on the fundamental flow equations, drag forces, transversal forces and added mass forces. The mathematical equations for the bubble column reactor are developed, using an Eulerian description for the continuous and dispersed phase in tensor notation. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species are given, and the k-{epsilon} and Rice-Geary models for turbulence are described. The different algebraic solvers used in the model are described, as are relaxation procedures. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental values. Attention is focused on the modelling of void fractions and gas velocities in the column. The energy conservation equation has been included in the bubble column model in order to model temperature distributions in a heated reactor. The conservation equation of chemical species has been included to simulate absorption of CO{sub 2}. Simulated axial and radial mass fraction profiles for CO{sub 2} in the gas phase are compared with measured values. Simulations of the dynamic behaviour of the column are also presented. 189 refs., 124 figs., 1 tab.
Quick-fire: Plasma flow driven implosion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, W.L.; Bigelow, W.S.; Degnan, J.H.
1985-01-01
High speed plasma implosions involving megajoules of energy, and sub-microsecond implosion times are expected to require additional stages of power conditioning between realistic primary energy sources and the implosion system. Plasma flow switches and vacuum inductive stores represent attractive alternates to the high speed fuse and atmospheric store techniques which have been previously reported for powering such plasma experiments. In experiments being conducted at the Air Force Weapons Lab, a washer shaped plasma accelerated to 7-10 cm/microsecond in a coaxial plasma gun configuration, represents the moving element in a vacuum store/power conditioning system of 16.5 nH inductance which stores 1-1.5 MJ at 12-14 MA. At the end of the coaxial gun, the moving element transits the 2cm axial length of the cylindrical implosion gap in 200-400 nS, delivering the magnetic energy to the implosion foil, accelerating the imploding plasma to speeds of 30-40 cm/microsecond in 350-450 nS, and delivering a projected 400 KJ of kinetic energy to the implosion. Experiments have been conducted using the SHIVA STAR capacitor bank operating at 6 MJ stored energy in which performance has been monitored by electrical diagnostics, magnetic probes, and axial and radial viewing high speed visible and X-Ray photographs to assess the performance of the coaxial run and coaxial to radial transition. Time and spectrally resolved X-Ray diagnostics are used to assess implosion quality and performance and results are compared to kinematic and MHD models
Nath, G; Sahu, P K
2016-01-01
A self-similar model for one-dimensional unsteady isothermal and adiabatic flows behind a strong exponential shock wave driven out by a cylindrical piston moving with time according to an exponential law in an ideal gas in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field and variable density is discussed in a rotating atmosphere. The ambient medium is assumed to possess radial, axial and azimuthal component of fluid velocities. The initial density, the fluid velocities and magnetic field of the ambient medium are assumed to be varying with time according to an exponential law. The gas is taken to be non-viscous having infinite electrical conductivity. Solutions are obtained, in both the cases, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal or adiabatic by taking into account the components of vorticity vector. The effects of the variation of the initial density index, adiabatic exponent of the gas and the Alfven-Mach number on the flow-field behind the shock wave are investigated. It is found that the presence of the magnetic field have decaying effects on the shock wave. Also, it is observed that the effect of an increase in the magnetic field strength is more impressive in the case of adiabatic flow than in the case of isothermal flow. The assumption of zero temperature gradient brings a profound change in the density, non-dimensional azimuthal and axial components of vorticity vector distributions in comparison to those in the case of adiabatic flow. A comparison is made between isothermal and adiabatic flows. It is obtained that an increase in the initial density variation index, adiabatic exponent and strength of the magnetic field decrease the shock strength.
Lattice Boltzmann equation calculation of internal, pressure-driven turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammond, L A; Halliday, I; Care, C M; Stevens, A
2002-01-01
We describe a mixing-length extension of the lattice Boltzmann approach to the simulation of an incompressible liquid in turbulent flow. The method uses a simple, adaptable, closure algorithm to bound the lattice Boltzmann fluid incorporating a law-of-the-wall. The test application, of an internal, pressure-driven and smooth duct flow, recovers correct velocity profiles for Reynolds number to 1.25 x 10 5 . In addition, the Reynolds number dependence of the friction factor in the smooth-wall branch of the Moody chart is correctly recovered. The method promises a straightforward extension to other curves of the Moody chart and to cylindrical pipe flow
Lindner, Michael; Donner, Reik V
2017-03-01
We study the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers in a simple model of a driven two-dimensional vortex resembling real-world geophysical flow patterns. Using a discrete approximation of the system's transfer operator, we construct a directed network that describes the exchange of mass between distinct regions of the flow domain. By studying different measures characterizing flow network connectivity at different time-scales, we are able to identify the location of dynamically invariant structures and regions of maximum dispersion. Specifically, our approach allows us to delimit co-existing flow regimes with different dynamics. To validate our findings, we compare several network characteristics to the well-established finite-time Lyapunov exponents and apply a receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify network measures that are particularly useful for unveiling the skeleton of Lagrangian chaos.
The role of meridional density differences for a wind-driven overturning circulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schewe, J.; Levermann, A. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Earth System Analysis, Potsdam (Germany); Potsdam University, Physics Institute, Potsdam (Germany)
2010-03-15
Experiments with the coupled climate model CLIMBER-3{alpha}, which contains an oceanic general circulation model, show deep upwelling in the Southern Ocean to be proportional to the surface wind stress in the latitudinal band of Drake Passage. At the same time, the distribution of the Southern Ocean upwelling onto the oceanic basins is controlled by buoyancy distribution; the inflow into each basin being proportional to the respective meridional density difference. We observe approximately the same constant of proportionality for all basins, and demonstrate that it can be directly related to the flow geometry. For increased wind stress in the Southern Ocean, the overturning increases both in the Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific basin. For strongly reduced wind stress, the circulation enters a regime where Atlantic overturning is maintained through Pacific upwelling, in order to satisfy the transports set by the density differences. Previous results on surface buoyancy and wind stress forcing, obtained with different models, are reproduced within one model in order to distill a consistent picture. We propose that both Southern Ocean upwelling and meridional density differences set up a system of conditions that determine the global meridional overturning circulation. (orig.)
Density effect on the mixing efficiency and flow modes in T-shaped micromixers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lobasov Alexander
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Flow patterns and mixing of liquids with different densities in T-shaped micromixers are numerically investigated at Reynolds number range from 1 to 250. The density ratio of the mixing media varies from 1 to 2; its effect on the flow structure and the mixing is studied. The dependences of the mixing efficiency and the pressure difference in this mixer on the density ratio and the Reynolds number are obtained. It is shown that the density ratio has a considerable effect on the flow structure, especially before the transition from the symmetric to the asymmetric flow pattern.
Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Lewis, David P.; Moffat, Bradford; Branch, Craig A.
2007-01-01
Continuous arterial spin labeling experiments typically use flow-driven adiabatic fast passage (AFP) inversion of the arterial blood water protons. In this article, we measure the effect of magnetization transfer in blood and how it affects the inversion label. We use modified Bloch equations to model flow-driven adiabatic inversion in the presence of magnetization transfer in blood flowing at velocities from 1 to 30 cm/s in order to explain our findings. Magnetization transfer results in a r...
Shear flow driven counter rotating vortices in an inhomogeneous dusty magnetoplasma
Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Ijaz, Aisha; Haque, Q.
2014-02-01
The coupling of Shukla-Varma (SV) and convective cell modes is discussed in the presence of non-Boltzmannian electron response and parallel equilibrium shear flow. In the linear case, a new dispersion relation is derived and analyzed. It is found that the coupled SV and convective cell modes destabilize in the presence of electron shear flow. On the other hand, in the nonlinear regime, it is shown that Shukla-Varma mode driven counter rotating vortices can be formed for the system under consideration. It is found that these vortices move slowly by comparison with the ion acoustic or electron drift-wave driven counter rotating vortices. The relevance of the present investigation with regard to space plasmas is also pointed out.
Numerical study of two-fluid flowing equilibria of helicity-driven spherical torus plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.
2004-01-01
Two-fluid flowing equilibrium configurations of a helicity-driven spherical torus (HD-ST) are numerically determined by using the combination of the finite difference and the boundary element methods. It is found from the numerical results that electron fluids near the central conductor are tied to an external toroidal field and ion fluids are not. The magnetic configurations change from the high-q HD-ST (q>1) with paramagnetic toroidal field and low-β (volume average β value, ∼ 2%) through the helicity-driven spheromak and RFP (reverse field pinch) to the ultra low-q HD-ST (0 ∼ 18%) as the external toroidal field at the inner edge regions decreases and reverses the sign. The two-fluid effects are more significant in this equilibrium transition when the ion diamagnetic drift is dominant in the flowing two-fluid. (authors)
Flow-driven triboelectric generator for directly powering a wireless sensor node.
Wang, Shuhua; Mu, Xiaojing; Yang, Ya; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Alex Yuandong; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-01-14
A triboelectric generator (TEG) for scavenging flow-driven mechanical -energy to directly power a wireless sensor node is demonstrated for the first time. The output performances of TEGs with different dimensions are systematically investigated, indicating that a largest output power of about 3.7 mW for one TEG can be achieved under an external load of 3 MΩ. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Fluid queues driven by a birth and death process with alternating flow rates
P. R. Parthasarathy; K. V. Vijayashree; R. B. Lenin
2004-01-01
Fluid queue driven by a birth and death process (BDP) with only one negative effective input rate has been considered in the literature. As an alternative, here we consider a fluid queue in which the input is characterized by a BDP with alternating positive and negative flow rates on a finite state space. Also, the BDP has two alternating arrival rates and two alternating service rates. Explicit expression for the distribution function of the buffer occupancy is obtained. The case where the s...
Momentum-energy transport from turbulence driven by parallel flow shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, J.Q.; Horton, W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.
1994-04-01
The low frequency E x B turbulence driven by the shear in the mass flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is studied using the fluid theory in a slab configuration with magnetic shear. Ion temperature gradient effects are taken into account. The eigenfunctions of the linear instability are asymmetric about the mode rational surfaces. Quasilinear Reynolds stress induced by such asymmetric fluctuations produces momentum and energy transport across the magnetic field. Analytic formulas for the parallel and perpendicular Reynolds stress, viscosity and energy transport coefficients are given. Experimental observations of the parallel and poloidal plasma flows on TEXT-U are presented and compared with the theoretical models
Separation of ions in nanofluidic channels with combined pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flow.
Gillespie, Dirk; Pennathur, Sumita
2013-03-05
Separation of ionic species with the same electrophoretic mobility but different valence in electrolyte systems can occur within nanometer-scale channels with finite electrical double layers (EDLs). This is because EDL thicknesses are a significant fraction of slit height in such channels and can create transverse analyte concentration profiles that allow for unique separation modalities when combined with axial fluid flow. Previous work has shown such separation to occur using either pressure-driven flow or electro-osmotic flow separately. Here, we develop a Poisson-Boltzmann model to compare the separation of such ions using the combination of both pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flow. Applying a pressure gradient in the opposite direction of electro-osmotic flow can allow for zero or infinite retention of analyte species, which we investigate using three different wall boundary conditions. Furthermore, we determine conditions in fused silica nanochannels with which to generate optimal separation between two analytes of different charge but the same mobility. We also give simple rules of thumb to achieve the best separation efficacy in nanochannel systems.
Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Back, C. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.
2010-11-01
Backlighting of x-ray-driven implosions in empty hohlraums with mono-energetic protons on the OMEGA laser facility has allowed a number of important phenomena to be observed. Several critical parameters were determined, including plasma flow, three types of spontaneous electric fields and megaGauss magnetic fields. These results provide insight into important issues in indirect-drive ICF. Even though the cavity is effectively a Faraday cage, the strong, local fields inside the hohlraum can affect laser-plasma instabilities, electron distributions and implosion symmetry. They are of fundamental scientific importance for a range of new experiments at the frontiers of high-energy-density physics. Future experiments designed to characterize the field formation and evolution in low-Z gas fill hohlraums will be discussed.
Akbar, N S; Tripathi, D; Khan, Z H; Bég, O Anwar
2018-04-06
In this paper, we present an analytical study of pressure-driven flow of micropolar non-Newtonian physiological fluids through a channel comprising two parallel oscillating walls. The cilia are arranged at equal intervals and protrude normally from both walls of the infinitely long channel. A metachronal wave is generated due to natural beating of cilia and the direction of wave propagation is parallel to the direction of fluid flow. Appropriate expressions are presented for deformation via longitudinal and transverse velocity components induced by the ciliary beating phenomenon with cilia assumed to follow elliptic trajectories. The conservation equations for mass, longitudinal and transverse (linear) momentum and angular momentum are reduced in accordance with the long wavelength and creeping Stokesian flow approximations and then normalized with appropriate transformations. The resulting non-linear moving boundary value problem is solved analytically for constant micro-inertia density, subject to physically realistic boundary conditions. Closed-form expressions are derived for axial velocity, angular velocity, volumetric flow rate and pressure rise. The transport phenomena are shown to be dictated by several non-Newtonian parameters, including micropolar material parameter and Eringen coupling parameter, and also several geometric parameters, viz eccentricity parameter, wave number and cilia length. The influence of these parameters on streamline profiles (with a view to addressing trapping features via bolus formation and evolution), pressure gradient and other characteristics are evaluated graphically. Both axial and angular velocities are observed to be substantially modified with both micropolar rheological parameters and furthermore are significantly altered with increasing volumetric flow rate. Free pumping is also examined. An inverse relationship between pressure rise and flow rate is computed which is similar to that observed in Newtonian fluids. The
Engdahl, Nicholas B; Benson, David A; Bolster, Diogo
2014-11-01
The ability for reactive constituents to mix is often the key limiting factor for the completion of reactions across a huge range of scales in a variety of media. In flowing systems, deformation and shear enhance mixing by bringing constituents into closer proximity, thus increasing reaction potential. Accurately quantifying this enhanced mixing is key to predicting reactions and typically is done by observing or simulating scalar transport. To eliminate this computationally expensive step, we use a Lagrangian stochastic framework to derive the enhancement to reaction potential by calculating the collocation probability of particle pairs in a heterogeneous flow field accounting for deformations. We relate the enhanced reaction potential to three well known flow topology metrics and demonstrate that it is best correlated to (and asymptotically linear with) one: the largest eigenvalue of the (right) Cauchy-Green tensor.
Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential: 1. Elastic effective-stress model
Iverson, Richard M.; Reid, Mark E.
1992-01-01
Hilly or mountainous topography influences gravity-driven groundwater flow and the consequent distribution of effective stress in shallow subsurface environments. Effective stress, in turn, influences the potential for slope failure. To evaluate these influences, we formulate a two-dimensional, steady state, poroelastic model. The governing equations incorporate groundwater effects as body forces, and they demonstrate that spatially uniform pore pressure changes do not influence effective stresses. We implement the model using two finite element codes. As an illustrative case, we calculate the groundwater flow field, total body force field, and effective stress field in a straight, homogeneous hillslope. The total body force and effective stress fields show that groundwater flow can influence shear stresses as well as effective normal stresses. In most parts of the hillslope, groundwater flow significantly increases the Coulomb failure potential Φ, which we define as the ratio of maximum shear stress to mean effective normal stress. Groundwater flow also shifts the locus of greatest failure potential toward the slope toe. However, the effects of groundwater flow on failure potential are less pronounced than might be anticipated on the basis of a simpler, one-dimensional, limit equilibrium analysis. This is a consequence of continuity, compatibility, and boundary constraints on the two-dimensional flow and stress fields, and it points to important differences between our elastic continuum model and limit equilibrium models commonly used to assess slope stability.
Grants, Ilmars; Gerbeth, Gunter
2010-07-01
The stability of a thermally stratified liquid metal flow is considered numerically. The flow is driven by a rotating magnetic field in a cylinder heated from above and cooled from below. The stable thermal stratification turns out to destabilize the flow. This is explained by the fact that a stable stratification suppresses the secondary meridional flow, thus indirectly enhancing the primary rotation. The instability in the form of Taylor-Görtler rolls is consequently promoted. These rolls can only be excited by finite disturbances in the isothermal flow. A sufficiently strong thermal stratification transforms this nonlinear bypass instability into a linear one reducing, thus, the critical value of the magnetic driving force. A weaker temperature gradient delays the linear instability but makes the bypass transition more likely. We quantify the non-normal and nonlinear components of this transition by direct numerical simulation of the flow response to noise. It is observed that the flow sensitivity to finite disturbances increases considerably under the action of a stable thermal stratification. The capabilities of the random forcing approach to identify disconnected coherent states in a general case are discussed.
Experimental study of particle-driven secondary flow in turbulent pipe flows
Belt, R.J.; Daalmans, A.C.L.M.; Portela, L.M.
2012-01-01
In fully developed single-phase turbulent flow in straight pipes, it is known that mean motions can occur in the plane of the pipe cross-section, when the cross-section is non-circular, or when the wall roughness is non-uniform around the circumference of a circular pipe. This phenomenon is known as secondary flow of the second kind and is associated with the anisotropy in the Reynolds stress tensor in the pipe cross-section. In this work, we show, using careful laser Doppler anemometry exper...
Tian, P.; Xu, X.; Pan, C.; Hsu, K. L.; Yang, T.
2016-12-01
Few attempts have been made to investigate the quantitative effects of rainfall on overland flow driven erosion processes and flow hydrodynamics on steep hillslopes under field conditions. Field experiments were performed in flows for six inflow rates (q: 6-36 Lmin-1m-1) with and without rainfall (60 mm h-1) on a steep slope (26°) to investigate: (1) the quantitative effects of rainfall on runoff and sediment yield processes, and flow hydrodynamics; (2) the effect of interaction between rainfall and overland flow on soil loss. Results showed that the rainfall increased runoff coefficients and the fluctuation of temporal variations in runoff. The rainfall significantly increased soil loss (10.6-68.0%), but this increment declined as q increased. When the interrill erosion dominated (q=6 Lmin-1m-1), the increment in the rill erosion was 1.5 times that in the interrill erosion, and the effect of the interaction on soil loss was negative. When the rill erosion dominated (q=6-36 Lmin-1m-1), the increment in the interrill erosion was 1.7-8.8 times that in the rill erosion, and the effect of the interaction on soil loss became positive. The rainfall was conducive to the development of rills especially for low inflow rates. The rainfall always decreased interrill flow velocity, decreased rill flow velocity (q=6-24 Lmin-1m-1), and enhanced the spatial uniformity of the velocity distribution. Under rainfall disturbance, flow depth, Reynolds number (Re) and resistance were increased but Froude number was reduced, and lower Re was needed to transform a laminar flow to turbulent flow. The rainfall significantly increased flow shear stress (τ) and stream power (φ), with the most sensitive parameters to sediment yield being τ (R2=0.994) and φ (R2=0.993), respectively, for non-rainfall and rainfall conditions. Compared to non-rainfall conditions, there was a reduction in the critical hydrodynamic parameters of mean flow velocity, τ, and φ by the rainfall. These findings
Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo
2014-01-01
We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n plu , which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v gas is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n plu ∝ log(v gas ). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity
Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yin, L., E-mail: lyin@lanl.gov; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2014-09-15
In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a kλ{sub D} range of 0.15 < kλ{sub D} < 0.5, where stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is active (k is the initial electron plasma wave number and λ{sub D} is the Debye length). Using particle-in-cell simulations, the SRS reflectivity is found to scale as ∼ (kλ{sub D}){sup −4} for kλ{sub D} ≳ 0.3 where electron trapping effects dominate SRS saturation; the reflectivity scaling deviates from the above for kλ{sub D} < 0.3 when Langmuir decay instability (LDI) is present. The SRS risk is shown to be highest for kλ{sub D} between 0.2 and 0.3. SRS re-scattering processes are found to be unimportant under conditions relevant to ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Large-scale simulations of the hohlraum plasma show that the SRS wavelength spectrum peaks below 600 nm, consistent with most measured NIF spectra, and that nonlinear trapping in the presence of plasma gradients determines the SRS spectral peak. Collisional effects on SRS, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), LDI, and re-scatter, together with three dimensional effects, are examined. Effects of collisions are found to include de-trapping as well as cross-speckle electron temperature variation from collisional heating, the latter of which reduces gain, introduces a positive frequency shift that counters the trapping-induced negative frequency shift, and affects SRS and SBS saturation. Bowing and breakup of ion-acoustic wavefronts saturate SBS and cause a dramatic, sharp decrease in SBS reflectivity. Mitigation of SRS and SBS in the strongly nonlinear trapping regime is discussed.
Experimental study of particle-driven secondary flow in turbulent pipe flows
Belt, R.J.; Daalmans, A.C.L.M.; Portela, L.M.
2012-01-01
In fully developed single-phase turbulent flow in straight pipes, it is known that mean motions can occur in the plane of the pipe cross-section, when the cross-section is non-circular, or when the wall roughness is non-uniform around the circumference of a circular pipe. This phenomenon is known as
Idealized debris flow in flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt
Ling, Chi-Hai; Chen, Cheng-lung
1989-01-01
The generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model is used to derive the theoretical expressions of two-dimensional velocities and surface profile for debris flow established in a flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt. The rheological parameters of the GVF model are evaluated through the comparison of theoretical results with measured data. A slip velocity of the established (steady) nonuniform flow on the moving bed (i.e., the conveyor belt) is observed, and a relation between the slip velocity and the velocity gradient at the bed is derived. Two belts, one rough and the other smooth, were tested. The flow profile in the flume is found to be linear and dependent on the roughness of the belt, but not much on its speed.
Gravity-driven granular flow in a silo: Characterizing local forces and rearrangements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thackray Emma
2017-01-01
Full Text Available While the gravity-driven flow of a granular material in a silo geometry can be modeled by the Beverloo equation, the mesoscale-level particle rearrangements and interactions that drive this flow are not wellunderstood. We have constructed a quasi-two-dimensional system of bidisperse, millimeter-scale disks with photoelastic properties that make force networks within the material visible. The system is contained in an acrylic box with an adjustable bottom opening. We can approach the clogging transition by adjusting this opening. By placing the system between cross-polarizers, we can obtain high-speed video of this system during flow, and extract intensity signals that can be used to identify and quantify localized, otherwise indeterminate forces. We can simultaneously track individual particle motions, which can be used to identify shear transformation zones in the system. In this paper, we present our results thus far.
Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon
2012-01-01
Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow...... with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different...
assessment of traffic flow on enugu highways using speed density
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
Corresponding author, tel: +234 – 806 – 435 – 0200 ... construction, maintenance and optimization of the highways using the ...... Research Part A: Policy and Practice 29(4), 273-281. 1995. ... relationships: Quality and Theory of Traffic Flow.
Studying and modelling variable density turbulent flows for industrial applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chabard, J.P.; Simonin, O.; Caruso, A.; Delalondre, C.; Dalsecco, S.; Mechitoua, N.
1996-07-01
Industrial applications are presented in the various fields of interest for EDF. A first example deals with transferred electric arcs couplings flow and thermal transfer in the arc and in the bath of metal and is related with applications of electricity. The second one is the combustion modelling in burners of fossil power plants. The last one comes from the nuclear power plants and concerns the stratified flows in a nuclear reactor building. (K.A.). 18 refs.
Studying and modelling variable density turbulent flows for industrial applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chabard, J.P.; Simonin, O.; Caruso, A.; Delalondre, C.; Dalsecco, S.; Mechitoua, N.
1996-07-01
Industrial applications are presented in the various fields of interest for EDF. A first example deals with transferred electric arcs couplings flow and thermal transfer in the arc and in the bath of metal and is related with applications of electricity. The second one is the combustion modelling in burners of fossil power plants. The last one comes from the nuclear power plants and concerns the stratified flows in a nuclear reactor building. (K.A.)
Big Data-Driven Based Real-Time Traffic Flow State Identification and Prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua-pu Lu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban informatization, the era of big data is coming. To satisfy the demand of traffic congestion early warning, this paper studies the method of real-time traffic flow state identification and prediction based on big data-driven theory. Traffic big data holds several characteristics, such as temporal correlation, spatial correlation, historical correlation, and multistate. Traffic flow state quantification, the basis of traffic flow state identification, is achieved by a SAGA-FCM (simulated annealing genetic algorithm based fuzzy c-means based traffic clustering model. Considering simple calculation and predictive accuracy, a bilevel optimization model for regional traffic flow correlation analysis is established to predict traffic flow parameters based on temporal-spatial-historical correlation. A two-stage model for correction coefficients optimization is put forward to simplify the bilevel optimization model. The first stage model is built to calculate the number of temporal-spatial-historical correlation variables. The second stage model is present to calculate basic model formulation of regional traffic flow correlation. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling and computing methods.
Modeling of strongly heat-driven flow in partially saturated fractured porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.W.; Wang, J.S.Y.
1985-01-01
The authors have performed modeling studies on the simultaneous transport of heat, liquid water, vapor, and air in partially saturated fractured porous media, with particular emphasis on strongly heat-driven flow. The presence of fractures makes the transport problem very complex, both in terms of flow geometry and physics. The numerical simulator used for their flow calculations takes into account most of the physical effects which are important in multi-phase fluid and heat flow. It has provisions to handle the extreme non-linearities which arise in phase transitions, component disappearances, and capillary discontinuities at fracture faces. They model a region around an infinite linear string of nuclear waste canisters, taking into account both the discrete fractures and the porous matrix. From an analysis of the results obtained with explicit fractures, they develop equivalent continuum models which can reproduce the temperature, saturation, and pressure variation, and gas and liquid flow rates of the discrete fracture-porous matrix calculations. The equivalent continuum approach makes use of a generalized relative permeability concept to take into account the fracture effects. This results in a substantial simplification of the flow problem which makes larger scale modeling of complicated unsaturated fractured porous systems feasible. Potential applications for regional scale simulations and limitations of the continuum approach are discussed. 27 references, 13 figures, 2 tables
Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Yapici
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.
Modeling of strongly heat-driven flow in partially saturated fractured porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.W.; Wang, J.S.Y.
1984-10-01
We have performed modeling studies on the simultaneous transport of heat, liquid water, vapor, and air in partially saturated fractured porous media, with particular emphasis on strongly heat-driven flow. The presence of fractures makes the transport problem very complex, both in terms of flow geometry and physics. The numerical simulator used for our flow calculations takes into account most of the physical effects which are important in multi-phase fluid and heat flow. It has provisions to handle the extreme non-linearities which arise in phase transitions, component disappearances, and capillary discontinuities at fracture faces. We model a region around an infinite linear string of nuclear waste canisters, taking into account both the discrete fractures and the porous matrix. From an analysis of the results obtained with explicit fractures, we develop equivalent continuum models which can reproduce the temperature, saturation, and pressure variation, and gas and liquid flow rates of the discrete fracture-porous matrix calculations. The equivalent continuum approach makes use of a generalized relative permeability concept to take into account for fracture effects. This results in a substantial simplification of the flow problem which makes larger scale modeling of complicated unsaturated fractured porous systems feasible. Potential applications for regional scale simulations and limitations of the continuum approach are discussed. 27 references, 13 figures, 2 tables
Structure analysis of bubble driven flow by time-resolved PIV and POD techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyun Dong; Yi, Seung Jae; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Kyung Chun
2010-01-01
In this paper, the recirculation flow motion and turbulence characteristics of liquid flow driven by air bubble stream in a rectangular water tank are studied. The time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is adopted for the quantitative visualization and analysis. 532nm Diode CW laser is used for illumination and orange fluorescent (λex = 540nm, λem = 584nm) particle images are acquired by a 1280X1024 high-speed camera. To obtain clean particle images, 545nm long pass optical filter and an image intensifier are employed and the flow rate of compressed air is 3/min at 0.5MPa. The recirculation and mixing flow field is further investigated by timeresolved Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis technique. It is observed that the large scale recirculation resulting from the interaction between rising bubble stream and side wall is the most dominant flow structure and there are small scale vortical structures moving along with the large scale recirculation flow. It is also verified that the sum of 20 modes of velocity field has about 67.4% of total turbulent energy
ADX: A high Power Density, Advanced RF-Driven Divertor Test Tokamak for PMI studies
Whyte, Dennis; ADX Team
2015-11-01
The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment, ADX; a divertor test tokamak dedicated to address critical gaps in plasma-material interactions (PMI) science, and the world fusion research program, on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. Basic ADX design features are motivated and discussed. In order to assess the widest range of advanced divertor concepts, a large fraction (>50%) of the toroidal field volume is purpose-built with innovative magnetic topology control and flexibility for assessing different surfaces, including liquids. ADX features high B-field (>6 Tesla) and high global power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) in order to access the full range of parallel heat flux and divertor plasma pressures foreseen for reactors, while simultaneously assessing the effect of highly dissipative divertors on core plasma/pedestal. Various options for efficiently achieving high field are being assessed including the use of Alcator technology (cryogenic cooled copper) and high-temperature superconductors. The experimental platform would also explore advanced lower hybrid current drive and ion-cyclotron range of frequency actuators located at the high-field side; a location which is predicted to greatly reduce the PMI effects on the launcher while minimally perturbing the core plasma. The synergistic effects of high-field launchers with high total B on current and flow drive can thus be studied in reactor-relevant boundary plasmas.
Pressure-driven occlusive flow of a confined red blood cell.
Savin, Thierry; Bandi, M M; Mahadevan, L
2016-01-14
When red blood cells (RBCs) move through narrow capillaries in the microcirculation, they deform as they flow. In pathophysiological processes such as sickle cell disease and malaria, RBC motion and flow are severely restricted. To understand this threshold of occlusion, we use a combination of experiment and theory to study the motion of a single swollen RBC through a narrow glass capillary of varying inner diameter. By tracking the movement of the squeezed cell as it is driven by a controlled pressure drop, we measure the RBC velocity as a function of the pressure gradient as well as the local capillary diameter, and find that the effective blood viscosity in this regime increases with both decreasing RBC velocity and tube radius by following a power-law that depends upon the length of the confined cell. Our observations are consistent with a simple elasto-hydrodynamic model and highlight the role of lateral confinement in the occluded pressure-driven slow flow of soft confined objects.
Air-Flow-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Self-Powered Real-Time Respiratory Monitoring.
Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jiahao; Tang, Yingjie; Li, Jun; Zhang, Baosen; Liang, Erjun; Mao, Yanchao; Wang, Xudong
2018-06-04
Respiration is one of the most important vital signs of humans, and respiratory monitoring plays an important role in physical health management. A low-cost and convenient real-time respiratory monitoring system is extremely desirable. In this work, we demonstrated an air-flow-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for self-powered real-time respiratory monitoring by converting mechanical energy of human respiration into electric output signals. The operation of the TENG was based on the air-flow-driven vibration of a flexible nanostructured polytetrafluoroethylene (n-PTFE) thin film in an acrylic tube. This TENG can generate distinct real-time electric signals when exposed to the air flow from different breath behaviors. It was also found that the accumulative charge transferred in breath sensing corresponds well to the total volume of air exchanged during the respiration process. Based on this TENG device, an intelligent wireless respiratory monitoring and alert system was further developed, which used the TENG signal to directly trigger a wireless alarm or dial a cell phone to provide timely alerts in response to breath behavior changes. This research offers a promising solution for developing self-powered real-time respiratory monitoring devices.
An accessible micro-capillary electrophoresis device using surface-tension-driven flow
Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Warrick, Jay; Gorski, Jack; Beebe, David J.
2010-01-01
We present a rapidly fabricated micro-capillary electrophoresis chip that utilizes surface-tension-driven flow for sample injection and extraction of DNA. Surface-tension-driven flow (i.e. passive pumping) injects a fixed volume of sample that can be predicted mathematically. Passive pumping eliminates the need for tubing, valves, syringe pumps, and other equipment typically needed for interfacing with microelectrophoresis chips. This method requires a standard micropipette to load samples before separation, and remove the resulting bands after analysis. The device was made using liquid phase photopolymerization to rapidly fabricate the chip without the need of special equipment typically associated with the construction of microelectrophoresis chips (e.g. cleanroom). Batch fabrication time for the device presented here was 1.5 h including channel coating time to suppress electroosmotic flow. Devices were constructed out of poly-isobornyl acrylate and glass. A standard microscope with a UV source was used for sample detection. Separations were demonstrated using Promega BenchTop 100 bp ladder in hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and oligonucleotides of 91 and 118 bp were used to characterize sample injection and extraction of DNA bands. The end result was an inexpensive micro-capillary electrophoresis device that uses tools (e.g. micropipette, electrophoretic power supplies, and microscopes) already present in most labs for sample manipulation and detection, making it more accessible for potential end users. PMID:19425002
Time-dependent particle migration and margination in the pressure-driven channel flow of blood
Qi, Qin M.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.
2018-03-01
We present a theory to describe the time evolution of the red blood cell (RBC) and platelet concentration distributions in pressure-driven flow through a straight channel. This model is based on our previous theory for the steady-state distributions [Qi and Shaqfeh, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093102 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093102] and captures the flow-induced nonuniformity of the concentrations of RBCs and platelets in the cross-flow direction. Starting with a uniform concentration, RBCs migrate away from the channel walls due to a shear-induced lift force and eventually reach steady state due to shear-induced diffusion, i.e., hydrodynamic "collisions" with other RBCs. On the other hand, platelets exit the cell-laden region due to RBC-platelet interactions and enter the cell-free layer, resulting in margination. To validate the theory, we also perform boundary integral simulations of blood flow in microchannels and directly compare various measureables between theory and simulation. The timescales associated with RBC migration and platelet margination are discussed in the context of the simulation and theory, and their importance in the function of microfluidic devices as well as the vascular network are elucidated. Due to the varying shear rate in pressure-driven flow and the wall-induced RBC lift, we report a separation of timescales for the transport in the near-wall region and in the bulk region. We also relate the transient problem to the axial variation of migration and margination, and we demonstrate how the relevant timescales can be used to predict corresponding entrance lengths. Our theory can serve as a fast and convenient alternative to large-scale simulations of these phenomena.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yashiki, Taturou; Yagawa, Genki; Okuda, Hiroshi
1995-01-01
The adaptive finite element method based on an 'a posteriori error estimation' is known to be a powerful technique for analyzing the engineering practical problems, since it excludes the instinctive aspect of the mesh subdivision and gives high accuracy with relatively low computational cost. In the adaptive procedure, both the error estimation and the mesh generation according to the error estimator are essential. In this paper, the adaptive procedure is realized by the automatic mesh generation based on the control of node density distribution, which is decided according to the error estimator. The global percentage error, CPU time, the degrees of freedom and the accuracy of the solution of the adaptive procedure are compared with those of the conventional method using regular meshes. Such numerical examples as the driven cavity flows of various Reynolds numbers and the flows around a cylinder have shown the very high performance of the proposed adaptive procedure. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Shigemori, Keisuke; Sunahara, Atsushi; Nakai, Mitsuo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko
2003-01-01
The temporal evolution of the density profile of a directly laser-driven polystyrene target was observed for the first time using an x-ray penumbral imaging technique coupled with side-on x-ray backlighting at the GEKKO XII [C. Yamanaka et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1639 (1981)]-High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research laser facility (I L =0.7x10 14 W/cm 2 , λ L =0.35 μm). This density measurement makes it possible to experimentally confirm all physical parameters [γ(k),k,g,m,ρ a ,L m ] appearing in the modified Takabe formula for the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The measured density profiles were well reproduced by a one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code. The density measurement contributes toward fully understanding the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Models for turbulent flows with variable density and combustion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, W.P.
1980-01-01
Models for transport processes and combustion in turbulent flows are outlined with emphasis on the situation where the fuel and air are injected separately. Attention is restricted to relatively simple flames. The flows investigated are high Reynolds number, single-phase, turbulent high-temperature flames in which radiative heat transfer can be considered negligible. Attention is given to the lower order closure models, algebraic stress and flux models, the k-epsilon turbulence model, the diffusion flame approximation, and finite rate reaction mechanisms
Flow near the meniscus of a pressure-driven water slug in microchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sung Wook; Jin, Song Wan; Yoo, Jung Yul
2006-01-01
Micro-PIV system with a high speed CCD camera is used to measure the flow field near the advancing meniscus of a water slug in microchannels. Image shifting technique combined with meniscus detecting technique is proposed to measure the relative velocity of the liquid near the meniscus in a moving reference frame. The proposed method is applied to an advancing front of a slug in microchannels with rectangular cross section. In the case of hydrophilic channel, strong flow from the center to the side wall along the meniscus occurs, while in the case of the hydrophobic channel, the fluid flows in the opposite direction. Further, the velocity near the side wall is higher than the center region velocity, exhibiting the characteristics of a strong shear-driven flow. This phenomenon is explained to be due to the existence of small gaps between the slug and the channel wall at each capillary corner so that the gas flows through the gaps inducing high shear on the slug surface. Simulation of the shape of a static droplet inside a cubic cell obtained by using the Surface Evolver program is supportive of the existence of the gap at the rectangular capillary corners. The flow fields in the circular capillary, in which no such gap exists, are also measured. The results show that a similar flow pattern to that of the hydrophilic rectangular capillary (i.e., center-to-wall flow) is always exhibited regardless of the wettability of the channel wall, which is also indicative of the validity of the above-mentioned assertion
A new lattice Boltzmann equation to simulate density-driven convection of carbon dioxide
Allen, Rebecca; Reis, Tim; Sun, Shuyu
2013-01-01
-driven convection becomes an important transport process to model. However, the challenge lies in simulating this transport process accurately with high spatial resolution and low CPU cost. This issue can be addressed by using the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE
Numerical study of the effect of Navier slip on the driven cavity flow
He, Qiaolin
2009-10-01
We study the driven cavity flow using the Navier slip boundary condition. Our results have shown that the Navier slip boundary condition removes the corner singularity induced by the no-slip boundary condition. In the low Reynolds number case, the behavior of the tangential stress is examined and the results are compared with the analytic results obtained in [14]. For the high Reynolds number, we study the effect of the slip on the critical Reynolds number for Hopf bifurcation. Our results show that the first Hopf bifurcation critical Reynolds number is increasing with slip length. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Time-Dependent Thermally-Driven Interfacial Flows in Multilayered Fluid Structures
Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Borhan, A.
1996-01-01
A computational study of thermally-driven convection in multilayered fluid structures will be performed to examine the effect of interactions among deformable fluid-fluid interfaces on the structure of time-dependent flow in these systems. Multilayered fluid structures in two models configurations will be considered: the differentially heated rectangular cavity with a free surface, and the encapsulated cylindrical liquid bridge. An extension of a numerical method developed as part of our recent NASA Fluid Physics grant will be used to account for finite deformations of fluid-fluid interfaces.
Release of radon contaminants from Yucca Mountain: The role of buoyancy driven flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, T.M.; Pescatore, C.
1994-02-01
The potential for the repository heat source to promote buoyancy driven flow and thereby cause release of radon gas out of Yucca Mountain has been examined through a critical review of the theoretical and experimental studies of this process. The review indicates that steady-state buoyancy enhanced release of natural radon and other contaminant gases should not be a major concern at Yucca Mountain. Barometric pumping and wind pumping are identified as two processes that will have a potentially greater effect on surface releases of gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ-Koch, Sina
2007-01-01
This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields (∝ 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H - )=1.10 17 1/m 3 , which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)
Comparison of strongly heat-driven flow codes for unsaturated media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Updegraff, C.D.
