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Sample records for density bmd trajectory

  1. Cross calibration of bone mineral density (BMD) values between various dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) systems; Special reference to the BMD values in distal radius

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    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Akazawa, Yuji (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan). Hospital); Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao

    1994-04-01

    The values of bone mineral density (BMD) obtained by different dual energy X-ray absorptiometry systems are known to be non-identical. In this study, the BMD values in the distal radius measured by various DXA instruments were cross-calibrated by in vivo study. The instruments studied were the QDR-1000 (Hologic), DPX-L (Lunar), and DCS-600 (Aloka). Cross calibration was performed by calculating the linear regression formulae of BMD values between different systems. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.987-0.992. Therefore, highly reliable conversions of BMD values between different systems could be obtained in the distal radius. However, it was shown that the conversion formulae of BMD values in the distal radius were essentially different from those in the lumber vertebrae or proximal femur. (author).

  2. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection (HP) and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly people.

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    Fotouk-Kiai, Mahdiye; Hoseini, Seyed Reza; Meftah, Neda; Ghadimi, Reza; Bijani, Ali; Noreddini, Hajighorban; Nematollahi, Hamidreza; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Low bone mass is a frequent complication of chronic inflammatory disease. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis in chronic inflammatory disease may be secondary to releases of cytokines such as TNF- and IL6. Chronic gastritis due to helicobacter pylori (HP) infection may lead to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and predispose patients to osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to determine the BMD status in HP positive patients with gastritis versus HP negative cases. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 967 participants aged 60 years old and more from Amirkola Health Study Ageing Project. Seven-hundred and fifty eight HP positive and 209 HP negative patients were analyzed. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method in the spine and femoral neck in all participants. The mean age in HP+ and HP- negative patients was 68.3±6.8 and 69.3±7.4 years, respectively. BMD g/cm2 in the spine and femoral neck did not differ between the two groups (P=0.19 and 0.22 respectively). The prevalence of osteoporosis did not also differ across the two groups as well. There was no relationship between the level of antibodies against HP and BMD. According to the findings of this study, H. pylori infection is not associated with BMD changes in the elderly population.

  3. Vertebral size, bone density, and strength in men and women matched for age and areal spine BMD.

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    Bruno, Alexander G; Broe, Kerry E; Zhang, Xiaochun; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Meng, Ching-An; Manoharan, Rajaram; D'Agostino, John; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-03-01

    To explore the possible mechanisms underlying sex-specific differences in skeletal fragility that may be obscured by two-dimensional areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measures, we compared quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based vertebral bone measures among pairs of men and women from the Framingham Heart Study Multidetector Computed Tomography Study who were matched for age and spine aBMD. Measurements included vertebral body cross-sectional area (CSA, cm(2) ), trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD, g/cm(3) ), integral volumetric BMD (Int.vBMD, g/cm(3) ), estimated vertebral compressive loading and strength (Newtons) at L3 , the factor-of-risk (load-to-strength ratio), and vertebral fracture prevalence. We identified 981 male-female pairs (1:1 matching) matched on age (± 1 year) and QCT-derived aBMD of L3 (± 1%), with an average age of 51 years (range 34 to 81 years). Matched for aBMD and age, men had 20% larger vertebral CSA, lower Int.vBMD (-8%) and Tb.vBMD (-9%), 10% greater vertebral compressive strength, 24% greater vertebral compressive loading, and 12% greater factor-of-risk than women (p vertebral fracture. After adjusting for height and weight, the differences in CSA and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) between men and women were attenuated but remained significant, whereas compressive strength was no longer different. In conclusion, vertebral size, morphology, and density differ significantly between men and women matched for age and spine aBMD, suggesting that men and women attain the same aBMD by different mechanisms. These results provide novel information regarding sex-specific differences in mechanisms that underlie vertebral fragility. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THYROID FUNCTION STATUS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY (BMD AMONG POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPOROSIS

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    K. P. Neethu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder. It is a disorder characterized by low bone and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. Thyroid hormones are necessary to normal development and function of human skeleton. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function status and mineral density (BMD among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was completed in central diagnostic biochemistry laboratory, medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. Consecutive blood samples (5 ml were collected from the postmenopausal women after confirming menopause, attending camp under the guidance of orthopaedic department, MCH hospital, to detect Bone mineral density by quantitative ultra sonometry. Thiruvananthapuram and the parameters evaluating are Serum T3, T4, TSH, Serum Calcium, Phosphorous and ALP, in the Central Diagnostic Biochemistry Laboratory, Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. RESULTS Average TSH of osteoporosis 1.61 ± 1.24, that of control 3.38 ± 1.65, p value is 0.05. T3 and T4 shows No correlation with bone mineral density. CONCLUSION In osteoporosis population 83.3% of individuals having TSH value in the lower range of normal value. The study concluded that there is a positive correlation with Bone mineral density and TSH, even at TSH level with in the normal limit. The p value obtained is< 0.001 and the coefficient of correlation r = 0.565 Similarly, the study also concluded that there is no correlation of bone mineral density with T3 and T4. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were similar among women with or without osteoporosis. The low-normal TSH levels were associated with lowered BMD value. Average TSH of osteoporosis is 1.61 ± 1.24, that of control 3.38 ± 1.65, p value is <0.001

  5. A study on the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by life habit and physical condition

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    Kim, Sun Geun

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between BMD and life habit such as drinking exercise smoking or physical condition such as age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). I evaluated the BMD of the femoral neck and L2-L4 spines of 321 persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk university oriental medical hospital from February to April in 2006 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. The age of persons ranged from 20 years to 75 years (mean 45.10 ± 11.54) and there were 160 males and 161 females. In males, BMD of the femoral head was highest at 2nd decade, BMD of the spine was highest at 4th decade, and BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was lowest at 6th decade. In fenales, BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was highest at 4th decade and lowest at 6th decade. Among the various physical conditions, only height of persons showed significant correlation with BMD in both males and females, BMD was increased according to increasing height. In males, BMD of persons who had habit such as drinking, exercise or smoking did not show significant change statistically. But in females, drinking group showed high BMD relative to non-drinking group in both femoral head and lumbar spine. BMD was different according to age, sex, height and life habit. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors decreasing BMD for prevention of problems by osteoporosis

  6. Bone mineral density (BMD) and computer tomographic measurements of the equine proximal phalanx in correlation with breaking strength.

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    Tóth, P; Horváth, C; Ferencz, V; Tóth, B; Váradi, A; Szenci, O; Bodó, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important fracture risk predictor in human medicine, studies in equine orthopedic research are still lacking. We hypothesized that BMD correlates with bone failure and fatigue fractures of this bone. Thus, the objectives of this study were to measure the structural and mechanical properties of the proximal phalanx with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to correlate the data obtained from DXA and computer tomography (CT) measurements to those obtained by loading pressure examination and to establish representative region of interest (ROI) for in vitro BMD measurements of the equine proximal phalanx for predicting bone failure force. DXA was used to measure the whole bone BMD and additional three ROI sites in 14 equine proximal phalanges. Following evaluation of the bone density, whole bone, cortical width and area in the mid-diaphyseal plane were measured on CT images. Bones were broken using a manually controlled universal bone crusher to measure bone failure force and reevaluated for the site of fractures on follow-up CT images. Compressive load was applied at a constant displacement rate of 2 mm/min until failure, defined as the first clear drop in the load measurement. The lowest BMD was measured at the trabecular region (mean +/- SD: 1.52 +/- 0.12 g/cm2; median: 1.48 g/cm2; range: 1.38-1.83 g/cm2). There was a significant positive linear correlation between trabelcular BMD and the breaking strength (P = 0.023, r = 0.62). The trabecular region of the proximal phalanx appears to be the only significant indicator of failure of strength in vitro. This finding should be reassessed to further reveal the prognostic value of trabecular BMD in an in vivo fracture risk model.

  7. From the trajectory to the density memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Rasit; Krokhin, Arkadii; Grigolini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the connection between trajectory and density memory. The first form of memory is a property of a stochastic trajectory, whose stationary correlation function shows that the fluctuation at a given time depends on the earlier fluctuations. The density memory is a property of a collection of trajectories, whose density time evolution is described by a time convoluted equation showing that the density time evolution depends on its past history. We show that the trajectory memory does not necessarily yields density memory, and that density memory might be compatible with the existence of abrupt jumps resetting to zero the system's memory. We focus our attention on a time-convoluted diffusion equation, when the memory kernel is an inverse power law with (i) negative and (ii) positive tail. In case (i) there exist both renewal trajectories and trajectories with memory, compatible with this equation. Case (ii), which has eluded so far a convincing interpretation in terms of trajectories, is shown to be compatible only with trajectory memory

  8. CT evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine in patients after gastrectomy

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    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Uetani, Masataka; Eto, Toshifumi; Matsumoto, Teiji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Yamada, Naoyuki

    1990-11-01

    The late postoperative complications in patients after gastrectomy include anemia and metabolic bone disorders. We studied to determine whether gastric surgery is associated with metabolic bone disease. Vertebral BMD was measured in 55 patients after gastric resection by using DEQCT (dual energy quantitative CT). Forty patients were symptomatic, having bone or joint pain, history of bone fracture, or dental caries. The control group consisted of 161 patients without metabolic bone disorders. Forty percent of the patients with either the symptoms or history of bone fracture or dental caries, and 20% of the patients without the symptoms or the history showed decreased BMD. BMD was significantly lower in males in their 60s and in females in their 50s and 70s than BMD in age-matched control groups. When male subjects were grouped according to the years following the operation (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20 years), BMD was found to be decreased in 27%, 29%, 40% and 50% of the patients in each group, respectively, and the degree of the decrease tended to be greater with increasing time after surgery. Higher incidence of decreased BMD was found in the patients after total gastrectomy when compared with those after subtotal gastrecotmy. Among the patients with subtotal gastrectomy, the incidence of decreased BMD was higher in patients with Billroth II anastomosis than in those with Billroth I anastomosis. In cases with compression fracture on thoracolumbar radiographs, BMD was significantly lower in comparison with cases with no fracture. It was difficult to differentiate between osteomalacia and osteoporosis only by the thoracolumbar radiographs. While the clinical information such as patients' complaints, histories of fracture and laboratory findings are important to evaluate the bone changes following gastric resection. BMD measurement is most useful in quantitatively determining the degree of bone loss after gastrectomy. (author).

  9. CT evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine in patients after gastrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Uetani, Masataka; Eto, Toshifumi; Matsumoto, Teiji; Yamada, Naoyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The late postoperative complications in patients after gastrectomy include anemia and metabolic bone disorders. We studied to determine whether gastric surgery is associated with metabolic bone disease. Vertebral BMD was measured in 55 patients after gastric resection by using DEQCT (dual energy quantitative CT). Forty patients were symptomatic, having bone or joint pain, history of bone fracture, or dental caries. The control group consisted of 161 patients without metabolic bone disorders. Forty percent of the patients with either the symptoms or history of bone fracture or dental caries, and 20% of the patients without the symptoms or the history showed decreased BMD. BMD was significantly lower in males in their 60s and in females in their 50s and 70s than BMD in age-matched control groups. When male subjects were grouped according to the years following the operation (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20 years), BMD was found to be decreased in 27%, 29%, 40% and 50% of the patients in each group, respectively, and the degree of the decrease tended to be greater with increasing time after surgery. Higher incidence of decreased BMD was found in the patients after total gastrectomy when compared with those after subtotal gastrecotmy. Among the patients with subtotal gastrectomy, the incidence of decreased BMD was higher in patients with Billroth II anastomosis than in those with Billroth I anastomosis. In cases with compression fracture on thoracolumbar radiographs, BMD was significantly lower in comparison with cases with no fracture. It was difficult to differentiate between osteomalacia and osteoporosis only by the thoracolumbar radiographs. While the clinical information such as patients' complaints, histories of fracture and laboratory findings are important to evaluate the bone changes following gastric resection. BMD measurement is most useful in quantitatively determining the degree of bone loss after gastrectomy. (author)

  10. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

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    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  11. Bone mineral content (bmc and bone mineral density (bmd in postmenopausal women formerly practising kayaking and fencing

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    B Raczyńska

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was aimed at answering the following questions: 1 Can a prolonged career in sports associated with considerable training loads, in conjunction with other osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present, affect the bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD of the former female athletes in their postmenopausal period of life?, and 2 How does the present lifestyle of the tested women, including physical activity and diet (calcium intake, influence the preservation of the optimal bone mass in these subjects? The postmenopausal subjects recruited to the present study included 15 former athletes (ten kayakers and five fencers and 11 women who never actively engaged in sports (control group. BMC (g and BMD (g/cm2 were densitometrically determined in the lumbar segment (L2-L4 of the spine, and the bone stiffness coefficient was ultrasonically determined in calcaneus. The effects of the osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present were estimated from individual replies to the questionnaire inquiries about the past career in sports, present physical activity, gonadal dysfunctions (dysmenorrhoea during the career and the present need for hormonal supplementary treatment, and the current dietary patterns. The results indicate that mean BMC and BMD values detected in the former athletes did not differ significant from those obtained in the non-athlete, control women: the BMC values equalled to 54.5±10.5, 52.6±14.6, and 46.5±3.2 g in the kayakers, the fencers, and the control women, respectively, while the respective BMD values were 1.05±0.45, 0.96±0.66, and 1.08±0.58 g/cm2. The questionnaire-based studies showed that neither the former female athletes nor the non-athlete controls exhibited in the past longer (i.e., lasting more than three months periods of hormonal disorders (amenorrhoea. As assessed from the dietary intake, only in the former fencers the diet covered the demand for calcium in 100%. In conclusion

  12. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

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    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  13. Comparative effects of teriparatide and ibandronate on spine bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitecture (TBS) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a 2-year open-label study.

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    Senn, C; Günther, B; Popp, A W; Perrelet, R; Hans, D; Lippuner, K

    2014-07-01

    Treatment effects over 2 years of teriparatide vs. ibandronate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were compared using lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS). Teriparatide induced larger increases in BMD and TBS compared to ibandronate, suggesting a more pronounced effect on bone microarchitecture of the bone anabolic drug. The trabecular bone score (TBS) is an index of bone microarchitecture, independent of bone mineral density (BMD), calculated from anteroposterior spine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. The potential role of TBS for monitoring treatment response with bone-active substances is not established. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of recombinant human 1-34 parathyroid hormone (teriparatide) and the bisphosphonate ibandronate (IBN), on lumbar spine (LS) BMD and TBS in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Two patient groups with matched age, body mass index (BMI), and baseline LS BMD, treated with either daily subcutaneous teriparatide (N = 65) or quarterly intravenous IBN (N = 122) during 2 years and with available LS BMD measurements at baseline and 2 years after treatment initiation were compared. Baseline characteristics (overall mean ± SD) were similar between groups in terms of age 67.9 ± 7.4 years, body mass index 23.8 ± 3.8 kg/m(2), BMD L1-L4 0.741 ± 0.100 g/cm(2), and TBS 1.208 ± 0.100. Over 24 months, teriparatide induced a significantly larger increase in LS BMD and TBS than IBN (+7.6 % ± 6.3 vs. +2.9 % ± 3.3 and +4.3 % ± 6.6 vs. +0.3 % ± 4.1, respectively; P teriparatide led to a significantly larger increase in LS BMD and TBS than IBN, suggesting that teriparatide had more pronounced effects on bone microarchitecture than IBN.

  14. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

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    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is a potential risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in astronauts. Although lumbar spine (LS) BMD declines rapidly, more than expected for age, there have been no fragility fractures in astronauts that can clearly be attributed to spaceflight. Recently, astronauts have been returning from 6-month spaceflights with absolute BMD still above young adult mean BMD. In spite of these BMD measurements, we project that the rapid loss in bone mass over long-duration spaceflight affects the bone microarchitecture of the LS which might predispose astronauts to premature vertebral fractures. Thus, we evaluated TBS, a novel texture index correlated with vertebral bone microarchitecture, as a means of monitoring changes to bone microarchitecture in astronauts as they age. We previously reported that TBS detects an effect of spaceflight (6-month duration), independent of BMD, in 51 astronauts (47+/-4 y) (Smith et al, J Clin Densitometry 2014). Hence, TBS was evaluated in serial DXA scans (Hologic Discovery W) conducted triennially in all active and retired astronauts and more frequently (before spaceflight, after spaceflight and until recovery) in the subset of astronauts flying 4-6- month missions. We used non-linear models to describe trends in observations (BMD or TBS) plotted as a function of astronaut age. We fitted 1175 observations of 311 astronauts, pre-flight and then postflight starting 3 years after landing or after astronaut's BMD for LS was restored to within 2% of preflight BMD. Observations were then grouped and defined as follows: 1) LD: after exposure to at least one long-duration spaceflight > 100 days and 2) SD: before LD and after exposure to at least one short-duration spaceflight < 30 days. Data from males and females were analyzed separately. Models of SD observations revealed that TBS and BMD had similar curvilinear declines with age for both male and female astronauts. However, models of LD observations showed TBS declining with age while

  15. Functional autonomy, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum osteocalcin levels in older female participants of an aquatic exercise program (AAG).

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    Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, pAAG when compared to the CG. The AAG achieved the best results for BMD; however, no inter or intragroup statistical differences were recorded for total femur -p=0.975 and lumbar L(2)-L(4)p=0.597. For serum osteocalcin, intra and intergroup statistical differences of p=0.042 and p=0.027 were observed in the AAG, respectively. This demonstrates that an eight-month aquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A normal reference of bone mineral density (BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy thai children and adolescents aged 5-18 years: a new reference for Southeast Asian Populations.

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    Pairunyar Nakavachara

    Full Text Available Ethnic-specific normative data of bone mineral density (BMD is essential for the accurate interpretation of BMD measurement. There have been previous reports of normative BMD data for Caucasian and Asian children including Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Indian. However, the normative BMD data for Southeast Asian including Thai children and adolescents are not currently available. The goals of our study were 1 to establish normative data of BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, bone area (BA and lean body mass (LBM for healthy Thai children and adolescents; aged 5-18 years measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy and 2 to evaluate the relationships between BMD vs. age, sex, puberty, weight, height, calcium intake and the age of menarche in our population. Gender and age-specific BMD (L2-4; LS and total body; TB, BMADLS (apparent BMD of the lumbar spine, BMC (L2-4 and total body, BA (L2-4 and total body and LBM were evaluated in 367 children (174 boys and 193 girls. All parameters increased progressively with age. A rapid increase in BMD, BMC and BMADLS was observed at earlier ages in girls. Gender and Tanner stage-specific BMD normative data were also generated. The dynamic changes of BMD values from childhood to early and late puberty of Thai children appeared to be consistent with those of Caucasian and Asian populations. Using a multiple-regression, weight and Tanner stage significantly affected BMDLS, BMDTB and BMADLS in both genders. Only in girls, height was found to have significant influence on BMDTB and BMADLS. The positive correlation between BMD and several demographic parameters, except the calcium intake, was observed. In summary, we established a normal BMD reference for Thai children and adolescents and this will be of useful for clinicians and researchers to appropriately assess BMD in Thais and other Southeast Asian children.

  17. Time course of 25(OHD3 vitamin D3 as well as PTH (parathyroid hormone during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density (BMD

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    Wöfl Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now the exact biochemical processes during healing of metaphyseal fractures of healthy and osteoporotic bone remain unclear. Especially the physiological time courses of 25(OHD3 (Vitamin D as well as PTH (Parathyroid Hormone the most important modulators of calcium and bone homeostasis are not yet examined sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to focus on the time course of these parameters during fracture healing. Methods In the presented study, we analyse the time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of low BMD level fractures versus normal BMD level fractures in a matched pair analysis. Between March 2007 and February 2009 30 patients older than 50 years of age who had suffered a metaphyseal fracture of the proximal humerus, the distal radius or the proximal femur were included in our study. Osteoporosis was verified by DEXA measuring. The time courses of 25(OHD3 and PTH were examined over an eight week period. Friedmann test, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Mann-Withney U test were used as post-hoc tests. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Serum levels of 25(OHD3 showed no differences in both groups. In the first phase of fracture healing PTH levels in the low BMD level group remained below those of the normal BMD group in absolute figures. Over all no significant differences between low BMD level bone and normal BMD level bone could be detected in our study. Conclusions The time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density were examined for the first time in humans in this setting and allowing molecular biological insights into fracture healing in metaphyseal bones on a molecural level. There were no significant differences between patients with normal and low BMD levels. Hence further studies will be necessary to obtain more detailed insight into fracture healing in order to provide reliable decision criteria for

  18. Adaptive density trajectory cluster based on time and space distance

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    Liu, Fagui; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-10-01

    There are some hotspot problems remaining in trajectory cluster for discovering mobile behavior regularity, such as the computation of distance between sub trajectories, the setting of parameter values in cluster algorithm and the uncertainty/boundary problem of data set. As a result, based on the time and space, this paper tries to define the calculation method of distance between sub trajectories. The significance of distance calculation for sub trajectories is to clearly reveal the differences in moving trajectories and to promote the accuracy of cluster algorithm. Besides, a novel adaptive density trajectory cluster algorithm is proposed, in which cluster radius is computed through using the density of data distribution. In addition, cluster centers and number are selected by a certain strategy automatically, and uncertainty/boundary problem of data set is solved by designed weighted rough c-means. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can perform the fuzzy trajectory cluster effectively on the basis of the time and space distance, and obtain the optimal cluster centers and rich cluster results information adaptably for excavating the features of mobile behavior in mobile and sociology network.

  19. Estimating loblolly pine size-density trajectories across a range of planting densities

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    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf; Harold E. Burkhart

    2013-01-01

    Size-density trajectories on the logarithmic (ln) scale are generally thought to consist of two major stages. The first is often referred to as the density-independent mortality stage where the probability of mortality is independent of stand density; in the second, often referred to as the density-dependent mortality or self-thinning stage, the probability of...

  20. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) around the cemented Exeter stem: a prospective study in 18 women with 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank; Nissen, Nis; Jørgensen, Hans R I

    2008-01-01

    in all zones except 4 and 7. Despite this, the total periprosthetic BMD decreased during the follow-up relative to the immediate postoperative situation. There was no significant reduction in BMD in the contralateral hip. In the spine, we observed a significant rise in BMD. INTERPRETATION: 18 months...

  1. Assessment of association of smoking with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures in a cohort of pakistani males ages <= 50 years and postmenopausal females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhlaq, U.; Ayaz, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to determine the association between smoking, bone mineral density (BMD), and fragility fractures in a cohort of Pakistani males aged > 50 years and postmenopausal females. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi from Jan 2010 to Jan 2011. Through non-probability purposive sampling, we included male patients of age > 50 years and postmenopausal women. All subjects were submitted to dual energy X-Ray absorptiometery at lumbar spine (L2 > L4) and at both femoral by Hologic Discovery-A machine . The lowest BMD was noted and expressed in the form of T-score.Using SPSS V 20, descriptive statistics were calculated for the various variables. Independent samples t-test was used to determine the significance of difference between mean T-score in between smokers and non-smokers. Association between smoking and the risk of fracture was carried out using Fisher exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of a total of 328 patients, 142 (43.3%) were male (mean age 64 ± 8, range: 50 - 82 years) and 186 (56.7%) were female (mean age 61 ± 8, range: 43 - 92 years). Sixteen (8.6%) females and 52 (36.6%) males were smokers. In males, the mean T-score was -1.6 ± 1.3 in non-smokers and -1.9 ± 1.2 in smokers (p=0.17). Two of the non-smokers and nine of the smokers had a fracture. (p=0.002). In females, the mean T-score was -2.9 ± 1.9 in smokers and -2.3 ± 1.4 in non-smokers (p=0.23). Twelve of the non-smokers and 15 smokers had a fracture. (p<0.001) Conclusion: Smoking was significantly associated with increased percentage of fragility fractures but not with a reduction in BMD in our sample of postmenopausal women and men of age > 50 years. (author)

  2. Lévy diffusion: the density versus the trajectory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna, M; Grigolini, P

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the problem of deriving Lévy diffusion, in the form of a Lévy walk, from a density approach, namely using a Liouville equation. We address this problem for a case that has already been discussed using the method of the continuous time random walk, and consequently an approach based on trajectory dynamics rather than density time evolution. We show that the use of the Liouville equation requires the knowledge of the correlation functions of the fluctuation that generates the Lévy diffusion. We benefit from the results of earlier work proving that the correlation function is not factorized as in the Poisson case. We show that the Liouville equation generates a long-time diffusion whose probability distribution density keeps a memory of the detailed form of the fluctuation correlation function, and not only of its long-time inverse power law structure. Although the main result of this paper rests on an approximate expression for higher-order correlation functions, it becomes exact in the long-time limit. Thus, we argue that it explains the failure to derive Lévy diffusion from the Liouville equation, thereby supporting the claim that there exists a conflict between trajectory and density approaches in this case

  3. BMD improvements after operation for primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolighed, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Heickendorff, Lene

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) changes following surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and to assess their relationship with clinical and biochemical variables. METHODS: A historic cohort of 236 PHPT patients with DXA scans pre- and 1-year...

  4. Geostatistical analysis of GPS trajectory data: Space-time densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengl, T.; van Loon, E.E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Zhang, J.; Goodchild, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Creation of density maps and estimation of home range is problematic for observations of animal movement at irregular intervals. We propose a technique to estimate space-time densities by separately modeling animal movement paths and velocities, both as continuous fields. First the length of

  5. Power spectral density of a single Brownian trajectory: what one can and cannot learn from it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Diego; Marinari, Enzo; Metzler, Ralf; Oshanin, Gleb; Xu, Xinran; Squarcini, Alessio

    2018-02-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) of any time-dependent stochastic process X t is a meaningful feature of its spectral content. In its text-book definition, the PSD is the Fourier transform of the covariance function of X t over an infinitely large observation time T, that is, it is defined as an ensemble-averaged property taken in the limit T\\to ∞ . A legitimate question is what information on the PSD can be reliably obtained from single-trajectory experiments, if one goes beyond the standard definition and analyzes the PSD of a single trajectory recorded for a finite observation time T. In quest for this answer, for a d-dimensional Brownian motion (BM) we calculate the probability density function of a single-trajectory PSD for arbitrary frequency f, finite observation time T and arbitrary number k of projections of the trajectory on different axes. We show analytically that the scaling exponent for the frequency-dependence of the PSD specific to an ensemble of BM trajectories can be already obtained from a single trajectory, while the numerical amplitude in the relation between the ensemble-averaged and single-trajectory PSDs is a fluctuating property which varies from realization to realization. The distribution of this amplitude is calculated exactly and is discussed in detail. Our results are confirmed by numerical simulations and single-particle tracking experiments, with remarkably good agreement. In addition we consider a truncated Wiener representation of BM, and the case of a discrete-time lattice random walk. We highlight some differences in the behavior of a single-trajectory PSD for BM and for the two latter situations. The framework developed herein will allow for meaningful physical analysis of experimental stochastic trajectories.

  6. CT-based bone density assessment for iliosacral screw trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schicho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sacroiliac screw placement is one standard treatment option for stabilization of posterior pelvic ring injuries encountering high intra- and inter-individual variations of bone stock quality as well as a vast variety and prevalence of sacral dysmorphism. An individual, easy-to-use preoperative bone stock quality estimation would be of high value for the surgeon. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 36 standard computed tomography datasets with the uninjured pelvic ring. Using a two-plane cross-referencing technique, we assessed the Hounsfield unit (HU mean values as well as standard deviation and minimum/maximum values within selected region of interests (ROIs at five key areas: os ilium left and right, massa lateralis of os sacrum left and right, and central vertebral body on levels S1 and S2. Results: Results showed no difference in mean HU at any ROI when comparing male and female data. For all ROIs set on S1 and S2, there was an age-related decline of HU with a calculated slope significantly different from zero. There was no statistical difference of slopes when comparing S1- and S2-level with respect to any distinct ROI. Comparison of levels S1 and S2 revealed differences at the vertebral body and at the right os ilium. The right and left massa lateralis of os sacrum had lower bone density than the center of the vertebral body, the right, or left os ilium on S1; right and left massa lateralis density did not differ significantly. On level S2, results were comparable with no difference of massa lateralis density. Conclusion: With our easy-to-use preoperative assessment of bone density of five key areas of sacroiliac screw anchoring we were able to find the lowest bone density in both the left and right massa lateralis on levels S1 and S2 with high inter- and intra-individual variations. Significantly lower bone density was found in the center of the vertebral bodies S2 in comparison to S1, which both are crucial for iliosacral

  7. Fast 3D imaging using variable-density spiral trajectories with applications to limb perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hyung; Hargreaves, Brian A; Hu, Bob S; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2003-12-01

    Variable-density k-space sampling using a stack-of-spirals trajectory is proposed for ultra fast 3D imaging. Since most of the energy of an image is concentrated near the k-space origin, a variable-density k-space sampling method can be used to reduce the sampling density in the outer portion of k-space. This significantly reduces scan time while introducing only minor aliasing artifacts from the low-energy, high-spatial-frequency components. A stack-of-spirals trajectory allows control over the density variations in both the k(x)-k(y) plane and the k(z) direction while fast k-space coverage is provided by spiral trajectories in the k(x)-k(y) plane. A variable-density stack-of-spirals trajectory consists of variable-density spirals in each k(x)-k(y) plane that are located in varying density in the k(z) direction. Phantom experiments demonstrate that reasonable image quality is preserved with approximately half the scan time. This technique was then applied to first-pass perfusion imaging of the lower extremities which demands very rapid volume coverage. Using a variable-density stack-of-spirals trajectory, 3D images were acquired at a temporal resolution of 2.8 sec over a large volume with a 2.5 x 2.5 x 8 mm(3) spatial resolution. These images were used to resolve the time-course of muscle intensity following contrast injection. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Correlations between the MR Diffusion-weighted Image (DWI) and the bone mineral density (BMD) as a function of the soft tissue thickness-focus on phantom and patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sam; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Cheol-Soo; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong; Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Yeo, Hwa-Yeon

    2013-02-01

    In this study we used lumbar phantoms to determine if the BMD (bone mineral density) changes when only the thickness of soft tissue is increased. Second, we targeted osteoporosis patients to analyze the dependences of the changes in the SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) on changes in T-score. We used a bone mineral densitometer, phantoms such as an aluminum spine phantom (ASP), a Hologic spine phantom (HSP), and a European spine phantom (ESP), five sheets of acrylic panel, and a water bath to study the effects of changes in the thickness of soft tissue. First, we measured the ASP, the HSP and the ESP. For the measurement of the ASP, we filled it with water to increase the height by 0.5 cm starting from the baseline height. We then did three measurements for each height. For the measurements of the HSP and the ESP, we placed an acrylic panel on the phantom and then did three measurements at each height. We used the ASP to calculate the degree of precision of the standard mode and the thick mode at the maximum height of the water bath. To assess the degree of precision in the measurements of the three types of phantoms, we calculated precision errors and analyzed the correlation between the change in the thickness of soft tissue and the variables of the BMD. Using DWIs (diffusion weighted images), we targeted 30 healthy persons without osteoporosis and 30 patients with a finding of osteoporosis and measured the T-scores for the L1 — L4 (lumbar spine) segments of by the spine using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before classifying the measurement at each part of the spine as osteopenia or osteoporosis. We measured the signal intensity on all four parts of L1-L4 in the DWIs obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner and measured the ADC in the ADC map image. We compared changes in the SNR and the ADC for each group. The study results confirmed that an increase in the thickness of the soft tissue had a significant correlation

  9. Derivation of standardised BMD using the European Spine Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to compare peak bone mass in a range of populations and to examine the determinants of any differences which may be observed. Bone mineral density (areal BMD) has been measured by densitometers manufactured by two companies, Hologic (Waltham, USA) and Lunar (Madison, USA). Systematic differences exist between tile manufacturers in several stages of the scanning procedure (e.g. edge-detection, calibration) so that the normal ranges produced are specific to each brand. To allow comparison of BMD between manufacturers (and thus between centres) we have therefore undertaken a cross-calibration of the scanners in order to derive a standardised BMD

  10. Quantum Stochastic Trajectories: The Fokker-Planck-Bohm Equation Driven by the Reduced Density Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Francesco; Moro, Giorgio J

    2018-03-15

    The quantum molecular trajectory is the deterministic trajectory, arising from the Bohm theory, that describes the instantaneous positions of the nuclei of molecules by assuring the agreement with the predictions of quantum mechanics. Therefore, it provides the suitable framework for representing the geometry and the motions of molecules without neglecting their quantum nature. However, the quantum molecular trajectory is extremely demanding from the computational point of view, and this strongly limits its applications. To overcome such a drawback, we derive a stochastic representation of the quantum molecular trajectory, through projection operator techniques, for the degrees of freedom of an open quantum system. The resulting Fokker-Planck operator is parametrically dependent upon the reduced density matrix of the open system. Because of the pilot role played by the reduced density matrix, this stochastic approach is able to represent accurately the main features of the open system motions both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium with the environment. To verify this procedure, the predictions of the stochastic and deterministic representation are compared for a model system of six interacting harmonic oscillators, where one oscillator is taken as the open quantum system of interest. The undeniable advantage of the stochastic approach is that of providing a simplified and self-contained representation of the dynamics of the open system coordinates. Furthermore, it can be employed to study the out of equilibrium dynamics and the relaxation of quantum molecular motions during photoinduced processes, like photoinduced conformational changes and proton transfers.

  11. Gender disparity in BMD conversion: a comparison between Lunar and Hologic densitometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda, Kirtan; Nguyen, Tuan V; Pocock, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Female-derived inter-conversion and standardised BMD equations at the lumbar spine and hip have not been validated in men. This study of 110 male subjects scanned on Hologic and Lunar densitometers demonstrates that published equations may not applicable to men at the lumbar spine. Male inter-conversion equations have also been derived. Currently, available equations for inter-manufacturer conversion of bone mineral density (BMD) and calculation of standardised BMD (sBMD) are used in both males and females, despite being derived and validated only in women. Our aim was to test the validity of the published equations in men. One hundred ten men underwent lumbar spine (L2-4), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using Hologic and Lunar scanners. Hologic BMD was converted to Lunar using published equations derived from women for L2-4 and FN. Actual Lunar BMD (A-Lunar) was compared to converted (Lunar equivalent) Hologic BMD values (H-Lunar). sBMD was calculated separately using Hologic (sBMD-H) and Lunar BMD (sBMD-L) at L2-4, FN and TH. Conversion equations in men for Hologic to Lunar BMD were derived using Deming regression analysis. There was a strong linear correlation between Lunar and Hologic BMD at all skeletal sites. A-Lunar BMD was however significantly higher than derived H-Lunar BMD (p Hologic BMD, and formulae for lumbar spine sBMD, derived in women may not be applicable to men.

  12. BMD and Serum Intact Osteocalcin in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Vanita R; Ganu, Jayashri V; Nagane, Nitin S

    2011-01-01

    India seems to have the highest prevalence of osteoporosis. With growing awareness of osteoporosis and its impact on life span especially in India, special attention is being paid to early detection, management and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Measurement of BMD and osteocalcin are of value in estimating bone turnover rates. The aim of this study is (1) to measure the specific, sensitive bone formation marker such as osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal osteoporosis women and postmenopausal non-osteoporosis women; (2) the follow up study to evaluate the impact of specific antiresorptive therapy (alendronate + calcium + vitamin D) regimen in postmenopausal osteoporosis by assaying osteocalcin and BMD. Sixty clinically diagnosed postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and 60 normal subjects (postmenopausal non-osteoporosis women) were recruited as control. Mean bone mineral density T score and Z score was significantly decreased (P osteoporosis patients as compared to controls. Highly significant increase in the mean score of BMD-T score and Z score from baseline to post therapy of 3 months was observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis women. Serum osteocalcin levels were significantly increased (P osteoporosis women. BMD is the best quantifiable predictor of osteoporotic fracture and osteocalcin is specific, sensitive, promising, currently used marker for better prognosis of osteoporosis and for monitoring responses to antiresorptive therapy.

  13. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Diagonostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not.

  14. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook; Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not

  15. Relationship Between Body Composition and Regional BMD in Premenopausal Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Karatay

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between body composition and regional bone mineral density (BMD in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and Methods: 23 RA patients and 31 age and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited in this study. Clinical and laboratory assessments of patients were recorded. Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ was used in the assessment of functional disability. BMD values were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The regional BMD (upper and lower extremities, L1-L4 lumbar spine BMD, femoral neck BMD and total body BMD were analyzed. Also, regional lean mass(upper and lower extremities, total lean mass of body, regional fat mass (upper and lower extremities, body fat mass, percentage of body fat were measured with DXA. Results: BMD values of all body sites were significantly lower in RA patients versus the controls, while body composition determinants were no different between the two groups. BMD of lower extremities, femoral neck and total body were affected by lean mass of lower extremities and total body as independent from body weight in RA patients. Disease duration and HAQ scores were correlated with BMD values among the disease characteristics. Conclusion: Regional and total fat mass does not appear as relationship with BMD values. Lean mass of lower extremities and total body may be significant determinants of BMD on regions of femoral neck, lower limbs and total body in premenopausal women with RA. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:29-33

  16. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Bahtiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy, reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-nine postmenopausal women were recruited to enter this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD of total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and serum Hcy, vitamin B12, parathyroid hormone (PTH, total calcium and magnesium levels were determined. In addition, we investigated the relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 and BMD using a meta-analysis approach. Results: Serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic women when compared to other BMD groups, and were inversely related to lumbar spine BMD and femur neck BMD. Body mass index and serum Hcy levels were shown to be significant predictors of BMD at lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip. The performed meta-analysis showed that serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects compared to normal BMD subjects. Conclusion: This study shows that Hcy status, but not vitamin B12 status, is associated with BMD in this cohort of postmenopausal women. We therefore confirm that high Hcy levels are an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. BMD evaluation in women at post menopause with high Hcy levels may be helpful in advising precautionary measures.

  17. Femoral Neck External Size but not aBMD Predicts Structural and Mass Changes for Women Transitioning Through Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Karl J; Kozminski, Andrew; Bigelow, Erin Mr; Schlecht, Stephen H; Goulet, Robert W; Harlow, Sioban D; Cauley, Jane A; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie

    2017-06-01

    The impact of adult bone traits on changes in bone structure and mass during aging is not well understood. Having shown that intracortical remodeling correlates with external size of adult long bones led us to hypothesize that age-related changes in bone traits also depend on external bone size. We analyzed hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images acquired longitudinally over 14 years for 198 midlife women transitioning through menopause. The 14-year change in bone mineral content (BMC, R 2  = 0.03, p = 0.015) and bone area (R 2  = 0.13, p = 0.001), but not areal bone mineral density (aBMD, R 2  = 0.00, p = 0.931) correlated negatively with baseline femoral neck external size, adjusted for body size using the residuals from a linear regression between baseline bone area and height. The dependence of the 14-year changes in BMC and bone area on baseline bone area remained significant after adjusting for race/ethnicity, postmenopausal hormone use, the 14-year change in weight, and baseline aBMD, weight, height, and age. Women were sorted into tertiles using the baseline bone area-height residuals. The 14-year change in BMC (p = 0.009) and bone area (p = 0.001) but not aBMD (p = 0.788) differed across the tertiles. This suggested that women showed similar changes in aBMD for different structural and biological reasons: women with narrow femoral necks showed smaller changes in BMC but greater increases in bone area compared to women with wide femoral necks who showed greater losses in BMC but without large compensatory increases in bone area. This finding is opposite to expectations that periosteal expansion acts to mechanically offset bone loss. Thus, changes in femoral neck structure and mass during menopause vary widely among women and are predicted by baseline external bone size but not aBMD. How these different structural and mass changes affect individual strength-decline trajectories remains to be determined. © 2017

  18. Water-like anomalies in the core-softened systems: Dependence on the trajectory in density-temperature plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Yu.D.; Ryzhov, V.N.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the existence of the water-like anomalies in kinetic coefficients in the core-softened systems depends on the trajectory in ρ-T plane along which the kinetic coefficients are calculated. In particular, it is shown that the diffusion anomaly does exist along the isotherms, but disappears along the isochors. We analyze the applicability of the Rosenfeld entropy scaling relations to the systems with the core-softened potentials demonstrating the water-like anomalies. It is shown that the validity of the Rosenfeld scaling relation for the diffusion coefficient also depends on the trajectory in the ρ-T plane along which the kinetic coefficients and the excess entropy are calculated. In particular, it is valid along isochors, but it breaks down along isotherms. -- Highlights: → We analyze the anomalies in kinetic coefficients in the core-softened systems. → We show that the anomalies depend on the trajectory in density-temperature plane. → The applicability of the Rosenfeld entropy scaling to these systems is analyzed. → The validity of the Rosenfeld scaling relation also depends on the trajectory.

  19. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  20. An analysis of BMD changes with preopertive and postoperative premenopausal breast cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Su Jin; Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo; Lee, Joo Ah; Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Ma, Sang Chull; Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD (bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value (lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program (version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively (p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement (0.067 g/cm 2 ) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur (p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary

  1. An analysis of BMD changes with preopertive and postoperative premenopausal breast cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Su Jin; Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University, Incheon St.Mary' s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Sang Chull [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Shin han University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD (bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value (lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program (version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively (p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement (0.067 g/cm{sup 2}) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur (p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary.

  2. Predictors of the rate of BMD loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, K; Cumming, R G; Naganathan, V; Seibel, M J; Blyth, F M; Le Couteur, D G; Handelsman, D J; Creasey, H M; Waite, L M

    2013-07-01

    Though bone loss tends to accelerate with age there are modifiable factors that may influence the rate of bone loss even in very old men. The aim of this 2-year longitudinal study was to examine potential predictors of change in total hip bone mineral density (BMD) in older men. The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia. For this study, 1,122 men aged 70-97 years had baseline and follow-up measures of total hip BMD measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry. Data about mobility, muscle strength, balance, medication use, cognition, medical history and lifestyle factors were collected using questionnaires and clinical assessments. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was also measured. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships between baseline predictors and change in BMD. Over a mean of 2.2 years, there was a mean annualised loss of total hip BMD of 0.006 g/cm(2)/year (0.6 %) and hip BMC of 0.14 g/year (0.3 %). Annual BMD loss accelerated with increasing age, from 0.4 % in men aged between 70 and 75 years, to 1.2 % in men aged 85+ years. In multivariate regression models, predictors of faster BMD loss were anti-androgen, thiazolidinedione and loop-diuretic medications, kidney disease, poor dynamic balance, larger hip bone area, older age and lower serum 25(OH)D. Factors associated with attenuated bone loss were walking for exercise and use of beta-blocker medications. Change in BMD was not associated with baseline BMD, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, frailty, or osteoarthritis. There was considerable variation in the rate of hip bone loss in older men. Walking, better balance and beta blockers may attenuate the acceleration of BMD loss that occurs with age.

  3. Physical exercise associated with improved BMD independently of sex and vitamin D levels in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Schwarz, Peter; Hovind, Peter Hambak

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Young men and women accrue the majority of their bone mass in their teens and twenties, where their bone mass peaks (PBM), yet little is known about the roles of physical exercise, vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD) near PBM. METHODS: To comparatively examine the effect...... of physical exercise and two vitamin D levels (insufficient s-25[OH]D 80 nmol/L) on the BMD measured at the femoral neck, total hip (bilaterally) and the lumbar spine (L2-L4) in male and female participants approaching PBM. RESULTS: The insufficient s-25[OH]D group, median...... it was equal at the lumbar spine. CONCLUSION: The BMD in young healthy adults is associated with physical exercise, independent of sex and s-25[OH]D status. A sufficient s-25[OH]D status was systematically associated with a higher BMD for all levels of exercise. For both sexes and vitamin D levels exercise...

  4. Bilocal current densities and mean trajectories in a Young interferometer with two Gaussian slits and two detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, L. P., E-mail: lpwithers@mitre.org [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030-4444 (United States); Narducci, F. A., E-mail: francesco.narducci@navy.mil [Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The recent single-photon double-slit experiment of Steinberg et al., based on a weak measurement method proposed by Wiseman, showed that, by encoding the photon’s transverse momentum behind the slits into its polarization state, the momentum profile can subsequently be measured on average, from a difference of the separated fringe intensities for the two circular polarization components. They then integrated the measured average velocity field, to obtain the average trajectories of the photons enroute to the detector array. In this paper, we propose a modification of their experiment, to demonstrate that the average particle velocities and trajectories change when the mode of detection changes. The proposed experiment replaces a single detector by a pair of detectors with a given spacing between them. The pair of detectors is configured so that it is impossible to distinguish which detector received the particle. The pair of detectors is then analogous to the simple pair of slits, in that it is impossible to distinguish which slit the particle passed through. To establish the paradoxical outcome of the modified experiment, the theory and explicit three-dimensional formulas are developed for the bilocal probability and current densities, and for the average velocity field and trajectories as the particle wavefunction propagates in the volume of space behind the Gaussian slits. Examples of these predicted results are plotted. Implementation details of the proposed experiment are discussed.

  5. BMD T-score discriminates trochanteric fractures from unfractured controls, whereas geometry discriminates cervical fracture cases from unfractured controls of similar BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, P; Partanen, J; Jalovaara, P; Jämsä, T

    2010-07-01

    The ability of bone mineral density (BMD) to discriminate cervical and trochanteric hip fractures was studied. Since the majority of fractures occur among people who are not diagnosed as having osteoporosis, we also examined this population to elucidate whether geometrical risk factors can yield additional information on hip fracture risk beside BMD. The study showed that the T-score criterion was able to discriminate fracture patients from controls in the cases of trochanteric fractures, whereas geometrical measures may discriminate cervical fracture cases in patients with T-score >-2.5. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a well-established risk factor for hip fracture. However, majority of fractures occur among people not diagnosed as having osteoporosis. We studied the ability of BMD to discriminate cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Furthermore, we examined whether geometrical measures can yield additional information on the assessment of hip fracture risk in the fracture cases in subjects with T-score >-2.5. Study group consisted of postmenopausal females with non-pathologic cervical (n = 39) or trochanteric (n = 18) hip fracture (mean age 74.2 years) and 40 age-matched controls. BMD was measured at femoral neck, and femoral neck axis length, femoral neck and shaft cortex thicknesses (FNC and FSC), and femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) were measured from radiographs. BMD T-score threshold of -2.5 was able to discriminate trochanteric fractures from controls (p trochanteric fractures occurred in individuals with T-score fractures. Twenty of these fractures (51.3%) occurred in individuals with BMD in osteoporotic range and 19 (48.7%) in individuals with T-score >-2.5. Within these non-osteoporotic cervical fracture patients (N = 19) and non-osteoporotic controls (N = 35), 83.3% were classified correctly based on a model including NSA and FNC (p trochanteric fractures could be discriminated based on a BMD T-score fracture cases would remain under-diagnosed if

  6. PTHR1 polymorphisms influence BMD variation through effects on the growing skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Miles, Lisa J; Duncan, Emma L

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether polymorphisms in PTHR1 are associated with bone mineral density (BMD), to determine whether the association of this gene with BMD was due to effects on attainment of peak bone mass or effects on subsequent bone loss. The PTHR1 gene, including its 14 exons, their exon-intro...... and C52813T were associated with height (P = 0.006) and total body less head BMD (P = 0.02), corrected for age and gender, confirming the family findings. These findings suggest a role for PTHR1 variation in determining peak BMD. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct....... A cohort of 634 families, including 1,236 men (39%) and 1,926 women (61%) ascertained with probands with low BMD (Z... most informative SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) and the tetranucleotide repeat. In our osteoporosis families, association was noted between lumbar spine BMD and alleles of a known functional tetranucleotide repeat (U4) in the PTHR1 promoter region (P = 0.042) and between two and three marker...

  7. BMD measurement and precision: a comparison of GE Lunar Prodigy and iDXA densitometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Vallarta-Ast, Nellie; Checovich, Mary; Gemar, Dessa; Binkley, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed bone mineral density (BMD) comparability and precision using Lunar Prodigy and iDXA densitometers (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) in adults. Additionally, the utility of supine forearm measurement with iDXA was investigated. Lumbar spine and bilateral proximal femur measurements were obtained in routine clinical manner in 345 volunteers, 202 women and 143 men of mean age 52.5 (range: 20.1-91.6)yr. Seated and supine distal forearm scans were obtained in a subset (n=50). Lumbar spine and proximal femur precision assessments were performed on each instrument following International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommendations in 30 postmenopausal women. BMD at the L1-L4 spine, total proximal femur, and femoral neck was very highly correlated (r(2)≥0.98) between densitometers, as was the one-third radius site (r(2)=0.96). Bland-Altman analyses demonstrated no clinically significant bias at all evaluated sites. BMD precision was similar between instruments at the L1-L4 spine, mean total proximal femur, and femoral neck. Finally, one-third radius BMD measurements in the supine vs seated position on the iDXA were highly correlated (r(2)=0.96). In conclusion, there is excellent BMD correlation between iDXA and Prodigy densitometers. Similarly, BMD precision is comparable with these two instruments. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT)...... important to BMD than testosterone levels. Prospective investigations are needed to elucidate potential causal relationships....

  9. A calibration methodology of QCT BMD for human vertebral body with registered micro-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Ara, E; Varga, P; Pahr, D; Zysset, P

    2011-05-01

    The accuracy of QCT-based homogenized finite element (FE) models is strongly related to the accuracy of the prediction of bone volume fraction (BV/TV) from bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of this study was to establish a calibration methodology to relate the BMD computed with QCT with the BV/TV computed with micro-CT (microCT) over a wide range of bone mineral densities and to investigate the effect of region size in which BMD and BV/TV are computed. Six human vertebral bodies were dissected from the spine of six donors and scanned submerged in water with QCT (voxel size: 0.391 x 0.391 x 0.450 mm3) and microCT (isotropic voxel size: 0.018(3) mm3). The microCT images were segmented with a single level threshold. Afterward, QCT-grayscale, microCT-grayscale, and microCT-segmented images were registered. Two isotropic grids of 1.230 mm (small) and 4.920 mm (large) were superimposed on every image, and QCT(BMD) was compared both with microCT(BMD) and microCT(BV/TV) for each grid cell. The ranges of QCT(BMD) for large and small regions were 9-559 mg/cm3 and -90 to 1006 mg/cm3, respectively. QCT(BMD) was found to overestimate microCT(BMD). No significant differences were found between the QCT(BMD)-microCT(BV/TV) regression parameters of the two grid sizes. However, the R2 was higher, and the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was lower for large regions when compared to small regions. For the pooled data, an extrapolated QCTBMD value equal to 1062 mg/ cm3 was found to correspond to 100% microCT(BV/TV). A calibration method was defined to evaluate BV/TV from QCTBMD values for cortical and trabecular bone in vitro. The QCT(BMD-microCT(BV/TV) calibration was found to be dependent on the scanned vertebral section but not on the size of the regions. However, the higher SEE computed for small regions suggests that the deleterious effect of QCT image noise on FE modelling increases with decreasing voxel size.

