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Sample records for density bmd loss

  1. Loss of hip BMD in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) study.

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    Cawthon, Peggy M; Ewing, Susan K; McCulloch, Charles E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies in older men have not evaluated whether loss of BMD or BMC accelerates nonlinearly with age. This study aimed to describe hip bone loss (both in BMC and BMD) in older men and to test whether BMD loss accelerates with age in an exponential manner in a cohort of 4720 community-dwelling men >or=65 yr of age. Men had two to three measures of femoral neck (FN) BMD (by DXA) over an average follow-up of 4.6 yr. Change in BMD during follow-up was estimated from mixed effects regression models; the significance of a quadratic term for age was evaluated. Mean FN BMD loss was 0.013 g/cm(2) (-1.72%) during follow-up. The quadratic term for age was significant, and the model showed that bone loss accelerated with age. Estimated loss of FN BMD over follow-up for men 85 yr of age (0.021 g/cm(2)) was 2.5 times greater than the loss expected for men 65 yr of age (0.008 g/cm(2)); such bone loss in 85-yr-old men may be sufficient to increase the risk of hip fracture by 25% (HR per 0.021 g/cm(2) cross-sectional decrease in FN BMD: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18-1.31) over 4.6 yr. Men with lower BMD at baseline lost the most BMD over follow-up. Although average bone loss over time is modest in older men, there is considerable variability in rate of loss. Older men and those with lower BMD lose bone more rapidly, offering potential explanation for the increasing risk of fracture with advancing age.

  2. Identification of Hip BMD Loss and Fracture Risk Markers Through Population-Based Serum Proteomics: HIP BMD LOSS & FRACTURE RISK MARKERS BY POPULATION-BASED SERUM PROTEOMICS

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    Nielson, Carrie M. [OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Wiedrick, Jack [Biostatistics and Design Program, OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Shen, Jian [Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Jacobs, Jon [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA USA; Baker, Erin S. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA USA; Baraff, Aaron [Division of Biostatistics, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Piehowski, Paul [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA USA; Lee, Christine G. [Research Service, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR USA; Baratt, Arie [Division of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Petyuk, Vladislav [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA USA; McWeeney, Shannon [Division of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Lim, Jeong Youn [Division of Biostatistics, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Bauer, Douglas C. [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA USA; Lane, Nancy E. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA USA; Cawthon, Peggy M. [California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, CA USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA USA; Lapidus, Jodi [Biostatistics and Design Program, OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Orwoll, Eric S. [Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA; Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR USA

    2017-04-06

    Accelerated bone loss significantly increases the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. The mechanisms underlying bone loss remain incompletely understood, and there are few available biomarkers. We utilized a novel proteomics approach to identify serum peptides and proteins associated with bone loss in 1967 older men who were randomly chosen from the Osteoporotic Fracture in Men Study (MrOS study) (age ≥ 65 yrs). Men had 2-3 measures of femoral neck BMD over an average follow-up of 4.6 years. Change in BMD was estimated and then categorized into three groups: maintained BMD (n=453), expected loss (n=1185) and accelerated loss (n=237). A liquid chromatography–ion mobility separation-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) proteomics platform was used to identify and quantify peptides from serum proteins. The whole cohort was randomly divided into discovery (N= 960) and validation (N= 915) sub-cohorts. Linear regression models and a random forest approach were used to discover differentially abundant individual peptides and a proteomic signature that distinguished individuals with accelerated bone loss from those who maintained BMD. Network analyses were performed using the MetaCore knowledgebase. We identified 12 peptides that were associated with BMD loss in both discovery (P< 0.1 FDR) and replication sub-cohorts (P<0.05). Those 12 peptides mapped to the following proteins: ALS, LYVE1, RNAS1, C2, ICOSL, C163A, C7, HEMO, CD14, CERU, CRAC1 and CD59. Meta-analysis of peptidesassociated with bone loss identified 6 additional proteins including GRP78, IGF-2, SHBG, ENPP2, IBP2 and IBP6. We also identified a proteomic signature that was predictive of BMD loss with a discriminative value similar to serum bone marker carboxy-terminal collagen crosslink peptide (CTX). Interestingly, combining the proteomic signature with CTX significantly improved the ability to discriminate men with accelerated loss. In summary, we have identified potential new biomarkers for bone loss that provide

  3. European bone mineral density loci are also associated with BMD in East-Asian populations.

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    Unnur Styrkarsdottir

    Full Text Available Most genome-wide association (GWA studies have focused on populations of European ancestry with limited assessment of the influence of the sequence variants on populations of other ethnicities. To determine whether markers that we have recently shown to associate with Bone Mineral Density (BMD in Europeans also associate with BMD in East-Asians we analysed 50 markers from 23 genomic loci in samples from Korea (n = 1,397 and two Chinese Hong Kong sample sets (n = 3,869 and n = 785. Through this effort we identified fourteen loci that associated with BMD in East-Asian samples using a false discovery rate (FDR of 0.05; 1p36 (ZBTB40, P = 4.3×10(-9, 1p31 (GPR177, P = 0.00012, 3p22 (CTNNB1, P = 0.00013, 4q22 (MEPE, P = 0.0026, 5q14 (MEF2C, P = 1.3×10(-5, 6q25 (ESR1, P = 0.0011, 7p14 (STARD3NL, P = 0.00025, 7q21 (FLJ42280, P = 0.00017, 8q24 (TNFRSF11B, P = 3.4×10(-5, 11p15 (SOX6, P = 0.00033, 11q13 (LRP5, P = 0.0033, 13q14 (TNFSF11, P = 7.5×10(-5, 16q24 (FOXL1, P = 0.0010 and 17q21 (SOST, P = 0.015. Our study marks an early effort towards the challenge of cataloguing bone density variants shared by many ethnicities by testing BMD variants that have been established in Europeans, in East-Asians.

  4. European bone mineral density loci are also associated with BMD in East-Asian populations.

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    Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Tang, Nelson L S; Koh, Jung-Min; Xiao, Su-mei; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Kim, Ghi Su; Chan, Juliana C N; Cherny, Stacey; Lee, Seung Hun; Kwok, Anthony; Ho, Suzanne; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Kostic, Jelena Pop; Palsson, Stefan Th; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sham, Pak C; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kung, Annie W C; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Woo, Jean; Leung, Ping-C; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2010-10-07

    Most genome-wide association (GWA) studies have focused on populations of European ancestry with limited assessment of the influence of the sequence variants on populations of other ethnicities. To determine whether markers that we have recently shown to associate with Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in Europeans also associate with BMD in East-Asians we analysed 50 markers from 23 genomic loci in samples from Korea (n = 1,397) and two Chinese Hong Kong sample sets (n = 3,869 and n = 785). Through this effort we identified fourteen loci that associated with BMD in East-Asian samples using a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05; 1p36 (ZBTB40, P = 4.3×10(-9)), 1p31 (GPR177, P = 0.00012), 3p22 (CTNNB1, P = 0.00013), 4q22 (MEPE, P = 0.0026), 5q14 (MEF2C, P = 1.3×10(-5)), 6q25 (ESR1, P = 0.0011), 7p14 (STARD3NL, P = 0.00025), 7q21 (FLJ42280, P = 0.00017), 8q24 (TNFRSF11B, P = 3.4×10(-5)), 11p15 (SOX6, P = 0.00033), 11q13 (LRP5, P = 0.0033), 13q14 (TNFSF11, P = 7.5×10(-5)), 16q24 (FOXL1, P = 0.0010) and 17q21 (SOST, P = 0.015). Our study marks an early effort towards the challenge of cataloguing bone density variants shared by many ethnicities by testing BMD variants that have been established in Europeans, in East-Asians.

  5. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels as therapeutic target in preserving bone mineral density (BMD) of older men.

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    Naharci, Ilkin; Bozoglu, Ergun; Karadurmus, Nuri; Emer, Ozdes; Kocak, Necmettin; Kilic, Selim; Doruk, Huseyin; Serdar, Muhittin

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge about vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels in preserving bone mass in older men is limited. In this retrospective study, we aimed to find out whether levels of vitamin B(12) and folic acid are related to BMD in older men. Two hundred and sixty-nine older men were included in the study. Forty-two (15.6%) of them had osteoporotic, 150 (55.8%) had osteopenic, and 77 (28.6%) had normal BMD. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels were categorized as indicating normal, borderline, or low vitamin statuses. Femur neck densities showed statistically significant differences in subjects having low, borderline, and normal vitamin B(12), respectively. There were no significant differences between the three tertiles of vitamin B(12) in femur total, trochanteric, and intertrochanteric densities. After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol, smoking, and exercise with analysis of covariance, the difference was still statistically significant between two groups for femur neck density (p=0.011). No significant difference was observed between the groups of folic acid in any femur sites. We found that the normal level of vitamin B(12) in older men may be related to a decrease of femur neck bone loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

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    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  7. A study on the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by life habit and physical condition

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    Kim, Sun Geun [Woosuk University Oriental Medical Hospital, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the correlation between BMD and life habit such as drinking exercise smoking or physical condition such as age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). I evaluated the BMD of the femoral neck and L2-L4 spines of 321 persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk university oriental medical hospital from February to April in 2006 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. The age of persons ranged from 20 years to 75 years (mean 45.10 {+-} 11.54) and there were 160 males and 161 females. In males, BMD of the femoral head was highest at 2nd decade, BMD of the spine was highest at 4th decade, and BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was lowest at 6th decade. In fenales, BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was highest at 4th decade and lowest at 6th decade. Among the various physical conditions, only height of persons showed significant correlation with BMD in both males and females, BMD was increased according to increasing height. In males, BMD of persons who had habit such as drinking, exercise or smoking did not show significant change statistically. But in females, drinking group showed high BMD relative to non-drinking group in both femoral head and lumbar spine. BMD was different according to age, sex, height and life habit. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors decreasing BMD for prevention of problems by osteoporosis.

  8. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

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    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is a potential risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in astronauts. Although lumbar spine (LS) BMD declines rapidly, more than expected for age, there have been no fragility fractures in astronauts that can clearly be attributed to spaceflight. Recently, astronauts have been returning from 6-month spaceflights with absolute BMD still above young adult mean BMD. In spite of these BMD measurements, we project that the rapid loss in bone mass over long-duration spaceflight affects the bone microarchitecture of the LS which might predispose astronauts to premature vertebral fractures. Thus, we evaluated TBS, a novel texture index correlated with vertebral bone microarchitecture, as a means of monitoring changes to bone microarchitecture in astronauts as they age. We previously reported that TBS detects an effect of spaceflight (6-month duration), independent of BMD, in 51 astronauts (47+/-4 y) (Smith et al, J Clin Densitometry 2014). Hence, TBS was evaluated in serial DXA scans (Hologic Discovery W) conducted triennially in all active and retired astronauts and more frequently (before spaceflight, after spaceflight and until recovery) in the subset of astronauts flying 4-6- month missions. We used non-linear models to describe trends in observations (BMD or TBS) plotted as a function of astronaut age. We fitted 1175 observations of 311 astronauts, pre-flight and then postflight starting 3 years after landing or after astronaut's BMD for LS was restored to within 2% of preflight BMD. Observations were then grouped and defined as follows: 1) LD: after exposure to at least one long-duration spaceflight > 100 days and 2) SD: before LD and after exposure to at least one short-duration spaceflight lumbar spine to monitor the combined changes due to spaceflight and due to aging. This increased knowledge may enhance the ability to identify an intervention trigger for premature vertebral fractures in astronauts.

  9. A RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF TEA, SMOKING AND SODA ON WEIGHT HEIGHT AND BONE MINARAL DENSITY (BMD OF ATHLETS

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    H. Bayram TEMUR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate whether incomes of the family, tea, smoke and soda have effect on the weight, height and bone mineral density of athletes. 80 athletes whose average age was 16.62- 0.92 were included. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4 of the subjects was measured by Dual energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DEXA (g/cm. Values of the family income and the daily consumption of tea, smoke and soda in the families of the athletes were researched. Values of weight and height of the athletes were also determined. In the analyses of the data obtained in the study, SPSS 15.0 package program was used. The results of this study demonstrated that there is no relation between the values of smoke, tea and soda with the values of weight, height and BMD. However, despite the lack of a relationship between the BMD values and the family income level, significant correlation was obtained between the BMD values with the height values (p≤0.01 and the weight values (p≤0.05. Consequently it was determined that tea, smoke and soda do not have effects on weight, height and BMD. Hence, it is thought that the lack of effect of smoking on weight, height and BMD could be due to the less daily smoking (1.67-0.79 and less smoking average in the subjects (26.3%.

  10. Factors Predicting Bone Mineral Density (BMD Changes in Young Women over A One-year Study:Changes in Body Weight and Bone Metabolic Markers during the Menstrual Cycle and Their Effects on BMD

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    Iida,Tadayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 26% of Japanese women in their twenties are under weight, and therefore at risk of developing various metabolic abnormalities due to an inadequate nutrient intake, which in turn affects the acquisition of a peak bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of menstrual cycle-related changes in body weight and bone metabolic marker levels on the BMD changes. The subjects were 42 women (19.6±0.8 years. The levels of osteocalcin (OC, BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD, and E2 in the menstrual and ovulatory phases were measured. The associations between dependent variables (BMD changes/year in the lumbar spine, femur, femoral neck and explanatory variables (body weight changes/year, the levels of OC, BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the correlations between the changes in bone metabolic markers and changes in BMD showed a correlation between the OC level in the menstrual phase and changes in the BMD of the entire femur, suggesting that a high OC level protects against BMD reduction, probably by promoting osteoblast activity, and that bone formation activity suppresses the decrease in BMD. These results suggest that, to predict BMD changes from bone metabolic markers in young women, it is necessary to measure OC levels in the menstrual phase.

  11. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

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    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  12. Sex Differences in the Effects of Weight Loss Diets on Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition: POUNDS LOST Trial.

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    Tirosh, Amir; de Souza, Russell J; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R; LeBoff, Meryl S

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss is associated with reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). The objective was to address the role of changes in fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) in BMD decline in both sexes. A 2-year randomized controlled trial, the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS-LOST). The setting was the general community. Enrolled were 424 overweight and obese participants (mean age, 52 ± 9 y; 57% females). Intervention included weight loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Main outcome measures were change in spine, total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) BMD and sex differences after dietary intervention. At baseline, a stronger correlation between BMD and body composition measurements was observed in women, primarily with LM (r = 0.419, 0.507, and 0.523 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively; all P weight loss at 2 years was -6.9%, without differences among diets. Two-year changes in BMD were 0.005 (P = .04), -0.014 (P changes directly correlated with changes in LM in women (r = 0.200, 0.324, and 0.260 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively), whereas FM loss correlated only with changes in TH BMD (0.274; P changes in LM (-0.323; P changes in spine BMD. Weight loss diets result in sex-specific effects on BMD. Although men exhibited a paradoxical increase in spine BMD, women tended to decrease in BMD at all sites.

  13. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  14. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk factor in Egyptian male and female battery manufacturing workers.

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    Raafat, Bassem M; Hassan, Nahed S; Aziz, S W

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the relation between lead exposure and the risk of various symptoms of osteoporosis in male and female battery manufacturing workers by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 18 female and 24 male workers were chosen with the same age range, duty hours per day, work history and weight. A total of 15 healthy controls were chosen with no previous history of bone illness and normal blood lead concentration. Blood lead concentration was measured in all workers and controls. Non-lead elevated subjects were excluded. Bone mineral density was measured by X-ray-based dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan machine. Spine, femur neck and radius sites were studied. Results showed that both male and female workers recorded significant elevated levels of lead concentration accompanied by osteoporosis when compared with control. Interestingly, the data revealed that fracture risk in female was significantly higher than male workers. It was concluded that lead poisoning may act as osteoporosis risk factor or co-factor in female workers by activating the conversion of osteopenia to osteoporosis.

  15. A study on the effects of a calcium drug on the bone mineral density (BMD) by using dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

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    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ho-Sung; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of osteoporosis might contain errors caused by the calcium drug used in the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. This study conducted a lumbar spine phantom experiment to examine whether a calcium drug can influence the measured values of the bone mineral density (BMD) because of the drug taken by a real patient remaining undigested in the stomach. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure the BMD for a calcium-drug in an equipment-dedicated lumbar spine phantom and 10 patients selected for the BMD measurement. Three types of drugs that are prescribed in actual clinical practice calcium drugs were used for the phantom experiment, and the drugs were divided into a fixed dose, 1/2 of the fixed dose, 1/4 of the fixed dose and 1/8 of the fixed dose. Without the drugs included, the phantom was scanned 60 times continuously to calculate the baseline BMD. The BMD was measured as the calcium drug coated with paraffin was placed in the lumbar vertebra 2 and the soft tissue region of the phantom. To determine when the drug was invisible to the naked eye are measured, the BMD at different drug dilutions. The measurements were conducted three times to calculate the mean. In the patient experiment, patients were selected who visited hospital after taking the drug before measuring the BMD. After a certain time had passed, the BMD was measured again to examine the difference in images and the change in BMD values due to the calcium-drug intake. The BMD measurements of lumbar 1-4 in the phantom were higher, with statistical significant, than the least significant change (LSC) in the bone region for all three drugs (Ca carbonate, Ca citrate and Ca cholecalciferol), showing a significant increase. On the other hand, there was no significant change in the soft tissue. When Ca Cholecalciferol was used in a fixed dose, the BMD of L2 increased by 11.6%, showing the largest increase among the drugs examined, but only a 2.8% increase in the BMD of L1

  16. Association of testosterone and bone mineral density with tooth loss in men with chronic periodontitis.

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    Singh, Balendra P; Makker, Annu; Tripathi, Arvind; Singh, Man M; Gupta, Vivek

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted to compare the mean testosterone and bone mineral density (BMD) levels in men with and without tooth loss. Two hundred three male subjects aged 30-65 years satisfying the study criteria were selected and then examined for bone mineral density, testosterone level, clinical attachment loss, probing pocket depth, tooth mobility and tooth loss due to periodontal disease. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 15.0) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill, USA), and differences were considered to be significant at P < 0.05. Independent sample "t" test was used to compare the results, and receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis was performed to obtain the cut-off. The mean testosterone level in subjects without tooth loss was 4.41 ± 2.57, whereas that in subjects with tooth loss was 2.79 ± 1.15 (P = 0.001). The mean BMD in subjects without tooth loss was 0.99 ± 0.13, whereas that in subjects with tooth loss was 0.96 ± 0.12 (P = 0.046). The testosterone level and BMD in subjects with tooth loss were significantly lower than those in subjects without tooth loss. Testosterone is a good predictor of tooth loss, but its efficiency decreases with increasing tooth loss. BMD is not a good predictor of tooth loss.

  17. Functional autonomy, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum osteocalcin levels in older female participants of an aquatic exercise program (AAG).

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    Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, paquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women.

  18. Time course of 25(OHD3 vitamin D3 as well as PTH (parathyroid hormone during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density (BMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wöfl Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now the exact biochemical processes during healing of metaphyseal fractures of healthy and osteoporotic bone remain unclear. Especially the physiological time courses of 25(OHD3 (Vitamin D as well as PTH (Parathyroid Hormone the most important modulators of calcium and bone homeostasis are not yet examined sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to focus on the time course of these parameters during fracture healing. Methods In the presented study, we analyse the time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of low BMD level fractures versus normal BMD level fractures in a matched pair analysis. Between March 2007 and February 2009 30 patients older than 50 years of age who had suffered a metaphyseal fracture of the proximal humerus, the distal radius or the proximal femur were included in our study. Osteoporosis was verified by DEXA measuring. The time courses of 25(OHD3 and PTH were examined over an eight week period. Friedmann test, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Mann-Withney U test were used as post-hoc tests. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Serum levels of 25(OHD3 showed no differences in both groups. In the first phase of fracture healing PTH levels in the low BMD level group remained below those of the normal BMD group in absolute figures. Over all no significant differences between low BMD level bone and normal BMD level bone could be detected in our study. Conclusions The time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density were examined for the first time in humans in this setting and allowing molecular biological insights into fracture healing in metaphyseal bones on a molecural level. There were no significant differences between patients with normal and low BMD levels. Hence further studies will be necessary to obtain more detailed insight into fracture healing in order to provide reliable decision criteria for

  19. 补肾健脾益气法对酒精性骨质疏松大鼠骨密度(BMD)、骨矿含量(BMC)影响的研究%Influence of the Method of Tonifying Kidney, Strengthening Spleen and Supporting Qi on Bone Mineral Density(BMD) and Bone Mineral Content(BMC)with Alcoholic Osteoporosis(AOP) in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任树军; 邢国利; 姜益常; 葛明富; 毕旭伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of the method of tonifying kidney, strengthening spleen and supporting Qi on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMD) with Alcoholic osteoporosis (AOP) in rats, and to investigate the mechanism of herbs for strengthening kidney and spleen on AOP. Method: 40 adult male SD rats of pathogen - free were randomly divided into four groups on average: model group, western medicine control group, Chinese medicine intervention group and normal control group. The animal model of AOP was induced by irrigation stomach with the Red Start ( Hongxing) Erguotou ( rats in normal control group received saline) , simultaneously, saline, Calcium Carbonate alpha D3, JianGuLing capsule and saline were given to four groups, respectively. Sixteen weeks later, BMD and BMC of thighbone were measured by dual energy X - ray absorptiometry. Results: BMD and BMC in model group were remarkablely decreased compared with normal control group, the difference was significant(P <0. 01) , which suggested that rats receiving high concentrations of liguor for 16 weeks really resulted in decrease of BMD and BMC. Furthermore, BMD and BMC in Chinese medicine intervention group(P < 0.01) and western medicine control group (P < 0.05) were remarkablely increased compared with model group. In addition, BMD and BMC in Chinese medicine intervention group were higher than those in Western medicine control group(P < 0.05) , suggesting that Chinese medicine intervention group was superior to western medicine control group. Conclusion: Rats with AOP possess bone metabolism disorder, bone formation decreasing, bone loss reducing and finally induced osteoporosis. The method of tonifying kidney, strengthening spleen and supporting Qi can enhance BMD and BMC, and inhibit loss of bone mineral in rats with AOP, thereby it can effectively improve bone metabolism of rats with AOP.%目的:观察补肾健脾益气法对酒精性骨质疏松(AOP)大鼠骨密度影

  20. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    measurements were identified for different age groups. Age-appropriate testing mode can improve detection of osteoporotic fracture risk in early menopause by determining muscular strength reduction related to BMD loss. This may enable early initiation of preventative therapies. Keywords: osteoporosis, fracture, bone mineral density, postmenopausal, menopause, muscle strength, isokinetic, isometric

  1. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) around the cemented Exeter stem: a prospective study in 18 women with 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank; Nissen, Nis; Jørgensen, Hans R I

    2008-01-01

    in all zones except 4 and 7. Despite this, the total periprosthetic BMD decreased during the follow-up relative to the immediate postoperative situation. There was no significant reduction in BMD in the contralateral hip. In the spine, we observed a significant rise in BMD. INTERPRETATION: 18 months...

  2. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijbrandts, C A; Klaasen, R; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Gerlag, D M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; Tak, P P

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A total of 50 patients with active RA (DAS28⩾3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously/2 weeks) were included in an open label prospective study. All patients used stable methotrexate and were allowed to use prednisone (⩽10 mg/day). The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck was measured before and 1 year after start of treatment. Results: Disease activity at baseline (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)) and disease duration were inversely correlated with femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD (p<0.05). Mean BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck remained unchanged after 1 year of adalimumab therapy (+0.3% and +0.3%, respectively). Of interest, a beneficial effect of prednisone on change in femur neck BMD was observed with a relative increase with prednisone use (+2.5%) compared to no concomitant prednisone use (−0.7%), (p = 0.015). Conclusion: In contrast to the progressive bone loss observed after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy, TNF blockade may result in an arrest of general bone loss. Consistent with previous observations, the data also suggest that the net effect of low-dose corticosteroids on BMD in RA may be beneficial, possibly resulting from their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:18408246

  3. Effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density in rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss and suppressed endogenous adrenaline levels by metyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Isaoglu, Unal; Uslu, Turan; Yildirim, Kadir; Seven, Bedri; Akcay, Fatih; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    In this study, effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in rats with overiectomy induced bone lose and suppressed endogenous adrenalin levels, and compared to alendronate. Severity of bone loss in the examined material (femur bones) was evaluated by BMD measurement. The group with the highest BMD value was metyrosinemetyrosine + methylprednisolone combination (0.151 g/cm(2)), while that with the lowest BMD was methylprednisolone (0.123 g/cm(2)). Alendronate was effective only when used alone in ovariectomized rats (0.144 g/cm(2)), but not when used in combination with methylprednisolone (0.124 g/cm(2)). In the ovariectomized rat group which received only metyrosine, BMD value was statistically indifferent from ovariectomized control group. Methylprednisolone protected bone loss in rats with suppressed adrenaline levels because of metyrosinemetyrosine.

  4. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) around the cemented Exeter stem: a prospective study in 18 women with 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank Lindhøj; Nissen, Nis; Jørgensen, Hans R I

    2008-01-01

    THA changes the pattern of strain distribution in the proximal femur. We quantified the changes in BMD for 5 years after insertion of the cemented Exeter stem in women.......THA changes the pattern of strain distribution in the proximal femur. We quantified the changes in BMD for 5 years after insertion of the cemented Exeter stem in women....

  5. Bone density in premenopausal women: effects of age, dietary intake, physical activity, smoking, and birth-control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R B; Barden, H S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age, calcium, smoking, and physical activity on appendicular and axial bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in a 2-y study of 200-300 healthy young women aged 20-39 y. There was no cross-sectional change of BMD with age or longitudinal change with bone loss. No effect of birth-control pills on BMD was seen. There also was no association of calcium intake with BMD and/or with BMD changes. Current calcium intake was not a significant influence on BMD in this age group. Daily activity had no effect on BMD and there was no apparent additive interaction of activity and calcium intake on BMD. Smokers had significantly lower spine BMD and a tendency for lower BMD at other sites. Body weight was a better predictor of BMD than was any other factor. There was no association of BMD or BMD changes with both urinary calcium and hydroxyproline normalized for creatinine.

  6. An analysis of BMD changes with preopertive and postoperative premenopausal breast cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Su Jin; Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University, Incheon St.Mary' s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Sang Chull [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Shin han University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD (bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value (lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program (version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively (p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement (0.067 g/cm{sup 2}) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur (p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary.

  7. BMD improvements after operation for primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolighed, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Heickendorff, Lene

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) changes following surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and to assess their relationship with clinical and biochemical variables. METHODS: A historic cohort of 236 PHPT patients with DXA scans pre- and 1-year...

  8. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...

  9. 产后运动指导及高钙饮食对产后骨密度恢复的影响%THE POSTPARTUM EXERCISE GUIDANCE AND HIGH CALCIUM DIET ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY(BMD) IN POSTPARTUM RECOVERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 曾定元; 陈江鸿; 张静

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of postpartum exercise guidance and high calcium diet on bone mineral density(BMD) in postpartum recovery. Methods:Chose 144 health parturients full-term delivery of single fetus in our hospital to survey,mothers were randomly divided into groups A, B and C with 48 cases each group. Group A of maternal daily oral calcium carbonate 600 mg; milk 250 mL, twice a day; guidance movement (started 2 months postpartum, to 4 km/hour speed of brisk walking 30 minutes/time,5-7 times/ week); Group B was daily oral calcium carbonate 600 mg; milk 250 mL, twice a day; by my task force member of staff for supervision. Group C had no hand steering its services calcium, milk and exercise guidance. All mothers were at 3 days postpartum, 12 months postpartum measurement of bone metabolism (alkaline phosphatase, urinary calcium, urinary creatinine) and the side of the femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density. Results:① pregnancy (3 days postpartum measurement) bone loss rate was 76. 9% (100/130),34 cases in group A,35 cases in group B and 31 cases in group C (x2 =0.073, P =0. 964); BMD in postpartum recovery of 12 months group A 33. 3%(17/45),group B 20%(10/45) .group C 12. 5%(5/40) was significant(x2 =7. 504, P =0. 023); ②12 months after giving birth three groups on the left femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density significantly ( P <0. 05),group A was the highest ;blood ALP, urinary Ca/Cr in three groups were significant ( P <0. 05), group A was minimum. Conclusion: prone to bone loss during pregnancy, breast-feeding caused a further loss of bone mass. But breast-feeding of high calcium diet supplemented with the appropriate exercise can promote the recovery of bone mass, reduce bone turnover rate.%目的:探讨产后运动指导及高钙饮食对产后骨密度恢复的影响.方法:选择在我院产科单胎足月分娩的健康产妇144例为观察对象,随机将产妇分为A、B、C3组,每组48例.A

  10. Change in Bone Mineral Density During Weight Loss with Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Beavers, Daniel P; Martin, Sarah B; Marsh, Anthony P; Lyles, Mary F; Lenchik, Leon; Shapses, Sue A; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2017-04-03

    To examine the effect of exercise modality during weight loss on hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight and obese, older adults. This analysis compared data from two 5-month, randomized controlled trials of caloric restriction (CR; inducing 5-10% weight loss) with either resistance training (RT) or aerobic training (AT) in overweight and obese, older adults. Participants in the RT + CR study underwent 3 days/week of 8 upper/lower body exercises (3 sets, 10 repetitions at 70% 1 RM) and participants in the AT+CR study underwent 4 days/week of treadmill walking (30 min at 65-70% heart rate reserve). BMD at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 5 months. A total of 123 adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, 67% female, 81% Caucasian) participated in the RT+CR (n = 60) and AT+CR (n = 63) interventions. Average weight loss was 5.7% (95% CI: 4.6-6.7%) and 8.2% (95% CI: 7.2-9.3%) in RT+CR and AT+CR groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, race, baseline BMI and BMD, and weight change, differential treatment effects were observed for total hip and femoral neck (both p resistance, rather than aerobic, training during CR may attenuate loss of hip and femoral neck BMD in overweight and obese older adults. Findings warrant replication from a long-term, adequately powered, RCT.

  11. Total body and regional bone mineral densitometry (BMD) and soft tissue measurements: correlations of BMD parameter to lumbar spine and hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, H; Munz, M

    2000-08-01

    Bone loss in men and women seems to differ according to the skeletal regions or particular areas being evaluated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the method of choice for measuring total body and regional bone mineral area density (BMD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of DXA measurements of total body in relation to lumbar spine and hip in different scan beam designs. In 300 patients, ages 43-80 years, lumbar spine, hip, total body and regional bone mineral area density, and soft tissue measurements were performed on all subjects in the supine position on a QDR 2000 using single beam (SB) and fan beam (FB). Short-term precision errors were 0.7% (SB) and 1.2% (FB) for BMD total of the total body and between 1.2% and 8.0% for soft tissue measurements. All mid-term precision errors of BMD total, right and left leg, and pelvis were below 2.0% with SB and FB, whereas precision errors of thoracic and lumbar spine varied depending on the scan mode being applied. In contrast, all mid-term precision errors of soft tissue measurements were greater (2.6-11.0%). All SB values of BMD and soft tissue measurement were significantly higher than FB values, except for BMD values of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis. Furthermore, BMD total of the total body scan correlated significantly (P parameters with best "r"-values (0.86-0. 92) for the right and left leg in SB and FB design. In addition, there were excellent correlations (r > 0.94, P spine (or hip) and total body, being best for the subregional thorax. Our data demonstrate short-and mid-term precision errors of BMD with reproducible results for most areas in SB and FB design, whereas soft tissue measurements vary depending on the area being measured. Furthermore, there is a close relationship between BMD values of total body total and subregional parameters and lumbar spine and hip scans, respectively.