1989-08-01
Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in unsaturated welded tuff. As part of this effort, SNL evaluated existing strongly heat-driven flow computer codes for simulating ground-water flow in unsaturated media. The three codes tested, NORIA, PETROS, and TOUGH, were compared against a suite of problems for which analytical and numerical solutions or experimental results exist. The problems were selected to test the abilities of the codes to simulate situations ranging from simple, uncoupled processes, such as two-phase flow or heat transfer, to fully coupled processes, such as vaporization caused by high temperatures. In general, all three codes were found to be difficult to use because of (1) built-in time stepping criteria, (2) the treatment of boundary conditions, and (3) handling of evaporation/condensation problems. A drawback of the study was that adequate problems related to expected repository conditions were not available in the literature. Nevertheless, the results of this study suggest the need for thorough investigations of the impact of heat on the flow field in the vicinity of an unsaturated HLW repository. Recommendations are to develop a new flow code combining the best features of these three codes and eliminating the worst ones. 19 refs., 49 figs
Study of electroosmosis-driven two-liquid displacement flow in a microcapillary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gan, H Y; Yang, C; Wan, S Y M; Lim, G C; Lam, Y C
2006-01-01
Multi-liquid flow, such as one liquid displacing another liquid, is frequently encountered in practice. This can be achieved by electroosmotic (EO) pumping, which has its own unique characteristics and advantages. This investigation is on EO-driven, two-liquid displacement flow in a microcapillary. A theoretical model was developed to take into consideration the axial step change of velocity flow fields at the time-dependent liquid/liquid interface, continuity requirement, and induced local pressure gradients. The electrical current monitoring method was employed to measure the flowrate and subsequently determine the capillary zeta potentials which are required for the model prediction. The nonlinear change of the electrical current with time under a constant applied voltage was observed during the displacement process. The theoretical and experimental results validated the hypothesis that the non-uniform zeta potential and electric field induce local pressure gradients in the two different liquids. Our experimental results indicated that the time of displacement, and thus the flow velocity, is found to be dependent on the displacing flow direction, which has hitherto not been reported in the literature. The underlying mechanisms were postulated, but demand further investigation
A Classification of Clay-Rich Subaqueous Density Flow Structures
Hermidas, N.; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Jacinto, Ricardo Silva; Luthi, S.M.; Toth, Ferenc; Pohl, Florian
2018-01-01
This study presents a classification for subaqueous clay-laden sediment gravity flows. A series of laboratory flume experiments were performed using 9%, 15%, and 21% sediment mixture concentrations composed of sand, silt, clay, and tap water, on varying bed slopes of 6°, 8°, and 9.5°, and with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puragliesi, R.; Dehbi, A.; Leriche, E.; Soldati, A.; Deville, M.O.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → 2D study of micro-size particle depletion driven by chaotic natural convective flows in square domains. → Description of velocity and temperature first and second moments with changing in the Rayleigh number. → Strong decoupling between the turbulent kinetic energy and the dissipation rate. → Particle recirculation sustained by the vertical hot boundary layer. → Deposition mostly induced by gravity, thermophoretic and lift forces are negligible. - Abstract: In this work we investigate numerically particle deposition in the buoyancy driven flow of the differentially heated cavity (DHC). We consider two values of the Rayleigh number (Ra = 10 9 , 10 10 ) and three values of the particle diameter (d p = 15, 25, 35 [μm]). We consider the cavity filled with air and particles with the same density of water ρ w = 1000 [kg/m 3 ] (aerosol). We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) for the continuous phase, and we solve transient Navier-Stokes and energy transport equations written in an Eulerian framework, under the Boussinesq approximation, for the viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant Prandtl number (Pr = 0.71). First- and second-order statistics are presented for the continuous phase as well as important quantities like turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and temperature variance with the associated production and dissipation fields. The TKE production shows different behaviour at the two Rayleigh numbers. The Lagrangian approach has been chosen for the dispersed phase description. The forces taken into account are drag, gravity, buoyancy, lift and thermophoresis. A first incursion in the sedimentation mechanisms is presented. Current results indicate that the largest contribution to particle deposition is caused by gravitational settling, but a strong recirculating zone, which liftoffs and segregates particles, contributes to decrease settling. Deposition takes place mostly at the bottom wall. The influence of lift and thermophoretic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puragliesi, R., E-mail: riccardo.puragliesi@psi.ch [Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratoire d' Ingenierie Numerique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Dehbi, A., E-mail: abdel.dehbi@psi.ch [Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Leriche, E., E-mail: emmanuel.leriche@univ-st-etienne.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, LMFA-UJM St-Etienne, CNRS UMR 5509 Universite de St-Etienne, 23 rue Docteur Paul Michelon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Soldati, A., E-mail: soldati@uniud.it [Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Universita di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, IT-33100 Udine (Italy); Deville, M.O., E-mail: michel.deville@epfl.ch [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie Numerique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2011-10-15
Highlights: > 2D study of micro-size particle depletion driven by chaotic natural convective flows in square domains. > Description of velocity and temperature first and second moments with changing in the Rayleigh number. > Strong decoupling between the turbulent kinetic energy and the dissipation rate. > Particle recirculation sustained by the vertical hot boundary layer. > Deposition mostly induced by gravity, thermophoretic and lift forces are negligible. - Abstract: In this work we investigate numerically particle deposition in the buoyancy driven flow of the differentially heated cavity (DHC). We consider two values of the Rayleigh number (Ra = 10{sup 9}, 10{sup 10}) and three values of the particle diameter (d{sub p} = 15, 25, 35 [{mu}m]). We consider the cavity filled with air and particles with the same density of water {rho}{sub w} = 1000 [kg/m{sup 3}] (aerosol). We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) for the continuous phase, and we solve transient Navier-Stokes and energy transport equations written in an Eulerian framework, under the Boussinesq approximation, for the viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant Prandtl number (Pr = 0.71). First- and second-order statistics are presented for the continuous phase as well as important quantities like turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and temperature variance with the associated production and dissipation fields. The TKE production shows different behaviour at the two Rayleigh numbers. The Lagrangian approach has been chosen for the dispersed phase description. The forces taken into account are drag, gravity, buoyancy, lift and thermophoresis. A first incursion in the sedimentation mechanisms is presented. Current results indicate that the largest contribution to particle deposition is caused by gravitational settling, but a strong recirculating zone, which liftoffs and segregates particles, contributes to decrease settling. Deposition takes place mostly at the bottom wall. The influence of lift
An evaluation of a hubless inducer and a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump
Lindley, B. K.; Martinson, A. R.
1971-01-01
The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of several configurations of hubless inducers with a hydrodynamically similar conventional inducer and to demonstrate the performance of a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump using these inducers. A boost pump of this type consists of an inducer connected to a hydraulic turbine with a high speed rotor located in between. All the flow passes through the inducer, rotor, and hydraulic turbine, then into the main pump. The rotor, which is attached to the main pump shaft, provides the input power to drive the hydraulic turbine which, in turn, drives the inducer. The inducer, rotating at a lower speed, develops the necessary head to prevent rotor cavitation. The rotor speed is consistent with present main engine liquid hydrogen pump designs and the overall boost pump head rise is sufficient to provide adequate main pump suction head. This system would have the potential for operating at lower liquid hydrogen tank pressures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Cheng Gong [National Engineering Laboratory for MTO, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Maa, Jerome P-Y, E-mail: chenggongli@dicp.ac.cn [Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)
2017-04-15
Numerical study on three-dimensional (3D), incompressible, four-sided lid (FSL) driven cavity flows has been conducted to show the effects of the transverse aspect ratio, K , on the flow field by using a multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann equation. The top wall is driven from left to right, the left wall is moved downward, whereas the right wall is driven upward, and the bottom wall is moved from right to left, all the four moving walls have the same speed and the others boundaries are fixed. Numerical computations are performed for several Reynolds numbers for laminar flows, up to 1000, with various transverse aspect ratios. The flow can reach a steady state and the flow pattern is symmetric with respect to the two cavity diagonals (i.e., the center of the cavity). At Reynolds number = 300, the flow structures of the 3D FSL cavity flow at steady state with various transverse aspect ratio, i.e., 3, 2, 1, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 only show the unstable symmetrical flow pattern. The stable asymmetrical flow pattern could be reproduced only by increasing the Reynolds number that is above a critical value which is dependent on the aspect ratio. It is found that an aspect ratio of more than 5 is needed to reproduce flow patterns, both symmetric and asymmetric flows, simulated by using 2D numerical models. (paper)
Electric field measurements in a kHz-driven He jet - The influence of the gas flow speed
Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Sretenović, G.B.; Krstić, I.B.; Kovačević, V.V.; Obrusník, A.; Nguyen, Y.N.; Zajíčková, L.; Obradović, B.M.; Kuraica, M.M.
2016-01-01
This report focuses on the dependence of electric field strength in the effluent of a vertically downwards-operated plasma jet freely expanding into room air as a function of the gas flow speed. A 30 kHz AC-driven He jet was used in a coaxial geometry, with an amplitude of 2 kV and gas flow between
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF FLOW BEHAVIOR IN DRIVEN CAVITY AT HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fudhail Bin Abdul Munir
2012-02-01
Full Text Available In recent years, due to rapidly increasing computational power, computational methods have become the essential tools to conduct researches in various engineering fields. In parallel to the development of ultra high speed digital computers, computational fluid dynamics (CFD has become the new third approach apart from theory and experiment in the philosophical study and development of fluid dynamics. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is an alternative method to conventional CFD. LBM is relatively new approach that uses simple microscopic models to simulate complicated microscopic behavior of transport phenomena. In this paper, fluid flow behaviors of steady incompressible flow inside lid driven square cavity are studied. Numerical calculations are conducted for different Reynolds numbers by using Lattice Boltzmann scheme. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate the capability of this lattice Boltzmann scheme for engineering applications particularly in fluid transport phenomena. Keywords-component; lattice Boltzmann method, lid driven cavity, computational fluid dynamics.
High-energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane.
Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing
2015-11-01
Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage.
High–energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane
Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing
2015-01-01
Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage. PMID:26702440
TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.
Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei
2014-12-03
A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
CFD-Driven Valve Shape Optimization for Performance Improvement of a Micro Cross-Flow Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Endashaw Tesfaye Woldemariam
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Turbines are critical parts in hydropower facilities, and the cross-flow turbine is one of the widely applied turbine designs in small- and micro-hydro facilities. Cross-flow turbines are relatively simple, flexible and less expensive, compared to other conventional hydro-turbines. However, the power generation efficiency of cross-flow turbines is not yet well optimized compared to conventional hydro-turbines. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-driven design optimization approach is applied to one of the critical parts of the turbine, the valve. The valve controls the fluid flow, as well as determines the velocity and pressure magnitudes of the fluid jet leaving the nozzle region in the turbine. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS function is employed to generate construction points for the valve profile curve. Control points from the function that are highly sensitive to the output power are selected as optimization parameters, leading to the generation of construction points. Metamodel-assisted and metaheuristic optimization tools are used in the optimization. Optimized turbine designs from both optimization methods outperformed the original design with regard to performance of the turbine. Moreover, the metamodel-assisted optimization approach reduced the computational cost, compared to its counterpart.
Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil
2013-01-01
This paper presents an analytical study of the cross-stream diffusion of an analyte in a rectangular microchannel under combined electroosmotic flow (EOF) and pressure driven flow to investigate the heterogeneous transport behavior and spatially-dependent diffusion scaling law. An analytical model capable of accurately describing 3D steady-state convection-diffusion in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios is developed based on the assumption of the thin Electric Double Layer (EDL). The model is verified against high-fidelity numerical simulation in terms of flow velocity and analyte concentration profiles with excellent agreement (parametric analysis is then undertaken to interrogate the effect of the combined flow velocity field on the transport behavior in both the positive pressure gradient (PPG) and negative pressure gradient (NPG) cases. For the first time, the evolution from the spindle-shaped concentration profile in the PPG case, via the stripe-shaped profile (pure EOF), and finally to the butterfly-shaped profile in the PPG case is obtained using the analytical model along with a quantitative depiction of the spatially-dependent diffusion layer thickness and scaling law across a wide range of the parameter space.
Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loisel, V.; Abbas, M., E-mail: micheline.abbas@ensiacet.fr; Masbernat, O. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Laboratoire de Génie Chimique and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France); Climent, E. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France)
2015-12-15
Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section.
Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loisel, V.; Abbas, M.; Masbernat, O.; Climent, E.
2015-01-01
Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section
Ge, Yongchao; Sealfon, Stuart C
2012-08-01
For flow cytometry data, there are two common approaches to the unsupervised clustering problem: one is based on the finite mixture model and the other on spatial exploration of the histograms. The former is computationally slow and has difficulty to identify clusters of irregular shapes. The latter approach cannot be applied directly to high-dimensional data as the computational time and memory become unmanageable and the estimated histogram is unreliable. An algorithm without these two problems would be very useful. In this article, we combine ideas from the finite mixture model and histogram spatial exploration. This new algorithm, which we call flowPeaks, can be applied directly to high-dimensional data and identify irregular shape clusters. The algorithm first uses K-means algorithm with a large K to partition the cell population into many small clusters. These partitioned data allow the generation of a smoothed density function using the finite mixture model. All local peaks are exhaustively searched by exploring the density function and the cells are clustered by the associated local peak. The algorithm flowPeaks is automatic, fast and reliable and robust to cluster shape and outliers. This algorithm has been applied to flow cytometry data and it has been compared with state of the art algorithms, including Misty Mountain, FLOCK, flowMeans, flowMerge and FLAME. The R package flowPeaks is available at https://github.com/yongchao/flowPeaks. yongchao.ge@mssm.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
UF6 Density and Mass Flow Measurements for Enrichment Plants using Acoustic Techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Good, Morris S.; Smith, Leon E.; Warren, Glen A.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Moran, Traci L.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Longoni, Gianluca
2017-09-01
A key enabling capability for enrichment plant safeguards being considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is high-accuracy, noninvasive, unattended measurement of UF6 gas density and mass flow rate. Acoustic techniques are currently used to noninvasively monitor gas flow in industrial applications; however, the operating pressures at gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are roughly two orders magnitude below the capabilities of commercial instrumentation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is refining acoustic techniques for estimating density and mass flow rate of UF6 gas in scenarios typical of GCEPs, with the goal of achieving 1% measurement accuracy. Proof-of-concept laboratory measurements using a surrogate gas for UF6 have demonstrated signatures sensitive to gas density at low operating pressures such as 10–50 Torr, which were observed over the background acoustic interference. Current efforts involve developing a test bed for conducting acoustic measurements on flowing SF6 gas at representative flow rates and pressures to ascertain the viability of conducting gas flow measurements under these conditions. Density and flow measurements will be conducted to support the evaluation. If successful, the approach could enable an unattended, noninvasive approach to measure mass flow in unit header pipes of GCEPs.
Exploring the Relationship of Exit Flow and Jam Density in Panic Scenarios Using Animal Dynamics
Sobhani, A.; Sarvi, M.; Duives, D.C.; Ejtemai, O.; Aghabayk, K.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2014-01-01
There are few studies investigating crowd dynamics in panic situations. They used measures such as exit flow rate to explore the exit performance in evacuation scenarios. However, there is limited research exploring the relationship of exit flow rate and density behind the exit for panic scenarios.
Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa Pollination and Potential for Gene Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johanne Brunet
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In outcrossing crops like alfalfa, various bee species can contribute to pollination and gene flow in seed production fields. With the increasing use of transgenic crops, it becomes important to determine the role of these distinct pollinators on alfalfa pollination and gene flow. The current study examines the relative contribution of honeybees, three bumble bee species, and three solitary bee species to pollination and gene flow in alfalfa. Two wild solitary bee species and one wild bumble bee species were best at tripping flowers, while the two managed pollinators commonly used in alfalfa seed production, honeybees and leaf cutting bees, had the lowest tripping rate. Honeybees had the greatest potential for gene flow and risk of transgene escape relative to the other pollinators. For honeybees, gene flow and risk of transgene escape were not affected by plant density although for the three bumble bee species gene flow and risk of transgene escape were the greatest in high-density fields.
A measurement of the turbulence-driven density distribution in a non-star-forming molecular cloud
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ginsburg, Adam; Darling, Jeremy [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Federrath, Christoph, E-mail: Adam.G.Ginsburg@gmail.com [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia)
2013-12-10
Molecular clouds are supersonically turbulent. This turbulence governs the initial mass function and the star formation rate. In order to understand the details of star formation, it is therefore essential to understand the properties of turbulence, in particular the probability distribution of density in turbulent clouds. We present H{sub 2}CO volume density measurements of a non-star-forming cloud along the line of sight toward W49A. We use these measurements in conjunction with total mass estimates from {sup 13}CO to infer the shape of the density probability distribution function. This method is complementary to measurements of turbulence via the column density distribution and should be applicable to any molecular cloud with detected CO. We show that turbulence in this cloud is probably compressively driven, with a compressive-to-total Mach number ratio b=M{sub C}/M>0.4. We measure the standard deviation of the density distribution, constraining it to the range 1.5 < σ {sub s} < 1.9, assuming that the density is lognormally distributed. This measurement represents an essential input into star formation laws. The method of averaging over different excitation conditions to produce a model of emission from a turbulent cloud is generally applicable to optically thin line observations.
Flow and breakup in extension of low-density polyethylene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Fasano, Andrea
2018-01-01
The breakup during the extension of a low-density polyethylene Lupolen 1840D, as observed experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011), was investigated. This was observed during the extension of an circular cylinder with radius R0 = 4 mm and length L0 = 5mm....... The sample was attached to two flat end plates, separated exponentially in time to extend the samples. A numerical method based on a Lagrangian kinematics description in a continuum mechanical framework was used to calculate the extension of an initially cylindrically shaped sample with and without small...... the error bars as reported experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011). At low extensional rates, the measurements were considerably above the calculated ones. A very small relative suppression in the surface (0.1%) was required to achieve an agreement with all measurements...
Density based topology optimization of turbulent flow heat transfer systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dilgen, Sümer Bartug; Dilgen, Cetin Batur; Fuhrman, David R.
2018-01-01
The focus of this article is on topology optimization of heat sinks with turbulent forced convection. The goal is to demonstrate the extendibility, and the scalability of a previously developed fluid solver to coupled multi-physics and large 3D problems. The gradients of the objective and the con...... in the optimization process, while also demonstrating extension of the methodology to include coupling of heat transfer with turbulent flows.......The focus of this article is on topology optimization of heat sinks with turbulent forced convection. The goal is to demonstrate the extendibility, and the scalability of a previously developed fluid solver to coupled multi-physics and large 3D problems. The gradients of the objective...
Measurements of low density, high velocity flow by electron beam fluorescence technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soga, Takeo; Takanishi, Masaya; Yasuhara, Michiru
1981-01-01
A low density chamber with an electron gun system was made for the measurements of low density, high velocity (high Mach number) flow. This apparatus is a continuous running facility. The number density and the rotational temperature in the underexpanding free jet of nitrogen were measured along the axis of the jet by the electron beam fluorescence technique. The measurements were carried out from the vicinity of the exit of the jet to far downstream of the first Mach disk. Rotational nonequilibrium phenomena were observed in the hypersonic flow field as well as in the shock wave (Mach disk). (author)
Monteith, Corey E; Brunner, Matthew E; Djagaeva, Inna; Bielecki, Anthony M; Deutsch, Joshua M; Saxton, William M
2016-05-10
The transport of cytoplasmic components can be profoundly affected by hydrodynamics. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes offers a striking example. Forces on fluid from kinesin-1 are initially directed by a disordered meshwork of microtubules, generating minor slow cytoplasmic flows. Subsequently, to mix incoming nurse cell cytoplasm with ooplasm, a subcortical layer of microtubules forms parallel arrays that support long-range, fast flows. To analyze the streaming mechanism, we combined observations of microtubule and organelle motions with detailed mathematical modeling. In the fast state, microtubules tethered to the cortex form a thin subcortical layer and undergo correlated sinusoidal bending. Organelles moving in flows along the arrays show velocities that are slow near the cortex and fast on the inward side of the subcortical microtubule layer. Starting with fundamental physical principles suggested by qualitative hypotheses, and with published values for microtubule stiffness, kinesin velocity, and cytoplasmic viscosity, we developed a quantitative coupled hydrodynamic model for streaming. The fully detailed mathematical model and its simulations identify key variables that can shift the system between disordered (slow) and ordered (fast) states. Measurements of array curvature, wave period, and the effects of diminished kinesin velocity on flow rates, as well as prior observations on f-actin perturbation, support the model. This establishes a concrete mechanistic framework for the ooplasmic streaming process. The self-organizing fast phase is a result of viscous drag on kinesin-driven cargoes that mediates equal and opposite forces on cytoplasmic fluid and on microtubules whose minus ends are tethered to the cortex. Fluid moves toward plus ends and microtubules are forced backward toward their minus ends, resulting in buckling. Under certain conditions, the buckling microtubules self-organize into parallel bending arrays, guiding varying directions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shiqiang; Van Gessel, Bram; Hofmann, Sven; Van Veldhuizen, Eddie; Bruggeman, Peter; Van Gaens, Wouter; Bogaerts, Annemie
2013-01-01
In this work, a time modulated RF driven DBD-like atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar + 2%O 2 , operating at a time averaged power of 6.5 W is investigated. Spatially resolved ozone densities and gas temperatures are obtained by UV absorption and Rayleigh scattering, respectively. Significant gas heating in the core of the plasma up to 700 K is found and at the position of this increased gas temperature a depletion of the ozone density is found. The production and destruction reactions of O 3 in the jet effluent as a function of the distance from the nozzle are obtained from a zero-dimensional chemical kinetics model in plug flow mode which considers relevant air chemistry due to air entrainment in the jet fluent. A comparison of the measurements and the models show that the depletion of O 3 in the core of the plasma is mainly caused by an enhanced destruction of O 3 due to a large atomic oxygen density. (paper)
The role of density discontinuity in the inviscid instability of two-phase parallel flows
Behzad, M.; Ashgriz, N.
2014-02-01
We re-examine the inviscid instability of two-phase parallel flows with piecewise linear velocity profiles. Although such configuration has been theoretically investigated, we employ the concept of waves resonance to physically interpret the instability mechanism as well as the essential role of density discontinuity in the flow. Upon performing linear stability analysis, we demonstrate the existence of neutrally stable "density" and "density-vorticity" waves which are emerged due to the density jump in the flow, in addition to the well-known vorticity waves. Such waves are capable of resonating with each other to form unstable modes in the flow. Although unstable modes in this study are classified as the "shear instability" type, we demonstrate that they are not necessarily of the Rayleigh type. The results also show that the density can have both stabilizing and destabilizing effects on the flow stability. We verify that the difference in the resonating pair of neutral waves leads to such distinct behavior of the density variation.
Interaction of pressure and momentum driven flows with thin porous media: Experiments and modeling
Naaktgeboren, Christian
Flow interaction with thin porous media arise in a variety of natural and man-made settings. Examples include flow through thin grids in electronics cooling, and NOx emissions reduction by means of ammonia injection grids, pulsatile aquatic propulsion with complex trailing anatomy (e.g., jellyfish with tentacles) and microbursts from thunderstorm activity over dense vegetation, unsteady combustion in or near porous materials, pulsatile jet-drying of textiles, and pulsed jet agitation of clothing for trace contaminant sampling. Two types of interactions with thin porous media are considered: (i) forced convection or pressure-driven flows, where fluid advection is maintained by external forces, and (ii) inertial or momentum-driven flows, in which fluid motion is generated but not maintained by external forces. Forced convection analysis through thin permeable media using a porous continuum approach requires the knowledge of porous medium permeability and form coefficients, K and C, respectively, which are defined by the Hazen-Dupuit-Darcy (HDD) equation. Their determination, however, requires the measurement of the pressure-drop per unit of porous medium length. The pressure-drop caused by fluid entering and exiting the porous medium, however, is not related to the porous medium length. Hence, for situations in which the inlet and outlet pressure-drops are not negligible, e.g., for short porous media, the definition of Kand C via the HDD equation becomes ambiguous. This aspect is investigated analytically and numerically using the flow through a restriction in circular pipe and parallel plates channels as preliminary models. Results show that inlet and outlet pressure-drop effects become increasingly important when the inlet and outlet fluid surface fraction φ decreases and the Reynolds number Re increases for both laminar and turbulent flow regimes. A conservative estimate of the minimum porous medium length beyond which the core pressure-drop predominates over the
Flow instability in laminar jet flames driven by alternating current electric fields
Kim, Gyeong Taek
2016-10-13
The effect of electric fields on the instability of laminar nonpremixed jet flames was investigated experimentally by applying the alternating current (AC) to a jet nozzle. We aimed to elucidate the origin of the occurrence of twin-lifted jet flames in laminar jet flow configurations, which occurred when AC electric fields were applied. The results indicated that a twin-lifted jet flame originated from cold jet instability, caused by interactions between negative ions in the jet flow via electron attachment as O +e→O when AC electric fields were applied. This was confirmed by conducting systematic, parametric experiment, which included changing gaseous component in jets and applying different polarity of direct current (DC) to the nozzle. Using two deflection plates installed in parallel with the jet stream, we found that only negative DC on the nozzle could charge oxygen molecules negatively. Meanwhile, the cold jet instability occurred only for oxygen-containing jets. A shedding frequency of jet stream due to AC driven instability showed a good correlation with applied AC frequency exhibiting a frequency doubling. However, for the applied AC frequencies over 80Hz, the jet did not respond to the AC, indicating an existence of a minimum flow induction time in a dynamic response of negative ions to external AC fields. Detailed regime of the instability in terms of jet velocity, AC voltage and frequency was presented and discussed. Hypothesized mechanism to explain the instability was also proposed.
Friedrich, Sarah; Wang, Tza-Huei
Pressure-driven flow in micron-sized diameter capillaries can be used to separate DNA molecules by size in a technique called Free Solution Hydrodynamic Separation. By coupling this technique with Cylindrical Illumination Confocal Spectroscopy, we have developed a highly sensitive and quantitative platform capable of separating DNA molecules by length over a large dynamic range (25 bp to 48 kbp) in a single run using only picoliters or femtograms of a DNA sample. The optical detection volume completely spans the capillary cross section, enabling highly efficient single molecule detection for enhanced sensitivity and quantification accuracy via single molecule counting. Because each DNA molecule generates its own fluorescent burst, these burst profiles can be further analyzed to individually characterize each DNA molecule's shape as it passes through the detection region. We exploit these burst profiles to visualize fluctuations in conformation under shear flow in microcapillaries, and utilizing combined mobility shift analysis, explore the complex relationship between molecular properties including length and conformation, hydrodynamic mobility, solution conditions including ion species and concentrations, and separation conditions including flow rate and capillary diameter.
Modeling particle emission and power flow in pulsed-power driven, nonuniform transmission lines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nichelle Bruner
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems are being developed to operate at higher power in an effort to increase source brightness and penetration power. Essential to the design of these systems is a thorough understanding of electron power flow in the transmission line that couples the pulsed-power driver to the load. In this paper, analytic theory and fully relativistic particle-in-cell simulations are used to model power flow in several experimental transmission-line geometries fielded on Sandia National Laboratories’ upgraded Radiographic Integrated Test Stand [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 1653 (2000ITPSBD0093-381310.1109/27.901250]. Good agreement with measured electrical currents is demonstrated on a shot-by-shot basis for simulations which include detailed models accounting for space-charge-limited electron emission, surface heating, and stimulated particle emission. Resonant cavity modes related to the transmission-line impedance transitions are also shown to be excited by electron power flow. These modes can drive oscillations in the output power of the system, degrading radiographic resolution.
Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung
1991-01-01
The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.
Development of Bubble Driven Flow CFD Model Applied for Aluminium Smelting Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.Q. Feng
2010-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model for the study of bubble driven bath flow in aluminium reduction cells. For validation purposes, the model development was conducted using a full scale air -water model of part of an aluminium reduction cell as a test-bed. The bubble induced turbulence has been modelled by either modifying bubble induced turbulence viscosity directly or by modifying bubble induced turbulence kinetic energy in a standard k- ε turbulence model. The relative performance of the two modelling approaches has been examined through comparison with experimental data taken under similar conditions using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. Detailed comparison has been conducted by point-wise comparison of liquid velocities to quantify the level of agreement between CFD simulation and PIV measurement. Both models can capture the key flow patterns determined by PIV measurement, while the modified turbulence kinetic energy model gives better agreement with flow patterns in the gap between anode and cathode.
Ring waves as a mass transport mechanism in air-driven core-annular flows.
Camassa, Roberto; Forest, M Gregory; Lee, Long; Ogrosky, H Reed; Olander, Jeffrey
2012-12-01
Air-driven core-annular fluid flows occur in many situations, from lung airways to engineering applications. Here we study, experimentally and theoretically, flows where a viscous liquid film lining the inside of a tube is forced upwards against gravity by turbulent airflow up the center of the tube. We present results on the thickness and mean speed of the film and properties of the interfacial waves that develop from an instability of the air-liquid interface. We derive a long-wave asymptotic model and compare properties of its solutions with those of the experiments. Traveling wave solutions of this long-wave model exhibit evidence of different mass transport regimes: Past a certain threshold, sufficiently large-amplitude waves begin to trap cores of fluid which propagate upward at wave speeds. This theoretical result is then confirmed by a second set of experiments that show evidence of ring waves of annular fluid propagating over the underlying creeping flow. By tuning the parameters of the experiments, the strength of this phenomenon can be adjusted in a way that is predicted qualitatively by the model.
Seeding magnetic fields for laser-driven flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.
Gotchev, O V; Knauer, J P; Chang, P Y; Jang, N W; Shoup, M J; Meyerhofer, D D; Betti, R
2009-04-01
A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity-a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF.
Quasi-regular impurity distribution driven by charge-density wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldea, I.; Badescu, M.
1991-09-01
The displacive motion of the impurity distribution immersed into the one-dimensional system has recently been studied in detail as one kind of quasi-regularity driven by CDW. As a further investigation of this problem we develop here a microscopical model for a different kind of quasi-regular impurity distribution driven by CDW, consisting of the modulation in the probability of occupied sites. The dependence on impurity concentration and temperature of relevant CDW quantities is obtained. Data reported in the quasi-1D materials NbSe 3 and Ta 2 NiSe 7 (particularly, thermal hysteresis effects at CDW transition) are interpreted in the framework of the present model. Possible similarities to other physical systems are also suggested. (author). 38 refs, 7 figs
Tomographic reconstruction of the time-averaged density distribution in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fincke, J.R.
1982-01-01
The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of time-average density and density distribution in a two-phase flow field. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model-independent method of obtaining flow-field density information. A tomographic densitometer system for the measurement of two-phase flow has two unique problems: a limited number of data values and a correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid. These problems were studied both experimentally through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically through computer generation of simulated data. The prototype data were taken on phantoms constructed of all Plexiglas and Plexiglas laminated with wood and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data are compared with reconstructions from the simulated data. Also presented are some representative results in a horizontal air/water flow
Inductively Driven, 3D Liner Compression of a Magnetized Plasma to Megabar Energy Densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slough, John [MSNW LLC, Redmond, WA (United States)
2015-02-01
To take advantage of the smaller scale, higher density regime of fusion an efficient method for achieving the compressional heating required to reach fusion gain conditions must be found. What is proposed is a more flexible metallic liner compression scheme that minimizes the kinetic energy required to reach fusion. It is believed that it is possible to accomplish this at sub-megajoule energies. This however will require operation at very small scale. To have a realistic hope of inexpensive, repetitive operation, it is essential to have the liner kinetic energy under a megajoule which allows for the survivability of the vacuum and power systems. At small scale the implosion speed must be reasonably fast to maintain the magnetized plasma (FRC) equilibrium during compression. For limited liner kinetic energy, it becomes clear that the thinnest liner imploded to the smallest radius consistent with the requirements for FRC equilibrium lifetime is desired. The proposed work is directed toward accomplishing this goal. Typically an axial (Z) current is employed for liner compression. There are however several advantages to using a θ-pinch coil. With the θ-pinch the liner currents are inductively driven which greatly simplifies the apparatus and vacuum system, and avoids difficulties with the post implosion vacuum integrity. With fractional flux leakage, the foil liner automatically provides for the seed axial compression field. To achieve it with optimal switching techniques, and at an accelerated pace however will require additional funding. This extra expense is well justified as the compression technique that will be enabled by this funding is unique in the ability to implode individual segments of the liner at different times. This is highly advantageous as the liner can be imploded in a manner that maximizes the energy transfer to the FRC. Production of shaped liner implosions for additional axial compression can thus be readily accomplished with the modified power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horioka, Kazuhiko
2002-06-01
The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)
A virtual power plant model for time-driven power flow calculations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerardo Guerra
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a custom-made virtual power plant model in OpenDSS. The goal is to develop a model adequate for time-driven power flow calculations in distribution systems. The virtual power plant is modeled as the aggregation of renewable generation and energy storage connected to the distribution system through an inverter. The implemented operation mode allows the virtual power plant to act as a single dispatchable generation unit. The case studies presented in the paper demonstrate that the model behaves according to the specified control algorithm and show how it can be incorporated into the solution scheme of a general parallel genetic algorithm in order to obtain the optimal day-ahead dispatch. Simulation results exhibit a clear benefit from the deployment of a virtual power plant when compared to distributed generation based only on renewable intermittent generation.
Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Shinya; Araki, Shuki; Ohtani, Hajime
2006-02-01
Several alkyl benzenes are separated by pressurized flow-driven capillary electrochromatography using a temperature-controlled capillary column packed with octadecyl siloxane-modified silica gel, and the effect of applied voltage on the retention is investigated. The van't Hoff plot shows good linearity at the column temperature between 305 and 330 K under applications from -6 to +6 kV. The applied voltage causes a relatively large variation in the enthalpy and the entropy of transfer of the solute from the mobile phase to the stationary phase (> 20%). However, the direction of variation in the enthalpy is almost opposite to that in the entropy, both of which might compensate each other. Therefore, the retention factor is not significantly varied (< 4%) by the application of voltage.
Zonal Flows Driven by Small-Scale Drift-Alfven Modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Dehui; Zhou Deng
2011-01-01
Generation of zonal flows by small-scale drift-Alfven modes is investigated by adopting the approach of parametric instability with the electron polarization drift included. The zonal mode can be excited by primary modes propagating at both electron and ion diamagnetic drift directions in contrast to the assertion in previous studies that only primary modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift directions can drive zonal instabilities. Generally, the growth rate of the driven zonal mode is in the same order as that in previous study. However, different from the previous work, the growth rate is no longer proportional to the difference between the diamagnetic drift frequencies of electrons and ions. (magnetically confined plasma)
Assessment of Nucleation Site Density Models for CFD Simulations of Subcooled Flow Boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang, N. H.; Chu, I. C.; Euh, D. J.; Song, C. H.
2015-01-01
The framework of a CFD simulation of subcooled flow boiling basically includes a block of wall boiling models communicating with governing equations of a two-phase flow via parameters like temperature, rate of phasic change, etc. In the block of wall boiling models, a heat flux partitioning model, which describes how the heat is taken away from a heated surface, is combined with models quantifying boiling parameters, i.e. nucleation site density, and bubble departure diameter and frequency. It is realized that the nucleation site density is an important parameter for predicting the subcooled flow boiling. The number of nucleation sites per unit area decides the influence region of each heat transfer mechanism. The variation of the nucleation site density will mutually change the dynamics of vapor bubbles formed at these sites. In addition, the nucleation site density is needed as one initial and boundary condition to solve the interfacial area transport equation. A lot of effort has been devoted to mathematically formulate the nucleation site density. As a consequence, numerous correlations of the nucleation site density are available in the literature. These correlations are commonly quite different in their mathematical form as well as application range. Some correlations of the nucleation site density have been applied successfully to CFD simulations of several specific subcooled boiling flows, but in combination with different correlations of the bubble departure diameter and frequency. In addition, the values of the nucleation site density, and bubble departure diameter and frequency obtained from simulations for a same problem are relatively different, depending on which models are used, even when global characteristics, e.g., void fraction and mean bubble diameter, agree well with experimental values. It is realized that having a good CFD simulations of the subcooled flow boiling requires a detailed validations of all the models used. Owing to the importance
Density Distribution of Liquid Argon in Nano-channel Poiseuille Flows
She, Jiangwei; Wang, Yuyi; Zhou, Zhe-Wei
2017-11-01
The density layering parallel to the boundaries of liquid has been measured in many experiments and also observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this study, a detail and systematic investigation of density distribution in nano-scale Poiseuille flows is carried out. Through analyzing the difference of density distribution curves obtained under different conditions, the influence of interaction parameters, configuration form of solid wall and temperature on the layering are investigated. The internal mechanism is also explored in this paper. The detail description of the density distribution results and simulation algorithm is given. National natural science foundation (A020405).
On the implicit density based OpenFOAM solver for turbulent compressible flows
Fürst, Jiří
The contribution deals with the development of coupled implicit density based solver for compressible flows in the framework of open source package OpenFOAM. However the standard distribution of OpenFOAM contains several ready-made segregated solvers for compressible flows, the performance of those solvers is rather week in the case of transonic flows. Therefore we extend the work of Shen [15] and we develop an implicit semi-coupled solver. The main flow field variables are updated using lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel method (LU-SGS) whereas the turbulence model variables are updated using implicit Euler method.
Void fraction prediction in two-phase flows independent of the liquid phase density changes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazemi, E.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Roshani, G.H.
2014-01-01
Gamma-ray densitometry is a frequently used non-invasive method to determine void fraction in two-phase gas liquid pipe flows. Performance of flow meters using gamma-ray attenuation depends strongly on the fluid properties. Variations of the fluid properties such as density in situations where temperature and pressure fluctuate would cause significant errors in determination of the void fraction in two-phase flows. A conventional solution overcoming such an obstacle is periodical recalibration which is a difficult task. This paper presents a method based on dual modality densitometry using Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which offers the advantage of measuring the void fraction independent of the liquid phase changes. An experimental setup was implemented to generate the required input data for training the network. ANNs were trained on the registered counts of the transmission and scattering detectors in different liquid phase densities and void fractions. Void fractions were predicted by ANNs with mean relative error of less than 0.45% in density variations range of 0.735 up to 0.98 gcm −3 . Applying this method would improve the performance of two-phase flow meters and eliminates the necessity of periodical recalibration. - Highlights: • Void fraction was predicted independent of density changes. • Recorded counts of detectors/void fraction were used as inputs/output of ANN. • ANN eliminated necessity of recalibration in changeable density of two-phase flows
Recent US advances in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev, E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.
2007-01-01
During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport, and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by >50X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. We are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy
Prolonged river water pollution due to variable-density flow and solute transport in the riverbed
Jin, Guangqiu; Tang, Hongwu; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.