  10. Study on Measurements of the Mandible BMD According to the ROI Variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Jeong Nam

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bone Mineral Density(BMD) at mandible. So, we studied how to measure the BMD at mandible using DEXA(Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) by Horner er al (1996) and knew reproducibility of the measurements. Thirty-five patients (13 men, 22 women, mean age : 25.4 years) were examined using the GE Lunar Prodigy Advance(LUNAR Corporation, madison, USA). They were examined in Semiprone position of their body and true lateral position of their mandible selected the Lumbar lateral mode. We used the custom mode in analysis when ROI (area 30 x 2.5 mm 2 ). Three ROIs (30 x 2.5 mm 2 , 50 x 2.5 mm 2 , 20 x 2.5 mm 2 ) were located each at the two different sites of the mandible (angle of mandible and mental symphysis) and BMD was measured. Differences in BMD measurement was statistically compared according to the size and location of ROI. BMD was 1.320±0.358 g/cm 3 in men and was 1.152±0.340 g/cm 3 in women. BMD at the angle of mandible was 1.201±0.361 g/cm 3 in men and was 1.025±0.377 g/cm 3 in women. BMD of men at the mental symphysis was 1.434±0.341 g/cm 3 and that of women was 1.19±0.358 g/cm 3 . With the ROI of 20 x 2.5 mm 2 , BMD was 1.262±0.384 g/cm 3 in men and was 1.113±0.357 g/cm 3 in women. With the ROI of 50 x 2.5 mm 2 , BMD of men was 1.320±0.358 g/cm 3 and that of women was 1.129±0.340 g/cm 3 . There was a statistically significant difference of BMD according to the size and location of ROI. When measuring mandible BMD, there are good for increasing ROI and locate between ramus and mental symphysis. Especially following exam, refer to same size and location with fore exam. According to study which measure mandible BMD, It's correct to measure better a portion of mandible then whole of BMD. Using DEXA protocol is studied good for the additional study to compare the BMD at mandible. Later date, It will be good for measurement value in implant and bone graft quantitatively. Using DEXA method gain BMD

  11. Study on Measurements of the Mandible BMD According to the ROI Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Jeong Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Chonam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bone Mineral Density(BMD) at mandible. So, we studied how to measure the BMD at mandible using DEXA(Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) by Horner er al (1996) and knew reproducibility of the measurements. Thirty-five patients (13 men, 22 women, mean age : 25.4 years) were examined using the GE Lunar Prodigy Advance(LUNAR Corporation, madison, USA). They were examined in Semiprone position of their body and true lateral position of their mandible selected the Lumbar lateral mode. We used the custom mode in analysis when ROI (area 30 x 2.5 mm{sup 2}). Three ROIs (30 x 2.5 mm{sup 2}, 50 x 2.5 mm{sup 2}, 20 x 2.5 mm{sup 2}) were located each at the two different sites of the mandible (angle of mandible and mental symphysis) and BMD was measured. Differences in BMD measurement was statistically compared according to the size and location of ROI. BMD was 1.320{+-}0.358 g/cm{sup 3} in men and was 1.152{+-}0.340 g/cm{sup 3} in women. BMD at the angle of mandible was 1.201{+-}0.361 g/cm{sup 3} in men and was 1.025{+-}0.377 g/cm{sup 3} in women. BMD of men at the mental symphysis was 1.434{+-}0.341 g/cm{sup 3} and that of women was 1.19{+-}0.358 g/cm{sup 3}. With the ROI of 20 x 2.5 mm{sup 2}, BMD was 1.262{+-}0.384 g/cm{sup 3} in men and was 1.113{+-}0.357 g/cm{sup 3} in women. With the ROI of 50 x 2.5 mm{sup 2}, BMD of men was 1.320{+-}0.358 g/cm{sup 3} and that of women was 1.129{+-}0.340 g/cm{sup 3} . There was a statistically significant difference of BMD according to the size and location of ROI. When measuring mandible BMD, there are good for increasing ROI and locate between ramus and mental symphysis. Especially following exam, refer to same size and location with fore exam. According to study which measure mandible BMD, It's correct to measure better a portion of mandible then whole of BMD. Using DEXA protocol is studied good for the additional study to compare the BMD at mandible. Later date, It will be

  12. Study on Oneself Developed to Apparatus Position of Measurement of BMD in the Distal Radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Man Seok; Song, Jae Yong; Lee, Hyun Kuk; Yu, Se Jong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of bone mineral density according to distal radius rotation and to develop the supporting tool to measure rotation angles. CT scanning and the measurement of BMD by DXA of the appropriate position of the forearm were performed on 20 males. Twenty healthy volunteers without any history of operations, anomalies, or trauma were enrolled. The CT scan was used to evaluate the cross sectional structure and the rotation angle on the horizontal plane of the distal radius. The rotational angle was measured by the m-view program on the PACS monitor. The DXA was used in 20 dried radii of cadaveric specimens in pronation and supination with five and ten degrees, respectively, including a neutral position (zero degrees) to evaluate the changes of BMD according to the rotation. The mean rotation angle of the distal radius on CT was 7.4 degrees of supination in 16 cases (80%), 3.3 degrees of pronation in three cases (15%), and zero degree of neutral in one case (9%), respectively. The total average rotation angle in 20 people was 5.4 degrees of supination. In the cadaveric study, the BMD of the distal radius was different according to the rotational angles. The lowest BMD was obtained at 3.3 degrees of supination. In the case of the measurement of BMD in the distal radius with a neutral position, the rotational angle of the distal radius is close to supination. Pronation is needed for the constant measurement of BMD in the distal radius with the rotation angle measuring at the lowest BMD and about five degrees of pronation of the distal radius is recommended.

  13. Density-weighted concentric circle trajectories for high resolution brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingerl, Lukas; Bogner, Wolfgang; Moser, Philipp; Považan, Michal; Hangel, Gilbert; Heckova, Eva; Gruber, Stephan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Strasser, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Full-slice magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ≥7 T is especially vulnerable to lipid contaminations arising from regions close to the skull. This contamination can be mitigated by improving the point spread function via higher spatial resolution sampling and k-space filtering, but this prolongs scan times and reduces the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency. Currently applied parallel imaging methods accelerate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging scans at 7T, but increase lipid artifacts and lower SNR-efficiency further. In this study, we propose an SNR-efficient spatial-spectral sampling scheme using concentric circle echo planar trajectories (CONCEPT), which was adapted to intrinsically acquire a Hamming-weighted k-space, thus termed density-weighted-CONCEPT. This minimizes voxel bleeding, while preserving an optimal SNR. Trajectories were theoretically derived and verified in phantoms as well as in the human brain via measurements of five volunteers (single-slice, field-of-view 220 × 220 mm 2 , matrix 64 × 64, scan time 6 min) with free induction decay magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Density-weighted-CONCEPT was compared to (a) the originally proposed CONCEPT with equidistant circles (here termed e-CONCEPT), (b) elliptical phase-encoding, and (c) 5-fold Controlled Aliasing In Parallel Imaging Results IN Higher Acceleration accelerated elliptical phase-encoding. By intrinsically sampling a Hamming-weighted k-space, density-weighted-CONCEPT removed Gibbs-ringing artifacts and had in vivo +9.5%, +24.4%, and +39.7% higher SNR than e-CONCEPT, elliptical phase-encoding, and the Controlled Aliasing In Parallel Imaging Results IN Higher Acceleration accelerated elliptical phase-encoding (all P spectroscopic imaging with optimal SNR at 7T. Magn Reson Med 79:2874-2885, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is

  14. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...

  15. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    . Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated......We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  16. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT......), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body...... a significant correlation between L2-L4 BMD and TT (r(s): 0.61, p testosterone levels and years of training in elite male lightweight rowers. The relatively high BMD and low testosterone levels indicate that the mechanical loading induced by rowing is more important...

  17. The Aegis BMD Global Enterprise: A High End Maritime Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Australia in the near future—in a high- end Aegis BMD Global Maritime Partnership . A BMD IMPERATIVE The need for effective BMD has increased in the twenty...Maritime Partnership Brad Hicks, George Galdorisi, and Scott C. Truver or more than three decades, beginning soon after the end of World War II, the...thousand-ship navy”—now transformed into a Global Maritime Partnership (GMP), in which nations and navies increasingly work together to ensure

  18. Bone mineral density and body composition before and during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in children with central precocious and early puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractMajor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition occur during puberty. In the present longitudinal study, we evaluated BMD and calculated volumetric BMD [bone mineral apparent density (BMAD)], bone metabolism, and body composition of children

  19. A comparative study of influencing BMD factors in postpartum and general women in their twenties and thirties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Geun; Oh, Chan Ho; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The study is to evaluate the factors that affect to the bone mineral density (BMD) of postpartum women by comparing BMD between postpartum and general women who are ages from 20 to 39, and to identify correlation between various factors weight, height, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin (Hb) and BMD. Study subjects were postpartum (n = 159) and general (n = 180) women. We checked the BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine by using dual energy X-ray bone densitometry. The mean age was 30.69 ± 3.32 in postpartum care group and 31.22 ± 5.66 in general women group. In postpartum care group, the mean BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine were -0.187 and -0.076. In general women group, the mean BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine were -0.029, and -0.169. According to BMI level, each group was divided into two subgroups. One was 23 or more BMI subgroup, and the other was under 23 BMI subgroup. There was a significant difference in BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine between two subgroups in general women group, but only a significant difference in BMD of lumbar spine is noted between two subgroups of postpartum group. According to Hb level, each group was divided into two subgroups. One was 11 g/dl or more subgroup, and the other was under 11 g/dl subgroup. There was not a statistically significant difference of BMD in all subgroups. BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine showed a significant correlation with weight, height, BMI in both groups. There was a significant correlation between BMD and Hb level in postpartum care group, but a significant correlation was not noted in general women group. The postpartum women showed a significant correlation between BMD and various factors such as weight, height, BMI just like in general women. There was a significant correlation between BMD and Hb in postpartum women, but not in general women

  20. The lumbar spine age-related degenerative disease influences the BMD not the TBS: the Osteolaus cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padlina, I; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, E; Hans, D; Metzger, M; Stoll, D; Aubry-Rozier, B; Lamy, O

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the influence of degenerative disease and fractured vertebra on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) in 1500 women aged 50-80 years. TBS was not affected by a degenerative disease. While BMD increases after 62.5 years, TBS continues to decline. TBS should play a leading role in lumbar spine evaluation. After menopause, lumbar spine (LS) BMD and TBS values decrease. Degenerative disease (DD) increases with age and affect LS BMD. The aim of this study was to measure changes in LS BMD and TBS in women 50 to 80 years old, taking into account the impact of fractured vertebrae and DD. LS BMD, TBS, and vertebral fracture assessment were evaluated in the OsteoLaus cohort (1500 women, 50-80 years old). The exams were analyzed following ISCD guidelines to identify vertebrae with fractures or DD (Vex). 1443 women were enrolled: mean age 66.7 ± 11.7 years, BMI 25.7 ± 4.4. LS BMD and TBS were weakly correlated (r2 = 0.16). The correlation (Vex excluded) between age and BMD was +0.03, between age and TBS -0.34. According to age group, LS BMD was 1.2 to 3.2% higher before excluding Vex (p < 0.001). TBS had an insignificant change of <1% after excluding Vex. LS BMD (Vex) decreased by 4.6% between 52.5 and 62.5 years, and increased by 2.6% between 62.5 and 77.5 years. TBS (Vex excluded) values decreased steadily with age with an overall loss of 8.99% between 52.5 and 77.5 years. Spine TBS, femoral neck, and total hip BMD gradually decreased with age, reaching one SD between the oldest and youngest group. TBS is not affected by DD. While BMD increases after 62.5 years, TBS continues to decline. For lumbar spine evaluation, in view of its independence from DD, TBS should play a leading role in the diagnosis in complement to BMD.

  1. Life-Course Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis of Total Body BMD and Assessment of Age-Specific Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P.; Trajanoska, Katerina; Luan, Jian'an; Chesi, Alessandra; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Ham, Annelies; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Evans, Daniel S.; Joro, Raimo; Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Zhu, Kun; Atalay, Mustafa; Liu, Ching-Ti; Nethander, Maria; Broer, Linda; Porleifsson, Gudmar; Mullin, Benjamin H.; Handelman, Samuel K.; Nalls, Mike A.; Jessen, Leon E.; Heppe, Denise H. M.; Richards, J. Brent; Wang, Carol; Chawes, Bo; Schraut, Katharina E.; Amin, Najaf; Wareham, Nick; Karasik, David; van der Velde, Nathalie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Zemel, Babette S.; Zhou, Yanhua; Carlsson, Christian J.; Liu, Yongmei; McGuigan, Fiona E.; Boer, Cindy G.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Ralston, Stuart H.; Robbins, John A.; Walsh, John P.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Langenberg, Claudia; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Williams, Frances M. K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Akesson, Kristina; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; den Heijer, Martin; van der Eerden, Bram C. J.; van de Peppel, Jeroen; Spector, Timothy D.; Pennell, Craig; Horta, Bernardo L.; Felix, Janine F.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Wilson, Scott G.; de Mutsert, Renée; Bisgaard, Hans; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Orwoll, Eric; Lakka, Timo A.; Scott, Robert; Grant, Struan F. A.; Lorentzon, Mattias; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wilson, James F.; Stefansson, Kari; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ntzani, Evangelia; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Logan, John G.; Williams, Graham R.; Bassett, J. H. Duncan; Croucher, Peter I.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have been

  2. Breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk for osteoporotic fractures not explained by lower BMD: a retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Merav; Geffen, David B; Novack, Victor; Shafat, Tali; Mizrakli, Yuval; Ariad, Samuell; Koretz, Michael; Norton, Larry; Siris, Ethel

    2015-01-01

    Background: An association between higher bone mineral density (BMD) and the diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) has been reported. Data on the risk of osteoporotic fractures in women with BC are conflicting. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess fracture risk adjusted for BMD in women with and without BC, and to assess whether fracture risk in BC patients is attributed to BMD or BC characteristics. Methods: Using electronic medical records of patients who underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry BMD studies at Soroka University Medical Center between February 2003 and March 2011, we identified women with subsequent diagnosis of osteoporotic fractures. BC status, demographic, health characteristics, BMD, and other laboratory findings were assessed. In BC patients data on grade, stage, and treatment were collected. Primary outcome was osteoporotic fracture, analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: During a median follow-up of 4.9 years in 17,110 women with BMD testing (658 BC patients), 1,193 women experienced an osteoporotic fracture (62 in BC and 1,131 in no-BC groups). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI) and BMD, hazard ratio (HR) for any osteoporotic fracture in women with BC was 1.34 (P=0.026). BMD was similar among women with and without BC who fractured. BC patients who experienced an osteoporotic fracture had a trend for less-advanced BC, lower rates of chemotherapy treatment, and higher rates of tamoxifen treatment. Conclusions: BC survivors are at increased risk of an osteoporotic fracture, which is not explained by worse BMD. Chemotherapy or aromatase inhibitors did not contribute substantially to fracture risk among our BC survivors. PMID:28721367

  3. Phantom-less QCT BMD system as screening tool for osteoporosis without additional radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Dirk K., E-mail: dirk.mueller@philips.com [Philips GmbH, Healthcare Division, Luebeckertordamm 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Kutscherenko, Alex; Bartel, Hans [Kaiserswerther Diakonie, Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kreuzbergstrasse 79, 40489 Duesseldorf (Germany); Vlassenbroek, Alain [Philips Healthcare, Bruxelles, Rue des Deux Gares 80, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium); Ourednicek, Petr [Philips Czech Republic, Safrankova 1, 15500 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Erckenbrecht, Joachim [Kaiserswerther Diakonie, Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kreuzbergstrasse 79, 40489 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Phantom-less bone mineral density (PLBMD) systems are easily integrated into the CT workflow for non-dedicated Quantitative CT (QCT) BMD measurements in thoracic and abdominal scans. This in vivo retrospective study aims to determine accuracy and precision of the PLBMD option located on the Extended Brilliance Workspace (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH, US) from both cross-sectional and longitudinal image data. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional comparison with phantom-based QCT BMD was performed for 82 patients (61 female, 21 male) with a mean age of (63.0 {+-} 11.8 SD) years on 197 vertebrae. This was followed by an interobserver variability analysis on 71 vertebrae. The longitudinal PLBMD study was carried out on 45 vertebrae from 10 patients (5 female, 5 male) with a mean age of (64.4 {+-} 11.5 SD) years. They were re-scanned with standardized scan and contrast-injection protocols within a mean and median of (33 {+-} 41 SD) and 8 days, respectively. All CT scans were acquired on an Mx8000 Quad (Philips) at Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kaiserswerth, Germany, in a spiral acquisition mode. Results: A negligible BMD bias of -0.9 mg/cm{sup 3} for the PLBMD option was observed with respect to phantom-based QCT BMD. Applying CT number matching of muscle and fat ROIs, the analysis of cross-sectional interobserver and of longitudinal variability yielded precision values of 3.1 mg/cm{sup 3} (CV% = 4.0) and 4.2 mg/cm{sup 3} (CV% = 5.3), respectively. Conclusion: Although the precision is inferior to phantom-based BMD systems, PLBMD is a robust clinical utility for the detection of lowered BMD in a large patient population. This can be achieved without additional radiation exposure from non-contrasted CT scans, to perform an ancillary diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis.

  4. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body...

  5. Trajectories of Bone Remodeling Markers and Bone Mineral Density during Treatment with Strontium Ranelate in Postmenopausal Women Previously Treated with Bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helisane Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the responses of C-terminal telopeptide (CTX and serum osteocalcin after the first 4 months of treatment with strontium ranelate (SR and demonstrate their association with long-term bone density changes. Subjects and Methods A sample of 13 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was analyzed (mean age 65 ± 7.7 years, who were treated with SR for an average of 2.56 ± 0.86 years. All patients had undergone previous treatment with bisphosphonates for an average period of 4.88 ± 2.27 years. Serum CTX and osteocalcin levels were determined before and after four months of treatment with SR. Bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck were obtained before and after treatment with SR. Results We observed an average increase of 53.7% in the CTX levels, and 30.7% in the osteocalcin levels. The increase in bone markers was associated with a mean 4.8% increase in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD from 0.820 to 0.860 g/cm 2 ( T -score from –2.67 to –1.92; P= 0.001, after 2.5 years of treatment with SR. Conclusion These data suggest an anabolic effect of SR on postmenopausal women who were previously treated with long-term bisphosphonates.

  6. Does standardized BMD still remove differences between Hologic and GE-Lunar state-of-the-art DXA systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, B; Lu, Y; Genant, H; Fuerst, T; Shepherd, J

    2010-07-01

    The standardized bone mineral density (sBMD) values, derived using universal standardized equations, were shown to be equivalent within 1.0% for hip but significantly different for spine for state-of-art fan-beam dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) Hologic and GE-Lunar systems. Spine L1-L4 and L2-L4 sBMD mean differences between the two systems were 0.042 g/cm(2) (4.1%) and 0.035 g/cm(2) (3.2%), respectively. The objective of this study is to validate the 1994 pencil-beam DXA "universal standardization equations" for state-of-the-art fan-beam DXA systems. The spine and bilateral femurs of 87 postmenopausal women were scanned on both Hologic Delphi and GE-Lunar Prodigy DXA systems at three different clinical centers. The scans were analyzed using Hologic Apex and GE-Lunar EnCore software. The BMD results were converted to sBMD using the equations previously developed. Linear regression analysis was used to describe the relationship of the two systems' BMD results. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the differences in measures. The Apex and Prodigy sBMD values were highly correlated (r ranged from 0.92 to 0.98). Spine L1-L4 and L2-L4 sBMD values had significant intercepts and slopes for Bland-Altman regression, with mean differences of 0.042 g/cm(2) (4.1%) and 0.035 g/cm(2) (3.2%), respectively. The total hip and neck sBMD showed no significant intercept and slope, except left total sBMD had a significant difference between the two systems of 0.009 g/cm(2) (1.0%). The sBMD values were shown to be equivalent within 1.0% for hip but were significantly different for spine on the two systems. Biases may persist in pooled sBMD data from different manufacturers, and further study is necessary to determine the cause.

  7. Does standardized BMD still remove differences between Hologic and GE-Lunar state-of-the-art DXA systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Genant, H.; Fuerst, T.; Shepherd, J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The standardized bone mineral density (sBMD) values, derived using universal standardized equations, were shown to be equivalent within 1.0% for hip but significantly different for spine for state-of-art fan-beam dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) Hologic and GE-Lunar systems. Spine L1-L4 and L2-L4 sBMD mean differences between the two systems were 0.042 g/cm2 (4.1%) and 0.035 g/cm2 (3.2%), respectively. Introduction The objective of this study is to validate the 1994 pencil-beam DXA “universal standardization equations” for state-of-the-art fan-beam DXA systems. Methods The spine and bilateral femurs of 87 postmenopausal women were scanned on both Hologic Delphi and GE-Lunar Prodigy DXA systems at three different clinical centers. The scans were analyzed using Hologic Apex and GE-Lunar EnCore software. The BMD results were converted to sBMD using the equations previously developed. Linear regression analysis was used to describe the relationship of the two systems’ BMD results. Bland–Altman analysis was used to assess the differences in measures. Results The Apex and Prodigy sBMD values were highly correlated (r ranged from 0.92 to 0.98). Spine L1-L4 and L2-L4 sBMD values had significant intercepts and slopes for Bland–Altman regression, with mean differences of 0.042 g/cm2 (4.1%) and 0.035 g/cm2 (3.2%), respectively. The total hip and neck sBMD showed no significant intercept and slope, except left total sBMD had a significant difference between the two systems of 0.009 g/cm2 (1.0%). Conclusions The sBMD values were shown to be equivalent within 1.0% for hip but were significantly different for spine on the two systems. Biases may persist in pooled sBMD data from different manufacturers, and further study is necessary to determine the cause. PMID:19859644

  8. The Relationship of BMD Increases Between the First 12 Months and the Latter 12 Months by Daily Teriparatide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Rui; Kono, Toshibumi; Nishihara, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Kono, Toshihiko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-09-01

    The degree of correlation between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months of increased bone mineral density (BMD) with teriparatide treatment is unknown. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months of increased BMD owing to teriparatide treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 357 patients (mean age, 78 years) with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide 20 μg/day for 24 months. The primary efficacy measure was the correlation between lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD increases from baseline to 12 months and from 12 to 24 months. The correlation between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months of increased BMD was evaluated. We investigated the correlation between the increases in BMD and the baseline procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) concentration. LS BMD significantly increased by 9.7 ± 8.3 % in the first 12 months and 3.5 ± 4.8 % in the latter 12 months. FN BMD increased by 2.2 ± 8.4 % in the first 12 months and 1.3 ± 4.9 % in the latter 12 months. Increased LS and FN BMD were not significantly correlated between the first 12 months and the latter 12 months. The serum baseline PINP concentration was correlated with the LS BMD in the first 12 months, and similarly, the PINP concentration at 12 months was correlated with the latter 12 months of increased LS BMD. Increased BMD by teriparatide treatment in the first 12 months and the latter 12 months was not significantly correlated.

  9. The Relationship Between Fractures and DXA Measures of BMD in the Distal Femur of Children and Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy or Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Richard C; Berglund, Lisa M; May, Ryan; Zemel, Babette S; Grossberg, Richard I; Johnson, Julie; Plotkin, Horacio; Stevenson, Richard D; Szalay, Elizabeth; Wong, Brenda; Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Harcke, H Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Children with limited or no ability to ambulate frequently sustain fragility fractures. Joint contractures, scoliosis, hip dysplasia, and metallic implants often prevent reliable measures of bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal femur and lumbar spine, where BMD is commonly measured. Further, the relevance of lumbar spine BMD to fracture risk in this population is questionable. In an effort to obtain bone density measures that are both technically feasible and clinically relevant, a technique was developed involving dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of the distal femur projected in the lateral plane. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that these new measures of BMD correlate with fractures in children with limited or no ability to ambulate. The relationship between distal femur BMD Z-scores and fracture history was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 619 children aged 6 to 18 years with muscular dystrophy or moderate to severe cerebral palsy compiled from eight centers. There was a strong correlation between fracture history and BMD Z-scores in the distal femur; 35% to 42% of those with BMD Z-scores less than −5 had fractured compared with 13% to 15% of those with BMD Z-scores greater than −1. Risk ratios were 1.06 to 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.04–1.22), meaning a 6% to 15% increased risk of fracture with each 1.0 decrease in BMD Z-score. In clinical practice, DXA measure of BMD in the distal femur is the technique of choice for the assessment of children with impaired mobility. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:19821773

  10. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  11. Life-Course Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis of Total Body BMD and Assessment of Age-Specific Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P.; Trajanoska, Katerina

    2018-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have...... analysis of the association signals showed clustering within gene sets implicated in the regulation of cell growth and SMAD proteins, overexpressed in the musculoskeletal system, and enriched in enhancer and promoter regions. These findings reveal TB-BMD as a relevant trait for genetic studies...

  12. The effect of extending femur scan length on BMD results on the Hologic Discovery-W scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Ginnie L; Jankowski, Lawrence G; Peace, Frederick; Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria; Morgan, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    A longer dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan field of the hip may be useful for the detection of atypical subtrochanteric femur fractures. It has been demonstrated in a Prodigy GE/Lunar scanner that extending the scan length does not affect bone mineral density (BMD) results at the total hip or femoral neck. We hypothesized that extending the scan field on a Hologic Discovery scanner would also have no effect on BMD results at the hip. Thirty subjects who presented for standard of care dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans underwent paired default (15.2 cm) and extended (24.1 cm) length hip scans. There was no significant difference in the total hip or any of the component subregions of femoral neck, greater trochanter, or intertrochanteric (shaft) BMD between the default and extended length scans. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Density-weighted concentric rings k-space trajectory for 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Mark; Jiang, Wenwen; Burns, Brian; Larson, Peder; Steel, Adam; Jezzard, Peter; Albert Thomas, M; Emir, Uzay E

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that density-weighted (DW) k-space sampling with spiral and conventional phase encoding trajectories reduces spatial side lobes in magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). In this study, we propose a new concentric ring trajectory (CRT) for DW-MRSI that samples k-space with a density that is proportional to a spatial, isotropic Hanning window. The properties of two different DW-CRTs were compared against a radially equidistant (RE) CRT and an echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) trajectory in simulations, phantoms and in vivo experiments. These experiments, conducted at 7 T with a fixed nominal voxel size and matched acquisition times, revealed that the two DW-CRT designs improved the shape of the spatial response function by suppressing side lobes, also resulting in improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). High-quality spectra were acquired for all trajectories from a specific region of interest in the motor cortex with an in-plane resolution of 7.5 × 7.5 mm 2 in 8 min 3 s. Due to hardware limitations, high-spatial-resolution spectra with an in-plane resolution of 5 × 5 mm 2 and an acquisition time of 12 min 48 s were acquired only for the RE and one of the DW-CRT trajectories and not for EPSI. For all phantom and in vivo experiments, DW-CRTs resulted in the highest SNR. The achieved in vivo spectral quality of the DW-CRT method allowed for reliable metabolic mapping of eight metabolites including N-acetylaspartylglutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid and glutathione with Cramér-Rao lower bounds below 50%, using an LCModel analysis. Finally, high-quality metabolic mapping of a whole brain slice using DW-CRT was achieved with a high in-plane resolution of 5 × 5 mm 2 in a healthy subject. These findings demonstrate that our DW-CRT MRSI technique can perform robustly on MRI systems and within a clinically feasible acquisition time. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Classification of ADHD and BMD patients using visual evoked potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazhvani, Adeleh Dehghani; Boostani, Reza; Afrasiabi, Somayeh; Sadatnezhad, Khadijeh

    2013-11-01

    Children with Bipolar Mood Disorder (BMD) and those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) share many clinical signs and symptoms; therefore, achieving an accurate diagnosis is still a challenge, especially in the first interview session. The main focus of this paper is to quantitatively classify the ADHD and BMD patients using their Visual Evoke Potential (VEP) features elicited from their Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this study, 36 subjects were participated including 12 healthy ones, 12 patients with ADHD and 12 ones with BMD. The age of ADHD patients was 16.92±6.29 and for the BMD ones was 17.85±3.68. Their scalp EEG signals in the presence of visual stimulus were recorded using 22 silver electrodes located according to the 10-20 international recording protocol. To extract their VEP, first a preprocessing step was executed to remove the power line and movement artifacts. Afterward, the wavelet denoising and synchronous averaging were applied to the preprocessed trials in order to elicit the P100 component. To obtain interpretable features from the evoked patterns, amplitude and latency were extracted and applied to the 1-Nearest Neighbor (1NN) classifier due to the locally scattered distribution of the VEP features. The evaluation was performed according to leave-one(subject)-out method and the experimental results were led to 92.85% classification accuracy which is a fairly promising achievement to distinguish the BMD, ADHD, and healthy subjects from each other. From the physiological point of view, this result point out to the existence of significant difference in the neural activities of their visual system in the ADHD, BMD, and healthy subjects in response to a periodic optical stimulus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Causal relationship between the AHSG gene and BMD through fetuin-A and BMI: multiple mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritara, C; Thakkinstian, A; Ongphiphadhanakul, B; Chailurkit, L; Chanprasertyothin, S; Ratanachaiwong, W; Vathesatogkit, P; Sritara, P

    2014-05-01

    Using mediation analysis, a causal relationship between the AHSG gene and bone mineral density (BMD) through fetuin-A and body mass index (BMI) mediators was suggested. Fetuin-A, a multifunctional protein of hepatic origin, is associated with bone mineral density. It is unclear if this association is causal. This study aimed at clarification of this issue. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,741 healthy workers from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) cohort. The alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) rs2248690 gene was genotyped. Three mediation models were constructed using seemingly unrelated regression analysis. First, the ln[fetuin-A] group was regressed on the AHSG gene. Second, the BMI group was regressed on the AHSG gene and the ln[fetuin-A] group. Finally, the BMD model was constructed by fitting BMD on two mediators (ln[fetuin-A] and BMI) and the independent AHSG variable. All three analyses were adjusted for confounders. The prevalence of the minor T allele for the AHSG locus was 15.2%. The AHSG locus was highly related to serum fetuin-A levels (P mediation analyses showed that AHSG was significantly associated with BMD through the ln[fetuin-A] and BMI pathway, with beta coefficients of 0.0060 (95% CI 0.0038, 0.0083) and 0.0030 (95% CI 0.0020, 0.0045) at the total hip and lumbar spine, respectively. About 27.3 and 26.0% of total genetic effects on hip and spine BMD, respectively, were explained by the mediation effects of fetuin-A and BMI. Our study suggested evidence of a causal relationship between the AHSG gene and BMD through fetuin-A and BMI mediators.

  16. Comparisons of TBS and lumbar spine BMD in the associations with vertebral fractures according to the T-scores: A cross-sectional observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Eun; Kim, Kyoung Min; Kim, Lee-Kyung; Kim, Kyong Young; Oh, Tae Jung; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2017-12-01

    Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a parameter of bone quality that has been shown to be related to vertebral fractures. This study aimed to analyze the difference in discriminatory power of TBS for vertebral fractures according to the bone mineral density (BMD) T-score. Areal BMD at the lumbar spine (LS, L1-L4), femur neck (FN) and total hip were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (Discovery W, Hologic, Bedford, MA) in 929 women aged 50years or older. TBS was analyzed using iNsight software (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France). Vertebral fractures were identified on lateral X-ray films of the thoracic and lumbar spine using a semi-quantitative method. The study subjects consisted of 158 subjects (17.0%) with normal BMD, 461 (49.6%) with osteopenia and 310 (33.4%) with osteoporosis. The incident vertebral fractures were observed in 92 (9.9%) subjects, including 59 fractures in osteoporosis, 29 fractures in osteopenia, and only 4 fractures in normal BMD. We stratified study subjects into two groups according to their BMD T-scores, osteoporosis or osteopenia/normal BMD. The logistic regression model showed that LS BMD values per each 1 standard deviation (SD) decrease were significantly associated with increased risk of vertebral fracture in both osteoporosis and osteopenia/normal BMD group with stronger association in osteoporosis group. However, a TBS value that was lower by 1SD was significantly associated with vertebral fracture risk only in the osteopenia/normal BMD group. The TBS use in addition to FN BMD and age also showed significantly better discriminatory power for vertebral fracture only in the osteopenia/normal BMD group, but not osteoporosis group. In conclusion, TBS is significantly associated with vertebral fractures in subjects with osteopenia/normal BMD levels. Additional assessment of bone microarchitecture using TBS is better able to identify women at risk of fracture, in particular, those with relatively higher BMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. The BMD threat: when and how to intercept - Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouquet, F.

    2007-01-01

    NATO and the US are involved in developing Ballistic missile defense (BMD) capabilities that must provide protection against various threats, which has received global attention. One needs to carefully consider the consequences of employing the defensive missiles. It is assumed that there will be no

  18. Phenotypic plasticity of growth trajectory and ontogenic allometry in response to density for eucalyptus hybrid clones and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Vigneron, Philippe; Saya, Aubin

    2005-10-01

    and Aims Response to density is a crucial aspect of the ecology of trees in forests and plantations. Few studies have investigated the genetics of plasticity in response to density for growth traits such as height and circumference through development. Two experiments were carried out in the field, the first with full-sib families of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis hybrids, and the second with clones of E. tereticornis x E. grandis hybrids planted across a range of densities (625, 1111 and 2500 trees ha-1). Height, circumference and stem taper were measured through development in both experiments. Variance components were estimated and a repeated measure approach for plasticity and three different methods were used to compare the variance-covariance matrix across densities. Genetic variance was significantly different from zero but the density x genotype interaction was significant only for clone experiments at the adult stage. Significant plasticity for three traits in both experiments was found. In the clone experiments, a significant clone x time x density interaction was found, suggesting that plasticity for growth and stem form is under genetic control. In both experiments, density did not affect environmental correlation, which remained high throughout tree development. The impact of density on genetic correlation was marked in the clone experiment, with a reduced value at lower density, but was not observed in the family trial. The differences between clones and family are mainly explained by the distribution of genetic variation within and among genotypes. The results suggest that plasticity for growth traits and form of tropical Eucalyptus species is under genetic control and that the environment changes genetic co-variation through ontogeny. The findings confirm that a tree population with a narrow genetic basis (represented by clones) is sensitive to a changing environment, whereas a population with a broader genetic basis (full-sib family here

  19. Assessment of bone mineral density in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis: a cross-sectional long-term followup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Hassager, C; Lovell, D J

    1999-01-01

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD.......To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD....

  20. Comparison of BMD precision for Prodigy and Delphi spine and femur scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J A; Fan, B; Lu, Y; Lewiecki, E M; Miller, P; Genant, H K

    2006-01-01

    Precision error in bone mineral density (BMD) measurement can be affected by patient positioning, variations in scan analysis, automation of software, and both short- and long-term fluctuations of the densitometry equipment. Minimization and characterization of these errors is essential for reliable assessment of BMD change over time. We compared the short-term precision error of two dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices: the Lunar Prodigy (GE Healthcare) and the Delphi (Hologic). Both are fan-beam DXA devices predominantly used to measure BMD of the spine and proximal femur. In this study, 87 women (mean age 61.6+/-8.9 years) were measured in duplicate, with repositioning, on both systems, at one of three clinical centers. The technologists were International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) certified and followed manufacturer-recommended procedures. All scans were acquired using 30-s scan modes. Precision error was calculated as the root-mean-square standard deviation (RMS-SD) and coefficient of variation (RMS-%CV) for the repeated measurements. Right and left femora were evaluated individually and as a combined dual femur precision. Precision error of Prodigy and Delphi measurements at each measurement region was compared using an F test to determine significance of any observed differences. While precision errors for both systems were low, Prodigy precision errors were significantly lower than Delphi at L1-L4 spine (1.0% vs 1.2%), total femur (0.9% vs 1.3%), femoral neck (1.5% vs 1.9%), and dual total femur (0.6% vs 0.9%). Dual femur modes decreased precision errors by approximately 25% compared with single femur results. This study suggests that short-term BMD precision errors are skeletal-site and manufacturer specific. In clinical practice, precision should be considered when determining: (a) the minimum time interval between baseline and follow-up scans and (b) whether a statistically significant change in the patient's BMD has occurred.

  1. Model for improved correlation of BMD values between abdominal routine Dual energy CT data and DXA scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisetschläger, Mischa; Spångeus, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a common but underdiagnosed and undertreated disease causing severe morbidity and economic burden. The gold standard for detection of osteoporosis is DXA (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), which is a dedicated examination for osteoporosis. Dual energy CT (DECT) examinations are increasingly used in daily routine for a wide variety of diagnoses. In the present study, we wanted to examine whether vBMD (volume bone mass density) could be evaluated as a side product in non-contrast as well as contrast phases as well as to evaluate a correction model taking known shortcomings for DXA into account. A total of 20 patients, i.e. 79 vertebrae (one excluded due to vertebral fracture), mean age 71 years (range 43-85) with a mean BMI (body mass index) of 26 (range 17-33) were examined with both abdominal/pelvic DECT as well as DXA. Furthermore, aortic calcium was measured as well as the presence of osteoarthritis of the spine (OAS) and osteoarthritis in facet joints (OAF) with a 5-grade scaling system. A significant correlation was found between DXA BMD and vBMD from DECT with no contrast (WNC) (r = 0.424, p = 0.001), and with venous contrast (WVC) (r = 0.402, p < 0.001), but no significant correlation was found with arterial contrast (WAC). Using multivariate linear regression with DXA BMD as dependent, two models were created combining DECT WNC, aortic calciumscore (ACS), OAS and BMI yielding an R 2  = 0.616 (model 1) and replacement of WNC to WVC a R 2  = 0.612 (model 2). The Pearson correlation between DXA and predictive DXA BMD value of model 1 was r = 0.785 (p < 0.001) and model 2 r = 0.782 (p < 0.001). There is a correlation between DXA BMD and DECT in non-contrast and venous contrast scans but not in arterial scans. The correlation is further improved by quantifying the degree of different confounding factors (osteoarthritis of the spine, body mass index and aortic calcium score) and taking these into account in

  2. The relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value : comparison by single energy quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kun Il; Song, Keun Sung [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value by using the single energy quantitative CT(SEQCT). Eighty normal volunteers(20-60years) were selected as a control group and 28 patients with developmental lumbar spinal stenosis were selected as a disease group. The two groups were divided into a younger (20-39 years) and an older subgroup (40-60 years), and were further divided into male and female subgroups. All the cases showed no evidence of metabolic disease, fracture, herniated nucleus pulposus, degererative spondylosis, infectious disease, tumors or had no history of absolute immobilization of more than two weeks. All underwent lumbar spine CT and SEQCT. we measured bone mineral density(BMD) at the cancellous bone of L1, 2, 3 and obtained the mean and its one standard deviation, and compared the data between each sub-group of the control and the disease group using ANOVA. There was a significant low BMD value in the younger male patient subgroup compared with the control subgroup(p<0.005). Developmental lumbar spinal stenosis in a young male may be a factor of decreasing BMD of the body of the spine.

  3. Evaluating spine micro-architectural texture (via TBS discriminates major osteoporotic fractures from controls both as well as and independent of site matched BMD: the Eastern European TBS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the cli­nical performance of the model combining areal bone mineral density (aBMD at spine and microarchitecural texture (TBS for the detection of the osteoporo­tic fracture. The Eastern European Study is a multicenter study (Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine evaluating the role of TBS in routine clinical practice as a complement to aBMD. All scans were acquired on Holo­gic Disco­very and GE Prodigy densitometers in a routine clinical manner. The additional clinical values of aBMD and TBS were analyzed using a two steps classification tree approach (aBMD followed by TBS tertiles for all type of osteoporotic fracture (All-OP Fx. Sensitivity, specifi­city and accuracy of fracture detection as well as the Net Reclassification Index (NRI were calculated. This study involves 1031 women subjects aged 45 and older recrui­ted in east European countries. Clinical centers were cross-calibrated in terms of BMD and TBS. As expe­cted, areal BMD (aBMD at spine and TBS were only mo­derately correlated (r2 = 0.19. Prevalence rate for All-OP Fx was 26%. Subjects with fracture have significant lower TBS and aBMD than subjects without fracture (p < 0.01. TBS remains associated with the fracture even after adjustment for age and aBMD with an OR of 1.27 [1.07–1.51]. When using aBMD T-score of –2.5 and the lowest TBS tertile thre­sholds, both BMD and TBS were similar in terms of sensitivity (35 vs. 39%, specificity (78 vs. 80% and accuracy (64 vs. 66%. aBMD and TBS combination, induced a significant improvement in sensitivity (+28% and accuracy (+17% compared to aBMD alone whereas a moderate improvement was observed in terms of specificity (+9%. The overall combination gain was 36% as expressed using the NRI. aBMD and TBS combination decrease significantly the number of subjects needed to diagnose from 7 for aBMD alone to 2. In a multicentre Eastern European cohort, we have shown that the use of TBS in addition

  4. Measurement of the radial density distribution of the light emissions near the trajectory of fast ions in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, T.

    1983-11-01

    For the analysis of the emission and deceleration mechanisms of ionisation-electrons (delta-electrons) during the passage of fast ions through gases, the radial density distribution of the light emission has been measured, which is related with the (0,0)-transitions of two optical bands in nitrogen. These measurements have been made using a small aperture limited ion beam. The first band under study is the 2. positive system at 337.1 nm excited mainly by low energy electrons around 20 eV, and the second band is the 1. negative system at 391.4 nm excited by fast electrons with simultaneous ionisation. For these measurements an experimental setup has been developed with a telescope-like optical system and interference filters to detect the emitted light with a high spacial resolution (4x10 -4 of profile width) and a high dynamic range (10 6 ). The experiments have been performed using proton beams of different energies between 270 keV and 2.8 MeV, He-3 beams with 270 keV/u and 500 keV/u and a Ne beam with 270 keV/u with gas pressures in the range between 0.133 to 13.3 mbar. Based on the method of Abel inversion the spacial light emission density is deduced from the experimental distance functions and normalized to a gas density of 1 g/cm 3 . The results show that approximately half of the total light emission in the 1. negative system and the ionisation is caused by the primary interaction of the ion beam. For the same energy per nucleon this contribution decreases relative to the contribution of the delta-electrons with increasing atomic number. In addition the delta-radiation becomes harder with increasing atomic number. Good agreement is obtained by comparison with the results of other authors, which are based on probe techniques and Monte-Carlo-calculations. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulation affects BMD and local factor production of rats with disuse osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Jian-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been used widely to treat nonunion fractures and related problems in bone healing, as a biological and physical method. With the use of Helmholtz coils and PEMF stimulators to generate uniform time-varying electromagnetic fields, the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on bone mineral density (BMD) and local factor production in disuse osteoporosis (DOP) rats were investigated. Eighty 4-month-old female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into intact (INT) group, DOP group, calcitonin-treated (CT) group, and PEMF stimulation group. The right hindlimbs of all the rats were immobilized by tibia-tail fixation except for those rats in the INT group. Rats in the CT group were injected with calcitonin (2 IU/kg, i.p., once a day) and rats in the PEMF group were irradiated with PEMF immediately postoperative. The BMD, serum transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration of the proximal femur were measured 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatment. Compared with the CT and DOP groups, the BMD and serum TGF-beta1 concentration in the PEMF group increased significantly after 8 weeks. The IL-6 concentration in the DOP group was elevated significantly after operation. The PEMF group showed significantly lower IL-6 level than the DOP group. The results found demonstrate that PEMF stimulation can efficiently suppress bone mass loss. We, therefore, conclude that PEMF may affect bone remodeling process through promoting TGF-beta1 secretion and inhibiting IL-6 expression. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Gradually increasing ethinyl estradiol for Turner syndrome may produce good final height but not ideal BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Ariyasu, Daisuke; Izawa, Masako; Igaki-Miyamoto, Junko; Fukuma, Mami; Hatano, Megumi; Yagi, Hiroko; Goto, Masahiro

    2017-02-27

    Estrogen replacement therapy in Turner syndrome should theoretically mimic the physiology of healthy girls. The objective of this study was to describe final height and bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of 17 Turner syndrome patients (group E) who started their ethinyl estradiol therapy with an ultra-low dosage (1-5 ng/kg/day) from 9.8-13.7 years. The subjects in group E had been treated with GH 0.35 mg/kg/week since the average age of 7.4 years. The 30 subjects in group L, one of the historical groups, were given comparable doses of GH, and conjugated estrogen 0.3125 mg/week ∼0.3125 mg/day was initiated at 12.2-18.7 years. The subjects in group S, the other historical group, were 21 patients who experienced breast development and menarche spontaneously. Final height (height gain Turner syndrome. The final height in group L was 148.5 ± 3.0 cm with a SD of 1.30 ± 0.55, which was significantly different from the values for group E. The volumetric BMD of group S (0.290 ± 0.026 g/cm 3 ) was significantly different from that of group L or E (0.262 or 0.262 g/cm 3 as a mean, respectively). This is the first study of patients with Turner syndrome where estrogen was administered initially in an ultra-low dose and then increased gradually. Our estrogen therapy in group E produced good final height but not ideal BMD.

  7. Administration of growth hormone in selectively protein-deprived rats decreases BMD and bone strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Patrick; Brennan, Tara C; Mekraldi, Samia; Aubert, Michel L; Rizzoli, René

    2010-06-01

    Isocaloric protein undernutrition is associated with decreased bone mass and decreased bone strength, together with lower IGF-I levels. It remains unclear whether administration of growth hormone (GH) corrects these alterations in bone metabolism. Six-month-old female rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 2.5% or 15% casein for 2 weeks. Bovine growth hormone (bGH, 0.5 or 2.5mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle was then administered as subcutaneous injections, twice daily, to rats on either diet for 4 weeks. At the proximal tibia, analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), maximal load and histomorphometry were performed. In addition, urinary deoxypyridinoline, plasma osteocalcin and IGF-I concentrations were measured. Weight was monitored weekly. bGH caused a dose-dependent increase in plasma IGF-I regardless of the dietary protein content. However, bGH dose-dependently decreased BMD and bone strength in rats fed the low-protein diet. There was no significant effect of bGH on BMD in rats fed the normal protein diet within this short-term treatment period, however bone formation as detected by histomorphometry was improved in this group but not the low-protein group. Osteoclast surface was increased in the low-protein bGH-treated animals only. Changes in bone turnover markers were detectable under both normal and low-protein diets. These results emphasize the major importance of dietary protein intake in the bone response to short-term GH administration, and highlight the need for further investigation into the effects of GH treatment in patients with reduced protein intake. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of DPP-4 activity with BMD, body composition, and incident hip fracture: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, L D; Bůžková, P; Fink, H A; Robbins, J A; Bethel, M; Isales, C M; Hill, W D

    2017-05-01

    There was no association of plasma DPP-4 activity levels with bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, or incident hip fractures in a cohort of elderly community-dwelling adults. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inactivates several key hormones including those that stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, and DPP-4 inhibitors (gliptins) are approved to treat diabetes. While DPP-4 is known to modulate osteogenesis, the relationship between DPP-4 activity and skeletal health is uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to examine possible associations between DPP-4 activity in elderly subjects enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and BMD, body composition measurements, and incident hip fractures. All 1536 male and female CHS participants who had evaluable DXA scans and plasma for DPP-4 activity were included in the analyses. The association between (1) BMD of the total hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine, and total body; (2) body composition measurements (% lean, % fat, and total body mass); and (3) incident hip fractures and plasma levels of DPP-4 activity were determined. Mean plasma levels of DPP-4 activity were significantly higher in blacks (227 ± 78) compared with whites (216 ± 89) (p = 0.04). However, there was no significant association of DPP-4 activity with age or gender (p ≥ 0.14 for both). In multivariable adjusted models, there was no association of plasma DPP-4 activity with BMD overall (p ≥ 0.55 for all) or in gender stratified analyses (p ≥ 0.23). There was also no association of DPP-4 levels and incident hip fractures overall (p ≥ 0.24) or in gender stratified analyses (p ≥ 0.39). Plasma DPP-4 activity, within the endogenous physiological range, was significantly associated with race, but not with BMD, body composition, or incident hip fractures in elderly community-dwelling subjects.

  9. A comparative study on BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur in post-menopausal women using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Sik; Mo, Eun Hee

    1999-01-01

    Osteoporosis, which causes mainly fracture of the spine, proximal femur and distal radius by minimal trauma, is a major public health problem and its prevalence is steadily increasing in Korea according to the development of public health care. There are reliable methods for diagnosis based on bone densitometry. Early detection and intervention are important for reducing the incidence of fractures. A consensus definition of osteoporosis, based on bone density measurement, has been developed by the World Health Organization(WHO). In this study, bone mineral density(BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) at the proximal femur and lumbar spine in 132 post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study is to find influential factors on the BMD of the proximal femur and the lumbar spine and to analyze correlation between BMD and the problematic factors. We obtained the following results : 1. Mean BMD score, T-score and Z-score of the proximal femur were 0.81(g/cm 2 ), -2.45(S.D.) and -2.09(S.D.) respectively and in the lumber spine were 0.83(g/cm 2 ), -2.02(S.D.), -2.43(S.D.) respectively. 2. In correlation analysis between BMD and many factors, correlation coefficients were -0.467, 0.212, -0.321 and 0.241 in age, height, duration after menopause respectively. BMI and the residuals were comparatively small. 3. Correlation coefficients to age matched BMD, in height and body weight were 0.222 and 0.241, in age and duration after menopause were -0.268, -0.282. 4. The fracture threshold of proximal femur BMD to the 90th percentile was 0.845(g/cm 2 ). 5. At the result of multiple regression analysis, age, body weight, BMI(kg/m 2 ) and duration after menopause described as significant variables

  10. Loss of Hip BMD in Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ewing, Susan K.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in older men have not evaluated whether loss of BMD or BMC accelerates nonlinearly with age. This study aimed to describe hip bone loss (both in BMC and BMD) in older men and to test whether BMD loss accelerates with age in an exponential manner in a cohort of 4720 community-dwelling men ≥65 yr of age. Men had two to three measures of femoral neck (FN) BMD (by DXA) over an average follow-up of 4.6 yr. Change in BMD during follow-up was estimated from mixed effects regression ...

  11. Bone structure of the distal radius and the calcaneus vs BMD of the spine and proximal femur in the prediction of osteoporotic spine fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Thomas M.; Vieth, Volker; Matheis, Julia; Newitt, David; Lu, Ying; Majumdar, Sharmila; Rummeny, Ernst J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare structure measures obtained from high-resolution MR images of the calcaneus and the distal radius with bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and hip in the prediction of osteoporotic spine fracture status. High-resolution MR images of the calcaneus and radius were obtained in 24 post-menopausal women with spine fractures and 22 age-matched controls. Imaging was performed at 1.5 T using a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence (slice thickness 1 mm, in-plane spatial resolution 195 x 195 μm 2 ). Structure analysis was performed using parameters analogous to standard histomorphometry. Bone mineral density of the spine was obtained using quantitative CT and of the hip with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences between both patient groups were obtained with BMD and all structure parameters (p<0.05). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine the diagnostic performance in differentiating both groups, the best results were found for BMD of the spine, one of the radial structure measures and a combination of the calcaneal structure measures. In this study BMD of the spine and structure measures of the distal radius were best suited to predict the osteoporotic fracture status of the spine. A combination of BMD and structure measures did not yield any additional information on fracture status. (orig.)

  12. Bone structure of the distal radius and the calcaneus vs BMD of the spine and proximal femur in the prediction of osteoporotic spine fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Thomas M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster (Germany); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieth, Volker; Matheis, Julia [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster (Germany); Newitt, David; Lu, Ying; Majumdar, Sharmila [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rummeny, Ernst J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Munich (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare structure measures obtained from high-resolution MR images of the calcaneus and the distal radius with bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and hip in the prediction of osteoporotic spine fracture status. High-resolution MR images of the calcaneus and radius were obtained in 24 post-menopausal women with spine fractures and 22 age-matched controls. Imaging was performed at 1.5 T using a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence (slice thickness 1 mm, in-plane spatial resolution 195 x 195 {mu}m{sup 2}). Structure analysis was performed using parameters analogous to standard histomorphometry. Bone mineral density of the spine was obtained using quantitative CT and of the hip with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences between both patient groups were obtained with BMD and all structure parameters (p<0.05). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine the diagnostic performance in differentiating both groups, the best results were found for BMD of the spine, one of the radial structure measures and a combination of the calcaneal structure measures. In this study BMD of the spine and structure measures of the distal radius were best suited to predict the osteoporotic fracture status of the spine. A combination of BMD and structure measures did not yield any additional information on fracture status. (orig.)