  12. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L.; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L.

    2017-01-01

    During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals. PMID:28241421

  13. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  14. Relationship between Mandibular BMD and Bone Turnover Markers in Osteoporosis Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Eshaghi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The purpose of the present study was to determine mandible bone mineral density and evaluate its correlation with central BMD and bone turnover."nMethods: Two hundred and seven postmenopausal women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After receiving the tes­timonials, questionnaires were completed and physical exams were done. For all participants central BMD was measured through DXA method. In each women periapical radiography performed in two regions of mandible. The plain x-ray films were scanned using a standard film digitizer and standardized in size and intensity using a calibration step wedge phantom. The phantom was placed upper site in film cover. After the film digitized, the developed Matlab software was used to image proc­essing."nResults: Mean age and body mass index of participants were 54.6±6.3 years and 28.57±4.9 kg/m2 respectively. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in one of regions in central DXA were 17.4% and 48.2% respectively. There was strong cor­relation between mandible and total femur BMD (P= 0.001, r= 0.80.In osteoporotic patients bone loss in mandible BMD was more than central DXA (P= 0.02."nConclusion: The main advantage of the proposed mandible BMD is to help clinicians make more accurate evaluation of Bone loss. Based on developed the suggested system a routine dental X-ray could be used to screen for bone loss.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of bone-mineral density loss using X-ray coherent scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Regina Cély; Oliveira, Luis Fernando; Castro, Carlos Roberto Ferreira; Lima, João Carlos; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Droppa, Roosevel; Tromba, Giuliana; Mancini, Lucia; Zanini, Franco; Rigon, Luigi; Dreossi, Diego

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we intend to relate the mineral to non-mineral bone scattering intensity ratio with the bone-mineral density (BMD) reduction. In this way, EDXRD can be a novel technique to measure BMD loss in function of the mineral and non-mineral scattering intensity. The scattering profiles were obtained at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS) at the X-ray diffraction beamline XD2. A double-crystal Si(1 1 1) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth (Δ λ/ λ≈10 -4) at 11 keV. The sample holder has a circle depression in the center to contain a range of bone and fat mixture ratios. The mixture consists of powdered cortical bone and fat, which together simulate in vivo bone. The diffraction patterns were carried out with 0.5 mm slits after and behind of the sample holder. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 0.5 s. EDXRD results show an indication of different bone densities may be distinguished which suggested that X-ray coherent scattering technique may have a role in monitoring changes in BMD via changes in the related scattering intensity of mineral and non-mineral bone. The main aim of the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) project at the ELETTRA is the investigation and the development of innovative techniques for medical imaging. The beamline provides, at a distance of about 23 m from the source, a monochromatic, laminar section X-ray beam with a maximum area of about 160×5 mm 2 at 20 keV. The monochromator, that covers the entire angular acceptance of the beamline, is based on a double-Si (1 1 1) crystal system working in Bragg configuration. A micrometric vertical and horizontal translation stage allows the positioning and scanning of the sample with respect to the stationary beam. In this case, the detector is kept stationary in front of the beam, while the object is rotated in discrete steps in front of it. At each rotation, a projection is acquired. A goniometric

  16. Effects of Tai Chi and Walking Exercises on Weight Loss, Metabolic Syndrome Parameters, and Bone Mineral Density: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tai Chi and walking are both moderate-intensity physical activity (PA that can be easily practiced in daily life. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of these two PAs on weight loss, metabolic syndrome parameters, and bone mineral density (BMD in Chinese adults. We randomized 374 middle-aged subjects (45.8 ± 5.3 years into 12-week training (45 minutes per day, 5 days per week of Tai Chi (n=124 or self-paced walking (n=121 or control group (n=129. On average, Tai Chi and walking groups lost 0.50 and 0.76 kg of body weight and 0.47 and 0.59 kg of fat mass after intervention, respectively. The between-group difference of waist circumference (WC and fasting blood glucose (FBG was −3.7 cm and −0.18 mmol/L for Tai Chi versus control and −4.1 cm and −0.22 mmol/L for walking versus control. No significant differences were observed regarding lean mass, blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMD compared to control. Change in lean mass, not fat mass or total weight loss, was significantly correlated to the change in BMD. Our results suggest that both of these two PAs can produce moderate weight loss and significantly improve the WC and FBG in Hong Kong Chinese adults, with no additional effects on BMD.

  17. Serum BAP as the clinically useful marker for predicting BMD reduction in diabetic hemodialysis patients with low PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Misako; Inaba, Masaaki; Okuno, Senji; Maeno, Yoshifumi; Ishimura, Eiji; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2005-07-22

    With decrease of serum PTH in hemodialysis (HD) patients, other factors besides parathyroid hormone (PTH) become important in regulating bone metabolism. We investigated which serum bone metabolic marker is the best to predict the bone mineral density (BMD) reduction in HD patients with serum PTHBAP), intact osteocalcin (OC), and N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), and the bone resorption markers, deoxypyridinoline (DPD), pyridinoline (PYD), and beta-crossLaps (beta-CTx) were measured in serum from 137 HD patients. BMD of all patients was measured twice, approximately 1.5 years before and 1.5 years after measurement of their markers of bone metabolism. In all 137 HD patients, serum BAP was the only marker significantly higher in those with BMD reduction than in those without. In 42 diabetes mellitus (DM) HD patients with serum PTHBAP was again the only marker to discriminate those with BMD reduction from those without. At serum PTHBAP retained tendency toward higher value. These findings suggest that serum BAP might be the most sensitive to identify small changes of bone metabolism in low bone turnover state. Retrospective study confirmed the usefulness of serum BAP in clinical practice by significantly higher values in those with bone loss at PTHBAP is a clinically useful bone formation marker to predict the BMD reduction in DM HD patients with low level of PTH.

  18. Impact of intra- and extra-osseous soft tissue composition on changes in bone mineral density with weight loss and regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Later, Wiebke; Schautz, Britta; Lagerpusch, Merit; Goele, Kristin; Heller, Martin; Glüer, Claus-C; Müller, Manfred J

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies report a significant gain in bone mineral density (BMD) after diet-induced weight loss. This might be explained by a measurement artefact. We therefore investigated the impact of intra- and extra-osseous soft tissue composition on bone measurements by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a longitudinal study of diet-induced weight loss and regain in 55 women and 17 men (19-46 years, BMI 28.2-46.8 kg/m(2)). Total and regional BMD were measured before and after 12.7 ± 2.2 week diet-induced weight loss and 6 months after significant weight regain (≥30%). Hydration of fat free mass (FFM) was assessed by a 3-compartment model. Skeletal muscle (SM) mass, extra-osseous adipose tissue, and bone marrow were measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean weight loss was -9.2 ± 4.4 kg (P BMAT) were not related to changes in BMD.

  19. Arterialized venous bicarbonate is associated with lower bone mineral density and an increased rate of bone loss in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, L S; Cummings, S R; Tylavsky, F A; Bauer, D C; Cauley, J A; Kritchevsky, S B; Newman, A; Simonsick, E M; Harris, T B; Sebastian, A; Sellmeyer, D E

    2015-04-01

    Higher dietary net acid loads have been associated with increased bone resorption, reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and increased fracture risk. The objective was to compare bicarbonate (HCO3) measured in arterialized venous blood samples to skeletal outcomes. Arterialized venous samples collected from participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study were compared to BMD and rate of bone loss. The setting was a community-based observational cohort. A total of 2287 men and women age 74 ± 3 years participated. Arterialized venous blood was obtained at the year 3 study visit and analyzed for pH and pCO2. HCO3 was determined using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. BMD was measured at the hip by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the year 1 (baseline) and year 3 study visits. Plasma HCO3 was positively associated with BMD at both year 1 (P = .001) and year 3 (P = .001) in models adjusted for age, race, sex, clinic site, smoking, weight, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Plasma HCO3 was inversely associated with rate of bone loss at the total hip over the 2.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD) years between the two bone density measurements (P acid-base status is an important determinant of skeletal health during aging. Ongoing bone loss was linearly related to arterialized HCO3, even after adjustment for age and renal function. Further research in this area may have major public health implications because reducing dietary net acid load is possible through dietary intervention or through supplementation with alkaline potassium compounds.

  20. Inhibitory effects of the leaves of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) on bone mineral density loss in ovariectomized mice and osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Furuta, Syoko; Nagata, Toshiro; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Akasaka, Taiki; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-29

    The loquat, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Rosaceae), is a small tree native to Japan and China that is widely cultivated for its succulent fruit. Its leaves are used as an ingredient of a tasty tea called "Biwa cha" in Japanese. The anti-osteoporosis effects of the leaves of loquat in vitro and in vivo have been investigated. After 15 days of feeding normal diet or diet supplemented with 5% loquat leaves, the body weight, viscera weights, and bone mineral density (BMD) of both groups of eight ovariectomized (OVX) mice were compared. The result showed that the loss of BMD in loquat-fed mice was significantly prevented in three parts of the body, especially in the trabecular bone of the head (P < 0.05), abdomen (P < 0.01), and lumbar (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. No hypertrophy in the uterus by the loquat leaves diet was observed. The effect of the extract (447.25 g) prepared from the dried leaves of loquat (2.36 kg) was further studied on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and cell viability. The extract suppressed the differentiation of osteoclasts under 50, 125, 250, and 500 μg/mL. Through bioactivity-guided fractionation, ursolic acid (1) was isolated and inhibited osteoclast differentiation under 4 and 10 μg/mL. It was concluded that loquat leaves possess the potential to suppress ovariectomy-induced bone mineral density deterioration.

  1. Weight-loss-associated changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover after partial weight regain with or without aerobic exercise in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, P S; Rector, R S; Linden, M A; Warner, S O; Dellsperger, K C; Chockalingam, A; Whaley-Connell, A T; Liu, Y; Thomas, T R

    2012-05-01

    Moderate, long-term weight loss results in the loss of bone mass in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, whether these changes persist during weight maintenance or regain remains to be determined. Overweight or obese (body mass index: 25.8-42.5 kg/m(2)) women (n=40) with at least two risk factors for the metabolic syndrome participated in this 12-month study that examined the effects of prescribed weight loss and regain, with or without exercise, on bone turnover and on bone mineral density (BMD) in a subset of participants (n=24). During the first 6 month, participants lost ≈ 10% of their initial body weight via energy restriction and supervised aerobic exercise. Following weight loss, participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise or a no exercise treatment for the regain (+50% of weight lost) phase. A one-way (time) repeated measures one-factor analysis of variance (RMANOVA) tested the effects of weight loss on BMD and bone turnover, and a two-way RMANOVA (time, exercise) was used to examine the effects of exercise during weight regain. Hip (P=0.007) and lumbar spine (P=0.05) BMD decreased with weight loss, and remained reduced after weight regain with or without exercise. Likewise, the weight-loss-associated increases in osteocalcin (Pweight regain, independent of exercise. The results of the present study, which is the first to examine changes in bone mass and turnover during carefully controlled weight regain, suggest that weight-loss-induced perturbations in bone mass and turnover persist after partial weight regain, regardless of whether regular weight-bearing aerobic exercise was continued.

  2. Comparison of the Spine and Hip BMD Assessments Derived from Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of bone mineral density (BMD is being used as the main method to diagnose osteoporosis. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is the most common tools for measuring BMD. Compared to DXA, quantitative computed tomography (QCT can determine in three dimensions the true volumetric BMD (vBMD at any skeletal site. In addition to the spine, the hip is an important site for axial BMD measurement. This study examines lumbar spine and hip BMD of Chinese adults by QCT. Age related changes in bone mass derived by QCT measurements were determined. The osteoporosis QCT detection rates at the spine and hip are assessed in both female and male, and agreement of skeletal status category between the spine and hip in older adults is also assessed.

  3. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... to the least relative influence of weight and stress loading because of migration of calcium to weight and stress-bearing areas. Since the effect of this migration could mask local osteoporotic bone loss, shoulder BMD measurement is likely to minimize false indicators of healthy bone in women with high BMI...

  4. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  5. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Diagonostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not.

  6. Aromatic Polyurea Possessing High Electrical Energy Density and Low Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Yash; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-10-01

    We report the development of a dielectric polymer, poly (ether methyl ether urea) (PEMEU), which possesses a dielectric constant of 4 and is thermally stable up to 150°C. The experimental results show that the ether units are effective in softening the rigid polymer and making it thermally processable, while the high dipole moment of urea units and glass structure of the polymer leads to a low dielectric loss and low conduction loss. As a result, PEMEU high quality thin films can be fabricated which exhibit exceptionally high breakdown field of >1.5 GV/m, and a low conduction loss at fields up to the breakdown. Consequently, the PEMEU films exhibit a high charge-discharge efficiency of 90% and a high discharged energy density of 36 J/cm3.

  7. Effect of whole-body vibration on BMD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkovska, L; Alibhai, S M H; Beyene, J; Cheung, A M

    2010-12-01

    Our systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining whole-body vibration (WBV) effect on bone mineral density (BMD) found significant but small improvements in hip areal BMD (aBMD) in postmenopausal women and in tibia and spine volumetric BMD in children/adolescents, but not in other BMD measurements in postmenopausal women and young adults. Animal experiments report anabolic bone changes in response to WBV, but data in humans are limited. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs examining WBV effect on BMD. Eligible RCTs included randomized or quasi-randomized trials, with follow-up of ≥ 6 months, examining WBV effects on BMD in ambulatory individuals without secondary causes of osteoporosis. The weighted mean differences between WBV and control groups in absolute pre-post change in spine and hip aBMD, and in spine and tibia trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) were calculated. eight RCTs in postmenopausal women (five RCTs), young adults (one RCT), and children and adolescents (two RCTs) were included. The regimens were heterogeneous, study durations were relatively short, and available data was mostly per-protocol. In postmenopausal women, WBV was found to significantly increase hip aBMD (0.015 g cm(-2); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.008-0.022; n = 131) versus controls, but not spine aBMD (n = 181) or tibia trabecular vBMD (n = 29). In young adults, WBV did not increase spine or hip bone mineral content, or tibia trabecular vBMD (n = 53). In children and adolescents, WBV significantly increased spine (6.2 mg cm(-3); 95% CI, 2.5-10.0; n = 65) and tibia (14.2 mg cm(-3); 95% CI, 5.2-23.2; n = 17) trabecular vBMD. We found significant but small improvements in BMD in postmenopausal women and children and adolescents, but not in young adults. WBV is a promising new modality, but before recommendations can be made for clinical practice, large-scale long-term studies are needed

  8. The beneficial effects of exercise on BMD are lost after cessation: a 5-year follow-up in older post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, U; Littbrand, H; Sondell, A; Bucht, G; Pettersson, U

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates whether the positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and neuromuscular function following a combined weight-bearing program are sustained in older women, a longer period after cessation of training. Thirty-four women (18 exercisers and 16 controls) aged 73-88 years, who completed a 12-month randomized-controlled trial, were invited to a 5-year follow-up assessment of BMD and neuromuscular function. Both groups sustained significant losses in BMD of the femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle during the follow-up period. Significant losses were also seen in all neuromuscular function tests. The inter-group change was, however, significant only for maximal walking speed where the exercise group had a significantly greater loss. In conclusion, this study suggests that gains in bone density and neuromuscular functions achieved by training are lost after cessation of training. Continuous high-intensity weight-loading physical activity is probably necessary to preserve bone density and neuromuscular function in older women.

  9. 不同分期慢性肾脏病患者 BMD 水平与 IGF-1表达的相关性研究%Study of the correlation between bone mineral density and the expression of IGF-1 in patients with chronic kidney diseases at different stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁平; 龙艳君; 杨霞; 袁静; 程世平; 查艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究不同分期慢性肾脏病患者血清胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)的表达与骨密度(BMD)的相关性。方法选取CKD2~5期患者各25例,应用DEXA骨密度仪测定1-4腰椎前后位BMD和T值,检测血清IGF-1水平及其他相关生化指标的表达。结果 CKD5期患者BMD和T值与体检人群有明显差异(P<0.05),血清IGF-1值显著减少(P<0.01),血清甲状旁腺激素(iPTH)及碱性磷酸酶(ALP)明显增高(P<0.01),且血清IGF-1水平与BMD 呈正相关(r=0.673)。结论 BMD测定敏感性较高,是目前早期诊断肾性骨病的较好方法;血清IGF-1值不仅可反应骨转换水平高低,而且与慢性肾脏病5期患者BMD的变化相平行,对CKD患者肾性骨病早期诊治和严重程度的判断中亦具有重要临床价值。%Objective To investigate the correlation between bone mineral density ( BMD) and the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) of the different stages.Methods Twenty-five patients with each stage of CKD (stage 2-5) were selected.BMD and the T value of the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4) at the anteroposterior position were detected using DEXA.The serum levels of IGF-1 and other related biochemical indexes including intact parathyroid hormone ( iPTH) and alkaline phosphatase ( ALP) were also detected.Results BMD and the T values in patients with stage 5 CKD had significant difference to that in healthy controls (P<0.05).The serum level of IGF-1 decreased significantly compared with that in healthy controls (P<0.01), while the serum levels of iPTH and ALP increased significantly (P<0.05).The serum level of IGF-1 was positively correlated with BMD in patients with stage 5 CKD.Conclusion The detection of BMD has high sensitivity, which is a good diagnostic method for the diagnosis of renal osteopathy at the early stage.The serum level of IGF-1 can reflect the level of bone turnover

  10. 老年人载脂蛋白E基因多态性、骨密度和骨量丢失%Apolipoprotein E Eene Polymorphism, BMD, and Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周波; 王晓红; 王松涛; 郭连营; 徐超; 张卓; 阚志英

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨老年人载脂蛋白E(ApoE)基因多态性与髋骨密度(BMD)、骨丢失的关系.方法:随机选取沈阳市60岁以上汉族健康老年人100名,用聚合酶链反应限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RELP)方法检测ApoE基因型,用DPX-L双能X线吸收仪(Lunar,USA)分别在2000年和2005年两次测量研究对象髋部骨密度.结果:该人群ApoE基因型频率分布为E2/3:17%,E3/3:66%,E3/4:15%,E4/4:1%,没有E2/2和E4/4型.等位基因频率分部为ε2:8%,ε3:84%,ε4:8%.无论男女携带ApoE4基因组和不携带ApoE4基因组间年龄、身高和体重均无差异.在2000年,携带ApoE4基因组和不携带ApoE4基因组两组股骨颈、大转子和Ward区的骨密度经身高、体重和年龄校正后,男女均没有显著性差异;相同分析各部位年骨丢失率也没有显著性差异.结论:该人群ApoE基因型与髋部骨密度无明显相关性.

  11. Dairy Intake Is Protective against Bone Loss in Older Vitamin D Supplement Users: The Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-04-01

    Background: Previous studies showed beneficial effects of specific dairy foods on bone health in middle-aged adults.Objective: We examined the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, fluid dairy (milk + yogurt), and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes with bone mineral density (BMD) and 4-y percentage of change in BMD [▵%BMD; femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (LS)]. We further assessed whether these associations were modified by vitamin D supplement use in this cohort of older adults.Methods: Food-frequency questionnaire responses, baseline BMD (hip and spine, n = 862 in 1988-1989), and follow-up BMD (n = 628 in 1992-1993) were measured in the Framingham study, a prospective cohort study of older Caucasian men and women aged 67-93 y. Outcomes included baseline BMD and ▵%BMD. Dairy-food intakes (servings per week) were converted to energy-adjusted residuals, and linear regression was used, adjusting for covariates. These associations were further examined by vitamin D supplement use.Results: The mean age of the participants was 75 y. In the full sample, dairy-food items were not associated with BMD (P = 0.11-0.99) or with ▵%BMD (P = 0.29-0.96). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were associated with higher LS BMD (P = 0.011-0.009). Among vitamin D supplement users, but not among nonusers, higher milk + yogurt + cheese intakes were protective against trochanter BMD loss (P = 0.009).Conclusions: In this population of older adults, higher intakes of milk, fluid dairy, and milk + yogurt + cheese were associated with higher LS BMD, and a higher intake of milk + yogurt + cheese was protective against trochanter BMD loss among vitamin D supplement users but not among nonusers. These findings underscore that the benefits of dairy intake on the skeleton may be dependent on vitamin D intake.

  12. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment-lengt...

  13. Associations between Body Composition, Hormonal and Lifestyle Factors, Bone Turnover, and BMD

    OpenAIRE

    Gourlay, Margaret L.; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine A; Renner, Jordan B.; Rubin, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative importance of body composition, lifestyle factors, bone turnover and hormonal factors in determining bone mineral density (BMD) is unknown. We studied younger postmenopausal women to determine whether modifiable or nonmodifiable risk factors for osteoporosis have stronger associations with BMD. Methods In multivariable linear regression models, we tested associations between non-bone body composition measures, self-reported measures of physical activity and dietary int...

  14. Relationship between BMD and Zn, Cu, Ca Levels in the Hair and Meal in Elderly People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wanli; TIAN Yuhui; SONG Xiaofei; ZHANG Min; SHEN Guanxin

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and Zn, Cu, Ca levels in the meal and hair of urban and rural elderly people were studied. 470 subjects above 60 years old (urban 205 and rural 265), 178 males with an average age of 65.70±3.48 and 292 females with an average age of 65.90±4.02, were inquired. The BMD and Zn, Cu, Ca levels in the meal and hair were measured. The detected BMD in urban and rural female old people was significantly lower than that of the males; The contents of Ca and Zn in the meal of the urban females were significantly lower than those of the urban males; The Ca, Zn in the meal and Zn in the hair of the rural females were significantly lower than those of rural males (P< 0.05 or 0.01). The BMD, Ca intakes, Ca and Zn in the hair of the rural old people were significantly lower than those of the urban old people (P<0.05 or 0.01). There was a correlation between BMD with the Ca, Zn of the hair and dietary Ca,Zn, Cu or between dietary Zn with Ca, Zn in the hair and Ca, Cu intakes. The Zn, Cu and Ca levels in the meal nutrients were correlated with BMD to some degrees. Lack of Ca and Zn in the meal can cause the reduction of BMD.

  15. Physical exercise associated with improved BMD independently of sex and vitamin D levels in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Schwarz, Peter; Hovind, Peter Hambak

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Young men and women accrue the majority of their bone mass in their teens and twenties, where their bone mass peaks (PBM), yet little is known about the roles of physical exercise, vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD) near PBM. METHODS: To comparatively examine the effect...... of physical exercise and two vitamin D levels (insufficient s-25[OH]D 80 nmol/L) on the BMD measured at the femoral neck, total hip (bilaterally) and the lumbar spine (L2-L4) in male and female participants approaching PBM. RESULTS: The insufficient s-25[OH]D group, median...... it was equal at the lumbar spine. CONCLUSION: The BMD in young healthy adults is associated with physical exercise, independent of sex and s-25[OH]D status. A sufficient s-25[OH]D status was systematically associated with a higher BMD for all levels of exercise. For both sexes and vitamin D levels exercise...

  16. Advanced Operating Systems Concepts for BMD Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-03

    Results The key results of this work are reported in detail in the attached theses of Branimir Gajic and Debra Lane. In particular, Gajic’s thesis...below: Theses "A Distributed Operating System for BMD Applications," Branimir Gajic, TR-CS-82-4. "A Communications Subsystem Based on a CSMA/CD...Cohen Graduate Assistant Uuaim-’.v :52 ) Debra Lane Graduate Assistant J ’st-i-t: Branimir Gajic Graduate Assistant -w4 Robert Souza Graduate

  17. Evaluating Bone Loss in ISS Astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D; Spector, Elisabeth R; Johnston, Smith L; Tarver, William J

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the Medical Assessment Test used at the NASA Johnson Space Center to evaluate whether prolonged exposure to spaceflight increases the risk for premature osteoporosis in International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The DXA scans of crewmembers' BMD during the first decade of the ISS existence showed precipitous declines in BMD for the hip and spine after the typical 6-mo missions. However, a concern exists that skeletal integrity cannot be sufficiently assessed solely by DXA measurement of BMD. Consequently, use of relatively new research technologies is being proposed to NASA for risk surveillance and to enhance long-term management of skeletal health in long-duration astronauts. Sibonga JD, Spector ER, Johnston SL, Tarver WJ. Evaluating bone loss in ISS astronauts.

  18. Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M T; Felson, D T; Dawson-Hughes, B; Tucker, K L; Cupples, L A; Wilson, P W; Kiel, D P

    2000-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated risk factors for bone loss in elderly women and men. Thus, we examined risk factors for 4-year longitudinal change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, radius, and spine in elders. Eight hundred elderly women and men from the population-based Framingham Osteoporosis Study had BMD assessed in 1988-1989 and again in 1992-1993. BMD was measured at femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's area, radial shaft, ultradistal radius, and lumbar spine using Lunar densitometers. We examined the relation of the following factors at baseline to percent BMD loss: age, weight, change in weight, height, smoking, caffeine, alcohol use, physical activity, serum 25-OH vitamin D, calcium intake, and current estrogen replacement in women. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted with simultaneous adjustment for all variables. Mean age at baseline was 74 years +/-4.5 years (range, 67-90 years). Average 4-year BMD loss for women (range, 3.4-4.8%) was greater than the loss for men (range, 0.2-3.6%) at all sites; however, BMD fell with age in both elderly women and elderly men. For women, lower baseline weight, weight loss in interim, and greater alcohol use were associated with BMD loss. Women who gained weight during the interim gained BMD or had little change in BMD. For women, current estrogen users had less bone loss than nonusers; at the femoral neck, nonusers lost up to 2.7% more BMD. For men, lower baseline weight and weight loss also were associated with BMD loss. Men who smoked cigarettes at baseline lost more BMD at the trochanter site. Surprisingly, bone loss was not affected by caffeine, physical activity, serum 25-OH vitamin D, or calcium intake. Risk factors consistently associated with bone loss in elders include female sex, thinness, and weight loss, while weight gain appears to protect against bone loss for both men and women. This population-based study suggests that current estrogen use may help to maintain bone in women, whereas current

  19. Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Noel; Grogan, Claire; Perry, Mark; Pedlar, Charles; Cooke, Karl; Morrissey, Dylan; Dimitriou, Lygeri

    2010-10-01

    Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is associated with menstrual dysfunction and negative energy balance in the female athlete triad. This study determines BMD in elite female endurance runners and the associations between BMD, menstrual status, disordered eating, and training volume. Forty-four elite endurance runners participated in the cross-sectional study, and 7 provided longitudinal data. Low BMD was noted in 34.2% of the athletes at the lumbar spine, and osteoporosis in 33% at the radius. In cross-sectional analysis, there were no significant relationships between BMD and the possible associations. Menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and low BMD were coexistent in 15.9% of athletes. Longitudinal analysis identified a positive association between the BMD reduction at the lumbar spine and training volume (p=.026). This study confirms the presence of aspects of the female athlete triad in elite female endurance athletes and notes a substantial prevalence of low BMD and osteoporosis. Normal menstrual status was not significantly associated with normal BMD, and it is the authors' practice that all elite female endurance athletes undergo dual-X-ray absorptiometry screening. The association between increased training volume, trend for menstrual dysfunction, and increased loss of lumbar BMD may support the concept that negative energy balance contributes to bone loss in athletes.

  20. Immediate Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection Accelerates Bone Loss Relative to Deferring Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoy, Jennifer F; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie P

    2017-01-01

    Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Because the relative contributions of ART and untreated HIV to BMD loss are unclear, it is important to quantify the effect of ART on bone. We compared the effect...... of early ART initiation (CD4 >500 cells/μL) with deferred ART on change in BMD in the START Bone Mineral Density substudy, a randomized trial evaluating the effect of immediate ART initiation versus deferring ART (to CD4

  1. Pediatrics: Measuring pediatric BMD-the bar raised but the glass half full.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Craig B

    2011-11-22

    Extensive reference data sets of pediatric bone density measurements are now available, together with equations to translate BMD into relevant Z-scores and correct for abnormal stature. So now is the right time to ask: are you thinking about bone density in children correctly?

  2. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  3. QUS of phalanx, DXA, BMD, Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soltani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available DXL of calcaneus is a portable method for BMD. This study determined a cut off point for DXL in osteoporosis diagnosis. In 510 healthy postmenopausal women, BMD of axial regions with DXA (DPX-MD, GE,Lunar Corp, Madison, WI and heel with DXL (Demeteck- Sweden, measured. The agreement of two methods and cut off point for DXL in defining osteoporosis, obtained. DXA found osteoporosis in 34.3% and in DXL in 26.1% of cases. Agreement (Kappa was 0.407 for spine and 0.347 for femur. T-score = -1.8 for spine and T-score = -2.2 for femur were the cut off points of DXL in diagnosis of osteoporosis (sensitivity=84% specificity=60% and (sensitivity=84% and specificity=70%, respectively. Area under curve for regions were 0.807 (P=0.000 and 0.859 (P=0.000, respectively. These results mean DXL can not be used as a replacement for DXA, but it may can be used as a screening method for osteoporosis.

  4. QUS of phalanx, DXA, BMD, Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soltani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available DXL of calcaneus is a portable method for BMD. This study determined a cut off point for DXL in osteoporosis diagnosis. In 510 healthy postmenopausal women, BMD of axial regions with DXA (DPX-MD, GE,Lunar Corp, Madison, WI and heel with DXL (Demeteck- Sweden, measured. The agreement of two methods and cut off point for DXL in defining osteoporosis, obtained. DXA found osteoporosis in 34.3% and in DXL in 26.1% of cases. Agreement (Kappa was 0.407 for spine and 0.347 for femur. T-score = -1.8 for spine and T-score = -2.2 for femur were the cut off points of DXL in diagnosis of osteoporosis (sensitivity=84% specificity=60% and (sensitivity=84% and specificity=70%, respectively. Area under curve for regions were 0.807 (P=0.000 and 0.859 (P=0.000, respectively. These results mean DXL can not be used as a replacement for DXA, but it may can be used as a screening method for osteoporosis.

  5. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (PBone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  6. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  7. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While, changes in high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides after treatment were ... KEY WORDS: Bone mineral density, lipid metabolism, osteoporosis, postmenopausal, raloxifene ... bone loss. ... total hip BMD and serum lipids before and after raloxifene ... 64.4 (6.5) years (range: 58.5‑68.5 years), mean weight.

  8. Density measurement of thin layers by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jürgen; Ramm, Jürgen; Gemming, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    A method to measure the density of thin layers is presented which utilizes electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques within a transmission electron microscope. The method is based on the acquisition of energy filtered images in the low loss region as well as of an element distribution map using core loss edges. After correction of multiple inelastic scattering effects, the intensity of the element distribution map is proportional to density and thickness. The dependence of the intensities of images with low energy loss electrons on the density is different from that. This difference allows the calculation of the relative density pixel by pixel and to determine lateral density gradients or fluctuations in thin films without relying on a constant specimen thickness. The method is demonstrated at thin carbon layers produced with density gradients.

  9. Modulation and Predictors of Periprosthetic Bone Mineral Density following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD. Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1 to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2 to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1 the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2 the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count, and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM. BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ2=0.002; df=1; P=0.96; χ2/df=0.002; RMSEA<0.01; TLI=1.5; CFI=1.0. A significant direct effect was only evidenced by the variable lean mass (β=0.38; b=0.15; SE=0.07; C.R.=2.0; P=0.046. It can be assumed that a large muscle mass with accompanying distribution of high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass.

  10. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, U K; Við Streym, S; Mosekilde, L

    2012-01-01

    In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone...... loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding. INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results have been reported on effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on BMD and body composition (BC). In a controlled cohort study, we elucidate...... changes in BMD and BC during and following a pregnancy. METHODS: We measured BMD and BC in 153 women planning pregnancy (n = 92 conceived), once in each trimester during pregnancy and 15, 129, and 280 days postpartum. Moreover, BMD was measured 19 months postpartum (n = 31). Seventy-five age...