2015-04-01
A laboratory experiment and numerical modeling were used to examine effects of density gradients on hyporheic flow and solute transport under the condition of a solute pulse input to a river with regular bed forms. Relatively low-density gradients due to an initial salt pulse concentration of 1.55 kg m-3 applied in the experiment were found to modulate significantly the pore-water flow and solute transport in the riverbed. Such density gradients increased downward flow and solute transport in the riverbed by factors up to 1.6. This resulted in a 12.2% increase in the total salt transfer from the water column to the riverbed over the salt pulse period. As the solute pulse passed, the effect of the density gradients reversed, slowing down the release of the solute back to the river water by a factor of 3.7. Numerical modeling indicated that these density effects intensified as salt concentrations in the water column increased. Simulations further showed that the density gradients might even lead to unstable flow and result in solute fingers in the bed of large bed forms. The slow release of solute from the bed back to the river led to a long tail of solute concentration in the river water. These findings have implications for assessment of impact of pollution events on river systems, in particular, long-term effects on both the river water and riverbed due to the hyporheic exchange.
Effect of liquid density differences on boiling two-phase flow stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, Masahiro; Manera, Annalisa; Bragt, David D.B.; Hagen, Tim H.J.J. van der; Kruijf, Willy J.M.de
2002-01-01
In order to investigate the effect of considering liquid density dependence on local fluid temperature in the thermal-hydraulic stability, a linear stability analysis is performed for a boiling natural circulation loop with an adiabatic riser. Type-I and Type-II instabilities were to investigate according to Fukuda-Kobori's classification. Type-I instability is dominant when the flow quality is low, while Type-II instability is relevant at high flow quality. Type-II instability is well known as the typical density wave oscillation. Neglecting liquid density differences yields estimates of Type-II instability margins that are too small, due to both a change in system-dynamics features and in the operational point. On the other hand, neglecting liquid density differences yields estimates of Type-I stability margins that are too large, especially due to a change in the operational point. Neglecting density differences is thus non-conservative in this case. Therefore, it is highly recommended to include liquid density dependence on the fluid subcooling in the stability analysis if a flow loop with an adiabatic rise is operated under the condition of low flow quality. (author)
Valentine, Greg A.; Sweeney, Matthew R.
2018-02-01
Many geological flows are sourced by falling gas-particle mixtures, such as during collapse of lava domes, and impulsive eruptive jets, and sustained columns, and rock falls. The transition from vertical to lateral flow is complex due to the range of coupling between particles of different sizes and densities and the carrier gas, and due to the potential for compressible flow phenomena. We use multiphase modeling to explore these dynamics. In mixtures with small particles, and with subsonic speeds, particles follow the gas such that outgoing lateral flows have similar particle concentration and speed as the vertical flows. Large particles concentrate immediately upon impact and move laterally away as granular flows overridden by a high-speed jet of expelled gas. When a falling flow is supersonic, a bow shock develops above the impact zone, and this produces a zone of high pressure from which lateral flows emerge as overpressured wall jets. The jets form complex structures as the mixtures expand and accelerate and then recompress through a recompression zone that mimics a Mach disk shock in ideal gas jets. In mixtures with moderate to high ratios of fine to coarse particles, the latter tend to follow fine particles through the expansion-recompression flow fields because of particle-particle drag. Expansion within the flow fields can lead to locally reduced gas pressure that could enhance substrate erosion in natural flows. The recompression zones form at distances, and have peak pressures, that are roughly proportional to the Mach numbers of impacting flows.
Yan, Z; McKee, G R; Fonck, R; Gohil, P; Groebner, R J; Osborne, T H
2014-03-28
Comprehensive 2D turbulence and eddy flow velocity measurements on DIII-D demonstrate a rapidly increasing turbulence-driven shear flow that develops ∼100 μs prior to the low-confinement (L mode) to high-confinement (H mode) transition and appears to trigger it. These changes are localized to a narrow layer 1-2 cm inside the magnetic boundary. Increasing heating power increases the Reynolds stress, the energy transfer from turbulence to the poloidal flow, and the edge flow shearing rate that then exceeds the decorrelation rate, suppressing turbulence and triggering the transition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)
2002-06-01
The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)
Stereo Imaging Velocimetry of Mixing Driven by Buoyancy Induced Flow Fields
Duval, W. M. B.; Jacqmin, D.; Bomani, B. M.; Alexander, I. J.; Kassemi, M.; Batur, C.; Tryggvason, B. V.; Lyubimov, D. V.; Lyubimova, T. P.
2000-01-01
Mixing of two fluids generated by steady and particularly g-jitter acceleration is fundamental towards the understanding of transport phenomena in a microgravity environment. We propose to carry out flight and ground-based experiments to quantify flow fields due to g-jitter type of accelerations using Stereo Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), and measure the concentration field using laser fluorescence. The understanding of the effects of g-jitter on transport phenomena is of great practical interest to the microgravity community and impacts the design of experiments for the Space Shuttle as well as the International Space Station. The aim of our proposed research is to provide quantitative data to the community on the effects of g-jitter on flow fields due to mixing induced by buoyancy forces. The fundamental phenomenon of mixing occurs in a broad range of materials processing encompassing the growth of opto-electronic materials and semiconductors, (by directional freezing and physical vapor transport), to solution and protein crystal growth. In materials processing of these systems, crystal homogeneity, which is affected by the solutal field distribution, is one of the major issues. The understanding of fluid mixing driven by buoyancy forces, besides its importance as a topic in fundamental science, can contribute towards the understanding of how solutal fields behave under various body forces. The body forces of interest are steady acceleration and g-jitter acceleration as in a Space Shuttle environment or the International Space Station. Since control of the body force is important, the flight experiment will be carried out on a tunable microgravity vibration isolation mount, which will permit us to precisely input the desired forcing function to simulate a range of body forces. To that end, we propose to design a flight experiment that can only be carried out under microgravity conditions to fully exploit the effects of various body forces on fluid mixing. Recent
Removal of salt from high-level waste tanks by density-driven circulation or mechanical agitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiser, D.L.
1981-01-01
Twenty-two high-level waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant are to be retired in the tank replacement/waste transfer program. The salt-removal portion of this program requires dissolution of about 19 million liters of salt cake. Steam circulation jets were originally proposed to dissolve the salt cake. However, the jets heated the waste tank to 80 to 90 0 C. This high temperature required a long cooldown period before transfer of the supernate by jet, and increased the risk of stress-corrosion cracking in these older tanks. A bench-scale investigation at the Savannah River Laboratory developed two alternatives to steam-jet circulation. One technique was density-driven circulation, which in bench tests dissolved salt at the same rate as a simulated steam circulation jet but at a lower temperature. The other technique was mechanical agitation, which dissolved the salt cake faster and required less fresh water than either density-driven circulation or the simulated steam circulation jet. Tests in an actual waste tank verified bench-scale results and demonstrated the superiority of mechanical agitation
Radiation yield from SHIVA Star plasma flow switch driven fast liner implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degnan, J.H.; Baker, W.L.; Beason, J.D.
1987-01-01
A 2.5 Terawatt 0.5 MJ isotropic equivalent radiation yield was obtained in a SHIVA Star plasma flow switch driven fast liner implosion. The 1313 μF 80 kV discharge delivered 13 MA to a coaxial vacuum inductive store with a plasma armature. Over 9.4 MA current was plasma flow switched to the implosion load (>90% of the gun muzzle current at that time). The load wa a 5 cm radius, 2 cm tall, 200 μg/cm/sup 2/ aluminum plated Formvar cylindrical foil. The radiation pulse was measured with an array of seven X-ray diodes (XRDs). The XRDs all had aluminum photocathodes, a variety of filters and nickel mesh to reduce the incident X-ray photon flux to avoid Child-Langmuir saturation. The filters were chosen so that the authors had seven different diode response functions covering the energy range from 15 eV to about 3 keV. The filters were mounted remote (about 30 cm) from the XRDs. The anode mesh served as part of the mesh array. The distance between meshes was greater than 10 cm. Each XRD had a 5 cm diameter cathode with an aperture limited to a 2 cm diameter. The XRD anode-cathode gap was 1 cm and the bias was 5 kV. The theoretical Child-Langmuir saturation signal was 125 V with 50 Ω termination. The maximum observed signal was 75 V
Cold Front Driven Flows Through Multiple Inlets of Lake Pontchartrain Estuary
Huang, Wei; Li, Chunyan
2017-11-01
With in situ observations using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) and numerical experiments using the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), this study investigates atmospheric cold front induced exchange of water between Lake Pontchartrain Estuary and coastal ocean through multiple inlets. Results show that the subtidal hydrodynamic response is highly correlated with meteorological parameters. Northerly and westerly winds tend to push water out of Lake Pontchartrain, while south and east winds tend to produce currents flowing into it. For most cases, the subtidal water level is inversely correlated with the east wind, with the correlation coefficient being ˜0.8. The most important finding of this work is that, contrary to intuition, the cold front induced remote wind effect has the greatest contribution to the overall water level variation, while the local wind stress determines the surface slope inside the estuary. It is found that wind driven flow is roughly quasi steady state: the surface slope in the north-south direction is determined by the north-south wind stress, explaining ˜83% of the variability but less so in the east-west direction (˜43%). In other words, the north-south local wind stress determines the water level gradient in that direction in the estuary while the overall water level change is pretty much controlled by the open boundary which is the "remote wind effect," a regional response that can be illustrated only by a numerical model for a much larger area encompassing the estuary.
Dynamos driven by poloidal flows in untwisted, curved and flat Riemannian diffusive flux tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Andrade, L.C.G.
2010-01-01
Recently Vishik anti-fast dynamo theorem has been tested against non-stretching flux tubes (Phys. Plasmas, 15 (2008)). In this paper, another anti dynamo theorem, called Cowling's theorem, which states that axisymmetric magnetic fields cannot support dynamo action, is carefully tested against thick tubular and curved Riemannian untwisted flows, as well as thin flux tubes in diffusive and diffusion less media. In the non-diffusive media Cowling's theorem is not violated in thin Riemann-flat untwisted flux tubes, where the Frenet curvature is negative. Nevertheless the diffusion action in the thin flux tube leads to a dynamo action driven by poloidal flows as shown by Love and Gubbins (Geophysical Res., 23 (1996) 857) in the context of geo dynamos. Actually it is shown that a slow dynamo action is obtained. In this case the Frenet and Riemann curvature still vanishes. In the case of magnetic filaments in diffusive media dynamo action is obtained when the Frenet scalar curvature is negative. Since the Riemann curvature tensor can be expressed in terms of the Frenet curvature of the magnetic flux tube axis, this result can be analogous to a recent result obtained by Chicone, Latushkin and Smith, which states that geodesic curvature in compact Riemannian manifolds can drive dynamo action in the manifold. It is also shown that in the absence of diffusion, magnetic energy does not grow but magnetic toroidal magnetic field can be generated by the poloidal field, what is called a plasma dynamo.
Reynolds number and end-wall effects on a lid-driven cavity flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, A.K.; Koseff, J.R.
1989-01-01
A series of experiments has been conducted in a lid-driven cavity of square cross section (depth = width = 150 mm) for Reynolds numbers (Re, based on lid speed and cavity width) between 3200 and 10 000, and spanwise aspect ratios (SAR) between 0.25:1 and 1:1. Flow visualization using polystyrene beads and two-dimensional laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements have shed new light on the momentum transfer processes within the cavity. This paper focuses on the variation, with Re and SAR, of the mean and the rms velocities profiles, as well as the /similar to/(U'V') profile, along the horizontal and vertical centerlines in the symmetry plane. In addition, the contribution of the large-scale ''organized structures,'' and the high-frequency ''turbulent'' velocity fluctuations to the total rms is examined. At low Re, the organized structures account for most of the energy contained in the flow irrespective of SAR. As the Re increases, however, so does the energy content of the higher frequency fluctuations. This trend is not independent of SAR; a reduction in the SAR causes the ''organized structures'' to again become more evident
Pressure-driven flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid with pressure-dependent rheological parameters
Panaseti, Pandelitsa; Damianou, Yiolanda; Georgiou, Georgios C.; Housiadas, Kostas D.
2018-03-01
The lubrication flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid in a symmetric long channel of varying width, 2h(x), is modeled extending the approach proposed by Fusi et al. ["Pressure-driven lubrication flow of a Bingham fluid in a channel: A novel approach," J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 221, 66-75 (2015)] for a Bingham plastic. Moreover, both the consistency index and the yield stress are assumed to be pressure-dependent. Under the lubrication approximation, the pressure at zero order depends only on x and the semi-width of the unyielded core is found to be given by σ(x) = -(1 + 1/n)h(x) + C, where n is the power-law exponent and the constant C depends on the Bingham number and the consistency-index and yield-stress growth numbers. Hence, in a channel of constant width, the width of the unyielded core is also constant, despite the pressure dependence of the yield stress, and the pressure distribution is not affected by the yield-stress function. With the present model, the pressure is calculated numerically solving an integro-differential equation and then the position of the yield surface and the two velocity components are computed using analytical expressions. Some analytical solutions are also derived for channels of constant and linearly varying widths. The lubrication solutions for other geometries are calculated numerically. The implications of the pressure-dependence of the material parameters and the limitations of the method are discussed.
Coastal circulations driven by river outflow in a variable-density 1.5-layer model
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
McCreary, J.P.; Zhang, S.; Shetye, S.R.
A variable-density, 1.5-layer model is used to investigate the dynamics of the fresher-water plumes generated by river outflow. Solutions are found in a north-south channel, and the transport M sub(tau) and salinity S sub(tau) of the outflow...
Effect of ship motions and flow stability in a small marine reactor driven by natural circulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa
2001-12-01
By using a small reactor as a power source for investigations and developments under sea, widely expanded activity is expectable. In this case, as for a nuclear reactor, small-size and lightweightness, and simplification of a system are needed with the safety. In JAERI, very small reactors for submersible research vessel (Deep-sea Reactor DRX and submersible Compact Reactor SCR) have been designed on the basis of needs investigation of sea research. Although the reactor is a PWR type, self-pressurization and natural circulation system are adopted in a primary system for small size and lightweightness. The fluid flow condition of the reactor core outlet is designed to be the two-phase with a low quality. Although the flow of a primary system is the two-phase flow with a low quality, the density wave oscillation may occur according to operating conditions. Moreover, since there are ship motions of heaving (the vertical direction acceleration) etc., when a submersible research vessel navigates on the sea surface, the circulation flow of the primary system is directly influenced by this external force. In order to maintain stable operations of the reactor, it is necessary to clarify effects of the flow stability characteristic of the primary coolant system and the external force. Until now, as for the flow stability of a nuclear reactor itself, many research reports have been published including the nuclear-coupled thermal oscillation of BWRs such as LaSalle-2, WNP-2 etc. As for the effect of external force, it is reported that the acceleration change based on a seismic wave affects the reactor core flow and the reactor power in a BWR. On the other hand, also in a PWR, since adoption of natural circulation cooling is considered for a generation 4 reactor, it is thought that the margin of the reactor core flow stability becomes an important parameter in the design. The reactor coolant flow mentioned in this report is the two-phase natural circulation flow coupled with
Bianchi; Ferrigno; Girault
2000-05-01
A finite element formulation is developed for the simulation of an electroosmotic flow in rectangular microscale channel networks. The distribution of the flow at a decoupling T-junction is investigated from a hydrodynamic standpoint in the case of a pressure-driven and an electroosmotically driven flow. The calculations are carried out in two steps: first solving the potential distribution arising from the external electric field and from the inherent zeta potential. These distributions are then injected in the Navier Stokes equation for the calculation of the velocity profile. The influence of the various parameters such as the zeta potential distribution, the Reynolds number, and the relative channel widths on the flow distribution is investigated.
Buoyancy-driven mean flow in a long channel with a hydraulically constrained exit condition
Grimm, Th.; Maxworthy, T.
1999-11-01
Convection plays a major role in a variety of natural hydrodynamic systems. Those in which convection drives exchange flows through a lateral contraction and/or over a sill form a special class with typical examples being the Red and Mediterranean Seas, the Persian Gulf, and the fjords that indent many coastlines. The present work focuses on the spatial distribution and scaling of the density difference between the inflowing and outflowing fluid layers. Using a long water-filled channel, fitted with buoyancy sources at its upper surface, experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of the geometry of the strait and the channel as well as the magnitude of the buoyancy flux. Two different scaling laws, one by Phillips (1966), and one by Maxworthy (1994, 1997) were compared with the experimental results. It has been shown that a scaling law for which g[prime prime or minute] = kB02/3x/h4/3 best describes the distribution of the observed density difference along the channel, where B0 is the buoyancy flux, x the distance from the closed end of the channel, h its height at the open end (sill) and k a constant that depends on the details of the channel geometry and flow conditions. This result holds for the experimental results and appears to be valid for a number of natural systems as well.
Demonstration of the role of turbulence-driven poloidal flow generation in the L-H transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, C.X.; Xu, Y.H.; Luo, J.R.; Mao, J.S.; Liu, B.H.; Li, J.G.; Wan, B.N.; Wan, Y.X.
2000-01-01
This paper presents the evidence for the role of turbulence-driven poloidal flow generation in the L-H transition induced by a turbulent heating pulse on the HT-6M tokamak. It is found that the poloidal flow υ θ plays a key role in developing the electric field E r and triggering the transition. The acceleration of υ θ across the transition is clearly correlated with the enhancement of the Reynolds stress gradient. (author)
Barger, R. L.; Brooks, J. D.; Beasley, W. D.
1961-01-01
A crossed-field, continuous-flow plasma accelerator has been built and operated. The highest measured velocity of the flow, which was driven by the interaction of the electric and magnetic fields, was about 500 meters per second. Some of the problems discussed are ion slip, stability and uniformity of the discharge, effect of the magnetic field on electron emission, use of preionization, and electrode contamination.
Solution of the square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic using the finite volume method
Syrakos, Alexandros; Georgiou, Georgios C.; Alexandrou, Andreas N.
2016-01-01
We investigate the performance of the finite volume method in solving viscoplastic flows. The creeping square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic is chosen as the test case and the constitutive equation is regularised as proposed by Papanastasiou [J. Rheol. 31 (1987) 385-404]. It is shown that the convergence rate of the standard SIMPLE pressure-correction algorithm, which is used to solve the algebraic equation system that is produced by the finite volume discretisation, severely det...
Triton-3He relative and differential flows and the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yong, Gaochan; Li, Baoan; Chen, Liewen
2010-01-01
Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence after-burner we study the triton- 3 He relative and differential transverse flows in semi-central 132 Sn + 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. We find that the triton- 3 He pairs carry interesting information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Xiang
2017-07-01
Full Text Available AIM: Using optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTAto observe the changes and clinical significance of macular blood flow density in patients with diabetic retinopathy(DR.METHODS: Totally 47 eyes(28 patientswith diabetic retinopathy(DRwere enrolled in the DR group. According to the international clinical grading criteria of diabetic retinopathy, 30 eyes(19 patientswith non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy were classified as the NPDR group, and 17 eyes(11 patientswith proliferative diabetic retinopathy were classified as PDR group. A total of 46(27 subjectshealthy eyes with matched age were enrolled in the control group. All the subjects underwent the 3mm×3mm scanning of macular retina by optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA, obtaining 4 levels of macular blood flow density map. The macular blood flow density at 3 levels, including superficial retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillaries layer, were measured. RESULTS: The macular blood flow density of superfical retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillaries layer in DR group were 0.4963±0.0840, 0.4798±0.0801 and 0.5290±0.0528, respectively. Among them, the blood flow density of each layer were 0.5064±0.0843,0.4983±0.0766,0.5345±0.0529, respectively, for the NPDR group, and were 0.4786±0.0830, 0.4473±0.0778,0.5192±0.0526, respectively, for the PDR group. For the control group, the density of each layers were 0.5919±0.0704, 0.6301±0.0527, 0.5691±0.0169, respectively. The macular blood flow density was significantly different in the superficial retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillary layer between the control group and the NPDR group, as well as the PDR group and the DR group(total PP=0.029, but not in the superficial retina layer and choroid capillary layer(P=0.236, 0.268. CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the macular blood flow density of superficial retinal layer, deep retinal layer and choroidal capillary
Simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy
Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.
1991-01-01
The simultaneous measurement of temperature and density using laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen in combination with Q-branch Raman scattering of nitrogen and oxygen is demonstrated in a low-speed air flow. The lowest density and temperature measured in the experiment correspond to the freestream values at Mach 5 in the Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for stagnation conditions of 100 atm and 1000 K. The experimental results demonstrate the viability of the optical technique for measurements that support the study of compressible turbulence and the validation of numerical codes in supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel flows.
Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.
Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei
2015-02-24
Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.
Cawley, M.F.; McGlynn, D.; Mooney, P.A.
2006-01-01
A technique is described which yields an accurate measurement of the temperature of density maximum of fluids which exhibit such anomalous behaviour. The method relies on the detection of changes in convective flow in a rectangular cavity containing the test fluid.The normal single-cell convection which occurs in the presence of a horizontal temperature gradient changes to a double cell configuration in the vicinity of the density maximum, and this transition manifests itself in changes in th...
Symmetry and illumination uniformity requirements for high density laser-driven implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mead, W.C.; Lindl, J.D.
1976-01-01
As laser capabilities increase, implosions will be performed to achieve high densities. Criteria are discussed for formation of a low-density corona, preheated supersonically, which increases the tolerance of high convergence implosions to non-uniform illumination by utilizing thermal smoothing. We compare optimized double shell target designs without and with atmosphere production. Two significant penalties are incurred with atmosphere production using 1 μm laser light. First, a large initial shock at the ablation surface limits the pulse shaping flexibility, and degrades implosion performance. Second, the mass and heat capacity of the atmosphere reduce the energy delivered to the ablation surface and the driving pressures obtained for a given input energy. Improvement is possible using 2 μm light for the initial phase of the implosion. We present results of 2-D simulations which evaluate combined symmetry and stability requirements. At l = 8, the improvement produced in the example is a factor of 10, giving tolerance of 10 percent
Assembly of high-areal-density deuterium-tritium fuel from indirectly driven cryogenic implosions.
Mackinnon, A J; Kline, J L; Dixit, S N; Glenzer, S H; Edwards, M J; Callahan, D A; Meezan, N B; Haan, S W; Kilkenny, J D; Döppner, T; Farley, D R; Moody, J D; Ralph, J E; MacGowan, B J; Landen, O L; Robey, H F; Boehly, T R; Celliers, P M; Eggert, J H; Krauter, K; Frieders, G; Ross, G F; Hicks, D G; Olson, R E; Weber, S V; Spears, B K; Salmonsen, J D; Michel, P; Divol, L; Hammel, B; Thomas, C A; Clark, D S; Jones, O S; Springer, P T; Cerjan, C J; Collins, G W; Glebov, V Y; Knauer, J P; Sangster, C; Stoeckl, C; McKenty, P; McNaney, J M; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A G; Chandler, G G A; Hahn, K D; Moran, M J; Schneider, M B; Palmer, N E; Bionta, R M; Hartouni, E P; LePape, S; Patel, P K; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Hatarik, R; Grim, G P; Merrill, F E; Fittinghoff, D N; Guler, N; Drury, O; Wilson, D C; Herrmann, H W; Stoeffl, W; Casey, D T; Johnson, M G; Frenje, J A; Petrasso, R D; Zylestra, A; Rinderknecht, H; Kalantar, D H; Dzenitis, J M; Di Nicola, P; Eder, D C; Courdin, W H; Gururangan, G; Burkhart, S C; Friedrich, S; Blueuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Eckart, M J; Munro, D H; Hatchett, S P; Macphee, A G; Edgell, D H; Bradley, D K; Bell, P M; Glenn, S M; Simanovskaia, N; Barrios, M A; Benedetti, R; Kyrala, G A; Town, R P J; Dewald, E L; Milovich, J L; Widmann, K; Moore, A S; LaCaille, G; Regan, S P; Suter, L J; Felker, B; Ashabranner, R C; Jackson, M C; Prasad, R; Richardson, M J; Kohut, T R; Datte, P S; Krauter, G W; Klingman, J J; Burr, R F; Land, T A; Hermann, M R; Latray, D A; Saunders, R L; Weaver, S; Cohen, S J; Berzins, L; Brass, S G; Palma, E S; Lowe-Webb, R R; McHalle, G N; Arnold, P A; Lagin, L J; Marshall, C D; Brunton, G K; Mathisen, D G; Wood, R D; Cox, J R; Ehrlich, R B; Knittel, K M; Bowers, M W; Zacharias, R A; Young, B K; Holder, J P; Kimbrough, J R; Ma, T; La Fortune, K N; Widmayer, C C; Shaw, M J; Erbert, G V; Jancaitis, K S; DiNicola, J M; Orth, C; Heestand, G; Kirkwood, R; Haynam, C; Wegner, P J; Whitman, P K; Hamza, A; Dzenitis, E G; Wallace, R J; Bhandarkar, S D; Parham, T G; Dylla-Spears, R; Mapoles, E R; Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Walters, C F; Haid, B J; Fair, J; Nikroo, A; Giraldez, E; Moreno, K; Vanwonterghem, B; Kauffman, R L; Batha, S; Larson, D W; Fortner, R J; Schneider, D H; Lindl, J D; Patterson, R W; Atherton, L J; Moses, E I
2012-05-25
The National Ignition Facility has been used to compress deuterium-tritium to an average areal density of ~1.0±0.1 g cm(-2), which is 67% of the ignition requirement. These conditions were obtained using 192 laser beams with total energy of 1-1.6 MJ and peak power up to 420 TW to create a hohlraum drive with a shaped power profile, peaking at a soft x-ray radiation temperature of 275-300 eV. This pulse delivered a series of shocks that compressed a capsule containing cryogenic deuterium-tritium to a radius of 25-35 μm. Neutron images of the implosion were used to estimate a fuel density of 500-800 g cm(-3).
Macdonald, J.; Bland, S. N.; Threadgold, J.
2015-08-01
We report on the first use of a fibre interferometer incorporating triature analysis for measuring rapidly evolving plasma densities of ne ˜ 1013/cm3 and above, such as those produced by simple coaxial plasma guns. The resultant system is extremely portable, easy to field in experiments, relatively cheap to produce, and—with the exception of a small open area in which the plasma is sampled—safe in operation as all laser light is enclosed.
Fuel density effect on near nozzle flow field in small laminar coflow diffusion flames
Xiong, Yuan
2015-01-01
Flow characteristics in small coflow diffusion flames were investigated with a particular focus on the near-nozzle region and on the buoyancy force exerted on fuels with densities lighter and heavier than air (methane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane). The flow-fields were visualized through the trajectories of seed particles. The particle image velocimetry technique was also adopted for quantitative velocity field measurements. The results showed that the buoyancy force exerted on the fuel as well as on burnt gas significantly distorted the near-nozzle flow-fields. In the fuels with densities heavier than air, recirculation zones were formed very close to the nozzle, emphasizing the importance of the relative density of the fuel to that of the air on the flow-field. Nozzle heating influenced the near-nozzle flow-field particularly among lighter fuels (methane and ethylene). Numerical simulations were also conducted, focusing specifically on the effect of specifying inlet boundary conditions for fuel. The results showed that a fuel inlet boundary with a fully developed velocity profile for cases with long tubes should be specified inside the fuel tube to permit satisfactory prediction of the flow-field. The calculated temperature fields also indicated the importance of the selection of the location of the inlet boundary, especially in testing various combustion models that include soot in small coflow diffusion flames. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamel, W.R.
1984-01-01
This invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining fluid mass flow rate and density. In one aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through a straight cantilevered tube in which transient oscillation has been induced, thus generating Coriolis damping forces on the tube. The decay rate and frequency of the resulting damped oscillation are measured, and the fluid mass flow rate and density are determined therefrom. In another aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through the cantilevered tube while an electrically powered device imparts steady-state harmonic excitation to the tube. This generates Coriolis tube-damping forces which are dependent on the mass flow rate of the fluid. Means are provided to respond to incipient flow-induced changes in the amplitude of vibration by changing the power input to the excitation device as required to sustain the original amplitude of vibration. The fluid mass flow rate and density are determined from the required change in power input. The invention provides stable, rapid, and accurate measurements. It does not require bending of the fluid flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Xu-Guang [Physics Department and Center for Particle Physics and Field Theory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yin, Yi [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
2016-12-15
We report our recent progress on the search of Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) by developing new measurements as well as by hydrodynamic simulations of CME and background effects, with both approaches addressing the pressing issue of separating flow-driven background contributions and possible CME signal in current heavy ion collision measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Yen-Lin
2010-01-01
Microscale temperature gradient-driven (thermal creep/transpiration) gas flows have attracted significant interest during the past decade. For free molecular and transitional conditions, applying temperature gradients to a flow channel's walls induces the thermal creep effect. This results in a working gas flowing through the channel from cold to hot, which is generally accompanied by a rising pressure from cold to hot in the channel. Working gas temperature and pressure distributions can vary significantly, depending on a flow channel's configuration and wall temperature distribution. Understanding working gas temperature excursions, both increases and decreases, is essential to ensure the effective use of thermal creep flows in microscale applications. In this study, the characterizations of working gas temperature variations, due to both temperature discontinuities and more gradual changes, on a variety of flow channel walls, were systematically investigated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. A micro/meso-scale pump, the Knudsen compressor, was chosen to illustrate the importance of controlling working gas temperature in thermal creep-driven flows. Gas pressure and temperature variations, through several Knudsen compressor stage configurations, were studied to determine the most advantageous flow phenomena for the efficient operation of Knudsen compressors.
Ultrasonic density detector for vessel and reactor core two-phase flow measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arave, A.E.
1979-01-01
A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia
SIMULATION OF FREE CURRENT FLOWS IN BUOYANCY-DRIVEN VENTILATION SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. V. Abramkina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to analyse the effect of the design and methods for heating the ventilation duct of a buoyancy- driven system on the formation of free convective air currents in it.Methods. The study of free convection under the conditions of interior problem was carried out using the CFD software, based on the finite volume method with unstructured grid. Ansys Fluent software was used as a calculation tool in the study, due to its having a high convergence of numerical solutions offering full-scale measurements of convective currents.To evaluate the reliability of the results obtained, a validation procedure was carried out, allowing us to determine how accurately the selected conceptual model describes the investigated flow through a comparison of experimental and numerical data.Results. The results of numerical modelling of free convective currents occurring in the heated channel of the ventilation system of the top floor of a multi-storey residential building are presented in the article. In the course of the study, the air velocity at the entrance to the ventilation duct was found to depend on the calculated temperature difference θ ˚C for various heating methods. A gradual increase in the discrepancy between the numerical simulation and experimental results is observed if the calculated temperature difference > 20 ° C. This phenomenon is due to the fact that with increased duct temperature, it is quite difficult to achieve even heating under actual conditions; this is especially noticeable when considering the variant when the vertical part of the vent duct and the take-off are both heated. The maximum deviation of the results is 4.4%. The obtained velocity profiles in the calculated sections indicate the impact of the ventilation take-off on the nature of the air flow motion.Conclusion. One of the drawbacks of the existing systems of natural ventilation of residential
The interaction of laser driven shock waves with a spherical density perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bach, D.R; Budil, K.S.; Klein, R.I.; Perry, T.S.
1999-01-01
Strong shock waves produced by illumination of a CH target by laser produced x-rays were driven through a copper sphere. The motion and deformation of the sphere were measured using radiographs generated by backlighting the sphere with a large area backlighter. The sphere became non-spherical after the passage of the shock, having a complicated down-stream structure. This was an instability-induced structure that was predicted by calculations. The experiment is a convenient laboratory model of the complicated interactions occurring in much larger systems such as in astrophysics in the interaction of shocks formed in the interstellar medium with various types of clouds. In particular, the experiment is a useful tool for checking the computational ability of the new generation ASCI computers, as it requires three-dimensional modeling. This experiment has shown that three dimensional calculations seem to be necessary to describe major features observed in the experiment. Any attempt to explain hydrodynamic behavior with similar instabilities must take into account these three dimensional effects
Density scaling and quasiuniversality of flow-event statistics for athermal plastic flows
Lerner, E.; Bailey, N.P.; Dyre, J.C.
2014-01-01
Athermal steady-state plastic flows were simulated for the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system and its repulsive version in which the sign of the attractive terms is changed to a plus. Properties evaluated include the distributions of energy drops, stress drops, and strain intervals between the
Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time.
Franks, Peter J; Beerling, David J
2009-06-23
Stomatal pores are microscopic structures on the epidermis of leaves formed by 2 specialized guard cells that control the exchange of water vapor and CO(2) between plants and the atmosphere. Stomatal size (S) and density (D) determine maximum leaf diffusive (stomatal) conductance of CO(2) (g(c(max))) to sites of assimilation. Although large variations in D observed in the fossil record have been correlated with atmospheric CO(2), the crucial significance of similarly large variations in S has been overlooked. Here, we use physical diffusion theory to explain why large changes in S necessarily accompanied the changes in D and atmospheric CO(2) over the last 400 million years. In particular, we show that high densities of small stomata are the only way to attain the highest g(cmax) values required to counter CO(2)"starvation" at low atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. This explains cycles of increasing D and decreasing S evident in the fossil history of stomata under the CO(2) impoverished atmospheres of the Permo-Carboniferous and Cenozoic glaciations. The pattern was reversed under rising atmospheric CO(2) regimes. Selection for small S was crucial for attaining high g(cmax) under falling atmospheric CO(2) and, therefore, may represent a mechanism linking CO(2) and the increasing gas-exchange capacity of land plants over geologic time.
Dynamics of laser-driven proton beam focusing and transport into solid density matter
Kim, J.; McGuffey, C.; Beg, F.; Wei, M.; Mariscal, D.; Chen, S.; Fuchs, J.
2016-10-01
Isochoric heating and local energy deposition capabilities make intense proton beams appealing for studying high energy density physics and the Fast Ignition of inertial confinement fusion. To study proton beam focusing that results in high beam density, experiments have been conducted using different target geometries irradiated by a kilojoule, 10 ps pulse of the OMEGA EP laser. The beam focus was measured by imaging beam-induced Cu K-alpha emission on a Cu foil that was positioned at a fixed distance. Compared to a free target, structured targets having shapes of wedge and cone show a brighter and narrower K-alpha radiation emission spot on a Cu foil indicating higher beam focusability. Experimentally observed images with proton radiography demonstrate the existence of transverse fields on the structures. Full-scale simulations including the contribution of a long pulse duration of the laser confirm that such fields can be caused by hot electrons moving through the structures. The simulated fields are strong enough to reflect the diverging main proton beam and pinch a transverse probe beam. Detailed simulation results including the beam focusing and transport of the focused intense proton beam in Cu foil will be presented. This work was supported by the National Laser User Facility Program through Award DE-NA0002034.
Avanzini, Francesco; Moro, Giorgio J
2018-03-15
The quantum molecular trajectory is the deterministic trajectory, arising from the Bohm theory, that describes the instantaneous positions of the nuclei of molecules by assuring the agreement with the predictions of quantum mechanics. Therefore, it provides the suitable framework for representing the geometry and the motions of molecules without neglecting their quantum nature. However, the quantum molecular trajectory is extremely demanding from the computational point of view, and this strongly limits its applications. To overcome such a drawback, we derive a stochastic representation of the quantum molecular trajectory, through projection operator techniques, for the degrees of freedom of an open quantum system. The resulting Fokker-Planck operator is parametrically dependent upon the reduced density matrix of the open system. Because of the pilot role played by the reduced density matrix, this stochastic approach is able to represent accurately the main features of the open system motions both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium with the environment. To verify this procedure, the predictions of the stochastic and deterministic representation are compared for a model system of six interacting harmonic oscillators, where one oscillator is taken as the open quantum system of interest. The undeniable advantage of the stochastic approach is that of providing a simplified and self-contained representation of the dynamics of the open system coordinates. Furthermore, it can be employed to study the out of equilibrium dynamics and the relaxation of quantum molecular motions during photoinduced processes, like photoinduced conformational changes and proton transfers.
Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind Driven by Alfvén Wave Parametric Decay
Bowen, Trevor A.; Badman, Samuel; Hellinger, Petr; Bale, Stuart D.
2018-02-01
Measurements and simulations of inertial compressive turbulence in the solar wind are characterized by anti-correlated magnetic fluctuations parallel to the mean field and density structures. This signature has been interpreted as observational evidence for non-propagating pressure balanced structures, kinetic ion-acoustic waves, as well as the MHD slow-mode. Given the high damping rates of parallel propagating compressive fluctuations, their ubiquity in satellite observations is surprising and suggestive of a local driving process. One possible candidate for the generation of compressive fluctuations in the solar wind is the Alfvén wave parametric instability. Here, we test the parametric decay process as a source of compressive waves in the solar wind by comparing the collisionless damping rates of compressive fluctuations with growth rates of the parametric decay instability daughter waves. Our results suggest that generation of compressive waves through parametric decay is overdamped at 1 au, but that the presence of slow-mode-like density fluctuations is correlated with the parametric decay of Alfvén waves.
Ion temperature gradient driven transport in a density modification experiment on the TFTR tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.; Lindberg, D.; Kim, J.Y.; Dong, J.Q.; Hammett, G.W.; Scott, S.D.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Hamaguchi, S.
1991-07-01
TFTR profiles from a supershot density-modification experiment are analyzed for their local and ballooning stability to toroidal η i -modes in order to understand the initially puzzling results showing no increase in X i when a pellet is used to produce an abrupt and large increase in the η i parameter. The local stability analysis assumes that k parallel = 1/qR and ignores the effects of shear, but makes no assumption on the magnitude of k parallel v ti /ω. The ballooning stability analysis determines a self-consistent linear spectrum of k parallel's including the effect of shear and toroidicity, but it expands in k parallel v ti /ω ≤ 1, which is a marginal assumption for this experiment. Nevertheless, the two approaches agree well and show that the mixing length estimate of the transport rate does not change appreciably during the density-modification and has a value close to or less than the observed X i , in contrast to most previous theories which predicted X i 's which were over an order-of-magnitude too large. However, we are still unable to explain the observed increase X i (r) with minor radius by adding the effects of the finite beta drift - MHD mode coupling, the slab-like mode, or the trapped electron response. The experimental tracking 0.2 e /X i i and trapped-electron driving mechanisms are operating. 4 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs
Benchmarking variable-density flow in saturated and unsaturated porous media
Guevara Morel, Carlos Roberto; Cremer, Clemens; Graf, Thomas
2015-04-01
In natural environments, fluid density and viscosity can be affected by spatial and temporal variations of solute concentration and/or temperature. These variations can occur, for example, due to salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers, leachate infiltration from waste disposal sites and upconing of saline water from deep aquifers. As a consequence, potentially unstable situations may exist in which a dense fluid overlies a less dense fluid. This situation can produce instabilities that manifest as dense plume fingers that move vertically downwards counterbalanced by vertical upwards flow of the less dense fluid. Resulting free convection increases solute transport rates over large distances and times relative to constant-density flow. Therefore, the understanding of free convection is relevant for the protection of freshwater aquifer systems. The results from a laboratory experiment of saturated and unsaturated variable-density flow and solute transport (Simmons et al., Transp. Porous Medium, 2002) are used as the physical basis to define a mathematical benchmark. The HydroGeoSphere code coupled with PEST are used to estimate the optimal parameter set capable of reproducing the physical model. A grid convergency analysis (in space and time) is also undertaken in order to obtain the adequate spatial and temporal discretizations. The new mathematical benchmark is useful for model comparison and testing of variable-density variably saturated flow in porous media.