  13. Peak bone mass and bone mineral density correlates for 9 to 24 year-old Mexican women, using corrected BMD Pico mineral óseo y factores asociados a la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres mexicanas de 9 a 24 años de edad usando densidad mineral ósea corregida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Torres-Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of peak bone mass (PBM in Mexican women and factors associated with both BMDa and corrected BMD (BMDcorr at the femoral neck and the spine (L2-L4. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 461 women between 9 and 24 years old was used. An interview was performed and height and weight were measured. BMDa was measured by a densitometer and BMDcorr by the method proposed by Kröger et al. (1992. RESULTS: PBM at the spine (L2-L4 was observed later than at the femoral neck. Both BMDa and BMDcorr at the lumbar spine correlate with age, socio-economic status, body fat percentage and height. BMDa at the femoral neck correlates with overweight and obesity, body fat percentage, height and moderate physical activity; the same variables were associated with BMDcorr except for height. CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed by Kröger et al. was more precise at the femoral neck than at the spine.OBJETIVO: Determinar la edad del pico de masa ósea (PMO y los factores asociados a DMOa y a DMOcorr del cuello femoral y de la columna vertebral (L2-L4 en mujeres mexicanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de 461 mujeres de 9 a 24 años de edad. La DMO se midió mediante un densitómetro y la DMOcorr mediante el método propuesto por Kröger et al. (1992. RESULTADOS: El PMO en la columna vertebral (L2-L4 se observó más tarde que en el cuello femoral. A la DMOa y DMOcorr de la columna se asociaron: edad, estado socio económico, porcentaje de grasa corporal y la talla. A DMOa del cuello femoral se asociaron: sobrepeso y obesidad, porcentaje de grasa corporal, talla y actividad física moderada; las mismas variables se asociaron con la DMOcorr excepto talla. CONCLUSIONES: El método propuesto por Kröger et al. fue más preciso para el cuello femoral que para la columna.

  14. Development of BMD-1 model standard pulse current generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Bingquan

    1998-12-01

    The BMD-1 Model Standard Pulse Current Generator is a pulse current calibration instrument. It is used to calibrate current probe, amplifier of current probe and other current measurement instruments. The standard pulse current generator uses a perfect current switch to transfer the standard direct current into the standard pulse current. It provides a variable output current ranges from 1 mA to 1 A, current accuracy is +-(0.25% + 2μA). The standard pulse generator provides three work modes of output current: DC, signal pulse and variable frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz, and provides a variable pulse current widths from 0.5 to 50 μs

  15. FRAX calculated without BMD does not correctly identify Caucasian men with densitometric evidence of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R C; Seier, E; Whalen, K; Clark, W A; Hicks, K; Piggee, T B

    2018-04-01

    The FRAX algorithm assesses the patient's probability of sustaining an osteoporotic fracture and can be calculated with or without densitometric data. This study seeks to determine whether in men, FRAX scores calculated without BMD, correctly identify patients with BMD-defined osteoporosis. The diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on densitometric data, the presence of a fragility fracture or increased fracture risk. The FRAX algorithm estimates the patient's 10-year probability of sustaining an osteoporotic fracture and can be calculated with or without BMD data. The purpose of this study is to determine whether in men, FRAX calculated without BMD, can correctly identify patients with BMD-defined osteoporosis. Retrospectively retrieved data from 726 consecutive Caucasian males, 50 to 70 years old referred to our Osteoporosis Center. In the population studied, 11.8 and 25.3% had BMD-defined osteoporosis when female and male reference populations were used respectively. When the National Osteoporosis Foundation thresholds to initiate treatment are used, only 27% of patients with BMD-defined osteoporosis, but 4% with normal BMD reached/exceeded these thresholds. Lowering the threshold increased sensitivity, but decreased specificity. Our results suggest that FRAX without BMD is not sensitive/specific enough to be used to identify Caucasian men 50 to 70 years old with BMD-defined osteoporosis.

  16. Sarcopenia as an Independent Risk Factor for Decreased BMD in COPD Patients: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Choi, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is a systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Past reports have rarely examined any correlation between sarcopenia and BMD. We investigated the relationship cross-sectionally between the presence of sarcopenia and BMD reduction in COPD patients. Methods COPD patients aged 50 or older with qualifying spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data were from participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008–2011). Results There were 286 (33.3%) subjects in the sarcopenia group and 572 (66.7%) in the non-sarcopenia group. The sarcopenia group had lower T-scores than the non-sarcopenia group (femur: -0.73±0.88 vs. -0.18±0.97, p sarcopenia group and 45.6% and 13.3% in the non-sarcopenia group (both p sarcopenia associated with increased the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and a low BMD (OR = 3.227, 95% CI = 2.125–4.899, p sarcopenia was associated with increased the risk for decreased BMD in COPD. PMID:27749901

  17. Effects of increasing age, dosage, and duration of PTH treatment on BMD increase--a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Jorgensen, Niklas Rye; Mosekilde, Leif

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of increasing age, dosage, and duration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment on changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Randomized placebo controlled trials on PTH treatment in men or women were retrieved from PubMed (1951 to present), Web of Science (1945 to present......), or Embase (1974 to present). The search date was November 16, 2010. All studies comparing PTH treatment to either placebo or antiresorptive drugs-for example, bisphosphonates or hormone replacement therapy-were included. A total of 214 studies were identified in the initial search, and 15 of these trials...... were included. By metaregression analysis, we found that the increase in spine BMD (Z-score) after PTH treatment was blunted by increasing age (R (2) = 0.27; 2p = 0.01, slope -0.023 Z-scores per year, 11 studies). By increasing PTH dosage (μg/d), spine BMD increased significantly (2p = 0...

  18. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  19. Bone mineral density and mammographic density in Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseson, Heidi; Rice, Megan S.; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Torres, Gabriela; Blanco, Margarita; Tamayo-Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Lajous, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is a putative marker for lifetime exposure to estrogen. Studies that have explored whether BMD is a determinant of mammographic density (MD) have observed inconsistent results. Therefore, we examined this potential association in a sample of women (N=1,516) from the clinical sub-cohort in the Mexican Teachers’ Cohort (N=115,315). Methods We used multivariable linear regression to assess the association between quartiles of BMD and percent MD, as well as total dense and non-dense area of the breast, stratified by menopausal status. We also examined the associations by body mass index (BMI) (<30kg/m2,, ≥30kg/m2). Results Overall, there was no association between BMD and MD among premenopausal women. However, when we stratified by BMI, there was a modest inverse association between BMD and percent MD (difference between extreme quartiles= −2.8, 95%CI: −5.9, 0.27, p-trend=0.04) among women with BMI <30 kg/m2, but a positive association among obese women (comparable difference=5.1, 95%CI: 0.02, 10.1, p-trend=0.03; p-interaction<0.01). Among postmenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were positively associated after adjustment for BMI (p-trend<0.01). Postmenopausal women in the highest two quartiles of BMD had 4–5 percentage point higher percent MD compared to women in the lowest quartile. The association did not differ by BMI in postmenopausal women (p-interaction=0.76). Conclusion Among obese premenopausal women as well as postmenopausal women, BMD was positively associated with percent MD. Among leaner premenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were modestly inversely associated. These findings support the hypothesis that cumulative exposure to estrogen (as measured by BMD) may influence MD. PMID:26463740

  20. Association between change in BMD and fragility fracture in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Joseph, Lawrence; Hanley, David A; Davison, K Shawn; Josse, Robert G; Prior, Jerilynn C; Kreiger, Nancy; Tenenhouse, Alan; Goltzman, David

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to estimate the relationship between longitudinal change in BMD and fragility fractures. We studied 3635 women and 1417 men 50-85 yr of age in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study who had at least two BMD measurements (lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and trochanter) within the first 5 yr of the study and fragility fractures (any, main, forearm/wrist, ribs, hip) within the first 7 yr. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationship between baseline BMD, BMD change, and fragility fractures. We found that, among nonusers of antiresorptives, independent of baseline BMD, a decrease of 0.01 g/cm(2)/yr in total hip BMD was associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture with ORs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.32) in women and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.78) in men. The risk of fragility fractures in subgroups such as fast losers and those with osteopenia was better estimated by models that included BMD change than by models that included baseline BMD but excluded BMD change. Although the association between baseline BMD and fragility fractures was similar in users and nonusers of antiresorptives, the association was stronger in nonusers compared with users. These results show that BMD change in both men and women is an independent risk factor for fragility fractures and also predicts fracture risk in those with osteopenia. The results suggest that BMD change should be included with other variables in a comprehensive fracture prediction model to capture its contribution to osteoporotic fracture risk.

  1. Trajectory Design to Benefit Trajectory-Based Surface Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trajectory-based operations constitute a key mechanism considered by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for managing traffic in high-density or...

  2. “Omics” Signatures in Peripheral Monocytes from Women with Low BMD Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Daswani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO is a result of increased bone resorption compared to formation. Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption, which are derived from circulating monocytes that undertake a journey from the blood to the bone for the process of osteoclastogenesis. In recent times, the use of high throughput technologies to explore monocytes from women with low versus high bone density has led to the identification of candidate molecules that may be deregulated in PMO. This review provides a list of molecules in monocytes relevant to bone density which have been identified by “omics” studies in the last decade or so. The molecules in monocytes that are deregulated in low BMD condition may contribute to processes such as monocyte survival, migration/chemotaxis, adhesion, transendothelial migration, and differentiation into the osteoclast lineage. Each of these processes may be crucial to the overall route of osteoclastogenesis and an increase in any/all of these processes can lead to increased bone resorption and subsequently low bone density. Whether these molecules are indeed the cause or effect is an arena currently unexplored.

  3. Low volumetric BMD is linked to upper-limb fracture in pubertal girls and persists into adulthood: a seven-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sulin; Xu, Leiting; Nicholson, Patrick H F; Tylavsky, Frances; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wang, Qingju; Suominen, Harri; Kujala, Urho M; Kröger, Heikki; Alen, Markku

    2009-09-01

    The aetiology of increased incidence of fracture during puberty is unclear. This study aimed to determine whether low volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the distal radius is associated with upper-limb fractures in growing girls, and whether any such vBMD deficit persists into adulthood. Fracture history from birth to 20 years was obtained and verified by medical records in 1034 Finnish girls aged 10-13 years. Bone density and geometry at distal radius, biomarkers and lifestyle/behavioural factors were assessed in a subset of 396 girls with a 7.5-year follow-up. We found that fracture incidence peaked during puberty (relative risk 3.1 at age of 8-14 years compared to outside this age window), and 38% of fractures were in the upper-limb. Compared to the non-fracture cohort, girls who sustained upper-limb fracture at ages 8-14 years had lower distal radial vBMD at baseline (258.9+/-37.5 vs. 287.5+/-34.1 mg/cm(3), p=0.001), 1-year (252.0+/-29.3 vs. 282.6+/-33.5 mg/cm(3), p=0.001), 2-year (258.9+/-32.2 vs. 289.9+/-40.1 mg/cm(3), p=0.003), and 7-year follow-ups (early adulthood, 307.6+/-35.9 vs. 343.6+/-40.9 mg/cm(3), p=0.002). There was a consistent trend towards larger bone cross-sectional area in the fracture cohort compared to non-fracture. In a logistic regression model, lower vBMD (p=0.001) was the only significant predictor of upper-limb fracture during the period of 8-14 years. Our results indicate that low BMD is an important factor underlying elevated upper-limb fracture risk during puberty, and that low BMD in pubertal girls with fracture persists into adulthood. Hence low vBMD during childhood is not a transient deficit. Methods to monitor vBMD and to maximise bone mineral accrual and reduce risks of falling in childhood should be developed.

  4. Between Allies and Rivals: Turkey, Nuclear Weapons, and BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Turkey's attitudes vis-a-vis nuclear weapons and Ballistic Missile Defense in the light of recent developments in the Iranian nuclear program and NATO's evolving concept of extended deterrence. On the one hand, the long-standing forward deployment of US tactical nuclear weapons in Turkey and the country's role in the US Phased Adaptive Approach BMD architecture are still considered to be key elements of national security. On the other, security guarantees offered to Turkey by NATO and the US appear less and less credible in the face of rising regional threats. As this paper shows, there is a growing gap between official policy and public perceptions inside Turkey vis-a-vis the US, Iran, and nuclear weapons, as well as a growing Turkish aspiration to autonomy in its security and defense policy. While one should not expect Turkey to develop nuclear weapons anytime soon, an unchecked Iranian regional power could bring Ankara to hedge its bets in the long term. Turkey's controversial recent decision to buy a Chinese system for its national air and missile defense rather than European or US equipment should be seen in the light of this search for autonomy. (author)

  5. Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling: current practice, issues, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lynne T; Dourson, Michael L; Allen, Bruce C; Hertzberg, Richard C; Parker, Ann; Vincent, Melissa J; Maier, Andrew; Boobis, Alan R

    2018-03-08

    Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling is now the state of the science for determining the point of departure for risk assessment. Key advantages include the fact that the modeling takes account of all of the data for a particular effect from a particular experiment, increased consistency, and better accounting for statistical uncertainties. Despite these strong advantages, disagreements remain as to several specific aspects of the modeling, including differences in the recommendations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Differences exist in the choice of the benchmark response (BMR) for continuous data, the use of unrestricted models, and the mathematical models used; these can lead to differences in the final BMDL. It is important to take confidence in the model into account in choosing the BMDL, rather than simply choosing the lowest value. The field is moving in the direction of model averaging, which will avoid many of the challenges of choosing a single best model when the underlying biology does not suggest one, but additional research would be useful into methods of incorporating biological considerations into the weights used in the averaging. Additional research is also needed regarding the interplay between the BMR and the UF to ensure appropriate use for studies supporting a lower BMR than default values, such as for epidemiology data. Addressing these issues will aid in harmonizing methods and moving the field of risk assessment forward.

  6. Standardization of spine and hip BMD measurements in different DXA devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Aysegul [Gazi University, Department of Radiology, Besevler, Ankara 06510 (Turkey)]. E-mail: aysozd@gazi.edu.tr; Ucar, Murat [Gazi University, Department of Radiology, Besevler, Ankara 06510 (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    Aim: To compare BMD values of lumbar and hip regions measured in two different DXA scanners in one laboratory, and to investigate the efficiencies of implemented and specifically derived standardization formulas. Materials and methods: PA lumbar (L2-L4) and right femoral neck BMD values were obtained in 100 women (aged 26-75), consecutively in GE-Lunar DPX-NT and Hologic QDR 4500 C DXA scanners. Standardization of BMD values obtained in two different DXA devices was done according to the method developed by International DXA Standardization Committee (IDSC), using the European Spine Phantom (ESP) to obtain the specific constant value. Mean corrected standardized BMD (sBMD) values in two scanners have been compared with each other and with the mean reported sBMD values, respectively. Results: The mean lumbar BMD values were 0.950 {+-} 0.117 g/cm{sup 2} for Hologic and 1.068 {+-} 0.135 g/cm{sup 2} for GE-Lunar (p < 0.05); mean corrected sBMD values were 1.035 {+-} 0.128 g/cm{sup 2} for Hologic and 1.035 {+-} 0.131 g/cm{sup 2} for GE-Lunar (p > 0.05). The mean femoral neck BMD values were 0.798 {+-} 0.114 g/cm{sup 2} for Hologic and 0.895 {+-} 0.111 g/cm{sup 2} for GE-Lunar (p < 0.05); mean corrected sBMD values were 0.869 {+-} 0.124 g/cm{sup 2} for Hologic and 0.867 {+-} 0.108 g/cm{sup 2} for GE-Lunar (p > 0.05). The difference between the mean values of BMD and sBMD, both corrected and reported, were statistically important in each scanner (p < 0.05). The mean values of corrected and reported sBMD were also statistically different in each scanner (p < 0.05; mean standard error in the spine was 1.3 for GE-Lunar and 1.8 for the Hologic device). Conclusion: The originally proposed standardization formulae may not optimally correct for manufacturer, model and device-specific differences. Therefore, use of sBMD is not recommended to compare results of individual patients obtained on scanners of different type and brand. The residual error of reported sBMD, however, is

  7. Effects of odanacatib on BMD and safety in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women previously treated with alendronate: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnick, Sydney; De Villiers, Tobias; Odio, Alberto; Palacios, Santiago; Chapurlat, Roland; DaSilva, Carolyn; Scott, Boyd B; Le Bailly De Tilleghem, Celine; Leung, Albert T; Gurner, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective cathepsin K inhibitor being developed to treat osteoporosis. The effects of ODN were evaluated on bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical markers of bone turnover, and safety in patients previously treated with alendronate. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-month study. The study was conducted at private or institutional practices. Postmenopausal women (n = 243) ≥ 60 years of age with low BMD at the total hip, femoral neck, or trochanter (T-score ≤-2.5 but >-3.5 without prior fracture or ≤-1.5 but >-3.5 with prior fracture) on alendronate for ≥ 3 years. The intervention included ODN 50 mg or placebo weekly. The primary end point was percentage change from baseline of femoral neck BMD at month 24. BMD was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months. Biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum C-telopeptides of type 1 collagen, urinary N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen, serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase, and serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen) were measured at baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. In the ODN group, BMD changes from baseline at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine at 24 months (1.7%, 1.8%, 0.8%, and 2.3%, respectively) were significantly different from the placebo group. ODN significantly decreased urinary N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen to creatinine ratio and significantly increased serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen compared with placebo. Serum C-telopeptides of type 1 collagen was unexpectedly increased with ODN treatment. The safety profile appeared similar between groups. ODN provided incremental BMD gains in osteoporotic women after alendronate treatment.

  8. Analysis of Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Myeloma: A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density with Plain Radiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Clinical Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Na; Kwon, Soon Tae; Song, Ik Chan [Dept. of Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    To analyze the bone mineral density (BMD) in multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare BMD with plain radiography, MRI and clinical stage. We reviewed 59 patients with MM and an age- and sex-matched control group, with measured BMD. The L-spine and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral plain radiographs of the L-spine were graded as 3 stages using the modified Saville index. Four bone marrow patterns were classified on sagittal T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the L-spine. BMD in the MM and control group were analyzed. BMD in MM was compared with the modified Saville index, bone marrow patterns on MRI, and clinical stages. In MM, spine BMD was reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group (p < 0.001). The modified Saville index was negatively correlated with spine T scores (p < 0.01). The spine BMD in normal marrow pattern on the MRI was the most reduced. There was no statistical correlation between BMD and clinical stage. In MM, spine BMD was significantly reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group. The modified Saville index was significantly correlated with spine BMD in MM.

  9. Bone mineral density in children with systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashef, S.; Saki, F.; Karamizadeh, Z.; Kashef, Mohammed Amin

    2007-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in bone metabolism in patients with rheumatic disorders, few data exist on bone mineral density (BMD) in children with rheumatic disorders or on the association of BMD with disease-related variables. We determined BMD in Iranian children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) to evaluate the relationship between disease related variables and BMD. Twenty patients (13 girls and 7 boys) with SLE (n=5) and JRA (n=5) with a mean age of 13.10+-3.29 years (range, 6-17 years), attending a pediatric rheumatology clinic and 20 healthy controls (matched for age and sex with each patient) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study between 2001 and 2003. BMD (g/cm) of the femoral neck (BMD-F) and lumbar vertebrae (BMD-L) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The correlation between BMD and cumulative dose of steroids, daily dose of steroid, disease duration, disease activity, height, weight and age was investigated. BMD in the patients (BMD-F=0.72+-0.15, BMD-L=0.70+-0.19) was significantly lower than controls (BMD-F=0.95+-0.17, BMD-L=0.98+-0.20, P<0.001). The severity of decreased BMD was more prominent in lumbar vertebrae than the femoral neck (P=0.04). None of the variables were consistently related to decrease in BMD. BMD was significantly lower in patients compared with controls. It was more prominent in lumbar vertebrae (trabecular bone). Although cumulative doses of steroids and disease duration appeared to have some influence on BMD, none were independently correlated with BMD. (author)

  10. Study on the changes of serum levels of PINP, ICTP and 25-OH-VitD3 in pre-menopausal women and their relationship with BMD changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinshan; Luo Liangping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and 25-OH-VitD 3 in premenopausal women and their relationship with changes of bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: BMD (at L 1 -L 4 and hip region) was examined with dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA) and serum levels of PINP, ICTP, 25-OH-VitD 3 were determined with RIA in 67 pre-menopausal women. Results: (1) Of the 67 women tested, 19 (28.4%) were found to be with low BMD. The mean BMD values in this group were significantly lower than those in the other 48 women. (2) The serum levels of PINP and ICTP in the 19 women with lower BMD (56.9±18.2 μg/L and 3.78±0.83 μg/L respectively) were much higher than those in the other 48 women (43.8±15.1 μg/L and 3.45±0.98 μg/L respectively, for PINP, P 0.05). The serum 25-OH-VitD 3 levels in the two groups of pre-menopausal women were not significantly different (25.6±7.8 ng/ml vs 27.4±9.2 ng/ml, P>0.05). (3) PINP levels were positively correlated with BMD values (r=0.274∼0.402, P 3 levels were not significantly correlated with BMD levels (r=-0.226∼0.083, P>0.05). PINP levels were weakly positively correlated with 25-OH-VitD 3 levels (r=0.395, P<0.05). Conclusion: There was tendency of increasing rate of bone turnover in pre-menopausal women, which might lead to development of osteoporosis. Early detection with BMD and serum markers of bone resorption (e.q. ICTP) measurement would be highly valuable for implement of prophylactic measures. (authors)

  11. Phenotypic Dissection of Bone Mineral Density Reveals Skeletal Site Specificity and Facilitates the Identification of Novel Loci in the Genetic Regulation of Bone Mass Attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Kemp (John); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); B. St Pourcain (Beate); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); N.M. Warrington (Nicole); L. Oei (Ling); S.M. Ring (Susan); C.J. Kruithof (Claudia); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); L.E. Wolber (Lisa); S. Reppe (Sjur); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); E. Grundberg (Elin); B. Ge (Bing); B.C.J. van der Eerden (Bram); J. van de Peppel (Jeroen); M.A. Hibbs (Matthew); C.L. Ackert-Bicknell (Cheryl); K. Choi (Kunho); D.L. Koller (Daniel); M.J. Econs (Michael); F.M. Williams (Frances); T. Foroud (Tatiana); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); G. Davey-Smith (George); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.H. Tobias (Jon); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); D.M. Evans (David)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHeritability of bone mineral density (BMD) varies across skeletal sites, reflecting different relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. To quantify the degree to which common genetic variants tag and environmental factors influence BMD, at different sites, we

  12. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT...

  13. Analysis of association of MEF2C, SOST and JAG1 genes with bone mineral density in Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Jiménez-Ortega, Rogelio F; Parra-Torres, Alma Y; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Patiño, Nelly; Quiterio, Manuel; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), is an important health problem in Mexico. BMD is a highly heritable trait, with heritability estimates of 50-85%. Several candidate genes have been evaluated to identify those involved in BMD variation and the etiology of osteoporosis. This study investigated the possible association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MEF2C, SOST and JAG1 genes with bone mineral density (BMD) variation in postmen...

  14. Low Bone Mineral Density Risk Factors and Testing Patterns in Institutionalized Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mailee; Campagna, Elizabeth J.; Jensen, Kristin M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual or developmental disability (ID/DD) have multiple risks for low bone mineral density (BMD) without formal guidelines to guide testing. We sought to identify risk factors and patterns of BMD testing among institutionalized adults with ID/DD. Methods: We evaluated risk factors for low BMD (Z-/T-score < -1) and…

  15. Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter; Rud, Bo

    2006-01-01

    was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model...... by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause....

  16. Low Bone Turnover and Low BMD in Down Syndrome: Effect of Intermittent PTH Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akel, Nisreen S.; Vander Schilden, Jaclyn; Bacon, Anthony W.; Bracey, John W.; Sowder, Timothy; Skinner, Robert A.; Swain, Frances L.; Hogue, William R.; Leblanc, Donna B.; Gaddy, Dana; Wenger, Galen R.; Suva, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Trisomy 21 affects virtually every organ system and results in the complex clinical presentation of Down syndrome (DS). Patterns of differences are now being recognized as patients’ age and these patterns bring about new opportunities for disease prevention and treatment. Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in many studies of males and females with DS yet the specific effects of trisomy 21 on the skeleton remain poorly defined. Therefore we determined the bone phenotype and measured bone turnover markers in the murine DS model Ts65Dn. Male Ts65Dn DS mice are infertile and display a profound low bone mass phenotype that deteriorates with age. The low bone mass was correlated with significantly decreased osteoblast and osteoclast development, decreased bone biochemical markers, a diminished bone formation rate and reduced mechanical strength. The low bone mass observed in 3 month old Ts65Dn mice was significantly increased after 4 weeks of intermittent PTH treatment. These studies provide novel insight into the cause of the profound bone fragility in DS and identify PTH as a potential anabolic agent in the adult low bone mass DS population. PMID:22916188

  17. BMD PREDICTION OF DEATH IS ENCAPSULATED BY THE MORPHOLOGICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS CALCIFICATION DISTRIBUTION (MACD) INDEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads; Karsdal, Morten

    2009-01-01

    .3±0.3 years and of which CVD, cancer, and all cause deaths were recorded. The spine BMD and aortic calcification markers, AC24 and the recently proposed Morphological Atherosclerosis Calcification Distribution (MACD) index, were quantified from DXA scans and lateral X-rays respectively. The MACD...... mean differences was used. Marker correlations were analysed with Pearson's R2 and its significance of being different from zero. Significance levels were denoted as: *(p.... Conclusion: In general, the BMD decreased with age and calcification and may constitute an all cause risk factor independently from ATW. The AC24 showed a dependency on BMD for the CVD deceased, whereas MACD did not. This may be interpreted as the MACD already including the potential risk segregation of BMD...

  18. Correlation of fracture index with BMD T score in postmenopausal females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, U.J.; Osman, S.S.; Moazam, S.; Shah, S.I.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find the correlation between fracture index and BMD T-score so that fracture index can be used as a predictive tool for fracture risk estimation in post menopausal females. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 396 women age 50 years and above. BMD T-score measurements using ultrasound and fracture index calculation based on the risk factor assessment were performed. Results: The study results showed that when fracture index increases BMD T-score decreased to osteoporotic range and correlation coefficient is -0.162. Conclusion: When fracture index increases, BMD T-score decreases therefore we can use fracture index as an assessment tool for predicting fracture risk in postmenopausal females. (author)

  19. Bone Strength Estimated by Micro-Finite Element Analysis (µFEA) Is Heritable and Shares Genetic Predisposition With Areal BMD: The Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, David; Demissie, Serkalem; Lu, Darlene; Broe, Kerry E; Boyd, Steven K; Liu, Ching-Ti; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Bouxsein, Mary L; Kiel, Douglas P

    2017-11-01

    Genetic factors contribute to the risk of bone fractures, partly because of effects on bone strength. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) estimates bone strength using micro-finite element analysis (µFEA). The goal of this study was to investigate if the bone failure load estimated by HR-pQCT-based µFEA is heritable and to what extent it shares genetic regulation with areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Bone microarchitecture was measured by HR-pQCT at the ultradistal tibia and ultradistal radius in adults from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1087, mean age 72 years; 57% women). Radial and tibial failure load in compression were estimated by µFEA. Femoral neck (FN) and ultradistal forearm (UD) aBMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Heritability (h 2 ) of failure load and aBMD and genetic correlations between them was estimated adjusting for covariates (age and sex). Failure load values at the non-weight-bearing ultradistal radius and at the weight-bearing ultradistal tibia were highly correlated (r = 0.906; p analysis, there was a high phenotypic and genetic correlation between covariate-adjusted failure load at the radius and UD aBMD (ρ P  = 0.826, ρ G  = 0.954, respectively), whereas environmental correlations were lower (ρ E  = 0.696), all highly significant (p micro-finite element analysis is heritable and shares some genetic composition with areal BMD, regardless of the skeletal site. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    procuring the missiles.... 97 Rob Taylor, “U.S. and Australia to Cooperate on Asian Missile-Defense...scheduled to grow from 33 at the end of FY2016 to 49 at the end of FY2021. The figure for FY2020 may include up to four BMD-capable Aegis cruisers in...building, or are planning to build Aegis-equipped ships include Japan, South Korea, Australia , Spain, and Norway.2 Aegis BMD System3 Aegis ships

  1. Decreased fracture rate, pharmacogenetics and BMD response in 79 Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta types I, III and IV treated with Pamidronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Kindmark, A; Rubin, C-J; Malmgren, B; Grigelioniene, G; Söderhäll, S; Ljunggren, Ö; Åström, E

    2016-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited heterogeneous bone fragility disorder, usually caused by collagen I mutations. It is well established that bisphosphonate treatment increases lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), as well as improves vertebral geometry in severe OI; however, fracture reduction has been difficult to prove, pharmacogenetic studies are scarce, and it is not known at which age, or severity of disease, treatment should be initiated. COL1A1 and COL1A2 were analyzed in 79 children with OI (type I n=33, type III n=25 and type IV n=21) treated with Pamidronate. Data on LS BMD, height, and radiologically confirmed non-vertebral and vertebral fractures were collected prior to, and at several time points during treatment. An increase in LS BMD Z-score was observed for all types of OI, and a negative correlation to Δ LS BMD was observed for both age and LS BMD Z-score at treatment initiation. Supine height Z-scores were not affected by Pamidronate treatment, The fracture rate was reduced for all OI types at all time points during treatment (overall p4yrs Pamidronate. Twice as many boys as girls with OI type I were treated with Pamidronate, and the fracture rate the year prior treatment was 2.2 times higher for boys (p=0.0236). Greater Δ LS BMD, but smaller Δ fracture numbers were observed on Pamidronate for helical glycine mutations in COL1A1 vs. COL1A2. Vertebral compression fractures did not progress in any individual during treatment; however, they did not improve in 9%, and these individuals were all >11years of age at treatment initiation (p<0.0001). Pamidronate treatment in children with all types of OI increased LS BMD, decreased fracture rate, and improved vertebral compression fractures. Fracture reduction was prompt and maintained during treatment, irrespective of age at treatment initiation and collagen I mutation type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Ability of a Single BMD and Fracture History Assessment to Predict Fracture Over 25 Years in Postmenopausal Women: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dennis M; Cauley, Jane A; Wagman, Rachel; Ensrud, Kristine; Fink, Howard A; Hillier, Teresa A; Lui, Li-Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Schousboe, John T; Napoli, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    The ability of bone mineral density (BMD) and other risk factors to predict fracture risk is well-established for as long as 5 to 10 years. However, their value to predict risk over a longer term has not been directly studied. We investigated whether a single assessment of femoral neck BMD and fracture history can predict fracture risk over 20 to 25 years. We used data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) that assessed BMD and risk factors in 7959 women age ≥67 (mean = 73.4) in 1988-1990. Follow-up for fractures continued for 25 years for hip fracture, and for 20 years for any nonvertebral fracture. Using age-adjusted proportional hazards models, we analyzed the relationships between a single baseline assessment of femoral neck BMD, fracture history and age, and 20-25-year fracture incidence. The 25-year cumulative incidence of hip fracture was 17.9%; 20-year incidence of any nonvertebral fracture was 46.2%. The 25-year hip fracture incidence was highest in those ≥80 years old (22.6%) compared to 13.9% in women aged hip fracture risk to 25 years: 29.6% risk in the lowest BMD quartile versus 7.6% with the highest relative hazard (RH) = 4.9 (95% CI, 4.1 to 6.0). Femoral neck BMD predicted hip fracture with little degradation over time from RH/SD = 2.6 (2.2 to 3.0) for 0 to 5 years to RH/SD = 1.8 (1.4 to 2.4) for 20 to 25 years. Lifetime hip fracture risk was similar (∼30%) regardless of age from 67 to >80 years. History of hip fracture predicted hip fractures only slightly better than history of nonvertebral fracture (RH = 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1 to 2.2] versus RH = 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2 to 1.5], respectively). Fracture history remained strongly predictive up to 25 years. We conclude that a single BMD and fracture history assessment can predict fracture risk over 20 to 25 years. Long-term risk of hip fracture remains extremely high in the oldest age groups, supporting risk assessment and consideration of treatment even in the oldest

  3. The discriminatory capacity of BMD measurements by DXA and dual X-ray and laser (DXL) at the calcaneus including clinical risk factors for detecting patients with vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschitz, C; Dimai, H P; Kocijan, R; Kaider, A; Zendeli, A; Kühne, F; Trubrich, A; Lung, S; Waneck, R; Resch, H

    2013-08-01

    Osteoporotic fracture risk depends on bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors (CRF). Five hundred and eighty-eight untreated female and male outpatient subjects were evaluated, 160 with vertebral fractures. BMD was measured both by using calcaneal dual X-ray and laser (DXL) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and CRF were evaluated. Detection frequencies for different BMD methods with or without CRF are presented. Osteoporotic fracture risk depends on bone mineral density and clinical risk factors. DXA of the spine/hip is considered a gold standard for BMD assessment, but due to degenerative conditions, particularly among the older population, assessment of BMD at the lumbar spine has been shown to be of limited significance. Portable calcaneal dual X-ray technology and laser can be an easily obtainable alternative. Vertebral fractures were evaluated in a baseline analysis of 588 females and males (median age 64.4, range 17.6-93.1 years), comparing BMD measurements by using DXL and DXA and CRF with/without BMD. One hundred and sixty subjects had radiological verified vertebral fractures. Area under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCC) and univariate and multiple logistic regressions were calculated. AUROCC for detection of vertebral fractures was comparable for DXL at calcaneus and DXA at femoral neck (DXL 0.665 and DXA 0.670). Odds ratio for prevalent vertebral fracture was generally weak for DXA femoral neck (0.613) and DXL (0.521). Univariate logistic regression among CRF without BMD revealed age, prevalent fragility fracture, and body mass index significantly associated with prevalent vertebral fracture (AUROCC = 0.805). Combining BMD and CRF, a prognostic improvement in case of DXA at femoral neck (AUROCC 0.869, p = 0.02), DXL at calcaneus (AUROCC 0.869, p = 0.059), and DXA at total hip (AUROCC 0.861, p = 0.06) was observed. DXL was similarly sensitive compared with DXA for identification of subjects with

  4. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures....... PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a compact and portable scanner using radiographic absorptiometry (RA) to predict major osteoporotic fractures. METHODS: This prospective study included a cohort of 15,542 men and women aged 18-95 years, who underwent a BMD scan in Danish Health...... Examination Survey 2007-2008. BMD at the middle phalanges of the second, third and fourth digits of the non-dominant hand was measured using RA (Alara MetriScan®). These data were merged with information on incident fractures retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry comprising the International...

  5. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon

    2008-01-01

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8±6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8±7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1±6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0±9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1±2.7 kg/m 2 . 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged ≥50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged ≥40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  6. Assessment of alveolar bone mineral density as a predictor of lumbar fracture probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Yoshitomo; Arita, Seizaburo; Honda, Mitsugi; Sugishita, Takeshi; Kamada, Aiko; Ikeo, Takashi; Miki, Takami; Fujita, Takuo

    2013-05-01

    Osteoporosis and tooth loss have been linked with advancing age, but no clear relationship between these conditions has been proven. Several studies of bone mineral density measurements of the jaw and spine have shown similarities in their rate of age-related deterioration. Thus, measurements of jawbone density may predict lumbar vertebral bone density. Using jawbone density as a proxy marker would circumvent the need for lumbar bone measurements and facilitate prediction of osteoporotic spinal fracture susceptibility at dental clinics. We aimed to characterize the correlation between bone density in the jaw and spine and the incidence of osteoporotic spinal fractures. We used computerized radiogrammetry to measure alveolar bone mineral density (al-BMD) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure lumbar bone mineral density (L-BMD). L-BMD and al-BMD in 30 female patients (average age: 59 ± 5 years) were correlated with various patient attributes. Statistical analysis included area under the curve (AUC) and probability of asymptomatic significance (PAS) in a receiver operating characteristic curve. The predictive strength of L-BMD T-scores (L-BMD[T]) and al-BMD measurements for fracture occurrence was then compared using multivariate analysis with category weight scoring. L-BMD and al-BMD were significantly correlated with age, years since menopause, and alveolar bone thickness. Both were also negatively correlated with fracture incidence. Category weight scores were -0.275 for a L-BMD(T) fracture occurrence than L-BMD. Our results suggest the possible association between al-BMD and vertebral fracture risk. Assessment of alveolar bone density may be useful in patients receiving routine dental exams to monitor the clinical picture and the potential course of osteoporosis in patients who may be at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.

  7. BMD measurements of the spine derived from sagittal reformations of contrast-enhanced MDCT without dedicated software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Thomas, E-mail: thbaum@gmx.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mueller, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.mueller@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Dobritz, Martin, E-mail: dobritz@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Rummeny, Ernst J., E-mail: institut@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Link, Thomas M., E-mail: thomas.link@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Bauer, Jan S., E-mail: jsb@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess QCT equivalent BMD of the lumbar spine in sagittal reformations of routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT with simple PACS measurement tools and to apply this method to MDCT datasets for differentiating patients with and without osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Materials and methods: Eight postmenopausal women (65 {+-} 5years) underwent standard QCT to assess BMD of L1-L3. Afterwards routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT images of these women were obtained and apparent BMD of L1-L3 was measured using the sagittal reformations. The MDCT-to-QCT conversion equation for BMD was calculated with linear regression analysis. The conversion equation was applied to vertebral BMD datasets (L1-L3) of 75 postmenopausal women (66 {+-} 4years). Seventeen of the 75 patients had osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Results: BMD values of contrast-enhanced MDCT were on average 56 mg/ml higher than those of standard QCT. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.94 (p < 0.05) was calculated for the BMD values of MDCT and standard QCT with the conversion equation BMD{sub QCT} = 0.69 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 11 mg/ml. Accordingly converted BMD values of patients with vertebral fractures were significantly lower than those of patients without vertebral fractures (69 mg/ml vs. 85 mg/ml; p < 0.05). Using ROC analysis to differentiate patients with and without vertebral fractures, AUC = 0.72 was obtained for converted BMD values (p < 0.05). Short- and long-term reproducibility errors for BMD measurements in the sagittal reformations amounted 2.09% and 7.70%, respectively. Conclusion: BMD measurements of the spine could be computed in sagittal reformations of routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT with minimal technical and time effort. Using the conversion equation, the acquired BMD data could differentiate patients with and without osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

  8. Aging alterations in whole-brain networks during adulthood mapped with the minimum spanning tree indices: The interplay of density, connectivity cost and life-time trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, W.M.; van Diessen, E.; Paul, S.; Ramaswamy, R.; Rallabandi, V.P.S.; Stam, C.J.; Roy, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The organizational network changes in the human brain across the lifespan have been mapped using functional and structural connectivity data. Brain network changes provide valuable insights into the processes underlying senescence. Nonetheless, the altered network density in the elderly severely

  9. Aging alterations in whole-brain networks during adulthood mapped with the minimum spanning tree indices : The interplay of density, connectivity cost and life-time trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, Wim; van Diessen, Eric; Paul, Subhadip; Ramaswamy, Rajiv; Subramanyam Rallabandi, V. P.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Roy, Prasun K.

    2015-01-01

    The organizational network changes in the human brain across the lifespan have been mapped using functional and structural connectivity data. Brain network changes provide valuable insights into the processes underlying senescence. Nonetheless, the altered network density in the elderly severely

  10. Identification of Hip BMD Loss and Fracture Risk Markers Through Population-Based Serum Proteomics: HIP BMD LOSS & FRACTURE RISK MARKERS BY POPULATION-BASED SERUM PROTEOMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Carrie; Wiedrick, Jack; Shen, Jian; Jacobs, Jon M.; Baker, Erin M.; Baraff, Aaron; Piehowski, Paul D.; Lee, Christine; Baratt, Arie; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mcweeney, Shannon K.; Lim, Jeong Youn; Bauer, Douglas C.; Lane, Nancy E.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Smith, Richard D.; Lapidus, Jodi; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2017-04-06

    Accelerated bone loss significantly increases the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. The mechanisms underlying bone loss remain incompletely understood, and there are few available biomarkers. We utilized a novel proteomics approach to identify serum peptides and proteins associated with bone loss in 1967 older men who were randomly chosen from the Osteoporotic Fracture in Men Study (MrOS study) (age ≥ 65 yrs). Men had 2-3 measures of femoral neck BMD over an average follow-up of 4.6 years. Change in BMD was estimated and then categorized into three groups: maintained BMD (n=453), expected loss (n=1185) and accelerated loss (n=237). A liquid chromatography–ion mobility separation-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) proteomics platform was used to identify and quantify peptides from serum proteins. The whole cohort was randomly divided into discovery (N= 960) and validation (N= 915) sub-cohorts. Linear regression models and a random forest approach were used to discover differentially abundant individual peptides and a proteomic signature that distinguished individuals with accelerated bone loss from those who maintained BMD. Network analyses were performed using the MetaCore knowledgebase. We identified 12 peptides that were associated with BMD loss in both discovery (P< 0.1 FDR) and replication sub-cohorts (P<0.05). Those 12 peptides mapped to the following proteins: ALS, LYVE1, RNAS1, C2, ICOSL, C163A, C7, HEMO, CD14, CERU, CRAC1 and CD59. Meta-analysis of peptidesassociated with bone loss identified 6 additional proteins including GRP78, IGF-2, SHBG, ENPP2, IBP2 and IBP6. We also identified a proteomic signature that was predictive of BMD loss with a discriminative value similar to serum bone marker carboxy-terminal collagen crosslink peptide (CTX). Interestingly, combining the proteomic signature with CTX significantly improved the ability to discriminate men with accelerated loss. In summary, we have identified potential new biomarkers for bone loss that provide

  11. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrada, Karol; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associ...

  12. Bone Mineral Density and Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment in Prepubertal Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijngaarden, Roderick F. A. de Lind; Festen, Dederieke A. M.; Otten, Barto J.; van Mil, Edgar G. A. H.; Rotteveel, Joost; Odink, Roelof J.; van Leeuwen, Mariette; Haring, Danny A. J. P.; Bocca, Gianni; Houdijk, E. C. A. Mieke; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) is unknown in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), but is decreased in adults with PWS. In patients with GH deficiency, BMD increases during GH treatment. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate BMD in children with PWS and to study the effects

  13. Combining areal DXA bone mineral density and vertebrae postero-anterior width improves the prediction of vertebral strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taton, Grzegorz; Rokita, Eugeniusz [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Biophysics, Krakow (Poland); Wrobel, Andrzej [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Korkosz, Mariusz [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Division of Rheumatology, Krakow (Poland)

    2013-12-15

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an important determinant of bone strength (BS), despite the fact that the correlation between aBMD and BS is relatively weak. Parameters that describe BS more accurately are desired. The aim of this study was to determine whether the geometrical corrections applied to aBMD would improve its ability for BS prediction. We considered new parameters, estimated from a single DXA measurement, as well as BMAD (bone mineral apparent density) reported in the literature. In vitro studies were performed with the L3 vertebrae from 20 cadavers, which were studied with DXA and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). A mechanical strength assessment was carried out. Two new parameters were introduced: vBMD{sub min} = (aBMD)/(W{sub PA}{sup min}) and vBMD{sub av} = (aBMD)/(W{sub PA}{sup av}) (W{sub PA}{sup min} - minimal vertebral body width in postero-anterior (PA) view, W{sub PA}{sup av} - average PA vertebral body width). Volumetric BMD measured by QCT (vBMD), aBMD, BMAD, vBMD{sub min}, and vBMD{sub av} were correlated to ultimate load and ultimate stress (P{sub max}) to find the best predictor of vertebrae BS. The coefficients of correlation between P{sub max} and vBMD{sub min}, vBMD{sub av}, as well as BMAD, were r = 0.626 (p = 0.005), r = 0.610 (p = 0.006) and r = 0.567 (p = 0.012), respectively. Coefficients for vBMD and aBMD are r = 0.648 (p = 0.003) and r = 0.511 (p = 0.03), respectively. Our results showed that aBMD normalized by vertebrae dimensions describes vertebrae BS better than aBMD alone. The considered indices vBMD{sub av}, vBMD{sub min}, and BMAD can be measured in routine PA DXA and considerably improve BS variability prediction. vBMD{sub min} is superior compared to vBMD{sub av} and BMAD. (orig.)

  14. Antiresorptive effect of a cathepsin K inhibitor ONO-5334 and its relationship to BMD increase in a phase II trial for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Chihiro; Deacon, Steve; Eastell, Richard

    2017-06-19

    ONO-5334 is a cathepsin K inhibitor that induced bone mineral density (BMD) gain in a phase II study in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. Even though the antiresorptive effect could only be monitored in the morning during the study, simulation can allow the antiresorptive effect to be assessed over 24 h, with assessment of the relationship to BMD gain. Inhibition of the serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) level at doses of ONO-5334 of 100 mg once daily (QD), 300 mg QD, and 50 mg twice daily (BID) was simulated using plasma ONO-5334 pharmacokinetic (PK) data for repeated dose administration in a phase I study and corresponding sCTX inhibition from the PK-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship. sCTX was selected because it has a high signal-to-noise ratio compared to other telopeptides. A negative sigmoidal shape for the PK/PD relationship between plasma ONO-5334 and sCTX levels was obtained in our previous study. The simulated sCTX inhibition reached >99% of the maximal inhibitory effect (Emax) at 0.5 h in all treatment groups, and decreased to <80% Emax at 8 and 12 h at 50 mg BID and 100 mg QD, respectively. However, sCTX inhibition at 300 mg QD was maintained at ≥82% Emax over 24 h. The mean sCTX inhibition rates for 24 h at 100 mg QD, 300 mg QD and 50 mg BID were 63, 95 and 80% Emax, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship by treatment group between mean sCTX inhibition over 24 h and observed BMD gain in the phase II study. The dose response for BMD with ONO-5334 at 100 and 300 mg QD and higher BMD gain at 50 mg BID vs. 100 mg QD can be explained by sCTX inhibition over 24 h. The simulation gave the antiresorptive effect of ONO-5334 over 24 h and allowed prediction of BMD gain due to ONO-5334. The registration number in The European Union Clinical Trials Register is 2007-002417-39 . The date of registration was August 31, 2007.

  15. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  16. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  17. Bone mineral density change during adjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyun Ahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeOsteoporosis is currently receiving particular attention as a sequela in survivors of childhood osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD changes during methotrexate-based chemotherapy in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma.MethodsNine patients with osteosarcoma were included in this retrospective study and compared with eight healthy controls. BMD of the lumbar spine and unaffected femur neck of patients was serially measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and just after chemotherapy and compared with controls.ResultsFour patients (44% showed decreased lumbar spine BMD and seven patients (78% showed decreased femur neck BMD, while all controls showed increased lumbar and femur BMD (P=0.024 and P=0.023. The femur neck BMD z-scores decreased from -0.49±1.14 to -1.63±1.50 (P=0.032. At the end of therapy, five patients (56% showed femur neck BMD z-scores below -2.0.ConclusionThe bone metabolism is disturbed during therapy in children with osteosarcoma, resulting in a reduced BMD with respect to healthy controls. Since a reduced BMD predisposes to osteoporosis, specific attention and therapeutic interventions should be considered.

  18. Probability and complex quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Moncy V.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that in the complex trajectory representation of quantum mechanics, the Born's Ψ*Ψ probability density can be obtained from the imaginary part of the velocity field of particles on the real axis. Extending this probability axiom to the complex plane, we first attempt to find a probability density by solving an appropriate conservation equation. The characteristic curves of this conservation equation are found to be the same as the complex paths of particles in the new representation. The boundary condition in this case is that the extended probability density should agree with the quantum probability rule along the real line. For the simple, time-independent, one-dimensional problems worked out here, we find that a conserved probability density can be derived from the velocity field of particles, except in regions where the trajectories were previously suspected to be nonviable. An alternative method to find this probability density in terms of a trajectory integral, which is easier to implement on a computer and useful for single particle solutions, is also presented. Most importantly, we show, by using the complex extension of Schrodinger equation, that the desired conservation equation can be derived from this definition of probability density

  19. Aging alterations in whole-brain networks during adulthood mapped with the minimum spanning tree indices: the interplay of density, connectivity cost and life-time trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Willem M; van Diessen, Eric; Paul, Subhadip; Ramaswamy, Rajiv; Subramanyam Rallabandi, V P; Stam, Cornelis J; Roy, Prasun K

    2015-04-01

    The organizational network changes in the human brain across the lifespan have been mapped using functional and structural connectivity data. Brain network changes provide valuable insights into the processes underlying senescence. Nonetheless, the altered network density in the elderly severely compromises the usefulness of network analysis to study the aging brain. We successfully circumvented this problem by focusing on the critical structural network backbone, using a robust tree representation. Whole-brain networks' minimum spanning trees were determined in a dataset of diffusion-weighted images from 382 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 20.2 to 86.2 years. Tree-based metrics were compared with classical network metrics. In contrast to the tree-based metrics, classical metrics were highly influenced by age-related changes in network density. Tree-based metrics showed linear and non-linear correlation across adulthood and are in close accordance with results from previous histopathological characterizations of the changes in white matter integrity in the aging brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional relevance of the BMD-associated polymorphism rs312009: novel involvement of RUNX2 in LRP5 transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueda, Lídia; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Urreizti, Roser; Yoskovitz, Guy; Sarrión, Patricia; Jurado, Susana; Güerri, Roberto; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Nogués, Xavier; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Marie, Pierre J; Balcells, Susana; Grinberg, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    LRP5 is an osteoporosis susceptibility gene. Association analyses reveal that individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determine variation in bone mineral density (BMD) among individuals as well as fracture risk. In a previous study, we identified a lumbar spine BMD-associated SNP, rs312009, located in the LRP5 5' region. A RUNX2 binding site was identified in this region by gel-shift experiments. Here we test the functionality of this SNP and examine whether RUNX2 is indeed a regulator of LRP5 expression. Gene reporter assays were used to test rs312009 functionality. Bioinformatic predictive tools and gel-shift and gene reporter assays were used to identify and characterize additional RUNX2 binding elements in the 3.3-kb region upstream of LRP5. Allelic differences in the transcriptional activity of rs312009 were observed in two osteoblastic cell lines, the T allele being a better transcriber than the C allele. RUNX2 cotransfection in HeLa cells revealed that the LRP5 5' region responded to RUNX2 in a dose-dependent manner and that the previously identified RUNX2 binding site participated in this response. Also, RUNX2 inhibition by RNAi led to nearly 60% reduction of endogenous LRP5 mRNA in U-2 OS cells. Four other RUNX2 binding sites were identified in the 5' region of LRP5. Luciferase experiments revealed the involvement of each of them in the RUNX2 response. The allelic differences observed point to the involvement of rs312009 as a functional SNP in the observed association. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the direct action of RUNX2 on LRP5 has been described. This adds evidence to previously described links between two important bone-regulating systems: the RUNX2 transcription-factor cascade and the Wnt signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  1. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those...

  2. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; Higuchi, Tohru; Nishihara, Kaori; Kayano, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Naoki; Nambo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured...

  3. Correlates of bone mineral density among postmenopausal women of African Caribbean ancestry: Tobago women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Deanna D; Cauley, Jane A; Bunker, Clareann H; Baker, Carol E; Patrick, Alan L; Beckles, Gloria L A; Wheeler, Victor W; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2008-07-01

    Population dynamics predict a drastic growth in the number of older minority women, and resultant increases in the number of fractures. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is an important risk factor for fracture. Many studies have identified the lifestyle and health-related factors that correlate with BMD in Whites. Few studies have focused on non-Whites. The objective of the current analyses is to examine the lifestyle, anthropometric and health-related factors that are correlated with BMD in a population based cohort of Caribbean women of West African ancestry. We enrolled 340 postmenopausal women residing on the Caribbean Island of Tobago. Participants completed a questionnaire and had anthropometric measures taken. Hip BMD was measured by DXA. We estimated volumetric BMD by calculating bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). BMD was >10% and >25% higher across all age groups in Tobagonian women compared to US non-Hispanic Black and White women, respectively. In multiple linear regression models, 35-36% of the variability in femoral neck and total hip BMD respectively was predicted. Each 16-kg (one standard deviation (SD)) increase in weight was associated with 5% higher BMD; and weight explained over 10% of the variability of BMD. Each 8-year (1 SD) increase in age was associated with 5% lower BMD. Current use of both thiazide diuretics and oral hypoglycemic medication were associated with 4-5% higher BMD. For femoral neck BMAD, 26% of the variability was explained by a multiple linear regression model. Current statin use was associated with 5% higher BMAD and a history of breast feeding or coronary heart disease was associated with 1-1.5% of higher BMAD. In conclusion, African Caribbean women have the highest BMD on a population level reported to date for women. This may reflect low European admixture. Correlates of BMD among Caribbean women of West African ancestry were similar to those reported for U.S. Black and White women.