  11. Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardes Jendrik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone mineral density (BMD accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4, both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years. Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2, calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3 and bone mineral content (BMC, g were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18, areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082 and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347 which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36, the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9 in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0 for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis

  12. Change in hip bone mineral density and risk of subsequent fractures in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Ewing, Susan K; Mackey, Dawn C; Fink, Howard A; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Bauer, Doug C; Cauley, Jane A; Orwoll, Eric S

    2012-10-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) increases fracture risk; how changes in BMD influence fracture risk in older men is uncertain. BMD was assessed at two to three time points over 4.6 years using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for 4470 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Change in femoral neck BMD was estimated using mixed effects linear regression models. BMD change was categorized as "accelerated" (≤-0.034 g/cm(2) ), "expected" (between 0 and -0.034 g/cm(2) ), or "maintained" (≥0 g/cm(2) ). Fractures were adjudicated by central medical record review. Multivariate proportional hazards models estimated the risk of hip, nonspine/nonhip, and nonspine fracture over 4.5 years after the final BMD measure, during which time 371 (8.3%) men experienced at least one nonspine fracture, including 78 (1.7%) hip fractures. Men with accelerated femoral neck BMD loss had an increased risk of nonspine (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.8); nonspine/nonhip (HR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.3); and hip fracture (HR = 6.3; 95% CI 2.7-14.8) compared with men who maintained BMD over time. No difference in risk was seen for men with expected loss. Adjustment for the initial BMD measure did not alter the results. Adjustment for the final BMD measure attenuated the change in BMD-nonspine fracture and the change in BMD-nonspine/nonhip relationships such that they were no longer significant, whereas the change in the BMD-hip fracture relationship was attenuated (HR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.1-6.4). Total hip BMD change produced similar results. Accelerated decrease in BMD is a strong, independent risk factor for hip and other nonspine fractures in men. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Hip and fragility fracture prediction by 4-item clinical risk score and mobile heel BMD: a women cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulesius Hans

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One in four Swedish women suffers a hip fracture yielding high morbidity and mortality. We wanted to revalidate a 4-item clinical risk score and evaluate a portable heel bone mineral density (BMD technique regarding hip and fragility fracture risk among elderly women. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study we used clinical risk factors from a baseline questionnaire and heel BMD to predict a two-year hip and fragility fracture outcome for women, in a fracture preventive program. Calcaneal heel BMD was measured by portable dual X-ray laser absorptiometry (DXL and compared to hip BMD, measured with stationary dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA technique. Results Seven women suffered hip fracture and 14 women fragility fracture/s (at hip, radius, humerus and pelvis among 285 women; 60% having heel BMD ≤ -2.5 SD. The 4-item FRAMO (Fracture and Mortality Index combined the clinical risk factors age ≥80 years, weight Conclusions In a follow-up study we identified high risk groups for hip and fragility fracture with our plain 4-item risk model. Increased fracture risk was also related to decreasing heel BMD in calcaneal bone, measured with a mobile DXL technique. A combination of high FRAMO Index, prior fragility fracture, and very low BMD restricted the high risk group to 11%, among whom most hip fractures occurred (71%. These practical screening methods could eventually reduce hip fracture incidence by concentrating preventive resources to high fracture risk women.

  14. Identification of a gene module associated with BMD through the integration of network analysis and genome-wide association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Charles R

    2010-11-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by a complex network of gene interactions; therefore, elucidating the relationships between genes and how those genes, in turn, influence BMD is critical for developing a comprehensive understanding of osteoporosis. To investigate the role of transcriptional networks in the regulation of BMD, we performed a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) using microarray expression data on monocytes from young individuals with low or high BMD. WGCNA groups genes into modules based on patterns of gene coexpression. and our analysis identified 11 gene modules. We observed that the overall expression of one module (referred to as module 9) was significantly higher in the low-BMD group (p = .03). Module 9 was highly enriched for genes belonging to the immune system-related gene ontology (GO) category "response to virus" (p = 7.6 × 10(-11)). Using publically available genome-wide association study data, we independently validated the importance of module 9 by demonstrating that highly connected module 9 hubs were more likely, relative to less highly connected genes, to be genetically associated with BMD. This study highlights the advantages of systems-level analyses to uncover coexpression modules associated with bone mass and suggests that particular monocyte expression patterns may mediate differences in BMD.

  15. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  16. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/year...... femur and a postmenopausal bone loss, which is influenced mainly by YSM within the first 10-15 years after menopause. BMD correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the postmenopausal years, confirming...

  17. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body...

  18. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body...

  19. Early Metacarpal Bone Mineral Density Loss Using Digital X-Ray Radiogrammetry and 3-Tesla Wrist MRI in Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Longitudinal One-Year Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Rastogi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Early change in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is characterised by periarticular osteopenia. We investigated the relationship of early metacarpal digital X-ray radiogrammetry bone mineral density (DXR-BMD change rate (RC-BMD, mg/cm2/month to longitudinal changes in hand and feet radiographic and wrist MRI scores over 1 year. Materials and Methods. 10 RA patients completed the study and had wrist 3T-MRI and hand and feet X-rays at various time points over 1 year. MRI was scored by RAMRIS, X-ray was done by van der Heijde modified Sharp scoring, and RC-BMD was analysed using dxr-online. Results. There was good correlation amongst the two scorers for MRI measures and ICC for erosions: 0.984, BME: 0.943, and synovitis: 0.657. Strong relationships were observed between RC-BMD at 12-week and 1-year change in wrist marrow oedema (BME (r=0.78, P=0.035 but not with erosion, synovitis, or radiographic scores. Conclusion. Early RC-BMD correlates with 1-year wrist BME change, which is a known predictor of future erosion and joint damage. However, in our pilot study, early RC-BMD did not show relationships to MRI erosion or radiographic changes over 1 year. This may reflect a slower kinetic in the appearance of MRI/radiographic erosions, generating the hypothesis that RC-BMD may be a more sensitive and early structural prognostic marker in RA follow-up.

  20. Phantom-less QCT BMD system as screening tool for osteoporosis without additional radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Dirk K., E-mail: dirk.mueller@philips.com [Philips GmbH, Healthcare Division, Luebeckertordamm 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Kutscherenko, Alex; Bartel, Hans [Kaiserswerther Diakonie, Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kreuzbergstrasse 79, 40489 Duesseldorf (Germany); Vlassenbroek, Alain [Philips Healthcare, Bruxelles, Rue des Deux Gares 80, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium); Ourednicek, Petr [Philips Czech Republic, Safrankova 1, 15500 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Erckenbrecht, Joachim [Kaiserswerther Diakonie, Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kreuzbergstrasse 79, 40489 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Phantom-less bone mineral density (PLBMD) systems are easily integrated into the CT workflow for non-dedicated Quantitative CT (QCT) BMD measurements in thoracic and abdominal scans. This in vivo retrospective study aims to determine accuracy and precision of the PLBMD option located on the Extended Brilliance Workspace (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH, US) from both cross-sectional and longitudinal image data. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional comparison with phantom-based QCT BMD was performed for 82 patients (61 female, 21 male) with a mean age of (63.0 {+-} 11.8 SD) years on 197 vertebrae. This was followed by an interobserver variability analysis on 71 vertebrae. The longitudinal PLBMD study was carried out on 45 vertebrae from 10 patients (5 female, 5 male) with a mean age of (64.4 {+-} 11.5 SD) years. They were re-scanned with standardized scan and contrast-injection protocols within a mean and median of (33 {+-} 41 SD) and 8 days, respectively. All CT scans were acquired on an Mx8000 Quad (Philips) at Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kaiserswerth, Germany, in a spiral acquisition mode. Results: A negligible BMD bias of -0.9 mg/cm{sup 3} for the PLBMD option was observed with respect to phantom-based QCT BMD. Applying CT number matching of muscle and fat ROIs, the analysis of cross-sectional interobserver and of longitudinal variability yielded precision values of 3.1 mg/cm{sup 3} (CV% = 4.0) and 4.2 mg/cm{sup 3} (CV% = 5.3), respectively. Conclusion: Although the precision is inferior to phantom-based BMD systems, PLBMD is a robust clinical utility for the detection of lowered BMD in a large patient population. This can be achieved without additional radiation exposure from non-contrasted CT scans, to perform an ancillary diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis.

  1. Alendronate increases BMD at appendicular and axial skeletons in patients with established osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au Szeki

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify high-risk patients and provide pharmacological treatment is one of the effective approaches in prevention of osteoporotic fractures. This study investigated the effect of 12-month Alendronate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover biochemical markers in postmenopausal women with one or more non-traumatic fractures, i.e. patients with established osteoporosis. Methods A total of 118 Hong Kong postmenopausal Chinese women aged 50 to 75 with low-energy fracture at distal radius (Colles' fracture were recruited for BMD measurement at lumbar spine and non-dominant hip using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. 47 women with BMD T-score below -2 SD at either side were identified as patients with established osteoporosis and then randomized into Alendronate group (n = 22 and placebo control group (n = 25 for BMD measurement at spine and hip using DXA and distal radius of the non-fracture side by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, and bone turnover markers, including bone forming alkaline phosphatase (BALP and bone resorbing urinary Deoxypyridinoline (DPD. All measurements were repeated at 6 and 12 months. Results Alendronate treatment significantly increased BMD, more in weight-bearing skeletons (5.1% at spine and 2.5% at hip than in non-weight bearing skeleton (0.9% at distal radius after 12 months treatment. Spine T-score was significant improved in Alendronate group (p Conclusion 12 months Alendronate treatment was effective to increase BMD at both axial and appendicular skeletons in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis.

  2. Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis. Influence of disease activity, duration of the disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Florescu, A; Stoltenberg, M;

    1996-01-01

    Axial and appendicular bone mass were studied in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aims were to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) and to evaluate the importance of disease activity, duration of disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment for bone loss in patients...... BMDARM. The decreased BMD in patients with rheumatoid arthritis seems primarily to be caused by an impaired physical activity which may be related to disease activity. Corticosteroids did not decrease BMD in neither the axial nor the appendicular skeleton. The antiinflammatory effect of steroids lead...

  3. Effects of dietary nutrients and food groups on bone loss from the proximal femur in men and women in the 7th and 8th decades of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptoge, S; Welch, A; McTaggart, A; Mulligan, A; Dalzell, N; Day, N E; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Reeve, J

    2003-06-01

    We measured the impact of diet, anthropometry, physical activity and lifestyle variables on rates of hip bone mineral density (BMD) loss in 470 white men and 474 white women aged 67-79 years at recruitment dwelling in the community. The subjects were recruited from a prospective population-based diet and cancer study (EPIC-Norfolk) in Eastern England. Dietary intake was measured at baseline using 7-day food diaries and used to calculate intakes of some 31 nutrients and 22 food groups. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data on anthropometry, physical activity and lifestyle variables. BMD loss (percent per annum; % p.a.) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry performed on two occasions an average of 3 years apart (range 2-5 years). The mean rate of BMD change at the total hip region was -0.17% p.a. (SD 1.3% p.a.) in men and -0.41% p.a. (SD 1.2% p.a.) in women. In both men and women, weight gain protected against (and weight loss promoted) BMD loss ( Pclimbing a flight of stairs, BMD increased at a rate of 0.22% p.a. ( P=0.005) and additionally a 10% increase in activities of daily living score was associated with BMD increasing at a rate of 0.12% p.a. ( P=0.011) in women. Nutritional variation appeared to have less impact on BMD loss. In men there was no evidence of an effect of any of the nutrients evaluated. However, in women, low intake of vitamin C was associated with faster rate of BMD loss. Women in the lowest tertile (7-57 mg/day) of vitamin C intake lost BMD at an average rate of -0.65% p.a., which was significantly faster compared to loss rates in the middle (58-98 mg/day) and upper (99-363 mg/day) tertiles of intake, which were -0.31% p.a. and -0.30% p.a., respectively ( P=0.016). There was no effect of fruits and vegetables, combined or separately, on rate of BMD loss. The results confirm that weight maintenance (or gain) and commonly practiced forms of physical activity appear to protect against BMD loss in this age group

  4. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts.

  5. Loss-induced Enhanced Transmission in Anisotropic Density-near-zero Acoustic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Jing, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this paper and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation and subwavelength imaging enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves.

  6. Loss-induced enhanced transmission in anisotropic density-near-zero acoustic metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this letter and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves.

  7. Loss-induced Enhanced Transmission in Anisotropic Density-near-zero Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Jing, Yun

    2016-11-25

    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this paper and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation and subwavelength imaging enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves.

  8. Genome-wide association study using extreme truncate selection identifies novel genes affecting bone mineral density and fracture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Duncan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have largely not been considered in the design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS of BMD to date. We report here a GWAS using a novel study design focusing on women of a specific age (postmenopausal women, age 55-85 years, with either extreme high or low hip BMD (age- and gender-adjusted BMD z-scores of +1.5 to +4.0, n = 1055, or -4.0 to -1.5, n = 900, with replication in cohorts of women drawn from the general population (n = 20,898. The study replicates 21 of 26 known BMD-associated genes. Additionally, we report suggestive association of a further six new genetic associations in or around the genes CLCN7, GALNT3, IBSP, LTBP3, RSPO3, and SOX4, with replication in two independent datasets. A novel mouse model with a loss-of-function mutation in GALNT3 is also reported, which has high bone mass, supporting the involvement of this gene in BMD determination. In addition to identifying further genes associated with BMD, this study confirms the efficiency of extreme-truncate selection designs for quantitative trait association studies.

  9. Predictors of Fracture Risk and Bone Mineral Density in Men with Prostate Cancer on Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Neubecker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of bone mineral density (BMD and fracture risk is increased in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. We looked at possible predictors of decreased BMD and increased fracture risk in men with prostate cancer; most of whom were on ADT. In a retrospective study, we analyzed serum, BMD, and clinical risk factors used in the Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX tool and others in 78 men with prostate cancer with reported height loss. The subjects were divided in two groups: 22 men with and 56 without vertebral fractures. 17 of the 22 men with vertebral fractures on spine X-rays did not know they had a vertebral fracture. Of those 17 men, 9 had not previously qualified for treatment based on preradiograph FRAX score calculated with BMD, and 6 based on FRAX calculated without BMD. Performing spine films increased the predictive ability of FRAX for vertebral fracture. Vertebral fracture was better predicted by FRAX for other osteoporotic fractures than FRAX for hip fractures. The inclusion of BMD in FRAX calculations did not affect the predictive ability of FRAX. The PSA level showed a positive correlation with lumbar spine BMD and accounted for about 9% of spine BMD.

  10. Sex Specific Association of Physical Activity on Proximal Femur BMD in 9 to 10 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Ornelas, Rui; Janz, Kathleen F.; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2012-01-01

    The results of physical activity (PA) intervention studies suggest that adaptation to mechanical loading at the femoral neck (FN) is weaker in girls than in boys. Less is known about gender differences associated with non-targeted PA levels at the FN or other clinically relevant regions of the proximal femur. Understanding sex-specific relationships between proximal femur sensitivity and mechanical loading during non-targeted PA is critical to planning appropriate public health interventions. We examined sex-specific associations between non-target PA and bone mineral density (BMD) of three sub-regions of the proximal femur in pre- and early-pubertal boys and girls. BMD at the FN, trochanter (TR) and intertrochanter (IT) regions, and lean mass of the whole body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 161 girls (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs) and 164 boys (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs). PA was measured using accelerometry. Multiple linear regression analyses (adjusted for body height, total lean mass and pubertal status) revealed that vigorous PA explained 3–5% of the variability in BMD at all three sub-regions in boys. In girls, vigorous PA explained 4% of the variability in IT BMD and 6% in TR BMD. PA did not contribute to the variance in FN BMD in girls. An additional 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA would be expected to result in a ∼1% higher FN, TR, and IT BMD in boys (p<0.05) and a ∼2% higher IT and TR BMD in girls. In conclusion, vigorous PA can be expected to contribute positively to bone health outcomes for boys and girls. However, the association of vigorous PA to sub-regions of the proximal femur varies by sex, such that girlś associations are heterogeneous and the lowest at the FN, but stronger at the TR and the IT, when compared to boys. PMID:23209801

  11. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  12. The study of technical error analysis on BMD using DEXA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Gwang Ho [Daegu Catholic University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    This study was conducted to search for the type of technical error in DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and the effect of error to measurement of BMD. The changes of BMD (g/cm{sup 2}, T-score) by patients information (Age, Weight, Height, Manopause age) input error and Confirming ROI error were investigated. Using spine phantom, we canned 10 times by age (5, 10), weight (10, 20 kg), height (5, 10 cm), manopause age (5, 10) increase and decrease respectively. Scanning region (L-spine, femur, Forearm) of 10 patients was calculated by changing ROI respectively. Analysis of difference for mean (precision 1%) were carried out. There error of patient information (Age, Weight, Height, Manopause age) was not changed differently. In confirming ROI, the BMD and T-score of L-spine involving T-12 was decreased to 0.063 g/cm{sup 2}, 0.3 and involving L-5 increased to 0.077 g/cm{sup 2}, 0.5. In narrowing 1 cm of vertical line of ROI, the BMD and T-score decreased to 0.006 g/cm{sup 2}, 0.1 and in 2 cm, 0.021 g/cm{sup 2}, 0.15, each. In hip ROI, Upper and left shift (0.5 cm) of line was not influenced BMD and T-score. In 0.5 cm lower shift (lesser trochanter below), the BMD and T-score increased 0.031 g/cm{sup 2}, 0.3 and in 1 cm 0.094 g/cm{sup 2}, 0.65, each. In forearm ROI, the BMD and T-score decreased 0.042 g/cm{sup 2}, 0.9 involving 1 cm lower wrist. And expanding 1 cm of vertical line, the BMD and T-score decreased 0.008 g/cm{sup 2}, 0.1 and in 2 cm, 0.021 g/cm{sup 2}, 0.3, each. The L-spine, hip, forearm ROI error was changed differently. There are so many kinds of technical error in BMD processing. Errors according to age, weight, height, manopause age did not influent to BMD (g/cm{sup 2}) and T-score. There are mean differences BMD and T-score in confirming ROI. For the precision exam, in L-spine processing, L1-4 have to confirmed without shift of ROI vertical line. In hip processing, the ROI have to included greater trochanter, femur head and lesser trochanter. In

  13. Bone Density and Clinical Periodontal Attachment in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penoni, D C; Fidalgo, T K S; Torres, S R; Varela, V M; Masterson, D; Leão, A T T; Maia, L C

    2017-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and has been considered a risk factor for periodontal disease. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to verify the scientific evidence for the association of periodontal attachment loss with low BMD in postmenopausal women. A systematic search of the literature was performed in databases until August 2016, in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligibility criteria included studies that compared clinical attachment loss (CAL) between postmenopausal women with low and normal BMD. Studies using similar methodology, with lower and higher risk of bias, were pooled into 3 different meta-analyses to compare CAL among women with normal BMD, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In the first meta-analysis, mean CAL was compared among groups. In the other 2 meta-analyses, the mean percentages of sites with CAL ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm were respectively compared among groups. From 792 unique citations, 26 articles were selected for the qualitative synthesis. Eleven of the studies were appraised as presenting low risk of bias, and the association between low BMD and CAL was observed in 10 of these studies. Thirteen cross-sectional articles were included in the meta-analysis for osteoporosis and 9 in the osteopenia analysis. Women with low BMD presented greater mean CAL than those with normal BMD (osteoporosis = 0.34 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.49], P osteoporosis = 3.04 [95% CI, 1.23-4.85], P = 0.001; osteopenia = 1.74 [95% CI, 0.36-3.12], P = 0.01) and CAL ≥6 mm (osteoporosis = 5.07 [95% CI, 2.74-7.40], P osteoporosis or osteopenia may exhibit greater CAL compared with women with normal BMD.

  14. Areal and Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Geometry at Two Levels of Protein Intake During Caloric Restriction: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar, Deeptha; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Zurfluh, Robert; Schlussel, Yvette; Stahl, Theodore J; Gordon, Chris L; SHAPSES, SUE A.

    2010-01-01

    Weight reduction induces bone loss by several factors, and the effect of higher protein (HP) intake during caloric restriction on bone mineral density (BMD) is not known. Previous study designs examining the longer-term effects of HP diets have not controlled for total calcium intake between groups and have not examined the relationship between bone and endocrine changes. In this randomized, controlled study, we examined how BMD (areal and volumetric), turnover markers, and hormones [insulin-...

  15. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  16. The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Kerrin; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Travison, Thomas G; Sambrook, Philip N; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Creasey, Helen M; Seibel, Markus J

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss is associated with bone loss; however, it is unclear whether loss of fat or loss of lean body mass plays the key role in this relationship. The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to clarify the relationship between hip BMD, hip BMC and whole body BMC with changes in fat and lean tissue mass in older men. The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1705 men aged 70-97 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the hip and whole body (WB), lean mass and fat mass were measured with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships. Over 2.2 years of follow-up, 368(33%) men lost at least 2% of their body weight, which included a mean loss of 0.8 kg/year of lean body mass and 0.9 kg/year of fat body mass. Fat loss was strongly associated with BMD loss in men who lost weight. As a group, weight losers lost 1.0% of hip BMD annually compared to 0.2% in men who gained weight, with each kilo of fat loss associated with 0.6%/year hip BMD loss (ploss in weight losers, however, lean mass change was associated with BMD change in men who gained weight (0.3% hip BMD increase per kilo increase of lean mass pfat plays an important role in this relationship, which may reflect the additional metabolic function of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How does tree density affect water loss of peatlands? A mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Holmgren, Milena; Jacobs, Cor M J; Van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Karofeld, Edgar; Berendse, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Raised bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. Climate-induced expansion of trees and shrubs may turn these ecosystems from net carbon sinks into sources when associated with reduced water tables. Increasing water loss through tree evapotranspiration could potentially deepen water tables, thus stimulating peat decomposition and carbon release. Bridging the gap between modelling and field studies, we conducted a three-year mesocosm experiment subjecting natural bog vegetation to three birch tree densities, and studied the changes in subsurface temperature, water balance components, leaf area index and vegetation composition. We found the deepest water table in mesocosms with low tree density. Mesocosms with high tree density remained wettest (i.e. highest water tables) whereas the control treatment without trees had intermediate water tables. These differences are attributed mostly to differences in evapotranspiration. Although our mesocosm results cannot be directly scaled up to ecosystem level, the systematic effect of tree density suggests that as bogs become colonized by trees, the effect of trees on ecosystem water loss changes with time, with tree transpiration effects of drying becoming increasingly offset by shading effects during the later phases of tree encroachment. These density-dependent effects of trees on water loss have important implications for the structure and functioning of peatbogs.

  18. Associations of genetic lactase non-persistence and sex with bone loss in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Marika M L; Impivaara, Olli; Sievänen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma S A; Lehtimäki, Terho J; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Välimäki, Matti; Heikkinen, Jorma; Kröger, Liisa M; Kröger, Heikki P J; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Kähönen, Mika A P; Raitakari, Olli T

    2009-05-01

    Some studies have reported that after attainment of peak bone mass (PBM), slow bone loss may occur in both men and women; however, findings are inconsistent. Genetic factors play a significant role in bone loss, but the available evidence is conflicting. Genetic lactase non-persistence (lactase C/C(-13910) genotype) is suggested to increase risk for inadequate calcium intake predisposing to poorer bone health. We investigated whether this genotype is associated with PBM and bone loss in young Finnish adults. Subjects belong to the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study that is an ongoing multi-centre follow-up of atherosclerosis risk factors. From the original cohort, randomly selected subjects aged 20-29 participated in baseline bone mineral density (BMD) measurements (n=358), and in follow-up measurements 12 years later (n=157). Bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) were measured at baseline and follow-up with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lactase C/T(-13910) polymorphism was determined by PCR and allele-specific fluorogenic probes. Information on lifestyle was elicited with questionnaires. During the follow-up, bone loss at both bone sites was greater in males (LS BMD: -1.1%, FN BMD: -5.2%) than in females (LS BMD: +2.1%, FN BMD: -0.7%) (both bone sites p=0.001). Younger age predicted greater loss of FN BMC and BMD in females (p=0.013 and p=0.001, respectively). Increased calcium intake predicted FN BMD gain in both sexes (in females B=0.007 g/cm(2)/mg, p=0.002; in males B=0.006, p=0.045), and increased physical activity LS BMD gain in females (B=0.091 g/cm(2)/physical activity point, p=0.023). PBM did not differ between the lactase genotypes, but males with the CC(-13910) genotype seemed to be prone to greater bone loss during the follow-up (LS BMD: C/C vs. T/T p=0.081). In conclusion, bone loss in young adulthood was more common in males than in females and seemed to occur mainly at the femoral neck. Young

  19. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Dominic J; Ripper, Richard M; Fettiplace, Michael R; Weinberg, Guy L; Vitello, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study's purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student's unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed P = 0.2269 and R (2) = 0.03154. The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression R (2) value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The R (2) value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water.

  20. Loss of Bone Mineral Density Associated with Age in Male Rats Fed on Sunflower Oil Is Avoided by Virgin Olive Oil Intake or Coenzyme Q Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F2-isoprostanes were measured. Aged animals fed on virgin olive oil showed higher BMD than those fed on sunflower oil. In addition, CoQ10 prevented the age-related decline in BMD in animals fed on sunflower oil. Urinary F2-isoprostanes analysis showed that sunflower oil led to the highest oxidative status in old animals, which was avoided by supplementation with CoQ10. In conclusion, lifelong feeding on virgin olive oil or the supplementation of sunflower oil on CoQ10 prevented, at least in part mediated by a low oxidative stress status, the age-related decrease in BMD found in sunflower oil fed animals. PMID:28661441

  1. Determination of the area density and composition of alloy film using dual alpha particle energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Gao, Dangzhong; Xu, Jiayun; Tang, Yongjian

    2017-02-01

    A novel method based on dual α-particles energy loss (DAEL) is proposed for measuring the area density and composition of binary alloy films. In order to obtain a dual-energy α-particles source, an ingenious design that utilizes the transmitted α-particles traveling the thin film as a new α-particles source is presented. Using the DAEL technique, the area density and composition of Au/Cu film are determined accurately with an uncertainty of better than 10%. Finally, some measures for improving the combined uncertainty are discussed.

  2. Density Functional Theory Modeling of Low-Loss Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in Wurtzite III-Nitride Ternary Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarrat, Alberto; Sastre, Xavier; Peiró, Francesca; Estradé, Sónia

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the dielectric response of III-nitride semiconductors is studied using density functional theory (DFT) band structure calculations. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the features in the low-loss electron energy-loss spectra of ternary alloys, but the results are also relevant to optical and UV spectroscopy results. In addition, the dependence of the most remarkable features with composition is tested, i.e. applying Vegard's law to band gap and plasmon energy. For this purpose, three wurtzite ternary alloys, from the combination of binaries AlN, GaN, and InN, were simulated through a wide compositional range (i.e., Al x Ga1-x N, In x Al1-x N, and In x Ga1-x N, with x=[0,1]). For this DFT calculations, the standard tools found in Wien2k software were used. In order to improve the band structure description of these semiconductor compounds, the modified Becke-Johnson exchange-correlation potential was also used. Results from these calculations are presented, including band structure, density of states, and complex dielectric function for the whole compositional range. Larger, closer to experimental values, band gap energies are predicted using the novel potential, when compared with standard generalized gradient approximation. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the collective excitation features in the dielectric response reveals their compositional dependence, which sometimes departs from a linear behavior (bowing). Finally, an advantageous method for measuring the plasmon energy dependence from these calculations is explained.

  3. Effects of increasing age, dosage, and duration of PTH treatment on BMD increase--a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Jorgensen, Niklas Rye; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of increasing age, dosage, and duration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment on changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Randomized placebo controlled trials on PTH treatment in men or women were retrieved from PubMed (1951 to present), Web of Science (1945 to present...

  4. Bone Mineral Density Changes Among Women Initiating Blood Pressure Lowering Drugs: A SWAN Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel H.; Ruppert, Kristine; Zhao, Zhenping; Lian, YinJuan; Kuo, I-Hsin; Greendale, Gail A.; Finkelstein, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several blood pressure lowering drugs may affect bone mineral density (BMD), leading to altered fracture risk. We examined the effect of blood pressure lowering drugs on BMD using data from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Methods We conducted a propensity score matched cohort study. Women were initiators of ACE inhibitors (ACEi), beta-blockers (BB), or thiazide diuretics (THZD). Their annualized BMD changes during the 14-years of observation were compared with non-users. Results Among the 2312 eligible women, we found 69 ACEi, 71 BB, and 74 THZD users who were matched by a propensity score with the same number of non-users. THZD users had a slower annual percent decline in BMD compared to nonusers at the femoral neck (FN) (−0.28% vs −0.88%; p = 0.008) and the spine (−0.74% vs −1.0%; p = 0.34), albeit not statistically significant. Annual percent changes in BMD among ACEi and BB users were similar to rates in non-users. In comparison with BB, THZD use was associated with a trend toward less annualized BMD loss at the spine (−0.35% vs −0.60%; p = 0.08) and a similar trend at the FN (−0.39% vs −0.64%; p = 0.08); in comparisons with ACEi, THZD was also associated with less loss at the FN (−0.48% vs −0.82%; p = 0.02), but not at the spine (−0.40% vs −0.56%; p = 0.23). Conclusions Neither ACEi nor BB were associated with improvements in BMD. THZD use was associated with less annualized loss of BMD compared with non-users, as well as compared with ACEi and BB. PMID:26449354

  5. Association between polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, bone mineral density of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Sand, J C; Madsen, B;

    2003-01-01

    A genetic contribution to the development of osteoporosis is well documented. Although the association between the common allelic variation of apolipoprotein E (APOE), fracture risk, bone loss and bone mineral density (BMD) has been examined in several studies, the results of these investigations....... In conclusion, this study showed no association between bone mass parameters (BMD, speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA)), hip or lower forearm fracture and APOE genotypes in a population of postmenopausal women and age-matched controls....

  6. Simulation of electron energy loss spectra of nanomaterials with linear-scaling density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, E. W.; Ratcliff, L. E.; Payne, M. C.; Haynes, P. D.; Hine, N. D. M.

    2016-04-20

    Experimental techniques for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combine high energy resolution with high spatial resolution. They are therefore powerful tools for investigating the local electronic structure of complex systems such as nanostructures, interfaces and even individual defects. Interpretation of experimental electron energy loss spectra is often challenging and can require theoretical modelling of candidate structures, which themselves may be large and complex, beyond the capabilities of traditional cubic-scaling density functional theory. In this work, we present functionality to compute electron energy loss spectra within the onetep linear-scaling density functional theory code. We first demonstrate that simulated spectra agree with those computed using conventional plane wave pseudopotential methods to a high degree of precision. The ability of onetep to tackle large problems is then exploited to investigate convergence of spectra with respect to supercell size. Finally, we apply the novel functionality to a study of the electron energy loss spectra of defects on the (1 0 1) surface of an anatase slab and determine concentrations of defects which might be experimentally detectable.