Displacement of one Newtonian fluid by another: density effects in axial annular flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole
1997-01-01
The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) finite elementtechnique is used to simulate 3D displacement oftwo immiscible Newtonian fluids in vertical annular wells. For equally viscous fluids the effect of distinct fluid densities is investigated in the region of low to intermediate Reynolds numbers......, the efficiency of the displacement is analysed for various flow situations....
Dynamics of compressible gas-liquid flows with a stiff density ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cortes, Julien
1999-01-01
This work is devoted to the study of transient two-phase flows when the ratio of the two densities is stiff. At first, we review briefly some of the basic principles about two-phase flow, hyperbolicity and the finite volume method. Then we develop a perturbation method, based on the stiffness of the density ratio, to examine the Eigen-structure of two-fluid models. Indeed, in such models, complex phasic interactions yield a complex Eigen-structure which may raise numerous problems in simulations. We show that our approach provides a convenient frame to study the hyperbolicity of such models. At this stage, advanced numerical tests are computed showing the efficiency of our approach in the context of unstructured multidimensional meshes. Our tests are validated for non-equilibrium flows using experimental data or through mesh refinements. At last, we use the scaling of the densities to analyse how momentum is transferred between phases in the context of bubbly flows. We study the relevance of a stiff relaxation term related to the ratio of the densities using linear stability properties and Chapman-Enskog expansions. Our results and some numerical computations tends to show that such a system is apparently well-posed despite being 'weakly' hyperbolic. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, O.; Uenal, A.; Ayhan, T.
1999-01-01
Buoyancy-driven flows in enclosures play a vital role in many engineering applications such as double glazing, ventilation of rooms, nuclear reactor insulation, solar energy collection, cooling of electronic components, and crystal growth in liquids. Here, numerical study on buoyancy-driven laminar flow in an inclined square enclosure heated from one side and cooled from the adjacent side is conducted using finite difference methods. The effect of inclination angle on fluid flow and heat transfer is investigated by varying the angle of inclination between 0 degree and 360degree, and the results are presented in the form of streamlines and isotherms for different inclination angles and Rayleigh numbers. On the basis of the numerical data, the authors determine the critical values of the inclination angle at which the rate of the transfer within the enclosure is either maximum or minimum
Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yinghu Zhang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akola, Jaakko [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology (Finland); COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University (Finland); GRSS and PGI-1, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Kalikka, Janne; Larrucea, Julen [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Jones, Robert O. [GRSS and PGI-1, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)
2013-07-01
Early stages of nucleus-driven crystallization of the prototype phase change material Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} have been studied by massively-parallel density functional/molecular dynamics simulations for amorphous samples (460 and 648 atoms) at 500, 600, and 700 K. All systems assumed a fixed cubic seed of 58 atoms and 6 vacancies in order to achieve sub-nanosecond phase transition. Crystallization occurs within 600 ps for the 460-atom system at 600 and 700 K, and signs of crystallization (nucleus growth, percolation) are present in the others. Crystallization is accompanied by an increase in the number of ABAB squares (A: Ge,Sb, B: Te), and atoms of all elements move significantly. The evolution of cavities/vacancies is closely monitored. The existence of Te-Te, Ge-Ge, Ge-Sb, and Sb-Sb (wrong) bonds is an inevitable consequence of rapid crystallization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.
1990-12-01
Ion temperature gradient turbulence based transport models have difficulties reconciling the recent DIII-D H-mode results where the density profile is flat, but χ e > χ i in the core region. In this work, a nonlinear theory is developed for recently discovered ion temperature gradient trapped electron modes propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction. This instability is predicted to be linearly unstable for L Ti /R approx-lt κ θ ρ s approx-lt (L Ti /R) 1/4 . They are also found to be strongly dispersive even at these long wavelengths, thereby suggesting the importance of the wave-particle-wave interactions in the nonlinear saturation phase. The fluctuation spectrum and anomalous fluxes are calculated. In accordance with the trends observed in DIII-D, the predicted electron thermal diffusivity can be larger than the ion thermal diffusivity. 17 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azbel, M.Y.; Bak, P.
1984-01-01
The differential equation epsilonphi-dieresis+phi-dot-(1/2)α sin(2phi) = I+summation/sub n/ = -infinity/sup infinity/A/sub n/delta(t-t/sub n/) describing the periodically driven damped pendulum is analyzed in the strong damping limit epsilon<<1, using first-order perturbation theory. The equation may represent the motion of a sliding charge-density wave (CDW) in ac plus dc electric fields, and the resistively shunted Josephson junction driven by dc and microwave currents. When the torque I exceeds a critical value the pendulum rotates with a frequency ω. For infinite damping, or zero mass (epsilon = 0), the equation can be transformed to the Schroedinger equation of the Kronig-Penney model. When A/sub n/ is random the pendulum exhibits chaotic motion. In the regular case A/sub n/ = A the frequency ω is a smooth function of the parameters, so there are no phase-locked subharmonic plateaus in the ω(I) curve, or the I-V characteristics for the CDW or Josephson-junction systems. For small nonzero epsilon the return map expressing the phase phi(t/sub n/+1) as a function of the phase phi(t/sub n/) is a one-dimensional circle map. Applying known analytical results for the circle map one finds narrow subharmonic plateaus at all rational frequencies, in agreement with experiments on CDW systems
Herrero, Horacio S.; Díaz Lozada, José M.; García, Carlos M.; Szupiany, Ricardo N.; Best, Jim; Pagot, Mariana
2018-03-01
The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of tributary flow density differences on hydrodynamics and mixing at a confluent meander bend. A detailed field characterization is performed using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) for quantification of the 3D flow field, flow discharge and bathymetry, as well as CTD measurements (conductivity, temperature, depth) to characterize the patterns of mixing. Satellite images of the confluence taken at complementary times to the field surveys were analyzed to evaluate the confluence hydrodynamics at different flow conditions. The results illustrate the differences in hydrodynamics and mixing length in relation to confluences with equal density tributaries. At low-density differences, and higher discharge ratio (Qr) between the two rivers, the flow is similar to equi-density confluent meander bends. In contrast, at high-density differences (low Qr), the tributary flow is confined to near the confluence but the density difference causes the flow to move across channel. In this case, the density difference causes the lateral spread of the tributary flow to be greater than at a greater Qr when the density difference is less. These results illustrate the potential importance of density differences between tributaries in determining the rate and spatial extent of mixing and sediment dispersal at confluent meander bends.
Flow and Residence Times of Dynamic River Bank Storage and Sinuosity-Driven Hyporheic Exchange
Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Wilson, J. L.; Cardenas, M. B.; Harvey, J. W.
2017-10-01
Hydrologic exchange fluxes (HEFs) vary significantly along river corridors due to spatiotemporal changes in discharge and geomorphology. This variability results in the emergence of biogeochemical hot-spots and hot-moments that ultimately control solute and energy transport and ecosystem services from the local to the watershed scales. In this work, we use a reduced-order model to gain mechanistic understanding of river bank storage and sinuosity-driven hyporheic exchange induced by transient river discharge. This is the first time that a systematic analysis of both processes is presented and serves as an initial step to propose parsimonious, physics-based models for better predictions of water quality at the large watershed scale. The effects of channel sinuosity, alluvial valley slope, hydraulic conductivity, and river stage forcing intensity and duration are encapsulated in dimensionless variables that can be easily estimated or constrained. We find that the importance of perturbations in the hyporheic zone's flux, residence times, and geometry is mainly explained by two-dimensionless variables representing the ratio of the hydraulic time constant of the aquifer and the duration of the event (Γd) and the importance of the ambient groundwater flow (Δh∗). Our model additionally shows that even systems with small sensitivity, resulting in small changes in the hyporheic zone extent, are characterized by highly variable exchange fluxes and residence times. These findings highlight the importance of including dynamic changes in hyporheic zones for typical HEF models such as the transient storage model.
Current delivery and radiation yield in plasma flow switch-driven implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, W.L.; Degnan, J.H.; Beason, J.D.
1995-01-01
Vacuum inductive-store, plasma flow switch-driven implosion experiments have been performed using the Shiva Star capacitor bank (1300 μf, 3 nH, 120 kV, 9.4 MJ). A coaxial plasma gun arrangement is employed to store magnetic energy in the vacuum volume upstream of a dynamic discharge during the 3- to 4-μs rise of current from the capacitor bank. Motion of the discharge off the end of the inner conductor of the gun releases this energy to implode a coaxial cylindrical foil. The implosion loads are 5-cm-radius, 2-cm-long, 200 to 400 μg/cm 2 cylinders of aluminum or aluminized Formvar. With 5 MJ stored initially in the capacitor bank, more than 9 MA are delivered to the implosion load with a rise time of nearly 200 ns. The subsequent implosion results in a radiation output of 0.95 MJ at a power exceeding 5 TW (assuming isotropic emission). Experimental results and related two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are discussed. 10 refs., 12 figs
Air-driven viscous film flow coating the interior of a vertical tube
Ogrosky, H. Reed; Camassa, Roberto; Olander, Jeffrey
2017-11-01
We discuss a model for the flow of a viscous liquid film coating the interior of a vertical tube when the film is driven upwards against gravity by airflow through the center of the tube. The model consists of two components: (i) a nonlinear model, exploiting the slowly-varying liquid-air interface, for the interfacial stresses created by the airflow, and (ii) a long-wave asymptotic model for the air-liquid interface. The stability of small interfacial disturbances is studied analytically, and it is shown that the modeled free surface stresses contribute to both an increased upwards disturbance velocity and a more rapid instability growth than those of a previously developed model. Numerical solutions to the long-wave model exhibit saturated waves whose profiles and velocities show improvement, with respect to the previous model, in matching experiments. The model results are then compared with additional experiments for a slightly modified version of the problem. We gratefully acknowledge funding from NSF DMS-0509423, DMS-0908423, DMS-1009750, DMS-1517879, RTG DMS-0943851, CMG ARC-1025523 and NIEHS 534197-3411.
Flagella-Driven Flows Circumvent Diffusive Bottlenecks that Inhibit Metabolite Exchange
Short, Martin; Solari, Cristian; Ganguly, Sujoy; Kessler, John; Goldstein, Raymond; Powers, Thomas
2006-03-01
The evolution of single cells to large and multicellular organisms requires matching the organisms' needs to the rate of exchange of metabolites with the environment. This logistic problem can be a severe constraint on development. For organisms with a body plan that approximates a spherical shell, such as colonies of the volvocine green algae, the required current of metabolites grows quadratically with colony radius whereas the rate at which diffusion can exchange metabolites grows only linearly with radius. Hence, there is a bottleneck radius beyond which the diffusive current cannot keep up with metabolic demands. Using Volvox carteri as a model organism, we examine experimentally and theoretically the role that advection of fluid by surface-mounted flagella plays in enhancing nutrient uptake. We show that fluid flow driven by the coordinated beating of flagella produces a convective boundary layer in the concentration of a diffusing solute which in turn renders the metabolite exchange rate quadratic in the colony radius. This enhanced transport circumvents the diffusive bottleneck, allowing increase in size and thus evolutionary transitions to multicellularity in the Volvocales.
A Microwave Driven Ion Source for Continuous-Flow AMS (Abstract)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wills, J.; Schneider, R.J.; Reden, K.F. von; Hayes, J.M.; Roberts, M.L.; Benthien, A.
2005-01-01
A microwave-driven, gas-fed ion source originally developed as a high-current positive ion injector for a Tandem accelerator at Chalk River has been the subject of a three-year development program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution NOSAMS facility. Off-line tests have demonstrated positive carbon currents of 1 mA and negative carbon currents of 80 μA from CO2 gas feed. This source and a magnesium charge-exchange canal were coupled to the recombinator of the NOSAMS Tandetron for on-line tests, with the source fed with reference gasses and a combustion device.The promising results obtained have prompted the redesign of the microwave source for use as an on-line, continuous-flow injector for a new AMS facility under construction at NOSAMS. The new design is optimized for best transmission of the extracted positive-ion beam through the charge-exchange canal and for reliable operation at 40 kV extraction voltage. Other goals of the re-design include improved lifetime of the microwave window and the elimination of dead volumes in the plasma generator that increase sample hold-up time.This talk will include a summary of results obtained to date at NOSAMS with the Chalk River source and a detailed description of the new design
Simulating variable-density flows with time-consistent integration of Navier-Stokes equations
Lu, Xiaoyi; Pantano, Carlos
2017-11-01
In this talk, we present several features of a high-order semi-implicit variable-density low-Mach Navier-Stokes solver. A new formulation to solve pressure Poisson-like equation of variable-density flows is highlighted. With this formulation of the numerical method, we are able to solve all variables with a uniform order of accuracy in time (consistent with the time integrator being used). The solver is primarily designed to perform direct numerical simulations for turbulent premixed flames. Therefore, we also address other important elements, such as energy-stable boundary conditions, synthetic turbulence generation, and flame anchoring method. Numerical examples include classical non-reacting constant/variable-density flows, as well as turbulent premixed flames.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fincke, J.R.; Berggren, M.J.; Johnson, S.A.
1980-01-01
The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of average density and density distribution in multiphase flows. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model independent method of obtaining flow field density information. The unique features of interest in application of a practical tomographic densitometer system are the limited number of data values and the correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid (0.5 by 0.5 cm). These features were studied both experimentally, through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically, through computer generation of simulated data. Prototypical data were taken on phantoms constructed of Plexiglas and laminated Plexiglas, wood, and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data were compared with reconstructions from the simulated data
Hydrogen consumption and power density in a co-flow planar SOFC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben Moussa, Hocine; Zitouni, Bariza [Laboratoire d' etude des systemes energetiques industriels (LESEI), Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Oulmi, Kafia [Laboratoire de chimie et de chimie de l' environnement, Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf [CDER, BP. 62 Route de l' Observatoire. Bouzareah. Alger (Algeria); Mandin, Philippe [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), LECA, UMR 7575 CNRS-ENSCP Paris 6 (France)
2009-06-15
In the present work, power density and hydrogen consumption in a co-flow planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are studied according to the inlet functional parameters; such as the operational temperature, the operational pressure, the flow rates and the mass fractions of the species. Furthermore, the effect of the cell size is investigated. The results of a zero and a one-dimensional numerical electro-dynamic model predict the remaining quantity of the fed hydrogen at the output of the anode flow channel. The remaining hydrogen quantities and the SOFC's power density obtained are discussed as a function of the inlet functional parameters, the geometrical configuration of the cell and several operating cell voltages values. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paek, Seung Ho; Kim, Dong Sung; Choi, Young Ki
2009-01-01
In this paper, we have performed a parametric study on the characteristics of multiphase laminar flow with density difference in various microchannels. The interface between multiphase fluids is rotated by the gravitational forces induced by density difference. The numerical simulations were carried out via commercial CFD package to study the characteristics of multiphase laminar flow. The results of the numerical simulations in this study were verified by comparing with the previously reported experimental results in the literature. We have also proposed a new dimensionless relationship between dimensionless rotation angle of interface and dimensionless parameters are proposed for square microchannels with various aspect ratios. The dimensionless relationship could be widely applied to the reliable design of various microfluidic devices dealing with multiphase laminar flow
Effect of density step on stirring properties of a strain flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, M; Paranthoen, P
2009-01-01
The influence of steep density gradient on stirring properties of a strain flow is addressed by considering the problem in which an interface separating two regions with different constant densities is stabilized within a stagnation-point flow. The existence of an analytic solution for the two-dimensional incompressible flow field allows the exact derivation of the velocity gradient tensor and of parameters describing the local flow topology. Stirring properties are affected not only by vorticity production and jump of strain intensity at the interface, but also by rotation of strain principal axes resulting from anisotropy of pressure Hessian. The strain persistence parameter, which measures the respective effects of strain and effective rotation (vorticity plus rotation rate of strain basis), reveals a complex structure. In particular, for large values of the density ratio, it indicates dominating effective rotation in a restricted area past the interface. Information on flow structure derived from the Okubo-Weiss parameter, by contrast, is less detailed. The influence of the density step on stirring properties is assessed by the Lagrangian evolution of the gradient of a passive scalar. Even for a moderate density ratio, alignment of the scalar gradient and growth rate of its norm are deeply altered. Past the interface effective rotation indeed drives the scalar gradient to align with a direction determined by the local strain persistence parameter, away from the compressional strain direction. The jump of strain intensity at the interface, however, opposes the lessening effect of the latter mechanism on the growth rate of the scalar gradient norm and promotes the rise of the gradient.
Hermidas, Navid; Eggenhuisen, Joris; Luthi, Stefan; Silva Jacinto, Ricardo; Toth, Ferenc; Pohl, Florian
2017-04-01
Transformations of a subaqueous density flow from proximal to distal regions are investigated. A classification of these transformations based on the state of the free shear and boundary layers and existence of a plug layer during transition from a debris flow to a turbidity current is presented. A connection between the emplaced deposit by the flow and the relevant flow type is drawn through the results obtained from a series of laboratory flume experiments. These were performed using 9%, 15%, and 21% sediment mixture concentrations composed of sand, silt, clay, and tap water, on varying bed slopes of 6°, 8°, and 9.5°, and with discharge rates of 10[m3/h] and 15[m3/h]. Stress-controlled rheometry experiments were performed on the mixtures to obtain apparent viscosity data. A classification was developed based on the imposed flow conditions, where a cohesive flow may fall within one of five distinct flow types: 1) a cohesive plug flow (PF) with a laminar free shear and boundary layers, 2) a top transitional plug flow (TTPF) containing a turbulent free shear layer, a plug layer, and a laminar boundary layer, 3) a complete transitional plug flow (CTPF) consisting of a turbulent free shear and boundary layers and a plug, 4) a transitional turbidity current (TTC) with a turbulent free shear layer and a laminar boundary layer, and, 5) a completely turbulent turbidity current (TC). During the experiments, flow type PF resulted in en masse deposition of a thick uniform ungraded muddy sand mixture, which was emplaced once the yield stress overcame the gravitational forces within the tail region of the flow. Flow type TTPF resulted in deposition of a thin ungraded basal clean sand layer during the run. This layer was covered by a muddy sand deposit from the tail. Flow type TTC did not deposit any sediment during the run. A uniform muddy sand mixture was emplaced by the tail of the flow. Flow type TC resulted in deposition of poorly sorted massive bottom sand layer. This
Smolen, Dariusz; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Malka, Iwona; Kedzierska, Aleksandra; Lojkowski, Witold; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof Jan; Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska, Małgorzata; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Małgorzata
2013-01-01
A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m2/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 μmol/dm3 in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material extract, and in direct contact. A quantitative analysis was based on the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide. Viability assay as well as on DNA content measurements in the PicoGreen test. Indirect observations were performed at one point in time according to the ISO standard for in vitro cytotoxicity (ie, after 24 hours of cell exposure to the extracts). The direct contact tests were completed at three time points: after 24 hours, on day 7, and on day 14 of a culture in an osteogenic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Dastgeer
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Interstellar scintillation and angular radio wave broadening measurements show that interstellar and solar wind (electron density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k-5/3 power spectrum extending over many decades in wavenumber space. The ubiquity of the Kolmogorov-like interstellar medium (ISM density spectrum led to an explanation based on coupling incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluctuations to density fluctuations through a 'pseudosound' relation within the context of 'nearly incompressible' (NI hydrodynamics (HD and MHD models. The NI theory provides a fundamentally different explanation for the observed ISM density spectrum in that the density fluctuations can be a consequence of passive scalar convection due to background incompressible fluctuations. The theory further predicts generation of long-scale structures and various correlations between the density, temperature and the (magneto acoustic as well as convective pressure fluctuations in the compressible ISM fluids in different thermal regimes that are determined purely by the thermal fluctuation level. In this paper, we present the results of our two dimensional nonlinear fluid simulations, exploring various nonlinear aspects that lead to inertial range ISM turbulence within the context of a NI hydrodymanics model. In qualitative agreement with the NI predictions and the in-situ observations, we find that i the density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like spectrum via a passive convection in the field of the background incompressible fluctuations, ii the compressible ISM fluctuations form long scale flows and structures, and iii the density and the temperature fluctuations are anti-correlated.
Phase separation driven by density-dependent movement: A novel mechanism for ecological patterns.
Liu, Quan-Xing; Rietkerk, Max; Herman, Peter M J; Piersma, Theunis; Fryxell, John M; van de Koppel, Johan
2016-12-01
Many ecosystems develop strikingly regular spatial patterns because of small-scale interactions between organisms, a process generally referred to as spatial self-organization. Self-organized spatial patterns are important determinants of the functioning of ecosystems, promoting the growth and survival of the involved organisms, and affecting the capacity of the organisms to cope with changing environmental conditions. The predominant explanation for self-organized pattern formation is spatial heterogeneity in establishment, growth and mortality, resulting from the self-organization processes. A number of recent studies, however, have revealed that movement of organisms can be an important driving process creating extensive spatial patterning in many ecosystems. Here, we review studies that detail movement-based pattern formation in contrasting ecological settings. Our review highlights that a common principle, where movement of organisms is density-dependent, explains observed spatial regular patterns in all of these studies. This principle, well known to physics as the Cahn-Hilliard principle of phase separation, has so-far remained unrecognized as a general mechanism for self-organized complexity in ecology. Using the examples presented in this paper, we explain how this movement principle can be discerned in ecological settings, and clarify how to test this mechanism experimentally. Our study highlights that animal movement, both in isolation and in unison with other processes, is an important mechanism for regular pattern formation in ecosystems. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pierce, Eric T; Kumar, Vikram; Zheng, Hui; Peterfreund, Robert A
2013-03-01
Gravity-driven micro-drip infusion sets allow control of medication dose delivery by adjusting drops per minute. When the roller clamp is fully open, flow in the drip chamber can be a continuous fluid column rather than discrete, countable, drops. We hypothesized that during this "wide-open" state, drug delivery becomes dependent on factors extrinsic to the micro-drip set and is therefore difficult to predict. We conducted laboratory experiments to characterize volume delivery under various clinically relevant conditions of wide-open flow in an in vitro laboratory model. A micro-drip infusion set, plugged into a bag of normal saline, was connected to a high-flow stopcock at the distal end. Vertically oriented IV catheters (gauges 14-22) were connected to the stopcock. The fluid meniscus height in the bag was fixed (60-120 cm) above the outflow point. The roller clamp on the infusion set was in fully open position for all experiments resulting in a continuous column of fluid in the drip chamber. Fluid volume delivered in 1 minute was measured 4 times with each condition. To model resistive effects of carrier flow, volumetric infusion pumps were used to deliver various flow rates of normal saline through a carrier IV set into which a micro-drip infusion was "piggybacked." We also compared delivery by micro-drip infusion sets from 3 manufacturers. The volume of fluid delivered by gravity-driven infusion under wide-open conditions (continuous fluid column in drip chamber) varied 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.84-2.96) depending on catheter size and fluid column height. Total model resistance of the micro-drip with stopcock and catheter varied with flow rate. Volume delivered by the piggybacked micro-drip decreased up to 29.7% ± 0.8% (mean ± SE) as the carrier flow increased from 0 to 1998 mL/min. Delivery characteristics of the micro-drip infusion sets from 3 different manufacturers were similar. Laboratory simulation of clinical situations with gravity-driven
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smolen D
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Dariusz Smolen1, Tadeusz Chudoba1, Iwona Malka1, Aleksandra Kedzierska1, Witold Lojkowski1, Wojciech Swieszkowski2, Krzysztof Jan Kurzydlowski2, Malgorzata Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska3, Malgorzata Lewandowska-Szumiel31Polish Academy of Science, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Warsaw, Poland; 2Faculty of Materials Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Histology and Embryology, Center of Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, PolandAbstract: A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m2/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 µmol/dm3 in the tris(hydroxymethylaminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C. [Research Support Instruments, Lanham, Maryland 20905 (United States); Phillips, L. [Alogus Research Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22101 (United States); Afeyan, B. [Polymath Research, Inc., Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Seely, J.; Feldman, U. [Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)
2013-02-15
The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength ({lambda}=248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers ({lambda}=351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns{<=}{tau}{<=}1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.
2013-01-01
The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength (λ=248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers (λ=351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns≤τ≤1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2×10 15 W/cm 2 ). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.
Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C.
2013-02-01
The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength (λ =248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers (λ =351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns≤τ≤1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2×1015 W/cm2). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.
Modeling Bubble Flow and Current Density Distribution in an Alkaline Electrolysis Cell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravichandra S. Jupudi
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of bubbles on the current density distribution over the electrodes of an alkaline electrolyzer cell is studied using a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model. Model includes Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow methodology to model the multiphase flow of Hydrogen and Oxygen with water and the behavior of each phase is accounted for using first principle. Hydrogen/Oxygen evolution, flow field and current density distribution are incorporated in the model to account for the complicated physics involved in the process. Fluent 6.2 is used to solve two-phase flow and electrochemistry is incorporated using UDF (User Defined Function feature of Fluent. Model is validated with mesh refinement study and by comparison with experimental measurements. Model is found to replicate the effect of cell voltage and inter-electrode gap (distance between the electrodes on current density accurately. Further, model is found to capture the existence of optimum cell height. The validated model is expected to be a very useful tool in the design and optimization of alkaline electrolyzer cells.
Kahveci, E. E.; Taymaz, I.
2018-03-01
In this study it was experimentally investigated the effect of mass flow rates of reactant gases which is one of the most important operational parameters of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell on power density. The channel type is serpentine and single PEM fuel cell has an active area of 25 cm2. Design-Expert 8.0 (trial version) was used with four variables to investigate the effect of variables on the response using. Cell temperature, hydrogen mass flow rate, oxygen mass flow rate and humidification temperature were selected as independent variables. In addition, the power density was used as response to determine the combined effects of these variables. It was kept constant cell and humidification temperatures while changing mass flow rates of reactant gases. From the results an increase occurred in power density with increasing the hydrogen flow rates. But oxygen flow rate does not have a significant effect on power density within determined mass flow rates.
Impact of variations in mangrove pneumatophore density on boundary flow characteristics
Pilditch, C. A.; Horstman, E.; Bryan, K. R.; Mullarney, J. C.; Eager, C. A.
2016-12-01
Mangrove forests are common in subtropical and tropical environments, providing ecosystem services such as processing nutrients, carbon sequestration and coastal protection. Many of these services are dependent on the interaction between the aerial roots (pneumatophores), which extend upward from the seabed, and the boundary layer flows. Here, we present results from a series of laboratory experiments using natural Avicennia spp. pneumatophores ( 6 mm diameter, 7 cm high) at 3 different densities (71-268 m-2). Pneumatophore densities and positioning were quantified using photo quadrats from a fringing mangrove habitat (Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand). Natural pneumatophore covers were reconstructed over a 4.0 m test section in a recirculating flume using harvested roots. Two different flow speeds (10/15 cm/s) and three water depths (12/21/30 cm), were tested, providing a range of conditions from a partially emergent to a fully submerged canopy. Calculations using a*d*Cd, where a is frontal area per unit volume, d is structure height and Cd is the drag coefficient, assumed to be 1, suggest skimming flow should occur at an average pneumatophore spacing of <10 cm. However, our preliminary results show that flow still penetrates substantially (up to 3.5 m) into the canopy even at the highest density, suggesting that Avicennia pneumatophores in these fringing environments can both enhance or reduce the shear stress at the seabed depending on density. Avicennia roots spread radially from individual trees, and so pneumatophore densities can vary considerably over short distances. Our results show that this spreading behavior may significantly affect the morphological development of the seaward fringe of a forest.
Fundamental research of two-phase flows with high liquid/gas density ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishima, Kaichiro; Hibiki, Takashi; Saito, Yasushi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Tohru
2000-07-01
In order to analyze the boiling of a fuel-steel mixture pool formed during the core disruptive accident in a fast breeder reactor, it is important to understand the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase pools containing molten reactor materials. Since the liquid/gas density ratio is high, the characteristics of such two-phase flows may differ from those of ordinary flows such as water/air flow. In this study, as a fundamental research of two-phase flows with a high liquid/gas density ratio, the experiments were performed to visualize and measure molten metal (lead-bismuth)/nitrogen gas two-phase flows using a neutron radiography technique. From these experiments, fundamental data such as bubble shapes, void fractions and liquid velocity fields were obtained. In addition, the momentum exchange model of SIMMER-III, which has been developed by JNC, was assessed and improved using the experimental data. In the visualization by neutron radiography, it was found that deformed ellipsoidal bubbles could be seen with smaller gas flux or lower void fractions, and spherical cap bubbles could be seen with larger gas flux or higher void fractions. In addition, a correlation applicable to SIMMER-III was proposed through a comparison between the experimental data and traditional empirical correlations. Furthermore, a visualization experiment using gold-cadmium tracer particles showed that the image processing technique used in the quantification of void fractions is applicable to the measurement of the liquid velocity fields. On the other hand, in the analysis by SIMMER-III, it was confirmed that the original momentum exchange model was appropriate for ellipsoidal bobby flows and that the accuracy of SIMMER-III for cap bubbly flows was much improved with the proposed correlation. Moreover, a new procedure, in which the appropriate drag coefficient could be automatically selected according to bubble shape, was developed. The SIMMER-III code improved through this study can
A blended pressure/density based method for the computation of incompressible and compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossow, C.-C.
2003-01-01
An alternative method to low speed preconditioning for the computation of nearly incompressible flows with compressible methods is developed. For this approach the leading terms of the flux difference splitting (FDS) approximate Riemann solver are analyzed in the incompressible limit. In combination with the requirement of the velocity field to be divergence-free, an elliptic equation to solve for a pressure correction to enforce the divergence-free velocity field on the discrete level is derived. The pressure correction equation established is shown to be equivalent to classical methods for incompressible flows. In order to allow the computation of flows at all speeds, a blending technique for the transition from the incompressible, pressure based formulation to the compressible, density based formulation is established. It is found necessary to use preconditioning with this blending technique to account for a remaining 'compressible' contribution in the incompressible limit, and a suitable matrix directly applicable to conservative residuals is derived. Thus, a coherent framework is established to cover the discretization of both incompressible and compressible flows. Compared with standard preconditioning techniques, the blended pressure/density based approach showed improved robustness for high lift flows close to separation
Global solution to the 3D inhomogeneous nematic liquid crystal flows with variable density
Hu, Xianpeng; Liu, Qiao
2018-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the global existence and uniqueness of solution to the 3D inhomogeneous incompressible nematic liquid crystal flows with variable density in the framework of Besov spaces. It is proved that there exists a global and unique solution to the nematic liquid crystal flows if the initial data (ρ0 - 1 ,u0 ,n0 -e3) ∈ M (B˙p,1 3/p - 1 (R3)) × B˙p,1 3/p - 1 (R3) × B˙p,1 3/p (R3) with 1 ≤ p < 6, and satisfies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidstrand, Patrik; Svensson, Urban; Follin, Sven
2006-10-01
The main objective of this study is to support the safety assessment of the investigated candidate sites concerning hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical issues related to permafrost. However, a more specific objective of the study is to improve the assessment of processes in relation to permafrost scenarios. The model is based on a mathematical model that includes Darcy velocities, mass conservation, matrix diffusion, and salinity distribution. Gravitational effects are thus fully accounted for. A regional groundwater flow model (POM v1.1, Simpevarp) was used as basis for the simulations. The main results of the model include salinity distributions in time. The general conclusion is that density-driven mixing processes are contained within more permeable deformation zones and that these processes are fast as compared with preliminary permafrost growth rates. The results of the simulation suggest that a repository volume in the rock mass in-between the deterministic deformation zones, approximately 150 m below the permafrost will not experience a high salinity situation due to the salt rejection process
Xu, Shi-qin; Ji, Xi-bin; Jin, Bo-wen
2016-02-01
Independent measurements of stem sap flow in stems of Calligonum mongolicum and environmental variables using commercial sap flow gauges and a micrometeorological monitoring system, respectively, were made to simulate the variation of sap flow density in the middle range of Hexi Corridor, Northwest China during June to September, 2014. The results showed that the diurnal process of sap flow density in C. mongolicum showed a broad unimodal change, and the maximum sap flow density reached about 30 minutes after the maximum of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) , while about 120 minutes before the maximum of temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). During the studying period, sap flow density closely related with atmosphere evapor-transpiration demand, and mainly affected by PAR, temperature and VPD. The model was developed which directly linked the sap flow density with climatic variables, and good correlation between measured and simulated sap flow density was observed in different climate conditions. The accuracy of simulation was significantly improved if the time-lag effect was taken into consideration, while this model underestimated low and nighttime sap flow densities, which was probably caused by plant physiological characteristics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GONG; Yuling; WANG; Liangshu; LIU; Shaowen; LI; Cheng; HAN
2004-01-01
Based on the geo-temperature data of 13 systematically continuous temperature log curves and 700 testing oil boreholes in Jiyang depression, Shengli Oilfield, and the measured thermal conductivities of 47 rock samples, the terrestrial heat flow densities of 114 boreholes of Jiyang depression and its surrounding areas are determined, including 13 of those data derived from systemically continuous temperature logging. The results show that Jiyang depression has a relatively high background heat flow with an average value (65.8 ± 5.4) mW/m2. The lateral variation of heat flow in basin has negative correlation with basement depth. Moreover, heat flow of uplift areas with shallower basement is high, so are those of regions with volcanic rocks, and those of depression areas with deep basement are relatively low. The heat flow densities of different structural units of Jiyang depression can be summarized as follows: The average heat flow value of Zhanhua sag is (67.4 ± 5.3) mW/m2, higher than that of the whole basin, that of Dongying sag is (66.0 ± 6.1) mW/m2, and that of Chezhen sag is (65.1 ± 3.7) mW/m2. It is apparent that these latter two values are approximate to the average value of the whole Jiyang depression,while the average value of Huimin sag is (63.6±5.0) mW/m2, lower than that of the whole basin. In fact, the basement depth and the distribution framework of uplift and depression areas are all controlled by the process of lithosphere extension. In addition, the distribution of volcanic rocks in basin is also relatively close to this extension geodynamic process. In summary, the distribution characteristics of terrestrial heat flow of Jiyang depression is determined by the Cenozoic tectono-thermal events of this region.
Sum rules and spectral density flow in QCD and in superconformal theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Costantini Antonio
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the signature of the anomalous breaking of the superconformal symmetry in N${\\cal N}$ = 1 super Yang Mills theory and its manifestation in the form of anomaly poles. Moreover, we describe the massive deformations of the N${\\cal N}$ = 1 theory and the spectral densities of the corresponding anomaly form factors. These are characterized by spectral densities which flow with the mass deformation and turn the continuum contributions from the two-particle cuts of the intermediate states into poles, with a single sum rule satisfied by each component. The poles can be interpreted as signaling the exchange of a composite axion/dilaton/dilatino (ADD multiplet in the effective Lagrangian. We conclude that global anomalous currents characterized by a single flow in the perturbative picture always predict the existence of composite interpolating fields.
Stotz, I. L.; Iaffaldano, G.; Davies, D. R.
2018-01-01
The Pacific Plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians-Japan, Marianas-Izu-Bonin, and Tonga-Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub-Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e., Couette flow) and that the associated shear stresses at the lithosphere's base are resisting such motion. Recent studies on glacial isostatic adjustment and lithosphere dynamics provide tighter constraints on the viscosity and thickness of Earth's asthenosphere and, therefore, on the amount of shear stress that asthenosphere and lithosphere mutually exchange, by virtue of Newton's third law of motion. In light of these constraints, the notion that subduction is the main driver of present-day Pacific Plate motion becomes somewhat unviable, as the pulling force that would be required by slabs exceeds the maximum available from their negative buoyancy. Here we use coupled global models of mantle and lithosphere dynamics to show that the sub-Pacific asthenosphere features a significant component of pressure-driven (i.e., Poiseuille) flow and that this has driven at least 50% of the Pacific Plate motion since, at least, 15 Ma. A corollary of our models is that a sublithospheric pressure difference as high as ±50 MPa is required across the Pacific domain.
Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almenara, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Saviron, J. M.
1980-01-01
This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs
Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.
2010-01-01
Dispersion of a passive scalar from concentrated sources in fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied with the probability density function (PDF) method. The joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and scalar concentration is represented by a large number of Lagrangian particles. A stochastic near-wall PDF model combines the generalized Langevin model of Haworth & Pope with Durbin's method of elliptic relaxation to provide a mathematically exact treatment of convective and viscous ...
Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Lee-Andruske, Cynthia; de Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Almonacid-Fierro, Alejandro; Gómez-Campos, Rossana
2018-03-02
Maintaining and building healthy bones during the lifetime requires a complicated interaction between a number of physiological and lifestyle factors. Our goal of this study was to analyze the association between hand grip strength and the maximum peak expiratory flow with bone mineral density and content in adolescent students. The research team studied 1427 adolescent students of both sexes (750 males and 677 females) between the ages of 11.0 and 18.9 years in the Maule Region of Talca (Chile). Weight, standing height, sitting height, hand grip strength (HGS), and maximum peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured. Furthermore, bone mineral density (BMD) and total body bone mineral content (BMC) were determined by using the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Hand grip strength and PEF were categorized in tertiles (lowest, middle, and highest). Linear regression was performed in steps to analyze the relationship between the variables. Differences between categories were determined through ANOVA. In males, the hand grip strength explained 18-19% of the BMD and 20-23% of the BMC. For the females, the percentage of variation occurred between 12 and 13% of the BMD and 17-18% of the BMC. The variation of PEF for the males was observed as 33% of the BMD and 36% of the BMC. For the females, both the BMD and BMC showed a variation of 19%. The HGS and PEF were divided into three categories (lowest, middle, and highest). In both cases, significant differences occurred in bone density health between the three categories. In conclusion, the HGS and the PEF related positively to the bone density health of both sexes of adolescent students. The adolescents with poor values for hand grip strength and expiratory flow showed reduced values of BMD and BMC for the total body. Furthermore, the PEF had a greater influence on bone density health with respect to the HGS of the adolescents of both sexes.
Estimation of Engine Intake Air Mass Flow using a generic Speed-Density method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vojtíšek Michal
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Measurement of real driving emissions (RDE from internal combustion engines under real-world operation using portable, onboard monitoring systems (PEMS is becoming an increasingly important tool aiding the assessment of the effects of new fuels and technologies on environment and human health. The knowledge of exhaust flow is one of the prerequisites for successful RDE measurement with PEMS. One of the simplest approaches for estimating the exhaust flow from virtually any engine is its computation from the intake air flow, which is calculated from measured engine rpm and intake manifold charge pressure and temperature using a generic speed-density algorithm, applicable to most contemporary four-cycle engines. In this work, a generic speed-density algorithm was compared against several reference methods on representative European production engines - a gasoline port-injected automobile engine, two turbocharged diesel automobile engines, and a heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine. The overall results suggest that the uncertainty of the generic speed-density method is on the order of 10% throughout most of the engine operating range, but increasing to tens of percent where high-volume exhaust gas recirculation is used. For non-EGR engines, such uncertainty is acceptable for many simpler and screening measurements, and may be, where desired, reduced by engine-specific calibration.