  4. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...

  5. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space

  6. Sarcopenia as an Independent Risk Factor for Decreased BMD in COPD Patients: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Won Lee

    Full Text Available A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD is a systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Past reports have rarely examined any correlation between sarcopenia and BMD. We investigated the relationship cross-sectionally between the presence of sarcopenia and BMD reduction in COPD patients.COPD patients aged 50 or older with qualifying spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data were from participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011.There were 286 (33.3% subjects in the sarcopenia group and 572 (66.7% in the non-sarcopenia group. The sarcopenia group had lower T-scores than the non-sarcopenia group (femur: -0.73±0.88 vs. -0.18±0.97, p < 0.001; femur neck: -1.44±0.98 vs. -0.99±1.06, p < 0.001; lumbar: -1.38±1.36 vs. -0.84±1.38, p < 0.001. The prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis were 60.8% and 22.0%, respectively, in the sarcopenia group and 45.6% and 13.3% in the non-sarcopenia group (both p < 0.001. After adjusting for multiple variables, the presence of sarcopenia associated with increased the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and a low BMD (OR = 3.227, 95% CI = 2.125-4.899, p < 0.001, OR = 6.952, 95% CI = 3.418-14.139, p < 0.001, and OR = 3.495, 95% CI = 2.315-5.278, p < 0.001, respectively. In a subgroup analysis, similar OR changes were confirmed in the high-body-weight group (n = 493 (OR = 2.248, 95% CI = 1.084-4.665, p = 0.030, OR = 4.621, 95% CI = 1.167-18.291, p = 0.029, and OR = 2.376, 95% CI = 1.158-4.877, p = 0.018, respectively.The presence of sarcopenia was associated with increased the risk for decreased BMD in COPD.

  7. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    values decreased with age (P shoulder BMD levels increased significantly with increased body mass index (BMI) (P positive relationship between the increased hip/shoulder BMD differential with BMI supports the conclusion that the shoulder is subject......The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... of osteoporosis compared with hip scans, the latter representing a weight-bearing part of the skeleton. We developed a scanning procedure, including a shoulder fixation device, and determined the most appropriate software in order to establish a reference material with the highest possible precision. Duplicate...

  8. T2 relaxation times are increased in Skeletal muscle of DMD but not BMD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, Beatrijs H; Van Den Bergen, Janneke C; Hooijmans, Melissa T; Verschuuren, Jan J; Niks, Erik H; Kan, Hermien E

    2016-01-01

    Exon-skipping drugs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) aim to restore truncated dystrophin expression, which is present in the milder Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). MRI skeletal muscle T2 relaxation times as a representation of edema/inflammation could be quantitative outcome parameters for such trials. We studied T2 relaxation times, adjusted for muscle fat fraction using Dixon MRI, in lower leg muscles of DMD and BMD patients and healthy controls. T2 relaxation times correlated significantly with fat fractions in patients only (P relaxation times were significantly increased in 6 muscles of DMD patients (P relaxation times were unchanged. T2 relaxation times could be a useful outcome parameter in exon-skipping trials in DMD but are influenced by fat despite fat suppression. This should be accounted for when using quantitative T2 mapping to investigate edema/inflammation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzibegovic, I.; Miskic, B.; Prvulovic, D.; Bistrovic, D.; Cosic, V.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus have shown conflicting results. We conducted this study to determine whether postmenopausal women with diabetes have higher BMD than non-diabetic women of similar age and to investigate the relationship between BMD and relevant clinical characteristics in these groups of women. We retrospectively analyzed lumbar spine, femoral neck and radius BMD data and other relevant clinical data for 130 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 166 non-diabetic women collected during a voluntary screening for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without a history of low bone mass or osteoporotic fractures. Women with type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly higher mean lumbar spine BMD (0.903 +-0.165 vs. 0.824+-0.199, respectively, P<0.001) and mean femoral neck BMD (0.870+-0.132 vs. 0.832+-0.134, respectively, P<0.05) than non-diabetic women. In both groups of women, age correlated negatively with BMD levels at all three anatomical sites. Higher body mass index was associated only with higher lumber spine BMD in both groups. Alkaline phosphatase levels showed a negative correlation with BMD at all sites in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher BMD levels than non-diabetic women with similar clinical characteristics and require a more scrutinized approach in managing low bone mass. (author)

  10. Modulation and predictors of periprosthetic bone mineral density following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Behrens, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Bruhn, Sven; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer; Skripitz, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD). Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2) to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1) the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2) the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count), and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008) 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ(2) = 0.002; df = 1; P = 0.96; χ(2)/df = 0.002; RMSEA high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass.

  11. Polymorphism rs2073618 of the TNFRSF11B (OPG Gene and Bone Mineral Density in Mexican Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Nava-Valdivia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis (OP is highly prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and is influenced by genetic factors. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2073618 in the TNFRSF11B osteoprotegerin (OPG gene has been related to postmenopausal OP although, to date, no information has been described concerning whether this polymorphism is implied in abnormalities of bone mineral density (BMD in RA. We evaluated, in a case-control study performed in Mexican-Mestizo women with RA, whether SNP rs2073618 in the TNFRSF11B gene is associated with a decrease in BMD. RA patients were classified as follows: (1 low BMD and (2 normal BMD. All patients were genotyped for the rs2073618 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP. The frequency of low BMD was 74.4%. Higher age was observed in RA with low BMD versus normal BMD (62 and 54 years, resp.; p<0.001. Worse functioning and lower BMI were observed in RA with low BMD (p=0.003 and p=0.002, resp.. We found similar genotype frequencies in RA with low BMD versus RA with normal BMD (GG genotype 71% versus 64.4%, GC 26% versus 33%, and CC 3% versus 2.2%, resp.; p=0.6. We concluded that in Mexican-Mestizo female patients with RA, the rs2073618 polymorphism of the TNRFS11B gene is not associated with low BMD.

  12. MLPA-based genotype-phenotype analysis in 1053 Chinese patients with DMD/BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Li, Shao Y; Li, Ya Q; Cao, Ji Q; Feng, Shan W; Wang, Yan Y; Zhan, Yi X; Yu, Chang S; Chen, Fei; Li, Jing; Sun, Xiao F; Zhang, Cheng

    2013-03-01

    Large-scale analysis of the transmission, mutation characteristics and the relationship between the reading frame and phenotype of the DMD gene has previously been performed in several countries, however, analogous studies have yet to be performed in Chinese populations. Clinical data from 1053 Chinese patients with DMD/BMD were collected, and the DMD gene was tested by MLPA in all patients and 400 proband mothers. In 20 patients with negative MLPA, sequencing was also performed. We found that 27.50% of cases had a family medical history of DMD/BMD, and large rearrangements were identified in 70.56% of the probands, of which 59.35% and 11.21% were deletions or duplications, respectively. The carrier status of the mothers in the study was determined to be 50.75%, and it was established that the DMD mutation was inherited from the mother in 51.72% of the probands. Exons 45-54 and 3-22 were the most frequently deleted regions, and exons 3-11 and 21-37 were the most prevalently duplicated regions of the gene. Breakpoints mainly occurred in introns 43-55 for deletion mutations and in introns 2 and 7 for duplication mutations. No breakpoints were found at the 5' or 3' end of introns 31, 35, 36, 40, 65, 68, and 74-78 in any of the deletion or duplication mutations. The reading frame rule held true for 86.4% of the DMD patients and 74.55% of the BMD patients. It is essential to increase physicians' understanding of DMD/BMD, to promote scientific information, and to increase awareness in regards to genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in pedigrees with a family history of the disease, particularly in families with small DMD lesions in China. In addition, such a large-scale analysis will prove to be instructive for leading translational studies between basic science and clinical medicine.

  13. Serum biomarker profile associated with high bone turnover and BMD in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Achenbach, Sara J; Khosla, Sundeep; Suva, Larry J

    2008-07-01

    Early diagnosis of the onset of osteoporosis is key to the delivery of effective therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide a means of evaluating skeletal dynamics that complements static measurements of BMD by DXA. Conventional clinical measurements of bone turnover, primarily the estimation of collagen and its breakdown products in the blood or urine, lack both sensitivity and specificity as a reliable diagnostic tool. As a result, improved tests are needed to augment the use of BMD measurements as the principle diagnostic modality. In this study, the serum proteome of 58 postmenopausal women with high or low/normal bone turnover (training set) was analyzed by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a diagnostic fingerprint was identified using a variety of statistical and machine learning tools. The diagnostic fingerprint was validated in a separate distinct test set, consisting of serum samples from an additional 59 postmenopausal women obtained from the same Mayo cohort, with a gap of 2 yr. Specific protein peaks that discriminate between postmenopausal patients with high or low/normal bone turnover were identified and validated. Multiple supervised learning approaches were able to classify the level of bone turnover in the training set with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, the individual protein peaks were also significantly correlated with BMD measurements in these patients. Four of the major discriminatory peaks in the diagnostic profile were identified as fragments of interalpha-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain H4 precursor (ITIH4), a plasma kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein that is a component of the host response system. These data suggest that these serum protein fragments are the serum-borne reflection of the increased osteoclast activity, leading to the increased bone turnover that is associated with decreasing BMD and presumably an increased risk of fracture. In conjunction with the

  14. Proposing an adaptive mutation to improve XCSF performance to classify ADHD and BMD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatnezhad, Khadijeh; Boostani, Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    There is extensive overlap of clinical symptoms observed among children with bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, diagnosis according to clinical symptoms cannot be very accurate. It is therefore desirable to develop quantitative criteria for automatic discrimination between these disorders. This study is aimed at designing an efficient decision maker to accurately classify ADHD and BMD patients by analyzing their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this study, 22 channels of EEGs have been recorded from 21 subjects with ADHD and 22 individuals with BMD. Several informative features, such as fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive coefficients, were extracted from the recorded signals. Considering the multimodal overlapping distribution of the obtained features, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to reduce the input dimension in a more separable space to make it more appropriate for the proposed classifier. A piecewise linear classifier based on the extended classifier system for function approximation (XCSF) was modified by developing an adaptive mutation rate, which was proportional to the genotypic content of best individuals and their fitness in each generation. The proposed operator controlled the trade-off between exploration and exploitation while maintaining the diversity in the classifier's population to avoid premature convergence. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the extracted features were applied to support vector machine, LDA, nearest neighbor and XCSF classifiers. To evaluate the method, a noisy environment was simulated with different noise amplitudes. It is shown that the results of the proposed technique are more robust as compared to conventional classifiers. Statistical tests demonstrate that the proposed classifier is a promising method for discriminating between ADHD and BMD patients.

  15. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Tânia; Wyon, Matthew; Maia, José; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Metsios, George S; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    While some authors report that dancers have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporosis, others have stressed the positive effects of dance training on developing healthy BMD. Given the existing controversy, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the best evidence-based information available in relation to female dancers. Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus) and two dance science journals (Journal of Dance Medicine and Science and Medical Problems of Performing Artists) were searched for relevant material using the keywords "dance", "ballet", "BMD", "bone density", "osteoporosis" and "female athlete triad syndrome". A total of 257 abstracts were screened using selected inclusion (studies involving bone measurements in dancers) and exclusion (editorials, opinion papers, chapters in books, narrative reviews and non-English language papers) criteria according to PRISMA guidelines. Following the above screening, a total of 108 abstracts were identified as potentially relevant. After the exclusion of conference proceedings, review papers, studies focusing only in male dancers and studies in which dancers' information were combined with other athletes, the eligible papers were subsequently assessed using the GRADE system and grouped according to: (1) prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, (2) incidence of low BMD and risk factors, (3) prevention/treatment of low BMD in dancers, and (4) other studies. Of the 257 abstracts that were initially screened, only 35 studies were finally considered. Only one of these 35 was of high quality, while the remaining 34 were of relatively low quality. Seven studies reported prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, 10 reported associated factors with no prevalence data, while one reported prevalence with no associated factors data. One study cited risk factors, while another one elaborated on the treatment of low BMD in dancers. The remaining 15 studies were classified as

  16. Is whole body bone mineral density measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry applied to evaluate risk of osteoporosis among Japanese adult females?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yumiko; Koike, George; Numata, Makoto; Taneda, Kiyoshi; Jingu, Sumie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure whole body fat accurately, the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely utilized. Simultaneously, bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body can also be measured. BMD is one of important information to diagnose osteoporosis. However, it is not established to use whole body BMD for this diagnosis. It is recommended that lumbar and/or hip BMD should be used for diagnosing osteoporosis by the guideline for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although it is possible to measure whole body BMD and lumbar and/or hip BMD separately at the same visit, it is inevitable to expose patients to more X-ray. Therefore, an aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between whole body BMD and lumbar BMD to find the cut off point of whole body BMD for screening of osteoporosis. Two hundred and thirty six Japanese adult females were ascertained to this study. Whole body BMD and lumbar BMD of each subject were measured with the use of Delphi W (Hologic, USA). One hundred and sixty five subjects were judged as possible osteoporosis (less than 80% of young adult mean (YAM) of lumbar BMD and/or definite fracture of lumbar vertebras). The cut off point of whole body BMD for screening possible osteoporosis was estimated by receiver operated characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cut off point of whole body BMD was 84% of YAM, equivalent to 80% of YAM of lumbar BMD, with the following sensitivity and specificity (0.84 and 0.79, respectively), indicating that whole body BMD could be used for screening osteoporosis. (author)

  17. MLPA Application in Clinical Diagnosis of DMD/BMD in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xing; Zhang, Jingmin; Xu, Yan; Long, Fei; Sun, Wei; Liu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Yingwei; Jiang, Wenting

    2015-09-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutation in dystrophin gene. We reported 3-year clinic experience from a single hospital in Shanghai using multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay to detect DMD mutations. Four hundred and fifty-one males and 184 females, who were clinically diagnosed as DMD/BMD patients or carriers at our hospital's outpatient clinic, were collected and performed with MLPA to detect DMD gene mutations. Seventeen novel mutation points not reported in the Leiden Muscular Dystrophy pages were identified in this study. We found that the most frequent deletion spots ranged from exon45 to exon52, and exon2, exon19 were the two most frequently detected duplication spots. The results of our study confirmed MLPA as an efficient clinical method for detecting DMD gene mutations in DMD/BMD patients. Single exon mutation detected by MLPA should be verified by other methods, and we should emphasize that only precise clinical molecular diagnosis can lead to the feasibility of prenatal diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Transcriptional behavior of DMD gene duplications in DMD/BMD males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, F; Neri, M; Bovolenta, M; Martoni, E; Rimessi, P; Fini, S; Spitali, P; Fabris, M; Pane, M; Angelini, C; Mora, M; Morandi, L; Mongini, T; Bertini, E; Ricci, E; Vattemi, G; Mercuri, E; Merlini, L; Ferlini, A

    2009-02-01

    DMD gene exons duplications account for up to 5-10 % of Duchenne (DMD) and up to 5-19% of Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies; as for the more common deletions, the genotype-phenotype correlation and the genetic prognosis are generally based on the "reading frame rule". Nevertheless, the transcriptional profile of duplications, abridging the genomic configuration to the eventual protein effect, has been poorly studied. We describe 26 DMD gene duplications occurring in 33 unrelated patients and detected among a cohort of 194 mutation-positive DMD/BMD patients. We have characterized at the RNA level 16 of them. Four duplications (15%) behave as exception to the reading frame rule. In three BMD cases with out-of-frame mutations, the RNA analysis revealed that exon skipping events occurring in the duplicated region represent the mechanism leading to the frame re-establishment and to the milder phenotype. Differently, in a DMD patient carrying an in-frame duplication the RNA behaviour failed to explain the clinical phenotype which is probably related to post-transcriptional-translational mechanisms. We conclude that defining the RNA profile in DMD gene duplications is mandatory both for establishing the genetic prognosis and for approaching therapeutic trials based on hnRNA modulation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Reduced bone mineral density in Chinese children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kundi; Shen, Ming; Li, Honglei; Li, Xiaowen; He, Chun

    2017-05-24

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. Dietary control of classic PKU needs restriction of natural proteins. The diet results in unbalanced nutrition, which might affect the physical development of the patients. Our aim was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children with PKU. To investigate the BMD of children with PKU, 41 children with PKU and 64 healthy controls were recruited (all 3-4 years of age). Body weight and height, BMD, Phe blood levels, thyroid function, calcium, phosphorus, iron metabolism markers, and vitamin D3 were measured. Body height and BMD of patients were lower than in controls. The BMD of controls was positively associated with age, body weight and height. In patients, BMD was positively associated with body weight. There was no correlation between Phe blood levels and BMD in patients. Blood levels of alkaline phosphatase were higher in patients compared to controls. Blood calcium levels were higher in 4-year-old patients, while the body weight was lower compared to controls. Thyroid function, iron metabolism markers, vitamin D3 levels and IGF-1 levels were normal. Reduced BMD was observed in children with phenylketonuria, but the exact reasons for this remain to be elucidated.

  20. Trajectory Design to Benefit Trajectory-Based Surface Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trajectory-based operations constitute a key mechanism considered by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for managing traffic in high-density or...

  1. Trajectory Design to Benefit Trajectory-Based Surface Operations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trajectory-based operations constitute a key mechanism considered by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for managing traffic in high-density or...

  2. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (pAI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (pAI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Annemieke M; Krenning, Eric P; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F

    2011-01-01

    The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, total body and femoral neck (FN) and body composition were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Volumetric BMD, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), of the lumbar spine and FN was calculated. In females, 25OHD level was positively associated with FN BMD and BMAD (both ppercentage body fat (pbody BMD and lean body mass (p=0.03 and p=0.01). 25OHD level is a determinant of peak BMD in both sexes. Vitamin D status was associated with body fat in females and with lean body mass in males.

  4. The correlationship between mandibular radiomorphometric indices in panorama and bone mineral density in Cu-equivalent image of intraoral film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether the mandibular radiomorphometric indices in panoramic radiography are correlated with the bone mineral density of Cu-equivalent images in intraoral film. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the mandibular premolar area was measured in the Cu-equivalent image of intraoral film. The Panoramic Mandibular Index (PMI) and Mandibular Cortical Width (MCW) were measured in panoramic radiographs of six dry mandibles, and the Pearson correlation between PMI, MCW, and BMD were tested. There were no significant correlations between PMI and BMD (r=0.280), nor between MCW and BMD (r=0.237). The results show that PMI and MCW were poor diagnostic indicators of mandibular BMD in the six dry mandibles used in this study. The correlationship between the mandibular radiomorphometric indices (PMI and MCW) and mandibular BMD needs to be researched further using large in vivo patient samples.

  5. Management by Trajectory: Trajectory Management Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiden, Kenneth; Atkins, Stephen; Fernandes, Alicia D.; Kaler, Curt; Bell, Alan; Kilbourne, Todd; Evans, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In order to realize the full potential of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), improved management along planned trajectories between air navigation service providers (ANSPs) and system users (e.g., pilots and airline dispatchers) is needed. Future automation improvements and increased data communications between aircraft and ground automation would make the concept of Management by Trajectory (MBT) possible.

  6. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  7. Low Bone Mineral Density, Regardless of HIV Status, in Men Who Have Sex With Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, M.L.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.N.M.; Stolte, I.G.; Prins, M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Reiss, P.; Prins, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported among men with primary or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To gain further insight into the contribution of HIV infection, we compared the BMD of 41 men who have sex with men (MSM) with primary HIV infection,

  8. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  9. Epigenome-wide association of DNA methylation in whole blood with bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, John A; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Joehanes, Roby

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental determinants of skeletal phenotypes such as bone mineral density (BMD) may converge through the epigenome, providing a tool to better understand osteoporosis pathophysiology. As the epigenetics of BMD have been largely unexplored in humans, we performed an epigenome wide...

  10. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8...

  11. Effects of mometasone, fluticasone, and montelukast on bone mineral density in adults with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maspero, Jorge; Backer, Vibeke; Yao, Ruji

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with bone mineral density (BMD) loss have not been characterized consistently. OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind study assessed effects of mometasone furoate (MF) administered via dry powder inhaler on BMD of patients with persisten...

  12. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to establish a triage cut-off point or threshold for peripheral bone mineral density (BMD), applicable to black postmenopausal women, and that could be used as a screening method to differentiate between women with normal BMD, and those with possible central osteoporosis.

  13. Bone mineral density in adult patients treated with various antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Viken, Janina; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting, that older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and some of the newer ones decrease bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is only limited and conflicting data concerning the effect of levetiracetam on BMD. In this cross-sectional study we analysed data from 1...

  14. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown.

  15. Bone mineral density and body composition in Noonan's syndrome: effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, C.; Span, J.; van Rijn, R. R.; Gomes-Jardin, E.; van Kuijk, C.; Otten, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in children with Noonan's syndrome (NS) before and during growth hormone (GH) treatment. Sixteen children (12 boys, 4 girls) with NS aged 5.8-14.2 (mean 10.0) years were studied for 2 years. Anthropometry, BMD measurements by radiographic

  16. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) treated with GH during the transition period. Methods: BMD and body composition, measured by dual-energy X-ray

  17. WNT3A gene polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density variation in postmenopausal mestizo women of an urban Mexican population: findings of a pathway-based high-density single nucleotide screening

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Quiterio, Manuel; Valdés-Flores, Margarita; Orozco, Lorena; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a common skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and is a common health problem in Mexico. To date, few genes affecting BMD variation in the Mexican population have been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes of the Wnt pathway with BMD variation at various skeletal sites in a cohort of postmenopausal Mexican women. A total of 121 SNPs in or near 15 Wnt signa...

  18. Adaptive Trajectory Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive Trajectory Design (ATD) is an original concept for quick and efficient end-to-end trajectory designs using proven piece-wise dynamical methods. With ongoing...

  19. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  20. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Peak Bone Mineral Density Of Bangladeshi Men And Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilruba Akhter Banu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and brittle. It affects 55 of Americans aged 50 or above of which about 80 are women. Millions of fractures occur annually. An effective way of preventing osteoporosis is to maximize the attainment of peak bone mineral density pBMD. Thus the knowledge of average pBMD that prevails in a nation is very important. Not much study appears to have been done on the subject in Bangladesh. 170 Bangladeshi patients and volunteers were studied at nuclear medicine centers of Comilla and Rajshahi. Bone mineral densities BMD at different sites of the skeleton were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer DXA. Graphs of Age versus BMD were plotted. Data was fitted with the help of polynomials. The best fit was obtained with polynomials of degree 4 in each case. By using bootstrapping method a large number of samples were generated and pBMD was obtained from each of the samples. Mean value of the pBMD was then calculated. pBMD values of the male patients were found to be slightly greater than those of the females. During puberty gender differences become more expressed. After the age of 50 females lose bones more rapidly and quantitatively than males. Bangladeshis seem to belong to the group of nations having low pBMDs.

  2. Ascent trajectory dispersion analysis for WTR heads-up space shuttle trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The results of a Space Transportation System ascent trajectory dispersion analysis are discussed. The purpose is to provide critical trajectory parameter values for assessing the Space Shuttle in a heads-up configuration launched from the Western Test Range (STR). This analysis was conducted using a trajectory profile based on a launch from the WTR in December. The analysis consisted of the following steps: (1) nominal trajectories were simulated under the conditions as specified by baseline reference mission guidelines; (2) dispersion trajectories were simulated using predetermined parametric variations; (3) requirements for a system-related composite trajectory were determined by a root-sum-square (RSS) analysis of the positive deviations between values of the aerodynamic heating indicator (AHI) generated by the dispersion and nominal trajectories; (4) using the RSS assessment as a guideline, the system related composite trajectory was simulated by combinations of dispersion parameters which represented major contributors; (5) an assessment of environmental perturbations via a RSS analysis was made by the combination of plus or minus 2 sigma atmospheric density variation and 95% directional design wind dispersions; (6) maximum aerodynamic heating trajectories were simulated by variation of dispersion parameters which would emulate the summation of the system-related RSS and environmental RSS values of AHI. The maximum aerodynamic heating trajectories were simulated consistent with the directional winds used in the environmental analysis.

  3. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  4. Phenotypic dissection of bone mineral density reveals skeletal site specificity and facilitates the identification of novel loci in the genetic regulation of bone mass attainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Kemp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heritability of bone mineral density (BMD varies across skeletal sites, reflecting different relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. To quantify the degree to which common genetic variants tag and environmental factors influence BMD, at different sites, we estimated the genetic (rg and residual (re correlations between BMD measured at the upper limbs (UL-BMD, lower limbs (LL-BMD and skull (SK-BMD, using total-body DXA scans of ∼ 4,890 participants recruited by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (ALSPAC. Point estimates of rg indicated that appendicular sites have a greater proportion of shared genetic architecture (LL-/UL-BMD rg = 0.78 between them, than with the skull (UL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.58 and LL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.43. Likewise, the residual correlation between BMD at appendicular sites (r(e = 0.55 was higher than the residual correlation between SK-BMD and BMD at appendicular sites (r(e = 0.20-0.24. To explore the basis for the observed differences in rg and re, genome-wide association meta-analyses were performed (n ∼ 9,395, combining data from ALSPAC and the Generation R Study identifying 15 independent signals from 13 loci associated at genome-wide significant level across different skeletal regions. Results suggested that previously identified BMD-associated variants may exert site-specific effects (i.e. differ in the strength of their association and magnitude of effect across different skeletal sites. In particular, variants at CPED1 exerted a larger influence on SK-BMD and UL-BMD when compared to LL-BMD (P = 2.01 × 10(-37, whilst variants at WNT16 influenced UL-BMD to a greater degree when compared to SK- and LL-BMD (P = 2.31 × 10(-14. In addition, we report a novel association between RIN3 (previously associated with Paget's disease and LL-BMD (rs754388: β = 0.13, SE = 0.02, P = 1.4 × 10(-10. Our results suggest that BMD at different skeletal sites is under a mixture of shared and

  5. Low bone mineral density in achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Kadono, Izumi; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH) are the most common form of short-limb skeletal dysplasias caused by activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling. Although decreased bone mass was reported in gain-of-function mutation in Fgfr3 mice, both disorders have never been described as osteoporotic. In the present study, we evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) in ACH and HCH patients. We measured spinal BMD (L1-L4) in 18 ACH and four HCH patients with an average age of 19.8 ± 7.5 years (range, 10-33 years). BMD Z-score in each individual was calculated for normalizing age and gender. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD was analyzed. Moreover, BMD and Z-score were compared between ACH patients and HCH patients. The average BMD of ACH/HCH patients was 0.805 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) (range, 0.554-1.056 g/cm(2) ), resulting in an average Z-score of -1.1 ± 0.8 (range, -2.4 to 0.6) of the standard value. A slightly positive correlation was observed between BMI and BMD (r = 0.45; P = 0.13). There was no significant difference in BMD and Z-score between ACH and HCH patients. Spinal BMD was reduced in ACH/HCH patients, and was mildly correlated with individual BMI. We should carefully monitor BMD and examine osteoporosis-related symptoms in adolescent and adult ACH/HCH patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkaoui Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT in carotid artery (CA and femoral artery (FA. Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33, Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30 and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28 while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in

  7. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...... (IPT) and reproductive hormone concentrations (RHC). A possible effect of oral contraceptives (OCON's) is taken into consideration....

  8. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  9. Searching Trajectories by Regions of Interest

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-03-22

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel query type named trajectory search by regions of interest (TSR query). Given an argument set of trajectories, a TSR query takes a set of regions of interest as a parameter and returns the trajectory in the argument set with the highest spatial-density correlation to the query regions. This type of query is useful in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation, and location based services in general. TSR query processing faces three challenges: how to model the spatial-density correlation between query regions and data trajectories, how to effectively prune the search space, and how to effectively schedule multiple so-called query sources. To tackle these challenges, a series of new metrics are defined to model spatial-density correlations. An efficient trajectory search algorithm is developed that exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space and that adopts a query-source selection strategy, as well as integrates a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking to schedule multiple query sources. The performance of TSR query processing is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data.

  10. MLPA-based genotype–phenotype analysis in 1053 Chinese patients with DMD/BMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale analysis of the transmission, mutation characteristics and the relationship between the reading frame and phenotype of the DMD gene has previously been performed in several countries, however, analogous studies have yet to be performed in Chinese populations. Methods Clinical data from 1053 Chinese patients with DMD/BMD were collected, and the DMD gene was tested by MLPA in all patients and 400 proband mothers. In 20 patients with negative MLPA, sequencing was also performed. Results We found that 27.50% of cases had a family medical history of DMD/BMD, and large rearrangements were identified in 70.56% of the probands, of which 59.35% and 11.21% were deletions or duplications, respectively. The carrier status of the mothers in the study was determined to be 50.75%, and it was established that the DMD mutation was inherited from the mother in 51.72% of the probands. Exons 45–54 and 3–22 were the most frequently deleted regions, and exons 3–11 and 21–37 were the most prevalently duplicated regions of the gene. Breakpoints mainly occurred in introns 43–55 for deletion mutations and in introns 2 and 7 for duplication mutations. No breakpoints were found at the 5′ or 3′ end of introns 31, 35, 36, 40, 65, 68, and 74–78 in any of the deletion or duplication mutations. The reading frame rule held true for 86.4% of the DMD patients and 74.55% of the BMD patients. Conclusion It is essential to increase physicians’ understanding of DMD/BMD, to promote scientific information, and to increase awareness in regards to genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in pedigrees with a family history of the disease, particularly in families with small DMD lesions in China. In addition, such a large-scale analysis will prove to be instructive for leading translational studies between basic science and clinical medicine. PMID:23453023

  11. Bone density and microarchitecture in hepatitis C and HIV-coinfected postmenopausal minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Yin, M; RoyChoudhury, A; Nishiyama, K; Lang, T; Shah, J; Olender, S; Ferris, D C; Zeana, C; Sharma, A; Zingman, B; Bucovsky, M; Colon, I; Shane, E

    2018-04-01

    We found that HIV+/HCV+ women had 7-8% lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the spine, hip, and radius (p < 0.01) and 5-7% lower volumetric BMD (vBMD) by central quantitative computed tomography (cQCT) at the spine and hip (p < 0.05). These data suggest that true deficits in vBMD may contribute to bone fragility and excess fractures reported in HIV+/HCV+ women. aBMD by DXA is lower in persons coinfected with HIV and HCV (HIV+/HCV+) than with HIV monoinfection (HIV+). However, weight is often also lower with HCV infection, and measurement of aBMD by DXA can be confounded by adiposity; we aimed to determine whether true vBMD is also lower in HIV+/HCV+ coinfection. We measured aBMD of the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN), and ultradistal radius (UDR) by DXA and vBMD of the spine and hip by cQCT and of the distal radius and tibia by high-resolution peripheral QCT (HRpQCT) in 37 HIV+/HCV+ and 119 HIV+ postmenopausal women. Groups were compared using Student's t tests with covariate adjustment by multiple regression analysis. HIV+/HCV+ and HIV+ women were of similar age and race/ethnicity. HIV+/HCV+ women had lower body mass index (BMI) and trunk fat and were more likely to smoke and less likely to have a history of AIDS. In HIV+/HCV+ women, aBMD by DXA was 7-8% lower at the LS, TH, and UDR (p < 0.01). Similarly, vBMD by cQCT was 5-7% lower at the LS and TH (p < 0.05). Between-group differences in LS aBMD and vBMD remained significant after adjustment for BMI, smoking, and AIDS history. Tibial total vBMD by HRpQCT was 10% lower in HIV+/HCV+ women. HIV+/HCV+ postmenopausal women had significantly lower spine aBMD and vBMD. These deficits in vBMD may contribute to bone fragility and excess fractures reported in HIV+/HCV+ women.

  12. Improved real-life adherence of 6-monthly denosumab injections due to positive feedback based on rapid 6-month BMD increase and good safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, J D; Farahmand, P

    2014-05-01

    Almost 50 % of osteoporosis (OP) patients discontinue bisphosphonate (BP) therapy within 1-2 years after the start of their treatment. Denosumab's longer dosing interval with its administration every 6 months (Q6M) as a subcutaneous (sc) injection might result in a better real-life treatment adherence and persistence than weekly or monthly oral BP treatment regimen. The objectives of this open, investigator-initiated, prospective, observational, single-center study were to evaluate adherence with denosumab 60 mg sc every 6 months (Q6M) (Prolia(®)) injections in osteoporotic patients in a routine clinical care setting and to describe whether positive feedback to OP patients based on measured bone mineral density (BMD) increases and good safety profile have an impact on patients' real-life adherence. Results indicate that the rarity of adverse events and reduced dosage frequency together with the consistency of rapid and highly significant increases in BMD already after 6 months of denosumab therapy used as a positive reinforcement during doctor-patient interactions had a significant, positive impact on osteoporotic patient's adherence to continue with the 6-monthly sc denosumab injections.

  13. Low bone density in systemic sclerosis. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omair, Mohammed A; Pagnoux, Christian; McDonald-Blumer, Heather; Johnson, Sindhu R

    2013-11-01

    The effect of systemic sclerosis (SSc) on bone density is not well understood. Through systematic review of the literature, the objectives of this study were to synthesize data about the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD), risk factors for low BMD, and occurrence of fracture and fracture-related mortality in SSc. A search was conducted of MEDLINE (1948-2012), Evidence Based Medicine Reviews (1991-2012), EMBASE (1980-2012), and CINAHL (1981-2012). Abstracts were screened to identify studies that evaluated low BMD in patients with SSc. Two investigators independently used a standardized form to abstract prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis (OP); risk factors for low BMD, BMD measurements, frequency of fracture, and fracture-related mortality. Screening of 1032 citations identified 19 articles. Fifteen studies compared patients with SSc to controls. Most patients were white, female (prevalence 74%-100%), and postmenopausal (prevalence 45.9%-100%). The prevalence of low BMD and OP was 27%-53.3% and 3%-51.1%, respectively. Ten studies reported a lower BMD in patients with SSc compared to matched controls, whereas 2 studies reported no difference. Candidate risk factors for low BMD in SSc include family history of OP, age, menopause, diffuse subtype, presence of internal organ involvement, low vitamin D levels, and calcinosis. However, the studies supporting these factors were conflicting. Fracture rate ranged between 0% and 38%. No study reported OP-related fracture mortality. The data suggest that patients with SSc are at risk of low BMD and fracture, especially when other risk factors for OP are present. The interaction of SSc manifestations, traditional OP risk factors, and clinically relevant outcomes is complex and warrants further research.

  14. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Impact of long-term cinacalcet, ibandronate or teriparatide therapy on bone mineral density of hemodialysis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Efstathios; Ginikopoulou, Eudoxia; Economidou, Dominiki; Zanos, Stavros; Pateinakis, Panagiotis; Minasidis, Elias; Memmos, Dimitrios; Thodis, Elias; Vargemezis, Vassilis; Tsakiris, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient evidenced-based information is available for the treatment of osteoporosis in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In 102 HD patients, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured twice 16 ± 3 months apart. In the second BMD measurement 66 of them had a femoral neck (FN) T-score 300 pg/ml received cinacalcet, 11 with osteitis fibrosa and iPTH <300 pg/ml received ibandronate, 9 with adynamic bone disease received teriparatide, and 7 with mild abnormalities received no treatment. A third BMD measurement was done after an average treatment period of 13-16 months. We compared the annual percent change of FN and lumbar spine (LS) BMD before and during treatment. FN and LS BMD decreased significantly in the cinacalcet group, with an annual change of 3.6 and 3.4% before treatment to -4.2% (p = 0.04) and -7.7% (p = 0.02) during treatment, respectively. In the teriparatide group, FN and LS BMD increased, although not significantly, with an annual change of -5.4 and -2.6% before treatment to 2.7 and 4.9% during treatment, respectively. In both the ibandronate and the no treatment groups, BMD change rate remained negative during the whole study. Teriparatide administration improved BMD in HD patients with adynamic bone disease, although these results did not reach statistical significance. In HD patients with osteitis fibrosa, ibandronate did not improve BMD while cinacalcet reduced BMD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P children with rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  17. Lack of Association between Pulse Steroid Therapy and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Serap Zengin Karahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible factors affecting BMD in patients with MS. We included consecutive 155 patients with MS and 90 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Patients with MS exhibited significantly lower T-scores and Z-scores in the femoral neck and trochanter compared to the controls. Ninety-four (61% patients had reduced bone mass in either the lumbar spine or the femoral neck; of these, 64 (41.3% had osteopenia and 30 (19.4% had osteoporosis. The main factors affecting BMD were disability, duration of MS, and smoking. There was a negative relationship between femoral BMD and EDSS and disease duration. No association with lumbar BMD was determined. There were no correlations between BMD at any anatomic region and cumulative corticosteroid dose. BMD is significantly lower in patients with MS than in healthy controls. Reduced BMD in MS is mainly associated with disability and duration of the disease. Short courses of high dose steroid therapy did not result in an obvious negative impact on BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck in patients with MS.

  18. Lack of Association between Pulse Steroid Therapy and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin Karahan, Serap; Boz, Cavit; Kilic, Sevgi; Can Usta, Nuray; Ozmenoglu, Mehmet; Altunayoglu Cakmak, Vildan; Gazioglu, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of this study was to determine the possible factors affecting BMD in patients with MS. We included consecutive 155 patients with MS and 90 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Patients with MS exhibited significantly lower T-scores and Z-scores in the femoral neck and trochanter compared to the controls. Ninety-four (61%) patients had reduced bone mass in either the lumbar spine or the femoral neck; of these, 64 (41.3%) had osteopenia and 30 (19.4%) had osteoporosis. The main factors affecting BMD were disability, duration of MS, and smoking. There was a negative relationship between femoral BMD and EDSS and disease duration. No association with lumbar BMD was determined. There were no correlations between BMD at any anatomic region and cumulative corticosteroid dose. BMD is significantly lower in patients with MS than in healthy controls. Reduced BMD in MS is mainly associated with disability and duration of the disease. Short courses of high dose steroid therapy did not result in an obvious negative impact on BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck in patients with MS. PMID:26966578

  19. Parallel Assessment of Bone Mineral Density and RANKL/OPG Ratio in Saudi Females

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    AI Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a significant risk factor for morbidity, and its high prevalence among Saudi women should be considered to be a public health problem. Quantitative ultrasound was recommended for bone mineral density (BMD screening. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG and their ratio are critical for physiological bone remodelling, and related abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies. Methods: The BMD of 499 Saudi females aged 20 to 65 years was measured using quantitative ultrasound from the beginning of October 2013 to the end of March 2014 at the female medical unit of Taibah University, Madinah, KSA. Possible associated risk factors for low BMD were studied. Blood RANKL and OPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: No significant differences were found between participants with normal and low BMD regarding the studied risk factors. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.05 between BMD and regular physical activity among participants aged 20 years to less than 35 years, and women aged 35–50 years with higher body mass index (BMI had higher BMD. The RANKL/OPG ratio was inversely associated (p = 0.04 with BMD. Conclusions: Regular physical activity is crucial for maximizing BMD in young females and decreasing the possibility of developing osteoporosis with ageing. The RANKL/OPG ratio might be considered a useful and easy-to-use tool for the prediction of low BMD.

  20. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured by DXA and RBAE. There was a strong correlation between BMD values measured by QCT and those measured by DXA (R2=0.85); correlation was also observed between values obtained by QCT and those obtained by RBAE (R2=0.61). To investigate changes in BMD with age, 37 right metacarpal bones, including 7 from horses euthanized because of fracture were examined by QCT. The BMD value of samples from horses dramatically increased until 2 years of age and then plateaued, a pattern similar to the growth curve. The BMD values of bone samples from horses euthanized because of fracture were within the population range, and samples of morbid fracture were not included. The relationship between BMD and age provides a reference for further quantitative studies of bone development and remodeling. Quantitative measurement of BMD using QCT may have great potential for the evaluation of bone biology for breeding and rearing management. PMID:26435681

  1. Long-term hormone replacement therapy preserves bone mineral density in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Hjerrild, Britta E; Lauridsen, Anna L

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures are present in many women with Turner syndrome (TS). OBJECTIVE: Examine longitudinal changes in BMD in TS and relate changes to biochemical parameters. DESIGN: Prospective, pragmatic, and observational study. Examinations......-informed women with TS, being encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including HRT and intake of calcium and vitamin D.......-dominant forearm. Bone formation and resorption markers, sex hormones, IGF1, and maximal oxygen uptake. RESULTS: At follow-up, forearm BMD, radius ultradistal BMD, and hip BMD remained unchanged, radius 1/3 BMD declined (0.601+/-0.059 vs 0.592+/-0.059, P=0.03), while spine BMD increased (0.972+/-0.139 vs 1.......010+/-0.144, Pformation markers did not change over time in TS. Bone resorption markers decreased over time in TS. Testosterone, IGF1, and maximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced in TS. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal changes in BMD in TS were slight. BMD can be maintained at most sites in well...

  2. A candidate gene association study of bone mineral density in an Iranian population.

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    Seyed Alireza Dastgheib

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genetic epidemiology of variation in bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis is not well studied in Iranian populations and needs more research. We report a candidate gene association study of BMD variation in a healthy cross sectional study of 501 males and females sampled from the IMOS study Shiraz, Iran. We selected to study the association with 21 SNPs located in the 7 candidate genes LRP5, RANK, RANKL, OPG, P2RX7, VDR and ESR1. BMD was measured at the three sites L2-L4, neck of femur and total hip. Association between BMD and each SNP was assessed using multiple linear regression assuming an allele dose (additive effect on BMD (adjusted for age and sex. Statistically significant (at the unadjusted 5% level associations were seen with 7 SNPs in 5 of the candidate genes. Two SNPs showed statistically significant association with more than one BMD site. Significant association was seen between BMD at all three sites with the VDR SNP rs731246 (L2-L4 p=0.038; neck of femur p=0.001 and total hip p<0.001. The T allele was consistently associated with lower BMD than the C allele. Significant association was also seen for the P2RX7 SNP rs3751143 where the G allele was consistently associated with lower BMD than the T allele, (L2-L4 p=0.069; neck of femur p=0.024, total hip p=0.045.

  3. Relationship between bone mineral density and alcohol intake: A nationwide health survey analysis of postmenopausal women.

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    Hae-Dong Jang

    Full Text Available Among a variety of relevant factors of osteoporosis, the association between alcohol intake and postmenopausal women's bone mineral density (BMD by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was evaluated in this study.Among a total of 31,596 subjects, males, premenopausal women, participants without BMD data were excluded. Finally, a total number of subjects in the study was 3,312. The frequency and amount of alcohol intake were determined by self-reported questionnaires, and BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.Mean femoral BMD for light drinkers was statistically significantly greater than that for heavy drinkers and non-drinkers. We observed the characteristic trends for BMD by drinking frequency; the mean BMD gradually increased from non-drinkers to the participants who drank 2-3 times per week; these participants exhibited the highest BMD. Participants who drank alcohol greater than 4 times per week showed a lower BMD. In the risk factor analysis, the adjusted odds ratio for osteoporosis (at femoral neck was 1.68 in non-drinkers and 1.70 in heavy drinkers compared with light drinkers.Light alcohol intake (2-3 times per week and 1-2 or 5-6 glasses per occasion in South Korean postmenopausal women was related to high femoral BMD. Non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had approximately a 1.7-times greater risk for osteoporosis than light drinkers.

  4. Bone mineral density of girls with idiopathic scoliosis: a comparative study

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    Ameri E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have suggested higher incidence of osteoporosis in patients with idiopathic scoliosis in comparison with the normal population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low bone mass among adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study performed in shafa Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2011-2012, we recruited fifty-seven 12- to-20-year old girls with idiopathic scoliosis and compared them with 100 age-matched healthy girls. The patients had no other diseases including neuromuscular disorders, congenital vertebral anomalies or a history of spinal surgery. Bone mineral densities (BMD of the hip and spine were evaluated and compared in all 157 participants using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Standard BMD (sBMD was also calculated at the lumbar spine. Results: Analysis of the data revealed that hip BMD was significantly (P=0.004 lower in patients with idiopathic scoliosis versus the controls. Moreover, BMD and sBMD of the Spine were also significantly lower in the patients (respectively, P=0.030 and P=0.030. Curve location had no effect on the values of hip BMD, spine BMD or spine sBMD (respectively, P=0.061 and P=0.274 and P=0.208.Finally, with more severe curves a lower bone mass was detected for sBMD and spine BMD (respectively, P=0.017 and P=0.016, but it was not significant for hip BMD (P=0.069.Conclusion: Adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis had lower bone mass compared with their healthy peers. The lower bone mass was correlated with the severity of the curve but not its location.

  5. Correlation trends for bone mineral density in Mexican women: evidence of familiar predisposition Tendencias de correlación para la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres mexicanas: pruebas de predisposición familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce; Juan Tamayo; Rodrigo Díaz; Ana I. Burguete; Jorge Salmerón

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetic factors determine bone mineral density (BMD) and peak bone density between 20 and 30 years of age, as well as bone mineral loss after menopause. BMD is a predictor of fractures due to osteoporosis and the impact of genetic factors on osteoporosis. The variation in BMD for each individual is determined by an underlying genetic structure, common genetic effects, particularly with respect to compact bones as compared to those that are primarily trabecular. This article present...

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men

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    Ye Seul Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a medical condition of global concern, with increasing incidence in both sexes. Bone mineral density (BMD, a highly heritable trait, has been proven a useful diagnostic factor in predicting fracture. Because medical information is lacking about male osteoporotic genetics, we conducted a genome-wide association study of BMD in Korean men. With 1,176 participants, we analyzed 4,414,664 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs after genomic imputation, and identified five SNPs and three loci correlated with bone density and strength. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to adjust for age and body mass index interference. Rs17124500 (p = 6.42 × 10-7, rs34594869 (p = 6.53 × 10-7 and rs17124504 (p = 6.53 × 10-7 in 14q31.3 and rs140155614 (p = 8.64 × 10-7 in 15q25.1 were significantly associated with lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD, while rs111822233 (p = 6.35 × 10-7 was linked with the femur total BMD (FT-BMD. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between BMD and five genes previously identified in Korean men. Rs61382873 (p = 0.0009 in LRP5, rs9567003 (p = 0.0033 in TNFSF11 and rs9935828 (p = 0.0248 in FOXL1 were observed for LS-BMD. Furthermore, rs33997547 (p = 0.0057 in ZBTB and rs1664496 (p = 0.0012 in MEF2C were found to influence FT-BMD and rs61769193 (p = 0.0114 in ZBTB to influence femur neck BMD. We identified five SNPs and three genomic regions, associated with BMD. The significance of our results lies in the discovery of new loci, while also affirming a previously significant locus, as potential osteoporotic factors in the Korean male population.

  7. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  8. Bone mineral density in elite junior Olympic weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, B P; Kraemer, W J; Maresh, C M; Fleck, S J; Stone, M H; Fry, A C; Miller, P D; Dalsky, G P

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of bone mineral density (BMD) to muscular strength in highly trained young male athletes in order to gain insights concerning the influence of heavy resistance training on BMD. Twenty-five elite junior weightlifters (age, 17.4 +/- 1.4 yr) and 11 age-matched controls (16.9 +/- 1.1 yr) volunteered for this investigation. Measurements of BMD (g.cm-2) utilizing dual energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained for the lumbar spine (L2-4) and the proximal femur (neck; trochanter, Ward's triangle). The BMD values for the junior lifters were found to be significantly greater at all sites for the junior weightlifters compared with their age-matched control group. The BMD values of the spine and femoral neck of the junior weightlifters when compared with adult reference data (i.e., 20-39 yr old men) were found to be significantly greater. Both simple and multiple regression analyses demonstrated significant relationships of BMD with strength accounting for 30-65% of the variance. These data suggest that in elite junior weightlifters, muscle strength, highly specific to the sport of weightlifting, has a major influence on BMD due to the influence of the chronic overloads experienced in training.

  9. Determinants of low bone mineral density in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Choong Yi; Kong, Ann Nie; Noordin, Mazidah; Poh, Bee Koon; Ong, Lai Choo; Ng, Ching Ching

    2018-01-01

    Children with epilepsy on long-term antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at risk of low bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of low BMD among Malaysian children with epilepsy. Cross-sectional study of ambulant children with epilepsy on long-term AEDs for >1 year seen in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from 2014 to 2015. Detailed assessment of anthropometric measurements; environmental lifestyle risk factors; serum vitamin D, calcium and parathyroid hormone levels; genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes in vitamin D and calcium metabolism; and lumbar spine BMD were obtained. Low BMD was defined as BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0 SD. Eighty-seven children with mean age of 11.9 years (56 males) participated in the study. The prevalence of low lumbar BMD was 21.8% (19 patients). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified polytherapy >2 AEDs (OR: 7.86; 95% CI 1.03-59.96), small frame size with wrist breadth of 2 AEDs, underweight or with small frame size as they are at higher risk of having low BMD. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

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    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Low bone mineral density in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study from Western Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Mellström, Dan; Norjavaara, Ensio; Sundh, S Valter; Saalman, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been recognized as a potential problem in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study was to investigate BMD in Swedish children and adolescents with IBD and to evaluate possible factors affecting BMD. To evaluate BMD, all patients (n = 144) underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the whole body and the spine. BMD values were expressed as Z-scores using normative pediatric data from Lunar (GE Medical Systems). In this population-based study, the lowest BMD values were found in the lumbar spine. The entire IBD group showed significantly lower BMD Z-scores of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) in comparison to healthy references (-0.8 standard deviation [SD], range -5.9 to 3.7 SD, P < 0.001). Decreased BMD with a Z-score < -1 SD occurred in 46.7% of the individuals with Crohn's disease (CD) and in 47.0% of those with ulcerative colitis (UC). Low BMD with a Z-score ≤ -2 SD was present in 26.7% of the patients with CD and in 24.1% of the UC patients. In a multiple regression model with BMD lumbar spine as the depending variable, possible factors associated with lower BMD were male gender, low body mass index (BMI), and treatment with azathioprine. Low BMD is prevalent in Swedish pediatric patients with IBD. Possible risk factors for lower BMD are male gender, low BMI, and treatment with azathioprine, as a probable marker of disease course severity. Copyright © 2009 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  12. Bone mineral density and the subsequent risk of cancer in the NHANES I follow-up cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Richard L; Turyk, Mary; Kim, Jane; Persky, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is a marker of long-term estrogen exposure. BMD measurement has been used in this context to investigate the association of estrogen with breast cancer risk in three cohorts. In order to assess further BMD as a predictor of estrogen related cancer risk, the association of BMD with colorectal and corpus uteri cancer was investigated in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS) cohort along with breast cancer and prostate cancer. Participants were members of the NHEFS cohort who had BMD measurement in 1974–1975. Age, race, and BMI adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for incidence of cancers of the corpus uterus, breast, colorectum, prostate, and of osteoporosis and hip fracture related to baseline BMD. Data were available for 6046 individuals. One hundred cases of breast cancer, 94 prostate cancers, 115 colorectal cancers, 29 uterine cancers, 110 cases of hip fracture and 103 cases of osteoporosis were reported between 1974 and 1993. Hip fracture and osteoporosis were both significantly inversely associated with BMD. Uterine cancer was positively associated (p = 0.005, test for linear trend) and colorectal cancer negatively associated (p = 0.03) with BMD. No association was found between elevated BMD and incidence of breast cancer (p = 0.74) or prostate cancer (p = 0.37) in the overall cohort, although a weak association was seen between BMD and subsequent breast cancer incidence when BMD was measured in post-menopausal women (p = 0.04). The findings related to cancers of the uterus and colorectum as well as the weak association of BMD with breast cancer strengthen the use of BMD as a marker of estrogen exposure and cancer risk

  13. Bone mineral density and the subsequent risk of cancer in the NHANES I follow-up cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jane

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Bone mineral density (BMD is a marker of long-term estrogen exposure. BMD measurement has been used in this context to investigate the association of estrogen with breast cancer risk in three cohorts. In order to assess further BMD as a predictor of estrogen related cancer risk, the association of BMD with colorectal and corpus uteri cancer was investigated in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS cohort along with breast cancer and prostate cancer. Methods Participants were members of the NHEFS cohort who had BMD measurement in 1974–1975. Age, race, and BMI adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for incidence of cancers of the corpus uterus, breast, colorectum, prostate, and of osteoporosis and hip fracture related to baseline BMD. Results Data were available for 6046 individuals. One hundred cases of breast cancer, 94 prostate cancers, 115 colorectal cancers, 29 uterine cancers, 110 cases of hip fracture and 103 cases of osteoporosis were reported between 1974 and 1993. Hip fracture and osteoporosis were both significantly inversely associated with BMD. Uterine cancer was positively associated (p = 0.005, test for linear trend and colorectal cancer negatively associated (p = 0.03 with BMD. No association was found between elevated BMD and incidence of breast cancer (p = 0.74 or prostate cancer (p = 0.37 in the overall cohort, although a weak association was seen between BMD and subsequent breast cancer incidence when BMD was measured in post-menopausal women (p = 0.04. Conclusion The findings related to cancers of the uterus and colorectum as well as the weak association of BMD with breast cancer strengthen the use of BMD as a marker of estrogen exposure and cancer risk.