  7. Plasma Efficiency and Losses for pulsed Xe Excimer DBDs at high Power Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravia, Mark; Meisser, Michael; Heering, Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    The UV water disinfection for example needs efficient lamps with high power densities. Xe2^* dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with phosphor coating can be used due to plasma efficiencies up to 60 % at pulsed electrical power densities of 0.04 W/cm^2 [1]. The power density can be increased by pressure or (operation) frequency. However, the plasma efficiency declines with frequency. We present measurements of the radiant flux for pulsed DBDs made of fused silica as function of pressure and frequency. By calculation of optical losses the plasma efficiency is estimated to be 52 % at 0.07 W/cm^2 but decreases to 34 % at 0.8 W/cm^2. The maximum frequency is pressure dependent and limited due to change-over from homogeneous into filamented mode. In comparison we measured the gas gap voltage and internal plasma current of a pulsed planar DBD for general lighting [2]. This comparison makes it possible to explain the frequency dependence of plasma efficiency and radiant flux. Due to the high frequency the remaining charge density is increased and the discharge becomes a glow discharge. For that reason the typical peak current during ignition drops and explains the declined efficiency by glow phase losses. [4pt] [1] Beleznai, S., et al., JPhysD, 41 (2008) [0pt] [2] Paravia, M., et al., GEC, Dallas, 2008

  8. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  9. Association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone loss: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Center, J R; Eisman, J A; Nguyen, T V

    2015-04-01

    Lower body fat mass is a risk factor for bone loss at lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, but not in men. Body lean mass and fat mass were not associated with femoral neck bone loss in either gender. Bone density and body mass are closely associated. Whole body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) together account for approximately 95 % of body mass. Bone loss is associated with loss of body mass but which of the components of body mass (FM or LM) is related to bone loss is not well understood. Therefore, in this study, we sought to assess whether baseline FM or LM has predictive value for future relative rate of bone mineral density (BMD) changes (%/year). The present population-based cohort study was part of the ongoing Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). BMD, FM, and LM were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-LUNAR Corp, Madison, WI). BMD measurements were taken in approximately every 2 years between 2000 and 2010. We only included the participants with at least two BMD measurements at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In total, 717 individuals (204 men and 513 women) aged 50 years or older were studied. Rate of bone loss at femoral neck and lumbar spine was faster in women than in men (all P loss at lumbar spine. This magnitude of association remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for LM and/or other covariates (P = 0.03). After adjusting for covariates, variation of FM accounted for ∼1.5 % total variation in lumbar spine bone loss. However, there was no significant association between FM and change in femoral neck BMD in either men or women. Lower FM was an independent but modest risk factor for greater bone loss at the lumbar spine in women but not in men. If further studies confirm our findings, FM can help predict lumbar spine bone loss in women.

  10. Screening for Osteoporosis in Older Men: Operating Characteristics of Proposed Strategies for Selecting Men for BMD Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Susan J; Peters, Katherine W; Gourlay, Margaret L; Schousboe, John T; Taylor, Brent C; Orwoll, Eric S; Cauley, Jane A; Langsetmo, Lisa; Crandall, Carolyn J; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2017-08-16

    The optimal approach for selecting men for bone mineral density (BMD) testing to screen for osteoporosis is uncertain. To compare strategies for selecting older men for screening BMD testing. Prospective cohort study. A total of 4043 community-dwelling men aged ≥70 years at four US sites. BMD at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST) and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) without BMD to discriminate between those with and without osteoporosis as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria, and between those recommended and not recommended for pharmacologic therapy based on the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) guidelines. Among the cohort, 216 (5.3%) had a BMD T-score ≤ -2.5 at the femoral neck, total hip, or lumbar spine, and 1184 (29.2%) met criteria for consideration of pharmacologic therapy according to NOF guidelines. The OST had better discrimination (AUC 0.68) than the FRAX (AUC 0.62; p = 0.004) for identifying T-score-defined osteoporosis. Use of an OST threshold of <2 resulted in sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.36 for the identification of osteoporosis, compared to sensitivity of 0.59 and specificity of 0.59 for the use of FRAX with a cutoff of 9.3% 10-year risk of major osteoporotic fracture. The OST performs modestly better than the more complex FRAX in selecting older men for BMD testing to screen for osteoporosis; the use of either tool substantially reduces the proportion of men referred for BMD testing compared to universal screening. Of 1000 men aged 70 and older in this community-based cohort, the use of an OST cutoff of <2 to select men for BMD testing would result in 654 men referred for BMD testing, of whom 44 would be

  11. Peak bone mass and bone mineral density correlates for 9 to 24 year-old Mexican women, using corrected BMD Pico mineral óseo y factores asociados a la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres mexicanas de 9 a 24 años de edad usando densidad mineral ósea corregida

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Torres-Mejía; Rubén Guzmán Pineda; Martha María Téllez-Rojo; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of peak bone mass (PBM) in Mexican women and factors associated with both BMDa and corrected BMD (BMDcorr) at the femoral neck and the spine (L2-L4). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 461 women between 9 and 24 years old was used. An interview was performed and height and weight were measured. BMDa was measured by a densitometer and BMDcorr by the method proposed by Kröger et al. (1992). RESULTS: PBM at the spine (L2-L4) was observed later than at the femoral neck....

  12. Polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with low lumbar spine bone mineral density and accelerated bone loss in post-menopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartland, Alison; Skarratt, Kristen K; Hocking, Lynne J

    2012-01-01

    SNPs (n=48) had nearly ninefold greater annualised percent change in LS-BMD than subjects who were wild type at the six SNP positions (n=84; rate of loss=-0.94%/year and -0.11%/year, respectively, P=0.0005, unpaired t-test). This is the first report that describes association of the c.946A (p.Arg307Gln...... was measured at baseline and at 6-7 year follow-up. P2RX7 genotyping was performed by homogeneous mass extension. We found association of c.946A (p.Arg307Gln) with lower LS-BMD at baseline (P=0.004, β=-0.12) and follow-up (P=0.002, β=-0.13). Further analysis showed that a combined group of subjects who had LOF...... publication, 11 January 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.245....

  13. Increased root hair density by loss of WRKY6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus G. Stetter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are unicellular elongations of certain rhizodermal cells that improve the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile soil nutrients. Among different Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, root hair density, length and the local acclimation to low inorganic phosphate (Pi differs considerably, when analyzed on split agar plates. Here, genome-wide association fine mapping identified significant single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the increased root hair density in the absence of local phosphate on chromosome 1. A loss-of-functionmutant of the candidate transcription factor gene WRKY6, which is involved in the acclimation of plants to low phosphorus, had increased root hair density. This is partially explained by a reduced cortical cell diameter in wrky6-3, reducing the rhizodermal cell numbers adjacent to the cortical cells. As a consequence, rhizodermal cells in positions that are in contact with two cortical cells are found more often, leading to higher hair density. Distinct cortical cell diameters and epidermal cell lengths distinguish other Arabidopsis accessions with distinct root hair density and −Pi response from diploid Col-0, while tetraploid Col-0 had generally larger root cell sizes, which explain longer hairs. A distinct radial root morphology within Arabidopsis accessions and wrky6-3explains some, but not all, differences in the root hair acclimation to –Pi.

  14. Increased root hair density by loss of WRKY6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Root hairs are unicellular elongations of certain rhizodermal cells that improve the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile soil nutrients. Among different Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, root hair density, length and the local acclimation to low inorganic phosphate (Pi) differs considerably, when analyzed on split agar plates. Here, genome-wide association fine mapping identified significant single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the increased root hair density in the absence of local phosphate on chromosome 1. A loss-of-functionmutant of the candidate transcription factor gene WRKY6, which is involved in the acclimation of plants to low phosphorus, had increased root hair density. This is partially explained by a reduced cortical cell diameter in wrky6-3, reducing the rhizodermal cell numbers adjacent to the cortical cells. As a consequence, rhizodermal cells in positions that are in contact with two cortical cells are found more often, leading to higher hair density. Distinct cortical cell diameters and epidermal cell lengths distinguish other Arabidopsis accessions with distinct root hair density and −Pi response from diploid Col-0, while tetraploid Col-0 had generally larger root cell sizes, which explain longer hairs. A distinct radial root morphology within Arabidopsis accessions and wrky6-3explains some, but not all, differences in the root hair acclimation to –Pi. PMID:28149680

  15. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  16. Association between Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Postmenopausal Women: The Yokogoshi Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Harumi; Kitamura, Kaori; Saito, Toshiko; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Iwasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Yumi; Oshiki, Rieko; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Diet and food intake play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. However, apart from calcium and vitamin D, how nutrients affect bone status is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese postmenopausal women. This 5-year cohort study included 600 community-dwelling women aged 55-74 years at baseline in 2005. Information on demographics, nutrition, and lifestyle was obtained through interviews, and nutritional and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. BMD measurements were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 2010, 498 women underwent follow-up BMD examinations. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine associations of predictor variables with BMD, adjusting for confounders. In cross-sectional analyses, coffee or black tea consumption was positively associated with lumbar spine (P = 0.004) and total hip (P = 0.003) BMD, and alcohol intake was positively associated with femoral neck (P = 0.005) and total hip (P = 0.001) BMD. In longitudinal analyses, vitamin K (P = 0.028) and natto (fermented soybeans) (P = 0.023) were positively associated with lumbar spine BMD, and meat or meat product consumption was inversely associated with total hip (P = 0.047) BMD. In conclusion, dietary factors other than calcium and vitamin D intake are predictors of bone mass and bone loss in Japanese postmenopausal women. In particular, natto intake is recommended for preventing postmenopausal bone loss on the basis of current evidence.

  17. Time-dependent density functional calculation of the energy loss of antiprotons colliding with metallic nanoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijada, M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Borisov, A.G. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Universite Paris-Sud, Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (France); CNRS, UMR 8625, Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, LCAM, Batiment 351, UPS-11, Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Muino, R.D. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Centro de Fisica de Materiales, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Edificio Korta, Avenida de Tolosa 72, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Time-dependent density functional theory is used to study the interaction between antiprotons and metallic nanoshells. The ground state electronic properties of the nanoshell are obtained in the jellium approximation. The energy lost by the antiproton during the collision is calculated and compared to that suffered by antiprotons traveling in metal clusters. The resulting energy loss per unit path length of material in thin nanoshells is larger than the corresponding quantity for clusters. It is shown that the collision process can be interpreted as the antiproton crossing of two nearly bi-dimensional independent metallic systems. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Effect of ovariectomy on BMD, micro-architecture and biomechanics of cortical and cancellous bones in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi-xiang; Lei, Wei; Hu, Yun-yu; Wang, Hai-qiang; Wan, Shi-yong; Ma, Zhen-sheng; Sang, Hong-xun; Fu, Suo-chao; Han, Yi-sheng

    2008-11-01

    Osteoporotic/osteopenia fractures occur most frequently in trabeculae-rich skeletal sites. The purpose of this study was to use a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dual energy X-ray absorptionmeter (DEXA) to investigate the changes in micro-architecture and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sheep model resulted from ovariectomy (OVX). Biomechanical tests were performed to evaluate the strength of the trabecular bone. Twenty adult sheeps were randomly divided into three groups: sham group (n=8), group 1 (n=4) and group 2 (n=8). In groups 1 and 2, all sheep were ovariectomized (OVX); in the sham group, the ovaries were located and the oviducts were ligated. In all animals, BMD for lumbar spine was obtained during the surgical procedure. BMD at the spine, femoral neck and femoral condyle was determined 6 months (group 1) and 12 months (group 2) post-OVX. Lumbar spines and femora were obtained and underwent BMD scan, micro-CT analysis. Compressive mechanical properties were determined from biopsies of vertebral bodies and femoral condyles. BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties of cancellous bone did not decrease significantly at 6 months post-OVX. Twelve months after OVX, BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties decreased significantly. The results of linear regression analyses showed that trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (r=0.945, R2=0.886) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (r=0.783, R2=0.586) had strong (R2>0.5) correlation to compression stress. In OVX sheep, changes in the structural parameters of trabecular bone are comparable to the human situation during osteoporosis was induced. The sheep model presented seems to meet the criteria for an osteopenia model for fracture treatment with respect to morphometric and mechanical properties. But the duration of OVX must be longer than 12 months to ensure the animal model can be established successfully.

  19. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results 2 years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Thun, Nancy L; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-05-01

    Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact of weight loss on bone in reduced overweight/obese women compared with women who regained their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Postmenopausal women (N = 42; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [2.8] kg/m; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.5] y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6-month weight loss trial; those who maintained their weight (weight loss maintainer [WL-M] group) were matched to a cohort of women who regained their weight (weight loss regainer [WL-R] group). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, spine, radius, and total body, and soft-tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 years, and 2 years. During weight loss, both groups lost 9.3% (3.4%) of body weight, with no significant difference between the groups. After weight loss, weight change was -0.1% (2.7%) and 6.0% (3.3%) in the WL-M (n = 22) and WL-R (n = 20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter (P ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (P weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for those who maintain weight and those who regain weight.

  20. Tenofovir accelerates bone mass loss of the lumbar spine in the first years of menopause in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Garlassi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV-infected postmenopausal women have higher rates of bone loss than HIV negative women. We aimed to identify predictors of body mass density (BMD in HIV infected women entering menopause and to evaluate the pre- and post-menopausal BMD change, with regard to tenofovir (TDF use. Methods: Women with at least one DEXA measurement were enrolled. The observation period was divided into: “Reproductive period”, “Menopause transition period”, “Early menopause period”, “Late menopause period”. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-4 and femur neck were measured by DEXA. Lowess smoothing curves were drawn to analyze impact of menopause and TDF on BMD. Three different longitudinal linear regression models with random effects were built. Longitudinal regression analysis fits cross sectional time series regression models and allows to analyze repeated measures for each patient. Results: Fifty-five women were included. Median age at enrollment was 46 years (IQ range 44–49. Median observation period was 16 months (IQ range 8; 23 and 33 months (IQ range 23; 72 for pre- and post-menopausal respectively. At enrollment mean CD4 cell count was 553 cell/mL (±269.62 and HIV-VL was undetectable in 77.5% of patients: 6 women were not undergoing ART. Most common backbone TDF/FTC (46.9% and ABC/3TC (20.4%. At the time of inclusion in the cohort osteopenia and ostoeporosis were present in 60% and 3.64%, respectively. At the time of last DEXA evaluation osteopenia and osteoporosis were present in 78.18% and 36.36%, respectively. The impact of menopause on lumbar BMD was depicted (fig. 1 using a lowess smoothing analysis according to current TDF exposure (as treated model. Lumbar BMD change predictors were years from menopause and TDF current exposure in the “Early menopause period” and years from menopause, Baseline lumbar BMD, BMI and vitD supplementation in the “Late menopause period”. Discussion: This is the first study analyzing BMD

  1. Low Normal TSH levels are Associated with Impaired BMD and Hip Geometry in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Mi Kyung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik; Yun, Young Mi; Park, Hyun-Young; Kim, Chang Oh; Rhee, Yumie

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is known to be associated with the risk of fractures in elderly people. However, there are few studies assessing whether low normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels affect bone density and geometry. Here, we aimed to assess the influence of the TSH level on bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry in elderly euthyroid subjects. This was a cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 343 men and 674 women with euthyroidism were included and analyzed separately. The subjects were divided into tertiles based on the serum TSH level. The BMD and geometry were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a hip structural analysis program. Multiple regression analysis was used to compute the odds ratios of osteoporosis in the lower TSH tertile group and the association between geometry parameters and the TSH level. We found that the femoral neck and total hip BMDs were lower in the lower TSH tertile group. In women, the cross-sectional area and cortical thickness of the femur were negatively associated with the TSH level in all three regions (the narrow neck, intertrochanter, and femoral shaft); however, in men, these geometry parameters were significantly associated with the TSH level only in the intertrochanter region. The buckling ratio, a bone geometry parameter representing cortical instability, was significantly higher in the lower TSH tertile group in all three regions in women, but not in men. Our results indicated that lower TSH levels in the euthyroid range are related to lower BMD and weaker femoral structure in elderly women. PMID:28053824

  2. Low Normal TSH levels are Associated with Impaired BMD and Hip Geometry in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Mi Kyung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik; Yun, Young Mi; Park, Hyun-Young; Kim, Chang Oh; Rhee, Yumie

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is known to be associated with the risk of fractures in elderly people. However, there are few studies assessing whether low normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels affect bone density and geometry. Here, we aimed to assess the influence of the TSH level on bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry in elderly euthyroid subjects. This was a cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 343 men and 674 women with euthyroidism were included and analyzed separately. The subjects were divided into tertiles based on the serum TSH level. The BMD and geometry were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a hip structural analysis program. Multiple regression analysis was used to compute the odds ratios of osteoporosis in the lower TSH tertile group and the association between geometry parameters and the TSH level. We found that the femoral neck and total hip BMDs were lower in the lower TSH tertile group. In women, the cross-sectional area and cortical thickness of the femur were negatively associated with the TSH level in all three regions (the narrow neck, intertrochanter, and femoral shaft); however, in men, these geometry parameters were significantly associated with the TSH level only in the intertrochanter region. The buckling ratio, a bone geometry parameter representing cortical instability, was significantly higher in the lower TSH tertile group in all three regions in women, but not in men. Our results indicated that lower TSH levels in the euthyroid range are related to lower BMD and weaker femoral structure in elderly women.

  3. Sex specific association of physical activity on proximal femur BMD in 9 to 10 year-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Cardadeiro

    Full Text Available The results of physical activity (PA intervention studies suggest that adaptation to mechanical loading at the femoral neck (FN is weaker in girls than in boys. Less is known about gender differences associated with non-targeted PA levels at the FN or other clinically relevant regions of the proximal femur. Understanding sex-specific relationships between proximal femur sensitivity and mechanical loading during non-targeted PA is critical to planning appropriate public health interventions. We examined sex-specific associations between non-target PA and bone mineral density (BMD of three sub-regions of the proximal femur in pre- and early-pubertal boys and girls. BMD at the FN, trochanter (TR and intertrochanter (IT regions, and lean mass of the whole body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 161 girls (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs and 164 boys (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs. PA was measured using accelerometry. Multiple linear regression analyses (adjusted for body height, total lean mass and pubertal status revealed that vigorous PA explained 3-5% of the variability in BMD at all three sub-regions in boys. In girls, vigorous PA explained 4% of the variability in IT BMD and 6% in TR BMD. PA did not contribute to the variance in FN BMD in girls. An additional 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA would be expected to result in a ∼1% higher FN, TR, and IT BMD in boys (p<0.05 and a ∼2% higher IT and TR BMD in girls. In conclusion, vigorous PA can be expected to contribute positively to bone health outcomes for boys and girls. However, the association of vigorous PA to sub-regions of the proximal femur varies by sex, such that girlś associations are heterogeneous and the lowest at the FN, but stronger at the TR and the IT, when compared to boys.

  4. Differences in the trajectory of bone mineral density change measured at the total hip and femoral neck between men and women following hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Alan M; Shardell, Michelle; Orwig, Denise; Hebel, J Richard; Hicks, Gregory E; Beck, Thomas; Hochberg, Marc C; Magaziner, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Research has not examined changes in bone mineral density (BMD) between men and women following hip fracture. The aim was to evaluate sex differences in BMD following hip fracture. Men experienced significant declines in BMD, while not statistically greater than women, underscoring the necessity for better osteoporosis care in men. Each year in the USA, approximately 260,000 older adults experience a hip fracture. Women experiencing hip fracture have excess decline in BMD in the year following fracture compared to expected decrements due to aging, but few studies have assessed sex differences in the sequelae of hip fracture. Thus, our objective was to examine sex differences in BMD change in the year after hip fracture. The sample (n = 286) included persons enrolled in the Baltimore Hip Studies 7th cohort, a study that matched (1:1) men and women experiencing hip fracture. Weighted estimating equations that accounted for missing data and selective survival were used to estimate sex differences in 12-month total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD changes. Men had larger average adjusted percent decline in TH and FN BMD. Adjusted 12-month decreases at the FN showed a statistically significant decline of -4.60% (95% confidence interval [CI] -7.76%, -0.20%) in men and an insignificant change of -1.62% (95% CI -4.57%, 1.32%) in women. Yet, the difference in change between men and women was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). The estimated sex differences for TH BMD loss were smaller in magnitude. There is evidence of significant BMD loss among men at the FN in the year after hip fracture. Although not statistically greater than women, these clinically significant findings highlight the need for improved osteoporosis care among men prior to and after hip fracture.

  5. Increased serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and decreased patellar bone mineral density in patients with chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; FitzGerald, O; Saxne, T; Bresnihan, B

    2002-11-01

    Chondromalacia patellae is a potentially disabling disorder characterised by features of patellar cartilage degradation. To evaluate markers of cartilage and bone turnover in patients with chondromalacia patellae. 18 patients with chondromalacia patellae were studied. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (s-COMP) and bone sialoprotein (s-BSP) levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared with those of age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) of both knee joints was assessed by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA). s-COMP levels were significantly raised in all patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with healthy control subjects (p=0.0001). s-BSP levels did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.41). BMD of the patella was significantly reduced in patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with the control subjects (p=0.016). In patients with bilateral chondromalacia patellae, BMD of the patella was lower in the more symptomatic knee joint (p=0.005). Changes in periarticular BMD were localised to the patella and were not present in femoral regions. Neither s-COMP (p=0.18) nor s-BSP (p=0.40) levels correlated with patellar BMD. Increased s-COMP levels, reflecting cartilage degradation, and reduced BMD localised to the patella may represent clinically useful markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with chondromalacia patellae. Measures of cartilage degradation did not correlate with loss of patellar bone density, suggesting dissociated pathophysiological mechanisms.

  6. Correlation of estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in Chinese women with chronic periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuan; DAI Juan; LONG Yin; WU Hao; LI Xiao-juan; DING Yin

    2010-01-01

    Background Periodontitis and osteoporosis aro one of the frequently encountered diseases in post-menopausal women. Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulated bone metabolism. To investigate the possible effect of ER-alpha (α) gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density (BMD) in pre- and post-menopausal Chinese women with chronic periodontitis (CP), we provided sufficient quantitative information concerning the correlation between ER gene polymorphisms and BMD in periodontitis.Methods Sixty-five post-menopausal and eighty pro-menopausal CP women, and sixty post-menopausal healthy individuals were recruited in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral mucosa swab sample of each subject by the Chelex-100 method. Determination of the ER-α polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique with Xbal and Pvull enzyme. The index for periodontal examination includes clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD). BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).Results There were no significant differences between the ER-(α genotypes of Pvull and Xbal and BMD in post-menopausal and pro-menopausal CP patients, respectively (P >0.05). However, there was association between preand post-menopausal CP patients at BMD of lumbar spine L2-L4 (P=0.027) and Ward's BMD (P=0.004). Furthermore, the post-menopausal CP women who carried Pvull ∏ genotype presented significantly lower Ward's BMD than the pre-menopausal CP women (P=0.007), meanwhile, the post-menopausal CP women who carried Xbal AA genotype presented significantly lower spine L2-L4 BMD than the pre-menopausal CP women (P=0.003).Conclusions ER-(α gene polymorphisms may be a susceptible indicator for BMD variation of lumbar spine L2-L4 and Ward in Chinese pre- and post-menopausal women patients with CP.

  7. Magnesium intake mediates the association between bone mineral density and lean soft tissue in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Monteiro, Cristina P; Vasco, Ana M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B; Laires, Maria J; Silva, Analiza M

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with bone disorders. Physical activity is also crucial for bone mineralization. Bone mass loss has been observed to be accelerated in subjects with low Mg intake. We aim to understand if Mg intake mediates the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST) in elite swimmers. Seventeen elite swimmers (eight males; nine females) were evaluated. Bone mineral content, BMD, LST, and fat mass were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed during a seven-day period and analyzed with Food Processor SQL. Males presented lower values than the normative data for BMD. Mg, phosphorus (P) and vitamin D intake were significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. A linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between LST and BMD. When Mg intake was included, we observed that this was a significant, independent predictor of BMD, with a significant increase of 24% in the R(2) of the initial predictive model. When adjusted for energy, vitamin D, calcium, and P intake, Mg remained a significant predictor of BMD. In conclusion, young athletes engaged in low impact sports, should pay special attention to Mg intake, given its potential role in bone mineral mass acquisition during growth.

  8. Subgroup variations in bone mineral density response to zoledronic acid after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaziner, Jay S; Orwig, Denise L; Lyles, Kenneth W; Nordsletten, Lars; Boonen, Steven; Adachi, Jonathan D; Recknor, Chris; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Mesenbrink, Peter; Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina; Su, Guoqin; Johnson, Rasheeda; Pieper, Carl F

    2014-12-01

    Minimizing post-fracture bone loss is an important aspect of recovery from hip fracture, and determination of factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) response to treatment after hip fracture may assist in the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. A post hoc analysis of the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial was done to determine the effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD in subgroups with low-trauma hip fracture. A total of 2127 patients were randomized (1:1) to yearly infusions of ZOL 5 mg (n = 1065) or placebo (n = 1062) within 90 days of operation for low-trauma hip fracture. The 1486 patients with a baseline and at least one post-baseline BMD assessment at TH or FN (ZOL = 745, placebo = 741) were included in the analyses. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD was assessed at months 12 and 24 and compared across subgroups of hip fracture patients. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD at months 12 and 24 was greater (p 6 weeks post-surgery; and for TH and FN BMD in patients with a history of one or more prior fractures. All interactions were limited to the first 12 months after treatment with none observed for the 24-month comparisons. (Clinical trial registration number NCT00046254.) © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Bone Mineral Density and Weight Changes in Adolescents Randomized to 3 Doses of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Hannah L H; Manos, Brittny E; Gothard, M David; Rogers, Lynette K; Bonny, Andrea E

    2017-04-01

    To assess the association between medroxyprogesterone acetate exposure and bone mineral density (BMD) loss and weight change in adolescents. Forty-eight-week prospective, randomized trial conducted May 2012-April 2014. Recruitment occurred in the general community and outpatient clinics in central Ohio. Self-referred sample of 34 female adolescents aged 12-21 years initiating depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Randomization to 1 of 3 DMPA doses (150, 104, or 75 mg) given intramuscularly every 12 weeks for 48 weeks. Absolute and percent change in BMD from 0-48 weeks at the L1-L4 lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck; absolute and percent change in weight at 48 weeks. DMPA dose was associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate exposure as evidenced by a direct relationship (P < .001) between dose group and area under the concentration time curve. At 48 weeks, no significant BMD decreases were seen in the 75 mg dose group. The 104 and 150 mg dose groups experienced significant (P < .01) decreases in L1-L4 lumbar spine BMD (3.1% and 4.0%, respectively). The 150 mg group also had significant (P < .05) decreases in total hip (3.0%) and femoral neck (4.0%) BMD. No group differences in weight change were observed. No pregnancies occurred in any DMPA dose group. Our data provide evidence of a dose-response relationship between DMPA and BMD loss. Intramuscular DMPA doses less than 150 mg can decrease risk of BMD loss in adolescents. The risk/benefit ratio of lower-dose DMPA should be further investigated in larger and more diverse adolescent populations. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value : comparison by single energy quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kun Il; Song, Keun Sung [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value by using the single energy quantitative CT(SEQCT). Eighty normal volunteers(20-60years) were selected as a control group and 28 patients with developmental lumbar spinal stenosis were selected as a disease group. The two groups were divided into a younger (20-39 years) and an older subgroup (40-60 years), and were further divided into male and female subgroups. All the cases showed no evidence of metabolic disease, fracture, herniated nucleus pulposus, degererative spondylosis, infectious disease, tumors or had no history of absolute immobilization of more than two weeks. All underwent lumbar spine CT and SEQCT. we measured bone mineral density(BMD) at the cancellous bone of L1, 2, 3 and obtained the mean and its one standard deviation, and compared the data between each sub-group of the control and the disease group using ANOVA. There was a significant low BMD value in the younger male patient subgroup compared with the control subgroup(p<0.005). Developmental lumbar spinal stenosis in a young male may be a factor of decreasing BMD of the body of the spine.

  11. Femoral geometric parameters and BMD measurements by DXA in adult patients with different types of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocijan, Roland; Muschitz, Christian; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Haschka, Judith; Dimai, Hans-Peter; Trubrich, Angela; Bittighofer, Christina; Resch, Heinrich

    2013-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder characterized by increased bone fragility with recurrent fractures that leads to skeletal deformities in severe cases. Consequently, in most OI patients, the hip is the only reliable measuring site for estimating future fracture risk. The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of hip structure analysis (HSA) by DXA in adult patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) and hip structure analysis (HSA) by DXA, including cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and femoral strength index (FSI) in 30 adult patients with different types of OI and 30 age-matched healthy controls (CO). The OI total group (OI-tot) was divided into two subgroups: the mild OI I group (OI-I) and the more severe OI III and IV group (OI-III-IV). The mean neck BMD of OI-I and OI-III-IV were significantly lower compared to CO (-15.9 %, p osteogenesis imperfecta and controls. BMD measurement in osteogenesis imperfecta patients is very critical. The combination of BMD and geometric structural measurements at the hip in osteogenesis imperfecta patients may represent an additional helpful means in estimating bone strength and fracture risk.

  12. The role of shore crabs and mussel density in mussel losses at a commercial intertidal mussel plot after seeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Scheiberlich, Gerard; Wijsman, Jeroen W.M.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2016-01-01

    Mussel losses peak after relaying seed on culture plots. The present paper is an attempt to examine the role of shore crab predation and initial mussel density on mussel losses in mussel bottom culture using an intertidal culture plot as a case study. Because of their small size and loose attachm

  13. Loss of density-dependence and incomplete control by dominant breeders in a territorial species with density outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylönen Hannu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A territory as a prerequisite for breeding limits the maximum number of breeders in a given area, and thus lowers the proportion of breeders if population size increases. However, some territorially breeding animals can have dramatic density fluctuations and little is known about the change from density-dependent processes to density-independence of breeding during a population increase or an outbreak. We suggest that territoriality, breeding suppression and its break-down can be understood with an incomplete-control model, developed for social breeders and social suppression. Results We studied density dependence in an arvicoline species, the bank vole, known as a territorial breeder with cyclic and non-cyclic density fluctuations and periodically high densities in different parts of its range. Our long-term data base from 38 experimental populations in large enclosures in boreal grassland confirms that breeding rates are density-regulated at moderate densities, probably by social suppression of subordinate potential breeders. We conducted an experiment, were we doubled and tripled this moderate density under otherwise the same conditions and measured space use, mortality, reproduction and faecal stress hormone levels (FGM of adult females. We found that mortality did not differ among the densities, but the regulation of the breeding rate broke down: at double and triple densities all females were breeding, while at the low density the breeding rate was regulated as observed before. Spatial overlap among females increased with density, while a minimum territory size was maintained. Mean stress hormone levels were higher in double and triple densities than at moderate density. Conclusions At low and moderate densities, breeding suppression by the dominant breeders, But above a density-threshold (similar to a competition point, the dominance of breeders could not be sustained (incomplete control. In our experiment, this point

  14. Assessment of bone mineral density in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis: a cross-sectional long-term followup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Hassager, C; Lovell, D J

    1999-01-01

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD.......To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD....