Applications of Low Density Flow Techniques and Catalytic Recombination at the Johnson Space Center
Scott, Carl D.
2000-01-01
The talk presents a brief background on defInitions of catalysis and effects associated with chemically nonequilibrium and low-density flows of aerospace interest. Applications of catalytic recombination on surfaces in dissociated flow are given, including aero heating on reentry spacecraft thermal protection surfaces and reflection of plume flow on pressure distributions associated with the space station. Examples include aero heating predictions for the X-38 test vehicle, the inlet of a proposed gas-sampling probe used in high enthalpy test facilities, and a parabolic body at angle of attack. The effect of accommodation coefficients on thruster induced pressure distributions is also included. Examples of tools used include simple aero heating formulas based on boundary layer solutions, an engineering approximation that uses axisymmetric viscous shock layer flow to simulate full three dimensional flow, full computational fluid dynamics, and direct simulation Monte-Carlo calculations. Methods of determining catalytic recombination rates in arc jet flow are discus ed. An area of catalysis not fully understood is the formation of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with gas phase or nano-size metal particles. The Johnson Space Center is making SWNTs using both a laser ablation technique and an electric arc vaporization technique.
Reactive flow modeling of initial density effect on divergence JB-9014 detonation driving
Yu, Xin; Huang, Kuibang; Zheng, Miao
2016-06-01
A serious of experiments were designed and the results were represented in this paper, in which 2mm thickness cooper shells were impacted by explosives named JB-9014 with different densities, and the surface velocities of the OFHC shells were measured. The comparison of experimental data shows the free surface velocity of the OFHC shell increase with the IHE density. Numerical modeling, which occupied phenomenological reactive flow rate model using the two-dimensional Lagrange hydrodynamic code, were carried out to simulate the above experiments, and empirical adjustments on detonation velocity and pressure and Pier Tang's adjustments on EOS of detonation products were both introduced in our numerical simulation work. The computational results agree well with that of experiments, and the numerical results with original parameters of products and the adjusted ones of JB-9014 could describe the density effect distinctly.
Genetic search for an optimal power flow solution from a high density cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amarnath, R.V. [Hi-Tech College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Ramana, N.V. [JNTU College of Engineering, Jagityala (India)
2008-07-01
This paper proposed a novel method to solve optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The method is based on a genetic algorithm (GA) search from a High Density Cluster (GAHDC). The algorithm of the proposed method includes 3 stages, notably (1) a suboptimal solution is obtained via a conventional analytical method, (2) a high density cluster, which consists of other suboptimal data points from the first stage, is formed using a density-based cluster algorithm, and (3) a genetic algorithm based search is carried out for the exact optimal solution from a low population sized, high density cluster. The final optimal solution thoroughly satisfies the well defined fitness function. A standard IEEE 30-bus test system was considered for the simulation study. Numerical results were presented and compared with the results of other approaches. It was concluded that although there is not much difference in numerical values, the proposed method has the advantage of minimal computational effort and reduced CPU time. As such, the method would be suitable for online applications such as the present Optimal Power Flow problem. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.
Relaxation of potential, flows, and density in the edge plasma of Castor tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hron, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Dufkova, E.; Duran, I.; Stoeckel, J.; Hidalgo, C.
2004-01-01
Decay times of plasma flows and plasma profiles have been measured after a sudden biasing switch-off in experiments on the Castor tokamak. A biased electrode has been used to polarize the edge plasma. The edge plasma potential and flows have been characterized by means of Langmuir and Mach probes, the radiation was measured using an array of bolometers. Potential profiles and poloidal flows can be well fitted by an exponential decay time in the range of 10 - 30 μs when the electrode biasing is turned off in the Castor tokamak. The radiation shows a slower time scale (about 1 ms), which is linked to the evolution in the plasma density and particle confinement. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owen, James E.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.
2016-01-01
We have investigated the evaporation of close-in exoplanets irradiated by ionizing photons. We find that the properties of the flow are controlled by the ratio of the recombination time to the flow timescale. When the recombination timescale is short compared to the flow timescale, the flow is in approximate local ionization equilibrium with a thin ionization front where the photon mean free path is short compared to the flow scale. In this “recombination-limited” flow the mass-loss scales roughly with the square root of the incident flux. When the recombination time is long compared to the flow timescale the ionization front becomes thick and encompasses the entire flow with the mass-loss rate scaling linearly with flux. If the planet's potential is deep, then the flow is approximately “energy-limited”; however, if the planet's potential is shallow, then we identify a new limiting mass-loss regime, which we term “photon-limited.” In this scenario, the mass-loss rate is purely limited by the incoming flux of ionizing photons. We have developed a new numerical approach that takes into account the frequency dependence of the incoming ionizing spectrum and performed a large suite of 1D simulations to characterize UV driven mass-loss around low-mass planets. We find that the flow is “recombination-limited” at high fluxes but becomes “energy-limited” at low fluxes; however, the transition is broad occurring over several orders of magnitude in flux. Finally, we point out that the transitions between the different flow types do not occur at a single flux value but depend on the planet's properties, with higher-mass planets becoming “energy-limited” at lower fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Outeda, R.; D'Onofrio, A.; El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A.
2014-01-01
Density driven instabilities produced by CO 2 (gas) dissolution in water containing a color indicator were studied in a Hele Shaw cell. The images were analyzed and instability patterns were characterized by mixing zone temporal evolution, dispersion curves, and the growth rate for different CO 2 pressures and different color indicator concentrations. The results obtained from an exhaustive analysis of experimental data show that this system has a different behaviour in the linear regime of the instabilities (when the growth rate has a linear dependence with time), from the nonlinear regime at longer times. At short times using a color indicator to see the evolution of the pattern, the images show that the effects of both the color indicator and CO 2 pressure are of the same order of magnitude: The growth rates are similar and the wave numbers are in the same range (0–30 cm −1 ) when the system is unstable. Although in the linear regime the dynamics is affected similarly by the presence of the indicator and CO 2 pressure, in the nonlinear regime, the influence of the latter is clearly more pronounced than the effects of the color indicator
Jain, Anubhav
2017-04-01
Density functional theory (DFT) simulations solve for the electronic structure of materials starting from the Schrödinger equation. Many case studies have now demonstrated that researchers can often use DFT to design new compounds in the computer (e.g., for batteries, catalysts, and hydrogen storage) before synthesis and characterization in the lab. In this talk, I will focus on how DFT calculations can be executed on large supercomputing resources in order to generate very large data sets on new materials for functional applications. First, I will briefly describe the Materials Project, an effort at LBNL that has virtually characterized over 60,000 materials using DFT and has shared the results with over 17,000 registered users. Next, I will talk about how such data can help discover new materials, describing how preliminary computational screening led to the identification and confirmation of a new family of bulk AMX2 thermoelectric compounds with measured zT reaching 0.8. I will outline future plans for how such data-driven methods can be used to better understand the factors that control thermoelectric behavior, e.g., for the rational design of electronic band structures, in ways that are different from conventional approaches.
Citrin, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Casson, F. J.; Angioni, C.; Bonanomi, N.; Camenen, Y.; Garbet, X.; Garzotti, L.; Görler, T.; Gürcan, O.; Koechl, F.; Imbeaux, F.; Linder, O.; van de Plassche, K.; Strand, P.; Szepesi, G.; Contributors, JET
2017-12-01
Quasilinear turbulent transport models are a successful tool for prediction of core tokamak plasma profiles in many regimes. Their success hinges on the reproduction of local nonlinear gyrokinetic fluxes. We focus on significant progress in the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014036), which employs an approximated solution of the mode structures to significantly speed up computation time compared to full linear gyrokinetic solvers. Optimisation of the dispersion relation solution algorithm within integrated modelling applications leads to flux calculations × {10}6-7 faster than local nonlinear simulations. This allows tractable simulation of flux-driven dynamic profile evolution including all transport channels: ion and electron heat, main particles, impurities, and momentum. Furthermore, QuaLiKiz now includes the impact of rotation and temperature anisotropy induced poloidal asymmetry on heavy impurity transport, important for W-transport applications. Application within the JETTO integrated modelling code results in 1 s of JET plasma simulation within 10 h using 10 CPUs. Simultaneous predictions of core density, temperature, and toroidal rotation profiles for both JET hybrid and baseline experiments are presented, covering both ion and electron turbulence scales. The simulations are successfully compared to measured profiles, with agreement mostly in the 5%-25% range according to standard figures of merit. QuaLiKiz is now open source and available at www.qualikiz.com.
Dunning, J. W., Jr.; Lancashire, R. B.; Manista, E. J.
1976-01-01
Measurements have been conducted of the effect of the convection of ions and electrons on the discharge characteristics in a large scale laser. The results are presented for one particular distribution of ballast resistance. Values of electric field, current density, input power density, ratio of electric field to neutral gas density (E/N), and electron number density were calculated on the basis of measurements of the discharge properties. In a number of graphs, the E/N ratio, current density, power density, and electron density are plotted as a function of row number (downstream position) with total discharge current and gas velocity as parameters. From the dependence of the current distribution on the total current, it appears that the electron production in the first two rows significantly affects the current flowing in the succeeding rows.
Sound attenuations of axial fan blade tones using flow-driven tunable resonator arrays
Gorny, Lee James
attained and BPF tones were reduced to less than 5 dB from the broadband noise floor for each case discussed above. In parallel with experimental work, analytical models were developed to effectively model and predict optimal resonator configurations for a given fan in operation. Interactions between resonators and the driving pressure field from the rotor blades are modeled using transmission line (TL) theory. Blade tone acoustic pressure is obtained using a finite element method (FEM) propagation code. By combining of these two methods, a resonator configuration that achieves optimal attenuation can be numerically obtained. The use of resonators has been shown to significantly attenuate fan noise in the conditions explored in the considered experiments. Numerical modeling has shown consistency in the response of flow driven resonators and their. These results indicate a strong potential for active control of fan noise using resonators and an approach to applying this control is presented.
Esmaily, M.; Jofre, L.; Mani, A.; Iaccarino, G.
2018-03-01
A geometric multigrid algorithm is introduced for solving nonsymmetric linear systems resulting from the discretization of the variable density Navier-Stokes equations on nonuniform structured rectilinear grids and high-Reynolds number flows. The restriction operation is defined such that the resulting system on the coarser grids is symmetric, thereby allowing for the use of efficient smoother algorithms. To achieve an optimal rate of convergence, the sequence of interpolation and restriction operations are determined through a dynamic procedure. A parallel partitioning strategy is introduced to minimize communication while maintaining the load balance between all processors. To test the proposed algorithm, we consider two cases: 1) homogeneous isotropic turbulence discretized on uniform grids and 2) turbulent duct flow discretized on stretched grids. Testing the algorithm on systems with up to a billion unknowns shows that the cost varies linearly with the number of unknowns. This O (N) behavior confirms the robustness of the proposed multigrid method regarding ill-conditioning of large systems characteristic of multiscale high-Reynolds number turbulent flows. The robustness of our method to density variations is established by considering cases where density varies sharply in space by a factor of up to 104, showing its applicability to two-phase flow problems. Strong and weak scalability studies are carried out, employing up to 30,000 processors, to examine the parallel performance of our implementation. Excellent scalability of our solver is shown for a granularity as low as 104 to 105 unknowns per processor. At its tested peak throughput, it solves approximately 4 billion unknowns per second employing over 16,000 processors with a parallel efficiency higher than 50%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lillibridge, K.H.; Ghiaasiaan, S.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.
1994-01-01
Countercurrent two-phase flow in horizontal and inclined channels, connecting a sealed liquid-filled reservoir to the atmosphere, is experimentally studied. This type of gravity-driven countercurrent two-phase flow can occur during the operation of passive safety coolant injection systems of advanced reactors. It can also occur in the pressurizer surge line of pressurized water reactors during severe accidents when the hot leg becomes voided. Four distinct flow regimes are identified: (a) stratified countercurrent, which mainly occurs when the channel is horizontal; (b) intermittent stratified-slug; (c) oscillating, which occurs when the angle of inclination is ≥30 deg; and (d) annular countercurrent. The characteristics of each regime and their sensitivity to important geometric parameters are examined. The superficial velocities in the stratified countercurrent and oscillating regimes are empirically correlated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezkerra, A; Mayora, K; Ruano-López, J M; Wilson, P A
2008-01-01
A mathematical model that estimates the deflection of straight microcantilevers embedded in a microchannel under a pressure-driven flow at low Reynolds numbers is presented. The model makes use of the Schwarz–Christoffel mapping in order to couple the geometry of the structure and the flow passing around it. Therefore, it allows the determination of the most influential parameters and suitable modifications in order to achieve the desired performance. The model does not require specific knowledge of the flow conditions in the vicinity of the structure, which improves its practical use during the early stages of design. Estimations have been made for two straight cantilevers under a range of pressures. The results obtained show good agreement with measurements from experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geoffrey Fouad
2018-06-01
New hydrological insights for the region: A set of three variables selected based on an expert assessment of factors that influence percentile flows performed similarly to larger sets of variables selected using a data-driven method. Expert assessment variables included mean annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and baseflow index. Larger sets of up to 37 variables contributed little, if any, additional predictive information. Variables used to describe the distribution of basin data (e.g. standard deviation were not useful, and average values were sufficient to characterize physical and climatic basin conditions. Effectiveness of the expert assessment variables may be due to the high degree of multicollinearity (i.e. cross-correlation among additional variables. A tool is provided in the Supplementary material to predict percentile flows based on the three expert assessment variables. Future work should develop new variables with a strong understanding of the processes related to percentile flows.
Some aspects of regional flow of variable-density groundwater in crystalline basement rock of Sweden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voss, C.I.; Andersson, Johan
1991-12-01
The distribution of saltwaters in the Baltic shield in Sweden is consistent with ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing and depends on the geometry and connectivity of conductive structures at both regional and local scales, and on the surface topography. Numerical simulation of regional variable-density fluid flow during Holocene land-rise and coastal regression shows that the existence of any old saltwater, whether derived from submarine recharge in regions below Sweden's highest post-glacial coastline or geochemical processes, is an indication either of slow fluid movements through the bedrock over long times, or of long travel distances through fracture systems before arriving at measurement points. During the land-rise period, regional flow is not affected by the variable density of fluids in the upper few kilometers of the shield and the topography of the water table is the only driving force. The spatial distribution of meteoric flushing water and pre-Holocene waters may be complex, with the possibility of relatively fresh water in fracture zones below salty units even at depths of a few kilometers. The domination of the topographic driving force implies that deep saltwater is not necessarily stagnant, and significant saltwater flows may be expected to occur in well-connected horizons even at depth. Local topography variation and fracture zone location combine to create a complex flow field in which local topographic driving forces extend to considerable depth in some areas, whereas regional topographic forces predominate in others. Thus, a pattern may be difficult to discern in measurements of the regional saltwater distribution, although it is clear that the coastal region is the major zone of discharge for deeper pre-Holocene fluids. During the land-rise period, regional flow equilibrates with changing climatic conditions and coastal positions, while the distribution of flushing water and older waters lags and will perpetually change between successive
A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty
Friedel, Michael J.
2011-01-01
This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to estimate the limits of nonlinear prediction uncertainty associated with the debris-flow equations. In contrast to a published multiple linear regression three-variable equation, linking basin area with slopes greater or equal to 30 percent, burn severity characterized as area burned moderate plus high, and total storm rainfall, the data-driven approach discovers many nonlinear and several dimensionally consistent equations that are unbiased and have less prediction uncertainty. Of the nonlinear equations, the best performance (lowest prediction uncertainty) is achieved when using three variables: average basin slope, total burned area, and total storm rainfall. Further reduction in uncertainty is possible for the nonlinear equations when dimensional consistency is not a priority and by subsequently applying a gradient solver to the fittest solutions. The data-driven modeling approach can be applied to nonlinear multivariate problems in all fields of study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Yong; Wang, Xue; Wang, Tao
2017-01-01
Input variable selection is an essential step in the development of data-driven models for environmental, biological and industrial applications. Through input variable selection to eliminate the irrelevant or redundant variables, a suitable subset of variables is identified as the input of a model. Meanwhile, through input variable selection the complexity of the model structure is simplified and the computational efficiency is improved. This paper describes the procedures of the input variable selection for the data-driven models for the measurement of liquid mass flowrate and gas volume fraction under two-phase flow conditions using Coriolis flowmeters. Three advanced input variable selection methods, including partial mutual information (PMI), genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and tree-based iterative input selection (IIS) are applied in this study. Typical data-driven models incorporating support vector machine (SVM) are established individually based on the input candidates resulting from the selection methods. The validity of the selection outcomes is assessed through an output performance comparison of the SVM based data-driven models and sensitivity analysis. The validation and analysis results suggest that the input variables selected from the PMI algorithm provide more effective information for the models to measure liquid mass flowrate while the IIS algorithm provides a fewer but more effective variables for the models to predict gas volume fraction. (paper)
Deriving Process-Driven Collaborative Editing Pattern from Collaborative Learning Flow Patterns
Marjanovic, Olivera; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Molli, Pascal; Godart, Claude
2007-01-01
Collaborative Learning Flow Patterns (CLFPs) have recently emerged as a new method to formulate best practices in structuring the flow of activities within various collaborative learning scenarios. The term "learning flow" is used to describe coordination and sequencing of learning tasks. This paper adopts the existing concept of CLFP and argues…
Subramanian, Balaji; Carminati, Marco; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo
2017-11-01
In stratified flows, conductivity (combined with temperature) is often used to measure density. The conductivity probes typically used can resolve very fine spatial scales, but on the downside they are fragile, expensive, sensitive to environmental noise and have only single channel capability. Recently a low-cost, robust, arduino-based probe called Conduino was developed, which can be valuable in a wide range of applications where resolving extremely small spatial scales is not needed. This probe uses micro-USB connectors as actual conductivity sensors with a custom designed electronic board for simultaneous acquisition from multiple probes, with conductivity resolution comparable to commercially available PME conductivity probe. A detailed assessment of performance of this Conduino probe is described here. To establish time response and sensitivity as a function of electrode geometry, we build a variety of shapes for different kinds of applications, with tip spacing ranging from 0.5-2.5 mm, and with electrode length ranging from 2.3-6 mm. We set up a two-layer density profile and traverse it rapidly, yielding a time response comparable to PME. The Conduino's multi-channel capability is used to operate probe arrays, which helps to construct density fields in stratified flows.
DSMC simulation and experimental validation of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow.
Xiao, Hong; Shang, Yuhe; Wu, Di
2014-01-01
Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow is developed. Three collision molecular models, including hard sphere (HS), variable hard sphere (VHS), and variable soft sphere (VSS), are employed in the DSMC study. The simulations of double-cone and Edney's type IV hypersonic shock interactions in low density flow are performed. Comparisons between DSMC and experimental data are conducted. Investigation of the double-cone hypersonic flow shows that three collision molecular models can predict the trend of pressure coefficient and the Stanton number. HS model shows the best agreement between DSMC simulation and experiment among three collision molecular models. Also, it shows that the agreement between DSMC and experiment is generally good for HS and VHS models in Edney's type IV shock interaction. However, it fails in the VSS model. Both double-cone and Edney's type IV shock interaction simulations show that the DSMC errors depend on the Knudsen number and the models employed for intermolecular interaction. With the increase in the Knudsen number, the DSMC error is decreased. The error is the smallest in HS compared with those in the VHS and VSS models. When the Knudsen number is in the level of 10(-4), the DSMC errors, for pressure coefficient, the Stanton number, and the scale of interaction region, are controlled within 10%.
Powerful Swirl Generation of Flow-driven Rotating Mixing Vane for Enhancing CHF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Han; Seo, Seok Bin; Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol
2014-01-01
Mixing vanes are utilized to improve CHF and heat transfer performance in the rod bundle during normal operation. Experimental measurement of the swirling flow from a split vane pair was conducted using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and boroscope. The lateral velocity fields show that the swirling flow was initially centered in the subchannel and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed based on the experiment. To visualize flow patterns in the 5Χ5 subchannel using PIV, matching the refraction between the working fluid and the structure was considered and the experiment aimed to develop the experimental data for providing fundamental information of the CFD analysis. The fixed split vane is the main mixing inducer in the fuel assembly. In a heat exchanger research, propeller type swirl generates at several pitch ratios and different blades angles were used to enhance heat transfer rate. Significant improvements of the heat transfer rate using the propellers were confirmed due to creation of tangential flow. In the present study, the mixing effect of rotation vane which has a shape of propeller was studied using PIV. A split vane was considered in the experiment to show the effect of rotation vane. Vertical and horizontal flow analyses were conducted to show the possible use of rotation vane in a subchannel. In the present work, the study of flow visualization using three types of vanes is conducted to show the mixing effect. The vertical flow and the horizontal flow distributions were analyzed in the two experimental facilities. For the vertical flow facility, flow distributions, flow profiles, and the turbulence kinetic energy are analyzed at the centerline of the channel. The results show that the rotation vane has the highest flow and turbulence kinetic intensity at the centerline of the channel. For the horizontal flow facility, the results indicate that lateral flow of the rotation vane is generated and maintained along with the flow
Memory effects in microscopic traffic models and wide scattering in flow-density data
Treiber, Martin; Helbing, Dirk
2003-10-01
By means of microscopic simulations we show that noninstantaneous adaptation of the driving behavior to the traffic situation together with the conventional method to measure flow-density data provides a possible explanation for the observed inverse-λ shape and the wide scattering of flow-density data in “synchronized” congested traffic. We model a memory effect in the response of drivers to the traffic situation for a wide class of car-following models by introducing an additional dynamical variable (the “subjective level of service”) describing the adaptation of drivers to the surrounding traffic situation during the past few minutes and couple this internal state to parameters of the underlying model that are related to the driving style. For illustration, we use the intelligent-driver model (IDM) as the underlying model, characterize the level of service solely by the velocity, and couple the internal variable to the IDM parameter “time gap” to model an increase of the time gap in congested traffic (“frustration effect”), which is supported by single-vehicle data. We simulate open systems with a bottleneck and obtain flow-density data by implementing “virtual detectors.” The shape, relative size, and apparent “stochasticity” of the region of the scattered data points agree nearly quantitatively with empirical data. Wide scattering is even observed for identical vehicles, although the proposed model is a time-continuous, deterministic, single-lane car-following model with a unique fundamental diagram.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matt Silver
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK
Silver, Matt; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Montana, Giovanni
2013-01-01
Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK signalling and immune
Karabatsos, George
2017-02-01
Most of applied statistics involves regression analysis of data. In practice, it is important to specify a regression model that has minimal assumptions which are not violated by data, to ensure that statistical inferences from the model are informative and not misleading. This paper presents a stand-alone and menu-driven software package, Bayesian Regression: Nonparametric and Parametric Models, constructed from MATLAB Compiler. Currently, this package gives the user a choice from 83 Bayesian models for data analysis. They include 47 Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) infinite-mixture regression models; 5 BNP infinite-mixture models for density estimation; and 31 normal random effects models (HLMs), including normal linear models. Each of the 78 regression models handles either a continuous, binary, or ordinal dependent variable, and can handle multi-level (grouped) data. All 83 Bayesian models can handle the analysis of weighted observations (e.g., for meta-analysis), and the analysis of left-censored, right-censored, and/or interval-censored data. Each BNP infinite-mixture model has a mixture distribution assigned one of various BNP prior distributions, including priors defined by either the Dirichlet process, Pitman-Yor process (including the normalized stable process), beta (two-parameter) process, normalized inverse-Gaussian process, geometric weights prior, dependent Dirichlet process, or the dependent infinite-probits prior. The software user can mouse-click to select a Bayesian model and perform data analysis via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. After the sampling completes, the software automatically opens text output that reports MCMC-based estimates of the model's posterior distribution and model predictive fit to the data. Additional text and/or graphical output can be generated by mouse-clicking other menu options. This includes output of MCMC convergence analyses, and estimates of the model's posterior predictive distribution, for selected
The Effect of Surface Tension on the Gravity-driven Thin Film Flow of Newtonian and Power-law Fluids
Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah L.
2012-01-01
Gravity-driven thin film flow is of importance in many fields, as well as for the design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. There have been many prior works on gravity-driven thin films. However, the incorporation of surface tension effect has not been well studied for non-Newtonian fluids. After surface tension effect was incorporated into our 2D (i.e. 1D spreading) power-law model, we found that surface tension effect not only impacted the spreading speed of the microbicide gel, but also had an influence on the shape of the 2D spreading profile. We observed a capillary ridge at the front of the fluid bolus. Previous literature shows that the emergence of a capillary ridge is strongly related to the contact line fingering instability. Fingering instabilities during epithelial coating may change the microbicide gel distribution and therefore impact how well it can protect the epithelium. In this study, we focused on the capillary ridge in 2D flow and performed a series of simulations and showed how the capillary ridge height varies with other parameters, such as surface tension coefficient, inclination angle, initial thickness, and power-law parameters. As shown in our results, we found that capillary ridge height increased with higher surface tension, steeper inclination angle, bigger initial thickness, and more Newtonian fluids. This study provides the initial insights of how to optimize the flow and prevent the appearance of a capillary ridge and fingering instability. PMID:23687391
Fletcher, Douglas G.; Mckenzie, R. L.
1992-01-01
Nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, and their turbulent fluctuation levels were obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment are compared with previous measurements obtained in the same facility using conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique. Densities and temperatures measured with the current technique agree with the previous surveys to within 3 percent and 2 percent, respectively. The fluctuation amplitudes for both variables agree with the measurements obtained using the earlier spectroscopic technique and show evidence of an unsteady, weak shock wave that perturbs the boundary layer.
Tagavifar, Mohsen; Xu, Ke; Jang, Sung Hyun; Balhoff, Matthew T; Pope, Gary A
2017-11-14
The dynamic behavior of microemulsion-forming water-oil-amphiphiles mixtures is investigated in a 2.5D micromodel. The equilibrium phase behavior of such mixtures is well-understood in terms of macroscopic phase transitions. However, what is less understood and where experimental data are lacking is the coupling between the phase change and the bulk flow. Herein, we study the flow of an aqueous surfactant solution-oil mixture in porous media and analyze the dependence of phase formation and spatial phase configurations on the bulk flow rate. We find that a microemulsion forms instantaneously as a boundary layer at the initial surface of contact between the surfactant solution and oil. The boundary layer is temporally continuous because of the imposed convection. In addition to the imposed flow, we observe spontaneous pulsed Marangoni flows that drag the microemulsion and surfactant solution into the oil stream, forming large (macro)emulsion droplets. The formation of the microemulsion phase at the interface distinguishes the situation from that of the more common Marangoni flow with only two phases present. Additionally, an emulsion forms via liquid-liquid nucleation or the Ouzo effect (i.e., spontaneous emulsification) at low flow rates and via mechanical mixing at high flow rates. With regard to multiphase flow, contrary to the common belief that the microemulsion is the wetting liquid, we observe that the minor oil phase wets the solid surface. We show that a layered flow pattern is formed because of the out-of-equilibrium phase behavior at high volumetric flow rates (order of 2 m/day) where advection is much faster than the diffusive interfacial mass transfer and transverse mixing, which promote equilibrium behavior. At lower flow rates (order of 30 cm/day), however, the dynamic and equilibrium phase behaviors are well-correlated. These results clearly show that the phase change influences the macroscale flow behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsujimura, S.; Iida, O.; Nagano, Y. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)
1998-10-25
The coherent structure and relevant heat transport in geostrophic flows under various density stratification has been studied by using both direct numerical simulation and rapid distortion theory. It is found that in a neutrally stratified flow under system rotation, the temperature fluctuations become very close to two-dimensional and their variation is very small in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation. Under the stable stratification, the velocity and temperature fluctuations tend to oscillate with the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. Under the unstable stratification, on the other hand, vortex columns are formed in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation. However, the generation of the elongated vortex columns cannot be predicted by the rapid distortion theory. The non-linear term is required to generate these characteristic vortex columns. 11 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.
Ressel, Simon; Bill, Florian; Holtz, Lucas; Janshen, Niklas; Chica, Antonio; Flower, Thomas; Weidlich, Claudia; Struckmann, Thorsten
2018-02-01
The operation of vanadium redox flow batteries requires reliable in situ state of charge (SOC) monitoring. In this study, two SOC estimation approaches for the negative half cell are investigated. First, in situ open circuit potential measurements are combined with Coulomb counting in a one-step calibration of SOC and Nernst potential which doesn't need additional reference SOCs. In-sample and out-of-sample SOCs are estimated and analyzed, estimation errors ≤ 0.04 are obtained. In the second approach, temperature corrected in situ electrolyte density measurements are used for the first time in vanadium redox flow batteries for SOC estimation. In-sample and out-of-sample SOC estimation errors ≤ 0.04 demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Both methods allow recalibration during battery operation. The actual capacity obtained from SOC calibration can be used in a state of health model.
Density waves in a lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model with the anticipation effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Min; Sun Di-Hua; Tian Chuan
2012-01-01
By introducing the traffic anticipation effect in the real world into the original lattice hydrodynamic model, we present a new anticipation effect lattice hydrodynamic (AELH) model, and obtain the linear stability condition of the model by applying the linear stability theory. Through nonlinear analysis, we derive the Burgers equation and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, to describe the propagating behaviour of traffic density waves in the stable and the metastable regions, respectively. The good agreement between simulation results and analytical results shows that the stability of traffic flow can be enhanced when the anticipation effect is considered. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
A high-energy-density redox flow battery based on zinc/polyhalide chemistry.
Zhang, Liqun; Lai, Qinzhi; Zhang, Jianlu; Zhang, Huamin
2012-05-01
Zn and the Art of Battery Development: A zinc/polyhalide redox flow battery employs Br(-) /ClBr(2-) and Zn/Zn(2+) redox couples in its positive and negative half-cells, respectively. The performance of the battery is evaluated by charge-discharge cycling tests and reveals a high energy efficiency of 81%, based on a Coulombic efficiency of 96% and voltage efficiency of 84%. The new battery technology can provide high performance and energy density at an acceptable cost. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Basic Study for Active Nucleation Site Density Evaluation in Subcooled Flow Boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, In Cheol; Song, Chul Hwa
2008-01-01
Numerous studies have been performed on a active nucleation site density (ANSD) due to its governing influence on a heat transfer. However, most of the studies were focused on pool boiling conditions. Kocamustafaogullari and Ishii developed an ANSD correlation from a parametric study of the existing pool boiling data. Also, they extended the correlation to a convective flow boiling condition by adopting the nucleation suppression factor of Chen's heat transfer correlation. However, the appropriateness of applying the Chen's suppression factor to an ANSD correlation was not fully validated because there was not enough experimental data on ANSD in the forced convective flow boiling. Basu et al. performed forced convective boiling experiments and proposed a correlation of ANSD which is the only correlation based on experimental data for a forced convective boiling. They concluded that the ANSD is only dependent on the static contact angle and the wall superheat, and is independent of the flow rate and the subcooling, which contradict the general acceptance of the nucleation suppression in the forced convective boiling. It seems that no reliable ANSD correlation or model is available for a forced convective boiling. In the present study, the effect of the flow velocity on the suppression of the nucleation site was examined, and the effectiveness of a Brewster reflection technique for the identification of the nucleation site was also examined
Effect of stable-density stratification on counter gradient flux of a homogeneous shear flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lida, Oaki; Nagano, Yasutaka [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan). Department of Mechanical Engineering
2007-01-15
We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear flow under stable-density stratification to study the buoyancy effects on the heat and momentum transfer. These numerical data were compared with those of a turbulent channel flow to investigate the similarity between the near-wall turbulence and the homogeneous shear flow. We also investigated the generation mechanism of the persistent CGFs (counter gradient fluxes) appearing at the higher wavenumbers of the cospectrum, and lasting over a long time without oscillation. Spatially, the persistent CGFs are associated with the longitudinal vortical structure, which is elongated in the streamwise direction and typically observed in both homogeneous shear flow and near-wall turbulence. The CGFs appear at both the top and bottom of this longitudinal vortical structure, and expand horizontally with an increase in the Richardson number. It was found that the production and turbulent-diffusion terms are responsible for the distribution of the Reynolds shear stress including the persistent CGFs. The buoyancy term, combined with the swirling motion of the vortex, contributes to expand the persistent CGF regions and decrease the down gradient fluxes. (author)
Surface heat flow density at the Phlegrean Fields caldera (southern Italy)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corrado, Gennardo [Naples Univ., Dept. of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples (Italy); De Lorenzo, Salvatore; Mongelli, Francesco; Tramacere, Antonio; Zito, Gianmaria [Bari Univ., Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Bari (Italy)
1998-08-01
The Phlegrean Fields areas is a Holocene caldera located west of Naples, southern Italy. The recent post caldera activity is characterised by several eruptive centers inside the collapsed areas. In order to investigate the still active volcanic processes, surface heat flow measurement were carried out in 1995 in 30 sites of the Phlegrean Fields and a heat flow map compiled. Filtering of the map reveals some well-defined anomalies superimposed on a general southward-increasing trend. Local anomalies are related to small magma bodies, whereas the observed general trend has been attributed to the effect of ground-water flow. This effect was calculated and removed. The undisturbed mean value of the surface heat flow density in the eastern sector is 149mW/m{sup 2}, which is above the regional value of 85mW/m{sup 2} assigned to the eastern part of the Tyrrhenian Sea, and which is probably influenced by a very large, deep magmatic body. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, L.H., E-mail: hlh@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huo, R.; Yang, D. [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2009-07-15
The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons-a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.
Hu, L H; Huo, R; Yang, D
2009-07-15
The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons--a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, L.H.; Huo, R.; Yang, D.
2009-01-01
The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons-a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.
Gravity-driven, dry granular flows over a loose bed in stationary and homogeneous conditions
Meninno, Sabrina; Armanini, Aronne; Larcher, Michele
2018-02-01
Flows involving solid particulates have been widely studied in recent years, but their dynamics are still a complex issue to model because they strongly depend on the interaction with the boundary conditions. We report on laboratory investigations regarding homogeneous and steady flows of identical particles over a loose bed in a rectangular channel. Accurate measurements were carried out through imaging techniques to estimate profiles of the mean velocity, solid concentration, and granular temperature for a large set of flow rates and widths. Vertical and transversal structures observed in the flow change as interparticle interactions become more collisional, and they depend on the bottom over which the flow develops. The lateral confinement has a remarkable effect on the flow, especially for narrow channels compared with the grain size, and a hydraulic analogy is able to show how the walls influence the mechanisms of friction and energy dissipation.
Normani, S. D.; Sykes, J. F.; Jensen, M. R.
2009-04-01
A high resolution sub-regional scale (84 km2) density-dependent, fracture zone network groundwater flow model with hydromechanical coupling and pseudo-permafrost, was developed from a larger 5734 km2 regional scale groundwater flow model of a Canadian Shield setting in fractured crystalline rock. The objective of the work is to illustrate aspects of regional and sub-regional groundwater flow that are relevant to the long-term performance of a hypothetical nuclear fuel repository. The discrete fracture dual continuum numerical model FRAC3DVS-OPG was used for all simulations. A discrete fracture zone network model delineated from surface features was superimposed onto an 789887 element flow domain mesh. Orthogonal fracture faces (between adjacent finite element grid blocks) were used to best represent the irregular discrete fracture zone network. The crystalline rock between these structural discontinuities was assigned properties characteristic of those reported for the Canadian Shield at the Underground Research Laboratory at Pinawa, Manitoba. Interconnectivity of permeable fracture features is an important pathway for the possibly relatively rapid migration of average water particles and subsequent reduction in residence times. The multiple 121000 year North American continental scale paleoclimate simulations are provided by W.R. Peltier using the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model (UofT GSM). Values of ice sheet normal stress, and proglacial lake depth from the UofT GSM are applied to the sub-regional model as surface boundary conditions, using a freshwater head equivalent to the normal stress imposed by the ice sheet at its base. Permafrost depth is applied as a permeability reduction to both three-dimensional grid blocks and fractures that lie within the time varying permafrost zone. Two different paleoclimate simulations are applied to the sub-regional model to investigate the effect on the depth of glacial meltwater migration into the subsurface. In
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hopper, R.W.
1984-01-01
The coalescence of two equal viscous cylinders under the influence of capillarity is of interest in the theory of sintering. Although the flow in typical cylinder coalescence experiments is not planar, the plane-flow case is of general interest and is a good approximation in the early stage. An essentially exact analytic solution giving the shape as a function of time for slow plane flow is presented in simple closed form. 16 references, 2 figures, 1 table
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Collard, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS - Université de Lorraine, 54 506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)
2015-10-15
This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.
Robust optimal control of material flows in demand-driven supply networks
Laumanns, M.; Lefeber, A.A.J.