  14. Bone mineral density in young adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over GH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donze, Stephany H; Kuppens, Renske J; Bakker, Nienke E; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janiëlle A E M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2018-02-08

    The prevalence of osteoporosis is increased in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In children with PWS, growth hormone (GH) treatment has beneficial effects on bone mineral density (BMD). BMD might deteriorate after cessation of GH at adult height (AH), while continuing GH might maintain BMD. To investigate the effects of GH versus placebo, and furthermore the effects of sex steroid replacement therapy (SSRT), on BMD in GH-treated young adults with PWS who had attained AH. two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over GH study. 27 young adults with PWS, stratified for gender and BMI. All patients were randomly and blindly assigned to receive GH (0.67 mg/m 2 /day) and placebo, both during one year. Bone mineral density of the total body (BMD TB ) and lumbar spine (BMD LS ) SDS, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. At AH, BMD TB SDS was significantly lower compared to healthy peers (pyoung adults without SSRT, BMD TB SDS and BMAD LS SDS decreased during the two-year study (p=0.11 and p=0.01), regardless of GH or placebo, while BMD TB SDS increased in those with SSRT (pyoung adults with PWS. In addition, our data suggest that GH is not able to prevent the decline in BMD SDS in hypogonadal young adults with PWS, unless it is combined with SSRT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  16. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  17. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the

  18. The association between vitamin D status and parameters for bone density and quality is modified by Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohl, E.; Jongh, de R.T.; Swart, K.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Velde, van der N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Velde, te S.J.; Lips, P.; Schoor, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) and Quantitative Ultrasound measurements (QUS) has been inconsistent in previous studies, probably caused by moderating effects. This study explored (1) the association of vitamin D status with QUS and BMD, and (2) whether these

  19. The Association Between Vitamin D Status and Parameters for Bone Density and Quality is Modified by Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohl, E.; de Jongh, R.T.; Swart, C.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; van Wijngaarden, J.P.; van Dijk, S.C.; van der Ham, A.C.; van der Zwaluw, N.L.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; van der Velde, N.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Lips, P.; van Schoor, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) and Quantitative Ultrasound measurements (QUS) has been inconsistent in previous studies, probably caused by moderating effects. This study explored (1) the association of vitamin D status with QUS and BMD, and (2) whether these

  20. The effect of bisphosphonates on bone mineral density in patients with ankylosing spondylitis in daily clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, S.; Veneberg, J.G.; Wink, F.R.; Bos, R.; Brouwer, E.; Van Der Veer, E.; Bootsma, H.; Van Roon, E.N.; Maas, F.; Spoorenberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not only characterized by excessive bone formation, but also by excessive bone loss which may lead to low bone mineral density (BMD). So far, little is known about the effect of treatment with bisphosphonates on BMD in patients with AS. Objectives: To

  1. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  2. Determinants of low bone mineral density in premenopausal polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Cihan; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Gogas Yavuz, Dilek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) values and to determine the associations between BMD and insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, body mass index (BMI), and sex hormones in premenopausal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. A hundred and three women with PCOS and sixty age- and BMI-matched healthy control women were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. Serum androgen and estradiol (E2) levels were measured. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and MATSUDA insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated. BMD was measured with a dual X-ray absorptiometer. Lumbar BMD (LBMD) and femoral neck BMD (FnBMD) values were significantly lower in PCOS group than controls [(p HOMA-IR (r = 0.617; p < 0.01), MATSUDA ISI (r = -0.665; p < 0.01), serum E2 (r = 0.488; p < 0.01), total testosterone (r = 0.436; p < 0.01), and androstenedione (r = 0.337; p < 0.01) levels. Similar correlations observed for FnBMD. Despite the positive effects of hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia, PCOS patients have lower bone mineral density due to hypoestrogenism. Insulin resistance, BMI, estrogen, and androgen levels are the determinants of BMD in PCOS.

  3. Bone mineral density in children with Down's syndrome detected by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Chen, C.C.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in ten children with Down's syndrome (seven boys, three girls; aged 10-16 years) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using an M and SE Osteo Tech 300 scanner. The BMD of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae was measured and the mean density presented as g cm -2 . The BMD of Down's syndrome was compared with the BMD of normal Chinese children of the same age group. The results showed that the BMD in Down's syndrome was significantly lower compared to that found in normal children. The percentage of decreased BMD is 8.47 ± 2.69% (mean ± 1 S.E.M.) in Down's syndrome compared to normal children of the same age group. The distribution curve of BMD against ages in Down's syndrome has a delay of 2.3 ± 0.5 (mean ± 1 S.E.M.) years compared to normal children. In our conclusion, the children with Down's syndrome have lower BMD than the normal children of the same age group. (Author)

  4. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon [Dept. of Radiologic Techology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8{+-}6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8{+-}7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1{+-}6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0{+-}9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1{+-}2.7 kg/m{sup 2}. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged {>=}50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged {>=}40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  5. Quantum dynamics modeled by interacting trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rodríguez, L.; Uranga-Piña, L.; Martínez-Mesa, A.; Meier, C.

    2018-03-01

    We present quantum dynamical simulations based on the propagation of interacting trajectories where the effect of the quantum potential is mimicked by effective pseudo-particle interactions. The method is applied to several quantum systems, both for bound and scattering problems. For the bound systems, the quantum ground state density and zero point energy are shown to be perfectly obtained by the interacting trajectories. In the case of time-dependent quantum scattering, the Eckart barrier and uphill ramp are considered, with transmission coefficients in very good agreement with standard quantum calculations. Finally, we show that via wave function synthesis along the trajectories, correlation functions and energy spectra can be obtained based on the dynamics of interacting trajectories.

  6. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I. E.; Teixeira, N.; Abma, E. M.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Mourits, M. J. E.; de Bock, G. H.

    Background Oophorectomy is recommended for women at increased risk for ovarian cancer. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. Objective To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  7. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grund, Birgit; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Isaksson, Rachel L.; Shlay, Judith C.; Martinez, Esteban; Reiss, Peter; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Carr, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of anti retroviral therapy (ART) on bone mineral density (BMD) Design: Randomized comparison of continuous ART (viral suppression group; VS) with intermittent ART (drug conservation group; DC) Setting: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Australia, and Spain.

  8. Replication of associations between LRP5 and ESRRA variants and bone density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, S; Elfassihi, L; Cole, D E C; Rousseau, F

    2008-12-01

    Replication is a critical step to validate positive genetic associations. In this study, we tested two previously reported positive associations. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) Val667Met and lumbar spine bone density are replicated. This result is in line with results from large consortiums such as Genomos. However, the estrogen-related receptor alpha (ESRRA) repeat in the promoter is not replicated although the polymorphism studied was functional and could have been a causative variant. We sought to validate associations previously reported between LRP5 V667M polymorphism and lumbar spine (LS, p = 0.013) and femoral neck (FN, p = 0.0002) bone mineral density (BMD), and between ESRRA 23 base pair repeat polymorphism and LS BMD (p = 0.0036) in a sample of premenopausal Caucasian women using an independent sample. For the replication sample, we recruited 673 premenopausal women from the Toronto metropolitan area. All women were Caucasian and had BMD measured. LRP5 V667M was genotyped by allele-specific PCR and ESRRA repeats by sizing of PCR products on agarose gels. We reproduced the same association as we reported previously between LRP5 V667M and LS BMD (p = 0.015) but not with FN BMD (p = 0.254). The combined data from the two populations indicate an effect size of 0.28SD for LS BMD (p = 0.00048) and an effect size of 0.26 SD for FN BMD (p = 0.00037). In contrast, the association we reported earlier between ESRRA repeats and LS BMD was not replicated in the sample from Toronto (p = 0.645). The association between LRP5 V667M and LS BMD is confirmed but not that between ESRRA repeats and LS BMD. This result indicates that it is imperative to validate any positive association in an independent sample.

  9. Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Debra H.; Erickson, Darin J.; Widome, Rachel; Perry, Cheryl L.; Forster, Jean L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify distinct smoking trajectories during adolescence and assess how smoking-related factors relate to trajectory membership. Methods The sample includes 3637 youth from across the state of Minnesota. Measures include tobacco use, smoking behaviors of parents and friends, youth smoking-related attitudes and beliefs, and home smoking policies. A cohort-sequential design was used to identify smoking trajectories, including five cohorts of youth (ages 12–16) followed for 3 years. Results Six distinct trajectories of tobacco use were found: nonsmokers (54%), triers (17%), occasional users (10%), early established (7%), late established (8%), and decliners (4%). Several factors were associated with increased likelihood of being in a smoking trajectory group (vs. the nonsmoking group): parental smoking, friend smoking, greater perceptions of the number of adults and teenagers who smoke, and higher functional meaning of tobacco use. In contrast, higher perceived difficulty smoking in public places, negative perceptions of the tobacco industry, and home smoking policies were associated with less likelihood of being in one of the smoking trajectories (vs. the nonsmoking trajectory). Conclusions Adolescents exhibit diverse patterns of smoking during adolescence and tobacco-related influences were strong predictors of trajectory membership. PMID:18809130

  10. PANTHER. Trajectory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valicka, Christopher G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kegelmeyer, W. Philip [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shead, Timothy M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Benjamin D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Czuchlewski, Kristina Rodriguez [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We want to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for, classify and predict behavior among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing compari- son functions such as the Fr'echet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as total distance traveled and distance be- tween start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans that are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. We demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to iden- tify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories, predict destination and apply unsupervised machine learning algorithms.

  11. Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI. We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP. Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r=0.33. HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r=-0.31 which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation.

  12. Living near a freeway is associated with lower bone mineral density among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Salam, M T; Karim, R; Toledo-Corral, C M; Watanabe, R M; Xiang, A H; Buchanan, T A; Habre, R; Bastain, T M; Lurmann, F; Taher, M; Wilson, J P; Trigo, E; Gilliland, F D

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that chronic exposures to traffic combustion products may lower bone mineral density (BMD). We found that proximity to freeways was associated with reduced BMD. Our findings suggest that traffic-related pollution may contribute to the occurrence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Adults residing in rural areas have been linked with higher BMD. We aimed to determine if this difference is due in part to air pollution by examining the relationships between traffic metrics and ambient air pollution with total body and pelvic BMD. Mexican American adults (n = 1,175; mean 34 years; 72 % female) who had participated in the BetaGene study of air pollution, obesity, and insulin resistance were included in this analysis. Total body and pelvic BMD were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Traffic and ambient air pollutant exposures were estimated at residences using location and ambient monitoring data. Variance component models were used to analyze the associations between residential distance to the nearest freeway and ambient air pollutants with BMD. Residential proximity to a freeway was associated with lower total body BMD (p-trend = 0.01) and pelvic BMD (p-trend = 0.03) after adjustment for age, sex, weight, and height. The adjusted mean total body and pelvic BMD in participants living within 500 m of a freeway were 0.02 and 0.03 g/cm(2) lower than participants living greater than 1,500 m from a freeway. These associations did not differ significantly by age, sex, or obesity status. Results were similar after further adjustment for body fat and weekly physical activity minutes. Ambient air pollutants (NO2, O3, and PM2.5) were not significantly associated with BMD. Traffic-related exposures in overweight and obese Mexican Americans may adversely affect BMD. Our findings indicate that long-term exposures to traffic may contribute to the occurrence of osteoporosis and its consequences.

  13. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  14. Association between nutrient patterns and bone mineral density among ageing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert; Shi, Zumin

    2017-12-01

    There is limited evidence on the link between the overall nutrients intake from diet and bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed the association between nutrient patterns and BMD among an ageing Australian population. Participants (n = 1135; males, 45.8%; median age, 62.0 years) with dietary and BMD data in the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS) were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutrient patterns were identified by factor analysis. Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between nutrient patterns and BMD (mg/cm 2 ). Multiple imputation and sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of missing data on the estimates. Three nutrient patterns (mixed-source [potassium, calcium, fibre, retinol and Vitamin B 12 ], animal-sourced [cholesterol, protein, Vitamin B 12 and fat] and plant-sourced [fibre, carotene, vitamin C and Lutein]) were identified. After adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and behavioural characteristics, chronic conditions and energy intake, animal (β = -4.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): -11.89, 3.76) and plant-sourced (β = -0.99; 95% CI: -7.43, 5.45) patterns were not associated with BMD. However, we found that the mixed-source pattern was positively associated with BMD (β = 10.86; 95% CI: 1.91, 19.80). We did not find interactions between the pattern, other covariates and BMD. The multiple imputation and sensitivity analyses including missing data identified similar patterns of association between nutrient patterns and BMD. Whereas animal- and plant-sourced nutrient patterns are not associated with BMD, mixed-source pattern may have benefit in prevention of reduced BMD. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...... to healthy control subjects GH-deficient males had, in contrast to GH-deficient females, significantly reduced BMD and BMC. This obvious gender difference seems to be caused by the oestrogen substitution given to the females, compensating for the lack of GH, an effect testosterone does not seem to possess...

  16. Bone mineral density in patients with destructive arthrosis of the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Ko; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the existence of subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint (RDA), and the findings suggest that osteopenia is related to the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of this disease. Therefore, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in RDA patients. We measured BMD of the lumbar spine, radius, and calcaneus using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 19 patients with RDA and 75 with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA) and compared BMD at different skeletal sites between RDA and OA patients. No significant differences were observed in BMD of the lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, mid-radius, and calcaneous between the RDA and OA groups. Our data suggest that RDA is not accompanied by generalized osteoporosis. Factors other than generalized bone status, for example, BMD around the affected hip joint before destruction, need to be analyzed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of RDA.

  17. Bone mineral density in immigrants from southern China to Denmark. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Wang, S; Overgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-2000) in 73 healthy premenopausal women (age 35 +/- 8 years) and 69 men (age 40 +/- 12 years) who had immigrated from southern China to Denmark 2 months to 36 years ago. The BMD measurements (Total BMD, trunk BMD and leg BMD) were related positively......Immigration from Japan to USA has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat in women. The effects of immigration between other geographical areas on bone mass and body composition are largely unknown, especially in men. In the present study, we measured bone mass and body...... to years since immigration (YSI) (R2 = 0.10-0.16, p

  18. Jogging and bone mineral density in men: results from NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussolino, M E; Looker, A C; Orwoll, E S

    2001-07-01

    This cross-sectional population-based study assessed the association of jogging with femoral bone mineral density (BMD) in men. Data are from a nationally representative sample of 4254 men aged 20 to 59 years from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Total femoral BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Jogging was self-reported. Jogging (any vs none) was strongly associated with higher BMD in multivariate models (P jogged 9 or more times per month had higher BMD levels than those who jogged only 1 to 8 times per month (P = .01). Jogging is associated with higher femoral neck BMD in men. Additional large-scale studies that measure all aspects of jogging are warranted.

  19. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients with Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia are associated with many osteopathies like osteoporosis. Methods. This observational study was carried out to compare the bone mineral density (BMD in transfusion dependent thalassemics with that of healthy controls. Thirty-two thalassemia patients, aged 2–18 years, and 32 age and sex matched controls were studied. The bone mineral concentration (BMC and BMD were assessed at lumbar spine, distal radius, and neck of femur. Biochemical parameters like serum calcium and vitamin D levels were also assessed. Results. The BMC of neck of femur was significantly low in cases in comparison to controls. We also observed significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine in cases in comparison to controls. A significantly positive correlation was observed between serum calcium levels and BMD at neck of femur. Conclusion. Hence, low serum calcium may be used as a predictor of low BMD especially in populations where incidence of hypovitaminosis D is very high.

  20. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  1. Analysis of Bone Mineral Density According to the Biochemical Variable Markers in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Geun [Dept. of Radiology, Woosuk University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae Cheol; Song, Woon Heung [Shinheung College University, Uijungbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers. We evaluated the BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spines of 998(male 568, female 430) persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk University Hospital from September 2007 to March 2008 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. Results of BMD are different in terms of biochemical markers. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. Degree of osteoporosis increases with age. A steep decrease of BMD can be found in postmenopausal women who have low level of female hormone. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors that can reduce BMD values for prevention of problems by osteoporosis. In essence, research on factors related to other biochemical markers must be studied continuously.

  2. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  3. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  4. Association of Sp1 Collagen Type Iα1 Gene Polymorphisms with Bone Mineral Density in Bulgarian Women Referred for Bone Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon K. Toshev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between bone mineral density (BMD and collagen type Iα1 (COLIA1 gene polymorphisms in a case-control study.Materials and Methods: 400 unrelated postmenopausal Bulgarian women participated - 180 with normal BMD and 220 with low BMD. BMD was measured at the forearm, lumbar spine and femoral neck by X-ray absorptiometry. A PCR product of 261 bp was digested and electrophoresed. The prevalence of S and s alleles as well as the different genotypes was determined. All analyses were tested for statistical significance (c2-test.Results: 408 s and 392 S alleles were found. Of the 220 women with low BMD, 20 had the SS genotype, 94 – the Ss genotype, and 106 – the ss genotype. Among the 180 controls with normal BMD, 93 had the SS genotype, 76 - the Ss, and 11 – the ss genotype. The SS genotype was associated with higher BMD and the ss – with lower BMD at all sites. The odds ratio for low BMD in the presence of the ss genotype was 10.69.Conclusion: In our study sample, the COLIA1 polymorphism was associated with low BMD. This particular genetic polymorphism may become a useful genetic screening tool for osteoporosis. Türk Jem 2011; 15: 66-70

  5. Total body bone mineral density changes in healthy Japanese children as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osamura, Toshio; Ono, Kunihiko; Funaki, Hidenori; Fujita, Hiromi; Kidowaki, Takuro; Kiyosawa, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Ryuzo (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Hanayasu, Hajime; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    1993-10-01

    For 68 healthy children (38 male and 30 female) ranging in age from 1 to 16 years, we measured the bone mineral density (BMD) of different regions (skull, upper extremities, ribs, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lower extremities) and the total body BMD using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; QDR-1000/W, Hologic Co.). The total body BMD increased linearly with age for both sexes (male: r=0.9501, female: r=0.9715; p<0.0001). The increase was more prominent in boys compared to girls. There was also a positive correlation between the ratio of total body bone mineral content to lean body mass and age, although total body BMD showed a stronger correlation with age. Furthermore, the total body BMD correlated highly with body height and weight. There were positive correlations between the BMD of different regions and age. Specifically, the BMD of the lower extremities correlated strongly with age. In addition, the BMD of the skull increased at the highest rate. Considering convenience, accuracy and precision, measurement time, radiation exposure dose and the strong correlation with age, measurement of the total body BMD by DEXA is thought to be an effective method of quantifying bone mineral, useful in the evaluation of bone metabolism kinetics in children. (author).

  6. Loss of lean body mass affects low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid cachexia, the loss of lean body mass, is another. However, the relationship between decreased lean body mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA has not been well studied. This study included 413 participants, comprising 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical data, BMD, bone metabolic markers (BMM) and body composition, such as lean body mass and percent fat, were collected. Risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with RA including the relationship BMD and body composition were analyzed. Patients with RA showed low BMD and high BMM compared with controls. Moreover, lean body mass was lower and percent fat was higher in patients with RA. Lean body mass correlated positively and percent fat negatively with BMD. Lean body mass was a positive and disease duration was a negative independent factor for BMD in multivariate statistical analysis. BMD and lean body mass were significantly lower in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Lean body mass correlated positively with BMD and decreased lean body mass and disease duration affected low BMD in patients with RA. [UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , UMIN000003876].

  7. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry underestimates in vivo lumbar spine bone mineral density in overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Rim; Vico, Laurence; Laroche, Norbert; Sakly, Mohsen; Attia, Nebil; Lavet, Cedric

    2018-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely used technique for measuring areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, several studies have shown inaccuracy, with either overestimation or underestimation of DXA BMD measurements in the case of overweight or obese individuals. We have designed an overweight rat model based on junk food to compare the effect of obesity on in vivo and ex vivo BMD and bone mineral content measurements. Thirty-eight 6-month old male rats were given a chow diet (n = 13) or a high fat and sucrose diet (n = 25), with the calorie amount being kept the same in the two groups, for 19 weeks. L1 BMD, L1 bone mineral content, amount of abdominal fat, and amount of abdominal lean were obtained from in vivo DXA scan. Ex vivo L1 BMD was also measured. A difference between in vivo and ex vivo DXA BMD measurements (P body weight, perirenal fat, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that body weight, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean were independently related to ex vivo BMD. DXA underestimated lumbar in vivo BMD in overweight rats, and this measurement error is related to body weight and abdominal fat. Therefore, caution must be used when one is interpreting BMD among overweight and obese individuals.

  8. Risk factors for low bone mineral density in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: the positive role of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Stefano; Grand, Richard J; Pappa, Helen M

    2018-02-12

    In pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone fractures and the relationship between these are still debated. Our aim was to report data from a cohort of pediatric patients with IBD. Cross-sectional assessment of growth and BMD [(dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)] and retrospective chart review were performed to report the lifetime prevalence of bone fractures and clinical associations with patients' data. We examined 216 patients with IBD, 8-25 years old (median: 14 years). Low BMD was found in 12.5% (spine) and 27% (total body). Multiple regression analysis showed that BMD was predicted by Z-scores for height and weight at DXA. History of menstrual irregularities and nasogastric tube feedings was associated with lower BMD, whereas physical activity and higher Z-score for height at DXA were associated with higher BMD.The prevalence of lifetime fractures was 11.8%. Patients with a history of fractures had lower Z-scores for spine BMD (-1.20 vs. -0.69, P=0.020) and total-body BMD (-1.30 vs. -0.75, P=0.014) compared with those without a history of fractures. Patients with spine BMD Z-score of up to -2 SD score had significantly increased prevalence of fractures compared with those with Z-score more than -2 SD score (28 vs. 10%, P=0.015). This study provides further insight into risk factors for low BMD in pediatric IBD. Novel findings were the association between low BMD and fractures, and the positive relationship between BMD and physical activity.

  9. Trajectory Browser Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cyrus; Jaroux, Belgacem A.

    2012-01-01

    The Trajectory Browser is a web-based tool developed at the NASA Ames Research Center to be used for the preliminary assessment of trajectories to small-bodies and planets and for providing relevant launch date, time-of-flight and V requirements. The site hosts a database of transfer trajectories from Earth to asteroids and planets for various types of missions such as rendezvous, sample return or flybys. A search engine allows the user to find trajectories meeting desired constraints on the launch window, mission duration and delta V capability, while a trajectory viewer tool allows the visualization of the heliocentric trajectory and the detailed mission itinerary. The anticipated user base of this tool consists primarily of scientists and engineers designing interplanetary missions in the context of pre-phase A studies, particularly for performing accessibility surveys to large populations of small-bodies. The educational potential of the website is also recognized for academia and the public with regards to trajectory design, a field that has generally been poorly understood by the public. The website is currently hosted on NASA-internal URL http://trajbrowser.arc.nasa.gov/ with plans for a public release as soon as development is complete.

  10. Bone mineral density among female sports participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Elizabeth; Reilly, Thomas; Giacomoni, Magali; Redmond, Louise; Turner, Clare

    2006-02-01

    Training for and participation in impact-loading sports are associated with alterations in bone strength which are specific to anatomical site and type of strain. The effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) depends on the type of activity engaged in. Sports with high impact loading seem to have a positive effect in promoting bone mineralisation, whereas those with low impacts may have negative or no effects. The aims of the present study were to compare BMD and body composition measures among female participants in three distinctly different sports and investigate differences from sedentary control subjects. Participants were club and university level Rugby Union football players (n = 30, age: 21.4 +/- 1.9 years, height: 1.67 +/- 0.05 m, mass: 73.3 +/- 10.7 kg), netball players (n = 20, 20.7 +/- 1.3 years, 1.68 +/- 0.07 m, 64.3 +/- 7.2 kg), distance runners (n = 11, 21.5 +/- 2.6 years, 1.68 +/- 0.04 m, 57.1 +/- 6.1 kg), and sedentary controls (n = 25, 21.4 +/- 1.1 years; 1.64 +/- 0.07 m, 56.8 +/- 6.8 kg). With the exception of three distance runners, all participants were eumenorrhoeic. Bone mineral density scans were performed for whole-body, left proximal femur, and lumbar spine (L1-4) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat mass, percent body fat, and fat-free soft tissue mass were assessed from whole-body scans. Regional and segmental analysis was also carried out on whole-body BMD data using standard procedures. The runners had a lower fat mass and percent body fat compared to the other sports participants and the controls. All sports groups had higher BMD values than had the controls. Density of bone in the upper body was most pronounced in the rugby football players and least pronounced in the runners. Positive effects were evident at all sites for the rugby players. There were significant correlations between BMD and fat-free soft tissue mass, BMD and body mass, and BMD and training volume. It is concluded that sports participation has positive

  11. Association of Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) With Incident Clinical and Radiographic Vertebral Fractures Adjusted for Lumbar Spine BMD in Older Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, John T; Vo, Tien N; Langsetmo, Lisa; Taylor, Brent C; Cawthon, Peggy M; Schwartz, Ann V; Bauer, Douglas C; Orwoll, Eric S; Lane, Nancy E; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2017-07-01

    The association of trabecular bone score (TBS) with incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in older men is uncertain. TBS was estimated from baseline spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans for 5831 older men (mean age 73.7 years) enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the association of TBS (per 1 SD decrease) with incident clinical vertebral fractures. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between TBS (per 1 SD decrease) and incident radiographic vertebral fracture among the subset of 4309 men with baseline and follow-up lateral spine radiographs (mean 4.6 years later). We also examined whether any associations varied by body mass index (BMI) category. TBS was associated with a 1.41-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23 to 1.63) higher aged-adjusted odds of incident radiographic fracture, and this relationship did not vary by BMI (p value = 0.22 for interaction term). This association was no longer significant with further adjustment for lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD; odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.30). In contrast, the age-adjusted association of TBS with incident clinical vertebral fracture was stronger in men with lower BMI (≤ median value of 26.8 kg/m 2 ; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.28, 95% CI 1.82 to 2.87) than in men with higher BMI (> median; HR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p value = 0.0002 for interaction term). With further adjustment for lumbar spine BMD, the association of TBS with incident clinical vertebral fracture was substantially attenuated in both groups (HR = 1.30 [95% CI 0.99 to 1.72] among men with lower BMI and 1.11 [95% CI 0.87 to 1.41] among men with higher BMI). In conclusion, TBS is not associated with incident clinical or radiographic vertebral fracture after consideration of age and lumbar spine BMD, with the possible exception of incident clinical vertebral fracture among

  12. Bone turnover in elderly men: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Jacqueline R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether bone turnover markers can be used to make inference regarding changes in bone mineral density (BMD in untreated healthy elderly men. The present study was designed to address three specific questions: (i is there a relationship between bone turnover markers and femoral neck BMD within an individual; (ii is there a relationship between baseline measurements of bone turnover markers and subsequent change in BMD; and (iii is there a relationship between changes in bone turnover markers and changes in femoral neck BMD? Methods The present study was part of the on-going Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, which was designed as a prospective investigation. Men who had had at least 3 sequential visits with serum samples available during follow-up were selected from the study population. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sICTP, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (sPINP and femoral neck BMD were measured by competitive radioimmunoassays. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD was measured by a densitometer (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI. Various mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between the markers and changes in BMD. Results One hundred and one men aged 70 ± 4.1 years (mean ± SD met the criteria of selection for analysis. On average, sPINP decreased by 0.7% per year (p = 0.026, sICTP increased by 1.7% per year (p = 0.0002, and femoral neck BMD decreased by 0.4% per year (p Conclusion These results suggest that in elderly men of Caucasian background, changes in sPINP were inversely related to changes in BMD within an individual. However, neither sPINP nor sICTP was sufficiently sensitive to predict the rate of change in BMD for a group of individuals or for an individual.

  13. A case-control study assessing bone mineral density in severe haemophilia A in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A J; McLaughlin, P; Simmonds, J V; Prouse, P J; Prelevic, G; Gill, S; Chowdary, P

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that bone mineral density (BMD) may be lower in patients with haemophilia (PWH). A comparison to control subjects is required to thoroughly assess current BMD in PWH in the UK. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that BMD is lower in PWH than in controls, and in patients with more severely affected joints or lower activity levels. In this case-control study, 37 patients with severe haemophilia A were recruited from two haemophilia centres in the UK. A group of 37 age, gender and ethnicity-matched control participants were recruited. All participants had a bone density scan, a musculoskeletal assessment, a blood test for vitamin D and completed a functional activity questionnaire. Of the case group, 5% had osteoporosis and 24% had BMD lower than expected for age. No control participants had osteoporosis, 3% had osteopenia and 14% had BMD lower than expected for age. Ninety one per cent of case participants and 92% of control participants had reduced 25(OH)D levels. Case participants had significantly lower BMD than control participants, and case participants with more severely affected joints, lower activity levels, HIV, history of hepatitis C or lower BMI had significantly lower BMD. Patients with severe haemophilia have a higher risk of low BMD than men without haemophilia. Patients with more severely affected joints and lower activity levels have lower BMD. It remains unclear whether patients with low BMD reached adequate peak bone mass. Low vitamin D may be present in the majority of PWH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Trajectories and traversal times in quantum tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhi Hong.

    1989-01-01

    The classical concepts of trajectories and traversal times applied to quantum tunneling are discussed. By using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, it is found that in a forbidden region of a multidimensional space the wave function can be described by two sets of trajectories, or equivalently by two sets of wave fronts. The trajectories belonging to different sets are mutually orthogonal. An extended Huygens construction is proposed to determine these wave fronts and trajectories. In contrast to the classical results in the allowed region, these trajectories couple to each other. However, if the incident wave is normal to the turning surface, the trajectories are found to be independent and can be determined by Newton's equations of motion with inverted potential and energy. The multidimensional tunneling theory is then applied to the scanning tunneling microscope to calculate the current density distribution and to derive the expressions for the lateral resolution and the surface corrugation amplitude. The traversal time in quantum tunneling, i.e. tunneling time, is found to depend on model calculations and simulations. Computer simulation of a wave packet tunneling through a square barrier is performed. Several approaches, including the phase method, Larmor clock, and time-dependent barrier model, are investigated. For a square barrier, two characteristic times are found: One is equal to the barrier width divided by the magnitude of the imaginary velocity; the other is equal to the decay length divided by the incident velocity. It is believed that the tunneling time can only be defined operationally

  15. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: Pitfalls in measurement and interpretation of bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is common disorder of elderly population all over the world as well as in India. The presence of osteoporosis predicts fracture risk. Fragility fracture has marked morbidity as well as mortality. Thus, osteoporosis has marked therapeutic and economic implications. Osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density (BMD. The gold-standard method to assess BMD is dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In India, hologic and lunar machines are most commonly used to measure BMD; these machines have their own normative data from which patients BMD is compared and results are generated. As per recommendations, all postmenopausal women and men above 70 years need BMD estimation other than quite a few other specific indications as well. With increasing life expectancy, increased awareness of osteoporosis, and availability of DXA machines, there is flooding of requests for BMD estimation. In view of all this, it becomes imperative on part of physicians, orthopedicians, rheumatologists, and endocrinologists alike to be fully aware about pitfalls in BMD assessment by DXA and interpretation of BMD reports.

  16. Bone mineral density: correlation between the lumbar spine, proximal femur and Radius in northern Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namwongprom, Sirianong; Ekmahachai, Molrudee; Vilasdechanon, Nonglak; Klaipetch, Alisa; Wongboontan, Chanpen; Boonyaprapa, Sombut

    2011-06-01

    To determine the correlation of bone mineral density (BMD) in lumbar spine, proximal femur and 1/3 radius in northern Thai women. The data of this study was collected from the medical records and the BMD results of 885 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women who had the BMD measurement in Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University between January and December 2007. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic, QDR-4500C). Mean age (+/- SD) was 58.7 +/- 9.9 year. The lowest T-score was found 51.6% at lumbar spine (LS), 29.2% at 1/3 radius, 13.8% at femoral neck (FN), 2.9% at total femur (TF) and 2.5% at trochanter region (TR). We found a significant correlation between age, BMI, duration of menopause, and BMD at the LS, TFE FN, TR and 1/3 radius (p radius were 0.708, 0.667, 0.721 and 0.633, respectively (p < 0 01). Women with perimenopausal status had higher height and BMD values at all five observed sites than postmenopausal women (p < 0.01). The present found a good correlation of the BMD from various skeletal sites. Interestingly, the correlation was found highest between the LS vs. TR and TF vs. TR region. Clearly, estrogen-deficient plays important role on the low BMD values in all skeletal sites.

  17. Lifestyle factors, medications, and disease influence bone mineral density in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, K; Cumming, R G; Naganathan, V; Seibel, M J; Sambrook, P N; Blyth, F M; Le Couteur, D G; Handelsman, D J; Creasey, H M; Waite, L M

    2011-09-01

    Aging alone is not the only factor accounting for poor bone health in older men. There are modifiable factors and lifestyle choices that may influence bone health and result in higher bone density and lower fracture risk even in very old men. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to identify the factors associated with areal bone mineral density (BMD) and their relative contribution in older men. The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1,705 men aged 70-97. Data were collected using questionnaires and clinical assessments. BMD of the hip and spine was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. In multivariate regression models, BMD of the hip was associated with body weight and bone loading physical activities, but not independently with age. The positive relationship between higher BMD and recreational activities is attenuated with age. Factors independently associated with lower BMD at the hip were inability to stand from sitting, a history of kidney stones, thyroxine use, and Asian birth and at the spine, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, paternal fracture history, and thyroxine use. Higher body weight, participation in dancing, tennis or jogging, quadriceps strength, alcohol consumption, and statin use were associated with higher hip BMD, while older age, osteoarthritis, higher body weight, and aspirin use were associated with higher spinal BMD. Maintaining body weight, physical activity, and strength were positively associated with BMD even in very elderly men. Other parameters were also found to influence BMD, and once these were included in multivariate analysis, age was no longer associated with BMD. This suggests that age-related diseases, lifestyle choices, and medications influence BMD rather than age per se.

  18. Are effects of MTHFR (C677T) genotype on BMD confined to women with low folate and riboflavin intake?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Tofteng, Charlotte L.

    2005-01-01

    by vitamin B supplementation. We have, therefore, reviewed baseline food record data from our original study to determine if BMD and fracture associations with the MTHFR genotype depended on the intake of folate, riboflavin, or other members of the vitamin B complex, associated with homocysteine metabolism...

  19. Multiple Satellite Trajectory Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendy Jr, Paul B

    2004-01-01

    This thesis develops and validates a satellite trajectory optimization model. A summary is given of the general mathematical principles of dynamic optimal control to minimize fuel consumed or transfer time...

  20. Ornithopter transition trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-04-01

    The design of stable trim conditions for forward flight and for hover has been achieved. In forward flight, an ornithopter is configured like a conventional airplane or large bird. Its fuselage is essentially horizontal and the wings heave in a vertical plane. In hover, however, the body pitches vertically so that the wing stroke in the horizontal plane. Thrust directed downward, the vehicle remains aloft while the downdraft envelops the tail to provide enough flow for vehicle control and stabilization. To connect these trajectories dynamically is the goal. The naïve approach-to choose two stable trajectories and switch between them-has been accomplished. A new approach is to establish an open-loop trajectory through a trajectory optimization algorithm-optimized for shortest altitude drop, shortest stopping distance, or lowest energy consumption.

  1. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; van der Veer, E

    Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked

  2. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases spine bone mineral density in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in adolescents/young adults receiving TDF. Methods: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 50,000 IU vs. placebo every 4 ...

  3. Correlations between Serum Testosterone, Estradiol, and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Bone Mineral Density in a Diverse Sample of Men

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Andre B.; Travison, Thomas G.; Leder, Benjamin Z.; McKinlay, John B.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The relationship between hormones and bone mineral density (BMD) in men has received considerable attention. However, most studies have been conducted in homogenous populations, and it is not known whether differences in hormones impact racial and ethnic differences in BMD.

  4. Bone mineral density and fractures after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, Ingrid E.; Abma, Elske Marije; Westrik, Iris G.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    AIM: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) reduces ovarian cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. RRSO is assumed to decrease bone mineral density (BMD) and increase fracture risk more than natural menopause. We aimed to compare BMD and fracture incidence after premenopausal RRSO to general

  5. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James); V. Aalto (Ville); T.A. van Alen (Theo); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. LaCroix (Andrea); S.U. Lee (Seung); P.C. Leung (Ping); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); M.M. Woo (Margaret M.); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E.S. Lagboom (P Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S. Th Palsson (Stefan); S. Reppe (Sjur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S. Cummings; P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E.V. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nick); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.W.C. Kung (Annie); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top

  6. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  7. Lower trabecular volumetric BMD at metaphyseal regions of weight-bearing bones is associated with prior fracture in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Tomás, Rita; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the etiology of skeletal fragility during growth is critical for the development of treatments and prevention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of childhood fractures. Thus we evaluated the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters in young girls. Data from 465 girls aged 8 to 13 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the nondominant femur and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess femur, tibia, lumbar spine, and total body less head bone mineral content. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters, controlling for maturity, body mass, leg length, ethnicity, and physical activity. Associations between prior fracture and all DXA and pQCT bone parameters at diaphyseal sites were nonsignificant. In contrast, lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at distal metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia was significantly associated with prior fracture. After adjustment for covariates, every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of the distal femur and tibia was associated with 1.4 (1.1-1.9) and 1.3 (1.0-1.7) times higher fracture prevalence, respectively. Prior fracture was not associated with metaphyseal bone size (ie, periosteal circumference). In conclusion, fractures in girls are associated with lower trabecular vBMD, but not bone size, at metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. Lower trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of long bones may be an early marker of skeletal fragility in girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. RT-PCR analysis of dystrophin mRNA in DND/BMD patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciafaloni, E.; Silva, H.A.R. de; Roses, A.D. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD, BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin (dys) gene. The majority of these mutations are intragenic deletions of duplications routinely detected by Southern biots and multiplex PCR. The remainder are very likely, smaller mutations, mostly point-mutations. Detection of these mutations is very difficult due to the size and complexity of the dys gene. We applied RT-PCR to analyse the entire dys mRNA of three DMD patients with no detectable genomic defect. In two unrelated patients, a duplication of the 62 bp exon 2 was identified. This causes a frameshift sufficient to explain the DMD phenotype. In the third patient, who had congenital DMD and severe mental retardation, a complex pattern of aberrant splicing at the 3-prime exons 67-79 was observed. Sural nerve biopsy in this patient showed the complete absence of Dp116. PCR-SSCP studies are presently in progress to identify the mutations responsible for the aberrant splicing patterns.

  9. Point mutations in Czech DMD/BMD patients and their phenotypic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlácková, Jana; Vondrácek, Petr; Hermanová, Markéta; Zámecník, Josef; Hrubá, Zuzana; Haberlová, Jana; Kraus, Josef; Maríková, Tat'ána; Hedvicáková, Petra; Vohánka, Stanislav; Fajkusová, Lenka

    2009-11-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD) are associated with mutations in the DMD gene. We determined the mutation status of 47 patients with dystrophinopathy without deletion or duplication in the DMD gene by screening performed by reverse transcription-PCR, protein truncation test, and DNA sequencing. We describe three patients with a mutation creating a premature termination codon (p.E55X, p.E1110X, and p.S3497PfsX2) but with a mild phenotype, which present three different ways of rescuing the DMD phenotype. In one patient we detected the insertion of a repetitive sequence AluYa5 in intron 56, which led to skipping of exon 57. Further, using quantitative analysis of DMD mRNA carrying various mutated alleles, we examine levels of mRNA degradation due to nonsense mediated mRNA decay. The quantity of dystrophin mRNA is different depending on the presence of a mutation leading to a premature termination codon, and position of the analysed mRNA region with respect to its 5' end or 3' end. Average relative amounts of DMD mRNAs carrying a premature termination codon is 48% and 17%, when using primers amplifying the 5' and 3' cDNA regions, respectively.

  10. A cross-sectional study exploring useful indicators for low bone mineral density in male alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horai T

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tadasu Horai,1 Akitoyo Hishimoto,1 Ikuo Otsuka,1 Tatsuhiro So,2 Kentaro Mouri,1 Naofumi Shimmyo,1 Shuken Boku,1 Noriaki Okishio,3 Ichiro Sora1 1Department of Psychiatry, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan; 2So Mental Clinic, Kobe, Japan; 3Hyogo Mental Health Center, Kobe, Japan Background: Alcohol dependence induces low bone mineral density (BMD, predicting osteoporosis, while low and moderate alcohol consumption may even increase BMD. In recent years, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b, bone turnover markers, have gained special interest as useful indicators of low BMD. However, it remains unclear whether other alcohol-related variables (eg, duration of abstinence and continuous drinking are linked to aberrant BMD. In addition, no previous study has investigated whether ucOC or TRACP-5b is clinically useful to predict low BMD not only in the general population, but also in alcohol-dependent subjects.Patients and methods: We recruited 275 male alcohol-dependent subjects and collected information about their drinking habits, comorbid diseases, smoking history and walking exercise behavior. BMD in each subject was determined by ultrasonography. Serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, ChE, γ-GTP and LDH, ucOC and TRACP-5b were measured in all subjects. T-scores were calculated according to BMD for all subjects.Results: The mean T-scores of our subjects were negatively shifted compared to the general population (-0.75±1.36 SD. We divided our subjects into a normal BMD group (n=137 and a low BMD group (n=138 according to their T-scores (T-score ≥-1 SD, normal BMD; T-score <-1 SD, low BMD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (BMI was negatively associated with low BMD (95% CI: 0.75–0.90. By contrast, long abstinence period (95% CI: 1.40–4.21, smoking (95% CI: 1.30–5.56, hypertension (95% CI: 1.04–3.76, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (95

  11. Trajectories of Listeria-type motility in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fu-Lai; Leung, Kwan-tai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2012-12-01

    Force generated by actin polymerization is essential in cell motility and the locomotion of organelles or bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments on actin-based motility have observed geometrical trajectories including straight lines, circles, S-shaped curves, and translating figure eights. This paper reports a phenomenological model of an actin-propelled disk in two dimensions that generates geometrical trajectories. Our model shows that when the evolutions of actin density and force per filament on the disk are strongly coupled to the disk self-rotation, it is possible for a straight trajectory to lose its stability. When the instability is due to a pitchfork bifurcation, the resulting trajectory is a circle; a straight trajectory can also lose stability through a Hopf bifurcation, and the resulting trajectory is an S-shaped curve. We also show that a half-coated disk, which mimics the distribution of functionalized proteins in Listeria, also undergoes similar symmetry-breaking bifurcations when the straight trajectory loses stability. For both a fully coated disk and a half-coated disk, when the trajectory is an S-shaped curve, the angular frequency of the disk self-rotation is different from that of the disk trajectory. However, for circular trajectories, these angular frequencies are different for a fully coated disk but the same for a half-coated disk.

  12. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bone mineral density and mandibular residual ridge resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springe, Baiba; Slaidina, Anda; Soboleva, Una; Lejnieks, Aivars

    2014-01-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the width and height parameters of the mandibular residual ridge. BMD was determined in the lumbar spine and femoral necks by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 45 edentulous, postmenopausal women (mean age, 72.08 ± 8.53 years) who had used conventional complete dentures for at least 3 years. Measurements of the mandibular residual ridge were performed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Height and width measurements were performed in the midline and adjacent to the mental foramina. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytic statistics. The relationship between BMD and mandibular height and width measurements was assessed using analysis of variance as well as linear and multivariate regression analyses. Eight patients were excluded from the study because they did not complete both of the required imaging analyses (DXA and/or CBCT). There was no statistically significant relationship between BMD and mandibular bone height measurements in the midline and both regions of the mental foramina, and no statistically significant relationship existed between BMD and mandibular bone width measurements in the midline and both of the mental foramina regions. Postmenopausal women with reduced general BMD do not appear to have a reduction in the size of the mandibular residual ridge.

  14. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Studies from high income countries (HIC have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally.Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013 were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data.Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC. Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01.Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss.

  15. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159

  16. Relationships between bone mineral density and new indices of body composition in young, sedentary men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kęska

    2018-03-01

    The use of IFM and ILM in the present study, allowed the observation that in young adults lean body mass was associated with BMD, regardless of gender, while fat mass is significant for bone mineral density only in women

  17. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Katajainen, Jyrki; Merrick, Damian

    2009-01-01

    A trajectory is a sequence of locations, each associated with a timestamp, describing the movement of a point. Trajectory data is becoming increasingly available and the size of recorded trajectories is getting larger. In this paper we study the problem of compressing planar trajectories such tha...

  18. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  19. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (pdancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; pdancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values.

  20. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    and body fat percentage were measured and 96.7% (n = 15,038) of the participants answered a self-reported questionnaire with information on passive smoking, other lifestyle factors, education, etc. The association between passive smoking and BMD was examined using multiple linear regression analysis...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...

  1. Dietary patterns and longitudinal change in hip bone mineral density among older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T S; Harrison, S; Judd, S; Orwoll, E S; Marshall, L M; Shannon, J; Langsetmo, L; Lane, N E; Shikany, J M

    2018-02-15

    Studying dietary patterns is often more informative than individual nutrients or foods. We found that a Prudent dietary pattern (rich in vegetables and fish) was associated with reduced loss of total hip BMD in older men. A Prudent dietary pattern may be a potential lifestyle strategy for minimizing bone loss. This study aimed to identify baseline dietary patterns using factor analysis in a cohort of older men and to evaluate whether the dietary patterns were associated with bone mineral density change (%ΔBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck over time. Participants (n = 4379; mean age 72.9 ± 5.5 years) were from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) prospective cohort study and had dietary data collected at baseline (March 2000-April 2002) and BMD measured at baseline and Visit 2 (March 2005-May 2006). Dietary intake was assessed with a brief Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); %ΔBMD was calculated from baseline to Visit 2. We used generalized linear regression to estimate least square (LS) means of %ΔBMD in quartiles of the dietary pattern scores adjusted for potential confounding factors. Two major dietary patterns were derived: Prudent (abundant in vegetables, salad, and non-fried fish) and Western (rich in hamburger, fries, processed meats, cheese, and sweets/desserts). There was an inverse association between adherence to the Prudent pattern and total hip %ΔBMD (p-trend = 0.028 after adjusting for age and clinical site; p-trend = 0.033 after further adjustment for smoking, calcium supplement use, diabetes, hypertension, and total energy intake). No other consistent associations between dietary patterns and %ΔBMD were observed. Greater adherence to a Prudent dietary pattern may attenuate total hip BMD loss (%ΔBMD) in older men.

  2. Longitudinal assessment of bone mineral density in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Mellström, Dan; Norjavaara, Ensio; Sundh, Valter; Saalman, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is recognized as a potential problem in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to describe the longitudinal development of BMD in a population of Swedish pediatric patients with IBD. A total of 144 patients with IBD (93 males; 83 with ulcerative colitis [UC], 45 with Crohn disease [CD]) were examined with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. At follow-up 2 years later, 126 of the initial 144 patients were reexamined. BMD values are expressed as z scores. Children with UC and CD had significantly lower mean BMD z scores for the lumbar spine (LS) at baseline and after 2 years. The reduction in BMD was equally pronounced in patients with UC and CD, and neither group improved their z score during the follow-up period. Furthermore, significantly lower mean BMD z scores for the LS were found at baseline in boys (-1.1 SD, ±2.7 SD, P < 0.001), but not in girls (-0.0 SD, ±3.0 SD). This finding remained unchanged at follow-up. Subanalyses of the different age groups at baseline showed the lowest BMD values in the group of patients ages 17 to 19 years in boys (mean z score for the LS 1.59 SD, ±3.1 SD) and in girls (mean z score for the LS -3.40 SD, ±3.1 SD); however, at follow-up, these patients had improved their BMD significantly (mean change z score for the LS 1.00 SD, 95% CI 0.40-1.60; 1.90 SD, 95% CI 0.60-3.20). In this longitudinal study, the entire group of pediatric patients with IBD showed permanent decreases in their BMD z scores for the LS; however, our data indicate that afflicted children have the potential to improve their BMD by the time they reach early adulthood.

  3. Modulation and Predictors of Periprosthetic Bone Mineral Density following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD. Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1 to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2 to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1 the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2 the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count, and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM. BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ2=0.002; df=1; P=0.96; χ2/df=0.002; RMSEA<0.01; TLI=1.5; CFI=1.0. A significant direct effect was only evidenced by the variable lean mass (β=0.38; b=0.15; SE=0.07; C.R.=2.0; P=0.046. It can be assumed that a large muscle mass with accompanying distribution of high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass.

  4. Testosterone Replacement and Bone Mineral Density in Male Pituitary Tumor Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypopituitarism is associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia especially when hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is present. Despite hypopituitarism being an important cause of secondary osteoporosis, osteoporosis in patients receiving surgery for pituitary tumors in Korea has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT on bone mineral density (BMD in postoperative hypogonadal patients with pituitary tumors.MethodsTo examine the effect of TRT on BMD, we performed a retrospective observational study in 21 postoperative male patients who underwent pituitary tumor surgery between 2003 and 2012 at the Ajou University Hospital. Testosterone was replaced in postoperative hypogonadal patients by regular intramuscular injection, daily oral medication, or application of transdermal gel. BMD (g/cm2 measurements of central skeletal sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar. For lumbar spine BMD, L1 to L4 values were chosen for analysis. Femur neck and total femur were also analyzed.ResultsDuring the follow-up period (mean, 56 months; range, 12 to 99 months serum testosterone levels increased with the administration of TRT (P=0.007. There was significant improvement (4.56%±9.81% in the lumbar spine BMD compared to baseline BMD. There were no significant changes in the femur neck BMD or total femur BMD. We did not find any statistically significant relationships between changes in testosterone levels and BMD using Spearman correlation analysis.ConclusionOur results indicated that TRT used in the postoperative period for hypogonadal pituitary tumor surgery patients may have beneficial effects on the BMD of the spine.