  15. The Benefit of Menopausal Hormone Therapy on Bone Density and Microarchitecture Persists After its Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios; Hans, Didier; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Elena; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro Manuel; Lamy, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) favorably affects bone mineral density (BMD). Whether MHT also affects bone microarchitecture, as assessed by trabecular bone score (TBS), has never been evaluated. Our objective was to assess the effect of MHT on TBS and BMD before and after its withdrawal. This was a cross-sectional study. This study included the general community. Data were collected from the OsteoLaus cohort (1500 women aged 50-80 years). After exclusion of women with bone-modulating treatments, 1279 women were categorized according to MHT status into current (CU), past (PU), and never (NU) users. Spine TBS and BMD at lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Age- and body mass index-adjusted analysis showed higher TBS values in CU vs PU or NU (1.31 ± 0.01, 1.29 ± 0.01, and 1.27 ± 0.01, respectively; P < .001). All BMD values were significantly higher in CU vs PU or NU. Compared to NU, PU exhibited higher lumbar spine (0.94 ± 0.01 vs 0.91 ± 0.01 g/cm(2); P = .017) and total hip (0.86 ± 0.01 vs 0.84 ± 0.01 g/cm(2); P = .026) BMD and a trend for higher TBS (P = .066). The 10-year loss of TBS and BMD at lumbar spine and total hip was significantly lower for both CU and PU vs NU. MHT duration had no effect on bone parameters. In PU, the residual effect on TBS and BMD was significantly more prominent in early discontinuers (<2 years). MHT is associated with bone microarchitecture preservation, as assessed by TBS. The effect of MHT on TBS and BMD persists at least 2 years after withdrawal.

  16. Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasma with high density and high radiation loss operation in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, H.; Asakura, N.; Kubo, H.; Higashijima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Nakano, T.; Oyama, N.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rensink, M. E.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Takizuka, T.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; JT-60 Team

    2005-12-01

    Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasmas with high density and high radiation loss has been investigated in both reversed shear (RS) plasmas and high βp H-mode plasmas with a weak positive shear on JT-60U. In the RS plasmas, the operating regime is extended to high density above the Greenwald density (nGW) with high confinement (HHy2 > 1) and high radiation loss fraction (frad > 0.9) by tailoring the internal transport barriers (ITBs). With a small plasma-wall gap, the radiation loss in the main plasma (inside the magnetic separatrix) reaches 80% of the heating power due to metal impurity accumulation. However, high confinement of HHy2 = 1.2 is sustained even with such a large radiation loss in the main plasma. By neon seeding, the divertor radiation loss is enhanced from 20% to 40% of the total radiation loss. In the high βp H-mode plasmas, high confinement (HHy2 = 0.96) is maintained at high density ( \\bar{n}_{\\rme}/n_GW=0.92 ) with high radiation loss fraction (frad ~ 1) by utilizing high-field-side pellets and argon (Ar) injection. The high \\bar{n}_{\\rme}/n_GW is attributed to the formation of strong density ITB. Strong core-edge parameter linkage for confinement improvement is observed, where the pedestal pressure and the core plasma confinement increase together. The measured radiation profile including contributions from all impurities in the main plasma is peaked, and the central radiation is ascribed to the contribution from Ar accumulated inside the ITB. Impurity transport analyses indicate that the Ar density profile, twice as peaked as the electron density profile, which is the same level as that observed in the high βp H-mode plasma, can yield an acceptable radiation profile even with a peaked density profile in a fusion reactor.

  17. Communication: Investigation of the electron momentum density distribution of nanodiamonds by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhenbao; Yang, Bing; Lin, Yangming; Su, Dangsheng, E-mail: dssu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-12-07

    The electron momentum distribution of detonation nanodiamonds (DND) was investigated by recording electron energy-loss spectra at large momentum transfer in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), which is known as electron Compton scattering from solid (ECOSS). Compton profile of diamond film obtained by ECOSS was found in good agreement with prior photon experimental measurement and theoretical calculation that for bulk diamond. Compared to the diamond film, the valence Compton profile of DND was found to be narrower, which indicates a more delocalization of the ground-state charge density for the latter. Combining with other TEM characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, ECOSS was shown to be a great potential technique to study ground-state electronic properties of nanomaterials.

  18. Higher prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in patients with recent coronary events independently of BMD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Henrique C; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Genaro, Patrícia S; Castro, Charlles H M; Monteiro, Carlos M C; Fonseca, Francisco A H; Szejnfeld, Vera L

    2013-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are important causes of morbi-mortality in the elderly and may be mutually related. Low bone mineral density (BMD) may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. We investigated the prevalence of low bone mass and fractures in metabolic syndrome patients with acute coronary events. A case-control study was conducted with 150 individuals (30-80years-old) with metabolic syndrome. Seventy-one patients had had an acute coronary syndrome episode in the last 6months (cases) and the remaining 79 had no coronary event (controls). Cases and controls were matched for gender, BMI and age. DXA measurements and body composition were performed while spine radiographs surveyed for vertebral fractures and vascular calcification. Biochemical bone and metabolic parameters were measured in all patients. No statistically significant difference in BMD and the prevalence of osteopenia, osteoporosis and non-vertebral fractures was observed between cases and controls. The prevalence of vertebral fractures and all fractures was higher in the cases (14.1 versus 1.3%, p=0.003 and 22.5versus7.6%, p=0.010, respectively). Male gender (OR=0.22 95% CI 0.58 to 0.83, p=0.026) and daily intake of more than 3 portions of dairy products (OR=0.19 95% CI 0.49 to 0.75, p=0.017) were associated with lower prevalence of fractures. Cases had higher risk for fractures (OR=4.97, 95% CI 1.17 to 30.30, p=0.031). Bone mass and body composition parameters were not associated with cardiovascular risk factors or bone mineral metabolism. Patients with fragility fractures had higher OPG serum levels than those without fractures (p<0.001). Our findings demonstrated that patients with recent coronary events have a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures independently of BMD.

  19. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  20. Poultry performance in different grazing densities: forage characteristics, losses due to grazing and feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cristiano França

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of three forage species grazed by rustic poultry in stocking were evaluated. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes were planted in 33-m2 paddocks with two densities (m2/animal: D1 = 3m2/animal and D2 = 1m2/animal. The design was a randomized complete block with a 3 x 2 factorial (three grasses and two densities and three replications. Grass canopy height, grass mass, morphological composition (leaf, stem, and dead material, losses due to grazing, poultry weight gain and consumption, and concentrate feed conversion ratio and efficiency were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, forage and leaves masses were considered low to stylosanthes in D2 (0.28 to 0.03 kg/m2 and to kikuyu grass in D1 (0.13 to 0.05 kg/m2 and in D2 (0.11 and 0.03 kg/m2, respectively. In addition, the grass canopy height was considered low for stylosanthes (6.50 cm that could jeopardize the entry of new poultry lot. The three grass species had similar weight gain and revealed better results for 3m²/ chicken (3.20 kg/animal. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes, with some exceptions, can be considered suitable for grazing fattening poultry at 3m2/animal at the evaluated time of the year (autumn.

  1. Linking fungal communities to wood density loss after 12 years of log decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubartová, Ariana; Ottosson, Elisabet; Stenlid, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biodiversity might alter decomposition processes and, consequently, carbon and nutrient cycling. We examined fungal diversity and density loss in experimental Norway spruce logs after 12 years of decay in a hemiboreal forest. Between 28 and 50% of the original wood biomass remained, depending on the fungal community composition in the log, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness had only a minor effect on the log biomass. Although the communities were OTU rich (190-340 OTUs per log), the majority of OTUs were infrequent or rare; wood degradation therefore depended mostly on the most abundant OTUs and their decomposing abilities. The least decayed logs were characterized by continuous dominance of an earlier colonizer and by high within-log community diversity, which was significantly related to sample variables (position in log, density and moisture). In the most decayed logs, the earlier colonizers were generally replaced by white-rot species able to exploit the highly decomposed wood. The communities were relatively spatially uniform within whole logs, independent of the sample variables, whereas among-log diversity was high. Importance of fungal community composition in decomposition processes should be taken into account when studying and modeling carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems.

  2. Establishment of age- and sex-adjusted reference data for hand bone mass and investigation of hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Jensen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by progressive joint destruction and loss of periarticular bone mass. Hand bone loss (HBL) has therefore been proposed as an outcome measure for treatment efficacy. A definition of increased HBL adjusted for age- and sex-related bone loss is lacking....... In this study, we aimed to: 1) establish reference values for normal hand bone mass (bone mineral density measured by digital x-ray radiogrammetry (DXR-BMD)); and 2) examine whether HBL is normalised in rheumatoid arthritis patients during treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNFI). METHODS......: DXR-BMD was measured from hand x-rays in a reference cohort (1485 men/2541 women) without arthritis randomly selected from an urban Danish population. Sex- and age-related HBL/year was estimated. DXR-BMD was measured in rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 350: at start of TNFI, and ~2 years after TNFI...

  3. Implications of combined ovariectomy/multi-deficiency diet on rat bone with age-related variation in bone parameters and bone loss at multiple skeletal sites by DEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Parameswari; Schlewitz, Gudrun; Schliefke, Nathalie; Weisweiler, David; Alt, Volker; Thormann, Ulrich; Lips, Katrin Susanne; Wenisch, Sabine; Langheinrich, Alexander C; Zahner, Daniel; Hemdan, Nasr Y; Böcker, Wolfgang; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiss, Christian

    2013-02-28

    Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial, chronic, skeletal disease highly prevalent in post-menopausal women and is influenced by hormonal and dietary factors. Because animal models are imperative for disease diagnostics, the present study establishes and evaluates enhanced osteoporosis obtained through combined ovariectomy and deficient diet by DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) for a prolonged time period. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham (laparotomized) and OVX-diet (ovariectomized and fed with deficient diet) groups. Different skeletal sites were scanned by DEXA at the following time points: M0 (baseline), M12 (12 months post-surgery), and M14 (14 months post-surgery). Parameters analyzed included BMD (bone mineral density), BMC (bone mineral content), bone area, and fat (%). Regression analysis was performed to determine the interrelationships between BMC, BMD, and bone area from M0 to M14. BMD and BMC were significantly lower in OVX-diet rats at M12 and M14 compared to sham rats. The Z-scores were below -5 in OVX-diet rats at M12, but still decreased at M14 in OVX-diet rats. Bone area and percent fat were significantly lower in OVX-diet rats at M14 compared to sham rats. The regression coefficients for BMD vs. bone area, BMC vs. bone area, and BMC vs. BMD of OVX-diet rats increased with time. This is explained by differential percent change in BMD, BMC, and bone area with respect to time and disease progression. Combined ovariectomy and deficient diet in rats caused significant reduction of BMD, BMC, and bone area, with nearly 40% bone loss after 14 months, indicating the development of severe osteoporosis. An increasing regression coefficient of BMD vs. bone area with disease progression emphasizes bone area as an important parameter, along with BMD and BMC, for prediction of fracture risk.

  4. A Losing Battle: Weight Regain Does Not Restore Weight Loss-Induced Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Karen L.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Wolfe, Pam; Jankowski, Catherine M.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported significant bone mineral density (BMD) loss in postmenopausal women after modest weight loss. It remains unclear whether the magnitude of BMD change in response to weight loss is appropriate (i.e., proportional to weight loss) and whether BMD is recovered with weight regain. We now report changes in BMD after a 1-year follow-up. Subjects (n = 23) in this secondary analysis were postmenopausal women randomized to placebo as part of a larger trial. They completed a 6-month exercise-based weight loss program and returned for follow-up at 18 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. At baseline, subjects were aged 56.8 ± 5.4 years (mean ± s.d.), 10.0 ± 9.2 years postmenopausal, and BMI was 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2. They lost 3.9 ± 3.5 kg during the weight loss intervention. During follow-up, they regained 2.9 ± 3.9 kg. Six months of weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in lumbar spine (LS) (−1.7 ± 3.5%; P = 0.002) and hip (−0.04 ± 3.5%; P = 0.03) BMD that was accompanied by an increase in a biomarker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX: 34 ± 54%; P = 0.08). However, weight regain was not associated with LS (0.05 ± 3.8%; P = 0.15) or hip (−0.6 ± 3.0%; P = 0.81) bone regain or decreased bone resorption (CTX: −3 ± 37%; P = 0.73). The findings suggest that BMD lost during weight reduction may not be fully recovered with weight regain in hormone-deficient, postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to identify effective strategies to prevent bone loss during periods of weight loss. PMID:21852813

  5. Is hand bone mineral density a marker for hand function in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis? The correlation among bone mineral density of the hand, radiological findings and hand function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogu, Beril; Kuran, Banu; Yilmaz, Figen; Usen, Ahmet; Sirzai, Hulya

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the role of hand bone mineral density (BMD) as a prospective marker for hand function and the correlation of hand BMD with X-ray findings and hand functioning in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Eighty-three female patients diagnosed with RA were enrolled. All BMD measurements were performed on both hands. The radiological evaluation was conducted according to the van der Heijde modification of the Sharp method (Sharp/van der Heijde). Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) was used to establish the disability in the hands. Furthermore, handgrip strength (HGS), pinch strength (PS), lateral pinch (LP), tip-to-tip pinch (TTP) and three-fingered pinch (TFP) on both the dominant and the non-dominant hands was measured. A significant positive correlation between hand BMD and HGS as well as all PSs with p DHI (p > 0.05). The hand BMD and the Sharp/van der Heijde scores were significantly in reverse correlation (p DHI-related variants, HGS and PS and the total DHI scores were reversely correlated, while there was a positive significant association with radiological scores (p DHI, HGS, LP, TTP, TFP and radiographic total scores. Our study demonstrated that a one-off hand BMD measurement failed to adequately indicate a loss in hand function as measured by DHI. Ultimately, HGS and TTP were shown to be the most effective indicators for measuring hand functions.

  6. Changes in bone mineral density of the acetabulum and proximal femur after total hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Shen, Bin; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zong-ke; Kang, Peng-de; Pei, Fu-xing

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) of acetabulum and proximal femur after total hip resurfacing arthroplasty. A comparative study was carried out on 51 hips in 48 patients. Group A consisted of 25 patients (26 hips) who had undergone total hip resurfacing and group B consisted of 23 patients (25 hips) who had had large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA). BMDs around the acetabulum and proximal femur were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 2 weeks, 6 months, 1 year and annually thereafter during the 3 years after surgery. At final follow-up, the acetabular net mean BMD decreased by 11% in group A and 10% in group B with no differences between two groups (P = .35). For the femoral side, in Gruen zone 1, the mean BMD increased by 4% in group A, whereas it decreased by 11% in group B (P = .029). In Gruen zone 7, the mean BMD increased by 8% at the final follow-up in group A, whereas it decreased by 13% in group B (P = .02). In both groups the mean BMD increased by 3% in Gruen zones 3, 4, 5, and 6. Stress-related bone loss of the acetabulum was comparable for MOM THA and resurfacing devices, but proximal femoral bone density increased in the resurfacing group and decreased in the THA group.

  7. RECOVERY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FERTILITY IN A FORMER AMENORRHEIC ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate dietary intake and prolonged amenorrhea in women athletes can lead to bone loss, particularly at the spine, which may be irreversible. This report presents the case of a woman endurance runner, followed prospectively over 6 years after presenting with the female athlete triad. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, lumbar spine (LS, total hip and total body (TB BMD Z-scores were -2.2, -0.5 and -0.3 respectively. At 6 years, following a recovery plan of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, weight gain, improved dietary intake and reduced training load, the athlete regained menstrual function and BMD. LS, TB and hip BMD Z-scores improved to -0.6, -0.1 and 0.1 respectively. Restoration of fertility was indicated by pregnancy, following only 4 months of regular menstruation. This case report suggests that bone density and fertility may not be completely jeopardised in formerly amenorrheic and osteopenic athletes, providing recovery through diet, weight gain, and return of menstruation is achieved within the third decade. Longitudinal studies tracking bone changes in women with amenorrhea and low BMD are required and would have important implications for the treatment of the female athlete triad

  8. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Boettcher, Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Pfeil, Alexander; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); John, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jena (Germany); Vollandt, Ruediger [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are known complications after renal transplantation in adults. Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids. In this preliminary study of quantification of bone loss in children after renal transplantation, we evaluated the applicability of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of hand radiographs to estimate cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). A total of 23 renal transplant recipients (9 girls, 14 boys; age 6.5-20 years, median 16.3 years) underwent DXR measurements for calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using radiographs of the non-dominant left hand. The duration between transplantation and the DXR evaluation, the duration of dialysis and medication were considered. The results were compared to a local age-matched and gender-matched reference data base. Our study revealed a significant decrease in bone mineral density compared to an age-matched and sex-matched normal population (P<0.05). In three patients the DXR-BMD was reduced more than -2.5 SD. In 12 patients the DXR-BMD was between -1 and -2.5 SD, and in 7 patients the DXR-BMD was in the normal range. In one patient, evaluation was not possible. Fractures were documented in three patients following transplantation. Reduced DXR-BMD was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy or the duration of dialysis, and there was no significant correlation between DXR-BMD and the time between transplantation and DXR evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Measurement and analysis of BMD of the lumbar vertebrae using QCT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis%强直性脊柱炎患者腰椎定量CT骨密度测定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明; 魏健; 薛峰; 钱学江; 韩爱强

    2013-01-01

    目的 测定强直性脊柱炎患者腰椎骨密度(BMD),分析骨量变化相关因素,指导治疗.方法选取强直性脊柱炎患者66例为实验组,26例健康查体者为对照组,登记一般资料及病程、ESR、CRP、BASFI及HLA-B27等指标,应用定量CT测定腰1-5椎体BMD,进行两组间BMD比较及危险因素相关分析.结果 实验组腰椎皮质骨及松质骨BMD均显著低于对照组(269.1±39.8 vs 308.2±49.3 mg/mL,140.8±18.6 vs 190.1±15.7 mg/mL,P<0.01),实验组腰椎松质骨BMD丢失百分率显著高于皮质骨(25.9%±10.3% vs 12.7%±13.2%,P<0.01),实验组骨量减少和骨质疏松发生率分别为45.5%和39.4%.病程及骶髂关节破坏程度与骨密度负相关,身高、体重、BMI、BASFI、ESR和/或CRP是否升高及HLA-B27阳性与否均与骨密度无相关性.结论 强直性脊柱炎患者腰椎BMD显著降低,骨质疏松发生率高,应早期评估BMD,及时应用生物制剂等防治骨量丢失.%Objective To measure the bone mineral density ( BMD ) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis ( AS ), to analyze the relevant factors of bone mass changes, and to guide the clinical treatment. Methods Sixty-six patients with AS were selected and divided into study group. Twenty-six subjects received healthy examination were divided into control group. General information, duration of disease, and indexes including ESR, CRP, Bath AS functional index ( BASFI ), and HLA-B27 were all recorded. BMD of the lumbar vertebrae ( L1 - 5 ) was measured using quantitative computed tomography ( QCT ). The correlation between BMD and the risk factors was analyzed. Results BMD of both lumbar cortical bone and spongy bone in study group was significantly lower than that in control group ( 269. 1 ± 39. 8 vs 308. 2 ± 49. 3 mg/ml, 140. 8 ± 18. 6 vs 190. 1 ± 15. 7 mg/ml, P <0. 01, respectively ). The loss of BMD of the lumbar spongy bone was significantly higher than that of the lumbar cortical bone in study group ( 25. 9 ± 10. 3% vs

  10. Is There an Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Mammographic Density? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Min; Holley, Susan; Appleton, Catherine; Toriola, Adetunji T

    2017-04-01

    Both bone mineral density (BMD) and breast density are related to reproductive hormone levels. This suggests that BMD and breast density could be meaningfully associated, and serve as surrogate markers for breast cancer risk. However, few studies have investigated the association of BMD with percent mammographic density, making it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in electronic databases till April 2016 using the following search terms: "bone density," "bone mineral density," "mammographic breast density," "breast density," and "mammographic density." We identified 203 articles, of which 8 met the inclusion criteria for this review. BMD does not appear to be associated with percent mammographic density. BMD at the spine was weakly positively associated with percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women who were not hormone users, while BMD at the hip and legs was positively associated with percent mammographic density among premenopausal women. On the other hand, one study reported an inverse association of BMD at the spine and hip with percent mammographic density among perimenopausal women. In this review, we found no evidence of an association between BMD and percent mammographic density.

  11. Skipping breakfast and less exercise are risk factors for bone loss in young Japanese adults: a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keiji; Yoshida, Munehito; Ishimoto, Yuyu; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2014-07-01

    Although bone loss contributes to osteoporosis (OP) in the elderly, little is known about changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults that lead to bone loss. Here, we evaluated the rate of bone change and risk factors for bone loss in young men and women using data from a 3-year prospective study of Japanese medical students. The study included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck (FN). After 3 years, the BMD of the participants was again measured at the same sites. In all, 458 students (95.4 %; 298 men and 160 women; age range, 18-29 years; mean age, 20.2 years) completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean L2-L4 BMD value at baseline increased significantly within 3 years. This tendency was also observed for the FN in men but not in women. The annual changes at L2-L4 were 1.78 % in men and 0.97 % in women per year; those for FN were 1.08 % in men and 0.08 % in women per year. However, 20.3 % and 38.5 % of the total freshmen lost BMD in the lumbar spine and FN, respectively. After adjustment for age and body mass index, logistic regression analysis revealed that bone loss in men at L2-L4 at the baseline was affected by skipping breakfast. In contrast, exercise (>2 h/week) increased lumbar spine BMD in both genders. These findings indicate that breakfast and exercise are important for maintaining BMD in young men and women.

  12. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

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    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  13. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (pperiodontitis with 2/3 alveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  14. Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Lars

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking coffee has been linked to reduced calcium conservation, but it is less clear whether it leads to sustained bone mineral loss and if individual predisposition for caffeine metabolism might be important in this context. Therefore, the relation between consumption of coffee and bone mineral density (BMD at the proximal femur in men and women was studied, taking into account, for the first time, genotypes for cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2 associated with metabolism of caffeine. Methods Dietary intakes of 359 men and 358 women (aged 72 years, participants of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, were assessed by a 7-day food diary. Two years later, BMD for total proximal femur, femoral neck and trochanteric regions of the proximal femur were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Genotypes of CYP1A2 were determined. Adjusted means of BMD for each category of coffee consumption were calculated. Results Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (p = 0.04 compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women. In high consumers of coffee, those with rapid metabolism of caffeine (C/C genotype had lower BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01 and at the trochanter (p = 0.03 than slow metabolizers (T/T and C/T genotypes. Calcium intake did not modify the relation between coffee and BMD. Conclusion High consumption of coffee seems to contribute to a reduction in BMD of the proximal femur in elderly men, but not in women. BMD was lower in high consumers of coffee with rapid metabolism of caffeine, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.

  15. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...

  16. Peak bone mass and bone mineral density correlates for 9 to 24 year-old Mexican women, using corrected BMD Pico mineral óseo y factores asociados a la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres mexicanas de 9 a 24 años de edad usando densidad mineral ósea corregida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Torres-Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of peak bone mass (PBM in Mexican women and factors associated with both BMDa and corrected BMD (BMDcorr at the femoral neck and the spine (L2-L4. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 461 women between 9 and 24 years old was used. An interview was performed and height and weight were measured. BMDa was measured by a densitometer and BMDcorr by the method proposed by Kröger et al. (1992. RESULTS: PBM at the spine (L2-L4 was observed later than at the femoral neck. Both BMDa and BMDcorr at the lumbar spine correlate with age, socio-economic status, body fat percentage and height. BMDa at the femoral neck correlates with overweight and obesity, body fat percentage, height and moderate physical activity; the same variables were associated with BMDcorr except for height. CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed by Kröger et al. was more precise at the femoral neck than at the spine.OBJETIVO: Determinar la edad del pico de masa ósea (PMO y los factores asociados a DMOa y a DMOcorr del cuello femoral y de la columna vertebral (L2-L4 en mujeres mexicanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de 461 mujeres de 9 a 24 años de edad. La DMO se midió mediante un densitómetro y la DMOcorr mediante el método propuesto por Kröger et al. (1992. RESULTADOS: El PMO en la columna vertebral (L2-L4 se observó más tarde que en el cuello femoral. A la DMOa y DMOcorr de la columna se asociaron: edad, estado socio económico, porcentaje de grasa corporal y la talla. A DMOa del cuello femoral se asociaron: sobrepeso y obesidad, porcentaje de grasa corporal, talla y actividad física moderada; las mismas variables se asociaron con la DMOcorr excepto talla. CONCLUSIONES: El método propuesto por Kröger et al. fue más preciso para el cuello femoral que para la columna.

  17. Association Between Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS During Early NPDR by Fractal Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krisnan; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew; Predovic, Marina; Lim, Shiyin; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K. V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our hypothesis predicts that blood vessels within the retina increase in density during early-stage nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), based on previous results of a small retrospective study. For the current prospective study, the remodeling of arteries and veins during progression of early NPDR is assessed by a repertoire of parameters that includes the fractal dimension (D(sub f) ). In complex structures such as branching vascular trees, D(sub f) is a sensitive measure of space-filing capacity. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in DR pathogenesis and the function of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), a critical bone marrow-derived population instrumental in vascular repair. Methods: Arterial and venous branching patterns were extracted from images of 6 normal controls and 3 early NPDR subjects (2 moderate, 1 mild) acquired by Heidelberg Spectralis (Registered Trademark) OCT following fluorescein angiography (FA). The vascular branching patterns were analyzed by NASAs VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, in which skeletonized representations were generated automatically to yield D(sub f) by the box-counting method. For binary 2D images, D(sub f) varies between limiting Euclidean dimensions of 1 and 2. Peripheral blood of diabetics and controls was collected for CD34+ CAC isolation. The gene expression of RAS in CACs was assessed by qPCR for Mas receptor to Ang-(1-7). The vasoreparative function of the CACs was measured by migration ability toward CXCL12 (SDF-1). Results: By D(sub f), venous and arterial densities were 1.370 +/- 0.006 and 1.329 +/- 0.016 for early NPDR, compared to 1.318 +/- 0.012 and 1.320 +/- 0.036 for control. The space filling capacity in early NPDR measured by D(sub f), a sensitive parameter, therefore demonstrated a pronounced increase for veins, but not for arteries. Mas receptor mRNA in CACs was increased in diabetics without DR but reduced with onset of NPDR, indicating possible loss of

  18. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  19. Reduced bone mineral density in men after heart transplantation

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    Anijar J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation is associated with rapid bone loss and an increased prevalence and incidence of fractures. The aim of the present study was to compare the bone mineral density (BMD of 30 heart transplant (HT recipients to that of 31 chronic heart failure (CHF patients waiting for transplantation and to determine their biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormone levels. The BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were also obtained. The mean age of the two groups did not differ significantly. Mean time of transplantation was 25.4 ± 21.1 months (6 to 88 months. Except for the albumin levels, which were significantly higher, and magnesium levels, which were significantly lower in HT patients when compared to CHF patients, all other biochemical parameters and hormone levels were within the normal range and similar in the two groups. Both groups had lower BMD of the spine and proximal femur compared to young healthy adults. However, the mean BMD of HT patients was significantly lower than in CHF patients at all sites studied. Bone mass did not correlate with time after transplantation or cumulative dose of cyclosporine A. There was a negative correlation between BMD and the cumulative dose of prednisone. These data suggest that bone loss occurs in HT patients mainly due to the use of corticosteroids and that in 30% of the patients it can be present before transplantation. It seems that cyclosporine A may also play a role in this loss.

  20. Development of a food group-based diet score and its assocation with bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de E.A.L.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Voortman, T.; Schoufour, J.D.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Rivadeneira, F.

    2015-01-01

    No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the BMD-Di

  1. Effect of dietary B vitamins on BMD and risk of fracture in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Nahid; Zillikens, M Carola; Rivadeneira, Fernando; de Jong, Robert; Lindemans, Jan; Uitterlinden, André G; Pols, Huibert A P; van Meurs, Joyce B J

    2007-12-01

    A mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level is a novel and potentially modifiable risk factor for age-related osteoporotic fractures. Elevated Hcy levels can have a nutritional cause, such as inadequate intake of folate, riboflavin, pyridoxine or cobalamin, which serve as cofactors or substrates for the enzymes involved in the Hcy metabolism. We examined the association between intake of Hcy-related B vitamin (riboflavin, pyridoxine, folate and cobalamin) and femoral neck bone mineral density BMD (FN-BMD) and the risk of fracture in a large population-based cohort of elderly Caucasians. We studied 5304 individuals aged 55 years and over from the Rotterdam Study. Dietary intake of nutrients was obtained from food frequency questionnaires. Incident non-vertebral fractures were recorded during a mean follow-up period of 7.4 years, and vertebral fractures were assessed by X-rays during a mean follow-up period of 6.4 years. We observed a small but significant positive association between dietary pyridoxine (beta = 0.09, p = 1 x 10(-8)) and riboflavin intake (beta = 0.06, p = 0.002) and baseline FN-BMD. In addition, after controlling for gender, age and BMI, pyridoxine intake was inversely correlated to fracture risk. As compared to the three lowest quartiles, individuals in the highest quartile of age- and energy-adjusted dietary pyridoxine intake had a decreased risk of non-vertebral fractures (HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.92, p = 0.005) and of fragility fractures (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.77, p = 0.0004). Further adjustments for other dietary B vitamins (riboflavin, folate and cobalamin), dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A and vitamin K, protein and energy intake, smoking and BMD did not essentially modify these results. We conclude that increased dietary riboflavin and pyridoxine intake was associated with higher FN-BMD. Furthermore, we found a reduction in risk of fracture in relation to dietary pyridoxine intake independent of BMD. These findings

  2. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

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    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  3. Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Patients Submitted to Kidney Transplantation Is Related to Age, Body Mass Index, Time on Dialysis, and Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Madeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal transplantation (Tx influences bone mineral density (BMD by several mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to correlate BMD and risk factors associated with bone loss in patients submitted to kidney Tx. Methods. We evaluated 88 individuals after renal Tx (median time = 31.5 months since Tx. All of them sustained glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Prodigy-GE. Calcium, phosphate, albumin, creatinine, and intact parathormone (PTH were measured at the same time. All statistical tests were two-sided and P value less than 0.05 were accepted as significant for all analyses in this study. Results. Serum PTH was raised in 42% patients, but corrected calcium was normal in 83 patients. No fragility fracture was reported, but the overall prevalence of osteoporosis was 27.6% and lower than expected BMD (Z-score ≤ −2.0 SD was observed in 28.4%. Patients with lower than expected BMD had higher PTH levels. Conclusions. Older age, lower body mass index (BMI, longer time on dialysis, and elevated PTH levels were identified as the main factors associated with lower BMD.

  4. Dental malocclusion is associated with reduced systemic bone mineral density in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Sierpinska, Teresa; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Piotrowska-Jastrzebska, Janina; Golebiewska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    There is no published data about associations between the state of dentition and bone mass in adolescents. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the prevalence of caries and dental malocclusion is associated with bone mass during growth. In 123 healthy Caucasian subjects (72 males, 51 females) aged 14-18 yr, DMFT figures (decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth) and presence of malocclusion, according to Angle classification, were determined. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding dental hygiene, physical activity level, and consumption of sweets. Anthropometry and pubertal stages were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD) was examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total body, head, and lumbar spine. No association was found between DMFT (mean+/-SD: 8.33+/-3.9) and BMD or Z-scores for BMD. Malocclusion was found in 49 subjects (39.8%) and was more prevalent in females than males. Malocclusion was associated with lower total BMD independently of body size (p=0.001; Z-scores: -0.21+/-0.27 vs +0.33+/-0.17; p=0.1) in males (but not females), producing odds ratio 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.34%; p=0.02). Head BMD was also lower in the males with malocclusion than in those without (p=0.004). Neither caries nor the tooth loss appear to be associated with BMD during growth. Boys with malocclusion are at higher risk of reduced BMD. This suggests that inadequate bone mass accrual in males coexists with impaired growth of the masticatory system in childhood and adolescence, however, the causal pathway is unknown. Factors that produce malocclusion may also affect bone mass or size but further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the relationship.