2006-01-01
We develop a model based on stochastic discrete-time controlleddynamical systems in order to derive optimal policies for controllingthe material flow in supply networks. Each node in the network isdescribed as a transducer such that the dynamics of the material andinformation flows within the entire
Bifurcation analysis of incompressible flow in a driven cavity by the Newton–Picard method
Tiesinga, G; Wubs, FW; Veldman, AEP
2002-01-01
Knowledge of the transition point of steady to periodic flow is becoming increasingly important in the study of laminar–turbulent flow transition or fluid–structure interaction. Such knowledge becomes available through the Newton–Picard method, a method related to the recursive projection method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
2013-09-15
In this report calculations are presented of buoyancy driven groundwater flow caused by the emission of residual heat from spent nuclear fuel deposited in deep boreholes from the ground surface in combination with the natural geothermal gradient. This work has been conducted within SKB's programme for evaluation of alternative methods for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The basic safety feature of disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is that the groundwater at great depth has a higher salinity, and hence a higher density, than more superficial groundwater. The result of this is that the deep groundwater becomes virtually stagnant. The study comprises analyses of the effects of different inter-borehole distances as well as the effect of different permeabilities in the backfill and sealing materials in the borehole and of different shapes of the interface between fresh and saline groundwater. The study is an update of a previous study published in 2006. In the present study, the facility design proposed by Sandia National Laboratories has been studied. In this design, steel canisters containing two BWR elements or one PWR element are stacked on top of each other between 3 and 5 kilometres depth. In order to host all spent fuel from the current Swedish nuclear programme, about 80 such holes are needed. The model used in this study comprises nine boreholes spaced 100 metres alternatively 50 metres apart in a 3{Chi}3 matrix. In one set of calculations the salinity in the groundwater was assumed to increase from zero above 700 metres depth to 10% by weight at 1500 metres depth and below. In another set, a sharper salinity gradient was applied in which the salinity increased from 0 to 10% between 1400 and 1500 metres depth. A geothermal gradient of 16 deg C/km was applied. The heat output from the spent fuel was assumed to decrease by time in manner consistent with the radioactive decay in the fuel. When the inter-borehole distance decreased from
Phase-field-based lattice Boltzmann modeling of large-density-ratio two-phase flows
Liang, Hong; Xu, Jiangrong; Chen, Jiangxing; Wang, Huili; Chai, Zhenhua; Shi, Baochang
2018-03-01
In this paper, we present a simple and accurate lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for immiscible two-phase flows, which is able to deal with large density contrasts. This model utilizes two LB equations, one of which is used to solve the conservative Allen-Cahn equation, and the other is adopted to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A forcing distribution function is elaborately designed in the LB equation for the Navier-Stokes equations, which make it much simpler than the existing LB models. In addition, the proposed model can achieve superior numerical accuracy compared with previous Allen-Cahn type of LB models. Several benchmark two-phase problems, including static droplet, layered Poiseuille flow, and spinodal decomposition are simulated to validate the present LB model. It is found that the present model can achieve relatively small spurious velocity in the LB community, and the obtained numerical results also show good agreement with the analytical solutions or some available results. Lastly, we use the present model to investigate the droplet impact on a thin liquid film with a large density ratio of 1000 and the Reynolds number ranging from 20 to 500. The fascinating phenomena of droplet splashing is successfully reproduced by the present model and the numerically predicted spreading radius exhibits to obey the power law reported in the literature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rakêt, Lars Lau; Søgaard, Jacob; Salmistraro, Matteo
2012-01-01
We consider Distributed Video Coding (DVC) in presence of communication errors. First, we present DVC side information generation based on a new method of optical flow driven frame interpolation, where a highly optimized TV-L1 algorithm is used for the flow calculations and combine three flows....... Thereafter methods for exploiting the error-correcting capabilities of the LDPCA code in DVC are investigated. The proposed frame interpolation includes a symmetric flow constraint to the standard forward-backward frame interpolation scheme, which improves quality and handling of large motion. The three...... flows are combined in one solution. The proposed frame interpolation method consistently outperforms an overlapped block motion compensation scheme and a previous TV-L1 optical flow frame interpolation method with an average PSNR improvement of 1.3 dB and 2.3 dB respectively. For a GOP size of 2...
Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D
2016-04-01
The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D.
2015-01-01
Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are increasingly employed for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. The first advanced design is the multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications (MYRRHA) developed at SCK-CEN Mol in Belgium. The present study investigates the free-surface flow design of MYRRHA's target. The spallation target material for MYRRHA is a liquid metal, lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) to obtain a high neutron gain and allow forced convective heat removal. The understanding of the free surface behavior is essential in determining a safe design. This study is a qualitative comparison of 2 design geometries for a range of flow rates. Transient from Large-Eddy simulation (LES) is preferred here to steady-state RANS, employing two approaches to predict free surface evolution: Interface Tracking Methods (ITMs) and Phase-Averaged Methods. The CFD results produce a qualitative agreement with the experiments conducted by Batta et al. (authors)
Numerical Investigation of Multiple-, Interacting-Scale Variable-Density Ground Water Flow Systems
Cosler, D.; Ibaraki, M.
2004-12-01
The goal of our study is to elucidate the nonlinear processes that are important for multiple-, interacting-scale flow and solute transport in subsurface environments. In particular, we are focusing on the influence of small-scale instability development on variable-density ground water flow behavior in large-scale systems. Convective mixing caused by these instabilities may mix the fluids to a greater extent than would be the case with classical, Fickian dispersion. Most current numerical schemes for interpreting field-scale variable-density flow systems do not explicitly account for the complexities caused by small-scale instabilities and treat such processes as "lumped" Fickian dispersive mixing. Such approaches may greatly underestimate the mixing behavior and misrepresent the overall large-scale flow field dynamics. The specific objectives of our study are: (i) to develop an adaptive (spatial and temporal scales) three-dimensional numerical model that is fully capable of simulating field-scale variable-density flow systems with fine resolution (~1 cm); and (ii) to evaluate the importance of scale-dependent process interactions by performing a series of simulations on different problem scales ranging from laboratory experiments to field settings, including an aquifer storage and freshwater recovery (ASR) system similar to those planned for the Florida Everglades and in-situ contaminant remediation systems. We are examining (1) methods to create instabilities in field-scale systems, (2) porous media heterogeneity effects, and (3) the relation between heterogeneity characteristics (e.g., permeability variance and correlation length scales) and the mixing scales that develop for varying degrees of unstable stratification. Applications of our work include the design of new water supply and conservation measures (e.g., ASR systems), assessment of saltwater intrusion problems in coastal aquifers, and the design of in-situ remediation systems for aquifer restoration
Lava Fountaining Discharge Regime driven by Slug-to-Churn Flow Transition. (Invited)
Ripepe, M.; Pioli, L.; Marchetti, E.; Ulivieri, G.
2013-12-01
Lava fountaining episodes at Etna volcano appear characterized by the transition between Strombolian and Hawaiian end-member eruptive styles. There is no evidence for this transition in the seismic (i.e. seismic tremor) signal. However, infrasonic records provide unprecedented evidence on this flow transition. Each eruptive episode is characterized by distinctive common trend in the amplitude, waveform and frequency content of the infrasonic wavefield, which evidences the shift from discrete, and transient, strombolian to sustained, and oscillatory, lava fountain dynamics. Large scale experiments on the dynamics of two-phase flow of basaltic magmas show how the transition between different regimes mainly depends on gas volume flow, which in turn controls pressure distribution within the conduit and also magma vesicularity. In particular, while regular large bubble bursting is associated with slug flow regime, large amplitude and low frequency column oscillations are associated with churn flow. In large pipes, transition from slug to churn flow regime is independent on conduit diameter and it is reached at high superficial gas velocity. Lava fountaining episodes at Etna can be thus interpreted as induced by the transition from the slug (discrete strombolian) to churn flow (sustained lava fountain) regimes that is reflecting an increase in the gas discharge rate. Based on laboratory experiments, we calculate that transition between these two end-member explosive regimes at Etna occurs when gas superficial velocity is 76 m/s for near-the-vent stagnant magma conditions.
Large Eddy Simulations of Compositional Density Currents Flowing Over a Mobile Bed
Kyrousi, Foteini; Zordan, Jessica; Leonardi, Alessandro; Juez, Carmelo; Zanello, Francesca; Armenio, Vincenzo; Franca, Mário J.
2017-04-01
Density currents are a ubiquitous phenomenon caused by natural events or anthropogenic activities, and play an important role in the global sediment cycle; they are agents of long distance sediment transport in lakes, seas and oceans. Density gradients induced by salinity, temperature differences, or by the presence of suspended material are all possible triggers of a current. Such flows can travel long distances while eroding or depositing bed materials. This can provoke rapid topological changes, which makes the estimation of their transport capacity of prime interest for environmental engineering. Despite their relevance, field data regarding their dynamics is limited due to density currents scattered and unpredictable occurrence in nature. For this reason, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have been a preferred way to investigate sediment transport processes associated to density currents. The study of entrainment and deposition processes requires detailed data of velocities spatial and temporal distributions in the boundary layer and bed shear stress, which are troublesome to obtain in laboratory. Motivated by this, we present 3D wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of density currents generated by lock-exchange. The currents travel over a smooth flat bed, which includes a section composed by erodible fine sediment susceptible of eroding. Several sediment sizes and initial density gradients are considered. The grid is set to resolve the velocity field within the boundary layer of the current (a tiny fraction of the total height), which in turn allows to obtain predictions of the bed shear stress. The numerical outcomes are compared with experimental data obtained with an analogous laboratory setting. In laboratory experiments salinity was chosen for generating the initial density gradient in order to facilitate the identification of entrained particles, since salt does not hinder the possibility to track suspended particles. Under these
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-10-01
The topics discussed comprise the onset of instability in heated free jets and jets with density gradients, flow past heated/cooled boundaries, atmospheric shear flow, and mathematical modeling of laminar-turbulent transition phenomena. Three contributions have been input to INIS. (P.A.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, P.B.
1989-01-01
Variable-density groundwater flow was studied near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. An analysis of the relative magnitude of pressure-related and density-related flow-driving forces indicates that density-related gravity effects are not significant at the plant and to the west but are significant in areas to the north, northeast, and south. A regional-scale model of variable-density groundwater flow in the Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation indicates that the flow velocities are relatively rapid west of the site and extremely slow east and northeast of the site. In the transition zone between those two extremes, which includes the plant, velocities are highly variable. Sensitivity simulations indicates that the central and western parts of the region, including the plant, are fairly well isolated from the eastern and northeastern boundaries. Vertical-flux simulations indicate that as much as 25% of total inflow to the Culebra could be entering as vertical flow, with most of this flow occurring west of the plant. A simple cross-sectional model was developed to examine the flow system as it drains through time following recharge during a past glacial pluvial. This model indicates that the system as a whole drains very slowly and that it apparently could have sustained flow from purely transient drainage following recharge of the system during the Pleistocene
O'Reilly, T. C.; Kieft, B.; Chaffey, M. R.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Herlien, R.; Bird, L.; Klimov, D.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Caress, D. W.; Sumner, E. J.; Simmons, S.; Parsons, D. R.; Talling, P.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Xu, J.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.
2017-12-01
The Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) deployed an array of instruments along the Monterey Canyon floor to characterize the structure, velocity and frequency of sediment flows. CCE utilized novel technologies developed at MBARI to capture sediment flow data in unprecedented detail. 1. The Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) at 1850 meters depth housed 3 ADCPs at 3 different frequencies, CTD, current meter, oxygen optode, fluorometer/backscatter sensor, and logged data at 10 second intervals or faster. The SIN included an acoustic modem for communication with shore through a Wave Glider relay, and provided high-resolution measurements of three flow events during three successive deployments over 1.5 years. 2. Beachball-sized Benthic Event Detectors (BEDs) were deployed on or under the seafloor to measure the characteristics of sediment density flows. Each BED recorded data from a pressure sensor and a 3-axis accelerometer and gyro to characterize motions during transport events (e.g. tumble vs rotation). An acoustic modem capable of operating through more than a meter of sediment enabled communications with a ship or autonomous surface vehicle. Multiple BEDs were deployed at various depths in the canyon during CCE, detecting and measuring many transport events; one BED moved 9 km down canyon in 50 minutes during one event. 3. Wave Glider Hot Spot (HS), equipped with acoustic and RF modems, acted as data relay between SIN, BEDs and shore, and acoustically located BEDs after sediment density flows.. In some cases HS relayed BED motion data to shore within a few hours of the event. HS provided an acoustic console to the SIN, allowing shore-based users to check SIN health and status, perform maintenance, etc. 4. Mapping operations were conducted 4 times at the SIN site to quantify depositional and erosional patterns, utilizing a prototype ultra-high-resolution mapping system on the ROV Doc Ricketts. The system consists of a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar, a 3
Reis, Tim
2012-01-01
We present lattice Boltzmann simulations of rarefied flows driven by pressure drops along two-dimensional microchannels. Rarefied effects lead to non-zero cross-channel velocities, nonlinear variations in the pressure along the channel. Both effects are absent in flows driven by uniform body forces. We obtain second-order accuracy for the two components of velocity the pressure relative to asymptotic solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions. Since the common lattice Boltzmann formulations cannot capture Knudsen boundary layers, we replace the usual discrete analogs of the specular diffuse reflection conditions from continuous kinetic theory with a moment-based implementation of the first-order Navier-Maxwell slip boundary conditions that relate the tangential velocity to the strain rate at the boundary. We use these conditions to solve for the unknown distribution functions that propagate into the domain across the boundary. We achieve second-order accuracy by reformulating these conditions for the second set of distribution functions that arise in the derivation of the lattice Boltzmann method by an integration along characteristics. Our moment formalism is also valuable for analysing the existing boundary conditions. It reveals the origin of numerical slip in the bounce-back other common boundary conditions that impose conditions on the higher moments, not on the local tangential velocity itself. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Ferrás, L. L.; Afonso, A. M.; Alves, M. A.; Nóbrega, J. M.; Pinho, F. T.
2016-09-01
In this work, we present a series of solutions for combined electro-osmotic and pressure-driven flows of viscoelastic fluids in microchannels. The solutions are semi-analytical, a feature made possible by the use of the Debye-Hückel approximation for the electrokinetic fields, thus restricted to cases with small electric double-layers, in which the distance between the microfluidic device walls is at least one order of magnitude larger than the electric double-layer thickness. To describe the complex fluid rheology, several viscoelastic differential constitutive models were used, namely, the simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner model with linear, quadratic or exponential kernel for the stress coefficient function, the Johnson-Segalman model, and the Giesekus model. The results obtained illustrate the effects of the Weissenberg number, the Johnson-Segalman slip parameter, the Giesekus mobility parameter, and the relative strengths of the electro-osmotic and pressure gradient-driven forcings on the dynamics of these viscoelastic flows.
Mandal, Sandip; Khakhar, D. V.
2017-11-01
We report a transition from a disordered state to an ordered state in the flow of nearly monodisperse granular matter flowing in an inclined channel with planar slide walls and a bumpy base, using discrete element method simulations. For low particle-sidewall friction coefficients, the flowing particles are disordered, however, for high sidewall friction, an ordered state is obtained, characterized by a layering of the particles and hexagonal packing of the particles in each layer. The extent of ordering, quantified by the local bond-orientational order parameter, varies in the cross section of the channel, with the highest ordering near the sidewalls. The flow transition significantly affects the local rheology—the effective friction coefficient is lower, and the packing fraction is higher, in the ordered state compared to the disordered state. A simple model, incorporating the extent of local ordering, is shown to describe the rheology of the system.
Mandal, Sandip; Khakhar, D V
2017-11-01
We report a transition from a disordered state to an ordered state in the flow of nearly monodisperse granular matter flowing in an inclined channel with planar slide walls and a bumpy base, using discrete element method simulations. For low particle-sidewall friction coefficients, the flowing particles are disordered, however, for high sidewall friction, an ordered state is obtained, characterized by a layering of the particles and hexagonal packing of the particles in each layer. The extent of ordering, quantified by the local bond-orientational order parameter, varies in the cross section of the channel, with the highest ordering near the sidewalls. The flow transition significantly affects the local rheology-the effective friction coefficient is lower, and the packing fraction is higher, in the ordered state compared to the disordered state. A simple model, incorporating the extent of local ordering, is shown to describe the rheology of the system.
Micro-PIV/LIF measurements on electrokinetically-driven flow in surface modified microchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichiyanagi, Mitsuhisa; Sasaki, Seiichi; Sato, Yohei; Hishida, Koichi
2009-01-01
Effects of surface modification patterning on flow characteristics were investigated experimentally by measuring electroosmotic flow velocities, which were obtained by micron-resolution particle image velocimetry using a confocal microscope. The depth-wise velocity was evaluated by using the continuity equation and the velocity data. The microchannel was composed of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) chip and a borosilicate cover-glass plate. Surface modification patterns were fabricated by modifying octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) on the glass surface. OTS can decrease the electroosmotic flow velocity compared to the velocity in the glass microchannel. For the surface charge varying parallel to the electric field, the depth-wise velocity was generated at the boundary area between OTS and the glass surfaces. For the surface charge varying perpendicular to the electric field, the depth-wise velocity did not form because the surface charge did not vary in the stream-wise direction. The surface charge pattern with the oblique stripes yielded a three-dimensional flow in a microchannel. Furthermore, the oblique patterning was applied to a mixing flow field in a T-shaped microchannel, and mixing efficiencies were evaluated from heterogeneity degree of fluorescent dye intensity, which was obtained by laser-induced fluorescence. It was found that the angle of the oblique stripes is an important factor to promote the span-wise and depth-wise momentum transport and contributes to the mixing flow in a microchannel
Tamm, Gunnar; Jaluria, Yogesh
2003-11-01
An experimental investigation has been carried out on the buoyancy and pressure induced flow of hot gases in vertical shafts, in order to simulate the propagation of combustion products in elevator shafts due to fire in multilevel buildings. Various geometrical configurations are studied, with regard to natural and forced ventilation imposed at the top or bottom of the vertical shaft. The aspect ratio is taken at a fixed value of 6 and the inflow conditions for the hot gases, at a vent near the bottom, are varied in terms of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers. Temperature measurements within the shaft allow a detailed study of the steady state thermal fields, from which optimal means for smoke alleviation in high-rise building fires may be developed. Flow visualization is also used to study the flow characteristics. The results obtained indicate a wall plume as the primary transport mechanism. Flow recirculation dominates at high Grashof number flows, while increased Reynolds numbers gives rise to greater mixing in the shaft. The development and stability of the flow and its effect on the spread of smoke and hot gases are assessed for the different shaft configurations and inlet conditions. It is found that the fastest smoke removal and lowest shaft temperatures occur for a configuration with natural ventilation at the top and forced ventilation up from the shaft bottom. It is also shown that forced ventilation can be used to arrest smoke spread, as well as to dilute the effects of the fire.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catur Apriono
2015-08-01
Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.
Lardeau, Sylvain; Ferrari, Simone; Rossi, Lionel
2008-12-01
Three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulations of a flow driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing are performed in order to reproduce with maximum accuracy the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) flow generated by the same multiscale forcing in the laboratory. The method presented is based on a 3D description of the flow and the electromagnetic forcing. Very good agreements between our simulations and the experiments are found both on velocity and acceleration field, this last comparison being, to our knowledge, done for the first time. Such agreement requires that both experiments and simulations are carefully performed and, more importantly, that the underlying simplification to model the experiments and the multiscale electromagnetic forcing do not introduce significant errors. The results presented in this paper differ significantly from previous 2D direct numerical simulation in which a classical linear Rayleigh friction modeling term was used to mimic the effect of the wall-normal friction. Indeed, purely 2D simulations are found to underestimate the Reynolds number and, due to the dominance of nonhomogeneous bottom friction, lead to the wrong physical mechanism. For the range of conditions presented in this paper, the Reynolds number, defined by the ratio between acceleration and viscous terms, remains the order of unity, and the Hartmann number, defined by the ratio between electromagnetic force terms and viscous terms, is about 2. The main conclusion is that 3D simulations are required to model the (3D) electromagnetic forces and the wall-normal shear. Indeed, even if the flow is quasi-2D in terms of energy, a full 3D approach is required to simulate these shallow layer flows driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing. In the range of forcing intensity investigated in this paper, these multiscale flows remain quasi-2D, with negligible energy in the wall-normal velocity component. It is also shown that the driving terms are the electromagnetic forcing and
Capillary-driven flow in a fracture located in a porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, M.J.
1988-09-01
Capillary-driven immiscible displacement of air by water along an isolated fracture located in a permeable medium is induced by an abrupt change in water saturation at the fracture inlet. The fracture is idealized as either a smooth slot with permeable walls or a high-permeability later. The penetration distance of moisture in the fracture permeability ratio and length scales for the problem. The models are applied to materials representative of the Yucca Mountain region of the Nevada Test Site. Fracture moisture-penetration histories are predicted for several units in Yucca Mountain and for representative fracture apertures. 18 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs
Mishler, Grant; Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Pak, On Shun
2018-03-01
The transport of active and passive particles plays central roles in diverse biological phenomena and engineering applications. In this paper, we present a theoretical investigation of a system consisting of an active particle and a passive particle in a confined micro-fluidic flow. The introduction of an external flow is found to induce the capture of the passive particle by the active particle via long-range hydrodynamic interactions among the particles. This hydrodynamic capture mechanism relies on an attracting stable equilibrium configuration formed by the particles, which occurs when the external flow intensity exceeds a certain threshold. We evaluate this threshold by studying the stability of the equilibrium configurations analytically and numerically. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of typical capture and non-capture events and characterize the basins of attraction of the equilibrium configurations. Our findings reveal a critical dependence of the hydrodynamic capture mechanism on the external flow intensity. Through adjusting the external flow intensity across the stability threshold, we demonstrate that the active particle can capture and release the passive particle in a controllable manner. Such a capture-and-release mechanism is desirable for biomedical applications such as the capture and release of therapeutic payloads by synthetic micro-swimmers in targeted drug delivery.
Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Rosenberger, K. J.; McGann, M.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Simmons, S.; Clare, M. A.; Carvajal, C.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Sumner, E.; Cartigny, M.
2017-12-01
Sediment density flows were directly sampled with a coupled sediment trap-ADCP-instrument mooring array to evaluate the character and frequency of turbidity current events through Monterey Canyon, offshore California. This novel experiment aimed to provide links between globally significant sediment density flow processes and their resulting deposits. Eight to ten Anderson sediment traps were repeatedly deployed at 10 to 300 meters above the seafloor on six moorings anchored at 290 to 1850 meters water depth in the Monterey Canyon axial channel during 6-month deployments (October 2015 - April 2017). Anderson sediment traps include a funnel and intervalometer (discs released at set time intervals) above a meter-long tube, which preserves fine-scale stratigraphy and chronology. Photographs, multi-sensor logs, CT scans, and grain size analyses reveal layers from multiple sediment density flow events that carried sediment ranging from fine sand to granules. More sediment accumulation from sediment density flows, and from between flows, occurred in the upper canyon ( 300 - 800 m water depth) compared to the lower canyon ( 1300 - 1850 m water depth). Sediment accumulated in the traps during sediment density flows is sandy and becomes finer down-canyon. In the lower canyon where sediment directly sampled from density flows are clearly distinguished within the trap tubes, sands have sharp basal contacts, normal grading, and muddy tops that exhibit late-stage pulses. In at least two of the sediment density flows, the simultaneous low velocity and high backscatter measured by the ADCPs suggest that the trap only captured the collapsing end of a sediment density flow event. In the upper canyon, accumulation between sediment density flow events is twice as fast compared to the lower canyon; it is characterized by sub-cm-scale layers in muddy sediment that appear to have accumulated with daily to sub-daily frequency, likely related to known internal tidal dynamics also measured
Flow produced by a free-moving floating magnet driven electromagnetically
Piedra, Saúl; Román, Joel; Figueroa, Aldo; Cuevas, Sergio
2018-04-01
The flow generated by a free-moving magnet floating in a thin electrolyte layer is studied experimentally and numerically. The magnet is dragged by a traveling vortex dipole produced by a Lorentz force created when a uniform dc current injected in the electrolyte interacts with the magnetic field of the same magnet. The problem represents a typical case of fluid-solid interaction but with a localized electromagnetic force promoting the motion. Classical wake flow structures are observed when the applied current varies in the range of 0.2 to 10 A. Velocity fields at the surface of the electrolyte are obtained for different flow conditions through particle image velocimetry. Quasi-two-dimensional numerical simulations, based on the immersed boundary technique that incorporates the fluid-solid interaction, reproduce satisfactorily the dynamics observed in the experiments.
Flow shear suppression of turbulence using externally driven ion Bernstein and Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biglari, H.; Ono, M.
1992-01-01
The utilization of externally-launched radio-frequency waves as a means of active confinement control through the generation of sheared poloidal flows is explored. For low-frequency waves, kinetic Alfven waves are proposed, and are shown to drive sheared E x B flows as a result of the radial variation in the electromagnetic Reynolds stress. In the high frequency regime, ion Bernstein waves are considered, and shown to generate sheared poloidal rotation through the pondermotive force. In either case, it is shown that modest amounts of absorbed power (∼ few 100 kW) are required to suppress turbulence in a region of several cm radial width
Low-density, radiatively inefficient rotating-accretion flow on to a black hole
Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Haiman, Zoltán; Kuiper, Rolf
2018-05-01
We study low-density axisymmetric accretion flows on to black holes (BHs) with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, adopting the α-viscosity prescription. When the gas angular momentum is low enough to form a rotationally supported disc within the Bondi radius (RB), we find a global steady accretion solution. The solution consists of a rotational equilibrium distribution around r ˜ RB, where the density follows ρ ∝ (1 + RB/r)3/2, surrounding a geometrically thick and optically thin accretion disc at the centrifugal radius RC(
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ford, C L; Winroth, M; Alfredsson, P H
2016-01-01
An entirely pressure-based vortex-shedding meter has been designed for use in practical time-dependent flows. The meter is capable of measuring mass-flow rate in variable density gases in spite of the fact that fluid temperature is not directly measured. Unlike other vortex meters, a pressure based meter is incredibly robust and may be used in industrial type flows; an environment wholly unsuitable for hot-wires for example. The meter has been tested in a number of static and dynamic flow cases, across a range of mass-flow rates and pressures. The accuracy of the meter is typically better than about 3% in a static flow and resolves the fluctuating mass-flow with an accuracy that is better than or equivalent to a hot-wire method. (paper)
Theory of current-driven instability experiments in magnetic Taylor-Couette flows.
Rüdiger, Günther; Schultz, Manfred; Shalybkov, Dima; Hollerbach, Rainer
2007-11-01
We consider the linear stability of dissipative magnetic Taylor-Couette flow with imposed toroidal magnetic fields. The inner and outer cylinders can be either insulating or conducting; the inner one rotates, the outer one is stationary. The magnetic Prandtl number can be as small as 10(-5) , approaching realistic liquid-metal values. The magnetic field destabilizes the flow, except for radial profiles of B(phi)(R) close to the current-free solution. The profile with B(in)=B(out) (the most uniform field) is considered in detail. For weak fields the Taylor-Couette flow is stabilized, until for moderately strong fields the m=1 azimuthal mode dramatically destabilizes the flow again so that a maximum value for the critical Reynolds number exists. For sufficiently strong fields (as measured by the Hartmann number) the toroidal field is always unstable, even for the nonrotating case with Re=0 . The electric currents needed to generate the required toroidal fields in laboratory experiments are a few kA if liquid sodium is used, somewhat more if gallium is used. Weaker currents are needed for wider gaps, so a wide-gap apparatus could succeed even with gallium. The critical Reynolds numbers are only somewhat larger than the nonmagnetic values; hence such experiments would work with only modest rotation rates.
Kinetics of gravity-driven slug flow in partially wettable capillaries of varying cross section
Nissan, Alon; Wang, Qiuling; Wallach, Rony
2016-11-01
A mathematical model for slug (finite liquid volume) motion in not-fully-wettable capillary tubes with sinusoidally varying cross-sectional areas was developed. The model, based on the Navier-Stokes equation, accounts for the full viscous terms due to nonuniform geometry, the inertial term, the slug's front and rear meniscus hysteresis effect, and dependence of contact angle on flow velocity (dynamic contact angle). The model includes a velocity-dependent film that is left behind the advancing slug, reducing its mass. The model was successfully verified experimentally by recording slug movement in uniform and sinusoidal capillary tubes with a gray-scale high-speed camera. Simulation showed that tube nonuniformity has a substantial effect on slug flow pattern: in a uniform tube it is monotonic and depends mainly on the slug's momentary mass/length; an undulating tube radius results in nonmonotonic flow characteristics. The static nonzero contact angle varies locally in nonuniform tubes owing to the additional effect of wall slope. Moreover, the nonuniform cross-sectional area induces slug acceleration, deceleration, blockage, and metastable-equilibrium locations. Increasing contact angle further amplifies the geometry effect on slug propagation. The developed model provides a modified means of emulating slug flow in differently wettable porous media for intermittent inlet water supply (e.g., raindrops on the soil surface).
Experimental investigation of three-dimensional flow instabilities in a rotating lid-driven cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2006-01-01
liquid. For the first time the onset of three-dimensionality and transition are analysed by combining the high spatial resolution of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and the temporal accuracy of Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). A detailed mapping of the transition from steady and axisymmetric flow...
Bagchi, Prosenjit
2016-11-01
In this talk, two problems in multiphase biological flows will be discussed. The first is the direct numerical simulation of whole blood and drug particulates in microvascular networks. Blood in microcirculation behaves as a dense suspension of heterogeneous cells. The erythrocytes are extremely deformable, while inactivated platelets and leukocytes are nearly rigid. A significant progress has been made in recent years in modeling blood as a dense cellular suspension. However, many of these studies considered the blood flow in simple geometry, e.g., straight tubes of uniform cross-section. In contrast, the architecture of a microvascular network is very complex with bifurcating, merging and winding vessels, posing a further challenge to numerical modeling. We have developed an immersed-boundary-based method that can consider blood cell flow in physiologically realistic and complex microvascular network. In addition to addressing many physiological issues related to network hemodynamics, this tool can be used to optimize the transport properties of drug particulates for effective organ-specific delivery. Our second problem is pseudopod-driven motility as often observed in metastatic cancer cells and other amoeboid cells. We have developed a multiscale hydrodynamic model to simulate such motility. We study the effect of cell stiffness on motility as the former has been considered as a biomarker for metastatic potential. Funded by the National Science Foundation.
Options for refractive index and viscosity matching to study variable density flows
Clément, Simon A.; Guillemain, Anaïs; McCleney, Amy B.; Bardet, Philippe M.
2018-02-01
Variable density flows are often studied by mixing two miscible aqueous solutions of different densities. To perform optical diagnostics in such environments, the refractive index of the fluids must be matched, which can be achieved by carefully choosing the two solutes and the concentration of the solutions. To separate the effects of buoyancy forces and viscosity variations, it is desirable to match the viscosity of the two solutions in addition to their refractive index. In this manuscript, several pairs of index matched fluids are compared in terms of viscosity matching, monetary cost, and practical use. Two fluid pairs are studied in detail, with two aqueous solutions (binary solutions of water and a salt or alcohol) mixed into a ternary solution. In each case: an aqueous solution of isopropanol mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) and an aqueous solution of glycerol mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium sulfate (Na_2SO_4). The first fluid pair allows reaching high-density differences at low cost, but brings a large difference in dynamic viscosity. The second allows matching dynamic viscosity and refractive index simultaneously, at reasonable cost. For each of these four solutes, the density, kinematic viscosity, and refractive index are measured versus concentration and temperature, as well as wavelength for the refractive index. To investigate non-linear effects when two index-matched, binary solutions are mixed, the ternary solutions formed are also analyzed. Results show that density and refractive index follow a linear variation with concentration. However, the viscosity of the isopropanol and NaCl pair deviates from the linear law and has to be considered. Empirical correlations and their coefficients are given to create index-matched fluids at a chosen temperature and wavelength. Finally, the effectiveness of the refractive index matching is illustrated with particle image velocimetry measurements performed for a buoyant jet in a
Scaling Properties of Particle Density Fields Formed in Simulated Turbulent Flows
Hogan, Robert C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of particle concentrations in fully developed 3D turbulence were carried out in order to study the nonuniform structure of the particle density field. Three steady-state turbulent fluid fields with Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers (Re(sub lambda)) of 40, 80 and 140 were generated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with pseudospectral methods. Large scale forcing was used to drive the turbulence and maintain temporal stationarity. The response of the particles to the fluid was parameterized by the particle Stokes number St, defined as the ratio of the particle's stopping time to the mean period of eddies on the Kolmogorov scale (eta). In this paper, we consider only passive particles optimally coupled to these eddies (St approx. = 1) because of their tendency to concentrate more than particles with lesser or greater St values. The trajectories of up to 70 million particles were tracked in the equilibrated turbulent flows until the particle concentration field reached a statistically stationary state. The nonuniform structure of the concentration fields was characterized by the multifractal singularity spectrum, f(alpha), derived from measures obtained after binning particles into cells ranging from 2(eta) to 15(eta) in size. We observed strong systematic variations of f(alpha) across this scale range in all three simulations and conclude that the particle concentration field is not statistically self similar across the scale range explored. However, spectra obtained at the 2(eta), 4(eta), and 8(eta) scales of each flow case were found to be qualitatively similar. This result suggests that the local structure of the particle concentration field may be flow-Independent. The singularity spectra found for 2n-sized cells were used to predict concentration distributions in good agreement with those obtained directly from the particle data. This Singularity spectrum has a shape similar to the analogous spectrum derived for the
Laser reflection method for determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows
Sathian, Sarith P.; Kurian, Job
2006-03-01
The details of laser reflection method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows are presented. The method is employed to determine the shear stress due to impingement of a low density supersonic free jet issuing out from a convergent divergent nozzle on a flat plate. The plate is smeared with a thin oil film and kept parallel to the nozzle axis. For a thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer, the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope generated by the shear force is done using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of the oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM. From the oil film slope history, calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. The range of Knudsen numbers investigated is from 0.028 to 0.516. Pressure ratio across the nozzle varied from 3,500 to 8,500 giving highly under expanded free jets. The measured values of shear, in the overlapping region of experimental parameters, show fair agreement with those obtained by force balance method and laser interferometric method.
A Diffuse Interface Model for Incompressible Two-Phase Flow with Large Density Ratios
Xie, Yu; Wodo, Olga; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
2016-01-01
In this chapter, we explore numerical simulations of incompressible and immiscible two-phase flows. The description of the fluid–fluid interface is introduced via a diffuse interface approach. The two-phase fluid system is represented by a coupled Cahn–Hilliard Navier–Stokes set of equations. We discuss challenges and approaches to solving this coupled set of equations using a stabilized finite element formulation, especially in the case of a large density ratio between the two fluids. Specific features that enabled efficient solution of the equations include: (i) a conservative form of the convective term in the Cahn–Hilliard equation which ensures mass conservation of both fluid components; (ii) a continuous formula to compute the interfacial surface tension which results in lower requirement on the spatial resolution of the interface; and (iii) a four-step fractional scheme to decouple pressure from velocity in the Navier–Stokes equation. These are integrated with standard streamline-upwind Petrov–Galerkin stabilization to avoid spurious oscillations. We perform numerical tests to determine the minimal resolution of spatial discretization. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy of the framework using the analytical results of Prosperetti for a damped oscillating interface between two fluids with a density contrast.
A Diffuse Interface Model for Incompressible Two-Phase Flow with Large Density Ratios
Xie, Yu
2016-10-04
In this chapter, we explore numerical simulations of incompressible and immiscible two-phase flows. The description of the fluid–fluid interface is introduced via a diffuse interface approach. The two-phase fluid system is represented by a coupled Cahn–Hilliard Navier–Stokes set of equations. We discuss challenges and approaches to solving this coupled set of equations using a stabilized finite element formulation, especially in the case of a large density ratio between the two fluids. Specific features that enabled efficient solution of the equations include: (i) a conservative form of the convective term in the Cahn–Hilliard equation which ensures mass conservation of both fluid components; (ii) a continuous formula to compute the interfacial surface tension which results in lower requirement on the spatial resolution of the interface; and (iii) a four-step fractional scheme to decouple pressure from velocity in the Navier–Stokes equation. These are integrated with standard streamline-upwind Petrov–Galerkin stabilization to avoid spurious oscillations. We perform numerical tests to determine the minimal resolution of spatial discretization. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy of the framework using the analytical results of Prosperetti for a damped oscillating interface between two fluids with a density contrast.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sari, Salih [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Erguen, Sule [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Barik, Muhammet; Kocar, Cemil; Soekmen, Cemal Niyazi [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)
2009-03-15
In this study, isothermal turbulent bubbly flow is mechanistically modeled. For the modeling, Fluent version 6.3.26 is used as the computational fluid dynamics solver. First, the mechanistic models that simulate the interphase momentum transfer between the gas (bubbles) and liquid (continuous) phases are investigated, and proper models for the known flow conditions are selected. Second, an interfacial area transport equation (IATE) solution is added to Fluent's solution scheme in order to model the interphase momentum transfer mechanisms. In addition to solving IATE, bubble number density (BND) approach is also added to Fluent and this approach is also used in the simulations. Different source/sink models derived for the IATE and BND models are also investigated. The simulations of experiments based on the available data in literature are performed by using IATE and BND models in two and three-dimensions. The results show that the simulations performed by using IATE and BND models agree with each other and with the experimental data. The simulations performed in three-dimensions give better agreement with the experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sari, Salih; Erguen, Sule; Barik, Muhammet; Kocar, Cemil; Soekmen, Cemal Niyazi
2009-01-01
In this study, isothermal turbulent bubbly flow is mechanistically modeled. For the modeling, Fluent version 6.3.26 is used as the computational fluid dynamics solver. First, the mechanistic models that simulate the interphase momentum transfer between the gas (bubbles) and liquid (continuous) phases are investigated, and proper models for the known flow conditions are selected. Second, an interfacial area transport equation (IATE) solution is added to Fluent's solution scheme in order to model the interphase momentum transfer mechanisms. In addition to solving IATE, bubble number density (BND) approach is also added to Fluent and this approach is also used in the simulations. Different source/sink models derived for the IATE and BND models are also investigated. The simulations of experiments based on the available data in literature are performed by using IATE and BND models in two and three-dimensions. The results show that the simulations performed by using IATE and BND models agree with each other and with the experimental data. The simulations performed in three-dimensions give better agreement with the experimental data
Parameter scaling toward high-energy density in a quasi-steady flow Z-pinch
Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.
2016-10-01
Sheared axial flows are utilized by the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment to stabilize MHD instabilities. The pinches formed are 50 cm long with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 cm. The plasma is generated in a coaxial acceleration region, similar to a Marshall gun, which provides a steady supply of plasma for approximately 100 us. The power to the plasma is partially decoupled between the acceleration and pinch assembly regions through the use of separate power supplies. Adiabatic scaling of the Bennett relation gives targets for future devices to reach high-energy density conditions or fusion reactors. The applicability of an adiabatic assumption is explored and work is done experimentally to clarify the plasma compression process, which may be more generally polytropic. The device is capable of a much larger parameter space than previous machine iterations, allowing flexibility in the initial conditions of the compression process to preserve stability. This work is supported by DoE FES and NNSA.
Entropy Filtered Density Function for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Reacting Flows
Safari, Mehdi
Analysis of local entropy generation is an effective means to optimize the performance of energy and combustion systems by minimizing the irreversibilities in transport processes. Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to describe entropy transport and generation in turbulent reacting flows. The entropy transport equation in LES contains several unclosed terms. These are the subgrid scale (SGS) entropy flux and entropy generation caused by irreversible processes: heat conduction, mass diffusion, chemical reaction and viscous dissipation. The SGS effects are taken into account using a novel methodology based on the filtered density function (FDF). This methodology, entitled entropy FDF (En-FDF), is developed and utilized in the form of joint entropy-velocity-scalar-turbulent frequency FDF and the marginal scalar-entropy FDF, both of which contain the chemical reaction effects in a closed form. The former constitutes the most comprehensive form of the En-FDF and provides closure for all the unclosed filtered moments. This methodology is applied for LES of a turbulent shear layer involving transport of passive scalars. Predictions show favor- able agreements with the data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the same layer. The marginal En-FDF accounts for entropy generation effects as well as scalar and entropy statistics. This methodology is applied to a turbulent nonpremixed jet flame (Sandia Flame D) and predictions are validated against experimental data. In both flows, sources of irreversibility are predicted and analyzed.