  5. Number of osteoporotic sites as a modifying factor for bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Sungwha; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Kim, Youn Ji

    2015-11-01

    Discordance has been proposed as a new predictor of fracture risk that may affect fracture risk via bone mineral density (BMD). With an emphasis on better understanding the relationship between discordance and BMD, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the number of osteoporotic sites, as an indicator of discordance, on BMD and to explore the clinical significance of BMD modification by this factor. This study was based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011, which is a nationwide cross-sectional study. Among postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older, 3,849 women whose BMD was measured at three sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip) were included in the study. The diagnosis was consistent across sites in only 39.2-59.0 % of cases. Lumbar spine T-score was reduced by 0.163 for two osteoporotic sites and by 0.462 for three osteoporotic sites, compared with having one osteoporotic site at the lumbar spine only. Femoral neck T-score was reduced by 0.609 for three osteoporotic sites compared with one or two osteoporotic sites. Using BMD adjusted for discordance, we found fracture risk probability changed significantly. Our results confirmed that BMD discordance was considerably high among Korean women in their 50s and older owing to site-dependent differences in the pattern of BMD reduction with age. Mean BMD decreased with increasing number of osteoporotic sites. Using a modified BMD adjusted for the number of osteoporotic sites may offer more accurate fracture risk assessment.

  6. Body fat mass, lean body mass and associated biomarkers as determinants of bone mineral density in children 6-8years of age - The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Sonja; Sidoroff, Virpi; Lindi, Virpi; Mahonen, Anitta; Kröger, Liisa; Kröger, Heikki; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Atalay, Mustafa; Laaksonen, David E; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2018-03-01

    Lean body mass (LM) has been positively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents, but the relationship between body fat mass (FM) and BMD remains controversial. Several biomarkers secreted by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, or bone may affect bone metabolism and BMD. We investigated the associations of LM, FM, and such biomarkers with BMD in children. We studied a population sample of 472 prepubertal Finnish children (227 girls, 245 boys) aged 6-8years. We assessed BMD, LM, and FM using whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and analysed several biomarkers from fasting blood samples. We studied the associations of LM, FM, and the biomarkers with BMD of the whole body excluding the head using linear regression analysis. LM (standardized regression coefficient β=0.708, p<0.001), FM (β=0.358, p<0.001), and irisin (β=0.079, p=0.048) were positive correlates for BMD adjusted for age, sex, and height in all children. These associations remained statistically significant after further adjustment for LM or FM. The positive associations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, free leptin index, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the negative association of leptin receptor with BMD were explained by FM. The positive associations of DHEAS and HOMA-IR with BMD were also explained by LM. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was a positive correlate for BMD adjusted for age, sex, and height and after further adjustment for FM but not for LM. LM and FM were positive correlates for BMD also in girls and boys separately. In girls, insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin, and free leptin index were positively and leptin receptor was negatively associated with BMD adjusted for age, height, and LM. After adjustment for age, height, and FM, none of the biomarkers was associated with BMD. In boys, leptin and free leptin index were positively and leptin receptor was negatively

  7. Bone mineral density in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by dual photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.H.; Tsou, C.T.; Chen, C.C.; Wang, S.J. (Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China))

    1993-05-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in 38 male patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using a M and SE Osteo Tech 300 scanner. The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured and the mean density was presented as g cm[sup -2]. The patients were distinguished according to the following three criteria: (1) blood sugar control was good or poor; (2) the duration of diabetes was long or short; (3) renal function was evaluated by effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) as good or poor. The results showed about half the cases of NIDDM had lower BMD. The patients with poor blood sugar control, longer disease duration and poor renal function had lower BMD. However, the difference between any two groups distinguished by the three criteria is not significant. We think that the causes of osteoporosis in patients with NIDDM may not be explained by only a single factor. (author).

  8. Bone mineral density in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Tsou, C.T.; Chen, C.C.; Wang, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in 38 male patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using a M and SE Osteo Tech 300 scanner. The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured and the mean density was presented as g cm -2 . The patients were distinguished according to the following three criteria: (1) blood sugar control was good or poor; (2) the duration of diabetes was long or short; (3) renal function was evaluated by effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) as good or poor. The results showed about half the cases of NIDDM had lower BMD. The patients with poor blood sugar control, longer disease duration and poor renal function had lower BMD. However, the difference between any two groups distinguished by the three criteria is not significant. We think that the causes of osteoporosis in patients with NIDDM may not be explained by only a single factor. (author)

  9. Measurement of spinal bone mineral density on a Hologic Discovery DXA scanner with and without leg elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekamwasam, Sarath; Rodrigo, Mahinda; Arachchi, Wasantha Kodikara; Munidasa, Duminda

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally recommended that patients keep their hips flexed by 90 degrees during the measurement of spinal bone mineral density (BMD), there is no uniform agreement among the manufacturers of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners regarding the positioning of legs while scanning the spine. We measured spinal BMD in 54 postmenopausal women, from L1 to L4 in posterior-anterior projection, using a Hologic Discovery scanner, first with their legs elevated as recommended by the manufacturer and then with their legs flat on the scanning table. Differences of bone mineral content (BMC), area of the region of interest (ROI), BMD, and T-score of the total spine between the 2 scans were compared. The mean (SD) age of the women was 54.3 yr (15 yr). Between the 2 scans, BMC, area of the ROI, BMD, and T-scores showed high correlations (r=0.98, 0.94, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively). BMC and the area of the ROI changed significantly between the 2 scans, but the changes of BMD and T-scores were not significant. The percentage changes of BMC and the area of the ROI were similar (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively), whereas T-scores showed no change and change of BMD was only 0.6%. The absolute difference in BMD between the 2 scans was only 0.005 (p=0.09). When spinal BMD was measured with their legs elevated, 31 women were found to have osteoporosis and further 13 were found to have osteopenia. When spinal BMD was measured with their legs flat, 32 women were found to have osteoporosis and further 12 were found to have osteopenia. In conclusion, no clinically or statistically significant difference in the total spinal BMD was found when the BMD in a group of women was measured on a Hologic Discovery DXA scanner with their legs positioned flat.

  10. Population-Stratified Analysis of Bone Mineral Density Distribution in Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of Chinese from Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Department of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing 100035 (China); Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Tian, Wei [Department of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.

  11. Population=stratified analysis of bone mineral density distribution in cervical and lumbar vertebrae of chinese from quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chen Xin [Dept. of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Dept. of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing (China); Tian, Wei [Dept. of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.

  12. Sex Differences in the Effects of Weight Loss Diets on Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition: POUNDS LOST Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; de Souza, Russell J; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R; LeBoff, Meryl S

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss is associated with reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). The objective was to address the role of changes in fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) in BMD decline in both sexes. A 2-year randomized controlled trial, the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS-LOST). The setting was the general community. Enrolled were 424 overweight and obese participants (mean age, 52 ± 9 y; 57% females). Intervention included weight loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Main outcome measures were change in spine, total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) BMD and sex differences after dietary intervention. At baseline, a stronger correlation between BMD and body composition measurements was observed in women, primarily with LM (r = 0.419, 0.507, and 0.523 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively; all P < .001). In men, only LM correlated with hip BMD (r = 0.298; P < .001). Mean weight loss at 2 years was -6.9%, without differences among diets. Two-year changes in BMD were 0.005 (P = .04), -0.014 (P < .001), and -0.014 g/cm(2) (P < .001), at the spine, TH, and FN, respectively. These changes directly correlated with changes in LM in women (r = 0.200, 0.324, and 0.260 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively), whereas FM loss correlated only with changes in TH BMD (0.274; P < .001). In men, changes in LM (-0.323; P < .001) and FM (-0.213; P = .027) negatively correlated with changes in spine BMD. Weight loss diets result in sex-specific effects on BMD. Although men exhibited a paradoxical increase in spine BMD, women tended to decrease in BMD at all sites.

  13. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  14. Bohmian quantum mechanics with quantum trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeuncheol

    The quantum trajectory method in the hydrodynamical formulation of Madelung-Bohm-Takabayasi quantum mechanics is an example of showing the cognitive importance of scientific illustrations and metaphors, especially, in this case, in computational quantum chemistry and electrical engineering. The method involves several numerical schemes of solving a set of hydrodynamical equations of motion for probability density fluids, based on the propagation of those probability density trajectories. The quantum trajectory method gives rise to, for example, an authentic quantum electron transport theory of motion to, among others, classically-minded applied scientists who probably have less of a commitment to traditional quantum mechanics. They were not the usual audience of quantum mechanics and simply choose to use a non-Copenhagen type interpretation to their advantage. Thus, the metaphysical issues physicists had a trouble with are not the main concern of the scientists. With the advantages of a visual and illustrative trajectory, the quantum theory of motion by Bohm effectively bridges quantum and classical physics, especially, in the mesoscale domain. Without having an abrupt shift in actions and beliefs from the classical to the quantum world, scientists and engineers are able to enjoy human cognitive capacities extended into the quantum mechanical domain.

  15. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  16. Size and density of East Greenland polar bear (Ursus maritimus) skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bechshoft, Thea Ø.; Rigét, Frank F.

    2013-01-01

    density (BMD) in 87 East Greenland male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in the time period of 1892-2010. The purpose of the study was to investigate if these measures are potential candidates as indicators for stress associated with climate change and long-range transported toxic industrial...... polar bear skulls continue in order to further explore how CBL and BMD reflect individual and population response upon exposure to environmental stress. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Soft tissue composition and the risk of low bone mineral density: the Fourth Korea National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3), 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung

    2012-03-01

    The effects of total fat mass (FM) and total lean mass (LM) on total bone mineral density (BMD) were examined using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009. FM, LM, and BMD were measured by DXA in a population-based sample of 6,762 Koreans, aged 19-93 (1,613 men physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, serum vitamin D, medical history [diabetes, dyslipidemia, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis], family history of osteoporosis, multivitamin use, dietary intake [energy, calcium, and sodium], age at menarche, age at menopause, and hormone replacement therapy) and FM, higher LM was associated with a lower odds ratio for being in the group-specific lowest quintile of BMD (low BMD) in all groups. The odds for low BMD increased with higher FM in multivariate-adjusted analyses in men < 50 years, but this was not significant in other groups. Total BMD decreased with a decrease in the LM quintile across all FM subgroups in men of all ages, in the lower two subgroups of FM quintile in premenopausal women, and in the middle subgroup of FM quintile in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, higher LM was associated with a lower risk of low BMD in both genders, while higher FM was associated with a higher risk of low BMD for men < 50 years but not for women and men ≥ 50 years. The combined effects of LM and FM on BMD were gender- and menopause status-specific.

  18. Bone mineral density changes of lumbar spine and femur in osteoporotic patient treated with bisphosphonates and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB): Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Currently available approaches to osteoporosis treatment include application of antiresorptive and anabolic agents influencing bone tissue metabolism. The aim of the study was to present bone mineral density (BMD) changes of lumbar spine in osteoporotic patient treated with bisphosphonates such as ibandronic acid and pamidronic acid, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). BMD and volumetric BMD (vBMD) of lumbar spine were measured during the 6 year observation period with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The described case report of osteoporotic patient with family history of severe osteoporosis has shown site-dependent response of bone tissue to antiosteoporotic treatment with bisphosphonates. Twenty-five-month treatment with ibandronic acid improved proximal femur BMD with relatively poor effects on lumbar spine BMD. Over 15-month therapy with pamidronic acid was effective to improve lumbar spine BMD, while in the proximal femur the treatment was not effective. A total of 61-week long oral administration with calcium salt of HMB improved vBMD of lumbar spine in the trabecular and cortical bone compartments when monitored by QCT. Positive effects of nearly 2.5 year HMB treatment on BMD of lumbar spine and femur in the patient were also confirmed using DEXA method. The results obtained indicate that HMB may be applied for the effective treatment of osteoporosis in humans. Further studies on wider human population are recommended to evaluate mechanisms influencing bone tissue metabolism by HMB.

  19. WNT3A gene polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density variation in postmenopausal mestizo women of an urban Mexican population: findings of a pathway-based high-density single nucleotide screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Quiterio, Manuel; Valdés-Flores, Margarita; Orozco, Lorena; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a common skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and is a common health problem in Mexico. To date, few genes affecting BMD variation in the Mexican population have been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes of the Wnt pathway with BMD variation at various skeletal sites in a cohort of postmenopausal Mexican women. A total of 121 SNPs in or near 15 Wnt signaling pathway genes and 96 ancestry informative markers were genotyped in 425 postmenopausal women using the Illumina GoldenGate microarray SNP genotyping method. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in total hip, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and lumbar spine. Associations were tested by linear regression for quantitative traits adjusting for possible confounding factors. SNP rs752107 in WNT3A was strongly associated with decreased total hip BMD showing the highest significance under the recessive model (P = 0.00012). This SNP is predicted to disrupt a binding site for microRNA-149. In addition, a polymorphism of the Wnt antagonist DKK2 was associated with BMD in femoral neck under a recessive model (P = 0.009). Several LRP4, LRP5, and LRP6 gene variants showed site-specific associations with BMD. In conclusion, this is the first report associating Wnt pathway gene variants with BMD in the Mexican population.

  20. Entanglement evolution for quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, S; Spehner, D

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement is a key resource in quantum information. It can be destroyed or sometimes created by interactions with a reservoir. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to the phenomena of entanglement sudden death and sudden birth, i.e., the sudden disappearance or revival of entanglement at finite times resulting from a coupling of the quantum system to its environment. We investigate the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. Because of these measurements, the qubits remain at all times in a pure state, which evolves randomly. To each measurement result (or 'realization') corresponds a quantum trajectory in the Hilbert space of the qubits. We show that for two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, the average of the qubits' concurrence over all quantum trajectories is either constant or decays exponentially. The corresponding decay rate depends on the measurement scheme only. This result contrasts with the entanglement sudden death phenomenon exhibited by the qubits' density matrix in the absence of measurements. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump dynamics (photon counting) as well as to quantum state diffusion (homodyne or heterodyne detections) in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect the entanglement of the qubits. We also analyze the case of two qubits coupled to a common bath. Then, the average concurrence can vanish at discrete times and may coincide with the concurrence of the density matrix. The results explained in this article have been presented during the 'Fifth International Workshop DICE2010' by the first author and have been the subject of a prior publication.

  1. Vitamin D and Calcium Addition during Denosumab Therapy over a Period of Four Years Significantly Improves Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Osteoporosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether or not vitamin D and calcium supplementation affected bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD over a period of four years of denosumab therapy in patients with primary osteoporosis. Patients were divided into a denosumab monotherapy group (22 cases or a denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium supplementation group (combination group, 21 cases. We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP-5b, urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX, and BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral hips (H-BMD at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months of treatment. There were no significant differences in patient background. Serum BAP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly and comparably inhibited in both groups from 12 to 48 months versus baseline values. L-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in both groups, while H-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in the combination group only. There were significant differences between the groups for L-BMD at 24, 36, and 48 months (P < 0.05 and for H-BMD at 12 months (P < 0.05. Compared with denosumab monotherapy, combination therapy of denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium significantly increased H-BMD at 12 months and L-BMD from 24 to 48 months. These findings indicate that continuous vitamin D and calcium supplementation is important, especially for 12 months to improve H-BMD and from 24 to 48 months to improve L-BMD.

  2. A hospital based study of biochemical markers of bone turnovers & bone mineral density in north Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The osteoporotic risk for women increases soon after menopause. Bone turnover markers are known to be associated with bone loss and fracture risk. This study was aimed to assess bone turnover using bone markers and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: A total of 255 healthy women (160 pre- and 95 post-menopausal were enrolled. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP and serum N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX were measured to evaluate the bone formation and resorption, respectively. Bone mineral density was determined at lumbar spine (L2-L4 anteroposteriorly, femoral neck and Ward′s triangle using Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA system. The comparison of years since menopause with respect to BMD and bone markers was also evaluated. Results: NTX and sBAP showed significant negative correlation with BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in postmenopausal women. BMD of all three sides were significant variables for NTX and BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle for sBAP in postmenopausal women. BMD lumbar spine was a significant variable for sBAP in premenopausal women. The mean values of NTX increased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. The BMD of all three sides decreased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. Interpretation & conclusions: Serum NTX and sBAP were inversely correlated to BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in post-menopausal women. Simultaneous measurements of NTX and BMD in the north Indian women, suggest that bone resorption in women with low BMD remains high after menopause.

  3. Association between prolonged breastfeeding and bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, I R; Choi, Y K; Lee, W K; Kim, J G; Lee, I K; Kim, S W; Park, K G

    2016-01-01

    This study showed that a negative correlation between duration of breastfeeding and bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and prolonged breastfeeding is an independent risk for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The present study suggests that postmenopausal women with a history of prolonged breastfeeding require more careful screening for osteoporosis. Several studies suggest that breastfeeding and childbirth lead to maternal calcium loss and a decline in BMD. While the association between breastfeeding and BMD immediately after weaning is well-established, the effects of breastfeeding on postmenopausal women have been controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breastfeeding on bone mineral density (BMD) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The present study was a cross-sectional survey based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010 and 2011 data. The association between breastfeeding and BMD and osteoporosis was examined in 1222 postmenopausal women. The duration of breastfeeding and BMD in the lumbar spine showed a negative correlation. The association between duration of breastfeeding and BMD remained significant after adjustment for reproductive factors and other confounding factors (P = 0.008). However, the number of deliveries and age at the time of delivery did not correlate with BMD at any site after adjustment. Moreover, the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with a history of prolonged breastfeeding was significantly higher than that in women with a short history of breastfeeding (≥37 months, OR = 3.292; 95 % CI 1.485-7.299). The prevalence of lumbar spine fracture showed a significant increasing trend with the increase in the duration of breastfeeding. Prolonged breastfeeding was significantly associated with low BMD in the lumbar spine and higher prevalence of osteoporosis. However, the number of deliveries or age at the time of

  4. Predictors of Fracture Risk and Bone Mineral Density in Men with Prostate Cancer on Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Neubecker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of bone mineral density (BMD and fracture risk is increased in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. We looked at possible predictors of decreased BMD and increased fracture risk in men with prostate cancer; most of whom were on ADT. In a retrospective study, we analyzed serum, BMD, and clinical risk factors used in the Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX tool and others in 78 men with prostate cancer with reported height loss. The subjects were divided in two groups: 22 men with and 56 without vertebral fractures. 17 of the 22 men with vertebral fractures on spine X-rays did not know they had a vertebral fracture. Of those 17 men, 9 had not previously qualified for treatment based on preradiograph FRAX score calculated with BMD, and 6 based on FRAX calculated without BMD. Performing spine films increased the predictive ability of FRAX for vertebral fracture. Vertebral fracture was better predicted by FRAX for other osteoporotic fractures than FRAX for hip fractures. The inclusion of BMD in FRAX calculations did not affect the predictive ability of FRAX. The PSA level showed a positive correlation with lumbar spine BMD and accounted for about 9% of spine BMD.

  5. Determinants associated with bone mineral density increase in response to daily teriparatide treatment in patients with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Rui; Kono, Toshibumi; Nishihara, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Matsumine, Akihiko; Kono, Toshihiko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2014-09-01

    Several factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) increase are reported with daily teriparatide treatment, but there has been no systematic analysis to summarize these associations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical determinants associated with BMD increase to daily teriparatide treatment. This was a retrospective study. We performed an analysis of 306 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis. Teriparatide was administered at 20μg/day for 12months. The primary efficacy measure was a change in lumbar spine (LS) BMD from baseline at 12months. To determine the response variables of BMD changes, we investigated the clinical determinants using univariate and multivariate analyses. There was a 9.8±8.2% increase in LS BMD after 12months. Prior bisphosphonate treatment and baseline procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) concentration were significantly associated with LS BMD absolute response by univariate analyses. In the multiple regression model, patients with higher baseline PINP concentration had a significantly greater LS BMD absolute increase. Prior bisphosphonate use lost its correlation in the multiple regression models. Our results showed that baseline PINP concentration was a useful predictor of LS BMD absolute increase regardless of prior treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, weight change and DMPA use predict bone density change in college-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Jeri W; Ruffing, Jamie A; Zion, Marsha; Tendy, Susan; Yavorek, Trudy; Lindsay, Robert; Cosman, Felicia

    2016-03-01

    There are limited longitudinal studies that have evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) changes in college-aged women. Our objective was to simultaneously evaluate factors influencing 4-year BMD change. This was a longitudinal cohort study of healthy, physically active women in the US Military Academy (n=91; average age=18.4years). Assessments over four years included: height, weight, calcium intake, physical fitness, menstrual function (annual number cycles), oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use, and eating disorder behavior (Eating Disorder Inventory; (EDI)). BMD was measured annually at the lumbar spine and total hip by dual X-ray absorptiometry and calcaneal BMD by PIXI. Slope of 4year BMD change at each skeletal site (spine total hip and calcaneus) was calculated for each woman. BMD gains occurred at the spine in 50% and the hip in 36% of women. In unadjusted analyses, spine bone gain was positively related to menstrual cycle frequency (p=0.04). Spine and hip BMD loss occurred in those using DMPA (peating disorders, weight loss, menstrual dysfunction and DMPA use can have significant detrimental effects on BMD in young healthy physically active women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; García-Manzanares, Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    coeliac disease (CD) affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D) determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  8. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  9. Bone mineral density in adults with Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K.; Sakadamis, A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 ± 4.45 and 23.65 ± 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 ± 3.46 and 23.86 ± 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.)

  10. An Improved DBSCAN Algorithm to Detect Stops in Individual Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of mobile GPS (global positioning system devices, a large volume of trajectory data on users can be produced. In most existing work, trajectories are usually divided into a set of stops and moves. In trajectories, stops represent the most important and meaningful part of the trajectory; there are many data mining methods to extract these locations. DBSCAN (density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise is a classical density-based algorithm used to find the high-density areas in space, and different derivative methods of this algorithm have been proposed to find the stops in trajectories. However, most of these methods required a manually-set threshold, such as the speed threshold, for each feature variable. In our research, we first defined our new concept of move ability. Second, by introducing the theory of data fields and by taking our new concept of move ability into consideration, we constructed a new, comprehensive, hybrid feature–based, density measurement method which considers temporal and spatial properties. Finally, an improved DBSCAN algorithm was proposed using our new density measurement method. In the Experimental Section, the effectiveness and efficiency of our method is validated against real datasets. When comparing our algorithm with the classical density-based clustering algorithms, our experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    -and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  12. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  13. Effect of resistance exercise on bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Schmitz, Katherine H; Petit, Moira A

    2009-05-01

    To assess the effect of 9 months of strength training on total body and regional bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) in 58 premenopausal women aged 30-50 years. Participants were randomized to either twice weekly supervised strength training for 15 weeks followed by 24 weeks of unsupervised training (treatment group) or control group. Height, weight, maximal muscular strength, nutrient intake and physical activity were assessed. Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy) scans were taken and analyzed for body composition (lean and fat mass), and BMD for total body and its sub-regions (spine, hip, arms and legs). All measurements were performed at baseline, 15 and 39 weeks. Analysis of covariance was used to assess group differences in BMD change adjusted for baseline BMD, weight, energy and calcium intake. At baseline, the two groups had similar BMD and body size characteristics ( Pexercise and control groups, respectively. The exercise group increased BMD at the spine and legs (1-2.2%), while there was no change in the controls, but differences between groups were not significant. Strength training over 9 months did not lead to significantly greater change in total body or regional BMD in premenopausal women.

  14. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997 of postmenopausal women (n=266; 56.6±4.7 years participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4, and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT, total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P<0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward’s triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.

  15. Effect of fibromyalgia on bone mineral density in patients with fibromylagia and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Buyukbese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fibromyalgia (FM may t cause a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD because of decreased mobility. The condition is relatively frequent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and RA patients with FM have more disability than those without FM. We evaluated the effect of FM on BMD and investigated the effect of FM on BMD in RA patients. Materials and Methods: We included age-matched 56 FM, 52 RA patients, and 37 healthy females as controls. Twenty three of all RA subjects met 1990 ACR FM criteria. Patients using the antiresorptive drugs, those on hormone replacement therapy, patients with thyroid or parathyroid dysfunction were excluded. Self-reported pain and fatigue severity, functional items of FM impact questionnaire were questioned in FM and RA patients. In all subjects, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck were determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and T-scores were recorded. Results: Self-reported pain and fatigue scores in FM subjects were significantly higher than in RA patients (P00.05. There was a significant negative correlation between self-reported pain score and lumbar spine BMD in FM subjects (r=–0.41, P=0.006. Conclusions: In spite of functional disability, FM does not cause a decrease in BMD. The presence of FM in RA patients does not result in a change in BMD.

  16. Vertebral fractures and role of low bone mineral density in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffledeen, Jesse S; Siminoski, Kerry; Jen, Ho; Fedorak, Richard N

    2007-06-01

    Vertebral fractures in Crohn's (CD) patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) have been documented as between 14%-22%. Vertebral fractures in CD patients with normal BMD have not been reported. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of vertebral fractures in CD patients and associated predictive factors. Two hundred twenty-four CD patients underwent vertebral BMD analysis and radiographs. Fractures were identified by using quantitative height reduction morphometry, and severity was assessed by spinal fracture index. Mean age was 40.6 +/- 11.0 years. Sixty percent reported corticosteroid use during the preceding year. Forty-five of 224 (20.0%) patients had 88 vertebral fractures. Sixteen of 45 patients with vertebral fractures had normal BMD (19.0% of all patients with normal BMD). Analysis of patients with or without vertebral fractures did not demonstrate significant differences in BMD or in corticosteroid use. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that elevations in body mass index, C-reactive protein, and parathyroid hormone were significantly predictive of vertebral fractures (r = 0.415, P 20% (r = 0.417, P < .05). This study demonstrates that vertebral fractures in CD patients occur with an equal frequency in those with low and with normal BMD, regardless of corticosteroid use. The mean age of CD patients with vertebral fractures was much lower than that reported in the general population for these fractures. Elevations in body mass index and C-reactive protein and parathyroid hormone levels were predictive of vertebral fractures.

  17. Impact of Geographic Location on Vitamin D Status and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Jin Yeum

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant decline of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OHD] with increasing latitude has been reported only for Caucasians. To determine the association between serum 25(OHD and geographic location and its impact on bone mineral density (BMD in an Asian population, a total of 17,508 subjects (8910 men and 8598 women from the 2008–2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES were stratified into four age groups and analyzed for 25(OHD and BMD according to geographic location (South, 33° N–35° N; Middle, 36° N; North, 37° N–38° N. Mean 25(OHD were 47.7 and 41.2 nmol/L; calcium intake, 564.9 & 442.3 mg/d; femoral neck BMD, 0.829 & 0.721 g/cm2; and lumbar spine BMD, 0.960 & 0.918 g/cm2 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women living in the South had significantly higher 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD for those ≥50 years old. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in men ≥50 years old, and for women 10–29 & 50–69 years old living in the South. A 1 or 2 degree difference in latitude has a significant effect on serum 25(OHD and BMD in this low vitamin D status population. Thus, consideration of geographic location for a recommendation of vitamin D intake may be necessary.

  18. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, M.; Al-Jurayyan, N.

    1997-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Bone mineral density comparison of adolescents with constitutional thinness and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray

    2018-04-19

    The negative impact of anorexia nervosa (AN) on bone health is well defined. However, there are very few studies evaluating the effect of constitutional thinness on bone health, especially in the adolescent period and in the male gender. The aim of this study is to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of adolescents with AN and with constitutional thinness. Between April 2013 and March 2014, 40 adolescents with AN and 36 adolescents with constitutional thinness participated in the study. The femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean lumbar z and BMD scores of adolescents with constitutional thinness were significantly lower than in adolescents with AN, whereas the mean femoral z and BMD scores were not significantly different. When males were compared separately, lumbar z and BMD values of the constitutionally thin group were found to be significantly lower than in the AN group. This difference was not significant for females. The difference between the male and female results of our study suggested two hypotheses. The significantly lower BMD values in constitutionally thin boys are attributed to their longer duration of low body mass index (BMI). Although the duration of low BMI is also longer for constitutionally thin girls, similar BMD values of AN and constitutionally thin female groups are attributed to the additional negative impact of estrogen deficiency on the bone health of girls with AN.

  20. Interlimb differences in lower extremity bone mineral density following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Michael P; Rogers, Michael E; Manske, Robert C

    2006-11-01

    Prospective descriptive study. To determine the extent of bone mineral density (BMD) interlimb differences at several hip locations in the involved versus noninvolved lower extremity following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Disuse following ACL reconstruction can be extensive. This disuse not only affects the soft tissue, but may also affect the skeletal structure. The extent of this disuse specific to the proximal femur has not been previously determined. BMD was assessed in 15 subjects, 17 to 51 years old, who were between 6 and 32 months post-ACL reconstruction surgery. Bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD of the femoral neck, trochanteric region, intertrochanteric region, and entire hip were measured as a primary emphasis of this study. BMD and BMC of the entire lower extremities were also measured bilaterally. BMD was significantly less in the involved lower extremity compared to noninvolved lower extremity at several hip sites: 6.6% less (Phip, and 3.4% less (P = .004) for the intertrochanteric region. No significant differences were noted comparing the entire lower extremities for either BMD (0.9%, P = .48) or BMC (3.7%, P= .09). BMD differences at the hip are significant in patient's postoperative ACL reconstruction, especially in the trochanteric region.

  1. Added clinical use of trabecular bone score to BMD for major osteoporotic fracture prediction in older Chinese people: the Mr. OS and Ms. OS cohort study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y; Leung, J; Hans, D; Aubry-Rozier, B; Kwok, T

    2017-01-01

    The thresholds of trabecular bone score (TBS) require validation for clinical application in older Chinese people. The lower threshold of TBS significantly improved the accuracy of prediction by bone mineral density-based osteoporosis status for major osteoporotic fracture in older Chinese men. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a relatively new indicator of skeletal fragility. Its clinical application warrants further investigations. Our aim was to validate and recommend practical thresholds of TBS for fracture prediction in older Chinese people. Older men and women in Mr. and Ms. Os (Hong Kong) study were followed up for an average of 9.94 ± 2.77 and 8.82 ± 1.49 years, respectively. Major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) risks of TBS category in each BMD category (normal, osteopenia, or osteoporosis) were compared using Poisson regression model. The improved fracture risk prediction power was evaluated by the sensitivity, the specificity, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), and the net reclassification improvement index (NRI). MOF incidence gradually increased with the increased risk categories of bone mineral density (BMD) and tertiles of TBS both in men and women. Compared with the lowest risk category, the rate ratios (RR, 95 % CI) of MOF for osteoporosis with the lowest TBS was 9.66 (4.19-22.26) and 6.24 (1.53-25.42) in men and women, respectively. The fracture risk for osteopenic men with the lowest TBS was significantly higher than that for normal men, with RR (95 % CI) of 4.68 (2.11-10.41). The predictive power of osteoporosis alone was significantly improved by TBS in men [mean AUC (95 % CI) rose from 0.604 (0.562-0.646) to 0.666 (0.623-0.710) and sensitivity rose from 32.5 to 64.3 %]. The improvement in predictive power was not significant in older women. TBS in combination with BMD can predict MOF more reliably in older men than by BMD alone.

  2. Bone density in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorwali, Abdulsalam A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the bone mineral density (B/d) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to study the effect of disease activity and steroid therapy on BMD. Thirty Saudi female patients with RA and 10 Saudi healthy females matched for age as controls were the material of this work. Patients were attending the out-patient clinic of Makkah Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Center, Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between November 2002 and July 2003. All patients were subjected to clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray (DXA) in the lumbar spine at L2-4 and in the femoral bone (femoral neck, wards triangle and trochanteric). The results of our study showed a significant decrease in BMD in RA patients compared with healthy controls (spine = 0.863 +/-2.29 versus 1.289 +/- 0.54 g/cm2, p<0.05; total femoral = 0.755 +/-0.27 versus 1.06 +/-0.49 g/cm2, p<0.05; femoral neck = 0.725 +/-0.25 versus 1.008 +/-0.482 g/cm2, p<0.05; ward s triangle = 0.586 +/-0.21 versus 0.909 +/-0.43 g/cm2, p<0.05 and trochanteric = 0.607 +/-0.225 versus 0.898 +/-0.419 g/cm2, p<0.05). The decreased BMD correlated significantly with the impairment of functional activity, increased disease activity and with the use of steroids. There was no correlation between the decreased BMD and the body weight, height, age and the duration of the disease. We conclude that the impairment functional activity, increased disease activity and the use of steroids for long periods are the major determinants of BMD of both spinal and femoral bone in rheumatoid patients. (author)

  3. Influence of Anthropometric Parameters and Bone Size on Bone Mineral Density Using Volumetric Quantitative Computed Tomography and Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry at the Hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, G.; Kuijk, C. van; Li, J.; Meta, M.D.; Scillitani, A.; Lang, T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of anthropometric parameters (age, height, and weight) and bone size on bone mineral density (BMD) using volumetric quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a group of elderly women. Material and Methods: BMD values were obtained with DXA and QCT at the spine and hip in a cohort of 84 elderly women (mean age 73±6 years). QCT measures included trabecular, integral, and cortical BMD assessed at the hip and spine as well as cross-sectional areas of the mid-vertebrae and proximal femora. Spinal integral and femoral neck BMD measures were well matched to the regions of bone quantified on anteroposterior (AP) spine DXA and the femoral neck region of hip DXA. Results: When QCT parameters were linearly regressed against body height and weight, only the relationships with weight were found to be statistically significant. Except for cortical BMD at the femoral neck, all BMD and geometric parameters measured from both DXA and QCT showed statistically significant associations with body weight (r2 = 0.4, 0.0001 N ECK) and DXA lumbar spine (DXA L SP) (r2 = 0.4, P <0.0001). Conclusion: The relationship of DXA BMD is stronger than QCT BMD with body weight and it encompasses the response of both bone size and density to increasing body mass

  4. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density. PMID:21772969

  5. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Bahtiri; Hilmi Islami; Sylejman Rexhepi; Hasime Qorraj-Bytyqi; Kujtim Thaçi; Shpetim Thaçi; Çağla Karakulak; Rexhep Hoxha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-nin...

  6. Physical activity, body composition and bone density in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Fogelholm, M; Ottenheijm, R; Westerterp, K R

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) in female ballet dancers. Training history, Ca intake, body composition, total body BMD (TBMD) and site-specific BMD, and bone mineral content were described in twenty-four female ballet dancers (mean age 22.6 (SD 4.5) years). Training history was determined by questionnaires, Ca intake by 7 d dietary record, BMD and bone mineral content by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), total body water by 2H dilution, extracellular water by bromide dilution, body fat by underwater weighing (UWW; two-component model), DXA, and the four-component (4C) model. Dancers had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI 18.9 (SD 1.0) kg/m2) than controls (21.3 (SD 1.9) kg/m2), with significantly lower percentage body fat (17.4 (SD 3.9) v. 24.4 (SD 5.1)) but comparable fat-free mass. Mean TBMD (1.147 (SD 0.069) g/cm2) was significantly higher (6%) compared with that of a reference population. These high values could be attributed to the high BMD of legs and pelvis, the weight-bearing sites of the dancer's body. No relationship was found between age, start of ballet classes, period (years) of dancing, Ca intake, and BMD (total and site-specific). However, TBMD was positively related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to daily period (h) of training. Depending on the method used the percentage body fat ranged from 16.4 (by DXA) to 18.3 by the 4C model. These differences were significantly related to the TBMD. Percentage body fat by the different methods was not significantly different, except for DXA and 4C model. The present study showed that, despite the factors that have a negative effect on BMD, such as low body mass and late menarche, BMD in female ballet dancers was relatively high. These high values were probably caused by

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between eating disorders and bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Aldridge, V; Clark, E M; Misra, M; Micali, N

    2016-06-01

    This meta-analysis investigates the effect of an eating disorder on bone mineral density in two eating disorder subtypes. Following conflicting findings in previous literature, this study finds that not only anorexia nervosa, but also bulimia nervosa has a detrimental effect on BMD. Key predictors of this relationship are discussed. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates bone mineral density (BMD) in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). AN has been associated with low BMD and a risk of fractures and mixed results have been obtained for the relationship between BN and BMD. Deciphering the effect these two ED subtypes on BMD will determine the effect of low body weight (a characteristic of AN) versus the effects of periods of restrictive eating and malnutrition which are common to both AN and BN. We conducted a systematic search through the electronic databases MedLine, EMBASE and PsychInfo and the Cochrane Library to investigate and quantify this relationship. We screened 544 articles and included 27 studies in a random-effect meta-analysis and calculated the standardised mean difference (SMD) in BMD between women with a current diagnosis of AN (n = 785) vs HCs (n = 979) and a current diagnosis of BN (n = 187) vs HCs (n = 350). The outcome measures investigated were spinal, hip, femoral neck and whole body BMD measured by DXA or DPA scanning. A meta-regression investigated the effect of factors including age, duration since diagnosis, duration of amenorrhea and BMI on BMD. The mean BMI of participants was 16.65 kg/m(2) (AN), 21.16 kg/m(2) (BN) and 22.06 kg/m(2) (HC). Spine BMD was lowest in AN subjects (SMD, -3.681; 95 % CI, -4.738, -2.625; p < 0.0001), but also lower in BN subjects compared with HCs (SMD, -0.472; 95 % CI, -0.688, -0.255; p < 0.0001). Hip, whole body and femoral neck BMD were reduced to a statistically significant level in AN but not BN

  8. Association between LRP5 polymorphism and bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisman John A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5 was identified to be linked to the variation in BMD in high bone mass pedigrees. Subsequent population-based studies of the association between the LRP5 gene and BMD have yielded conflicting results. The present study was aimed at examining the association between LRP5 gene and BMD by using meta-analysis. Methods A systematic electronic search of literature was conducted to identify all published studies in English on the association between LRP5 gene and osteoporosis-related phenotypes, including bone mineral density and fracture. BMD data were summarized from individual studies by LRP5 genotype, and a synthesis of data was performed with random-effects meta-analyses. After excluding studies on animal and review papers, there were 19 studies for the synthesis. Among these studies, 10 studies used the rs3736228 (A1330V polymorphism and reported BMD values. Results The 10 eligible studies comprised 16,705 individuals, with the majority being women (n = 8444, aged between 18 – 81 years. The overall distribution of genotype frequencies was: AA, 68%, AV and VV, 32%. However, the genotype frequency varied significantly within as well as between ethnic populations. On random-effects meta-analysis, lumbar spine BMD among individuals with the AA genotype was on average 0.018 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.012 to 0.023 g/cm2 higher than those with either AV or VV genotype. Similarly, femoral neck BMD among carriers of the AA genotype was 0.011 (95%CI: 0.004 to 0.017 g/cm2 higher than those without the genotype. While there was no significant heterogeneity in the association between the A1330V polymorphism and lumbar spine BMD (p = 0.55, the association was heterogeneous for femoral neck BMD (p = 0.05. The probability that the difference is greater than one standard deviation was 0.34 for femoral neck BMD and 0.54 for lumbar spine BMD. Conclusion These results

  9. Association between LRP5 polymorphism and bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bich N H; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Eisman, John A; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2008-06-27

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5) was identified to be linked to the variation in BMD in high bone mass pedigrees. Subsequent population-based studies of the association between the LRP5 gene and BMD have yielded conflicting results. The present study was aimed at examining the association between LRP5 gene and BMD by using meta-analysis. A systematic electronic search of literature was conducted to identify all published studies in English on the association between LRP5 gene and osteoporosis-related phenotypes, including bone mineral density and fracture. BMD data were summarized from individual studies by LRP5 genotype, and a synthesis of data was performed with random-effects meta-analyses. After excluding studies on animal and review papers, there were 19 studies for the synthesis. Among these studies, 10 studies used the rs3736228 (A1330V) polymorphism and reported BMD values. The 10 eligible studies comprised 16,705 individuals, with the majority being women (n = 8444), aged between 18 - 81 years. The overall distribution of genotype frequencies was: AA, 68%, AV and VV, 32%. However, the genotype frequency varied significantly within as well as between ethnic populations. On random-effects meta-analysis, lumbar spine BMD among individuals with the AA genotype was on average 0.018 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.012 to 0.023) g/cm2 higher than those with either AV or VV genotype. Similarly, femoral neck BMD among carriers of the AA genotype was 0.011 (95%CI: 0.004 to 0.017) g/cm2 higher than those without the genotype. While there was no significant heterogeneity in the association between the A1330V polymorphism and lumbar spine BMD (p = 0.55), the association was heterogeneous for femoral neck BMD (p = 0.05). The probability that the difference is greater than one standard deviation was 0.34 for femoral neck BMD and 0.54 for lumbar spine BMD. These results suggest that there is a modest effect of the A1330V polymorphism on

  10. Associations between bone mineral density and subclinical atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional study of a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong-Ke; Bai, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Bing; Han, Lu-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Yang, Jun; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2014-02-01

    The significance of associations between bone mineral density (BMD) and atherosclerosis in the Asian population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level associations between BMD and subclinical atherosclerosis. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Shenyang, China. A total of 385 Chinese women and men aged 37-87 years were studied. The BMD was measured at the total hip and lumbar spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were measured to assess atherosclerosis. Multiple regression analysis was applied to study the associations. Multicolinearity was examined using the variance inflation factor, condition index, and variance proportions. Factor analysis and principal component regression were used to remove the problem of multicolinearity. The differences of ABI, PWV, and CIMT among the normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups were not found. Total hip BMD was correlated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (r = 0.156). Sex-specific regression models included adjustment for age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, menopausal status (women), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, serum uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. Total hip BMD was associated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (per SD decrease in ABI: -0.130 g/cm(2), P = .022), but the association was borderline significant after full adjustment (P = .045). Total hip BMD and lumbar spine BMD were not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT after full adjustment in participants without a fracture history. The risk of osteoporosis was not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT. Low BMD is not associated with

  11. Socioeconomic status and bone mineral density in adults by race/ethnicity and gender: the Louisiana osteoporosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y; Zhao, L-J; Xu, Q; Wu, K-H; Deng, H-W

    2017-05-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis have become a public health problem. We found that non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults with extremely low education and personal income are more likely to have lower BMD. This relationship is gender-specific. These findings are valuable to guide bone health interventions. The evidence is limited regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and bone mineral density (BMD) for minority populations in the USA, as well as the relationship between SES and BMD for men. This study explored and examined the relationship between SES and BMD by race/ethnicity and gender. Data (n = 6568) from the Louisiana Osteoporosis Study (LOS) was examined, including data for non-Hispanic whites (n = 4153), non-Hispanic blacks (n = 1907), and non-Hispanic Asians (n = 508). General linear models were used to estimate the relationship of SES and BMD (total hip and lumbar spine) stratified by race/ethnicity and gender. Adjustments were made for physiological and behavioral factors. After adjusting for covariates, men with education levels below high school graduate experienced relatively low hip BMD than their counterparts with college or graduate education (p population. Efforts to promote bone health may benefit from focusing on men with low education levels and women with low individual income.

  12. Bone mineral density, growth, pubertal development and other parameters in Brazilian children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwes, M; Souza de Carvalho, T F; Cipolotti, R; Gurgel, R Q; Ferrão, T O; Peters, M; Agyemang, C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratorial characteristics in children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia living in Northeast-Brazil, and to assess the role of radiography in diagnosing low BMD. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 27 patients with Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) aged 7-28 years. Clinical history, calcium and calorie intake, laboratory measurements, anthropometrics and pubertal development were assessed, and X-rays were obtained. Z-scores and T-scores for weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMD were calculated using age and gender matched reference data. Mean lumbar spine BMD Z-scores and T-scores were -1.81 SD in boys and -0.80 SD in girls. BMD Z-scores were below -2 SD in 33.3% of girls and in 46.7% of boys. Low BMD (developing low BMD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prevalence of Оsteoporosis and Low Bone Mineral Density in Ukrainian Women with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of osteoporosis and low bone mineral density (BMD in Ukrainian women with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. The study involved 1,605 persons, whose mean age was 62.31 ± 9.52 years, the average body mass — 76.48 ± 14.65 kg. All women were in postmenopausal period. Patients were divided into three groups. First group (800 people included women without obesity, second one (572 persons — with obesity. Third group (233 people consisted of patients with metabolic syndrome. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absortiometer (Prodigy, 2005. Conclusion about normal BMD, osteoporosis and low BMD was made according to the ISCD (2007 criteria for official position (updated in 2015. Results. The incidence of osteoporosis and low BMD in women from the second and third groups were compared with those in the first group. We have found no significant differences in performance of BMD between patients of second and third groups unlike the first group. Conclusions. In patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of osteoporosis and low BMD is significantly lower as compared with the group of women without obesity, and metabolic syndrome and obesity have equally positive effect on bone mineral density.

  14. Pilot-wave quantum theory with a single Bohm's trajectory

    OpenAIRE

    Avanzini, Francesco; Fresch, Barbara; Moro, Giorgio J.

    2015-01-01

    The representation of a quantum system as the spatial configuration of its constituents evolving in time as a trajectory under the action of the wave-function, is the main objective of the Bohm theory. However, its standard formulation is referred to the statistical ensemble of its possible trajectories. The statistical ensemble is introduced in order to establish the exact correspondence (the Born's rule) between the probability density on the spatial configurations and the quantum distribut...

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea and bone mineral density in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Mariani,1 Daniela Fiore,1 Laura Varone,2 Sabrina Basciani,1 Agnese Persichetti,1 Mikiko Watanabe,1 Maurizio Saponara,3 Giovanni Spera,1 Costanzo Moretti,4 Lucio Gnessi11Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Audiology and Phonation, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of System Medicine, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology University of TorVergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital "San Giovanni Calibita" Rome, ItalyContext: Obesity and its co-morbidities may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a major complication of obesity. To date, the effects of OSA on BMD in obese patients have been poorly studied.Objective: To examine whether the severity of OSA independently correlates with BMD in obese patients.Methods: One hundred and fifteen obese subjects with OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5 events per hour were included in the study. BMD was measured at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, and representative measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammation (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen were also evaluated.Results: BMD did not differ among obese individuals regardless of OSA severity. Correlation coefficient analysis for all the covariates showed a lack of association between AHI and BMD that was strongly influenced by age and weight.Conclusion: Our study does not support an independent association between AHI and BMD in obese patients. Controlled studies involving a greater number of patients are warranted.Keywords: obesity, polysomnography, metabolic syndrome

  16. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  17. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  18. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  19. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Abstract Background and purpose: Children with hemophilia are at risk for reduced bone mineral density (BMD), muscle strength and functional ability as a result of reduced leisure-time activity and less involvement in intense activities. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ...

  20. Bone mineral density among elderly patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is one of the major extra-pulmonary manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which limits the physical activity. The present study was undertaken to study the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in the elderly COPD patients. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  1. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is currently a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and medical expense worldwide. Aim: This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty ...

  2. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical “density” of the bone, which would be computed as mass per volume. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA), a means of measuring BMD, is the most widely used and most thoroughly studied bone ...

  3. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...... of their Danish host families. Based on their migratory status as au pairs, these young migrants must therefore negotiate the different moral and contractual rights and obligations that characterize the local and transnational family ties in which they are engaged. This study of Filipina au pair migration through...... pair-sending families in the Philippines, this dissertation examines the long-term trajectories of these young Filipinas. It shows how the au pairs’ local and transnational family relations develop over time and greatly influence their life trajectories. A focal point of the study is how au pairs...

  4. Electron trajectory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-11-01

    The SLAC Electron Trajectory Program is described and instructions and examples for users are given. The program is specifically written to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magntic fields may be specified using arbitrary configurations of coils, or the output of a magnet program such as Poisson or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. The program is available in IBM FORTRAN but can be easily converted for use on other brands of hardware. The program is intended to be used with a plotter whose interface the user must provide

  5. Electron trajectory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-11-01

    The SLAC Electron Trajectory Program is described and instructions and examples for users are given. The program is specifically written to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magntic fields may be specified using arbitrary configurations of coils, or the output of a magnet program such as Poisson or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. The program is available in IBM FORTRAN but can be easily converted for use on other brands of hardware. The program is intended to be used with a plotter whose interface the user must provide.

  6. Antineoplastic treatment effect on bone mineral density in Mexican breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Cisneros, Karina; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E; Guevara-Torres, Alfonso G; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2016-11-08

    Breast cancer is the most deadly malignancy in Mexican women. Although treatment has improved, it may significantly affect bone mineral status in those who receive it. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), in patients with breast cancer and explore the interaction of menopausal status and clinical stage with cancer treatment on such changes. A quasi-experimental design was applied with measurements before and after a chemotherapy treatment in 40 patients with primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. BMD and body composition measurements were taken by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and changes in these variables due to therapy were analyzed using mixed regression for repeated measurements. Significant loss was found in femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD (p osteoporosis received calcium + vitamin D supplementation (600 mg/200 IU day). It showed a protective effect in the decrease of femoral neck BMD and total BMC. BMD loss in both femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD was higher in premenopausal women: 0.023 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.063 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p < 0.001), while in postmenopausal women BMD loss was 0.015 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.035 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p = 0.021 and p = 0.001 respectively). Change in lumbar spine BMD was prominent in premenopausal women with advanced clinical stage (IIB, IIIA, IIIB): 0.066 g/cm 2 (p = 0.003). The antineoplastic breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy had a negative impact on BMD, in premenopausal women overall, although a differential effect was found according to clinical stage and calcium supplementation status.

  7. Living near a Freeway is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density among Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Karim, Roksana; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Xiang, Anny H.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M.; Lurmann, Fred; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John P.; Trigo, Enrique; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adults residing in rural areas have been linked with higher bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to determine if this difference is due in part to air pollution by examining the relationships between traffic metrics and ambient air pollution with total body and pelvic BMD. Methods Mexican-American adults (n=1,175; mean 34 years; 72% female) who had participated in the BetaGene study of air pollution, obesity and insulin resistance were included in this analysis. Total body and pelvic BMD were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Traffic and ambient air pollutant exposures were estimated at residences using location and ambient monitoring data. Variance component models were used to analyze the associations between residential distance to the nearest freeway and ambient air pollutants with BMD. Results Residential proximity to a freeway was associated with lower total body BMD (p-trend=0.01) and pelvic BMD (p-trend=0.03) after adjustment for age, sex, weight and height. The adjusted mean total body and pelvic BMD in participants living within 500m of a freeway were 0.02 g/cm2 and 0.03 g/cm2 lower than participants living greater than 1,500m from a freeway. These associations did not differ significantly by age, sex or obesity status. Results were similar after further adjustment for body fat and weekly physical activity minutes. Ambient air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) were not significantly associated with BMD. Conclusions Traffic-related exposures in overweight and obese Mexican-Americans may adversely affect BMD. Our findings indicate that long-term exposures to traffic may contribute to the occurrence of osteoporosis and its consequences. PMID:25677718

  8. Effects of Teriparatide and Sequential Minodronate on Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density and Microarchitecture in Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Daichi; Imanishi, Yasuo; Ohara, Masaya; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Nagata, Yuki; Yamada, Shinsuke; Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki

    2017-10-01

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a new surrogate for trabecular bone microarchitecture assessment, independent of bone mineral density (BMD), calculated from pixel gray-level variations in the lumbar spine (LS) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) image. Although Teriparatide (TPTD) increased LS-BMD as well as TBS in 2 years, the precise time-course of these parameters was not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in LS-BMD and the TBS in osteoporotic patients treated with TPTD, followed by minodronate (MINO). Primary osteoporotic patients with a low LS-BMD (T-score < -2.5) and/or at least one vertebral fracture were treated with TPTD subcutaneously at 20 µg/day for 12-24 months, followed by MINO (orally at 50 mg/once monthly) for 12 months. LS-BMD and the TBS were measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the initiation of TPTD treatment, and 12 months after the initiation of MINO. The increments of LS-BMD, significant at 6 months, increased until 12 months, whereas the increments of TBS, significant at 3 months (0.035 ± 0.011; p = 0.045 vs. the baseline), stabilized until 12 months. TPTD treatment, followed by 12 months of MINO, maintained both BMD and the TBS. Comparing the increments of the TBS to those of LS-BMD, our results indicate that TPTD treatment improved trabecular microarchitecture faster than mineralization. TPTD treatment, followed by MINO, can maintain both BMD and the TBS.