  5. Bone loss over one year of training and competition in female cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Barry, Daniel W; Villalon, Karen L; Hansen, Kent C; Wolfe, Pamela; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe changes in hip, spine, and tibia bone characteristics in female cyclists over the course of 1 year of training. Design Prospective observational study Setting Laboratory Participants Female cyclists (n=14) aged 26-41 years with at least 1 year of competition history and intent to compete in 10 or more races in the coming year. Assessment of Risk Factors Women who train and compete in road cycling as their primary sport. Main Outcome Measures Total body fat-free and fat mass, and lumbar spine and proximal femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) assessments by DXA. Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and BMC of the tibia were measured by pQCT at sites corresponding to 4%, 38%, 66%, and 96% of tibia length. Time points were baseline and after 12 months of training and competition. Results Weight and body composition did not change significantly over 12 months. Total hip aBMD and BMC decreased by −1.4±1.9% and −2.1±2.3% (p0.11). Conclusions Bone loss in female cyclists was site-specific and similar in magnitude to losses previously reported in male cyclists. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms for bone loss in cyclists. PMID:24326929

  6. Periprosthetic femoral bone loss in total hip arthroplasty: systematic analysis of the effect of stem design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Ashleen R; Lau, Nicole; Longjohn, Donald B; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Sangiorgio, Sophia N

    2017-02-21

    Periprosthetic bone loss may lead to major complications in total hip arthroplasty (THA), including loosening, migration, and even fracture. This study analysed the influence of femoral implant designs on periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) after THA. The results of all previous published studies reporting periprosthetic femoral BMD following THA were compiled. Using these results, we compared percent changes in bone loss as a function of: femoral stem fixation, material, and geometry. The greatest bone loss was in the calcar region (Gruen Zone 7). Overall, cemented stems had more bone loss distally than noncemented stems, while noncemented stems had more proximal bone loss than cemented stems. Within noncemented stems, cobalt-chromium (CoCr) stems had nearly double the proximal bone loss compared to titanium (Ti) alloy stems. Finally, within noncemented titanium alloy group, straight stems had less bone loss than anatomical, tapered, and press-fit designs. The findings from the present study quantified percent changes in periprosthetic BMD as a function of fixation method, alloy, and stem design. While no one stem type was identified as ideal, we now have a clearer understanding of the influence of stem design on load transfer to the surrounding bone.

  7. Contribution of Myostatin gene polymorphisms to normal variation in lean mass, fat mass and peak BMD in Chinese male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU; Song-hua WU; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Jin-wei HE; Hao ZHANG; Chun WANG; Wei-wei HU; Jie-mei GU; Yao-hua KE; Wen-zhen FU; Yun-qiu HU

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin gene is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth.Genetic polymorphisms in Myostatin were found to be associated with the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Myostatin played a role in the normal variation in peak BMD,lean mass (LM),and fat mass (FM) of Chinese men.Methods:Four hundred male-offspring nuclear families of Chinese Han ethnic group were recruited.Anthropometric measurements,includingthe peak BMD,body LM and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied were tag-SNPs selected by sequencing.Both rs2293284 and +2278G>A were genotyped using TaqMan assay,and rs3791783 was genotyped with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.The associations of the SNPs with anthropometfic variations were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).Results:Using QTDT to detect within-family associations,neither single SNP nor haplotype was found to be associated with peak BMD at any bone site.However,rs3791783 was found to be significantly associated with fat mass of the trunk (P<0.001).Moreover,for within-family associations,haplotypes AGG,AAA,and TGG were found to be significantly associated with the trunk fat mass (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results suggest that genetic variation within Myostatin may play a role in regulating the variation in fat mass in Chinese males.Additionally,the Myostatin gene may be a candidate that determines body fat mass in Chinese men.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of low bone density and fragility fractures in women with systemic lupus erythematosus in a Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman-Monte, Tarek Carlos; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Mojal, Sergi; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Studies have found an increase in bone loss and fracture in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with general population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fragility fractures and to find potential predictors of bone loss in our cohort of SLE patients. We performed a cross-sectional study and collected 67 bone density measurements (BMD) of our SLE patients. We also collected sociodemographic data, 25-OH-vitamin D levels, serological markers, activity index, SLE cumulative damage index, and pharmacologic treatment. Sixty-seven consecutive BMD from SLE patients were assessed. Osteopenia was found in 28-46% of SLE patients. Osteoporosis ranged from 3 to 6%[corrected]. The only statistically significant correlation we found was between weight and height with total hip and femoral neck BMD (p < 0.05). The most frequent BMD-affected site was at the femoral neck, showing osteopenia in 40.3% [corrected] of SLE patients. Osteoporosis was found in up to 6% [corrected] of SLE patients. We found no predictors of bone loss in relation to the disease activity or its treatment. Fragility fractures were seen in 4.4% of SLE patients. All patients with fragility fractures showed osteopenia at BMD. There is a high prevalence of bone loss in SLE patients, since up to 40% [corrected] of SLE patients showed low BMD. Total hip and femoral neck osteopenia were the most frequent findings correlated with low BMI. We found a lower prevalence of fragility fractures compared with other series.

  9. A Radiographic Comparison of Progressive and Conventional Loading on Crestal Bone Loss and Density in Single Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sorouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crestal bone loss is a biologic complication in implant dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of progressive and conventional loading on crestal bone height and bone density around single osseointegrated implants in posterior maxilla by a longitudinal radiographic assessment technique.Materials and methods: Twenty micro thread implants were placed in 10 patients (two implants per patient. One of the two implants of each patient was assigned to progressive and the other to conventional loading groups. Eight weeks after surgery, conventional implants were restored with a metal ceramic crown and progressive group underwent a progressive loading protocol. The progressive loading group takes different temporary acrylic crowns at 2, 4 and 6 months. After eight months, acrylic crowns were replaced with metal ceramic crown. Computer radiography of both progressive and conventional implants was taken at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. Image analysis was performed to measure height of crestal bone loss and bone density.Results: The mean values of crestal bone loss at month 12 were 0.11 (0.19 mm for progressively and 0.36 (0.36 mm for conventionally loaded implants, with a statistically significant difference (P 0.05.Conclusion: Progressive group showed less crestal bone loss in single osseointegrated implant than conventional group. Bone density around progressively loaded implants showed increase in crestal, middle and apica

  10. Host density and human activities mediate increased parasite prevalence and richness in primates threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbora, David N M; McPeek, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    1. Habitat loss and fragmentation are the principal causes of the loss of biological diversity. In addition, parasitic diseases are an emerging threat to many animals. Nevertheless, relatively few studies have tested how habitat loss and fragmentation influence the prevalence and richness of parasites in animals. 2. Several studies of nonhuman primates have shown that measures of human activity and forest fragmentation correlate with parasitism in primates. However, these studies have not tested for the ecological mechanism(s) by which human activities or forest fragmentation influence the prevalence and richness of parasites. 3. We tested the hypothesis that increased host density due to forest fragmentation and loss mediates increases in the prevalence and richness of gastrointestinal parasites in two forest primates, the Tana River red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus, Peters 1879) and mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus galeritus, Peters 1879). We focused on population density because epidemiological theory states that host density is a key determinant of the prevalence and richness of directly transmitted parasites in animals. 4. The Tana River red colobus and mangabey are endemic to a highly fragmented forest ecosystem in eastern Kenya where habitat changes are caused by a growing human population increasingly dependent on forest resources and on clearing forest for cultivation. 5. We found that the prevalence of parasites in the two monkeys was very high compared to primates elsewhere. Density of monkeys was positively associated with forest area and disturbance in forests. In turn, the prevalence and richness of parasites was significantly associated with monkey density, and attributes indicative of human disturbance in forests. 6. We also found significant differences in the patterns of parasitism between the colobus and the mangabey possibly attributable to differences in their behavioural ecology. Colobus are arboreal folivores while mangabeys are terrestrial

  11. Brief report: Decreased bone mineral density as a long-term complication of teenage-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Elisabet; Mellström, Dan; Gillberg, I Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria

    2007-07-01

    To follow up bone mineral density (BMD) 4 years after decreased BMD was diagnosed in adult individuals with teenage-onset anorexia nervosa (AN). In a previous study BMD was assessed in 39 individuals (36 women, 3 men) 11 years after AN onset. Decreased BMD occurred in a minority. In the present study, a 4-year follow-up of individuals with decreased BMD, 11 AN women were reassessed by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Two women still had an eating disorder (ED). Eight out of eleven women met criteria for decreased BMD/osteoporosis. There was an increase in BMD of total body and lumbar spine (LS). There was a relationship between lumbar BMD and BMI. At follow-up of decreased BMD in adult women with teenage-onset of AN, there is a possibility of improvement of BMD. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  12. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  13. Influence on electron energy loss spectroscopy of the niobium-substituted uranium atom: A density functional theory study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We present the electronic structure and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for uranium, niobium and U3Nb in which uranium is substituted by niobium. Comparing the electronic structures and optical properties for uranium, niobium and U3Nb, we found that when niobium atom replaces uranium atom in the center lattice, density of state (DOS) of U3Nb shifts downward to low energy. Niobium affects DOS forfand d electrons more than that for p and s electrons. U3Nb is similar to uranium for the electronic energy loss spectra.

  14. Regional-scale Predictions of Agricultural N Losses in an Area with a High Livestock Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of the N losses in territories characterised by intensive animal stocking is of primary importance. The development of simulation models coupled to a GIS, or of simple environmental indicators, is strategic to suggest the best specific management practices. The aims of this work were: a to couple a GIS to a simulation model in order to predict N losses; b to estimate leaching and gaseous N losses from a territory with intensive livestock farming; c to derive a simplified empirical metamodel from the model output that could be used to rank the relative importance of the variables which influence N losses and to extend the results to homogeneous situations. The work was carried out in a 7773 ha area in the Western Po plain in Italy. This area was chosen because it is characterised by intensive animal husbandry and might soon be included in the nitrate vulnerable zones. The high N load, the shallow water table and the coarse type of sub-soil sediments contribute to the vulnerability to N leaching. A CropSyst simulation model was coupled to a GIS, to account for the soil surface N budget. A linear multiple regression approach was used to describe the influence of a series of independent variables on the N leaching, the N gaseous losses (including volatilisation and denitrification and on the sum of the two. Despite the fact that the available GIS was very detailed, a great deal of information necessary to run the model was lacking. Further soil measurements concerning soil hydrology, soil nitrate content and water table depth proved very valuable to integrate the data contained in the GIS in order to produce reliable input for the model. The results showed that the soils influence both the quantity and the pathways of the N losses to a great extent. The ratio between the N losses and the N supplied varied between 20 and 38%. The metamodel shows that manure input always played the most important role in determining the N losses

  15. Effect of Bone Mineral Density on Rotator Cuff Tear: An Osteoporotic Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Chen

    Full Text Available An increased bone mineral density (BMD in the proximity to tendon insertion can improve rotator cuff repair and healing. However, how a decrease of BMD in the humeral head affects the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon is still unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated ovariectomy in animals to lead to osteoporosis and decreased BMD, and Teriparatide (PTH administration to improve BMD and strength of bone. This study aimed to explore the correlation between humeral head BMD and infraspinatus (ISP tendon insertion strength, and if an increase in bone quantity of the humeral head can improve the strength of the rotator cuff.Eighteen New England white rabbits were divided into the 3 groups: Control, Ovariectomy-Saline (OVX-Saline, and Ovariectomy-PTH (OVX-PTH. The OVX-Saline group and the OVX-PTH were administered daily saline and Teriparatide injections for 8 weeks starting at 17 weeks of OVX. BMD of the humeral head was measured, the ISP tendon failure load was tested and the failure stress was calculated. One specimen from each group was used for histological analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to derive equations for the BMD and failure stress.Significant differences were observed in the measured humeral head BMD of the Control and OVX-PTH groups compared to the OVX-Saline group (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0024, respectively. No significant difference was found in failure stress among the three groups, but an expected trend with the control group and OVX-PTH group presenting higher failure strength compared to the OVX-Saline group. BMD at the humeral head showed a positive linear correlation with stress (r2 = 0.54. Histology results showed the superiority in OVX-PTH group ISP enthesis compared to the OVX-Saline group.Bone loss of the humeral head leads to decreased tendon/bone insertion strength of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis. Teriparatide administration can increase bone density of the humeral head and may improve

  16. Effect of Bone Mineral Density on Rotator Cuff Tear: An Osteoporotic Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaobin; Giambini, Hugo; Ben-Abraham, Ephraim; An, Kai-Nan; Nassr, Ahmad; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    An increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximity to tendon insertion can improve rotator cuff repair and healing. However, how a decrease of BMD in the humeral head affects the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon is still unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated ovariectomy in animals to lead to osteoporosis and decreased BMD, and Teriparatide (PTH) administration to improve BMD and strength of bone. This study aimed to explore the correlation between humeral head BMD and infraspinatus (ISP) tendon insertion strength, and if an increase in bone quantity of the humeral head can improve the strength of the rotator cuff. Eighteen New England white rabbits were divided into the 3 groups: Control, Ovariectomy-Saline (OVX-Saline), and Ovariectomy-PTH (OVX-PTH). The OVX-Saline group and the OVX-PTH were administered daily saline and Teriparatide injections for 8 weeks starting at 17 weeks of OVX. BMD of the humeral head was measured, the ISP tendon failure load was tested and the failure stress was calculated. One specimen from each group was used for histological analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to derive equations for the BMD and failure stress. Significant differences were observed in the measured humeral head BMD of the Control and OVX-PTH groups compared to the OVX-Saline group (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0024, respectively). No significant difference was found in failure stress among the three groups, but an expected trend with the control group and OVX-PTH group presenting higher failure strength compared to the OVX-Saline group. BMD at the humeral head showed a positive linear correlation with stress (r2 = 0.54). Histology results showed the superiority in OVX-PTH group ISP enthesis compared to the OVX-Saline group. Bone loss of the humeral head leads to decreased tendon/bone insertion strength of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis. Teriparatide administration can increase bone density of the humeral head and may improve the

  17. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance....... with 0.848 +/- 0.194 (Pbone turnover. PTH was significantly lower in the intervention group (P

  18. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 IN METHYLPREDNISOLONE ACETATE (MPA INDUCED LOSS OF BONE METABOLISM MARKERS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN THE LUMBAR SPINE OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ragerdi-Kashani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some vitamins have been shown to prevent glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis in short time, the magnitude of this effect remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of vitamin D3 on methylprednisolone acetate (MPA induced osteoporosis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (n = 6, was a base line control or normal animals. Group B (n = 6, was treated only normal saline, group C (n = 6, was treated MPA (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks (3 times per a week and finally group D (n = 6 were administered MPA resemble to group C and treated by Vitamin D3 (0.1 µg/kg dissolved in ethanol daily. Level of calcium, osteocalcin and acid phosphatase in serum were measured before and after treatment. Also, bone mineral density (BMD of lumber vertebrae was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results showed that the serum calcium level unaffected by MPA in all groups before and after treatment, but the serum osteocalcin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group C compared with groups A and B. In group D serum osteocalcin level increased again significantly (P < 0.05 but increasing of BMD and bone mineral content were not significant. The findings indicate that by using of vitamin D3 in MPA treated rats could increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption.

  19. Impact of the pedestal plasma density on dynamics of edge localized mode crashes and energy loss scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X. Q., E-mail: xxu@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Ma, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Li, G. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2014-12-15

    The latest BOUT++ studies show an emerging understanding of dynamics of edge localized mode (ELM) crashes and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELM energy losses with the world multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT++ simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELM energy losses vs collisionality via a density scan. Linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1 < n < 5), therefore the width of the growth rate spectrum γ(n) becomes narrower and the peak growth shifts to lower n. Nonlinear BOUT++ simulations show a two-stage process of ELM crash evolution of (i) initial bursts of pressure blob and void creation and (ii) inward void propagation. The inward void propagation stirs the top of pedestal plasma and yields an increasing ELM size with decreasing collisionality after a series of micro-bursts. The pedestal plasma density plays a major role in determining the ELM energy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. The critical trend emerges as a transition (1) linearly from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collisionality with decreasing density and (2) nonlinearly from turbulence spreading dynamics at high collisionality into avalanche-like dynamics at low collisionality.

  20. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones......-ray absoptiometry (r = 0.86, p Relative to this age-related loss, the reported short...... sites and a precision that potentially allows for relatively short observation intervals. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-null...

  1. [Olpadronate prevents cortical and trabecular bone loss induced by supraphysiological dosis of thyroxine in ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeni, S N; Gómez Acotto, C; Di Gregorio, S

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to clarify the effect of excess T4 on axial and peripheral bone mineral density (BMD) in estrogen-depleted rats. The protective effect of olpadronate (Olpa) on axial and peripheral bone mass in thyroxine-treated rats was also investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used: SHAM, OVX + Vh, OVX + Olpa (0.3 mg/kg/week), OVX + T4 (250 micrograms/kg/day) and OVX + T4 + Olpa rats. OVX + Vh group presented a BMD lower than SHAM in the tibia (p < 0.01) but not in femur or lumbar spine; the middle tibia BMD did not change but it was lower at the distal (pns.) and proximal levels (p < 0.003) in OVX + Vh. OVX + T4 rats presented a BMD significantly lower than OVX + Vh rats in total tibia (p < 0.02), femur (p < 0.006) and lumbar spine (p < 0.006). Moreover the BMD was lower in all studied areas of the tibia, but it was statistically significant only at the middle level (p < 0.004). OVX + Olpa rats had a BMD higher than OVX + Vh rats in femur (p < 0.002), lumbar spine (p < 0.0001), total (p < 0.001) and proximal tibia (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, total and proximal tibia BMD values in OVX + Olpa rats presented a BMD significantly higher than OVX + T4 rats in femur (p < 0.001), lumbar spine (p < 0.001), tibia (p < 0.001) and proximal tibia (p < 0.0001). It is important to point out that OVX + T4 + Olpa BMD was significantly higher than in SHAM rats at the lumbar spine, total and proximal tibia (p < 0.01). The present study suggests that although supraphysiological thyroid hormone affected both cortical and trabecular bone, under estrogen-depleted conditions, the cortical bone appears to be more sensitive than the trabecular bone to T4 treatment. We also found that Olpa could prevent the peripheral and axial bone loss induced by thyroid hormone excess.

  2. Gene receptor polymorphism as a risk factor for BMD deterioration in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergioti, E; Deligeoroglou, E; Economou, E; Tsitsika, A; Dimopoulos, K D; Daponte, A; Katsioulis, A; Creatsas, G

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder that is associated with decreased bone mineral density and greater lifetime risk for fractures. This case-controlled study, analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes encoding vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), collagen type I and calcitonin receptor (CTR). Relationships between genotype and body mass index, cycling status and lumbar spine bone mineral density (LBMD) were determined in 40 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched controls. The distribution of CTR-AluI genotypes differed between groups, but this polymorphism was not associated with LBMD Z-score. Distribution of ESR1-XbaI genotypes did not differ between groups, but the AA genotype was associated with decreased LBMD Z-score (≤-1) (OR = 24.79, 95% CI, 1.01-606.08). Carriers of the A allele were more likely to have decreased LBMD Z-scores compared with carriers of the G allele (OR = 4.12, 95% CI, 1.23-13.85, p = 0.022). In conclusion, our study shows that anorexic patients with wild-type genotype ESR-XbaI receptor are in greater risk for decreased BMD in relation to those with the mutated gene. Prompt recognition of these patients is crucial because early administration of the proper therapeutic treatment may contribute to the prevention of adverse sequelae on bone metabolism.

  3. Changes in bone mineral density of the acetabulum, femoral neck and femoral shaft, after hip resurfacing and total hip replacement: two-year results from a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, J O; Brixen, K; Varmarken, J E; Ovesen, O; Overgaard, S

    2012-08-01

    It is accepted that resurfacing hip replacement preserves the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur better than total hip replacement (THR). However, no studies have investigated any possible difference on the acetabular side. Between April 2007 and March 2009, 39 patients were randomised into two groups to receive either a resurfacing or a THR and were followed for two years. One patient's resurfacing subsequently failed, leaving 19 patients in each group. Resurfaced replacements maintained proximal femoral BMD and, compared with THR, had an increased bone mineral density in Gruen zones 2, 3, 6, and particularly zone 7, with a gain of 7.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6 to 12.5) compared with a loss of 14.6% (95% CI 7.6 to 21.6). Resurfacing replacements maintained the BMD of the medial femoral neck and increased that in the lateral zones between 12.8% (95% CI 4.3 to 21.4) and 25.9% (95% CI 7.1 to 44.6). On the acetabular side, BMD was similar in every zone at each point in time. The mean BMD of all acetabular regions in the resurfaced group was reduced to 96.2% (95% CI 93.7 to 98.6) and for the total hip replacement group to 97.6% (95% CI 93.7 to 101.5) (p = 0.4863). A mean total loss of 3.7% (95% CI 1.0 to 6.5) and 4.9% (95% CI 0.8 to 9.0) of BMD was found above the acetabular component in W1 and 10.2% (95% CI 0.9 to 19.4) and 9.1% (95% CI 3.8 to 14.4) medial to the implant in W2 for resurfaced replacements and THRs respectively. Resurfacing resulted in a mean loss of BMD of 6.7% (95% CI 0.7 to 12.7) in W3 but the BMD inferior to the acetabular component was maintained in both groups. These results suggest that the ability of a resurfacing hip replacement to preserve BMD only applies to the femoral side.

  4. How Does Tree Density Affect Water Loss of Peatlands? A Mesocosm Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Holmgren, M.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Karofeld, E.; Berendse, F.

    2014-01-01

    Raised bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. Climate-induced expansion of trees and shrubs may turn these ecosystems from net carbon sinks into sources when associated with reduced water tables. Increasing water loss through tree

  5. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  6. Vertebral bone marrow fat, bone mineral density and diabetes: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Yahtyng; Amati, Francesca; Schwartz, Ann V; Danielson, Michelle E; Li, Xiaojuan; Boudreau, Robert; Cauley, Jane A

    2017-04-01

    Elevated vertebral bone marrow fat (BMF) among individuals with osteoporosis has been established in histomorphometric studies. Several studies have found a negative correlation between BMF and bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine in men and women across different age groups. Animal studies have also observed bone loss with increased BMF in mice with induced diabetes. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the association between BMF and BMD varies by diabetic status. We performed a cross-sectional study of 156 men aged 74-96years from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study at the Pittsburgh clinical site. All men had spine BMF scans using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spine and hip BMD scans by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMF was expressed as lipid to "lipid+water" ratio (%). Men were considered diabetic if they self-reported a physician diagnosis of diabetes, diabetes medication or had a fasting glucose ≥126mg/dl. Men with diabetes (n=38) had a significantly higher spine BMF (58.9 vs. 54.6%, p=0.0035), spine BMD (1.20 vs. 1.10g/cm(2), P=0.007) and total hip BMD (1.00 vs. 0.94g/cm(2), p=0.04) than those without, while no differences were observed for body weight, body mass index or waist circumference. Pearson correlation tests showed no significant correlation of spine BMF with age or BMD in non-diabetics. Significant inverse correlations were observed between BMF and BMD (-0.30 for femoral neck and -0.39 for total hip) among diabetic men. In conclusion, men with diabetes had a higher BMF compared to non-diabetic men. The correlation between BMF and BMD differed by diabetes status. Further investigation of the association of diabetes with BMF and BMD may provide a better understanding of the high fracture rates among individuals with diabetes despite their higher BMD.

  7. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the operated and contralateral knee after anterior cruciate ligament and reconstruction: A 1-year follow-up study using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mündermann, Annegret; Payer, Nina; Felmet, Gernot; Riehle, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the tibial plateau of the operated and contralateral leg measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) before and 3, 6, and 12 months after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The ACL was reconstructed with a hamstring tendon autograft using press-fit fixation. pQCT measurements of the proximal tibia were obtained in 61 patients after ACL reconstruction, and total, cortical, and trabecular vBMD were calculated. vBMD in the operated leg decreased from baseline to 3 months (-12% [total], -11% [cortical], and -12.6% [trabecular]; preconstruction contributed to loss in bone mineral density within the first year after surgery. The role of factors such as time of weight-bearing, joint mechanics, post-traumatic inflammatory reactions, or genetic predisposition in modulating the development of posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis after ACL injury should be further elucidated.

  8. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  9. Treatment of acromegaly increases BMD but reduces trabecular bone score: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godang, Kristin; Olarescu, Nicoleta Cristina; Bollerslev, Jens; Heck, Ansgar

    2016-08-01

    Bone turnover is increased in acromegaly. Despite normalization of bone turnover after treatment, the risk for vertebral fractures remains increased. Gonadal status, but not BMD, is correlated with vertebral fractures. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is related to bone microarchitecture. The aim of this study is to assess the longitudinal change in TBS and BMD following treatment for acromegaly. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This longitudinal study included 48 patients with acromegaly between 2005 and 2015. BMD, TBS, and markers for bone turnover (P1NP and CTX-1) were measured at baseline and following treatment. Following treatment, the mean TBS decreased by 3.0 (±7.0) %, whereas the BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) increased by 3.2 (±4.9) % (both Pacromegaly affects TBS and BMD at LS in different manners. The reduction of bone turnover markers predicts the increase in BMD but not the decrease in TBS. The DXA changes were more pronounced in men. Alterations in trabecular bone architecture may explain the persistent fracture risk despite the increase in BMD after disease control. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Uric acid and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: the link lies within the fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirro, M; Mannarino, M R; Bianconi, V; De Vuono, S; Sahebkar, A; Bagaglia, F; Franceschini, L; Scarponi, A M; Mannarino, E; Merriman, T

    2017-03-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. Fat accumulation is linked to SUA and BMD, thus possibly explaining the mixed results. We found that adiposity drives part of the association between SUA and BMD in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  11. Decreased bone density of the distal femur after uncemented knee arthroplasty. A 1-year follow-up of 29 knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M M; Lauritzen, J B; Pedersen, J G; Lund, B

    1996-08-01

    We measured the early adaptive bone remodeling of the distal femur prospectively for 1 year after uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in 29 knees with primary arthrosis. 18 patients were randomized to receive a PCA Modular femoral component (n 9) or a modified version of the same prosthesis (n 9) with an altered location of the porous coating. The other 11 patients (n 11) formed a consecutive series with the Duracon femoral component. In the trabecular bone above the femoral component, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 2 regions of interest (ROI) anteriorly to the fixation pegs (ROI 1) and above the pegs (ROI 2), using dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). There were no differences between the Modular component and the modified version regarding the postoperative decrease in BMD. There was a decrease in BMD in both ROI 1 and ROI 2 with all 3 different femoral components, and in both ROIs the highest bone loss rate was observed during the first 3 months after surgery. On average (n 29), a significant bone loss of 44% and 19% in ROI 1 and ROI 2, respectively, was reached at the 1-year follow-up, compared to the initial values. A decrease of this magnitude in BMD in the anterior distal femur 1 year after TKA may be an important determinant of periprosthetic fracture and later failure of the femoral component. In this experimental set-up, a modified femoral component with an altered location of the porous coating did not influence the development of bone loss.

  12. Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter; Rud, Bo;

    2006-01-01

    was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model...... by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause....

  13. Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter; Rud, Bo

    2006-01-01

    was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model...... by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause....

  14. Bone Marrow Fat Changes After Gastric Bypass Surgery Are Associated With Loss of Bone Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tiffany Y; Schwartz, Ann V; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Kaipin; Black, Dennis M; Petrenko, Dimitry M; Stewart, Lygia; Rogers, Stanley J; Posselt, Andrew M; Carter, Jonathan T; Shoback, Dolores M; Schafer, Anne L

    2017-08-09

    Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status. Before and 6 months after RYGB, we measured BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and vertebral marrow fat content by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At baseline, those with higher marrow fat had lower BMD. Postoperatively, total body fat declined dramatically in all participants. Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (p = 0.03). Nondiabetic women showed no significant mean change in marrow fat (+1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.8% to +5.4%, p = 0.29), although those who lost more total body fat were more likely to have marrow fat increases (r = -0.70, p = 0.01). In contrast, diabetic women demonstrated a mean marrow fat change of -6.5% (95% CI -13.1% to 0%, p = 0.05). Overall, those with greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c had decreases in marrow fat (r = 0.50, p = 0.01). Increases in IGF-1, a potential mediator of the marrow fat-bone relationship, were associated with marrow fat declines (r = -0.40, p = 0.05). Spinal volumetric BMD decreased by 6.4% ± 5.9% (p fat and BMD changes were negatively associated, such that those with marrow fat increases had more BMD loss at both spine (r = -0.58, p loss may influence marrow fat behavior, and marrow fat may be a determinant of bone metabolism. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Intraindividual Increase of Homeostatic Sleep Pressure Across Acute and Chronic Sleep Loss: A High-Density EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Angelina; Lustenberger, Caroline; Werth, Esther; Baumann, Christian R; Poryazova, Rositsa; Huber, Reto

    2017-09-01

    To compare intraindividually the effects of acute sleep deprivation (ASD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR) on the homeostatic increase in slow wave activity (SWA) and to relate it to impairments in basic cognitive functioning, that is, vigilance. The increase in SWA after ASD (40 hours of wakefulness) and after CSR (seven nights with time in bed restricted to 5 hours per night) relative to baseline sleep was assessed in nine healthy, male participants (age = 18-26 years) by high-density electroencephalography. The SWA increase during the initial part of sleep was compared between the two conditions of sleep loss. The increase in SWA was related to the increase in lapses of vigilance in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) during the preceding days. While ASD induced a stronger increase in initial SWA than CSR, the increase was globally correlated across the two conditions in most electrodes. The increase in initial SWA was positively associated with the increase in PVT lapses. The individual homeostatic response in SWA is globally preserved across acute and chronic sleep loss, that is, individuals showing a larger increase after ASD also do so after CSR and vice versa. Furthermore, the increase in SWA is globally correlated to vigilance impairments after sleep loss over both conditions. Thus, the increase in SWA might therefore provide a physiological marker for individual differences in performance impairments after sleep loss.

  16. Effects of age on genetic influence on bone loss over 17 years in women: the Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hammond, Christopher J; Hart, Deborah J; Spector, Timothy D

    2012-10-01

    The rate of bone loss varies across the aging period via multiple complex mechanisms. Therefore, the role of genetic factors on bone loss may also change similarly. In this study, we investigated the effect of age on the genetic component of bone loss in a large twin-based longitudinal study. During 17 years of follow-up in TwinsUK and Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS), 15,491 hip and lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed in 7056 twins. Out of these subjects, 2716 female twins aged >35 years with at least two scans separated for >4 years (mean follow-up 9.7 years) were included in this analysis. We used a mixed-effects random-coefficients regression model to predict hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) values for exact ages of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 years, with adjustment for baseline age, weight, height, and duration of hormone replacement therapy. We then estimated heritability of the changes in BMD measures between these age ranges. Heritability estimates for cross-sectional hip and spine BMD were high (ranging between 69% and 88%) at different ages. Heritability of change of BMD was lower and more variable, generally ranging from 0% to 40% for hip and 0% to 70% for spine; between age 40 and 45 years genetic factors explained 39.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-53%) of variance of BMD loss for total hip, 46.4% (95% CI, 32%-58%) for femoral neck, and 69.5% (95% CI, 59%-77%) for lumbar spine. These estimates decreased with increasing age, and there appeared to be no heritability of BMD changes after the age of 65 years. There was some evidence at the spine for shared genetic effects between cross-sectional and longitudinal BMD. Whereas genetic factors appear to have an important role in bone loss in early postmenopausal women, nongenetic mechanisms become more important determinants of bone loss with advanced age. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Space: The Final Frontier of Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    It is a medical requirement at NASA to evaluate the skeletal integrity of "long-duration" astronauts by measuring bone mineral density [BMD] with DXA technology. A long-duration mission is a spaceflight that is greater than 30 days but is typically the continuous 120-180 day missions aboard the International Space Station [ISS]. Not only does NASA use the BMD index to monitor fracture risk in this astronaut population, but these measures are also used to describe the effects of spaceflight, to certify skeletal health readiness for flight, to monitor the recovery of lost bone mass after return to earth, and to evaluate the efficacy of countermeasures to bone loss. However, despite the fact that DXA-based BMD is a widely-applied surrogate for bone strength that is grounded in an abundance of population-based fracture data, its applicability to the long-duration astronaut is limited. The cohort of long-duration astronauts is not the typical group for evaluating osteoporosis or determining age-related fracture risk. The cohort is young (osteoporosis in the astronaut exposed to long-duration spaceflight, especially since any detectable symptoms are likely to manifest after return to earth and perhaps years after space travel. This risk raises the question: is NASA doing enough now to mitigate a fracture event that may manifest later? This presentation will discuss the limitations and constraints to understanding skeletal changes due to prolonged spaceflight and the recommendations, by clinical experts in osteoporosis and BMD, to transition research technologies for clinical decision-making by NASA.