A Novel Quasi-3D Method for Cascade Flow Considering Axial Velocity Density Ratio
Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Quanyong; Huang, Xudong
2018-03-01
A novel quasi-3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method of mid-span flow simulation for compressor cascades is proposed. Two dimension (2D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is shown facing challenge in predicting mid-span flow with a unity Axial Velocity Density Ratio (AVDR). Three dimension (3D) RANS solution also shows distinct discrepancies if the AVDR is not predicted correctly. In this paper, 2D and 3D CFD results discrepancies are analyzed and a novel quasi-3D CFD method is proposed. The new quasi-3D model is derived by reducing 3D RANS Finite Volume Method (FVM) discretization over a one-spanwise-layer structured mesh cell. The sidewall effect is considered by two parts. The first part is explicit interface fluxes of mass, momentum and energy as well as turbulence. The second part is a cell boundary scaling factor representing sidewall boundary layer contraction. The performance of the novel quasi-3D method is validated on mid-span pressure distribution, pressure loss and shock prediction of two typical cascades. The results show good agreement with the experiment data on cascade SJ301-20 and cascade AC6-10 at all test condition. The proposed quasi-3D method shows superior accuracy over traditional 2D RANS method and 3D RANS method in performance prediction of compressor cascade.
Detecting nonlinearity in time series driven by non-Gaussian noise: the case of river flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Laio
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Several methods exist for the detection of nonlinearity in univariate time series. In the present work we consider riverflow time series to infer the dynamical characteristics of the rainfall-runoff transformation. It is shown that the non-Gaussian nature of the driving force (rainfall can distort the results of such methods, in particular when surrogate data techniques are used. Deterministic versus stochastic (DVS plots, conditionally applied to the decay phases of the time series, are instead proved to be a suitable tool to detect nonlinearity in processes driven by non-Gaussian (Poissonian noise. An application to daily discharges from three Italian rivers provides important clues to the presence of nonlinearity in the rainfall-runoff transformation.
Engineering flow states with localized forcing in a thin Marangoni-driven inclined film.
Levy, Rachel; Rosenthal, Stephen; Wong, Jeffrey
2010-11-01
Numerical simulations of lubrication models provide clues for experimentalists about the development of wave structures in thin liquid films. We analyze numerical simulations of a lubrication model for an inclined thin liquid film modified by Marangoni forces due to a thermal gradient and additional localized forcing heating the substrate. Numerical results can be explained through connections to theory for hyperbolic conservation laws predicting wave fronts from Marangoni-driven thin films without forcing. We demonstrate how a variety of forcing profiles, such as gaussian, rectangular, and triangular, affect the formation of downstream transient structures, including an N wave not commonly discussed in the context of thin films. Simulations employing a controlled approximation of a compressive-undercompressive wave pair demonstrate possibilities for applications of localized forcing as microfluidic valve. In the simulations, localized forcing provides a control parameter that can be used to determine mass flux and film profiles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruspini, L.C.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The stability influence of piping fluid inertia on two-phase instabilities is studied. ► Inlet inertia stabilizes the system while outlet inertia destabilizes it. ► High-order modes oscillations are found and analyzed. ► The effect of compressible volumes in the system is studied. ► Inlet compressibility destabilizes the system while outlet comp. stabilizes it. - Abstract: The most common kind of static and dynamic two-phase flow instabilities namely Ledinegg and density wave oscillations are studied. A new model to study two-phase flow instabilities taking into account general parameters from real systems is proposed. The stability influence of external parameters such as the fluid inertia and the presence of compressible gases in the system is analyzed. High-order oscillation modes are found to be related with the fluid inertia of external piping. The occurrence of high-order modes in experimental works is analyzed with focus on the results presented in this work. Moreover, both inertia and compressibility are proven to have a high impact on the stability limits of the systems. The performed study is done by modeling the boiling channel using a one dimensional equilibrium model. An incompressible transient model describes the evolution of the flow and pressure in the non-heated regions and an ideal gas model is used to simulate the compressible volumes in the system. The use of wavelet decomposition analysis is proven to be an efficient tool in stability analysis of several frequencies oscillations.
Wavelength selection in injection-driven Hele-Shaw flows: A maximum amplitude criterion
Dias, Eduardo; Miranda, Jose
2013-11-01
As in most interfacial flow problems, the standard theoretical procedure to establish wavelength selection in the viscous fingering instability is to maximize the linear growth rate. However, there are important discrepancies between previous theoretical predictions and existing experimental data. In this work we perform a linear stability analysis of the radial Hele-Shaw flow system that takes into account the combined action of viscous normal stresses and wetting effects. Most importantly, we introduce an alternative selection criterion for which the selected wavelength is determined by the maximum of the interfacial perturbation amplitude. The effectiveness of such a criterion is substantiated by the significantly improved agreement between theory and experiments. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support.
Modeling Thermally Driven Flow Problems with a Grid-Free Vortex Filament Scheme: Part 1
2018-02-01
simulation FMM Fast Multipole Method GPUs graphic processing units LES Large Eddy Simulation M-O Monin-Obukhov MPI Message Passing Interface Re Reynolds...mail.mil>. Grid-free representation of turbulent flow via vortex filaments offers a means for large eddy simulations that faithfully and efficiently...particle, Lagrangian, turbulence, grid-free, large eddy simulation , natural convection, thermal bubble 56 Pat Collins 301-394-5617Unclassified
Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J.; Lahmann, B.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Appelbe, B.; Chittenden, J.; Walsh, C.; Delettrez, J.; Igumenshchev, I.; Knauer, J. P.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Grimble, W.; Marshall, F.; Michel, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Haines, B. M.; Zylstra, A. B.
2017-10-01
Ion temperatures (Tion) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have traditionally been inferred from the broadening of primary neutron spectra. Directional motion (flow) of the fuel at burn, expected to arise due to asymmetries imposed by e.g. engineering features or drive non-uniformity, also impacts broadening and may lead to artificially inflated ``Tion'' values. Flow due to low-mode asymmetries is expected to give rise to line-of-sight variations in measured Tion, as observed in OMEGA cryogenic DT implosions but not in similar experiments at the NIF. In this presentation, we report on OMEGA experiments with intentional drive asymmetry designed for testing the ability to accurately predict and measure line-of-sight differences in apparent Tion due to low-mode asymmetry-seeded flows. The measurements are contrasted to CHIMERA, RAGE and ASTER simulations, providing insight into implosion dynamics and the relative importance of laser drive non-uniformity, stalk and offset as sources of asymmetry. The results highlight the complexity of hot-spot dynamics, which is a problem that must be mastered to achieve ICF ignition. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF and LLE.
Thermocapillary and shear driven flows in gas/liquid system in annular duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaponenko, Yu; Shevtsova, V; Nepomnyashchy, A
2011-01-01
We report the results of numerical study of two-phase flows in annulus for different aspect ratios obtained in the frame of the JEREMI experiment preparation. The geometry of the physical problem is a cylindrical and non-deformable liquid bridge concentrically surrounded by an annular gas channel under conditions of zero gravity. Thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection in liquid bridge of Pr = 68 is analyzed in the case when the interface is subjected to an axial gas stream. The gas flow is counter-directed with respect to the Marangoni flow. The inlet gas velocity U 0 g , temperature difference ΔT between end rods of the liquid bridge and aspect ratio are the control parameters of the system. In the case when the gas stream comes from the cold side, it cools down the interface to a temperature lower than that of the liquid beneath, and in a certain region of the parameter space that cooling causes instability due to a temperature difference in the direction, perpendicular to the interface. The present study is focused on the influence of the aspect ratio on the existence and characteristic features of the oscillatory regime.
Cost-driven materials selection criteria for redox flow battery electrolytes
Dmello, Rylan; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Smith, Kyle C.
2016-10-01
Redox flow batteries show promise for grid-scale energy storage applications but are presently too expensive for widespread adoption. Electrolyte material costs constitute a sizeable fraction of the redox flow battery price. As such, this work develops a techno-economic model for redox flow batteries that accounts for redox-active material, salt, and solvent contributions to the electrolyte cost. Benchmark values for electrolyte constituent costs guide identification of design constraints. Nonaqueous battery design is sensitive to all electrolyte component costs, cell voltage, and area-specific resistance. Design challenges for nonaqueous batteries include minimizing salt content and dropping redox-active species concentration requirements. Aqueous battery design is sensitive to only redox-active material cost and cell voltage, due to low area-specific resistance and supporting electrolyte costs. Increasing cell voltage and decreasing redox-active material cost present major materials selection challenges for aqueous batteries. This work minimizes cost-constraining variables by mapping the battery design space with the techno-economic model, through which we highlight pathways towards low price and moderate concentration. Furthermore, the techno-economic model calculates quantitative iterations of battery designs to achieve the Department of Energy battery price target of 100 per kWh and highlights cost cutting strategies to drive battery prices down further.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olney, K L; Chiu, P H; Nesterenko, V F; Higgins, A; Serge, M; Weihs, T P; Fritz, G; Stover, A; Benson, D J
2014-01-01
Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christoph Hochenauer
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate state of the art approaches and their accuracy to compute heat transfer including radiation inside a closed cavity whereas buoyancy is the only driving force. This research is the first step of an all-embracing study dealing with underhood airflow and thermal management of vehicles. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation results of buoyancy driven flow inside a simplified engine compartment are compared to experimentally gained values. The test rig imitates idle condition without any working fan. Thus, the airflow is only driven by natural convection. A conventional method used for these applications is to compute the convective heat transfer coefficient and air temperature using CFD and calculate the wall temperature separately by performing a thermal analysis. The final solution results from coupling two different software tools. In this paper thermal conditions inside the enclosure are computed by the use of CFD only. The impact of the turbulence model as well as the results of various radiation models are analyzed and compared to the experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bettaibi, Soufiene, E-mail: Bettaibisoufiene@gmail.com [UR: Rayonnement Thermique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kuznik, Frédéric [INSA-Lyon, CETHIL, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Université de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5008, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Sediki, Ezeddine [UR: Rayonnement Thermique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)
2014-06-27
Highlights: • Mixed convection heat transfer in 2D lid-driven cavity is studied numerically. • Hybrid scheme with multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method is used to obtain the velocity field. • Finite difference method is used to compute the temperature. • Effect of both Richardson and Reynolds numbers for mixed convection is studied. - Abstract: Mixed convection heat transfer in two-dimensional lid-driven rectangular cavity filled with air (Pr=0.71) is studied numerically. A hybrid scheme with multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is used to obtain the velocity field while the temperature field is deduced from energy balance equation by using the finite difference method (FDM). The main objective of this work is to investigate the model effectiveness for mixed convection flow simulation. Results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers. Excellent agreement is obtained between our results and previous works. The different comparisons demonstrate the robustness and the accuracy of our proposed approach.
Measurement of beam driven hydrodynamic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norem, J.; Black, E.; Bandura, L.; Errede, D.; Cummings, M. A. C.
2003-01-01
Cooling intense muon beams in liquid hydrogen absorbers introduces kW of heating to the cold fluid, which will drive turbulent flow. The amount of turbulence may be sufficient to help cool the liquid, but calculations are difficult. We have used a 20 MeV electron beam in a water tank to look at the scale of the beam driven convection and turbulence. The density and flow measurements are made with schlieren and Ronchi systems. We describe the optical systems and the turbulence measured. These data are being used to calibrate hydrodynamic calculations of convection driven and forced flow cooling in muon cooling absorbers
Large-scale retreat and advance of shallow seas in Southeast Asia driven by mantle flow
Zahirovic, Sabin; Flament, Nicolas; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Gurnis, Michael
2016-04-01
The Indonesian islands and surrounding region represent one of the most submerged, low-lying continental areas on Earth. Almost half of this region, known as Sundaland, is presently inundated by a shallow sea. The role of mantle convection in driving long-wavelength topography and vertical motion of the lithosphere in this region has largely been ignored when interpreting regional stratigraphic sections, despite a consensus that Southeast Asia presently situated on a "dynamic topography low" resulting from long-term post-Pangea subduction. However, dynamic topography is typically described as a temporally and spatially transient process, implying that Sundaland may have experienced significant vertical motions in the geological past, and thus must be considered when interpreting relative sea level changes and the paleogeographic indicators of advancing and retreating shallow seas. Although the present-day low regional elevation has been attributed to the massive volume of oceanic slabs sinking in the mantle beneath Southeast Asia, a Late Cretaceous to Eocene regional unconformity indicates that shallow seas retreated following regional flooding during the mid-Cretaceous sea level highstand. During the Eocene, less than one fifth of Sundaland was submerged, despite global sea level being ~200 m higher than at present. The regional nature of the switch from marine to terrestrial environments, that is out-of-sync with eustatic sea levels, suggests that broad mantle-driven dynamic uplift may have led to the emergence of Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. We use numerical forward modelling of plate tectonics and mantle convection, and compare the predicted trends of dynamic topography with evidence from regional paleogeography and eustasy to determine the extent to which mantle-driven vertical motions of the lithosphere have influenced regional basin histories in Southeast Asia. A Late Cretaceous collision of Gondwana-derived terranes with Sundaland choked
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, D G; Kim, J J; Suk, H; Hur, M S
2012-01-01
When an intense laser beam is focused in a plasma, a plasma wake wave is generated and the oscillatary motion of the plasma electrons produces a strong electromagnetic wave by a Cherenkov-like process. Spectrum of the genetated electromagnetic wave has dependence on the plasma density. In this paper, we propose to use the emitted electromagnetic radiation for plasma diagnostic, which may provide an accurate information for local electron densities of the plasma and will be very useful for three-dimensional plasma density profiles by changing the focal point location of the laser beam. Two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the correlation between the spectrum of the emitted radiation and plasma density, and the results demonstrate that this method is promising for the electron density measurement in the plasma.
Volpi, Giorgio; Riva, Federico; Frattini, Paolo; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Magri, Fabien
2016-04-01
Thermal springs are widespread in the European Alps, where more than 80 geothermal sites are known and exploited. The quantitative assessment of those thermal flow systems is a challenging issue and requires accurate conceptual model and a thorough understanding of thermo-hydraulic properties of the aquifers. Accordingly in the last years, several qualitative studies were carried out to understand the heat and fluid transport processes driving deep fluids from the reservoir to the springs. Our work focused on thermal circulation and fluid outflows of the area around Bormio (Central Italian Alps), where nine geothermal springs discharge from dolomite bodies located close to a regional alpine thrust, called the Zebrù Line. At this site, water is heated in deep circulation systems and vigorously upwells at temperature of about 40°C. The aim of this paper is to explore the mechanisms of heat and fluid transport in the Bormio area by carrying out refined steady and transient three-dimensional finite element simulations of thermally-driven flow and to quantitatively assess the source area of the thermal waters. The full regional model (ca. 700 km2) is discretized with a highly refined triangular finite element planar grid obtained with Midas GTS NX software. The structural 3D features of the regional Zebrù thrust are built by interpolating series of geological cross sections using Fracman. A script was developed to convert and implement the thrust grid into FEFLOW mesh that comprises ca. 4 million elements. The numerical results support the observed discharge rates and temperature field within the simulated domain. Flow and temperature patterns suggest that thermal groundwater flows through a deep system crossing both sedimentary and metamorphic lithotypes, and a fracture network associated to the thrust system. Besides providing a numerical framework to simulate complex fractured systems, this example gives insights into the influence of deep alpine structures on
A hybrid load flow and event driven simulation approach to multi-state system reliability evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George-Williams, Hindolo; Patelli, Edoardo
2016-01-01
Structural complexity of systems, coupled with their multi-state characteristics, renders their reliability and availability evaluation difficult. Notwithstanding the emergence of various techniques dedicated to complex multi-state system analysis, simulation remains the only approach applicable to realistic systems. However, most simulation algorithms are either system specific or limited to simple systems since they require enumerating all possible system states, defining the cut-sets associated with each state and monitoring their occurrence. In addition to being extremely tedious for large complex systems, state enumeration and cut-set definition require a detailed understanding of the system's failure mechanism. In this paper, a simple and generally applicable simulation approach, enhanced for multi-state systems of any topology is presented. Here, each component is defined as a Semi-Markov stochastic process and via discrete-event simulation, the operation of the system is mimicked. The principles of flow conservation are invoked to determine flow across the system for every performance level change of its components using the interior-point algorithm. This eliminates the need for cut-set definition and overcomes the limitations of existing techniques. The methodology can also be exploited to account for effects of transmission efficiency and loading restrictions of components on system reliability and performance. The principles and algorithms developed are applied to two numerical examples to demonstrate their applicability. - Highlights: • A discrete event simulation model based on load flow principles. • Model does not require system path or cut sets. • Applicable to binary and multi-state systems of any topology. • Supports multiple output systems with competing demand. • Model is intuitive and generally applicable.
Water Spray Flow Characteristics Under Synthetic Jet Driven By a Piezoelectric Actuator
Marchitto, L.; Valentino, G.; Chiatto, M.; de Luca, L.
2017-01-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) have been applied to investigate the droplets size and velocity distribution of a water spray, under the control of a piezo-element driven synthetic jet (SJ). Tests were carried out under atmospheric conditions within a chamber test rig equipped with optical accesses at two injection pressures, namely 5 and 10 MPa, exploring the variation of the main spray parameters caused by the synthetic jet perturbations. The SJ orifice has been placed at 45° with respect to the water spray axis; the nozzle body has been moved on its own axis and three different nozzle quotes were tested. PIV measurements have been averaged on 300 trials whereas about 105 samples have been acquired for the PDA tests. For each operative condition, the influence region of the SJ device on the spray has been computed through a T-Test algorithm. The synthetic jet locally interacts with the spray, energizing the region downstream the impact. The effect of the actuator decreases at higher injection pressures and moving the impact region upwards. Droplets coalescence can be detected along the synthetic jet axis, while no significant variations are observed along a direction orthogonal to it.
Consumer-driven health plans: latest challenge to practices' cash flow.
Hajny, Tom
2007-01-01
CDHPs are here to stay. Employers welcome CDHPs because they drive costs away from themselves and into the hands of both consumers and provides. The consumer will make medical purchase decisions tempered by personal economic considerations. The providers are left to figure it all out with the hope their cash flow, cost budgets, and customer service will not be negatively impacted. It will not be easy. Practices must become educated on how CDHPs work, become knowledgeable about specific HSA scenarios in their market, develop optimum processes and procedures, and train staff.
Osmotically driven pipe flows and their relation to sugar transport in plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kåre Hartvig; Rio, Emmanuelle; Hansen, Rasmus
2009-01-01
as well as in many cases in plants) we show that the equations of motion for the sugar concentration and the water velocity can be solved exactly by the method of characteristics, yielding the entire flow and concentration profile along the tube. The concentration front decays exponentially in agreement......) for tubes of length L, radius r, permeability kappa and fluid viscosity eta. The experiments (which are in the small M regime) are in good quantitative agreement with the theory. The applicability of our results to plants is discussed and it is shown that it is probable that the Munch mechanism can account...
Amplified melt and flow of the Greenland ice sheet driven by late-summer cyclonic rainfall
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Doyle, Samuel H.; Hubbard, Alun; van de Wal, Roderik S.W.
2015-01-01
and meteorological variables from the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet during a week of warm, wet cyclonic weather in late August and early September 2011. We find that extreme surface runoff from melt and rainfall led to a widespread acceleration in ice flow that extended 140 km into the ice-sheet interior....... We suggest that the late-season timing was critical in promoting rapid runoff across an extensive bare ice surface that overwhelmed a subglacial hydrological system in transition to a less-efficient winter mode. Reanalysis data reveal that similar cyclonic weather conditions prevailed across southern...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yi-Ting; Huang, C F; Chen, Wei-Jen; Chang, Y H; Liang, C-T; Kim, Gil-Ho; Lo, Shun-Tsung; Nicholls, J T; Lin, Li-Hung; Ritchie, D A; Dolan, B P
2012-01-01
We study the temperature flow of conductivities in a gated GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) containing self-assembled InAs dots and compare the results with recent theoretical predictions. By changing the gate voltage, we are able to tune the 2DEG density and thus vary disorder and spin-splitting. Data for both the spin-resolved and spin-degenerate phase transitions are presented, the former collapsing to the latter with decreasing gate voltage and/or decreasing spin-splitting. The experimental results support a recent theory, based on modular symmetry, which predicts how the critical Hall conductivity varies with spin-splitting.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yong Gaochan; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Zhang Xunchao
2009-01-01
Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence afterburner, we study the triton- 3 He (t- 3 He) ratio with both relative and differential transverse flows in semicentral 132 Sn+ 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. The neutron-proton ratios with relative and differential flows are also discussed as a reference. We find that similar to the neutron-proton pairs, the t- 3 He pairs also carry interesting information regarding the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Moreover, the nuclear symmetry energy affects more strongly the t- 3 He relative and differential flows than the π - /π + ratio in the same reaction. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.
Flow Field Simulation and Noise Control of a Twin-Screw Engine-Driven Supercharger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available With the advantages of good low-speed torque capability and excellent instant response performance, twin-screw superchargers have great potential in the automobile market, but the noise of these superchargers is the main factor that discourages their use. Therefore, it is important to study their noise mechanism and methods of reducing it. This study included a transient numerical simulation of a twin-screw supercharger flow field with computational fluid dynamics software and an analysis of the pressure field of the running rotor. The results showed that overcompression was significant in the compression end stage of the supercharger, resulting in a surge in airflow to a supersonic speed and the production of shock waves that resulted in loud noise. On the basis of these findings, optimization of the supercharger is proposed, including expansion of the supercharger exhaust orifice and creation of a slot along the direction of the rotor spiral normal line at the exhaust port, so as to reduce the compression end pressure, improve the exhaust flow channel, and weaken the source of the noise. Experimental results showed that the noise level value of the improved twin-screw supercharger was significantly lower at the same speed than the original model, with an average decrease of about 5 dB (A.
Process Parameter Identification in Thin Film Flows Driven by a Stretching Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satyananda Panda
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of a thin liquid film over a heated stretching surface is considered in this study. Due to a potential nonuniform temperature distribution on the stretching sheet, a temperature gradient occurs in the fluid which produces surface tension gradient at the free surface of the thin film. As a result, the free surface deforms and these deformations are advected by the flow in the stretching direction. This work focuses on the inverse problem of reconstructing the sheet temperature distribution and the sheet stretch rate from observed free surface variations. This work builds on the analysis of Santra and Dandapat (2009 who, based on the long-wave expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations, formulate a partial differential equation which describes the evolution of the thickness of a film over a nonisothermal stretched surface. In this work, we show that after algebraic manipulation of a discrete form of the governing equations, it is possible to reconstruct either the unknown temperature field on the sheet and hence the resulting heat transfer or the stretching rate of the underlying surface. We illustrate the proposed methodology and test its applicability on a range of test problems.
Generation of microfluidic flow using an optically assembled and magnetically driven microrotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Köhler, J; Ghadiri, R; Ksouri, S I; Guo, Q; Gurevich, E L; Ostendorf, A
2014-01-01
The key components in microfluidic systems are micropumps, valves and mixers. Depending on the chosen technology, the realization of these microsystems often requires rotational and translational control of subcomponents. The manufacturing of such active components as well as the driving principle are still challenging tasks. A promising all-optical approach could be the combination of laser direct writing and actuation based on optical forces. However, when higher actuation velocities are required, optical driving might be too slow. Hence, a novel approach based on optical assembling of microfluidic structures and subsequent magnetic actuation is proposed. By applying the optical assembly of microspherical building blocks as the manufacturing method and magnetic actuation, a microrotor was successfully fabricated and tested within a microfluidic channel. The resulting fluid flow was characterized by introducing an optically levitated measuring probe particle. Finally, a freely moving tracer particle visualizes the generated flow. The tracer particle analysis shows average velocities of 0.4–0.5 µm s −1 achieved with the presented technology. (paper)
Flow-cytometric determination of high-density-lipoprotein binding sites on human leukocytes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitz, G.; Wulf, G.; Bruening, T.A.; Assmann, G.
1987-01-01
In this method, leukocytes were isolated from 6 mL of EDTA-blood by density-gradient centrifugation and subsequently incubated with rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC)-conjugated high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The receptor-bound conjugate particles were determined by fluorescent flow cytometry and compared with 125 I-labeled HDL binding data for the same cells. Human granulocytes express the highest number of HDL binding sites (9.4 x 10(4)/cell), followed by monocytes (7.3 x 10(4)/cell) and lymphocytes (4.0 x 10(4)/cell). Compared with conventional analysis of binding of 125 I-labeled HDL in tissue-culture dishes, the present determination revealed significantly lower values for nonspecific binding. In competition studies, the conjugate competes for the same binding sites as 125 I-labeled HDL. With the use of tetranitromethane-treated HDL3, which fails to compete for the HDL receptor sites while nonspecific binding is not affected, we could clearly distinguish between 37 degrees C surface binding and specific 37 degrees C uptake of RITC-HDL3, confirming that the HDL receptor leads bound HDL particles into an intracellular pathway rather than acting as a docking type of receptor. Patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia showed a significantly higher number of HDL binding sites in the granulocyte population but normal in lymphocytes and monocytes, indicating increased uptake of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins. In patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, HDL binding was increased in all three cell types, indicating increased cholesterol uptake and increased cholesterol synthesis. The present method allows rapid determination of HDL binding sites in leukocytes from patients with various forms of hyper- and dyslipoproteinemias
Lacy, Jessica R.; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy
2011-01-01
The influence of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on near-bed currents, turbulence, and drag was investigated at three sites in two eelgrass canopies of differing density and at one unvegetated site in the San Juan archipelago of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Eelgrass blade length exceeded 1 m. Velocity profiles up to 1.5 m above the sea floor were collected over a spring-neap tidal cycle with a downward-looking pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profiler above the canopies and two acoustic Doppler velocimeters within the canopies. The eelgrass attenuated currents by a minimum of 40%, and by more than 70% at the most densely vegetated site. Attenuation decreased with increasing current speed. The data were compared to the shear-layer model of vegetated flows and the displaced logarithmic model. Velocity profiles outside the meadows were logarithmic. Within the canopies, most profiles were consistent with the shear-layer model, with a logarithmic layer above the canopy. However, at the less-dense sites, when currents were strong, shear at the sea floor and above the canopy was significant relative to shear at the top of the canopy, and the velocity profiles more closely resembled those in a rough-wall boundary layer. Turbulence was strong at the canopy top and decreased with height. Friction velocity at the canopy top was 1.5–2 times greater than at the unvegetated, sandy site. The coefficient of drag CD on the overlying flow derived from the logarithmic velocity profile above the canopy, was 3–8 times greater than at the unvegetated site (0.01–0.023 vs. 2.9 × 10−3).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imamura, Toru; Kogure, Kyuya (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine); Sekine, Teiko; Satoh, Kei; Endoh, Minoru; Tsuburaya, Kenji; Hoshi, Akihiko
1992-01-01
Time density curve (TDC) can be reconstructed from the data of intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA). We evaluated peak time (PT) and modal transit time (MOTT) of the TDC as the probable indicator of cerebral intravascular blood flow. Cerebral IVDSA and single photon emission CT (SPECT) were performed on 12 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, which consisted of 3 internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions, one middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, one anterior cerebral artery (ACA) branch occlusion and 7 lacunar infarctions. We classified former 4 patients as occlusion group and latter 8 as reference group. In 3 patients (2 ICA and one MCA occlusions), SPECT study revealed definite hypoaccumulation in the MCA territory of occlusive side. Two regions of interest (ROI) were placed on the territories of right and left middle cerebral arteries in the frontal view of cerebral IVDSA. Digital data processor fitted {gamma} curve to the TDC of each ROI, and calculated PT and MOTT. The absolute lateralities of PT and MOTT of MCA territory was significantly (p<0.05) larger in occlusion group than reference group. Patients with hypoaccumulation in SPECT had significantly (p<0.02) larger laterality of MOTT than patients with isoaccumulation. One ICA occluded patient without hypoaccumulation in corresponding MCA territory had relatively small laterality of MOTT similar to the patients of ACA branch occlusion and lacunar infarction. These results suggest that PT and MOTT are possible to detect the laterality of the intravascular blood flow in MCA territories caused by major artery occlusion. Cerebral TDC study of IVDSA may be useful in some clinical therapeutic situations such as hemodilution or intra-arterial thrombolysis, and worth further clinical evaluation. (author).
Vargas, C.; Arcos, J.; Bautista, O.; Méndez, F.
2017-09-01
The effective dispersion coefficient of a neutral solute in the combined electroosmotic (EO) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-driven flow of a Newtonian fluid through a parallel flat plate microchannel is studied. The walls of the microchannel are assumed to have modulated and low zeta potentials that vary slowly in the axial direction in a sinusoidal manner. The flow field required to obtain the dispersion coefficient is solved using the lubrication approximation theory. The solution of the electrical potential is based on the Debye-Hückel approximation for a symmetric (Z :Z ) electrolyte solution. The EO and MHD effects, together with the variations in the zeta potentials of the walls, are observed to notably modify the axial distribution of the effective dispersion coefficient. The problem is formulated for two cases of the zeta potential function. Note that the dispersion coefficient primarily depends on the Hartmann number, on the ratio of the half height of the microchannel to the Debye length, and on the assumed variation in the zeta potentials of the walls.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, Fang; Qian, Gujie; Etschmann, Barbara; University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; Studer, Andrew; Olsen, Scott
2009-01-01
Full text: A flow-through cell for hydrothermal phase transformation studies by in situ and time-resolved neutron diffraction has been designed and constructed. The cell has a large internal volume of 320 m L and can work at up to 300 degree Centigrade under autogeneous vapour pressures (-85 bar). The fluid flow is driven by thermosyphon which is realized by the proper design of temperature difference around the closed loop[1,2). The main body of the cell is made of stainless steel (316 type), but the sample compartment is constructed from non-scattering Ti/Zr alloy. We have successfully commissioned the cell on Australia's new high intensity powder diffractometer WOMBAT in ANSTO, using a simple transformation reaction from leucite (KAISi 2 O 6 ) to analcime (NaAISi 2 O 6H2O ) and then back from analcime to leucite. The demonstration proved that the cell is an excellent tool for probing hydrothermal phase transformations. By collecting diffraction data every 5 min, it was clearly seen that leucite was progressively transformed to analcime in a NaCI solution, and the produced analcime was progressively transformed back to leucite in a K 2 CO 3 solution.
Meshless Lagrangian SPH method applied to isothermal lid-driven cavity flow at low-Re numbers
Fraga Filho, C. A. D.; Chacaltana, J. T. A.; Pinto, W. J. N.
2018-01-01
SPH is a recent particle method applied in the cavities study, without many results available in the literature. The lid-driven cavity flow is a classic problem of the fluid mechanics, extensively explored in the literature and presenting a considerable complexity. The aim of this paper is to present a solution from the Lagrangian viewpoint for this problem. The discretization of the continuum domain is performed using the Lagrangian particles. The physical laws of mass, momentum and energy conservation are presented by the Navier-Stokes equations. A serial numerical code, written in Fortran programming language, has been used to perform the numerical simulations. The application of the SPH and comparison with the literature (mesh methods and a meshless collocation method) have been done. The positions of the primary vortex centre and the non-dimensional velocity profiles passing through the geometric centre of the cavity have been analysed. The numerical Lagrangian results showed a good agreement when compared to the results found in the literature, specifically for { Re} < 100.00 . Suggestions for improvements in the SPH model presented are listed, in the search for better results for flows with higher Reynolds numbers.
Gravity-driven flow and heat transfer in a spent nuclear fuel storage pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gay, R.R.
1983-01-01
The GFLOW code analyzes a three-dimensional rectangular porous medium by dividing the porous medium into a number of nodes or cells specified by the user. The finite difference form of the fluid conservation equations is solved for each node by application of a modified ''marker and cell'' numerical technique. The existence of spent nuclear fuel in any node is modeled by using a porosity value less than unity in that node and by including a surface heat transfer term in the fluid energy equation. In addition, local pressure losses due to grid spaces or other planar flow obstructions can be modeled by local loss coefficients. Heat conduction in the fuel is simulated by a fast running implicit finite difference model of the fuel, gap, and clad regions of the fuel rod
Flux-flow noise driven by quantum fluctuations in a thick amorphous film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okuma, S. [Research Center for Low Temperature Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)]. E-mail: sokuma@o.cc.titech.ac.jp; Kainuma, K. [Research Center for Low Temperature Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kishimoto, T. [Research Center for Low Temperature Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kohara, M. [Research Center for Low Temperature Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
2006-10-01
We measure the voltage-noise spectrum S {sub V}(f) (where f is a frequency) as well as the time (t)-dependent component {delta}V(t) of the flux-flow voltage in the low temperature liquid phase of a thick amorphous Mo {sub x}Si{sub 1-x} film. In the quantum-liquid phase both the amplitude vertical bar {delta}V vertical bar of voltage fluctuations and the asymmetry of the probability distribution of {delta}V(t) show an anomalous increase; the spectral shape of S {sub V}(f) is of a Lorentzian type, suggesting the shot-noise-like vortex motion with a large 'vortex-bundle size' and short characteristic time.
Developing Buoyancy Driven Flow of a Nanofluid in a Vertical Channel Subject to Heat Flux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nirmal C. Sacheti
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The developing natural convective flow of a nanofluid in an infinite vertical channel with impermeable bounding walls has been investigated. It is assumed that the nanofluid is dominated by two specific slip mechanisms and that the channel walls are subject to constant heat flux and isothermal temperature, respectively. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations coupling different transport processes have been solved numerically. The variations of velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration have been discussed in relation to a number of physical parameters. It is seen that the approach to the steady-state profiles of velocity and temperature in the present work is different from the ones reported in a previous study corresponding to isothermal wall conditions.
Rational design of capillary-driven flows for paper-based microfluidics.
Elizalde, Emanuel; Urteaga, Raúl; Berli, Claudio L A
2015-05-21
The design of paper-based assays that integrate passive pumping requires a precise programming of the fluid transport, which has to be encoded in the geometrical shape of the substrate. This requirement becomes critical in multiple-step processes, where fluid handling must be accurate and reproducible for each operation. The present work theoretically investigates the capillary imbibition in paper-like substrates to better understand fluid transport in terms of the macroscopic geometry of the flow domain. A fluid dynamic model was derived for homogeneous porous substrates with arbitrary cross-sectional shapes, which allows one to determine the cross-sectional profile required for a prescribed fluid velocity or mass transport rate. An extension of the model to slit microchannels is also demonstrated. Calculations were validated by experiments with prototypes fabricated in our lab. The proposed method constitutes a valuable tool for the rational design of paper-based assays.
Brunozzi, Denise; Shakur, Sophia F; Ismail, Rahim; Linninger, Andreas; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Charbel, Fady T; Alaraj, Ali
2018-02-01
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides an excellent anatomic characterization of cerebral vasculature, but hemodynamic assessment is often qualitative and subjective. Various clinical algorithms have been produced to semiquantify flow from the data obtained from DSA, but few have tested them against reliable flow values. An arched flow model was created and injected with contrast material. Seventeen injections were acquired in anterior-posterior and lateral DSA projections, and 4 injections were acquired in oblique projection. Image intensity change over the angiogram cycle of each DSA run was analyzed through a custom MATLAB code. Time-density plots obtained were divided into 3 components (time-density times, TDTs): TDT 10%-100% (time needed for contrast material to change image intensity from 10% to 100%), TDT 100%-10% (time needed for contrast material to change image intensity from 100% to 10%), and TDT 25%-25% (time needed for contrast material to change from 25% image intensity to 25%). Time-density index (TDI) was defined as model cross-sectional area to TDT ratio, and it was measured against different flow rates. TDI 10%-100% , TDI 100%-10% , and TDI 25%-25% all correlated significantly with flow (P < 0.001). TDI 10%-100% , TDI 100%-10% , and TDI 25%-25% showed, respectively, a correlation coefficient of 0.91, 0.91, and 0.97 in the anterior-posterior DSA projections (P < 0.001). In the lateral DSA projection, TDI 100%-10% showed a weaker correlation (r = 0.57; P = 0.03). Also in the oblique DSA projection, TDIs correlated significantly with flow. TDI on DSA correlates significantly with flow. Although in vitro studies might overlook conditions that occur in patients, this method appears to correlate with the flow and could offer a semiquantitative method to evaluate the cerebral blood flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kinetic and dynamic probability-density-function descriptions of disperse turbulent two-phase flows
Minier, Jean-Pierre; Profeta, Christophe
2015-11-01
This article analyzes the status of two classical one-particle probability density function (PDF) descriptions of the dynamics of discrete particles dispersed in turbulent flows. The first PDF formulation considers only the process made up by particle position and velocity Zp=(xp,Up) and is represented by its PDF p (t ;yp,Vp) which is the solution of a kinetic PDF equation obtained through a flux closure based on the Furutsu-Novikov theorem. The second PDF formulation includes fluid variables into the particle state vector, for example, the fluid velocity seen by particles Zp=(xp,Up,Us) , and, consequently, handles an extended PDF p (t ;yp,Vp,Vs) which is the solution of a dynamic PDF equation. For high-Reynolds-number fluid flows, a typical formulation of the latter category relies on a Langevin model for the trajectories of the fluid seen or, conversely, on a Fokker-Planck equation for the extended PDF. In the present work, a new derivation of the kinetic PDF equation is worked out and new physical expressions of the dispersion tensors entering the kinetic PDF equation are obtained by starting from the extended PDF and integrating over the fluid seen. This demonstrates that, under the same assumption of a Gaussian colored noise and irrespective of the specific stochastic model chosen for the fluid seen, the kinetic PDF description is the marginal of a dynamic PDF one. However, a detailed analysis reveals that kinetic PDF models of particle dynamics in turbulent flows described by statistical correlations constitute incomplete stand-alone PDF descriptions and, moreover, that present kinetic-PDF equations are mathematically ill posed. This is shown to be the consequence of the non-Markovian characteristic of the stochastic process retained to describe the system and the use of an external colored noise. Furthermore, developments bring out that well-posed PDF descriptions are essentially due to a proper choice of the variables selected to describe physical systems
Schnitzer, Ory; Yariv, Ehud
2017-07-01
The gross amplification of the fluid velocity in pressure-driven flows due to the introduction of superhydrophobic walls is commonly quantified by an effective slip length. The canonical duct-flow geometry involves a periodic structure of longitudinal shear-free stripes at either one or both of the bounding walls, corresponding to flat-meniscus gas bubbles trapped within a periodic array of grooves. This grating configuration is characterized by two geometric parameters, namely the ratio κ of channel width to microstructure period and the areal fraction Δ of the shear-free stripes. For wide channels, κ ≫1 , this geometry is known to possess an approximate solution where the dimensionless slip length λ , normalized by the duct semiwidth, is small, indicating a weak superhydrophobic effect. We here address the other extreme of narrow channels, κ ≪1 , identifying large O (κ-2) values of λ for the symmetric configuration, where both bounding walls are superhydrophobic. This velocity enhancement is associated with an unconventional Poiseuille-like flow profile where the parabolic velocity variation takes place in a direction parallel (rather than perpendicular) to the boundaries. Use of matched asymptotic expansions and conformal-mapping techniques provides λ up to O (κ-1) , establishing the approximationλ ˜κ-2Δ/33 +κ-1Δ/2π ln4 +⋯, which is in excellent agreement with a semianalytic solution of the dual equations governing the respective coefficients of a Fourier-series representation of the fluid velocity. No similar singularity occurs in the corresponding asymmetric configuration, involving a single superhydrophobic wall; in that geometry, a Hele-Shaw approximation shows that λ =O (1 ) .
Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.
2007-11-01
Dispersion of a passive scalar from concentrated sources in fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied with the probability density function (PDF) method. The joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and scalar concentration is represented by a large number of Lagrangian particles. A stochastic near-wall PDF model combines the generalized Langevin model of Haworth and Pope [Phys. Fluids 29, 387 (1986)] with Durbin's [J. Fluid Mech. 249, 465 (1993)] method of elliptic relaxation to provide a mathematically exact treatment of convective and viscous transport with a nonlocal representation of the near-wall Reynolds stress anisotropy. The presence of walls is incorporated through the imposition of no-slip and impermeability conditions on particles without the use of damping or wall-functions. Information on the turbulent time scale is supplied by the gamma-distribution model of van Slooten et al. [Phys. Fluids 10, 246 (1998)]. Two different micromixing models are compared that incorporate the effect of small scale mixing on the transported scalar: the widely used interaction by exchange with the mean and the interaction by exchange with the conditional mean model. Single-point velocity and concentration statistics are compared to direct numerical simulation and experimental data at Reτ=1080 based on the friction velocity and the channel half width. The joint model accurately reproduces a wide variety of conditional and unconditional statistics in both physical and composition space.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saitou, Y.; Yonesu, A.; Shinohara, S.; Ignatenko, M. V.; Kasuya, N.; Kawaguchi, M.; Terasaka, K.; Nishijima, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.
2007-01-01
The importance of reducing the neutral density to reach strong drift wave turbulence is clarified from the results of the extended magnetohydrodynamics and Monte Carlo simulations in a linear magnetized plasma. An upper bound of the neutral density relating to the ion-neutral collision frequency for the excitation of drift wave instability is shown, and the necessary flow velocity to excite this instability is also estimated from the neutral distributions. Measurements of the Mach number and the electron density distributions using Mach probe in the large mirror device (LMD) of Kyushu University [S. Shinohara et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 37, 1015 (1995)] are reported as well. The obtained results show a controllability of the neutral density and provide the basis for neutral density reduction and a possibility to excite strong drift wave turbulence in the LMD
Large fluctuations of shallow seas in low-lying Southeast Asia driven by mantle flow
Zahirovic, Sabin; Flament, Nicolas; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Gurnis, Michael
2016-09-01
The Sundaland continental promontory, as the core of Southeast Asia, is one of the lowest lying continental regions, with half of the continental area presently inundated by a shallow sea. The role of mantle convection in driving long-wavelength topography and vertical motion of the lithosphere in this region has often been ignored when interpreting regional stratigraphy, including a widespread Late Cretaceous-Eocene unconformity, despite a consensus that Southeast Asia is presently situated over a large-amplitude dynamic topography low resulting from long-term post-Pangea subduction. We use forward numerical models to link mantle flow with surface tectonics and compare predicted trends of dynamic topography with eustasy and regional paleogeography to determine the influence of mantle convection on regional basin histories. A Late Cretaceous collision of Gondwana-derived terranes with Sundaland choked the active margin, leading to slab breakoff and a ˜10-15 Myr-long subduction hiatus. A subduction hiatus likely resulted in several hundred meters of dynamic uplift and emergence of Sundaland between ˜80 and 60 Ma and may explain the absence of a Late Cretaceous-Eocene sedimentary record. Renewed subduction from ˜60 Ma reinitiated dynamic subsidence of Sundaland, leading to submergence from ˜40 Ma despite falling long-term global sea levels. Our results highlight a complete "down-up-down" dynamic topography cycle experienced by Sundaland, with transient dynamic topography manifesting as a major regional unconformity in sedimentary basins.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossain, Md. Anwar; Rees, D.A.S.
2002-05-01
The effect of surface tension on unsteady laminar natural convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in a rectangle enclosure with internal heat generation and in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field acting in the direction normal to the gravity has been investigated. The top horizontal surface of the rectangular cavity is assumed to be free and the bottom ones insulated; whereas the left vertical wall is cold and the right one is uniformly hot. The equations are non-dimensionalized and solved numerically by an upwind finite difference method together with a successive over-relaxation (SOR) technique. The effects of heat generation together with the combined effects of the magnetic field and the surface tension are presented graphically in terms of isotherms, streamlines and velocity vector plots. The effects of varying the physical parameters on the rate of heat transfer from the heated surface of the enclosure are also depicted. The fluid here has Prandtl number Pr=0.054 while the value of the Grashof number is 2x10 4 . (author)
Deformation-driven diffusion and plastic flow in amorphous granular pillars.
Li, Wenbin; Rieser, Jennifer M; Liu, Andrea J; Durian, Douglas J; Li, Ju
2015-06-01
We report a combined experimental and simulation study of deformation-induced diffusion in compacted quasi-two-dimensional amorphous granular pillars, in which thermal fluctuations play a negligible role. The pillars, consisting of bidisperse cylindrical acetal plastic particles standing upright on a substrate, are deformed uniaxially and quasistatically by a rigid bar moving at a constant speed. The plastic flow and particle rearrangements in the pillars are characterized by computing the best-fit affine transformation strain and nonaffine displacement associated with each particle between two stages of deformation. The nonaffine displacement exhibits exponential crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior with respect to the cumulative deviatoric strain, indicating that in athermal granular packings, the cumulative deviatoric strain plays the role of time in thermal systems and drives effective particle diffusion. We further study the size-dependent deformation of the granular pillars by simulation, and find that different-sized pillars follow self-similar shape evolution during deformation. In addition, the yield stress of the pillars increases linearly with pillar size. Formation of transient shear lines in the pillars during deformation becomes more evident as pillar size increases. The width of these elementary shear bands is about twice the diameter of a particle, and does not vary with pillar size.
Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua
2015-11-21
Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beall, M., E-mail: mbeall@trialphaenergy.com; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)
2016-11-15
In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 10{sup 16} m{sup −2} at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; E. A. Harvego; J. S. Herring
2007-01-01
This report presents results from the development and optimization of a reference commercial scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.176 - 10 6 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm-cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 49.07% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.45 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. The information presented in this report is intended to establish an optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant so that parameters can be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef
2006-01-01
Roč. 1118, č. 2 (2006), s. 253-260 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : gravitational field flow fractionation * focusing elution mode * carrier liquid density Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2006
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-03-01
We have developed TOUGH2 modules for strongly coupled flow and transport that include full hydrodynamic dispersion. T2DM models tow-dimensional flow and transport in systems with variable salinity, while T32DMR includes radionuclide transport with first-order decay of a parent-daughter chain of radionuclide components in variable salinity systems. T2DM has been applied to a variety of coupled flow problems including the pure solutal convection problem of Elder and the mixed free and forced convection salt-dome flow problem. In the Elder and salt-dome flow problems, density changes of up to 20% caused by brine concentration variations lead to strong coupling between the velocity and brine concentration fields. T2DM efficiently calculates flow and transport for these problems. We have applied T2DMR to the dispersive transport and decay of radionuclide tracers in flow fields with permeability heterogeneities and recirculating flows. Coupling in these problems occurs by velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion. Our results show that the maximum daughter species concentration may occur fully within a recirculating or low-velocity region. In all of the problems, we observe very efficient handling of the strongly coupled flow and transport processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brics, Martins; Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)
2013-07-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture highly correlated electron dynamics such as single-photon double ionization, autoionization, or nonsequential ionization. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TDRDMFT) may remedy these problems. The key ingredients in TDRDMFT are the natural orbitals (NOs), i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM), and the occupation numbers (OCs), i.e., the respective eigenvalues. The two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is then expanded in NOs, and equations of motion for the NOs can be derived. If the expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM were known exactly, the problem at hand would be solved. In practice, approximations have to be made. We study the prospects of TDRDMFT following a top-down approach. We solve the exact two-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model Helium atom in intense laser fields in order to study highly correlated phenomena such as the population of autoionizing states or single-photon double ionization. From the exact wave function we calculate the exact NOs, OCs, the exact expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM, and the exact potentials in the equations of motion. In that way we can identify how many NOs and which level of approximations are necessary to capture such phenomena.
Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Paull, C. K.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.
2017-12-01
The Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE), a multi-institutional collaboration effort, was designed to monitor the passage of sediment density flows along the axis of Monterey Canyon, offshore California, between 200 and 1850 m water depth. An array of moorings and sensors were deployed for three 6-month periods from October 2015 to April 2017. Aligned with the CCE deployments, repeat high-resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys of the Monterey Canyon floor were conducted with a mapping AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle). The AUV carried a Reson 7125 multibeam echosounder (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m). An inertial navigation system combined with a Doppler velocity logger allowed the AUV to fly pre-programmed grids at 3 knots, while maintaining an altitude of 50 m above the seafloor, to obtain a nominal line spacing of 130 m. The floor and lower flanks of the canyon between 200 to 540 m and 1350 to 1880 m water depths were mapped six times during the CCE. These repeat maps are subtracted to create bathymetry difference grids to show morphological change. Coupling the sensor observations with the bathymetric surveys, the CCE successfully documented sediment density flow events as well as the associated changes in seafloor morphology. Between repeat surveys, three sediment density flow events reached the lower canyon, extending to at least 1850 m water depth. On January 15, 2016, a particularly large density flow traveled more than 50 km down Monterey Canyon. Unlike in the upper canyon where this event caused wholesale reorganization of geomorphological features, changes to the lower canyon morphology involved a more moderate re-sculpting of the features. The effect of a sediment density flow of known magnitude and duration on the seafloor morphology has never been documented in a deep-sea setting before.
Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy
2012-10-01
• To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
Effect of metallic walls on dynamos generated by laminar boundary-driven flow in a spherical domain.
Guervilly, Céline; Wood, Toby S; Brummell, Nicholas H
2013-11-01
We present a numerical study of dynamo action in a conducting fluid encased in a metallic spherical shell. Motions in the fluid are driven by differential rotation of the outer metallic shell, which we refer to as "the wall." The two hemispheres of the wall are held in counter-rotation, producing a steady, axisymmetric interior flow consisting of differential rotation and a two-cell meridional circulation with radial inflow in the equatorial plane. From previous studies, this type of flow is known to maintain a stationary equatorial dipole by dynamo action if the magnetic Reynolds number is larger than about 300 and if the outer boundary is electrically insulating. We vary independently the thickness, electrical conductivity, and magnetic permeability of the wall to determine their effect on the dynamo action. The main results are the following: (a) Increasing the conductivity of the wall hinders the dynamo by allowing eddy currents within the wall, which are induced by the relative motion of the equatorial dipole field and the wall. This processes can be viewed as a skin effect or, equivalently, as the tearing apart of the dipole by the differential rotation of the wall, to which the field lines are anchored by high conductivity. (b) Increasing the magnetic permeability of the wall favors dynamo action by constraining the magnetic field lines in the fluid to be normal to the wall, thereby decoupling the fluid from any induction in the wall. (c) Decreasing the wall thickness limits the amplitude of the eddy currents, and is therefore favorable for dynamo action, provided that the wall is thinner than the skin depth. We explicitly demonstrate these effects of the wall properties on the dynamo field by deriving an effective boundary condition in the limit of vanishing wall thickness.
Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2
Zhang, Qingyun
2014-08-06
Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2
Zhang, Qingyun; Gan, Liyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2014-01-01
Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Li, X.; Hu, B.; Burnett, W.; Santos, I.
2008-05-01
Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) as an unseen phenomenon is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making quantification difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, and temporally variable, and thus makes the estimation of its magnitude and components is a challenging enterprise. A two-dimensional hydrogeological model is developed to the near-shore environment of an unconfined aquifer at a Florida coastal area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Intense geological survey and slug tests are set to investigate the heterogeneity of this layered aquifer. By applying SEAWAT2000, considering the uncertainties caused by changes of boundary conditions, a series of variable-density-flow models incorporates the tidal-influenced seawater recirculation and the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone under the dynamics of tidal pattern, tidal amplitude and variation of water table. These are thought as the contributing factors of tidal pumping and hydraulic gradient which are the driven forces of SGD. A tidal-influenced mixing zone in the near-shore aquifer shows the importance of tidal mechanism to flow and salt transport in the process of submarine pore water exchange. Freshwater ratio in SGD is also analyzed through the comparison of Submarine Groundwater Recharge and freshwater inflow. The joint calibration with other methods (natural tracer model and seepage meter) is also discussed.
Paull, C. K.; Talling, P.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Xu, J.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Barry, J.; Chaffey, M. R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Gales, J. A.; McGann, M.; McCann, M. P.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E.
2017-12-01
Sediment density flows flushing through submarine canyons carry globally significant amounts of material into the deep sea to form many of the largest sediment accumulations on Earth. Despite their global significance, these flows remain poorly understood because they have rarely been directly measured. Here we provide an initial overview of the recently completed Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE), which was undertaken specifically to provide detailed measurements of sediment density flows and their impact on seafloor morphology and sedimentology. No previous study has deployed as extensive an array of monitoring sensors along a turbidity current pathway. During the 18 months of the CCE, at least 15 sediment density flows were recorded within the axis of Monterey Canyon. Because no external triggers (i.e., earthquakes or floods) correlate with these flows, they must have originated as failures in the canyon floor or canyon flanks. Three flows ignited and ran out for > 50 km from water depths of 1,860 m, reaching velocities up to 8.1 m/s. The rest of the flows died out within the array. During these events, large objects on or in the canyon floor were displaced substantial distances downslope, including a 7.1 km downslope movement of an entire mooring; a 4.6 km displacement of an 860 kg instrument frame followed by repeated down canyon displacements of this same frame after it was entombed in sediment; and multiple depth changes of man-made boulders containing acceleration and pressure sensors. During this same time interval the canyon floor was mapped six times with autonomous underwater vehicles covering the canyon thalweg at the upper and lower end of the instrument array (200-540 and 1350-1880 m water depths). The repeated mapping surveys reveal that flows caused +3 to -3 m bathymetric changes within a continuous clearly defined 200 m wide swath running along the canyon axis in 540 m water depth. This study shows that sediment density flows caused massive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ofoegbu, G.I.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Green, R.T.; Muller, M.A.
1999-01-01
Numerical modeling was conducted to identify potential perched-water sites and examine the effects of perched water on thermally driven moisture flow at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository for high-level nuclear waste. It is demonstrated that perched-water zones may occur at two horizons on the up-dip side of faults such as the Ghost Dance Fault (GDF): in nonwelded volcanic strata [such as the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded (PTn) stratigraphic unit], where juxtaposition of welded strata against nonwelded may constitute a barrier to lateral flow within the nonwelded strata; and in fractured horizons of underlying welded units [such as the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit] because of focused infiltration fed by overlying perched zones. The potential perched zones (PPZs) may contain perched water (which would flow freely into a well or opening) if infiltration rates are high enough. At lower infiltration rates, the PPZs contain only capillary-held water at relatively high saturations. Areas of the proposed repository that lie below PPZs are likely to experience relatively high percolation flux even if the PPZ contains only capillary-held water at high saturation. As a result, PPZs that contain only capillary-held water may be as important to repository performance as those that contain perched water. Thermal loading from emplaced waste in the repository is not likely to have an effect on PPZs located on adequate distance above the repository (such as in the PTn). As a result, such PPZs may be considered as permanent features of the environment. On the other hand, PPZs close to the repository depth (such as those that may occur in the TSw rock unit) would experience an initial period of spatial growth and increased saturation following waste emplacement. Thereafter, drying would begin at the repository horizon with perched-zone growth simultaneously above and below the repository. As a result, after the initial period of expansion, PPZs close to the repository horizon
Nayamatullah, M.; Rao Pillalamarri, Narasimha; Bhaganagar, Kiran
2018-04-01
A numerical investigation was performed to understand the flow dynamics of 2D density currents over sloping surfaces. Large eddy simulation was conducted for lock-exchange (L-E) release currents and overflows. 2D Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the Boussinesq approximation. The effects of the lock aspect-ratio (height/length of lock), slope, and Reynolds number on the flow structures and turbulence mixing have been analyzed. Results have confirmed buoyancy within the head of the two-dimensional currents is not conserved which contradicts the classical thermal theory. The lock aspect-ratio dictates the fraction of initial buoyancy which is carried by the head of the current at the beginning of the slumping (horizontal) and accelerating phase (over a slope), which has important implications on turbulence kinetic energy production, and hence mixing in the current. For L-E flows over a slope, increasing slope angle enhances the turbulence production. Increasing slope results in shear reversal within the density current resulting in shear-instabilities. Differences in turbulence production mechanisms and flow structures exist between the L-E and constant-flux release currents resulting in significant differences in the flow characteristics between different releases.
Santos, Joao
2017-10-01
Powerful laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in the kTesla range. The B-fields are measured by proton-deflectometry and high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes. According to our modeling, the quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface, accounting for the space charge neutralization and the plasma magnetization. The major control parameter is the laser irradiance Iλ2 . The B-fields ns-scale is long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport into solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented enhancement of a factor 5 on the energy-density flux at 60 µm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes and to laboratory astrophysics. We acknowledge funding from French National Agency for Research (ANR), Grant TERRE ANR-2011-BS04-014, and from EUROfusion Consortium, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Grant 633053.
Santos, J. J.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Ehret, M.; Arefiev, A. V.; Batani, D.; Beg, F. N.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Florido, R.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Fujioka, S.; Gigosos, M. A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gremillet, L.; Honrubia, J. J.; Kojima, S.; Korneev, Ph.; Law, K. F. F.; Marquès, J.-R.; Morace, A.; Mossé, C.; Peyrusse, O.; Rose, S.; Roth, M.; Sakata, S.; Schaumann, G.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Toncian, T.; Woolsey, N.; Zhang, Z.
2018-05-01
Powerful nanosecond laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in excess of 0.5 kT. The quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface. According to our model, which describes the evolution of the discharge current, the major control parameter is the laser irradiance Ilasλlas2 . The space-time evolution of the B-fields is experimentally characterized by high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes and proton-deflectometry measurements. The magnetic pulses, of ns-scale, are long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport through solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented 5-fold enhancement of the energy-density flux at 60 μm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes, and to laboratory astrophysics.
Centrifuge in space fluid flow visualization experiment
Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Dunbar, Bonnie J.
1993-01-01
A prototype flow visualization system is constructed to examine buoyancy driven flows during centrifugation in space. An axial density gradient is formed by imposing a thermal gradient between the two ends of the test cell. Numerical computations for this geometry showed that the Prandtl number plays a limited part in determining the flow.
Krohn, Benedikt; Manera, Annalisa; Petrov, Victor
2018-04-01
Turbulent mixing in stratified environments represents a challenging task in experimental turbulence research, especially when large density gradients are desired. When optical measurement techniques like particle image velocimetry (PIV) are applied to stratified liquids, it is common practice to combine two aqueous solutions with different density but equal refractive index, to suppress particle image deflections. While refractive image matching (RIM) has been developed in the late 1970s, the achieved limit of 4% density ratio was not rivalled up to day. In the present work, we report a methodology, based on the behavior of excess properties and their change in a multicomponent system while mixing, that allows RIM for solutions with higher density differences. The methodology is then successfully demonstrated using a ternary combination of water, isopropanol and glycerol, for which RIM in presence of a density ratio of 8.6% has been achieved. Qualitative PIV results of a turbulent buoyant jet with 8.6% density ratio are shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R Paul Drake
2004-01-01
OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves
Ghassemi, Fariba; Fadakar, Kaveh; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Sabour, Siamak
2017-06-01
The quantification of the density of macular vascular networks and blood flow areas in the foveal and parafoveal area in healthy subjects using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Cross-sectional, prospective study in an institutional setting at the Retina Services of Farabi Eye Hospital. One hundred twelve normal volunteers with no known ocular or systemic disease were included, including patient numbers (one or both eyes), selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, and masking. En face angiogram OCTA was performed on a 3 mm × 3 mm region centered on the macula. Automated thresholding and measuring algorithm method for foveal and parafoveal blood flow and vascular density (VD) were used. The density of macular vascular networks and blood flow area in the foveal and parafoveal area were measured. A total of 224 healthy eyes from 112 subjects with a mean age of 36.4 years ± 11.3 years were included. In the foveal region, the VD of the superficial capillary network (sCN) was significantly higher than that of the deep capillary network (dCN) (31.1% ± 5.5% vs. 28.3% ± 7.2%; P < .001), whereas in the parafoveal area, VD was higher in the dCN (62.24% ± 2.8% vs. 56.5% ± 2.5%; P < .001). Flow area in the 1-mm radius circle in the sCN was less than in the dCN. Superficial foveal avascular zone (sFAZ) size was negatively correlated with the VD of the foveal sCN, but in the deep FAZ (dFAZ) was not correlated with VD or blood flow area of the fovea. There was no difference between measured VD and blood flow surface area in both eyes of the subjects. OCTA could be used as a noninvasive, repeatable, layer-free method in quantitative evaluation of VD and blood flow of macular area. The normal quantities of the vascular plexus density and flow will help in better understanding the pathophysiological basis of the vascular disease of retina. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:478-486.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK
Zhang, Hubao; Schwartz, Frank W.; Wood, Warren W.; Garabedian, S.P.; LeBlanc, D.R.
1998-01-01
A multispecies numerical code was developed to simulate flow and mass transport with kinetic adsorption in variable-density flow systems. The two-dimensional code simulated the transport of bromide (Br−), a nonreactive tracer, and lithium (Li+), a reactive tracer, in a large-scale tracer test performed in a sand-and-gravel aquifer at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. A two-fraction kinetic adsorption model was implemented to simulate the interaction of Li+ with the aquifer solids. Initial estimates for some of the transport parameters were obtained from a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting procedure, where the breakthrough curves from column experiments were matched with one-dimensional theoretical models. The numerical code successfully simulated the basic characteristics of the two plumes in the tracer test. At early times the centers of mass of Br− and Li+ sank because the two plumes were closely coupled to the density-driven velocity field. At later times the rate of downward movement in the Br− plume due to gravity slowed significantly because of dilution by dispersion. The downward movement of the Li+ plume was negligible because the two plumes moved in locally different velocity regimes, where Li+ transport was retarded relative to Br−. The maximum extent of downward transport of the Li+ plume was less than that of the Br− plume. This study also found that at early times the downward movement of a plume created by a three-dimensional source could be much more extensive than the case with a two-dimensional source having the same cross-sectional area. The observed shape of the Br− plume at Cape Cod was simulated by adding two layers with different hydraulic conductivities at shallow depth across the region. The large dispersion and asymmetrical shape of the Li+ plume were simulated by including kinetic adsorption-desorption reactions.
Willenborg, Christian J; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L; Van Acker, Rene C
2009-12-01
Transgenic wheat is currently being field tested with the intent of eventual commercialization. The development of wheat genotypes with novel traits has raised concerns regarding the presence of volunteer wheat populations and the role they may play in facilitating transgene movement. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated the potential of spring wheat plant population density and crop height to minimize gene flow from a herbicide-resistant (HR) volunteer population to a non-HR crop. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between the HR volunteer wheat population and four conventional spring wheat genotypes varying in height was assessed over a range of plant population densities. Natural hybridization events between the two cultivars were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) families. PMGF was strongly associated with crop yield components, but showed no association with flowering synchrony. Maximum observed PMGF was always less than 0.6%, regardless of crop height and density. The frequency of PMGF in spring wheat decreased exponentially with increasing plant population density, but showed no dependence on either crop genotype or height. However, increasing plant densities beyond the recommended planting rate of 300 cropped wheat plants m(-2) provided no obvious benefit to reducing PMGF. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a critical plant density of 175-200 cropped wheat plants m(-2) below which PMGF frequencies rise exponentially with decreasing plant density. These results will be useful in the development of mechanistic models and best management practices that collectively facilitate the coexistence of transgenic and nontransgenic wheat crops.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.
2013-01-01
Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N 2 /O 2 (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 ± 0.7)×10 20 m −3 was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 ± 0.4)×10 19 m −3 at 0.1 vol. %
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Branitskii, A. V.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Sasorov, P. V.; Tkachenko, S. I.; Frolov, I. N.
2016-01-01
The states of current-carrying elements at the transmission of megaampere current into load are studied. It is determined that the expansion velocity of plasma generated at the outer surface of cylindrical tubes produced of stainless steel, at flowing through them of submicrosecond current pulses with linear density of 3 MA/cm is 5.5 km/s. The evolution of various modes of instability is analyzed.
Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.
1992-01-01
Nonintrusive measurements of density and temperature and their turbulent fluctuation levels have been obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment compare favorably with previous measurements obtained in the same facility from conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique.
Experimental determination of droplet size and density field in condensing flows
Lamanna, G.; van Poppel, J.; Dongen, van M.E.H.
2002-01-01
We report a detailed experimental characterization of the process of homogeneous condensation in supersonic expanding flow. In our experiments, the supersaturated mixture expands in a Laval nozzle, where, depending on the initial conditions, a steady or periodically oscillating flow may evolve due
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Y.; Hibiki, T.; Mishima, K.; Nishihara, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Kanda, K.; Tobita, Y.; Konishi, K.; Matsubayashi, M.
1998-01-01
In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor there is a possibility of boiling of fuel-steel mixture in the containment pool. In relation to safety evaluation on severe accident, it is indispensable to evaluate the recriticality of melted core. Gas-liquid two-phase flow with a large density difference is formed due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture. Although the large density difference may affect the basic characteristics of two-phase flow, little work has been performed so far on two-phase flow with large density difference has not been performed well. In this study, visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow were performed by using neutron radiography. The effect of the large density difference between gas and liquid phases on the basic flow characteristics of two-phase flow was clarified. (author)
Overview of pulsed-power-driven high-energy-density plasma research at the University of Michigan
McBride, R. D.; Campbell, P. C.; Miller, S. M.; Woolstrum, J. M.; Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I. K.; Butcher, C. J.; Laity, G. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Wisher, M. L.; Slutz, S. A.; Cuneo, M. E.
2017-10-01
The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments (MAIZE) is a 3-m-diameter, single-cavity Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan (UM). MAIZE supplies a fast electrical pulse (0-1 MA in 100 ns for matched loads) to various experimental configurations, including wire-array z-pinches and cylindrical foil loads. This talk will report on projects aimed at upgrading the MAIZE facility (e.g., a new power feed and new diagnostics) as well as various physics campaigns on MAIZE (e.g., radiation source development, power flow, implosion instabilities, and other projects relevant to the MagLIF program at Sandia). In addition to MAIZE, UM is constructing a second, smaller LTD facility consisting of four 1.25-m-diameter cavities. These cavities were previously part of Sandia's 21-cavity Ursa Minor facility. The status of the four Ursa Minor cavities at UM will also be presented. This research was funded in part by the University of Michigan, a Faculty Development Grant from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the NNSA under DOE Grant DE-NA0003047 for UNR, and Sandia National Laboratories under DOE-NNSA contract DE-NA0003525.
Mohaghar, Mohammad; Carter, John; Pathikonda, Gokul; Ranjan, Devesh
2017-11-01
The current study experimentally investigates the influence of the initial Atwood ratio (At) on the evolution of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability at the Georgia Tech Shock Tube and Advanced Mixing Laboratory. Two Atwood numbers (At =0.22 and 0.67) are studied, which correspond to the gas combinations of nitrogen seeded with acetone vapor (light) over carbon dioxide (heavy) and same light gas over sulfur hexafluoride (heavy) respectively. A perturbed, multi-mode, inclined interface (with an amplitude to wavelength ratio of 0.088) is impulsively accelerated by the incident shock traveling vertically from light to heavy gas with a Mach number 1.55. The effect of Atwood ratio on turbulent mixing transition after reshock at the same non-dimensional times between the two cases is examined through ensemble-averaged turbulence statistics from simultaneous planar laser induced uorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Preliminary studies over the smaller Atwood number indicates that turbulent mixing transition criteria can be satisfied after reshock. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation CAREER Award No. 1451994.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gokaltun, Seckin; McDaniel, Dwayne; Roelant, David [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)
2012-07-01
Multiphase flows involving gas and liquid phases can be observed in engineering operations at various Department of Energy sites, such as mixing of slurries using pulsed-air mixers and hydrogen gas generation in liquid waste tanks etc. The dynamics of the gas phase in the liquid domain play an important role in the mixing effectiveness of the pulsed-air mixers or in the level of gas pressure build-up in waste tanks. To understand such effects, computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD) can be utilized by developing a three-dimensional computerized multiphase flow model that can predict accurately the behavior of gas motion inside liquid-filled tanks by solving the governing mathematical equations that represent the physics of the phenomena. In this paper, such a CFD method, lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), is presented that can model multiphase flows accurately and efficiently. LBM is favored over traditional Navier-Stokes based computational models since interfacial forces are handled more effectively in LBM. The LBM is easier to program, more efficient to solve on parallel computers, and has the ability to capture the interface between different fluid phases intrinsically. The LBM used in this paper can solve for the incompressible and viscous flow field in three dimensions, while at the same time, solve the Cahn-Hillard equation to track the position of the gas-liquid interface specifically when the density and viscosity ratios between the two fluids are high. This feature is of primary importance since the previous LBM models proposed for multiphase flows become unstable when the density ratio is larger than 10. The ability to provide stable and accurate simulations at large density ratios becomes important when the simulation case involves fluids such as air and water with a density ratio around 1000 that are common to many engineering problems. In order to demonstrate the capability of the 3D LBM method at high density ratios, a static bubble simulation is
Mass flows and angular momentum density for px + ipy paired fermions in a harmonic trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, Michael; Anduaga, Inaki
2008-01-01
We present a simple two-dimensional model of a p x + ip y superfluid in which the mass flow that gives rise to the intrinsic angular momentum is easily calculated by numerical diagonalization of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes operator. We find that, at zero temperature and for constant director l, the mass flow closely follows the Ishikawa-Mermin-Muzikar formula j mass =1/2 curl/(ρhl/2)
Estimation of Engine Intake Air Mass Flow using a generic Speed-Density method
Vojtíšek Michal; Kotek Martin
2014-01-01
Measurement of real driving emissions (RDE) from internal combustion engines under real-world operation using portable, onboard monitoring systems (PEMS) is becoming an increasingly important tool aiding the assessment of the effects of new fuels and technologies on environment and human health. The knowledge of exhaust flow is one of the prerequisites for successful RDE measurement with PEMS. One of the simplest approaches for estimating the exhaust flow from virtually any engine is its comp...
Drozda, Tomasz G.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Pisciuneri, Patrick H.; Yilmaz, S. Levent
2012-01-01
Significant progress has been made in the development of subgrid scale (SGS) closures based on a filtered density function (FDF) for large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. The FDF is the counterpart of the probability density function (PDF) method, which has proven effective in Reynolds averaged simulations (RAS). However, while systematic progress is being made advancing the FDF models for relatively simple flows and lab-scale flames, the application of these methods in complex geometries and high speed, wall-bounded flows with shocks remains a challenge. The key difficulties are the significant computational cost associated with solving the FDF transport equation and numerically stiff finite rate chemistry. For LES/FDF methods to make a more significant impact in practical applications a pragmatic approach must be taken that significantly reduces the computational cost while maintaining high modeling fidelity. An example of one such ongoing effort is at the NASA Langley Research Center, where the first generation FDF models, namely the scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) are being implemented into VULCAN, a production-quality RAS and LES solver widely used for design of high speed propulsion flowpaths. This effort leverages internal and external collaborations to reduce the overall computational cost of high fidelity simulations in VULCAN by: implementing high order methods that allow reduction in the total number of computational cells without loss in accuracy; implementing first generation of high fidelity scalar PDF/FDF models applicable to high-speed compressible flows; coupling RAS/PDF and LES/FDF into a hybrid framework to efficiently and accurately model the effects of combustion in the vicinity of the walls; developing efficient Lagrangian particle tracking algorithms to support robust solutions of the FDF equations for high speed flows; and utilizing finite rate chemistry parametrization, such as flamelet models, to reduce
Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Fadakar, Kaveh; Faghihi, Houshangh; Sabour, Siamak; Ghassemi, Fariba
2017-08-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular density (VD) and the flow area on optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area, and the impact of age and sex using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in healthy human subjects. Both eyes of each volunteer were scanned by an RTVue XR Avanti; Optovue with OCTA using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm technique. Masked graders evaluated enface angiodisc OCTA data. The flow area of ONH and the VD were automatically calculated. A total of 79 eyes of patients with a mean age of 37.03±11.27 were examined. The total ONH (papillary and peripapillary) area VD was 56.03%±4.55%. The flow area of the ONH was 1.74±0.10 mm/1.34 mm. The temporal and inferotemporal peripapillary VD was different between male and female patients. Increasing age causes some changes in the flow area of the ONH and the papillary VD from the third to the fourth decade (analysis of variance test; P<0.05). A normal quantitative database of the flow area and VD of the papillary and peripapillary area, obtained by RTVue XR with OCT angiography technique, is presented here.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-01-01
A standard assumption when evaluating the migration of plumes in ground water is that the impacted ground water has the same density as the native ground water. Thus density is assumed to be constant, and does not influence plume migration. This assumption is valid only for water with relatively low total dissolved solids (TDS) or a low difference in TDS between water introduced from milling processes and native ground water. Analyses in the literature suggest that relatively minor density differences can significantly affect plume migration. Density differences as small as 0.3 percent are known to cause noticeable effects on the plume migration path. The primary effect of density on plume migration is deeper migration than would be expected in the arid environments typically present at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, where little or no natural recharge is available to drive the plume into the aquifer. It is also possible that at some UMTRA Project sites, a synergistic affect occurred during milling operations, where the mounding created by tailings drainage (which created a downward vertical gradient) and the density contrast between the process water and native ground water acted together, driving constituents deeper into the aquifer than either process would alone. Numerical experiments were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey saturated unsaturated transport (SUTRA) model. This is a finite-element model capable of simulating the effects of variable fluid density on ground water flow and solute transport. The simulated aquifer parameters generally are representative of the Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site where some of the highest TDS water from processing has been observed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishihara, Takashi
1997-01-01
Single-phase natural circulation loops are very important systems driven by the density variation generated thermally and have various applications in energy systems. Many theoretical and experimental works have been carried out on them and it has been known that the oscillatory instability can occur under some conditions. Most of the works on the oscillatory instability have been limited to specific geometry of the loops and they have paid attention only to the instability of fundamental mode, which has the period approximately equal to the item that the fluid goes round the loop, hereinafter referred to as the typical period. The author had applied the linear stability analysis to the simplified rectangular loop to investigate the basic stability characteristics of a natural circulation flow in a closed loop. The results indicate that various higher-mode oscillatory instabilities can be caused with a period approximately equal to one nth of the typical period according to parameters such as the pressure loss coefficient, the locations of a heat source and a heat sink, and so on. In this report, experimental tests were carried out and it was demonstrated that the higher-mode oscillatory instability can be caused with features as predicted in the analysis. The stability analysis was applied to the geometry of the experimental apparatus. The analytical results and those of experiments were compared with regard to the mode and the region of the parameters to be unstable and they have a good agreement qualitatively. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Shoji; Okuyama, Kunito
2010-01-01
Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provide the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρ L /ρ G =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it was found that liquid film thickness characteristics including the effect of liquid/gas density ratios were well correlated with a gas Weber number and the liquid Reynolds number in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρ L /ρ G : 31-763, We: 10-1800, Re L : 500-2200). (author)
Mesin, Luca
2015-02-01
Developing a real time method to estimate generation, extinction and propagation of muscle fibre action potentials from bi-dimensional and high density surface electromyogram (EMG). A multi-frame generalization of an optical flow technique including a source term is considered. A model describing generation, extinction and propagation of action potentials is fit to epochs of surface EMG. The algorithm is tested on simulations of high density surface EMG (inter-electrode distance equal to 5mm) from finite length fibres generated using a multi-layer volume conductor model. The flow and source term estimated from interference EMG reflect the anatomy of the muscle, i.e. the direction of the fibres (2° of average estimation error) and the positions of innervation zone and tendons under the electrode grid (mean errors of about 1 and 2mm, respectively). The global conduction velocity of the action potentials from motor units under the detection system is also obtained from the estimated flow. The processing time is about 1 ms per channel for an epoch of EMG of duration 150 ms. A new real time image processing algorithm is proposed to investigate muscle anatomy and activity. Potential applications are proposed in prosthesis control, automatic detection of optimal channels for EMG index extraction and biofeedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Feng; Chen Tingkuan; Luo Yushan; Yin Fei; Liu Weimin
2005-01-01
At p=3-10 MPa, G=300-600 kg/(m 2 ·s), Δt sub =30-90 degree C, and q=0-190 kW/m 2 , the experiments on steam-water two-phase flow instabilities have been performed. The test sections are parallel inclined internally ribbed pipes with an outer diameter of φ38.1 mm, a wall thinkness of 7.5 mm, a obliquity of 19.5 and a length more than 15 m length. Based on the experimental results, the effects of pressure, mass velocity, inlet subcooling and asymmetrical heat flux on steam-water two-phase flow density wave oscillation were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the flow system were more stable as pressure increased. As an increase in mass velocity, critical heat flux increased but critical steam quality decreased. Inlet subcooling had a monotone effect on density wave oscillation, when inlet subcooling decreased, critical heat flux decreased. Under a certain working condition, critical heat flux on asymmetrically heating parallel pipes is higher than that on symmetrically heating parallel pipes, that means the system with symmetrically heating parallel pips was more stable. (authors)
Higher-order anisotropies in the Buda-Lund model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Csanad, Mate [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Csoergo, Tamas [Wigner RCP, Budapest (Hungary); KRF, Gyoengyoes (Hungary)
2016-10-15
The Buda-Lund hydro model describes an expanding ellipsoidal fireball, and fits the observed elliptic flow and oscillating HBT radii successfully. Due to fluctuations in energy depositions, the fireball shape however fluctuates on an event-by-event basis. The transverse plane asymmetry can be translated into a series of multipole anisotropy coefficients. These anisotropies then result in measurable momentum-space anisotropies, to be measured with respect to their respective symmetry planes. In this paper we detail an extension of the Buda-Lund model to multipole anisotropies and investigate the resulting flow coefficients and oscillations of HBT radii. (orig.)
Analysis of density wave instability in counter-flow steam generators using STEAMFREQ-X
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, K.C.; Yadigaroglu, G.
1986-01-01
The STEAMFREQ-X computer model was developed to provide a more comprehensive modeling of the different phenomena that are important to stability analysis of counter-flow steam generators. It uses a frequency-domain analysis and considers heat-flux/flow coupling between the primary and secondary fluids in space and time. Predictions by STEAMFREQ-X were compared with data from both a multi-channel liquid-sodium heated steam generator and a set of single pipe test data. Predicted outlet steam qualities at instability thresholds were within 15% of experimental data for all test points. (orig.)
Egg fertilisation in a freshwater mussel: effects of distance, flow and male density
Tyler L. Mosley; Wendell R. Haag; James A. Stoeckel
2014-01-01
1. Small or sparse populations can experience Allee effects if egg fertilisation is reduced because of a shortage of sperm. 2. Freshwater mussels are spermcasters that often occur as sparse, patchy populations. Previous stud