  9. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  10. Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Girls with Hypogonadotropic and Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Baran, Rıza Taner; Baran, Ahmet

    2016-06-05

    Deficiency of sex steroids has a negative impact on bone mineral content. In studies conducted on postmenopausal women and animal studies, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were found to be correlated with a decrease in bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and also to investigate the correlation between FSH level and BMD. The study group included 33 adolescent girls with hypogonadism (14 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and 19 with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). FSH, luteinizing hormone, estradiol levels, and BMD (using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured. There were no statistically significant differences between the chronological age and bone age of the two patient groups, namely, with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. There was also no significant difference between BMD z-score values obtained from measurements from the spine and the femur neck of patients in the two groups (p-values were 0.841 and 0.281, respectively). In the hypergonadotropic group, a moderately negative correlation was detected between FSH level and BMD z-score measured from the femur neck (ρ=-0.69, p=0.001), whilst no correlation was observed between FSH levels and height adjusted BMD-z scores measured from the spine (ρ=0.17, p=0.493). FSH level was not found to be an independent variable affecting BMD z-score. BMD z-scores were detected to be similar in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and FSH levels were not found to have a clinically relevant impact on BMD.

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Girls with Hypogonadotropic and Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Baran, Rıza Taner; Baran, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Deficiency of sex steroids has a negative impact on bone mineral content. In studies conducted on postmenopausal women and animal studies, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were found to be correlated with a decrease in bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and also to investigate the correlation between FSH level and BMD. Methods: The study group included 33 adolescent girls with hypogonadism (14 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and 19 with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). FSH, luteinizing hormone, estradiol levels, and BMD (using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the chronological age and bone age of the two patient groups, namely, with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. There was also no significant difference between BMD z-score values obtained from measurements from the spine and the femur neck of patients in the two groups (p-values were 0.841 and 0.281, respectively). In the hypergonadotropic group, a moderately negative correlation was detected between FSH level and BMD z-score measured from the femur neck (ρ=-0.69, p=0.001), whilst no correlation was observed between FSH levels and height adjusted BMD-z scores measured from the spine (ρ=0.17, p=0.493). FSH level was not found to be an independent variable affecting BMD z-score. Conclusion: BMD z-scores were detected to be similar in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and FSH levels were not found to have a clinically relevant impact on BMD. PMID:27087454

  12. Antineoplastic treatment effect on bone mineral density in Mexican breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy-Cisneros, Karina; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E.; Guevara-Torres, Alfonso G.; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O.; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly malignancy in Mexican women. Although treatment has improved, it may significantly affect bone mineral status in those who receive it. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), in patients with breast cancer and explore the interaction of menopausal status and clinical stage with cancer treatment on such changes. A quasi-experimental design was applied with measurements before and after a chemotherapy treatment in 40 patients with primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. BMD and body composition measurements were taken by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and changes in these variables due to therapy were analyzed using mixed regression for repeated measurements. Significant loss was found in femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD (p < 0.001). Patients diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis received calcium + vitamin D supplementation (600 mg/200 IU day). It showed a protective effect in the decrease of femoral neck BMD and total BMC. BMD loss in both femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD was higher in premenopausal women: 0.023 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.063 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p < 0.001), while in postmenopausal women BMD loss was 0.015 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.035 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p = 0.021 and p = 0.001 respectively). Change in lumbar spine BMD was prominent in premenopausal women with advanced clinical stage (IIB, IIIA, IIIB): 0.066 g/cm 2 (p = 0.003). The antineoplastic breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy had a negative impact on BMD, in premenopausal women overall, although a differential effect was found according to clinical stage and calcium supplementation status

  13. Association between low bone mineral density and fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and fibromyalgia (FM). Meta-analyses were performed comparing BMD in FM patients and healthy controls, and in FM patients in subgroups based on ethnicity, BMD site, age, sex, and measurement method. Twelve studies including 695 FM patients and 784 controls were selected. Meta-analysis by ethnicity revealed a significantly lower BMD in the FM group in Caucasian populations [standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.144, 95% CI = -0.271-(-0.017), p = 0.026], but not in Turkish populations. Subgroup analysis by BMD site showed that BMD was significantly lower in the FM group than in the control group in the lumbar spine [SMD = -0.588 (medium), 95% CI = -1.142-(-0.033), p = 0.038], but not in the femur neck and hip. Stratification by measurement method revealed a significantly lower BMD in the FM group by dual X-ray absorptiometry and dual-photon absorptiometry [SMD = -0.531 (medium), 95% CI = -1.040-(-0.023), p = 0.041; SMD = -0.315 (small), 95% CI = -0.544-(-0.085), p = 0.007, respectively], but not by quantitative ultrasound, but not by quantitative ultrasound. Subgroup analysis by sex, menopause status, and age revealed a significantly lower BMD in the female FM group [SMD = -0.588 (medium), 95% CI = -1.142-(-0.033), p = 0.038], but not in the pre-menopausal group and the group greater than mean age 50 years old. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that BMD was significantly lower in FM patients in Caucasian and female populations.

  14. Trajectory Shape Analysis and Anomaly Detection Utilizing Information Theory Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose to improve trajectory shape analysis by explicitly considering the speed attribute of trajectory data, and to successfully achieve anomaly detection. The shape of object motion trajectory is modeled using Kernel Density Estimation (KDE, making use of both the angle attribute of the trajectory and the speed of the moving object. An unsupervised clustering algorithm, based on the Information Bottleneck (IB method, is employed for trajectory learning to obtain an adaptive number of trajectory clusters through maximizing the Mutual Information (MI between the clustering result and a feature set of the trajectory data. Furthermore, we propose to effectively enhance the performance of IB by taking into account the clustering quality in each iteration of the clustering procedure. The trajectories are determined as either abnormal (infrequently observed or normal by a measure based on Shannon entropy. Extensive tests on real-world and synthetic data show that the proposed technique behaves very well and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Retinol-binding protein 4 is positively associated with bone mineral density in osteopenia and osteoporosis type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Huang, Nana; Cheng, Yu; Li, Liang; Jiang, Wenzhou; Wang, Wei; Wang, Daping; Tang, Yuxiao; Chen, Shulin; Sun, Ying

    2018-02-02

    This study intends to study the association between serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), bone mineral density (BMD), and other bone metabolic related parameters in type 2 diabetic patients older than 50 years, with or without osteopenia or osteoporosis. Patients (n = 274 cases) with type 2 diabetes, hospitalized in the Endocrinology Department of Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital from December 2015 to March 2017, were enrolled in the study. The bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer, and patients were divided into normal bone mineral density group (148 cases), osteopenia (93 cases), and osteoporosis group (33 cases) group. The serum adipokine RBP4 and other biomarkers were determined accordingly. Serum RBP4, body weight, calcium, and body mass index (BMI) demonstrated a positive correlation with BMD at all tested body sites in osteopenia and osteoporosis group compared with normal bone mineral density group. In contrast, age, duration of diabetes, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were inversely correlated with BMD at all tested body sites. In non-adjusted analyses, age, gender, duration of diabetes, and ALP were inversely associated with BMD at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine, while, body weight, BMI, and RBP4 were positively associated with BMD at all sites. In multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, weight, BMI, and other bone-related factors, it was showed a graded stepwise positive association between serum RBP4 and BMD, at all sites. Serum RBP4 was positively associated with BMD at all sites after adjustments for other factors in osteopenia and osteoporosis group compared with normal bone mineral density group of type 2 diabetic patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between bone mineral density and serum PTH, BGP and CT levels in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuefeng; Cui Kai; Jiang Qiuju; Li Chunhui

    2008-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the bone mineral density (BMD) and serum PTH, BGP and CT levels in patients with hyperthyroidism. The serum levels of BGP, CT and PTH in 167 patients with hyperthyroidism and 58 normal controls were determined by RIA. The results showed that the serum CT levels and BMD in patients with hyperthyroidism were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). The serum levels of PTH and BGP in patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). The BMD in patients with hyperthyroidism was related to the serum levels of PTH, BGP and CT. (authors)

  17. A postmenopausal osteoporotic woman losing bone mineral density despite bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai PSM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogues, with a strong affinity for bones. They inhibit bone resorption and are currently the first choice of treatment for osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates should be taken in a specific manner and for at least one year to be effective in the maintenance and improvement of bone mineral density (BMD, as well as for protection against fractures. We report a case of a postmenospausal osteoporotic woman who lost BMD despite being on bisphosphonate therapy for eight years, highlighting issues that a primary care doctor needs to address before deciding on the next best option.

  18. VKORC1 common variation and bone mineral density in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Dana C; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Rieder, Mark J

    2010-12-13

    Osteoporosis, defined by low bone mineral density (BMD), is common among postmenopausal women. The distribution of BMD varies across populations and is shaped by both environmental and genetic factors. Because the candidate gene vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) generates vitamin K quinone, a cofactor for the gamma-carboxylation of bone-related proteins such as osteocalcin, we hypothesized that VKORC1 genetic variants may be associated with BMD and osteoporosis in the general population. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped six VKORC1 SNPs in 7,159 individuals from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NHANES III is a nationally representative sample linked to health and lifestyle variables including BMD, which was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) on four regions of the proximal femur. In adjusted models stratified by race/ethnicity and sex, SNPs rs9923231 and rs9934438 were associated with increased BMD (p=0.039 and 0.024, respectively) while rs8050894 was associated with decreased BMD (p=0.016) among non-Hispanic black males (n=619). VKORC1 rs2884737 was associated with decreased BMD among Mexican-American males (n=795; p=0.004). We then tested for associations between VKORC1 SNPs and osteoporosis, but the results did not mirror the associations observed between VKORC1 and BMD, possibly due to small numbers of cases. This is the first report of VKORC1 common genetic variation associated with BMD, and one of the few reports available that investigate the genetics of BMD and osteoporosis in diverse populations.

  19. VKORC1 common variation and bone mineral density in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana C Crawford

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis, defined by low bone mineral density (BMD, is common among postmenopausal women. The distribution of BMD varies across populations and is shaped by both environmental and genetic factors. Because the candidate gene vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1 generates vitamin K quinone, a cofactor for the gamma-carboxylation of bone-related proteins such as osteocalcin, we hypothesized that VKORC1 genetic variants may be associated with BMD and osteoporosis in the general population. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped six VKORC1 SNPs in 7,159 individuals from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. NHANES III is a nationally representative sample linked to health and lifestyle variables including BMD, which was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA on four regions of the proximal femur. In adjusted models stratified by race/ethnicity and sex, SNPs rs9923231 and rs9934438 were associated with increased BMD (p=0.039 and 0.024, respectively while rs8050894 was associated with decreased BMD (p=0.016 among non-Hispanic black males (n=619. VKORC1 rs2884737 was associated with decreased BMD among Mexican-American males (n=795; p=0.004. We then tested for associations between VKORC1 SNPs and osteoporosis, but the results did not mirror the associations observed between VKORC1 and BMD, possibly due to small numbers of cases. This is the first report of VKORC1 common genetic variation associated with BMD, and one of the few reports available that investigate the genetics of BMD and osteoporosis in diverse populations.

  20. Changes in bone mineral density may predict the risk of fracture differently in older adults according to fall history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sarah D; McLean, Robert R; Hannan, Marian T; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether the association between change in bone mass density (BMD) over 4 years and risk of hip and nonvertebral fracture differs according to an individual's history of falls. Population-based cohort study. Framingham, Massachusetts. Individuals with two measures of BMD at the femoral neck (mean age 78.8; 310 male, 492 female). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between percentage change in BMD (per sex-specific standard deviation) and risk of incident hip and nonvertebral fracture. Models were stratified based on history of falls (≥1 falls in the past year) and recurrent falls (≥2 falls) ascertained at the time of the second BMD test. Interactions were tested by including the term "fall history * change in BMD" in the models. Mean change in BMD was -0.6%/year; 27.8% of participants reported falls, and 10.8% reported recurrent falls. Seventy-six incident hip and 175 incident nonvertebral fractures occurred over a median follow-up of 9.0 years. There was no difference in the association between change in BMD and hip fracture according to history of falls (P for interaction = .57). The HR associated with change in BMD and nonvertebral fracture was 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.56) in participants without a history of falls and 0.95 (95% CI 0.70-1.28) in those with a fall (interaction P = .07). Results for recurrent fallers were similar. The effect of BMD loss on risk of nonvertebral fracture may be greater in persons without a history of falls. It is possible that change in BMD contributes less to fracture risk when a strong risk factor for fracture, such as falls, is present. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Relationship between bone turnover and density with teriparatide, denosumab or both in women in the DATA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, J N; Burnett-Bowie, S M; Lee, H; Leder, B Z

    2017-02-01

    While changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM) have been reported to predict changes in bone mineral density (BMD), the relationship between changes in BMD and BTMs with combined antiresorptive/anabolic therapy is unknown. In the DATA study, 94 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (ages 51-91) received either teriparatide 20-mcg SC daily, denosumab 60-mg SC every 6months, or both for 2years. Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) were calculated to determine the relationship between baseline and early changes in BTMs (as well as serum sclerostin) and 2-year changes in BMD. In women receiving teriparatide, baseline BTMs did not correlate with 2-year BMD changes though 12-month increases in osteocalcin and P1NP were associated with 2-year increases in spine BMD. In women receiving denosumab, spine and hip BMD gains correlated with both baseline and changes in P1NP and C-telopeptide. In women receiving combined teriparatide/denosumab, while both baseline and decreases in P1NP were associated with spine BMD gains, distal radius increases were associated with less CTX suppression. Neither baseline nor changes in serum sclerostin correlated with BMD in any treatment group. In women treated with teriparatide or denosumab, early BTM changes (increases and decreases, respectively) predict 2-year BMD gains, especially at the spine. In women treated with combined teriparatide/denosumab therapy, BMD increases at the distal radius were associated with less suppression of bone turnover. These results suggest that efficacy of combination therapy at cortical sites such as the radius may depend on residual bone remodeling despite RANKL inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone mineral density changes in protease inhibitor-sparing vs. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy: data from a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Obel, N; Nielsen, H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).......The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)....

  3. Penile density and globally used chemicals in Canadian and Greenland polar bears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dyck, Markus; Rigét, Frank F

    2015-01-01

    -range dispersed and to biomagnify to very high concentrations in the tissues of Arctic apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern relating to EDCs is their effects on vital organ-tissues such as bone and it is possible that EDCs represent a more serious challenge to the species......' survival than the more conventionally proposed prey reductions linked to climate change. We therefore analyzed penile bone mineral density (BMD) as a key phenotype for reproductive success in 279 polar bear samples born 1990-2000 representing eight polar bear subpopulations. Since EDC concentrations were...... not available from the same specimens, we compared BMD with published literature information on EDC concentrations. Latitudinal and longitudinal BMD and EDC gradients were clearly observed, with Western Hudson bears having the highest BMD and lowest EDCs, and North East Greenland polar bears carrying the lowest...

  4. Quantification of bone mineral density at 3rd lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ono, Shimato; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Muranaka, Akira; Furukawa, Takako; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    To know bone mineral content of both cortical and spongy bones with aging and pathologic changes, bone mineral density (BMD) in the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) and distal radius (DR) was measured using dual photon absorptiometry and single photon absorptiometry, respectively, in 151 normal subjects (N) and four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). In the N group, BMD in both L3 and DR decreased with aging. This was more noted, and occurred earlier in L3, irrespective of sex, than DR. In three PHP patients manifested as bone type, BMD was high in L3, and low in DR. Such a tendency was not seen in the remaining one patient with stone type PHP. The findings suggest the need to measure BMD in both cortical (L3) and spongy (DR) bones for elucidating bone pathophysiology in metabolic bone disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine

    2016-01-01

    intervals to reduce nausea and vomiting. Patients were advised a daily calcium/vitamin D supplement. Linear regression was used to assess mean percentage change in BMD and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) according to doses of prednisolone, menopausal status, smoking, and BMI. RESULTS: Eight patients......PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion.......36 % (95 % CI 0.7; 2.0, p change. Postmenopausal women had increases in spine BMD of 2.35 % (95 % CI 1.1; 3.6, p 

  6. Study of correlation between bone mineral density and clinical and laboratory indices of rheumatoid arthritis activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gukasyan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study association between bone mineral density (BMD and clinical and laboratory indices of rheumatoid arthritis (RA activity Material and methods. 60 women with RA who had not received glucocorticoid and anti-osteoporotic therapy were included. 30 had unchanged menstrual cycle and 30 were postmenopausal. Lumbar spine BMD and proximal femur was studied with double radiological absorptiometry (QDR 1000 Hologic apparatus. W.Wilke indices were used to characterize activity and severity of RA. CRP level was evaluated with quantitative immunoenzyme method. Results. Significant negative association was revealed between spine and femoral neck BMD and RA severity so as between femoral neck BMD and CRP level in pts with unchanged menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal pts.

  7. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......-deficient and healthy males, indicating identical bone turnover. The GH-deficient females, however, had significantly lower levels of bone markers compared to healthy females, indicating a reduced bone turnover. Oestrogen substitution of the GH-deficient females could explain this difference. CONCLUSIONS: Compared...

  8. The AAV-mediated and RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene therapy of DMD and BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Wu, Peng; Shi, Zhi-Min; Xu, Yan-Li; Liu, Zhi-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Mutations in the dystrophin gene (Dmd) result in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), which afflict many newborn boys. In 2016, Brain and Development published several interesting articles on DMD treatment with antisense oligonucleotide, kinase inhibitor, and prednisolone. Even more strikingly, three articles in the issue 6271 of Science in 2016 provide new insights into gene therapy of DMD and BMD via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9). In brief, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors transport guided RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 into mdx mouse model, gRNAs recognize the mutated Dmd exon 23 (having a stop codon), and Cas9 cut the mutated exon 23 off the Dmd gene. These manipulations restored expression of truncated but partially functional dystrophin, improved skeletal and cardiac muscle function, and increased survival of mdx mice significantly. This review concisely summarized the related advancements and discussed their primary implications in the future gene therapy of DMD, including AAV-vector selection, gRNA designing, Cas9 optimization, dystrophin-restoration efficiency, administration routes, and systemic and long-term therapeutic efficacy. Future orientations, including off-target effects, safety concerns, immune responses, precision medicine, and Dmd-editing in the brain (potentially blocked by the blood-brain barrier) were also elucidated briefly. Collectively, the AAV-mediated and RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 system has major superiorities compared with traditional gene therapy, and might contribute to the treatment of DMD and BMD substantially in the near future. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between maternal and child bone density in Nigerian children with and without nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommersbach, T J; Fischer, P R; Pettifor, J M; Thacher, T D

    2018-02-27

    We found a positive relationship between bone density in Nigerian children with and without rickets and that of their mothers. After treatment, children with rickets had greater bone density than children without rickets, indicating that children genetically programmed to have greater bone density may have a higher risk of rickets. To determine the relationship between bone density in children with and without rickets and that of their mothers METHODS: Using an unmatched case-control design, forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured in 52 and 135 Nigerian children with and without rickets and their mothers, respectively. We performed multivariate linear regression analyses to assess the relationship between maternal and child aBMD Z-scores. Forearm aBMD Z-scores in children were associated with maternal aBMD Z-scores at metaphyseal (effect estimate 0.23; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.37) and diaphyseal (effect estimate 0.16; 0.01 to 0.30) sites, after adjustment for rickets in the child, child's age and sex, height-for-age Z-score, and weight-for-age Z-score. In the adjusted model, rickets was inversely associated with child's aBMD Z-score at the diaphyseal site only (- 0.45, - 0.65 to - 0.24). The positive relationship between maternal and child aBMD Z-scores was marginally greater in children with rickets (slope 0.56, r = 0.47) than without rickets (slope 0.19, r = 0.20) at the diaphyseal site only (P = 0.06 for interaction) but not at the metaphyseal site (slopes 0.35 and 0.30, respectively, P = 0.48). After treatment with calcium for 6 months, metaphyseal aBMD Z-scores were greater in children with treated rickets (effect estimate 0.26; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.49) than in those without rickets. In Nigerian children with and without rickets, forearm aBMD Z-scores were positively associated with maternal aBMD Z-scores. Active rickets in the child marginally modified the relationship at the diaphyseal site only. After treatment, children with

  10. Sensitivity and Frequencies of Dystrophin Gene Mutations in Thai DMD/BMD Patients As Detected by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyachai Sura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, a lethal X-linked disease affecting 1 in 3500 male births, and its more benign variant, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Because of its large size, analysing the whole gene is impractical. Methods have been developed to detect the commonest mutations i.e. the deletions of the exons. Although these tests are highly specific, their sensitivity is inherently limited by the prevalence of deletions, which differs among different populations.

  11. Bone mineral density and secondary hyperparathyroidism in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hersberger, Martin; Fischler, Manuel; Huber, Lars C; Senn, Oliver; Treder, Ursula; Speich, Rudolf; Schmid, Christoph

    2009-04-14

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in chronic lung diseases and associated with reduced quality of life. Little is known about BMD in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Steroid-naïve patients with PH (n=34; 19 idiopathic, 15 chronic thromboembolic) had BMD measured by DXA at the time of diagnostic right heart catheterization. Exercise capacity, quality of life and various parameters related to PH severity and bone metabolism were also assessed. 24 patients with left heart failure (LHF) were similarly assessed as controls. The prevalence of osteopenia was high both in PH (80%) and in controls with LHF (75%). Low BMD was associated with lean body mass, age, lower BMI, impaired exercise capacity and in PH with higher pulmonary vascular resistance. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated and considerably higher in PH than in LHF (above normal, in 55 vs 29%). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was not related to impaired renal function but possibly to low vitamin D status. Osteopenia is common in PH and in chronically ill patients with LHF. Osteopenia is associated with known risk factors but in PH also with disease severity. Preventive measures in an increasingly chronic ill PH population should be considered. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is highly prevalent in PH and might contribute to bone and possibly pulmonary vascular disease. Whether adequate vitamin D substitution could prevent low BMD in PH remains to be determined.

  12. Adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to bone mineral density in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty: a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võsoberg, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Tamm, Anna-Liisa; Jürimäe, Toivo; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-04-01

    To investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in rhythmic gymnasts (RG) entering puberty and their age-matched untrained controls (UC) over the 36-month period, and associations with leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin over this period. Whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, WB bone mineral content (BMC), and leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were measured in 35 RG and 33 UC girls at baseline and at 12-month intervals over the next 3 years. The change over the 36 months was calculated (∆ score). The pubertal development over the next 36 months was slower in RG compard to UC, while there was no difference in bone age development between the groups. BMD at all sites was higher in RG in comparison with UC at every measurement point. ∆LS BMD and ∆FN BMD, but not ∆WB BMD and ∆WB BMC, were higher in RG compared with UC. None of the measured hormones at baseline or their ∆ scores correlated with ∆BMD and ∆BMC in RG. Baseline fat free mass correlated with ∆WB BMD and ∆WB BMC in RG, while baseline leptin was related to ∆WB BMC, ∆WB BMD and ∆LS BMD in UC. Measured baseline hormones and their ∆ scores did not correlate with increases in bone mineral values in RG entering puberty. Although the pubertal development in RG was slower than in UC, high-intensity training appeared to increase BMD growth and counterbalance negative effects of slow pubertal develpment, lower fat mass and leptin in RG.

  13. Preliminary application of 241-Americium calcaneus bone mineral density measurement in osteoporosis. Comparison with double X-ray densitometry of the lumber spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Liang; Zhu Chengmo; Li Peiyong; Wang Hui; Pu Mingfang; Qiu Jigao

    2001-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of calcaneus in 54 normals, 45 Osteoporosis, 25 suspected osteoporosis and 16 other non-osteoporosis patients, a total of 140 cases were measured by HUAKE (HK-1) 241-Americium BMD absorpmetry, among them 43 were compared with that of lumber spine (L2 - L4) measured by Lunar Corporation's Expert-XL absorpmeter. BMD of normal group of calcaneus was (409.8 +- 79.4) mg/cm 2 . The BMD were decreased slowly with the increasing age. The BMD of osteoporosis, suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis group were 230.3 +- 62.3, 395.7 +- 57.4 and 363.3 +- 51.9 mg/cm 2 respectively. The BMD of osteoporosis group was much lower than that of normal group, and also lower than that of the other two groups, among 26 patients (57.78%) had bone fracture, all was in accordance with the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. The BMD of suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis had no significant difference with normal group. The coefficient variation (CV) of BMD in repeated measurement in calcaneus of 4 participants was less than 1.2%. The correlative coefficient (r) between BMD of calcaneus and lumber spine (L2 - L4) group was 0.6824. The correlative coefficient of normal young adult-matched percentage and T value in 2 groups were 0.6863 and 0.6755 respectively, whereas aged-matched percentage, Z value were 0.4614 and 0.5009 respectively. In conclusion 241-Americium calcaneus BMD absorpmetry has the advantage of low price, easy to operate, reliable and valuable in diagnosis osteoporosis. The correlations of calcaneus and lumber spine BMD, normal young adult-matched percentage and T value were rather good

  14. Changes in hip bone mineral density and objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women: a 6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, Neil R; Tucker, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if physical activity volume (PAv) and intensity (PAi) at baseline influence the likelihood of gaining hip bone mineral density (BMD) over 6 years. In a prospective study, the sample was limited to 244 female nonsmokers, ages 35 to 45 years, and was approximately 90% white. SETTING AND MEASURES: PAv and PAi were measured in daily living conditions using accelerometers at baseline. BMD, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and several confounding factors were measured in the lab. On the basis of BMD change scores, participants were divided into three categories: BMD loss, minimal change, and BMD gain. Risk ratios were used to show the likelihood of BMD gains over time across different levels of PAv and PAi at baseline. Women with higher PAv were more likely to show improvements in hip BMD from baseline to follow-up than their counterparts, as indicated by the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square (χ(2)(mh)  =  6.1, p  =  .01). Women with high PAv were 2.50 times (95% CI, 1.19-5.24) more likely to experience hip BMD gains than women with low PAv, and women with moderate PAv were 2.20 times (95% CI, 1.08-4.45) more likely. PAi was not predictive of gains in hip BMD. Adjusting for potential confounders had little influence on the results. Middle-aged women with moderate or high levels of PAv are more likely to experience BMD gains at the hip over time compared with those who have low levels of PAv. However, PAi does not appear to influence the likelihood of gaining BMD at the hip over 6 years.

  15. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effects of denosumab for the treatment of men with low bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orwoll, Eric; Teglbjærg, Christence S; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt

    2012-01-01

    Context: Men with low bone mineral density (BMD) were treated with denosumab. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effects of denosumab compared with placebo in men with low BMD after 1 yr of treatment. Design, Subjects, and Intervention: This was a placebo-controlled, phase 3 study...... to investigate the efficacy and safety of denosumab 60 mg every 6 months vs. placebo in men with low BMD. Main Outcome Measure: The primary endpoint was the percent change from baseline in lumbar spine (LS) BMD at month 12. Results: Of the 242 randomized subjects (mean age 65 yr), 228 (94.2%) completed 1 yr...... by controlling for baseline covariates (such as baseline testosterone levels, BMD T-scores, and 10-yr osteoporotic fracture risk) demonstrated that the results of the primary endpoint were robust. Subgroup analyses indicate that treatment with denosumab was effective across a spectrum of clinical situations...

  16. Pediatric data for dual X-ray absorptiometric measures of normal lumbar bone mineral density in children under 5 years of age using the lunar prodigy densitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, D; Rauch, F; Chabot, G; Dubois, J; Fiscaletti, M; Alos, N

    2016-09-07

    Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years. Lumbar bone mineral content (BMC) and areal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar Prodigy absorptiometer. Volumetric BMD was calculated using the Kroeger and Carter methods. BMC and areal BMD increased from birth to 5 years (pProdigy DXA system.

  17. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Karol; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Duncan, Emma L; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Oei, Ling; Albagha, Omar M E; Amin, Najaf; Kemp, John P; Koller, Daniel L; Li, Guo; Liu, Ching-Ti; Minster, Ryan L; Moayyeri, Alireza; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Willner, Dana; Xiao, Su-Mei; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Alonso, Nerea; Eriksson, Joel; Kammerer, Candace M; Kaptoge, Stephen K; Leo, Paul J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wilson, Scott G; Wilson, James F; Aalto, Ville; Alen, Markku; Aragaki, Aaron K; Aspelund, Thor; Center, Jacqueline R; Dailiana, Zoe; Duggan, David J; Garcia, Melissa; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Giroux, Sylvie; Hallmans, Göran; Hocking, Lynne J; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Jameson, Karen A; Khusainova, Rita; Kim, Ghi Su; Kooperberg, Charles; Koromila, Theodora; Kruk, Marcin; Laaksonen, Marika; Lacroix, Andrea Z; Lee, Seung Hun; Leung, Ping C; Lewis, Joshua R; Masi, Laura; Mencej-Bedrac, Simona; Nguyen, Tuan V; Nogues, Xavier; Patel, Millan S; Prezelj, Janez; Rose, Lynda M; Scollen, Serena; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Smith, Albert V; Svensson, Olle; Trompet, Stella; Trummer, Olivia; van Schoor, Natasja M; Woo, Jean; Zhu, Kun; Balcells, Susana; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Buckley, Brendan M; Cheng, Sulin; Christiansen, Claus; Cooper, Cyrus; Dedoussis, George; Ford, Ian; Frost, Morten; Goltzman, David; González-Macías, Jesús; Kähönen, Mika; Karlsson, Magnus; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koh, Jung-Min; Kollia, Panagoula; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Leslie, William D; Lips, Paul; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorenc, Roman S; Marc, Janja; Mellström, Dan; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Olmos, José M; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Reid, David M; Riancho, José A; Ridker, Paul M; Rousseau, François; Slagboom, P Eline; Tang, Nelson LS; Urreizti, Roser; Van Hul, Wim; Viikari, Jorma; Zarrabeitia, María T; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Grundberg, Elin; Herrera, Lizbeth; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kwan, Tony; Li, Rui; Luben, Robert; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Palsson, Stefan Th; Reppe, Sjur; Rotter, Jerome I; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Verlaan, Dominique; Williams, Frances MK; Wood, Andrew R; Zhou, Yanhua; Gautvik, Kaare M; Pastinen, Tomi; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cauley, Jane A; Chasman, Daniel I; Clark, Graeme R; Cummings, Steven R; Danoy, Patrick; Dennison, Elaine M; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Jackson, Rebecca D; Jones, Graeme; Jukema, J Wouter; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liu, Yongmei; Lorentzon, Mattias; McCloskey, Eugene; Mitchell, Braxton D; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Oostra, Ben A; Peacock, Munro; Pols, Huibert A P; Prince, Richard L; Raitakari, Olli; Reid, Ian R; Robbins, John; Sambrook, Philip N; Sham, Pak Chung; Shuldiner, Alan R; Tylavsky, Frances A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wareham, Nick J; Cupples, L Adrienne; Econs, Michael J; Evans, David M; Harris, Tamara B; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Psaty, Bruce M; Reeve, Jonathan; Spector, Timothy D; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Zillikens, M Carola; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Ohlsson, Claes; Karasik, David; Richards, J Brent; Brown, Matthew A; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; Ralston, Stuart H; Ioannidis, John P A; Kiel, Douglas P; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most important predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and East Asian ancestry. We tested the top-associated BMD markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 cases and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 novel)associated with BMD atgenome-wide significant level (PLRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility. PMID:22504420

  18. Forearm bone mineral density changes during postpartum and the effects of breastfeeding, amenorrhea, body mass index and contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M L; Krupa, F G; Rehder, P M; Sousa, M H; Costa-Paiva, L; Cecatti, J G

    2012-06-01

    Prospective cohort study performed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) changes up to 12 months postpartum of healthy women and its association with breastfeeding, contraceptive methods, amenorrhea, and body mass index (BMI). There is a trend in bone loss during the first 6 months with posterior recovery, with evidence of a protective effect of hormonal contraception. This study was conducted to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) changes during postpartum period among healthy women and its association with breastfeeding, use of contraceptive methods, amenorrhea and body mass index (BMI). A prospective cohort study including 100 healthy women. Distal BMD was measured 7-10 days, 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum at the nondominant forearm using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data about breastfeeding duration, amenorrhea, contraceptive use and BMI were collected. Seventy-eight women had a complete set of BMD measurements. The mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 125.9 (±66.6) days, with a median total lactation period of 263.5 days. The mean duration of amenorrhea was 164.2 (±119.2) days. BMD measurements showed a significant decrease in the distal radius, however with no significance in the ultradistal radius. When considering only the nonhormonal contraceptive users, the difference at 12 months was significant. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that both BMI and contraceptive use were significantly correlated with BMD. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlation of distal radius with baseline BMD at the same site, pregestational BMI, age, years of schooling and difference in BMI. For ultradistal radius, there was a significant direct correlation with its baseline BMD and pregestational BMI. There was a trend in bone loss during the first 6 months postpartum with posterior recovery. Also, hormonal contraceptive methods provided protection of bone loss. However, the long duration of breastfeeding and the follow-up were not

  19. Low bone mineral density in COPD patients related to worse lung function, low weight and decreased fat-free mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, A; de Greef, M.H.G.; Wijkstra, P.J.; Wempe, J

    Low bone mineral density is frequently seen in COPD patients. Advanced COPD, low BMI and muscle depletion are risk factors for developing low bone mineral density (BMD). Low bone mineral density is seen in 75% of the GOLD stage IV patients. Introduction We set out to investigate the prevalence of

  20. Evaluation of bone mineral density and osteonecrosis in the recovered severe acute respiratory syndrome patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Wei; Yu Wei; Lin Qiang; Li Taisheng; Fan Hongwei; Tian Junping; Meng Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteonecrosis in the recovered patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Methods: Sixty-four patients with SARS were recruited in the study. There were 19 males with mean age 37 years (26-57 years) and 45 females with mean age 39 years (21-67 years) who divided into ten year cohorts for the analysis. BMD measurements were obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the sites of both lumbar spine (L2-4) and hip (neck, Ward's triangle, greater trochanter) which compared with those of the control groups. In addition to BMD measurements, hip MRI examinations were performed on 55 patients among the 64 patients for evaluating the osteonecrosis during an average of 10-12 months follow up after discharged from hospital. The BMD were also compared between the patients with osteonecrosis and without osteonecrosis. Results: BMD results of the 19 male SARS patients were not different from those of the normal reference, except that the 40-49 age-group at the site of L2-4 whose BMD was significantly higher than that of the normal group (P=0.016). For the 45 female recovered SARS patients, the BMD at femur neck of 20-29 age-group and greater trochanter of 40-49 age-group were significantly higher than those of normal reference respectively (P=0.0013, P=0.041). Besides that there were no significant BMD differences between any other age-groups when comparison with each site, although the BMD results of the female group were slightly higher than those of the normal reference in general. Osteonecrosis of the femur was diagnosed by MRI in 6 of the 55 patients. Although BMD results in the patients with osteonecrosis were slightly lower than those patients without osteonecrosis for each site, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Therapy with glucocorticoids in short period may not influence the BMD results in the recovered SARS patients within this near 10-12 months follow up

  1. Short-term precision assessment of trabecular bone score and bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with different scan modes: an in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Poloni, Alessandro; Messina, Carmelo; Petrini, Marcello [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Papini, Giacomo Davide Edoardo; Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo [IRCCS Fondazione Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Milano (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    We estimated the in vivo reproducibility of trabecular bone score (TBS) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using different imaging modes to be compared to that of bone mineral density (BMD). We enrolled 30 patients for each imaging mode: fast-array, array, high definition. Each patient underwent two DXA examinations with in-between repositioning. BMD and TBS were obtained according to the International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between root mean square standard deviation and mean, percent least significant change (LSC) as 2.77 x CoV, reproducibility as the complement to 100 % LSC. Fast-array imaging mode resulted in 0.8 % CoV and 2.1 % LSC for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.3 % for TBS, respectively; array imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 % for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.2 %, for TBS; high-definition imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 %, for BMD; 2.0 % and 5.4 % for TBS, respectively. Reproducibility of TBS (95 %) was significantly lower than that of BMD (98 %) (p < 0.012). Difference in reproducibility among the imaging modes was not significant for either BMD or TBS (p = 0.942). While TBS reproducibility was significantly lower than that of BMD, differences among imaging modes were not significant for both TBS and BMD. (orig.)

  2. Trajectory Optimization: OTIS 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, John P.; Sjauw, Waldy K.; Falck, Robert D.; Paris, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    The latest release of the Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS4) allows users to simulate and optimize aerospace vehicle trajectories. With OTIS4, one can seamlessly generate optimal trajectories and parametric vehicle designs simultaneously. New features also allow OTIS4 to solve non-aerospace continuous time optimal control problems. The inputs and outputs of OTIS4 have been updated extensively from previous versions. Inputs now make use of objectoriented constructs, including one called a metastring. Metastrings use a greatly improved calculator and common nomenclature to reduce the user s workload. They allow for more flexibility in specifying vehicle physical models, boundary conditions, and path constraints. The OTIS4 calculator supports common mathematical functions, Boolean operations, and conditional statements. This allows users to define their own variables for use as outputs, constraints, or objective functions. The user-defined outputs can directly interface with other programs, such as spreadsheets, plotting packages, and visualization programs. Internally, OTIS4 has more explicit and implicit integration procedures, including high-order collocation methods, the pseudo-spectral method, and several variations of multiple shooting. Users may switch easily between the various methods. Several unique numerical techniques such as automated variable scaling and implicit integration grid refinement, support the integration methods. OTIS4 is also significantly more user friendly than previous versions. The installation process is nearly identical on various platforms, including Microsoft Windows, Apple OS X, and Linux operating systems. Cross-platform scripts also help make the execution of OTIS and post-processing of data easier. OTIS4 is supplied free by NASA and is subject to ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) restrictions. Users must have a Fortran compiler, and a Python interpreter is highly recommended.

  3. Maximum noise abatement trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, S.; Speyer, J.

    1972-01-01

    Minimum noise annoyance trajectories for developing STOL operation procedures are obtained by modulating five control variables in two dimensions. The performance index is formulated such that it explicitly assigns the same relative importance to thrust as it does to distances between discrete listeners and the aircraft. However, using a steepest descent optimization program, results indicate that it is preferable to keep the thrusters at their maximum value to minimize the integrated annoyance rather than to reduce thrust which would lower the instantaneous annoyance. Thrust decreases below its bound only when the instantaneous noise at a listener is limited.

  4. Going Ballistic: Bullet Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Wade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project seeks to answer at what angle does a gun marksman have to aim in order to hit the center of a target one meter off the ground and 1000 meters away? We begin by modeling the bullet's trajectory using Euler's method with the help of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet solver, and then systematically search for the angle corresponding to the center of the target. It was found that a marksman shooting a target 1000 meters away and 1 meter off the ground has to aim the rifle 0.436° above horizontal to hit the center.

  5. The effects of ronacaleret, a calcium-sensing receptor antagonist, on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A; Dabrowski, Christine E; Cicconetti, Gregory; Gordon, David N; Papapoulos, Socrates; Bone, Henry G; Bilezikian, John P

    2011-08-01

    Ronacaleret, a calcium-sensing receptor antagonist that stimulates PTH release from the parathyroid glands, was evaluated as an oral osteoanabolic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. Our objective was to compare the effects of ronacaleret, teriparatide, and alendronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial, spine and hip BMD were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone turnover markers were measured. Patients included 569 postmenopausal women with low BMD. Subjects were offered open-label 20 μg teriparatide sc once daily or were randomized to 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg oral ronacaleret once daily, 70 mg alendronate once weekly, or placebo and were followed for up to 12 months. Percentage change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD was assessed at month 12. With ronacaleret, the increases in lumbar spine BMD at 12 months (0.3-1.6%) were significantly lower than those attained with teriparatide (9.1%) or alendronate (4.5%). There were small decreases in total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD at month 12 with ronacaleret compared with increases in the teriparatide and alendronate arms. Bone turnover markers increased in the ronacaleret and teriparatide arms and decreased in the alendronate arm. PTH elevations with ronacaleret were prolonged relative to those previously reported with teriparatide. The densitometric findings in the context of prolonged PTH elevation and increased bone turnover suggest ronacaleret induces mild hyperparathyroidism. Ronacaleret only modestly increased lumbar spine BMD and decreased BMD at hip sites.

  6. Polymorphism rs2073618 of theTNFRSF11B(OPG) Gene and Bone Mineral Density in Mexican Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Valdivia, C A; Saldaña-Cruz, A M; Corona-Sanchez, E G; Murillo-Vazquez, J D; Moran-Moguel, M C; Salazar-Paramo, M; Perez-Guerrero, E E; Vazquez-Villegas, M L; Bonilla-Lara, D; Rocha-Muñoz, A D; Martín-Marquez, B T; Sandoval-Garcia, F; Martínez-García, E A; Fajardo-Robledo, N S; Ponce-Guarneros, J M; Ramirez-Villafaña, M; Alcaraz-Lopez, M F; Gonzalez-Lopez, L; Gamez-Nava, J I

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is highly prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is influenced by genetic factors. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2073618 in the TNFRSF11B osteoprotegerin ( OPG ) gene has been related to postmenopausal OP although, to date, no information has been described concerning whether this polymorphism is implied in abnormalities of bone mineral density (BMD) in RA. We evaluated, in a case-control study performed in Mexican-Mestizo women with RA, whether SNP rs2073618 in the TNFRSF11B gene is associated with a decrease in BMD. RA patients were classified as follows: (1) low BMD and (2) normal BMD. All patients were genotyped for the rs2073618 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP. The frequency of low BMD was 74.4%. Higher age was observed in RA with low BMD versus normal BMD (62 and 54 years, resp.; p Mexican-Mestizo female patients with RA, the rs2073618 polymorphism of the TNRFS11B gene is not associated with low BMD.

  7. Association between mental health status and bone mineral density: Analysis of the 2008-2010 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changtae Hahn

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the association between mental health status and bone mineral density (BMD using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008-2010. We enrolled 15,876 South Korean participants (4,010 postmenopausal females, 4,836 premenopausal females, and 7,016 males, all aged 20 years or older. BMD was measured using dual-energy radiography absorptiometry at the femoral neck (NK, lumbar spine (LSP, and total femur (TFM. Mental health status data were obtained from a self-report questionnaire that assessed psychological stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation. Psychological stress was negatively correlated with BMD in the LSP, NK, and TFM for the male group. Depressed mood was associated with lower BMD in the LSP, NK and TFM for the premenopausal female group, and in the LSP for the male group. Suicidal ideation was associated with lower BMD in the NK and TFM for the male group. Mental health problems were associated with lower BMD, especially in premenopausal females and males. Future investigations should focus on the shared pathophysiology between mental health problems and BMD, and the interrelationship between increased BMD and recovery from mental health problems.

  8. Genetic association study of WNT10B polymorphisms with BMD and adiposity parameters in Danish and Belgian males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Camp, Jasmijn K; Beckers, Sigri; Zegers, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Because of the importance of the Wnt pathway in the development and maintenance of both adipose and bone tissue, we wanted to evaluate the involvement of WNT10B, a Wnt pathway activator, in adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in humans. Genetic association between WNT10B polymorphisms and adiposity....... The second population, called SIBLOS, includes 922 Belgian men (34 ± 5 years old) and contains siblings selected from over 500 families. Four tagSNPs (rs833840, rs833841, rs10875902 and rs4018511) that capture variation of ten SNPs (MAF > 5 %) in a 15.2 kb region spanning the WNT10B gene and its flanking...... a previously shown negative effect on BMD. No significant associations were observed in the SIBLOS population. In the present study, no association between WNT10B polymorphisms and adiposity parameters was found. However, our results clearly illustrate a role for WNT10B variants in determining human BMD...

  9. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  10. Repetitive Rockfall Trajectory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Volkwein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of rockfall trajectories are a standard procedure for evaluating rockfall hazards. For these simulations, corresponding software codes must be calibrated and evaluated based on field data. This study addresses methods of repeatable rockfall tests, and investigates whether it is possible to produce traceable and statistically analysable data. A testing series is described extensively covering how to conduct rockfall experiments and how certain elements of rockfall trajectories can be measured. The tests use acceleration and rotation sensors inside test blocks, a system to determine block positions over time, surveying measurements, and video recordings. All systems are evaluated regarding their usability in the field and for analyses. The highly detailed description of testing methods is the basis for sound understanding and reproducibility of the tests. This article serves as a reference for future publications and other rockfall field tests, both as a guide and as a basis for comparisons. First analyses deliver information on runout with a shadow angle ranging between 21 and 45 degrees for a slope consisting of homogeneous soft soil. A digital elevation model of the test site as well as point clouds of the used test blocks are part of this publication.

  11. Plotting Orbital Trajectories For Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Interactive Orbital Trajectory Planning Tool (EIVAN) computer program is forward-looking interactive orbit-trajectory-plotting software tool for use with proximity operations (operations occurring within 1-km sphere of space station) and other maneuvers. Developed to plot resulting trajectories, to provide better comprehension of effects of orbital mechanics, and to help user develop heuristics for planning missions on orbit. Program runs with Microsoft's Excel for execution on MacIntosh computer running MacIntosh OS.

  12. [Bone mineral density, biochemical bone turnover markers and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Nah Mee; Shin, Hyunjeong; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cho, Yunjung; Jeon, Songi; Cho, Inhae

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score≤-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score≥0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score≥0) and low-BMD (Z-scoreexercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.

  13. Running exercise for short duration increases bone mineral density of loaded long bones in young growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Yoshinobu; Nakajima, Arata; Fukuda, Satoshi; Goto, Sumio; Iida, Haruzo; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2009-10-01

    Running exercise is an effective therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis; however, appropriate duration of exercise has not been determined. We therefore investigated the effect of exercise duration on bone mineral density (BMD) and systemic bone metabolism using young growing rats. Fifteen 8-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to running load: control group (no running), short duration (30 min/day) and long duration (180 min/day), and animals ran on a treadmill 5 days per week over an 8-week period. BMD of the tibia was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and serum levels of tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a bone resorption marker and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a bone formation marker were measured to know whether the treadmill exercise would affect systemic bone metabolism. Short-duration running exercise (30 min/day) caused a significant increase in BMD of the metaphyseal trabecula (p exercise (180 min/day) significantly reduced BMD of the diaphyseal and metaphyseal cortex and that of the diaphyseal trabecula with a significant reduction of serum ALP levels and a significant increase in serum phosphorus. These findings suggest that short-duration exercise may increase BMD through suppression of bone resorption, whereas long-duration exercise may reduce BMD through suppression of bone formation. Exercising for short duration but not prolonged exercise is recommended to increase BMD of loaded long bones.

  14. Vertebral Volumetric Bone Density and Strength Are Impaired in Women With Low-Weight and Atypical Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Katherine N.; Schorr, Melanie; Bruno, Alexander G.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Gill, Corey M.; Singhal, Vibha; Meenaghan, Erinne; Gerweck, Anu V.; Slattery, Meghan; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ebrahimi, Seda; Koman, Stuart L.; Greenblatt, James M.; Keane, Robert J.; Weigel, Thomas; Misra, Madhusmita; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Klibanski, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Context: Areal bone mineral density (BMD) is lower, particularly at the spine, in low-weight women with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, little is known about vertebral integral volumetric BMD (Int.vBMD) or vertebral strength across the AN weight spectrum, including “atypical” AN [body mass index (BMI) ≥18.5 kg/m2]. Objective: To investigate Int.vBMD and vertebral strength, and their determinants, across the AN weight spectrum Design: Cross-sectional observational study Setting: Clinical research center Participants: 153 women (age 18 to 45): 64 with low-weight AN (BMI amenorrhea and longer lifetime amenorrhea duration. Among amenorrheic AN, Int.vBMD and vertebral strength were associated positively with testosterone. Conclusions: Int.vBMD and estimated vertebral strength (driven by Int.vBMD) are impaired across the AN weight spectrum and are associated with low BMI and endocrine dysfunction, both current and previous. Women with atypical AN experience diminished vertebral strength, partially due to prior low-weight and/or amenorrhea. Lack of current low-weight or amenorrhea in atypical AN does not preclude compromise of vertebral strength. PMID:27732336

  15. Change of Bone Mineral Density Measurement among Patients with Osteoporotic Fractures in Korean Population Using National Claim Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Ho; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2017-08-01

    Prior osteoporotic fractures are strongly associated with subsequent fractures. To prevent this, the diagnosis of osteoporosis following an osteoporotic fracture is important. The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) is the first step in the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Therefore, this study aimed 1) to evaluate the rate of BMD measurement after osteoporotic fracture in the Korean population, and 2) to determine whether the rate of BMD measurement after osteoporotic fracture changed between 2005 and 2010. Using the database of the Health Insurance Review Assessment Service (HIRA), we identified patients with osteoporotic fractures (hip, spine, humerus, and wrist fractures) in 2005 and 2010. BMD examinations were evaluated by using procedure codes and medicines, exclusively approved for osteoporosis treatment. During the study period, about half of all patients with osteoporotic fractures had BMD measurement. Between 2005 and 2010, the rate of BMD measurement significantly increased from 42.0% (65,556/156,190) to 53.9% (103,785/192,556) ( P osteoporotic fractures had BMD measurement, and that screening for osteoporosis in patients with osteoporotic fractures increased between 2005 and 2010.

  16. The relationship of total body composition with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Valer'evich Klimontov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AimTo determine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and total body composition in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.Materials and MethodsThe study included 78 women, from 50 to 70 years of age (median 63 years. Twenty women had normal body mass index (BMI, 29 ones were overweight and 29 had obesity. The body composition and BMD was studied by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsWomen with normal BMD had higher BMI, total and truncal fat mass, as well lean mass as compared to women with osteoporosis and osteopenia (all p <0.05. Patients with osteoporosis had a lower fat mass at the hips, compared with those with normal BMD. Total and truncal fat mass, as well as lean mass were positively correlated with BMD in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, femoral neck and radius. In multivariate regression analysis fat mass was an independent predictor for total BMD, after adjusting for age, BMI, duration of menopause, HbA1c, glomerular filtration rate and other total body composition parameters.ConclusionsIn postmenopausal type 2 diabetic women BMI and fat mass is associated positively with BMD.

  17. Cervical spine bone mineral density as a function of vertebral level and anatomic location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, William J; Thorhauer, Eric D; Lee, Joon Y; Donaldson, William F; Kang, James D

    2011-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements acquired from quantitative computed tomography scans have been shown to correlate with bone mechanical properties such as strength, stiffness, and yield load. There are currently no reports of BMD as a function of anatomic location within each vertebra. The overall objective of this study was to characterize BMD in the cervical spine as a function of level and anatomic location. Cervical spine BMD was evaluated in vivo using a clinically relevant age group. Twenty-two subjects (13 women and 9 men) were included with an average age of 48 ± 7 years (range, 35-61 years). Ten subjects were recently diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy (age 49 ± 8 years; six women and four men; and two smokers and eight nonsmokers), and 12 subjects were asymptomatic controls (age 46 ± 6 years; seven women and five men; and three smokers, three quit smoking, and six nonsmokers). Physiologic measures included overall BMD for C3-C7, average BMD within 11 anatomically defined regions of interest for each vertebra, and density distribution (by volume) within each anatomic region and vertebral level. Subject-specific three-dimensional bone models were created from high-resolution computed tomography scans of the subaxial cervical spine (C3-C7). Custom software calculated the average BMD within 11 anatomically defined regions of interest for each three-dimensional bone model. Bone mineral density values for each voxel of bone tissue were binned into 50 mg/cc ranges to determine the density distribution by volume. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test for differences within subjects by level (C3-C7) and anatomic location. The correlation between BMD in the central vertebral body and the pedicle and lateral mass regions was tested using Pearson correlation. Average BMDs by level were 476, 503, 507, 473, and 414 mg/cm(3) for C3-C7, respectively. C3 and C6 BMDs were significantly less than those of C4 and C5 (pvertebral body having

  18. Quantum trajectories for time-dependent adiabatic master equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ka Wa; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2018-02-01

    We describe a quantum trajectories technique for the unraveling of the quantum adiabatic master equation in Lindblad form. By evolving a complex state vector of dimension N instead of a complex density matrix of dimension N2, simulations of larger system sizes become feasible. The cost of running many trajectories, which is required to recover the master equation evolution, can be minimized by running the trajectories in parallel, making this method suitable for high performance computing clusters. In general, the trajectories method can provide up to a factor N advantage over directly solving the master equation. In special cases where only the expectation values of certain observables are desired, an advantage of up to a factor N2 is possible. We test the method by demonstrating agreement with direct solution of the quantum adiabatic master equation for 8-qubit quantum annealing examples. We also apply the quantum trajectories method to a 16-qubit example originally introduced to demonstrate the role of tunneling in quantum annealing, which is significantly more time consuming to solve directly using the master equation. The quantum trajectories method provides insight into individual quantum jump trajectories and their statistics, thus shedding light on open system quantum adiabatic evolution beyond the master equation.