  18. Projected wetland densities under climate change: habitat loss but little geographic shift in conservation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen R; Skagen, Susan K; Barsugli, Joseph J; Rashford, Benjamin S; Reese, Gordon C; Hoeting, Jennifer A; Wood, Andrew W; Noon, Barry R

    2016-09-01

    Climate change poses major challenges for conservation and management because it alters the area, quality, and spatial distribution of habitat for natural populations. To assess species' vulnerability to climate change and target ongoing conservation investments, researchers and managers often consider the effects of projected changes in climate and land use on future habitat availability and quality and the uncertainty associated with these projections. Here, we draw on tools from hydrology and climate science to project the impact of climate change on the density of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the USA, a critical area for breeding waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species. We evaluate the potential for a trade-off in the value of conservation investments under current and future climatic conditions and consider the joint effects of climate and land use. We use an integrated set of hydrological and climatological projections that provide physically based measures of water balance under historical and projected future climatic conditions. In addition, we use historical projections derived from ten general circulation models (GCMs) as a baseline from which to assess climate change impacts, rather than historical climate data. This method isolates the impact of greenhouse gas emissions and ensures that modeling errors are incorporated into the baseline rather than attributed to climate change. Our work shows that, on average, densities of wetlands (here defined as wetland basins holding water) are projected to decline across the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region, but that GCMs differ in both the magnitude and the direction of projected impacts. However, we found little evidence for a shift in the locations expected to provide the highest wetland densities under current vs. projected climatic conditions. This result was robust to the inclusion of projected changes in land use under climate change. We suggest that targeting conservation towards wetland

  19. Projected wetland densities under climate change: Habitat loss but little geographic shift in conservation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen; Skagen, Susan; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Rashford, Benjamin S.; Reese, Gordon C.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Wood, Andrew W.; Noon, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change poses major challenges for conservation and management because it alters the area, quality, and spatial distribution of habitat for natural populations. To assess species’ vulnerability to climate change and target ongoing conservation investments, researchers and managers often consider the effects of projected changes in climate and land use on future habitat availability and quality and the uncertainty associated with these projections. Here, we draw on tools from hydrology and climate science to project the impact of climate change on the density of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the USA, a critical area for breeding waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species. We evaluate the potential for a trade-off in the value of conservation investments under current and future climatic conditions and consider the joint effects of climate and land use. We use an integrated set of hydrological and climatological projections that provide physically based measures of water balance under historical and projected future climatic conditions. In addition, we use historical projections derived from ten general circulation models (GCMs) as a baseline from which to assess climate change impacts, rather than historical climate data. This method isolates the impact of greenhouse gas emissions and ensures that modeling errors are incorporated into the baseline rather than attributed to climate change. Our work shows that, on average, densities of wetlands (here defined as wetland basins holding water) are projected to decline across the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region, but that GCMs differ in both the magnitude and the direction of projected impacts. However, we found little evidence for a shift in the locations expected to provide the highest wetland densities under current vs. projected climatic conditions. This result was robust to the inclusion of projected changes in land use under climate change. We suggest that targeting conservation towards wetland

  20. Analysis of Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Myeloma: A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density with Plain Radiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Clinical Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Na; Kwon, Soon Tae; Song, Ik Chan [Dept. of Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    To analyze the bone mineral density (BMD) in multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare BMD with plain radiography, MRI and clinical stage. We reviewed 59 patients with MM and an age- and sex-matched control group, with measured BMD. The L-spine and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral plain radiographs of the L-spine were graded as 3 stages using the modified Saville index. Four bone marrow patterns were classified on sagittal T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the L-spine. BMD in the MM and control group were analyzed. BMD in MM was compared with the modified Saville index, bone marrow patterns on MRI, and clinical stages. In MM, spine BMD was reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group (p < 0.001). The modified Saville index was negatively correlated with spine T scores (p < 0.01). The spine BMD in normal marrow pattern on the MRI was the most reduced. There was no statistical correlation between BMD and clinical stage. In MM, spine BMD was significantly reduced and the difference between spine and FN BMD was larger than the control group. The modified Saville index was significantly correlated with spine BMD in MM.

  1. Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate predict hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of short duration: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøyesen, Pernille; Hoff, Mari; Odegård, Sigrid; Haugeberg, Glenn; Syversen, Silje W; Gaarder, Per I; Okkenhaug, Cecilie; Kvien, Tore K

    2009-01-01

    Radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has in several studies been shown to be predicted by serological markers widely used in daily clinical practice. The objective of this longitudinal study was to examine if these serological markers also predict hand bone mineral density (BMD) loss in patients with RA of short disease duration. 163 patients with RA of short disease duration (2.4 years) were included and followed longitudinally. Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated protein (anti-CCP), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed from baseline blood-samples. Hand BMD was measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) based on hand and wrist radiographs obtained at baseline and 1, 2 and 5-year follow-up. During the study period, DXR-BMD decreased by median (inter quartile range) 1.7% (4.1 to 0.4), 2.8% (5.3 to 0.9) and 5.6% (11.7 to 2.3) after 1, 2 and 5 years, respectively. Elevated baseline anti-CCP, RF, ESR and CRP levels were in univariate linear regression analyses consistently associated with DXR-BMD change at all time-points. Anti-CCP and ESR were independently associated with hand DXR-BMD in multivariate linear regression analyses. Elevated anti-CCP levels were consistent and independent predictors of loss in cortical hand bone during the study period, with the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) 2.2 (1.0 to 4.5), 2.6 (1.1 to 6.2) and 4.9 (1.4 to 16.7) for the 1, 2, and 5-year follow-up periods, respectively. Anti-CCP and ESR were found to be independent predictors of early localised BMD loss. This finding adds to the understanding of anti-CCP and ESR as important predictors of bone involvement in RA.

  2. The Beam-Density Effect on Energy Loss of a Relativistic Charged Particle Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    media. t iU NSWC TR 83-348 Folloving the method developed by Sternheimer 24 in his calculations of the Fermi density effect, i l L2 -2in.v-v 2 (2.16...where Z 2v 2 + f.. The Sternheimer factor P is chosen so that the i i i value of the Bethe logarithm, InI, obtained in non-relativistic experiments, is...first three eigenfrequencies were taken from Reference 25. A more recent set has been given by Sternheimer and Peierls,2 6 but the ones of Reference 25

  3. Physical therapy resources in prevention of bone mineral density loss in patients with spinal cord injury – literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper comprises a literature review on physical therapytreatment on prevention, stabilization or slowing down the processof bone mineral density loss in patients with spinal cord injury.There are few studies in the literature on the efficiency of physicaltherapy treatment for bone demineralization. There are reports offour types of treatment for demineralization: functional electricalstimulation, functional electrical stimulation-induced cycling,standing and ambulation. These treatments are rather questionableand controversial in relation to efficacy and there is no consensuson their methodologies.

  4. Antiferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors with High Energy-Storage Densities, Low Energy Losses, and Fast Discharge Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chang Won; Amarsanaa, Gantsooj; Won, Sung Sik; Chae, Song A; Lee, Dae Su; Kim, Ill Won

    2015-12-09

    We demonstrate a capacitor with high energy densities, low energy losses, fast discharge times, and high temperature stabilities, based on Pb(0.97)Y(0.02)[(Zr(0.6)Sn(0.4))(0.925)Ti(0.075)]O3 (PYZST) antiferroelectric thin-films. PYZST thin-films exhibited a high recoverable energy density of U(reco) = 21.0 J/cm(3) with a high energy-storage efficiency of η = 91.9% under an electric field of 1300 kV/cm, providing faster microsecond discharge times than those of commercial polypropylene capacitors. Moreover, PYZST thin-films exhibited high temperature stabilities with regard to their energy-storage properties over temperatures ranging from room temperature to 100 °C and also exhibited strong charge-discharge fatigue endurance up to 1 × 10(7) cycles.

  5. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I2 statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Results: Four cohort, 1 case–control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47–0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08–0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05–0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00–0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01–0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02–0.04; P < 0.00001), than the non-tea consumption group. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss. PMID:28328853

  6. Low bone turnover and low BMD in Down syndrome: effect of intermittent PTH treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan W Fowler

    Full Text Available Trisomy 21 affects virtually every organ system and results in the complex clinical presentation of Down syndrome (DS. Patterns of differences are now being recognized as patients' age and these patterns bring about new opportunities for disease prevention and treatment. Low bone mineral density (BMD has been reported in many studies of males and females with DS yet the specific effects of trisomy 21 on the skeleton remain poorly defined. Therefore we determined the bone phenotype and measured bone turnover markers in the murine DS model Ts65Dn. Male Ts65Dn DS mice are infertile and display a profound low bone mass phenotype that deteriorates with age. The low bone mass was correlated with significantly decreased osteoblast and osteoclast development, decreased bone biochemical markers, a diminished bone formation rate and reduced mechanical strength. The low bone mass observed in 3 month old Ts65Dn mice was significantly increased after 4 weeks of intermittent PTH treatment. These studies provide novel insight into the cause of the profound bone fragility in DS and identify PTH as a potential anabolic agent in the adult low bone mass DS population.

  7. High-density information transmission and waveguide integration with low crosstalk and propagation loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianjun; Su, Weiheng; Liang, Yao; Zhang, Fengchun; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-03-01

    Photonic waveguides are fundamental components for photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Although a wide spectrum of nanophotonic structures, i.e., silicon waveguides and plasmonic waveguides, have been exploited for optical interconnects, these structures either can only support one polarization or they are not able to be integrated within a 1-μm scale due to strong crosstalk. The hurdle for high-density information transmission and waveguide integration is mainly the lack of a compact waveguide structure that can support different polarization states with low crosstalk. We propose and numerically demonstrate an ultralong-range waveguide that supports both transverse electric- and transverse magnetic-like polarizations. The propagation length of this waveguide is several decimeters with working bandwidths as great as 160 nm for both polarizations. In addition, this design is very compact with a small center-to-center distance of 1 μm between two adjacent waveguides while the isolation is as high as more than 69.3 dB. This waveguide is also able to guide light efficiently through a 90 deg bend with a 1-μm bending radius for both polarizations. Our work opens new perspectives for high-density waveguide integration in PICs, which would benefit various applications with limited physical space, such as on-chip information processing and sensing.

  8. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  9. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  10. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  11. An Increase in Forearm Cortical Bone Size After Menopause May Influence the Estimated Bone Mineral Loss--A 28-Year Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Ahlborg, Henrik G; Svejme, Ola; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Rosengren, Björn E

    2016-01-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) is the most common estimate of bone mass, incorporated in the World Health Organization definition of osteoporosis. However, aBMD depends on not only the amount of mineral but also the bone size. The estimated postmenopausal decline in aBMD could because of this be influenced by changes in bone size.We measured bone mineral content (BMC; mg), aBMD (mg/cm2), and bone width (mm) by single-photon absorptiometry at the cortical site of the forearm in a population-based sample of 105 Caucasian women. We conducted 12 measurements during a 28-yr period from mean 5 yr (range: 2-9) before menopause to mean 24 yr (range: 18-28) after menopause. We calculated individual slopes for changes in the periods before menopause, 0-transient increase in forearm bone size that will influence the by aBMD estimated cortical loss in bone minerals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates an association between phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) and self-reported passive smoking using data on 15,038 persons (aged 18-95 years), who underwent a BMD scan in the Danish KRAM study. BMD was significantly lower in persons exposed to long-term passive smoking...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...

  13. Background gas density and beam losses in NIO1 beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, v.le dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is a versatile ion source designed to study the physics of production and acceleration of H- beams up to 60 keV. In ion sources, the gas is steadily injected in the plasma source to sustain the discharge, while high vacuum is maintained by a dedicated pumping system located in the vessel. In this paper, the three dimensional gas flow in NIO1 is studied in the molecular flow regime by the Avocado code. The analysis of the gas density profile along the accelerator considers the influence of effective gas temperature in the source, of the gas temperature accommodation by collisions at walls, and of the gas particle mass. The calculated source and vessel pressures are compared with experimental measurements in NIO1 during steady gas injection.

  14. Background gas density and beam losses in NIO1 beam source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, E.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Serianni, G.

    2016-02-01

    NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is a versatile ion source designed to study the physics of production and acceleration of H- beams up to 60 keV. In ion sources, the gas is steadily injected in the plasma source to sustain the discharge, while high vacuum is maintained by a dedicated pumping system located in the vessel. In this paper, the three dimensional gas flow in NIO1 is studied in the molecular flow regime by the Avocado code. The analysis of the gas density profile along the accelerator considers the influence of effective gas temperature in the source, of the gas temperature accommodation by collisions at walls, and of the gas particle mass. The calculated source and vessel pressures are compared with experimental measurements in NIO1 during steady gas injection.

  15. Skeletal events of Anastrozole versus Tamoxifen on bone mineral density and bone biomarker osteocalcin in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lobna R Ezz Elarab; Menha Swellam; Manal M Abdel Wahab; Karima M Maher

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Postmenopausal women with breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss because of age related estrogen deficiency face which accelerated with the use of aromatase inbibitors (AIs).We aimed to study the effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation biomarker osteocalcin level in postmenopausal breast cancer patients,for the first three years of adjuvant hormonal treatment of both groups Tamoxifen versus Anastrozol.Methods:One-hundered postmenopausal breast cancers were prospectively randomized to receive either Tamoxifen 20 rag/day (n=50) or Anastrozole 10 mg (n=50).Both BMD and osteocalcin were assessed initially before treatment and then at regular intervals for both groups.Results:Use of Tamoxifen was associated with significant annual decrease in osteocalcin (P=0.001),whereas Anastrozole group had gradual increase of the annual levels (P<0.01).BMD decreased significantly in Anastrozole versus Tamoxifen groups (2.6% vs.0.4%,P<0.001).Osteoporosis T<-2.5 was reported significantly higher in Anastrozole group (P<0.01).Women with initial osteopenia in Anastrozole group showed significant decrease in BMD (P<0.05).The addition of bisphosphonate for patients with early osteoporosis markedly improved both osteocalcin level and BMD.Conclusion:Tamoxifen preserves BMD in postmenopausal breast cancer patients,whereas Anastrozole accelerates age associated fall in BMD especially in the first year of therapy,moreover,the addition of bisphosphonate can help to decrease the skeletal related events associated with treatment to ensure better quality of life with treatment.

  16. Relationship Between Changes in Serum Urate and Bone Mineral Density During Treatment with Thiazide Diuretics: Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Gamble, Gregory D; Horne, Anne; Reid, Ian R

    2016-05-01

    In observational studies, serum urate concentrations associate with bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of fractures. Thiazide diuretics slow the bone loss in healthy older adults, are associated with reduced incidence of fracture and also increase serum urate. We hypothesized that changes in serum urate are associated with changes in BMD during treatment with thiazide diuretics. We analysed data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial of hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg per day) and placebo in normal post-menopausal women. The relationship between change in serum urate and change in BMD after 2 years of treatment was examined using Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression models. Total body BMD increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.52 % and reduced in the placebo group by 0.29 % over 2 years (between group difference P = 0.0034). Serum urate increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.038 mmol/L and reduced in the placebo group by 0.004 mmol/L (between group difference P < 0.0001). At Year 2, there was a positive relationship between the change in serum urate and change in total body BMD for entire study population (r = 0.32, P = 0.0002) and for the hydrochlorothiazide group (r = 0.29, P = 0.023). The association between change in serum urate and change in total body BMD persisted after adjusting for treatment allocation, and change in weight, serum calcium, urinary calcium and serum creatinine (P change in serum urate = 0.043). These data raise the possibility that the effects of hydrochlorothiazide on BMD may be mediated, in part, by changes in serum urate concentrations.

  17. Combined photoacoustic and ultrasonic diagnosis of early bone loss and density variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Over the past two decades, osteoporosis has been recognized among the most serious public health problems. Fortunately with the growing awareness of osteoporosis, new treatments have been developed for the prevention of fracture. At the same time, there is a rapid improvement in diagnostic methods. In this study biomedical photoacoustics (PA) is applied to the analysis of bone mineral concentration. The PA signal depends on optical as well as mechanical properties of the object and therefore has the potential to provide higher sensitivity to density variations compared with standard diagnostic methods, like ultrasound. A laser source with 800 nm wavelength and different ultrasonic transducers with resonance frequencies in the range 1 to 5 MHz were employed. The CW or frequency-domain (FD) PA radar method was utilized with linear frequency modulation chirps to provide temporal gating control over the transmitted signal and higher sensitivity in the detected signal. The laser intensity was set below the safety standards for skin exposure. The preliminary studies showed adequate optical absorption by cortical bone to generate measurable PA signals and the transmission of laser light through this layer. Experiments are focused on detection and evaluation of PA signals from in-vitro animal cortical bones with and without a trabecular sublayer. The trabecular layer is then diluted by chemical etching and differences in the PA signals are discussed.

  18. Performance of water and hybrid stabilized electric arcs: the impact of dependence of radiation losses and plasma density on pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeništa, J.; Bartlová, M.; Aubrecht, V.

    2006-10-01

    Processes in the worldwide unique type of thermal plasma generator with water vortex stabilization and combined stabilization of arc by argon flow and water vortex have been numerically studied. Two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model assumes laminar and compressible plasma flow in the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The calculation domain includes the arc discharge area between the near-cathode region and the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch. Radiation losses from the arc are calculated by the partial characteristics method for atmospheric pressure water and argon-water discharges. Thermal, electrical and fluid-dynamic characteristics of such arcs have been studied for the range of currents 150÷600 A under the assumption that radiation losses and plasma density depend linearly on pressure. It was proved that, taking this dependence into account, plasma velocity decrease while power losses from the arc by radiation and radial conduction increase with current. Outlet plasma temperature as well as electric potential drop remain practically unchanged.

  19. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Grace Z.; Aye, Christina Y.L.; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Davis, Esther F.; Khoo, Cheen P.; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T.; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J.; O’Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A.; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M.; Watt, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (−17.7±16.4% versus −9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth. PMID:27456522

  20. Assessment of bone density in children with Scheuermann's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, J; Konstantynowicz, J; Kossakowski, D; Kaczmarski, M; Piotrowska-Jastrzebska, J

    1997-01-01

    Twenty four children with Scheuermann's disease (11 girls and 13 boys) aged 9-18 years measured for bone mineral density. The total skeleton (TB BMD) and lumbar spine (L2-L4 BMD) mineral density were investigated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In nine patients with Scheuermann's disease and backache we found lower levels of TB BMD and L2-L4 BMD in comparison with reference population of Lunar database. Osteopenia in these children may be caused by decreased physical activity due to vertebral pain.

  1. Long-term bone loss after renal transportation. Comparison of immunosuppressive regimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, B.; Rigby, R.; Hawley, CJ.M.; Hardie, I.R. [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Renal Transplant Unit, Woolloongabba (Australia); McIntyre, H.D. [Mater Adult Hospital, Department of Medicine, South Brisbane (Australia); Perry-Keene, D.A. [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Herston, Queensland (Australia)

    1995-02-01

    Serial measurements of serum and urine markers of bone metabolism and of forearm bone density (BMD) by dual photon absorptiometry were performed in 22 patients undergoing renal transplantation in 1986. Patients were randomised to immunosuppression with (1) cyclosporin alone (CsA group, n = 10), (2) cyclosporin for 3 months followed by azathioprine-prednisone (CsA/AzP group, n = 3) or (3) long-term azathioprine-prednisone (LT AzP group, n = 9). As no reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) was noted in the first 6 months, groups 2 and 3 were considered together (AzP group, n = 12). Mean{+-}SEM BMD fell by 19{+-}2% at 36 months (n = 19,m p<0.01), with similar reductions seen in the CsA and AzP groups. At 60 months, BMD of the AzP group was 25{+-}3% below baseline (p<0.01), while the CsA group were only 5{+-}4% belov baseline (p = NS vs baseline, p<0.05 vs AzP group). The degree of reduction in BMD over 5 years correlated with total glucocorticoid dose (r = 0.63, p<0.05), but not with biochemical markers of bone turnover. Serum alkaline phosphatase fell post-transplant in patients treated with AzP, but not in the CsA group. These results demonstrate significant loss of forearm bone mineral with long-term follow-up after renal transplantation, but suggest that patients treated with cyclosporin monotherapy may be at lower risk of this complication. (au) (15 refs.).

  2. Fracture risk and bone mineral density levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Yan, S; Liu, C; Xu, Y; Wan, L; Wang, Y; Gao, W; Meng, S; Liu, Y; Liu, R; Xu, D

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggested possible bone loss and fracture risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the strength of the relationship of SLE with fracture risk and the mean difference of bone mineral density (BMD) levels between SLE patients and controls. Literature search was undertaken in multiple indexing databases on September 26, 2015. Studies on the relationship of SLE with fracture risk and the mean difference of BMD levels between SLE patients and controls were included. Data were combined using standard methods of meta-analysis. Twenty-one studies were finally included into the meta-analysis, including 15 studies on the mean difference of BMD levels between SLE patients and controls, and 6 studies were on fracture risk associated with SLE. The meta-analysis showed that SLE patients had significantly lower BMD levels than controls in the whole body (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.04; 95 % CI -0.06 to -0.02; P systematic review and meta-analysis provides strong evidence for the relationship of SLE with bone loss and fracture risk.

  3. The role of body mass index, insulin, and adiponectin in the relation between fat distribution and bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); A.L. Berends (Anne); P. Henneman (Peter); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the positive association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), the role of fat distribution in BMD/BMC remains unclear. We examined relationships between BMD/BMC and various measurements of fat distribution and studied the role of BMI, in

  4. Lack of Association of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Gene Haplotypes with Bone Mineral Density, Bone Loss, or Risk of Fractures in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya S. Varanasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 with BMD and risk of fracture was suggested by a recent linkage study, but subsequent studies have been contradictory. We report the results of a study of the relationship between BMP2 genotypes and BMD, annual change in BMD, and risk of fracture in male subjects. Materials and Methods. We tested three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the BMP2 gene, including Ser37Ala SNP, in 342 Caucasian Englishmen, comprising 224 control and 118 osteoporotic subjects. Results. BMP2 SNP1 (Ser37Ala genotypes were found to have similar low frequency in control subjects and men with osteoporosis. The major informative polymorphism, BMP2 SNP3 (Arg190Ser, showed no statistically significant association with weight, height, BMD, change in BMD at hip or lumbar spine, and risk of fracture. Conclusion. There were no genotypic or haplotypic effects of the BMP2 candidate gene on BMD, change in BMD, or fracture risk identified in this cohort.

  5. BMD measurements of the spine derived from sagittal reformations of contrast-enhanced MDCT without dedicated software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Thomas, E-mail: thbaum@gmx.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mueller, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.mueller@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Dobritz, Martin, E-mail: dobritz@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Rummeny, Ernst J., E-mail: institut@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Link, Thomas M., E-mail: thomas.link@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Bauer, Jan S., E-mail: jsb@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess QCT equivalent BMD of the lumbar spine in sagittal reformations of routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT with simple PACS measurement tools and to apply this method to MDCT datasets for differentiating patients with and without osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Materials and methods: Eight postmenopausal women (65 {+-} 5years) underwent standard QCT to assess BMD of L1-L3. Afterwards routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT images of these women were obtained and apparent BMD of L1-L3 was measured using the sagittal reformations. The MDCT-to-QCT conversion equation for BMD was calculated with linear regression analysis. The conversion equation was applied to vertebral BMD datasets (L1-L3) of 75 postmenopausal women (66 {+-} 4years). Seventeen of the 75 patients had osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Results: BMD values of contrast-enhanced MDCT were on average 56 mg/ml higher than those of standard QCT. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.94 (p < 0.05) was calculated for the BMD values of MDCT and standard QCT with the conversion equation BMD{sub QCT} = 0.69 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 11 mg/ml. Accordingly converted BMD values of patients with vertebral fractures were significantly lower than those of patients without vertebral fractures (69 mg/ml vs. 85 mg/ml; p < 0.05). Using ROC analysis to differentiate patients with and without vertebral fractures, AUC = 0.72 was obtained for converted BMD values (p < 0.05). Short- and long-term reproducibility errors for BMD measurements in the sagittal reformations amounted 2.09% and 7.70%, respectively. Conclusion: BMD measurements of the spine could be computed in sagittal reformations of routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT with minimal technical and time effort. Using the conversion equation, the acquired BMD data could differentiate patients with and without osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

  6. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  7. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  8. Relationship between skeletal muscle loss and bone mineral density in hospitalized elderly people%住院老年患者骨骼肌减少与骨密度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喜凤; 赵柯湘; 徐凌杰; 邓永涛; 程雯; 吕洋; 肖谦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between appendicular-skeletal muscle mass ( ASMM ) , relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI), and bone mineral density (BMD) in hospitalized elderly people, and the relation-ship between skeletal muscle loss and osteoporosis , exploring new ideas for the prevention of osteoporosis and fragility frac-ture.Methods Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), ASMM, RSMI, BMD, and T-sore at different sites, fat%were evaluated in 562 elderly from The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University , using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ( DXA) .Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to estimate associations between different variables about patient’s general characteristics , and relationships between skeletal muscle loss , osteoporosis and fragility fracture were es-timated by logistic regression analysis .Results RSMI had significantly positive correlation with BMD in both genders ( Lumbar:male r=0.203 , P0.05 ) .Conclusions In the elderly , bone and muscle had close relationship;osteoporosis and skel-etal muscle loss had obvious gender differences:significantly positive correlation in men , and no relationship in women . Fragility fracture had close relationship with both osteoporosis and skeletal muscle loss .Raising muscle mass is significant for the prevention of osteoporosis and fragility fracture .%目的:探讨住院老年患者骨骼肌质量、骨骼肌指数与骨密度的关系,以及骨骼肌减少与骨质疏松的关系,为老年骨质疏松及脆性骨折患者的临床防治开拓新思路。方法连续选取重庆医科大学附属第一医院住院老年患者562例,测量身高、体重,计算体重指数( BMI ),利用双能 X 线骨密度仪(DXA)测量不同部位骨密度(BMD)和T值、四肢骨骼肌质量(ASMM)、骨骼肌指数(RSMI)、脂肪百分比( fat%),用Pearson相关性分析法研究各变量之间的关系,用Logistic回归法研究骨骼肌

  9. Assessing the Association between Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu N. Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD. The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we determined whether serum leptin levels were associated with whole-body BMD and bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, after adjusting for confounders including body fat distribution. We found an inverse association between leptin and bone density in those with peripheral lipoatrophy, defined objectively as 3 kg appendicular fat. This result suggests that fat distribution may modify the relationship between leptin and bone density.

  10. Bone mineral density and vitamin D status in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, F; Speelman, A D; van Nimwegen, M; van der Schouw, Y T; Backx, F J G; Bloem, B R; Munneke, M; Verhaar, H J J

    2013-03-01

    Bone loss is more common in Parkinson's disease (PD) than in the general population. Several factors may be involved in the development of bone loss, including malnutrition, immobilization, low body mass index, decreased muscle strength, vitamin D deficiency and medication use. This study investigates the prevalence of osteoporosis and possible risk factors associated with bone loss in early stage PD. In 186 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2.5, mean age 64.1 years, 71 % men) bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed with DEXA. T- and Z-scores were calculated. Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify variables that contributed to BMD. 25-OH-vitamin D status of PD patients was compared with 802 controls (mean age 63.3 years, 50 % men) using linear regression analysis. Osteoporosis (11.8 %) and osteopenia (41.4 %) were common in PD patients. Mean Z-score for the hip was 0.24 (SD 0.93), and for the lumbar spine 0.72 (SD 1.91). Female gender, low weight, and low 25-OH-vitamin D were significantly correlated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine. PD patients had lower 25(OH)D serum levels than controls (B = -10, p = 0.000). More than half of the patients with early stage PD had an abnormal BMD. Female gender, low weight, and low vitamin D concentration were associated with bone loss. Furthermore, vitamin D concentrations were reduced in PD patients. These results underscore the importance of proactive screening for bone loss and vitamin D deficiency, even in early stages of PD.

  11. Development of a clinically applicable tool for bone density assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Center, Faculty of Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); St John' s Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Genk (Belgium); Dobbelaer, B. de; Suetens, P. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Medical Image Computing (PSI), Faculty of Engineering, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, O.; Yan, B.; Jacobs, R. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Center, Faculty of Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Loubele, M. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Center, Faculty of Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Medical Image Computing (PSI), Faculty of Engineering, Leuven (Belgium); Politis, C.; Vrielinck, L. [St John' s Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Genk (Belgium); Schepers, S. [St John' s Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Genk (Belgium); University of Gent, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Gent (Belgium); Lambrichts, I. [University of Hasselt, Department of Morphology, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Horner, K.; Devlin, H. [University of Manchester, School of Dentistry, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    To assess the accuracy and reliability of new software for radiodensitometric evaluations. A densitometric tool developed by MevisLab {sup registered} was used in conjunction with intraoral radiographs of the premolar region in both in vivo and laboratory settings. An aluminum step wedge was utilized for comparison of grey values. After computer-aided segmentation, the interproximal bone between the premolars was assessed in order to determine the mean grey value intensity of this region and convert it to a thickness in aluminum. Evaluation of the tool was determined using bone mineral density (BMD) values derived from decalcified human bone specimens as a reference standard. In vivo BMD data was collected from 35 patients as determined with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The intra and interobserver reliability of this method was assessed by Bland and Altman Plots to determine the precision of this tool. In the laboratory study, the threshold value for detection of bone loss was 6.5%. The densitometric data (mm Al eq.) was highly correlated with the jaw bone BMD, as determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.96). For the in vivo study, the correlations between the mm Al equivalent of the average upper and lower jaw with the lumbar spine BMD, total hip BMD and femoral neck BMD were 0.489, 0.537 and 0.467, respectively (P<0.05). For the intraobserver reliability, a Bland and Altman plot showed that the mean difference {+-}1.96 SD were within {+-}0.15 mm Al eq. with the mean difference value small than 0.003 mm Al eq. For the interobserver reliability, the mean difference {+-}1.96 SD were within {+-}0.11 mm Al eq. with the mean difference of 0.008 mm Al eq. A densitometric software tool has been developed, that is reliable for bone density assessment. It now requires further investigation to evaluate its accuracy and clinical applicability in large scale studies. (orig.)