  19. The relationship between the bone mineral density and urinary cadmium concentration of residents in an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Minah; Paek, Domyung; Yoon, Chungsik

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association between cadmium exposure and bone mineral density (BMD) has been demonstrated in elderly women, but has not been well studied in youths and men. Some studies report either no or a weak association between cadmium exposure and bone damage. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the urinary cadmium (U-Cd) levels and BMD of females and males of all ages. Methods: A total of 804 residents near an industrial complex were surveyed in 2007. U-Cd and BMD on the heel (non-dominant calcaneus) were analyzed with AAS-GTA and Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Demographic characteristics were collected by structured questionnaires. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined by BMD cut-off values and T-scores set by the WHO; T score>-1, normal; -2.5< T score <-1, osteopenia; and T score <-2.5, osteoporosis. Logistic and multiple linear regressions were applied to estimate the association between U-Cd levels and BMD. Results: The U-Cd levels in females (0.64 μg/g creatinine) were higher than those in males (0.48 μg/g creatinine) (p<0.001). With the logistic regression model, osteopenia was associated with high U-Cd levels (≥1.0 μg/g creatinine) in females (OR=2.92; 95% CI, 1.51-5.64) and in males (OR=3.37; 95% CI, 1.09-10.38). With the multiple linear regression model, the BMD of the adult group was negatively associated with U-Cd (<0.05), gender (female, p<0.001) and age (p<0.001). The BMD of participants who were ≤19 years of age was negatively associated with gender (female, p<0.01), whereas it was positively associated with age and BMI (p<0.001). BMD was not associated with exercise, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, job or parental education. Conclusion: Results suggested that U-Cd might be associated with osteopenia as well as osteoporosis in both male and female adults. Age and female gender were negatively associated with BMD in the adult group, whereas age was positively associated with

  20. Low Bone Mineral Density in Male Athletes Is Associated With Bone Stress Injuries at Anatomic Sites With Greater Trabecular Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Parziale, Allyson L; Popp, Kristin L; Ackerman, Kathryn E

    2018-01-01

    While sports participation is often associated with health benefits, a subset of athletes may develop impaired bone health. Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are a common overuse injury in athletes; site of injury has been shown to relate to underlying bone health in female athletes. Hypothesis/Purpose: This case series characterizes the association of type of sports participation and anatomic site of BSIs with low bone mineral density (BMD), defined as BMD Z-score athletes, it was hypothesized that male athletes who participate in running and sustain BSIs in sites of higher trabecular bone content would be more likely to have low BMD. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Chart review identified 28 male athletes aged 14 to 36 years with history of ≥1 lower-extremity BSI who were referred for evaluation of overall bone health, including assessment of lumbar spine, hip, and/or total body less head BMD per dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. BMD Z-scores were determined via age, sex, and ethnicity normative values. Prior BSIs were classified by anatomic site of injury into trabecular-rich locations (pelvis, femoral neck, and calcaneus) and cortical-rich locations (tibia, fibula, femur, metatarsal and tarsal navicular). Sport type and laboratory values were also assessed in relationship to BMD. The association of low BMD to anatomic site of BSI and sport were evaluated with P value athletes, 12 (43%) met criteria for low BMD. Athletes with a history of trabecular-rich BSIs had a 4.6-fold increased risk for low BMD as compared with those with only cortical-rich BSIs (9 of 11 vs 3 of 17, P = .002). Within sport type, runners had a 6.1-fold increased risk for low BMD versus nonrunners (11 of 18 vs 1 of 10, P = .016). Laboratory values, including 25-hydroxy vitamin D, were not associated with BMD or BSI location. Low BMD was identified in 43% of male athletes in this series. Athletes participating in sports of running and with a history of trabecular-rich BSI were at increased

  1. The relationship between the bone mineral density and urinary cadmium concentration of residents in an industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Minah; Paek, Domyung [Institute of Health and Environment, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Gwanak-599, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Chungsik, E-mail: csyoon@snu.ac.kr [Institute of Health and Environment, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Gwanak-599, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: An association between cadmium exposure and bone mineral density (BMD) has been demonstrated in elderly women, but has not been well studied in youths and men. Some studies report either no or a weak association between cadmium exposure and bone damage. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the urinary cadmium (U-Cd) levels and BMD of females and males of all ages. Methods: A total of 804 residents near an industrial complex were surveyed in 2007. U-Cd and BMD on the heel (non-dominant calcaneus) were analyzed with AAS-GTA and Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Demographic characteristics were collected by structured questionnaires. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined by BMD cut-off values and T-scores set by the WHO; T score>-1, normal; -2.5BMD. Results: The U-Cd levels in females (0.64 {mu}g/g creatinine) were higher than those in males (0.48 {mu}g/g creatinine) (p<0.001). With the logistic regression model, osteopenia was associated with high U-Cd levels ({>=}1.0 {mu}g/g creatinine) in females (OR=2.92; 95% CI, 1.51-5.64) and in males (OR=3.37; 95% CI, 1.09-10.38). With the multiple linear regression model, the BMD of the adult group was negatively associated with U-Cd (<0.05), gender (female, p<0.001) and age (p<0.001). The BMD of participants who were {<=}19 years of age was negatively associated with gender (female, p<0.01), whereas it was positively associated with age and BMI (p<0.001). BMD was not associated with exercise, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, job or parental education. Conclusion: Results suggested that U-Cd might be associated with osteopenia as well as osteoporosis in both male and female adults. Age and female gender were negatively associated with BMD in the adult group, whereas age was positively

  2. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  3. Is miniscrew primary stability influenced by bone density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marquezan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary stability is absence of mobility in the bone bed after mini-implant placement and depends on bone quality among other factors. Bone quality is a subjective term frequently considered as bone density. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate bone density in two bovine pelvic regions and verify the primary stability of miniscrews inserted into them. Forty bone blocks were extracted from bovine pelvic bones, 20 from iliac and 20 from pubic bone, all of them containing cortical bone about 1 mm thick. Half of the sections extracted from each bone were designated for histological evaluation of bone density (trabecular bone area - TBA and the other half for bone mineral density (BMD evaluation by means of central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Then, twenty self-drilling miniscrews (INPÒ, São Paulo, Brazil 1.4 mm in diameter and 6 mm long were inserted into the bone blocks used for BMD evaluation. Peak implant insertion torque (IT and pull-out strength (PS were used for primary stability evaluation. It was found that iliac and pubic bones present different bone densities, iliac bone being less dense considering BMD and TBA values (P > 0.05. However, the miniscrew primary stability was not different when varying the bone type (P < 0.05. IT and PS were not influenced by these differences in bone density when cortical thickness was about 1 mm thick.

  4. The effects of weight loss approaches on bone mineral density in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, S; Hunter, G R; Kazemi, A; Shab-Bidar, S

    2016-09-01

    We assessed the impact of weight loss strategies including calorie restriction and exercise training on BMD in adults using a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Weight reduction results in reduced BMD at the hip, but has less effect on the spine. Both calorie restriction and a combination of calorie restriction and exercise result in a decrease in hip bone density, whereas weight loss response to exercise training without dietary restriction leads to increased hip BMD. Findings are not consistent on the effect of weight loss on bone mineral density (BMD). We conducted a systematic review on the randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of weight loss strategies, including calorie restriction and exercise programs on BMD in adults. A structured and comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was undertaken up to March 2016. Study-specific mean differences (MD) were pooled using a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to find possible sources of between-study heterogeneity. Thirty-two randomized controlled trials met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed no significant difference on total BMD (MD 0.007, 95 % CI -0.020-0.034, p = 0.608). In contrast, the pooled data of studies showed a significant effect of weight loss on hip BMD (MD -0.008, 95 % CI -0.09 to -0.006 g/cm(2), p calorie restriction interventions longer than 13 months showed a significant decreased in lumbar spine BMD. Weight loss led to significant decreases at the hip and lumbar spine BMD but not at the total. Weight loss response following calorie restriction resulted in a decrease in hip and lumbar spine bone density especially more than 1 year; whereas an exercise-induced weight loss did not.

  5. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  6. Scuba diving does not affect bone mineral density or bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowska, Katarzyna; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Przybylski, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Scuba diving is a very specialized, physically demanding activity. The bones of divers are subjected to stress from water pressure, from the forces generated when their muscles resist water pressure, and from weightlessness. Notably, few studies have addressed the effects of diving on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and the results have been controversial. The goal of the study was to assess BMD and BMC in a group of professional scuba divers. The study group (diving group [D]) included 16 male professional scuba divers who also worked as firemen. The control group included 14 firemen who did not scuba dive (non-diving group [ND]). The groups were matched by age, weight, and height. The BMD and BMC of the whole skeleton, L1-L4, total hip, and femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences in BMD or in BMC in the two groups, and the BMD and BMC values were within one standard deviation in terms of Z- and T-scores. There was no correlation between total diving time (hours) and BMD in the D group. Scuba diving does not negatively influence bone turnover. Copyright © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Duration of television viewing and bone mineral density in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sunyue; Song, Aihua; Yang, Min; Ma, Xiaoguang; Fu, Xiaohua; Zhu, Shankuan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the relationship between television (TV) viewing and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether longer duration of TV viewing increased the risk of lower BMD in Chinese women. A total of 626 female adults were voluntarily recruited into the study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Body composition including total body and regional BMD was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The duration of TV viewing was categorized into 4 groups: TV viewing and total and regional BMD in all subjects and in subjects stratified by age of 45 years, respectively. After adjusting for age, BMI, alcohol use, smoking, education, income, urbanicity, leisure time physical activity, occupational physical activity, and menopause, the significant trend of pelvic BMD across categories of TV viewing was observed in all subjects (p women aged women aged TV viewing was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese women, especially in those aged 18-44 years. It might be sensible to reduce TV viewing time to prevent bone loss in young women.

  8. Z-score comparability of bone mineral density reference databases for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocks, J; Ward, K; Mughal, Z; Moncayo, R; Adams, J; Högler, W

    2010-10-01

    The diversity of pediatric dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral density (BMD) reference databases raises questions as to whether they are interchangeable in their application. This study examined the comparability of BMD Z-scores generated from the largest available Hologic DXA databases, applied on BMD results of a large series of unselected pediatric patients. A total of 2027 BMD scans were extracted from Hologic QDR-4500A machines. Age- and sex-specific BMD Z-scores of children aged 8-17 yr, calculated from six Hologic databases, were compared for lumbar spine (LS) and total body (TB). The final dataset included 708 scans (307 of girls). BMD Z-scores calculated from the six databases were highly correlated but differed significantly (P Hologic databases, revealing a significant potential for misdiagnosis. Ideally, Z-scores should be calculated using model-, brand-, and software-specific reference curves for age, sex, and ethnic group. However, our results can be used to estimate converted values. There are other differences in children's bone mass, shape, strength, and body size that are not detected by DXA.

  9. Low bone mineral density is associated with balance and hearing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, Angelico; Vieira, Edgar R; Albatineh, Ahmed N; Nnadi, Augustine K; Lowry, Dana; Gasana, Janvier

    2014-01-01

    Bone demineralization affects the skeletal system, including the temporal bone, which contains the cochlea and the vestibular labyrinth. However, research on the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with balance and hearing sensitivity is limited with conflicting results. Therefore, we examined the relationship in a population representative sample. We analyzed 8863 participants to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) aged 40 years and older. Total and head BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Balance was evaluated using the Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support Surfaces condition 4, also indicative of vestibular dysfunction. Hearing condition was self-reported. The associations of total and head BMD with balance and hearing were assessed using multiple and multinomial logistic regressions adjusting for covariates. On multiple logistic regression, low total BMD was associated with balance impairment (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-4.75), especially in older adults (≥65 years old; OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.07-12.85). In multinomial regression, low total BMD was associated with report of significant hearing impairment in older adults (OR, 5.30; 95% CI, 1.20-23.26). Low BMD is associated with balance and hearing impairments, especially in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haiyu; Xu, Shaonan; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jiayin; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Yazeng; Ru, Bin; Jin, Yongming; Zhang, Qi; Ying, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese adolescents. Three hundred eighty-four Chinese adolescents aged 14-18 yr (148 males and 236 females) were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Total body and regional BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Duration of playing video games, defined as hours per day, was measured by a self-report questionnaire. We examined the association between duration of playing video games and BMD using multiple linear regression analysis. After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, parental education, body mass index, adolescents with longer video game duration were more likely to have lower legs, trunk, pelvic, spine, and total BMD (p video game was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese adolescents. These findings provide support for reducing duration of playing video games as a possible means to increase BMD in adolescents. Future research is needed to elucidate the underlined mechanisms linking playing video games and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  12. Female high-school varsity athletics: an opportunity to improve bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ruth A

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated whether moderate, organized physical activity during high school has a positive residual effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in 30-35-year-old females. Seventy-three female former high-school varsity athletes and 67 self-reported low-activity age-matched controls completed a collegiate women's health survey and participated in a one-time clinical visit with bone scan. Lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD, total hip BMD, percentage body fat, age at menarche, history of amenorrhea, family history of osteoporosis, college alcohol consumption, number of high school varsity seasons, as well as current nutritional intake (including calcium), number of weekly weight training sessions, and caloric expenditure were assessed. Using a saturated linear regression model, current percentage body fat and number of high school seasons predicted 22% of the observed variation in total hip BMD and 25% of the observed variation of lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD (Pschool athletes were more likely to be frequent adult exercisers (PAthletic participants were more likely to have denser hip and spine bones than low-activity controls. Results suggest that participation in high school athletics is associated with greater BMD. Additionally, the varsity athletes continued to exercise frequently in their early 30s.

  13. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da, E-mail: nelson@forp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica Pediatrica, Preventiva e Odontologia Comunitaria; Morse, Leslie [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Battaglino, Ricardo [Department of Skeletal Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomacologia e Fisiologia

    2013-05-15

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  14. Self-reported tooth loss and bone mineral density in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, H; Reader, R; Murphy, S; Khaw, K T

    1995-05-01

    It has been reported that postmenopausal women with osteoporosis have a higher than expected number of dentures and fewer teeth than women without osteoporosis. The relationship between self-reported tooth loss and bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and spine in 608 men and 874 women, aged 65-76 years, was examined in a cross-sectional study. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-four per cent of men and 27% of women had no natural teeth. There was a consistent decrease in BMD with increasing numbers of teeth lost in men. This relationship was independent of age, body mass index and smoking habit (trochanter r = -0.14, p < 0.0005; Ward's triangle r = -0.1, p < 0.005; and lumbar spine r = -0.07, p < 0.05) with between 5% and 9% difference in mean BMD at various sites between men who had all their teeth and men who had no teeth. There was no significant association between self-reported tooth loss and BMD in women. Tooth loss is associated with lower BMD in men; this relationship is less consistent in women.

  15. Cross calibration of Hologic QDR2000 and GE Lunar Prodigy for forearm bone mineral density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D; Horton, B; Green, D J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an in vivo cross calibration for forearm bone mineral density (BMD) between a Hologic QDR2000 (Hologic Inc., Bedford MA, USA) and Lunar Prodigy (GE Healthcare, Madison WI, USA) during equipment upgrade. Nineteen subjects (17 females and 2 males, mean age 57 yr, range: 42-79yr) attending for routine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning were recruited. BMD of the nondominant forearm was measured on both instruments. Cross-calibration equations were derived for total forearm, ultradistal radius and ulna, and 33% radius and ulna. A Bland & Altman plot was used to calculate the mean difference and limits of agreement between instruments. There were significant differences in BMD at all sites. The Prodigy BMD was 15% higher at the total forearm and 20-25% higher in the cortical regions of the 33% ulna and 33% radius. The differences are smaller in the ultradistal regions, as it appears that the Prodigy underestimates BMD at low BMD. The standard error of estimate about the cross calibration was such that it cannot be used to transfer individual patients between instruments, but could be applied to clinical trial data.

  16. Relation of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue to Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between adipose and bone tissues is still being debated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the distribution and volume of abdomen adipose tissue are correlated to trabecular bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. In this cross-sectional study, 320 Chinese women, being divided into two groups according to age ≥55 years and <55 years, were evaluated with quantitative computed tomography (QCT of the spine to simultaneously evaluate the average trabecular BMD of L2–L4, VAT, and SAT. Possible covariates of height, weight, age, and comorbidities were considered. In the <55-year-old sample, multiple linear regression analyses indicated that VAT volume was negatively correlated to trabecular BMD (P value = 0.0003 and SAT volume had no correlation to trabecular BMD. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between VAT or SAT and BMD in the ≥55-year-old sample. Our results indicate that high VAT volume is associated with low BMD in Chinese women aged <55 years and SAT has no relation with BMD.

  17. Dietary patterns associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal Japanese farmwomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Hosoi, Yoko; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kayama, Fujio

    2006-05-01

    Because several nutrients are known to affect bone mineral density (BMD), the analysis of dietary patterns or combinations of foods may provide insights into the influence of diet on bone health. We evaluated associations between dietary patterns and BMD in Japanese farmwomen. The study included 291 premenopausal farmwomen (aged 40-55 y) who participated in the Japanese Multi-centered Environmental Toxicant Study (JMETS; n = 1407). Forearm BMD was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diet was assessed by using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire comprising 147 food items, from which 30 food groups were created and entered into a factor analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified. The "Healthy" pattern, characterized by high intakes of green and dark yellow vegetables, mushrooms, fish and shellfish, fruit, and processed fish, was positively correlated with BMD after adjustment for several confounding factors (P = 0.048). In contrast, the "Western" pattern, characterized by high intakes of fats and oils, meat, and processed meat, tended to be inversely associated with BMD; however, the association was not significant (P = 0.08). A dietary pattern with high intakes of fish, fruit, and vegetables and low intakes of meat and processed meat may have a beneficial effect on BMD in premenopausal women.

  18. Serum γ-Glutamyl Transferase Is Inversely Associated with Bone Mineral Density Independently of Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundγ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT is a well-known marker of chronic alcohol consumption or hepatobiliary diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated that serum levels of GGT are independently associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to test if serum GGT levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 462 subjects (289 men and 173 women, who visited Severance Hospital for medical checkup, were included in this study. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional association between serum GGT and BMD was evaluated.ResultsAs serum GGT levels increased from the lowest tertile (tertile 1 to the highest tertile (tertile 3, BMD decreased after adjusting for confounders such as age, body mass index, amount of alcohol consumed, smoking, regular exercise, postmenopausal state (in women, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between log-transformed serum GGT levels and BMD. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, tertile 3 of serum GGT level was associated with an increased risk for low bone mass compared to tertile 1 (odds ratio, 2.271; 95% confidence interval, 1.340 to 3.850; P=0.002.ConclusionSerum GGT level was inversely associated with BMD in Korean adults. Further study is necessary to fully elucidate the mechanism of the inverse relationship.

  19. Jettison Engineering Trajectory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Mariusz; Walter, Patrick; Pascucci, Joseph; Armstrong, Phyllis; Hallbick, Patricia; Morgan, Randal; Cooney, James

    2013-01-01

    The Jettison Engineering Trajectory Tool (JETT) performs the jettison analysis function for any orbiting asset. It provides a method to compute the relative trajectories between an orbiting asset and any jettisoned item (intentional or unintentional) or sublimating particles generated by fluid dumps to assess whether an object is safe to jettison, or if there is a risk with an item that was inadvertently lost overboard. The main concern is the interaction and possible recontact of the jettisoned object with an asset. This supports the analysis that jettisoned items will safely clear the vehicle, ensuring no collisions. The software will reduce the jettison analysis task from one that could take days to complete to one that can be completed in hours, with an analysis that is more comprehensive than the previous method. It provides the ability to define the jettison operation relative to International Space Station (ISS) structure, and provides 2D and 3D plotting capability to allow an analyst to perform a subjective clearance assessment with ISS structures. The developers followed the SMP to create the code and all supporting documentation. The code makes extensive use of the object-oriented format of Java and, in addition, the Model-View-Controller architecture was used in the organization of the code, allowing each piece to be independent of updates to the other pieces. The model category is for maintaining data entered by the user and generated by the analysis. The view category provides capabilities for data entry and displaying all or a portion of the analysis data in tabular, 2D, and 3D representation. The controller category allows for handling events that affect the model or view(s). The JETT utilizes orbital mechanics with complex algorithms. Since JETT is written in JAVA, it is essentially platform-independent.

  20. Tracking Virtual Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Lorenceau, Jean D.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Current models of smooth pursuit eye movements assume that it is largely driven by retinal image motion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pursuit of elliptical motion (3.2s, 0.9 Hz, 1.4 deg x 1.6 deg, 4 randomly interleaved phases) of either a small spot ("real" motion) or of a line-figure diamond viewed through apertures such that only the motion of four isolated oblique line segments was visible ("virtual" motion). Each segment moved sinusoidally along a linear trajectory yet subjects perceived a diamond moving along an elliptical path behind the aperture. We found, as expected, that real motion produced accurate tracking (N = 2) with mean gain (over horizontal and vertical) of 0.9, mean phase of -6 deg (lag), mean relative phase (H vs V) of 90 +/- 8 deg (RMS error). Virtual motion behind an X-shaped aperture (N= 4 with one naive) yielded a mean gain of 0.7, mean phase of -11 deg, mean relative phase of 87 +/- 15 deg. We also measured pursuit with the X-shaped aperture using a higher segment luminance which prevents the segments from being grouped into a coherently moving diamond while keeping the motion otherwise identical. In this incoherent case, the same four subjects no longer showed consistent elliptical tracking (RMS error in relative phase rose to 60 deg) suggesting that perceptual coherence is critical. Furthermore, to rule out tracking of the centroid, we also used vertical apertures so that all segment motion was vertical (N = 3). This stimulus still produced elliptical tracking (mean relative phase of 84 +/- 19 deg), albeit with a lower gain (0.6). These data show that humans can track moving objects reasonably accurately even when the trajectory can only be derived by spatial integration of motion signals. Models that merely seek to minimize retinal or local stimulus motion cannot explain these results.

  1. Effects of long-term postoperative dienogest use for treatment of endometriosis on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Wook; Lee, Dong-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term postoperative dienogest (DNG) use for the treatment of endometriosis on bone mineral density (BMD). Sixty reproductive-aged women who underwent conservative surgery for endometriomas and received postoperative DNG (2mg/day) for at least 12 months to prevent recurrence were analyzed. BMD was measured before and after DNG treatment by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and changes in BMD were evaluated. Mean patient age was 30.5 years, and mean duration of DNG treatment was 18.6 months. BMD at the lumbar spine significantly decreased after the first 6 months (-2.2%), and 1year (-2.7%) of DNG treatment, compared to baseline. The proportion of women who had significantly decreased BMD at the lumbar spine after 1year was 75% (45/60). In addition, BMD at the femur neck also decreased significantly after 1year (-2.8%). BMDs after 2 years were not different from those after 1year at both sites in 24 women who received DNG for ≥2years. In addition, there were no differences in baseline characteristics between women who had significantly reduced BMD at the lumbar spine after 1year (N=45) and women who did not (N=15). This study suggests that long-term postoperative DNG treatment might have an adverse effect on BMD in reproductive-aged women. Bone loss mostly occurs during the first 6 months of treatment with DNG. A clinical trial is warranted to establish the effects of long-term DNG treatment on bone mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, parathormone and bone mineral density in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M K; Tandon, N; Marwaha, R K; Menon, A S; Mahalle, N

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a global problem. Not all patients with VDD have clinical manifestations or secondary hyperparathyroidism. We studied the interaction between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), parathormone (PTH) and bone mineral density (BMD) in Indian adolescents and adults. Population survey. A total of 1829 adolescents and 1346 adults aged 50 years and above were analysed in this study. Serum biochemistry, 25OHD, PTH and BMD were estimated. Subjects were grouped according to quartiles of serum PTH. VDD was defined as severe (25OHD ≤ 5 ng/ml), moderate (25OHD ≤ 10 ng/ml) and mild (25OHD ≤ 20 ng/ml) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) when serum PTH levels >65 pg/ml. Only 30-40% of subjects with moderate and severe VDD, respectively, had SHPT. BMD decreased from Quartile 1 to Quartile 4 of PTH at all sites among adolescents and adults, with only a marginal decline in serum 25OHD levels between these quartiles. Further, within each PTH quartile, there was no difference in BMD according to categories of VDD. Analysing BMD in the different PTH quartiles, the PTH cut-offs beyond which BMD showed a significant decline, was 35 pg/ml in adolescents and 53 pg/ml in adults. Less than half of the subjects with VDD have SHPT. BMD levels start to decline at PTH values currently considered to be normal. These data suggest the need to redefine SHPT in different age groups keeping in mind the relationship between PTH and BMD. This may also influence the decision to supplement subjects with VDD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to bone mineral density in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parm, Anna-Liisa; Jürimäe, Jaak; Saar, Meeli; Pärna, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Maasalu, Katre; Neissaar, Inga; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin levels and body composition parameters in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and untrained controls (UC), and to examine the relationships of bone mineral density (BMD) with hormonal status in prepubertal children with different physical activity patterns. Eighty-nine 7- to 9-year-old girls participated in the study (RG, n = 46; UC, n = 43). Body composition and BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone maturity was estimated by using a radiograph of the nondominant hand. The measured whole-body, lumbar spine (LS), and femoral neck (FN) BMD values were significantly higher (P gymnasts than in controls. In addition, RG presented significantly lower and higher values (P < 0.05) for leptin and ghrelin concentrations, respectively, in comparison with UC. No differences were observed for adiponectin levels between the studied groups. No relationships between measured BMD values with leptin and ghrelin were observed even after adjustment for age and fat mass (FM) in RG. Whole-body and LS BMD values were significantly correlated with leptin after controlling for age and FM (r = 0.32, P < 0.05) in UC. Femoral neck BMD remained significantly correlated with ghrelin after adjusting for age and FM (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) in UC. No relationships were found between measured BMD values and adiponectin even after controlling for age and FM values in both groups. In conclusion, although all measured BMD values were significantly higher in RG, plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin concentrations were not directly related to bone mineralization in prepubertal RG in contrast to UC. © The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer 2011

  4. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinya Niu

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD among older Boston Puerto Rican adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47-79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates.Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women.Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached.

  5. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.

  6. Risedronate improves bone mineral density in Crohn's disease: a two year randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Isaac; Siffledeen, Jesse; Siminoski, Kerry; McQueen, Bob; Fedorak, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease have an increased frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis. This randomized, controlled, double-blind study assessed the efficacy of risedronate versus placebo in treating low bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with Crohn's disease. 88 Crohn's disease outpatients with BMD T-score<-1.0 by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups for the two year study duration: one group received risedronate 35 mg weekly while another received placebo. Both groups received daily calcium (Ca; 500 mg) and vitamin D (D; 400 IU) supplementation. Percent change in BMD relative to baseline was compared between the two therapies at 12 and 24 months. Using intent-to-treat analysis, at 12 months, risedronate+Ca+D increased BMD, relative to baseline, more than placebo+Ca+D in the femoral trochanter (1.4±3.4% vs -0.1±3.1%; p=0.03) and total hip (1.1±2.7% vs -0.1±2.5%;p=0.04). This trend in greater BMD continued for the 24 month duration of the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups for changes in spine BMD. Subgroup analysis revealed that risedronate+Ca+D resulted in significantly better improvement in femoral trochanter BMD in non-smokers (p=0.01), males (p=0.01), those with a history of corticosteroid use in the preceding year (p=0.01), and current users of immunosuppressants (p=0.04). Risedronate, in addition to daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation, is superior to calcium and vitamin D alone in improving femoral trochanter and total hip BMD in patients with Crohn's disease. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of bone mineral density in predicting morphometric vertebral fractures in patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, T; Gotti, D; Cristiano, A; Maffezzoni, F; Mazziotti, G; Focà, E; Castelli, F; Giustina, A; Quiros-Roldan, E

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the bone of HIV patients both in terms of quantity and quality. It was found that HIV-infected patients did fracture independently of the degree of bone demineralization as in other forms of secondary osteoporosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFs) in HIV patients who were screened by bone mineral density (BMD) and to explore possible factors associated with VFs. This is a cross-sectional study that included HIV-infected patients recruited in the Clinic of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and that underwent BMD measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and hip (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare). For the assessment of VFs, anteroposterior and lateral X-ray examinations of the thoracic and lumbar spines were performed and were centrally digitized. Logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis of factors associated with VFs. One hundred thirty-one consecutive patients with HIV infection (93 M, 38 F, median age 51 years; range, 36-75) underwent BMD measurement: 25.2 % of patients showed normal BMD, while 45 % were osteopenic and 29.7 % osteoporotic. Prevalence of low BMD (osteopenia and osteoporosis) was higher in females as compared to males (90 vs 69 %) with no significant correlation with age and body mass index. VFs occurred more frequently in patients with low BMD as compared to patients with normal BMD (88.5 vs. 11.4 %; p osteoporosis (43 vs. 46 %; p = 0.073). VFs were significantly associated with older age and previous AIDS events. These results suggest a BMD patients at risk of skeletal fragility and, therefore, good candidates for morphometric evaluation of spine X-ray in line with other forms of secondary osteoporosis with impaired bone quality.

  8. Bone Density and Clinical Periodontal Attachment in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penoni, D C; Fidalgo, T K S; Torres, S R; Varela, V M; Masterson, D; Leão, A T T; Maia, L C

    2017-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and has been considered a risk factor for periodontal disease. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to verify the scientific evidence for the association of periodontal attachment loss with low BMD in postmenopausal women. A systematic search of the literature was performed in databases until August 2016, in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligibility criteria included studies that compared clinical attachment loss (CAL) between postmenopausal women with low and normal BMD. Studies using similar methodology, with lower and higher risk of bias, were pooled into 3 different meta-analyses to compare CAL among women with normal BMD, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In the first meta-analysis, mean CAL was compared among groups. In the other 2 meta-analyses, the mean percentages of sites with CAL ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm were respectively compared among groups. From 792 unique citations, 26 articles were selected for the qualitative synthesis. Eleven of the studies were appraised as presenting low risk of bias, and the association between low BMD and CAL was observed in 10 of these studies. Thirteen cross-sectional articles were included in the meta-analysis for osteoporosis and 9 in the osteopenia analysis. Women with low BMD presented greater mean CAL than those with normal BMD (osteoporosis = 0.34 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.49], P osteoporosis = 3.04 [95% CI, 1.23-4.85], P = 0.001; osteopenia = 1.74 [95% CI, 0.36-3.12], P = 0.01) and CAL ≥6 mm (osteoporosis = 5.07 [95% CI, 2.74-7.40], P osteoporosis or osteopenia may exhibit greater CAL compared with women with normal BMD.

  9. Association between Bone Mineral Density and Platelet Indices in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It was shown that low bone mass is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in early and late menopausal period. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and platelet indices (mean platelet volume [MPV], platelet distribution width [PDW] and platelet count [PC] in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated BMD and platelet parameters of the women aged between 55-75 years between January 2012-December 2015 and 311 women meeting study criteria were included in the study. Participants were divided into 3 groups (control, osteopenia, osteoporosis groups according to BMD parameters. The average values of age, BMD and platelet indices of groups were compared. Potential correlations between platelet indices with age and BMD levels were investigated and the correlation level and direction were investigated when age variable was controlled. Results: Participants in osteopenia and osteoporosis groups had significantly higher OPH values than those in the control group (p=0.002. When age variable controlled, there was a weak and negative correlation between OPH and with lumbar, femoral neck and femur total BMD (r=-0.177, p=0.002; r=-0.160, p=0.005; r=-0.151, p=0.008 respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant relationship between BMD with PC or PDW. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that there is a weak and negative correlation between the BMD the MPV. Further studies on osteoporosis and platelet indices, may contribute to better understanding of increased thrombotic risk in postmenopausal period.

  10. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  11. Unstable Semiclassical Trajectories in Tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Levkov, D G; Sibiryakov, S M

    2007-01-01

    Some tunneling phenomena are described, in the semiclassical approximation, by unstable complex trajectories. We develop a systematic procedure to stabilize the trajectories and to calculate the tunneling probability, including both the suppression exponent and prefactor. We find that the instability of tunneling solutions modifies the power-law dependence of the prefactor on h as compared to the case of stable solutions.

  12. Walking trajectory in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, RB; Brouwer, WH; Hof, AL; Dekker, R; Mulder, T; Postema, K

    A lateral deviation of the walking trajectory is often observed in stroke patients with unilateral spatial neglect. However, existing research appears to be contradictory regarding the direction of this deviation. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the walking trajectory of

  13. Geometric Algorithms for Trajectory Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Technology such as the Global Positing System (GPS) has made tracking moving entities easy and cheap. As a result there is a large amount of trajectory data available, and an increasing demand on tools and techniques to analyze such data. We consider several analysis tasks for trajectory data,

  14. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  15. Changes and tracking of bone mineral density in late adolescence: the Tromsø Study, Fit Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Ole Andreas; Ahmed, Luai Awad; Winther, Anne; Christoffersen, Tore; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Grimnes, Guri; Dennison, Elaine; Emaus, Nina

    2017-12-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) predicts future fracture risk. This study explores the development of aBMD and associated factors in Norwegian adolescents. Our results indicate a high degree of tracking of aBMD levels in adolescence. Anthropometric measures and lifestyle factors were associated with deviation from tracking. Norway has one of the highest reported incidences of hip fractures. Maximization of peak bone mass may reduce future fracture risk. The main aims of this study were to describe changes in bone mineral levels over 2 years in Norwegian adolescents aged 15-17 years at baseline, to examine the degree of tracking of aBMD during this period, and to identify baseline predictors associated with positive deviation from tracking. In 2010-2011, all first year upper secondary school students in Tromsø were invited to the Fit Futures study and 1038 adolescents (93%) attended. We measured femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH), and total body (TB) aBMD as g/cm 2 by DXA. Two years later, in 2012-2013, we invited all participants to a follow-up survey, providing 688 repeated measures of aBMD. aBMD increased significantly (p tracking of aBMD levels over 2 years. In girls, several lifestyle factors predicted a positive deviation from tracking, whereas anthropometric measures appeared influential in boys. Baseline z-score was associated with lower odds of upwards drift in both sexes. Our results support previous findings on aBMD development in adolescence and indicate strong tracking over 2 years of follow-up. Baseline anthropometry and lifestyle factors appeared to alter tracking, but not consistently across sex and skeletal sites.

  16. Polymorphisms of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist gene and forearm bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivka T Ivanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA gene polymorphism have provided conflicting data regarding the bone mass and quality. Aim and Design: The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the association between the forearm bone mineral density (BMD and the IL1RA gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 postmenopausal Bulgarian women participated in this study. BMD was measured at the forearm by X-ray absorptiometry on a DTX-100 device (Osteometer Meditech, USA. A PCR product was isolated. The alleles were scored according to their length: A1 - 410 bp - 4 repeats; A2 - 240 bp - 2 repeats; A3 - 500 bp - 5 repeats; A4 - 325 bp - 3 repeats; A5 - 595 bp - 6 repeats. All analyses were evaluated for statistical significance (χ2 -test and T-test. Results: Four alleles were observed - A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1A1 genotype was more common in cases with low BMD than in controls with normal BMD (95% vs. 90%, χ2 P < 0.01. The A2A2 genotype was equally distributed among cases and controls (both 5%. The other two genotypes (A3A3 and A4A4 as well as A1A3 were present only in controls with normal BMD. The A2A2 genotype was associated with higher BMD and the A1A1 - with lower BMD at both forearm sites. The odds ratio for low BMD in the presence of the A1A1 genotype was 2.11. The etiological factor reflecting the association between the polymorphism and the disease was 0.50. In our study sample the IL1RA genetic polymorphisms were associated with the forearm BMD. Conclusion: This genetic polymorphism may become a useful genetic marker for the study of osteoporosis.

  17. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  18. Bone mineral density and inflammatory bowel disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, the association between disease severity and BMD in patients with IBD was evaluated. Associations between BMD and the Montreal classification, disease activity and drug therapy were also tested. A cross-sectional prevalence study with a comparison group was conducted. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were evaluated: 68 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, and 60 with Crohn's disease (CD. The control group consisted of 67 healthy subjects. All patients and controls had BMD measured and in IBD patients, current medications, hospitalization, and disease location, extent and phenotype, according to the Montreal classification, were recorded. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to evaluate categorical variables. In the CD group, most patients were diagnosed between 17–40 years of age. Ileocolonic and non-stricturing non-penetrating disease were the most frequent disease location and behavior, respectively. In UC patients, extensive colitis was the most frequent disease location. UC and CD patients were more likely to have osteopenia than controls (OR=14.93/OR=24.38, respectively. In the CD group, male patients, perianal disease, penetrating behavior and age at diagnosis >40 years were associated with low BMD. Taking azathioprine and infliximab also seemed to be associated with osteopenia. In the UC group, we observed an association between low BMD and male patients, left colitis, corticosteroid use and hospitalization. Disease activity was not associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis in CD and UC patients. Disease severity seems to be associated with osteopenia in IBD patients.

  19. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/year...... (SEE 0.2-0.9%/year, p menopause (YSM) in all regions (-0.58 ... menopause. BMD correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the postmenopausal years, confirming...

  20. Does the nutrition profile of vitamins, fatty acids and microelements counteract the negative impact from organohalogen pollutants on bone mineral density in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik

    2008-01-01

    There is a great need for understanding the impact from dietary OHCs (organohalogen compounds) on bone mineral composition - and thereby osteoporosis - in especially arctic wildlife such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as well as humans. For that purpose, we measured BMD (bone mineral density...... an impact on BMD using the present time frame and OHC concentrations (threshold levels not reached), or the difference in food composition (mainly vitamins and n3 fatty acids) conceal the potential OHC impact on BMD. Such information is important when evaluating the positive and negative health consequences...

  1. Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Chen

    Full Text Available To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD.Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up.Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210 and at the spine (P = 0.116 and hip (P = 0.073 in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936.Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD.

  2. Reliability of using DXA around RTHAs. Bone Mineral Density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

      Background and purpose: Resurfacing Total Hip Arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone-stock post-operatively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD), could theoretically be affected by the hip-position, and bias longitudinal studies. We aimed to investigate BMD precision dependency on type...... of ROI and position of hip. Method: We DXA scanned the femoral neck of 15 resurfacing patients twice with the hip in 3 different rotations; 15° internal, neutral, and 15° external. For each position BMD was analyzed with 3 different surface area models. One model measured BMD in the total femoral neck......, the second model divided the neck in two and the third model had 6 divisions. Results: When all hip positions were pooled a mean Coefficient of variation (CV) of 3.1%, 3.6% and 4.6% was found in the 1, 2 and 6-region models, respectively, The external rotated hip position was less reproducible. When the hip...

  3. Teriparatide Versus Alendronate for the Preservation of Bone Mineral Density After Total Hip Arthroplasty - A randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Inaba, Yutaka; Uchiyama, Makoto; Ike, Hiroyuki; Kubota, So; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of teriparatide for the prevention of bone mineral density (BMD) loss after THA was compared with alendronate in a randomized controlled trial. Forty-eight patients were assigned to three groups, namely, the teriparatide, alendronate, and no medication groups. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed at 1 week post-surgery as a baseline reference, followed by subsequent measurements at 12, 24, and 48 weeks postoperatively. For periprosthetic BMD loss, a significant effect of teriparatide was demonstrated, though its effect was similar to alendronate. On the other hand, higher lumbar BMD was observed in the teriparatide group than in the alendronate group at 48 weeks post-surgery. Teriparatide administration may be one reasonable option for osteoporotic patient to preserve the periprosthetic BMD after THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphological Atherosclerosis Calcification Distribution (MACD) Index is a Strong Predictor of Cardio-Vascular Death and Include Predictive Power of BMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten; Ganz, Melanie

    Aortic calcification is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) related deaths. We investigated the relation between mortality and aspects of number, size, morphology and distribution of calcified plaques in the lumbar aorta and BMD of postmenopausal women. 308 women aged 48 to 76 were...... was significantly higher than AC24 and any single or multivariate metabolic/physical marker. BMD correlates with AC24 among CVD dead patients (p=0.03) unlike MACD (p=0.43). The recent MACD-index provides a unique combination of morphology and distribution of aortic calcifications, factors that in a combination...... increase the biological relevance of the index by emphasizing that smaller plaques with a spread elongated morphology have a larger growth potential and thereby subsequent rupture potential. It includes the predictive power of BMD unlike the AC24 index. Thereby, in the current cohort with a long term...

  5. Evaluation of bone mineral density in premenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Zahedan, Southeast Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Z.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the BMD in premenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 60 premenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus and 60 normal premenopausal subjects. The groups were not completely matched regarding BMI; but they were in the range of obesity. Bone mineral density was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to define bone mineral density (BMD) in second to fourth lumbar vertebrae and the neck of the femur (g/cm/sup 2/). Results: The results showed that BMD, T- and Z-score of femoral neck, total femur, L2, and Ward's were not significantly different between type 2 diabetic and normal premenopausal women (p>0.5). A significant increase of L3 BMD and L2-L4 Z-score was observed in diabetic group (p<0.05). In addition BMD, T- and Z-score of L4 were significantly higher in type 2 diabetic women than normal premenopausal women (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher BMD was noted over the spine in diabetic group which may be due to higher BMI in this group. (author)

  6. Impact of Genomics Platform and Statistical Filtering on Transcriptional Benchmark Doses (BMD and Multiple Approaches for Selection of Chemical Point of Departure (PoD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Francina Webster

    Full Text Available Many regulatory agencies are exploring ways to integrate toxicogenomic data into their chemical risk assessments. The major challenge lies in determining how to distill the complex data produced by high-content, multi-dose gene expression studies into quantitative information. It has been proposed that benchmark dose (BMD values derived from toxicogenomics data be used as point of departure (PoD values in chemical risk assessments. However, there is limited information regarding which genomics platforms are most suitable and how to select appropriate PoD values. In this study, we compared BMD values modeled from RNA sequencing-, microarray-, and qPCR-derived gene expression data from a single study, and explored multiple approaches for selecting a single PoD from these data. The strategies evaluated include several that do not require prior mechanistic knowledge of the compound for selection of the PoD, thus providing approaches for assessing data-poor chemicals. We used RNA extracted from the livers of female mice exposed to non-carcinogenic (0, 2 mg/kg/day, mkd and carcinogenic (4, 8 mkd doses of furan for 21 days. We show that transcriptional BMD values were consistent across technologies and highly predictive of the two-year cancer bioassay-based PoD. We also demonstrate that filtering data based on statistically significant changes in gene expression prior to BMD modeling creates more conservative BMD values. Taken together, this case study on mice exposed to furan demonstrates that high-content toxicogenomics studies produce robust data for BMD modelling that are minimally affected by inter-technology variability and highly predictive of cancer-based PoD doses.

  7. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  8. Relationship between bone mineral density and a 10-year risk for coronary artery disease in a healthy Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Tak; Shin, Jinho; Min, Seung Yeon; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Kil

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. If BMD is related independently to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), BMD could play an important role in CHD risk prediction. We assessed the hypothesis that BMD is related independently to the risk of CHD. We used data from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The study sample included men and women aged 20-79 years, who did not have myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, or diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the relationship between BMD and the Framingham risk score for each sex. In the male population, femur neck BMD [coefficient=-2.167, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.385 to -0.950, P=0.001] and lumbar spine BMD (coefficient=-1.539, 95% CI -2.546 to -0.532, P=0.003) showed an inverse correlation with the Framingham risk score after adjusting for covariates. In the female population, the relationship between BMD parameters and the Framingham risk score was not significant after adjusting for covariates. In the male population, those with femur neck BMD values in the first quartile had greater odds of a 10-year risk greater than or equal to 10% for CHD compared with those in the fourth quartile (odds ratio=1.942, 95% CI 1.315-2.869, P<0.001). BMD was correlated inversely with the 10-year risk for CHD in the healthy male population. This result suggests that in the male population, measurement of BMD could be useful for prediction of the risk of CHD.

  9. The correlation between metacarpal bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the jawbone in implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshinobu; Takamori, Hitoshi; Yosue, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    This study estimated the relationship between metacarpal bone mineral content and jawbone density. The subjects were 141 patients who desired implant treatment and had undergone a thorough pre-operative CT examination. In the maxilla, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the cancellous bone between the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus. In the mandible, BMD was measured at the cancellous bone beneath the mental foramen. The CT numbers were corrected by the quantitative computer tomography (QCT) method. Furthermore, the cortical indices of the mandible, i.e. C-PMI (Central-Panoramic Mandibular Index), and MCW (Mandibular Cortical Width) were measured and calculated from panoramic radiographs. The bone mineral content of the total body was obtained by ΣGS/D and MCI through Microdensitometry. The following results were obtained. Between the maxillary BMD and ΣGS/D and between the mandibular BMD and ΣGS/D, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. Between the maxillary BMD and MCI, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. However, in the mandibular BMD and MCI there was no correlation in females and males. Between C-PMI and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between C-PMI and MCI there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and MCI there was a correlation in females, but no correlation in males. From the above results, it was concluded that the maxillary BMD and the cortical index of the mandible reflected changes in the metacarpal bone mineral content, while mandibular BMD did not. (author)

  10. Defining the bone morphometry, micro-architecture and volumetric density profile in osteopenic vs non-osteopenic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lee, Wayne Yuk-Wai; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Yip, Benjamin Hon-Kei; Yu, Fiona Wai-Ping; Yu, Wing-Sze; Zhu, Feng; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2017-06-01

    Osteopenia has been widely reported in about 30 % of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, the bone quality profile of the 70 % non-osteopenic AIS defined by areal bone mineral density (BMD) with conventional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has not been adequately studied. Our purpose was to verify whether abnormal volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone structure (morphometry and micro-architecture) also existed in the non-osteopenic AIS when compared with matched controls using both DXA and high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT). This was a case-control cross-sectional study. 257 AIS girls with a mean age of 12.7 (SD = 0.8) years old and 187 age- and gender-matched normal controls with an average age of 12.9 (SD = 0.5) years old were included. Areal BMD (aBMD) and bone quality were measured with standard DXA and HR-pQCT, respectively. The parameters of HR-pQCT could be categorized as bone morphometry, vBMD and bone micro-architecture. The results were compared between the osteopenic AIS and osteopenic control, and between the non-osteopenic AIS and non-osteopenic control. In addition to the lower aBMD and vBMD, osteopenic AIS showed significantly greater cortical perimeter and trabecular area than the osteopenic control even after adjustments of age (P architecture and volumetric density profile compared with their normal matched controls. The observed abnormalities were suggestive of decreased endocortical bone apposition or active endocortical resorption that could affect the mechanical bone strength in AIS. The underlying pathomechanism might be attributed to abnormal bone modeling/remodeling that could be associated with the etiopathogenesis of AIS.

  11. Participation in high-impact sports predicts bone mineral density in senior olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; Francis, Kimberly; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

    2009-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Games (the Senior Olympics). Cross-sectional methods. The athletes completed a detailed health history questionnaire and underwent calcaneal quantitative ultrasound to measure BMD. Athletes were classified as participating in high impact sports (basketball, road race [running], track and field, triathalon, and volleyball) or non-high-impact sports. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the influence of high-impact sports on BMD. On average, participants were 65.9 years old (range, 50 to 93). There were 298 women (53.2%) and 289 men (51.6%) who participated in high-impact sports. Average body mass index was 25.6 ± 3.9. The quantitative ultrasound-generated T scores, a quantitative measure of BMD, averaged 0.4 ± 1.3 and -0.1 ± 1.4 for the high-impact and non-high-impact groups, respectively. After age, sex, obesity, and use of osteoporosis medication were controlled, participation in high-impact sports was a significant predictor of BMD (R(2) change 3.2%, P participation in high-impact sports positively influenced bone health, even in the oldest athletes. These data imply that high-impact exercise is a vital tool to maintain healthy BMD with active aging.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Bisphosphonates for Low Bone Mineral Density After Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Shun-Li; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Zhou, Yong; Sun, Jing-Cheng; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) after kidney transplantation, the role of bisphosphonates remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of bisphosphonates. We retrieved trials from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception through May 2015. Only randomized controlled trials that compared bisphosphonate-treated and control groups of patients with low bone mineral density after kidney transplantation were included. The primary outcomes were the percent change in BMD, the absolute change in BMD, and the BMD at the end of study at the lumbar spine. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). We used a random-effects model to pool the outcomes. We included 17 randomized controlled trials with 1067 patients. Only 1 included trial was found to be at low risk of bias. The rest of the included studies were found to have high to uncertain risk of bias. Compared with the control group, those who received bisphosphonates had a significant increase in percent change in BMD (mean difference [MD] = 5.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.22–7.79, P Bisphosphonates resulted in a significant improvement in percent change in BMD (MD = 4.95, 95% CI 2.57–7.33, P Bisphosphonates appear to have a beneficial effect on BMD at the lumbar spine and do not significantly decrease fracture events in recipients. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously due to the lack of robustness and the heterogeneity among studies. PMID:26844505

  13. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, K

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY: Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from...... Hologic values. INTRODUCTION: Geographic, ethnic, and socio-economic factors are known to affect bone mineral density (BMD) and peak bone mass significantly. Reference values for male peak bone mass are scarce, and the diagnosis of male osteoporosis often relies on values provided by producers of dual......-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) equipment. METHODS: The aim of the present study was 1) to establish population-based reference values for BMD in young men and 2) to study subgroups based on variables with suspected impact on bone metabolism. We included 783 young Caucasian men aged 20 to 30 years...

  14. Analysis of bone mellow density in adults of domestic local area using multi-detector computed tomography: Focus on correlation about eating habits, lifestyle, physical features and social characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hui; Kim, Tae Hyung; So, Woon Young; Lim, Hei Gyeom; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Park, Myeong Hwan; Cheon, Myung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the correlation between BMD (bone mineral density) value calculated in the MDCT(multidetector computed tomography) and lifestyle, physical features and social characteristics. From July 15 2015 to June 6 2016, we converted from HU (hounsfield unit) value measured by using MDCT to T-score for BMD of 141 patients (male: 63, female: 78) in W medical center. We measured the 2nd, 3rd and 4th lumbar spine and analyzed the correlation between gender differences in BMD and lifestyle, physical features and social characteristics. Statistical significance was validated using independent sample T test with one way Anova. Gender BMD was confirmed that a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). BMD values decreased with increasing age but for the statistically men, there was no significant difference from 20s to 50s, it only showed a significant difference in 20s and 60s (p<0.001). For the statistically women, there was no significant difference from 20s to 40s. but since 50s BMD was decreased rapidly, which showed a significant difference(p<0.001). women showed significant differences for the menstruation and menopause, childbirth, alcohol, cereals and greasy food in bone mineral density (p<0.05) but there were no significant differences in men. The bone mineral density values calculated by the MDCT and lifestyle, physical features and social characteristics correlation analysis method is considered to be used as a basis for estimating the state in BMD and osteoporosis management

  15. Analysis of bone mellow density in adults of domestic local area using multi-detector computed tomography: Focus on correlation about eating habits, lifestyle, physical features and social characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hui [Wonju Medical Center, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung; So, Woon Young; Lim, Hei Gyeom [Kangwon National University Graduate School, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan [Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Myeong Hwan [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Myung Ki [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study analyzed the correlation between BMD (bone mineral density) value