  12. Strong relationship between vitamin D status and bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; El Ghoch, Marwan; Viapiana, Ombretta; Ruocco, Antonella; Chignola, Elisa; Rossini, Maurizio; Giollo, Alessandro; Idolazzi, Luca; Adami, Silvano; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with impaired bone health and low bone mineral density (BMD) as a consequence of an inadequate peak bone mass in adolescence and bone loss in young adulthood. The vitamin D status with its implications for bone health in patients affected by AN has only been examined previously in small studies. To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and test the hypothesis that patients with AN and vitamin D deficiency might have worse bone metabolism and lower bone density as compared with AN with adequate vitamin D repletion. We analysed the vitamin D status and bone metabolism in a large cohort (n=89) of untreated patients affected by AN, with amenorrhoea. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in untreated patients with AN: 16.9% had 25OH vitamin D levels below 12 ng/ml, 36% below 20 ng/ml and 58.4% below 30 ng/ml. PTH values were higher and BMD at both femoral sites were lower in patients with vitamin Dvitamin D values (severe deficiency: vitamin D deficiency BMD at the hip were significantly lower than that measured in groups with values over 20 ng/ml (pvitamin D status and hip BMD values with additional benefits for those with 25OHD levels above 20 ng/ml. Our results support the design of a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effect of vitamin D on BMD in patients with AN. The second point, whether 25OHD should be above 20 or 30 ng/ml remains a discussion point. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Key issues in the microchemical systems-based methanol fuel processor: Energy density, thermal integration, and heat loss mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keyur; Besser, R. S.

    Microreactor technology is a promising approach in harnessing the high energy density of hydrocarbons and is being used to produce hydrogen-rich gases by reforming of methanol and other liquid hydrocarbons. However, on-demand H 2 generation for miniature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems has been a bottleneck problem, which has limited the development and demonstration of the PEMFC for high-performance portable power. A number of crucial challenges exist for the realization of practical portable fuel processors. Among these, the management of heat in a compact format is perhaps the most crucial challenge for portable fuel processors. In this study, a silicon microreactor-based catalytic methanol steam reforming reactor was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated in the context of complete thermal integration to understand this critical issue and develop a knowledge base required to rationally design and integrate the microchemical components of a fuel processor. Detailed thermal and reaction experiments were carried out to demonstrate the potential of microreactor-based on-demand H 2 generation. Based on thermal characterization experiments, the heat loss mechanisms and effective convective heat coefficients from the planar microreactor structure were determined and suggestions were made for scale up and implementation of packaging schemes to reduce different modes of heat losses.

  14. Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans for total body BMD in children and adults reveals allelic heterogeneity and age-specific effects at the WNT16 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Medina-Gomez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic loci influencing bone accrual, we performed a genome-wide association scan for total-body bone mineral density (TB-BMD variation in 2,660 children of different ethnicities. We discovered variants in 7q31.31 associated with BMD measurements, with the lowest P = 4.1 × 10(-11 observed for rs917727 with minor allele frequency of 0.37. We sought replication for all SNPs located ± 500 kb from rs917727 in 11,052 additional individuals from five independent studies including children and adults, together with de novo genotyping of rs3801387 (in perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD with rs917727 in 1,014 mothers of children from the discovery cohort. The top signal mapping in the surroundings of WNT16 was replicated across studies with a meta-analysis P = 2.6 × 10(-31 and an effect size explaining between 0.6%-1.8% of TB-BMD variance. Conditional analyses on this signal revealed a secondary signal for total body BMD (P = 1.42 × 10(-10 for rs4609139 and mapping to C7orf58. We also examined the genomic region for association with skull BMD to test if the associations were independent of skeletal loading. We identified two signals influencing skull BMD variation, including rs917727 (P = 1.9 × 10(-16 and rs7801723 (P = 8.9 × 10(-28, also mapping to C7orf58 (r(2 = 0.50 with rs4609139. Wnt16 knockout (KO mice with reduced total body BMD and gene expression profiles in human bone biopsies support a role of C7orf58 and WNT16 on the BMD phenotypes observed at the human population level. In summary, we detected two independent signals influencing total body and skull BMD variation in children and adults, thus demonstrating the presence of allelic heterogeneity at the WNT16 locus. One of the skull BMD signals mapping to C7orf58 is mostly driven by children, suggesting temporal determination on peak bone mass acquisition. Our life-course approach postulates that these genetic effects influencing peak bone mass accrual may impact the risk of

  15. Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Lygeri; Weiler, Richard; Lloyd-Smith, Rebecca; Turner, Antony; Heath, Luke; James, Nic; Reid, Anna

    2014-02-12

    To determine bone mineral density (BMD) and the associations among BMD, menstrual history, disordered eating (DE), training history, intentional weight loss (IWL) and rib pain for the first time in female lightweight rowers. 9 lightweight rowing clubs, UK. 29 Caucasian female lightweight rowers volunteered. 21 (12 active, 9 retired) completed the study. female lightweight rowers aged over 18 years. participants with a history of bone disease, used medications known to influence BMD or if they were pregnant, lactating or postmenopausal. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total body (TB) composition and BMD at the spine, femoral neck (FN), radius and TB. DE, oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea years; rib pain and training history. DE was reported in six of the rowers. The active with DE started rowing younger (prib pain 7 (32%) with those with rib pain having lower spine and TB Z-scores (p<0.05) than those without. Those with oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea had lower spine Z-scores (p<0.01) than those without. Twelve participants had low BMD; three at spine; one at FN; and eight at radius. Thirteen per cent of mean total training hours (18.6±9.1 h/week) were spent strength training (2.4±2.2 h/week). Upper body exercises incorporating multidimensional high peak bone strain were not reported and may need to be considered in their strength training to improve radial BMD. Results suggest IWL and high-level training at a young age increases the likelihood of DE and there may be a lack of quality nutritional support for these athletes. Thus, multidisciplinary sport science support should be offered at a young age and perhaps also to consider changing the weight rules to prevent the development of the Triad.

  16. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addolorata Corrado

    Full Text Available A reduced bone mineral density (BMD is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc; nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content.

  17. Lower bone mineral density in Patients with Parkinson’s disease: a cross-sectional study from Chinese Mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Although several lines of evidence have suggested that patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD have a higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture, the association between bone mineral density and severity of PD patients is unknown. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 54 patients with PD and 59 healthy age-matched controls. Multiple clinical scales were used to evaluate the severity of PD, and serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and homocysteine were measured to determine bone mineral density’s association with PD severity. Results BMD in PD patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls. The BMD scores of the spine, femoral neck, and hip were lower in females than in males in the healthy group. In the PD group, BMD in the hip was significantly lower in females compared to males. There was a negative correlation between daily L-dopa dosage and BMD in the spine and hip in the PD group, while BMD in the spine, neck, and hip was significantly correlated with severity of PD. Besides, we found that among the lumbar spine, femoral neck and hip, bone loss in the lumbar spine was the most severe in PD patients based on the T-scores. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that patients with PD have a higher risk of osteoporosis, and that low BMD in the spine, femoral neck, and hip may indirectly reflect the severity of PD. Our findings have prompted us to pay more attention to osteoporosis in the lumbar spine in Chinese PD patients.

  18. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  19. Superconducting-magnetic heterostructures: a method of decreasing AC losses and improving critical current density in multifilamentary conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, B A; Majoros, M

    2009-06-24

    Magnetic materials can help to improve the performance of practical superconductors on the macroscale/microscale as magnetic diverters and also on the nanoscale as effective pinning centres. It has been established by numerical modelling that magnetic shielding of the filaments reduces AC losses in self-field conditions due to decoupling of the filaments and, at the same time, it increases the critical current of the composite. This effect is especially beneficial for coated conductors, in which the anisotropic properties of the superconductor are amplified by the conductor architecture. However, ferromagnetic coatings are often chemically incompatible with YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) and (Pb,Bi)(2)Sr(2)Ca(2)Cu(3)O(9) conductors, and buffer layers have to be used. In contrast, in MgB(2) conductors an iron matrix may remain in direct contact with the superconducting core. The application of superconducting-magnetic heterostructures requires consideration of the thermal and electromagnetic stability of the superconducting materials used. On one hand, magnetic materials reduce the critical current gradient across the individual filaments but, on the other hand, they often reduce the thermal conductivity between the superconducting core and the cryogen, which may cause destruction of the conductor in the event of thermal instability. A possible nanoscale method of improving the critical current density of superconducting conductors is the introduction of sub-micron magnetic pinning centres. However, the volumetric density and chemical compatibility of magnetic inclusions has to be controlled to avoid suppression of the superconducting properties.

  20. Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, D; Eslin, R; Porter, E S; Musgrave, K; Vereault, D; Patton, C; Kessenich, C; Mohan, S; Chen, T; Holick, M F; Rosen, C J

    1998-11-01

    Elderly women are at increased risk for bone loss and fractures. In previous cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of women residing in northern latitudes, bone loss was most pronounced during winter months and in those consuming less than 1 g calcium per day. In this study we sought to test the hypothesis that calcium supplementation by either calcium carbonate or dietary means would prevent seasonal bone loss and preserve bone mass. Sixty older postmenopausal women without osteoporosis were randomized to one of three treatment arms: Dietary milk supplementation (D-4 glasses of milk/day), Calcium carbonate (CaCO3-1000 mg/day in two divided doses), or placebo (P). After 2 yr, placebo-treated women consumed a mean of 683 mg/day of calcium and lost 3.0% of their greater trochanteric (GT) bone mineral density (BMD) (P intake of 1028 mg/day and sustained minimal loss from the GT (-1.5%; P = 0.30), whereas CaCO3-treated women (total Ca intake, 1633 mg/day) suffered no bone loss from the GT and showed a significant increase in spinal and femoral neck BMD (P vitamin D declined by more than 20% (P intake was the strongest predictor of bone loss from the hip. Urinary N-telopeptide also closely correlated with GT BMD but only during winter (P = 0.003). We conclude that calcium supplementation prevents bone loss in elderly women by suppressing bone turnover during the winter when serum 25-OH vitamin D declines and serum PTH increases. The precise amount of calcium necessary to preserve BMD in elderly women requires further studies, although in this study, at least 1000 mg/day of supplemental calcium was adequate prophylaxis against femoral bone loss.

  1. Using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization to Identify DMD/BMD Deletion Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-li WANG; Yan-ping XIAO; Xiu-rong JIANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify the deletions in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Methods The exon-specific cosmid DNA probes (representing 18 exons) were used to perform one-color FISH on metaphase and interphase preparations. The peripheral blood samples from 9 normal people (4 males and 5 females) and 5 females from independent deletion DMD/BMD families, as well as 2 amniotic fluid specimens and 2 chorionic villus samples (CVS) from normal pregnant females were analyzed.Results 72%~100% of peripheral blood lymphocyte metaphases or interphases, 60%~70% of amniocyte interphases, and 95~99% of chorionic villus cell interphases showed expected signals. One suspected female was identified as deletion carriers and two were excluded.Conclusion FISH in combination with other available techniques allows efficient screening of DMD/BMD deletion carriers, which also lay the ground work for prenatal diagnosis for potential fetal carriers.

  2. Bone mineral density in adolescent girls with early onset of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, Antonella; Bizzarri, Carla; Gambarara, Manuela; Calce, Angelica; Montecchi, Francesco; Cappa, Marco; Bianco, Giuseppe; Castro, Massimo

    2007-06-01

    To assess prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) reduction and relationship between bone mineral status and anthropometric assessment, nutritional intake and physical activity in adolescents with early anorexia nervosa (AN). Fifty-seven consecutive AN patients and 57 healthy controls underwent anthropometric status, bone density, body composition and physical activity evaluations. In AN patients clinical features and nutritional intake were also assessed. Thirty-five patients with AN (62%) and 44 healthy subjects (77%) (pNS) showed normal BMD. Mean value of BMD Z-score was -0.6+/-0.9 in AN patients and -0.2+/-1.4 in controls (pNS). Weight at diagnosis and lean mass resulted the main predictor of bone loss but also height, best weight before diagnosis and BMI resulted correlated with bone mineral status in AN patients. Additionally, AN patients maintained good levels of protein intake and sport activity Early diagnosis may prevent bone loss in AN patients. Protein intake and moderate physical activity seem to be useful to maintain an adequate bone mineral status.

  3. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg....../m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P ....001). An inverse relation between BMD adjusted for body weight and serum leptin emerged in both the control group (r = -0.186; P

  4. The relationship between breast density and bone mineral density in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckin, Berna; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Inal, Hasan Ali; Gulerman, Cavidan

    2017-06-01

    Estrogen is known to affect both mammographic breast density and bone mineral density (BMD), but there are inconsistent results about the association of these density measurements in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, there are scarce data on the relationship between breast density and BMD in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy. In this study, we examined the relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who were never hormone replacement therapy users. A total of 293 postmenopausal women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mammograms and BMD measurements for screening purposes were obtained. Assessment of mammographic breast density was performed by using breast imaging reporting and data system classification. The BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Grade 1 breast density was observed in 64 women (21.8 %), grade 2 in 113 women (38.6 %) and grades 3 and 4 in 116 (39.6 %) women. Breast density decreased with increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Meanwhile, no significant differences were detected in BMD measures of the hip (p = 0.14) and lumbar spine (p = 0.29) among the breast density categories. After adjusting for age and BMI, the differences in the mean BMD at the hip and lumbar spine across the breast density categories remained insignificant (p = 0.26 and 0.11, respectively). There is no evidence of a relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who had never used hormone replacement therapy.

  5. High oxygen consumption rates and scale loss indicate elevated aggressive behaviour at low rearing density, while elevated brain serotonergic activity suggest chronic stress at high rearing densities in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Silva, P.I.M.; Larsen, Bodil Katrine;

    2013-01-01

    of a previous study,where levels of crowding where determined using the spatial distribution of fish in two-tank systems. An un-crowded low density of 25 kg m−3, the highest density accepted by the fish without showing indications of crowding stress of 80 kg m−3 as the intermediate density, and the highest...... density accepted by the fish showing indications of crowding stress of 140 kg m−3 as the high density were investigated. The aimof the present study was to examine the effect of being held at these densities on indicators of welfare. This was achieved through oxygen consumption measurements using...... automated respirometry, recording fin erosion, determining scale loss and analysing plasma cortisol and brain serotonergic activity levels. The results obtained in the present study indicated that at the lowest density the fish had the space and opportunity to display their natural aggressive behaviour...

  6. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures....... PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a compact and portable scanner using radiographic absorptiometry (RA) to predict major osteoporotic fractures. METHODS: This prospective study included a cohort of 15,542 men and women aged 18-95 years, who underwent a BMD scan in Danish Health...... Examination Survey 2007-2008. BMD at the middle phalanges of the second, third and fourth digits of the non-dominant hand was measured using RA (Alara MetriScan®). These data were merged with information on incident fractures retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry comprising the International...

  7. Bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis: benefit of exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jonathan D; Barry, Sinead C; Barry, Rupert B M; Cawood, Tom J; McKenna, Malachi J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and objective maximal exercise measurements in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-five CF patients (19 males, 6 females, mean age 25.5 yr, range: 17-52) underwent BMD assessment and maximal-cycle ergometer exercise testing. We examined the relationship between gas exchange (% peak-predicted O(2) uptake, CO(2) output, O(2) saturation), exercise performance (maximum power, exercise duration), and respiratory mechanics (tidal volume, rate) with lumbar spine and total proximal femur BMD. The strongest clinical correlate with BMD was forced expiratory volume at 1s (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.36; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.68, pexercise correlate was % peak-predicted O(2) uptake (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.44, pexercise parameters and total proximal femur BMD (r=0.43-0.60) than with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.04-0.45). Multiple regression analysis revealed VO(2) to be the strongest independent predictor of BMD (R(2)=0.86, pExercise appears to influence total proximal femur BMD more than lumbar spine BMD in CF. Exercise rehabilitation programs focusing on peripheral strength training may benefit those CF patients with low total proximal femur BMD.

  8. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  9. Clinical and hormonal variables related to bone mass loss in anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Soto, María Luisa; González-Jiménez, Amalia; Chamorro-Fernández, Marta; Leyva-Martínez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of the prognostic factors of low bone mass in anorexia nervosa (AN) and development of effective therapeutic strategies is critical. In order to determine which clinical, biochemical, and/or hormonal parameters could be related to bone mineral density (BMD), 47 female AN patients were classified according to the WHO osteoporosis criteria at lumbar spine (LS). This was a cross-sectional study of 16 AN women with osteoporosis criteria and 31without. Control group was 25 healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. We assessed BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the LS and body composition. We measured serum fasting cortisol, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, sex hormone-binding globulin, albumin and retinol binding protein levels. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 34% and osteopenia 19% at the LS. The AN group with osteoporosis had lower IGF-1 and estradiol levels (both p<0.001), lower serum leptin (p<0.02), and higher cortisolemia (p<0.03) levels compared with AN group without osteoporosis. The BMD and T-score at LS was inversely related to the duration of amenorrhea (p<0.02) and directly related to body mass index (BMI, p<0.002), total fat mass (p<0.03), serum IGF-1 (p<0.01), and estradiol levels (p<0.001) in AN patients. We conclude that AN women with a significant BMD loss have a high risk of developing osteoporosis. A low BMD is a consequence of hormonal alterations which include hypoestrogenism, hypoleptinemia, hypercortisolism, and decreases in IGF-1 levels, as well as a low BMI and fat mass.

  10. Identification of a Linkage Disequilibrium Block in Chromosome 1q Associated With BMD in Premenopausal White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Koller, Daniel L.; Curry, Leah R.; Lai, Dongbing; Xuei, Xiaoling; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Hui, Siu L.; Foroud, Tatiana; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. A major determinant of osteoporotic fractures is peak BMD obtained during young adulthood. We previously reported linkage of chromosome 1q (LOD = 4.3) with variation in spinal areal BMD in healthy premenopausal white women. In this study, we used a two-stage genotyping approach to identify genes in the linked region that contributed to the variation of femoral neck and lumbar spine areal BMD. In the first stag...

  11. Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682

  12. Higher bone turnover is related to spinal radiographic damage and low bone mineral density in ankylosing spondylitis patients with active disease: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Arends

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is characterized by excessive bone formation and bone loss. Our aim was to investigate the association of bone turnover markers (BTM with spinal radiographic damage and bone mineral density (BMD in AS patients with active disease. METHODS: 201 consecutive AS outpatients of the Groningen Leeuwarden AS (GLAS cohort were included. Serum markers of bone resorption (C-telopeptides of type-I collagen, sCTX and bone formation (procollagen type-I N-terminal peptide, PINP; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, BALP were measured. Z-scores were used to correct for the normal influence that age and gender have on bone turnover. Radiographs were scored by two independent readers according to modified Stoke AS Spinal Score (mSASSS. The presence of complete bridging (ankylosis of at least two vertebrae was considered as measure of more advanced radiographic damage. Low BMD was defined as lumbar spine and/or hip BMD Z-score ≤ -1. RESULTS: Of the 151 patients with complete data, 52 (34% had ≥ 1 complete bridge, 49 (33% had ≥ 1 syndesmophyte (non-bridging, and 50 (33% had no syndesmophytes. 66 (44% had low BMD. Patients with bridging had significantly higher sCTX and PINP Z-scores than patients without bridging (0.43 vs. -0.55 and 0.55 vs. 0.04, respectively. Patients with low BMD had significantly higher sCTX Z-score than patients with normal BMD (-0.08 vs. -0.61. After correcting for gender, symptom duration, and CRP, sCTX Z-score remained significantly related to the presence of low BMD alone (OR: 1.60, bridging alone (OR: 1.82, and bridging in combination with low BMD (OR: 2.26. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study in AS patients with active and relatively long-standing disease demonstrated that higher serum levels of sCTX, and to a lesser extent PINP, are associated with the presence of complete bridging. sCTX was also associated with low BMD. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm that serum levels of s

  13. Effects of Emtricitabine/Tenofovir on Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Negative Persons in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Glidden, David V.; Anderson, Peter L.; Liu, Albert; McMahan, Vanessa; Gonzales, Pedro; Ramirez-Cardich, Maria Esther; Namwongprom, Sirianong; Chodacki, Piotr; de Mendonca, Laura Maria Carvalo; Wang, Furong; Lama, Javier R.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Guanira, Juan Vicente; Buchbinder, Susan; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Schechter, Mauro; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grant, Robert M.; Vargas, Lorena; Sanchez, Jorge; Mai, Chiang; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Murphy, Kerry; Gilmore, Hailey; Holland, Sally; Faber, Elizabeth; Duda, John; Bewerunge, Linda; Batist, Elizabeth; Hoskin, Christine; Brown, Ben; de Janeiro, Rio; Beppu-Yoshida, Carina; da Costa, Marcellus Dias; Assis de Jesus, Sergio Carlos; Grangeiro da Silva, Jose Roberto; Millan, Roberta; de Siqueira Hoagland, Brenda Regina; Martinez Fernandes, Nilo; da Silva Freitas, Lucilene; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Pilotto, Jose; Bushman, Lane; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Anthony Guida, Louis; Kline, Brandon; Goicochea, Pedro; Manzo, Jonathan; Hance, Robert; McConnell, Jeff; Defechereux, Patricia; Levy, Vivian; Robles, Malu; Postle, Brian; Burns, David; Rooney, James

    2015-01-01

    Background. Daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) decreases the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Initiation of TDF decreases bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected people. We report the effect of FTC/TDF on BMD in HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men and in transgender women. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline and 24-week intervals in a substudy of iPrEx, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of FTC/TDF PrEP. Plasma and intracellular tenofovir concentrations were measured in participants randomized to FTC/TDF. Results. In 498 participants (247 FTC/TDF, 251 placebo), BMD in those randomized to FTC/TDF decreased modestly but statistically significantly by 24 weeks in the spine (net difference, −0.91% [95% confidence interval {CI}, −1.44% to −.38%]; P = .001) and hip (−0.61% [95% CI, −.96% to −.27%], P = .001). Changes within each subsequent 24-week interval were not statistically significant. Changes in BMD by week 24 correlated inversely with intracellular tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP), which was detected in 53% of those randomized to FTC/TDF. Net BMD loss by week 24 in participants with TFV-DP levels indicative of consistent dosing averaged −1.42% ± 29% and −0.85% ± 19% in the spine and hip, respectively (P < .001 vs placebo). Spine BMD tended to rebound following discontinuation of FTC/TDF. There were no differences in fractures (P = .62) or incidence of low BMD. Conclusions. In HIV-uninfected persons, FTC/TDF PrEP was associated with small but statistically significant decreases in BMD by week 24 that inversely correlated with TFV-DP, with more stable BMD thereafter. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00458393. PMID:25908682

  14. Bone mineral density changes among HIV-uninfected young adults in a randomised trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir-emtricitabine or placebo in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kasonde

    Full Text Available Tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be effective for prevention of HIV infection in several clinical trials. Two studies of TDF PrEP among men who have sex with men showed slight bone mineral density (BMD loss. We investigated the effect of TDF and the interaction of TDF and hormonal contraception on BMD among HIV-uninfected African men and women.We evaluated the effects on BMD of using daily oral TDF-FTC compared to placebo among heterosexual men and women aged 18-29 years enrolled in the Botswana TDF2 PrEP study. Participants had BMD measurements at baseline and thereafter at 6-month intervals with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scans at the hip, spine, and forearm.A total of 220 participants (108 TDF-FTC, 112 placebo had baseline DXA BMD measurements at three anatomic sites. Fifteen (6.8% participants had low baseline BMD (z-score of 3.0% at any anatomic site at any time after baseline were significantly greater for the TDF-FTC treatment group [34/68 (50.0% TDF-FTC vs. 26/79 (32.9% placebo; p = 0.04]. There was a small but significant difference in the mean percent change in BMD from baseline for TDF-FTC versus placebo at all three sites at month 30 [forearm -0.84% (p = 0.01, spine -1.62% (p = 0.0002, hip -1.51% (p = 0.003].Use of TDF-FTC was associated with a small but statistically significant decrease in BMD at the forearm, hip and lumbar spine. A high percentage (6.8% of healthy Batswana young adults had abnormal baseline BMD Further evaluation is needed of the longer-term use of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00448669.

  15. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrada, Karol; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associ...

  16. Development of a food group-based diet score and its association with bone mineral density in the elderly: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.L. de Jonge (Ester); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); J.D. Schoufour (Josje); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); O.H. Franco (Oscar); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNo diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association o

  17. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada, Karol; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Duncan, Emma L.; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Oei, Ling; Albagha, Omar M. E.; Amin, Najaf; Kemp, John P.; Koller, Daniel L.; Li, Guo; Liu, Ching-Ti; Minster, Ryan L.; Moayyeri, Alireza; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Willner, Dana; Xiao, Su-Mei; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Alonso, Nerea; Eriksson, Joel; Kammerer, Candace M.; Kaptoge, Stephen K.; Leo, Paul J.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wilson, Scott G.; Wilson, James F.; Aalto, Ville; Alen, Markku; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Aspelund, Thor; Center, Jacqueline R.; Dailiana, Zoe; Duggan, David J.; Garcia, Melissa; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Giroux, Sylvie; Hallmans, Goran; Hocking, Lynne J.; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Jameson, Karen A.; Khusainova, Rita; Kim, Ghi Su; Kooperberg, Charles; Koromila, Theodora; Kruk, Marcin; Laaksonen, Marika; Lacroix, Andrea Z.; Lee, Seung Hun; Leung, Ping C.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Masi, Laura; Mencej-Bedrac, Simona; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Nogues, Xavier; Patel, Millan S.; Prezelj, Janez; Rose, Lynda M.; Scollen, Serena; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Smith, Albert V.; Svensson, Olle; Trompet, Stella; Trummer, Olivia; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Woo, Jean; Zhu, Kun; Balcells, Susana; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Buckley, Brendan M.; Cheng, Sulin; Christiansen, Claus; Cooper, Cyrus; Dedoussis, George; Ford, Ian; Frost, Morten; Goltzman, David; Gonzalez-Macias, Jesus; Kahonen, Mika; Karlsson, Magnus; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koh, Jung-Min; Kollia, Panagoula; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Leslie, William D.; Lips, Paul; Ljunggren, Osten; Lorenc, Roman S.; Marc, Janja; Mellstrom, Dan; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Olmos, Jose M.; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Reid, David M.; Riancho, Jose A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rousseau, Francois; Slagboom, P. Eline; Tang, Nelson L. S.; Urreizti, Roser; Van Hul, Wim; Viikari, Jorma; Zarrabeitia, Maria T.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Grundberg, Elin; Herrera, Lizbeth; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kwan, Tony; Li, Rui; Luben, Robert; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palsson, Stefan Th; Reppe, Sjur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Verlaan, Dominique; Williams, Frances M. K.; Wood, Andrew R.; Zhou, Yanhua; Gautvik, Kaare M.; Pastinen, Tomi; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cauley, Jane A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Clark, Graeme R.; Cummings, Steven R.; Danoy, Patrick; Dennison, Elaine M.; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jones, Graeme; Jukema, J. Wouter; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lehtimaki, Terho; Liu, Yongmei; Lorentzon, Mattias; McCloskey, Eugene; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Oostra, Ben A.; Peacock, Munro; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Prince, Richard L.; Raitakari, Olli; Reid, Ian R.; Robbins, John; Sambrook, Philip N.; Sham, Pak Chung; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wareham, Nick J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Econs, Michael J.; Evans, David M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reeve, Jonathan; Spector, Timothy D.; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Ohlsson, Claes; Karasik, David; Richards, J. Brent; Brown, Matthew A.; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Ralston, Stuart H.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associate

  18. BMD PREDICTION OF DEATH IS ENCAPSULATED BY THE MORPHOLOGICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS CALCIFICATION DISTRIBUTION (MACD) INDEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads; Karsdal, Morten

    2009-01-01

    .3±0.3 years and of which CVD, cancer, and all cause deaths were recorded. The spine BMD and aortic calcification markers, AC24 and the recently proposed Morphological Atherosclerosis Calcification Distribution (MACD) index, were quantified from DXA scans and lateral X-rays respectively. The MACD...

  19. Application of Benchmark Dose (BMD) in Estimating Biological Exposure Limit (BEL) to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the biological exposure limit (BEL) using benchmark dose (BMD) based on two sets of data from occupational epidemiology. Methods Cadmium-exposed workers were selected from a cadmium smelting factory and a zinc product factory. Doctors, nurses or shop assistants living in the same area served as a control group. Urinary cadmium (UCd) was used as an exposure biomarker and urinary β2-microgloburin (B2M), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and albumin (ALB) as effect biomarkers. All urine parameters were adjusted by urinary creatinine. Software of BMDS (Version 1.3.2, EPA.U.S.A) was used to calculate BMD. Results The cut-off point (abnormal values) was determined based on the upper limit of 95% of effect biomarkers in control group. There was a significant dose response relationship between the effect biomarkers (urinary B2M, NAG, and ALB) and exposure biomarker (UCd). BEL value was 5 μg/g creatinine for UB2M as an effect biomarker, consistent with the recommendation of WHO. BEL could be estimated by using the method of BMD. BEL value was 3 μg/g creatinine for UNAG as an effect biomarker. The more sensitive the used biomarker is, the more occupational population will be protected. Conclusion BMD can be used in estimating the biological exposure limit (BEL). UNAG is a sensitive biomarker for estimating BEL after cadmium exposure.

  20. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    developments in Australia, Japan , and South Korea. 93 Justin Doubleday, “MDA Looking to Integrate European Allies into Missile Defense Architecture ...12 Japan ................................................................................................................................. 12 Other...building, or are planning to build Aegis-equipped ships include Japan , South Korea, Australia, Spain, and Norway.2 Aegis BMD System3 Aegis ships

  1. Protective Effects of Vildagliptin against Pioglitazone-Induced Bone Loss in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yu, Seung Hee; Lee, Sihoon; Kim, Yeun Sun; Park, Ie Byung; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fracture in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Incretin-based drugs (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors) have several benefits in many systems in addition to glycemic control. In a previous study, we reported that exendin-4 might increase bone mineral density (BMD) by decreasing the expression of SOST/sclerostin in osteocytes in a T2DM animal model. In this study, we investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor on TZD-induced bone loss in a T2DM animal model. We randomly divided 12-week-old male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats into four groups; control, vildagliptin, pioglitazone, and vildagliptin and pioglitazone combination. Animals in each group received the respective treatments for 5 weeks. We performed an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) before and after treatment. BMD and the trabecular micro-architecture were measured by DEXA and micro CT, respectively, at the end of the treatment. The circulating levels of active GLP-1, bone turnover markers, and sclerostin were assayed. Vildagliptin treatment significantly increased BMD and trabecular bone volume. The combination therapy restored BMD, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular bone thickness that were decreased by pioglitazone. The levels of the bone formation marker, osteocalcin, decreased and that of the bone resorption marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b increased in the pioglitazone group. These biomarkers were ameliorated and the pioglitazone-induced increase in sclerostin level was lowered to control values by the addition of vildagliptin. In conclusion, our results indicate that orally administered vildagliptin demonstrated a protective effect on pioglitazone-induced bone loss in a type 2 diabetic rat model. PMID:27997588

  2. Comparison of serum Dkk1 (Dickkopf-1) and bone mineral density in patients on bisphosphonate treatment vs no treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Memon, Adeel R

    2013-05-17

    Complex pathways affect bone metabolism at the cellular level, and a balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity is critical to bone remodeling. One of the major pathways affecting bone metabolism is Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling, and its disturbances lead to a wide range of bone abnormalities. An important antagonist of this pathway is Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1). Higher Dkk1 levels have been associated with increased bone loss due to inhibition of Wnt pathway. Currently, bisphosphonates are the most commonly used agents to treat primary osteoporotic patients. This study demonstrates the effect of bisphosphonates on Dkk1 levels and its correlation with bone mineral density (BMD). Eighty patients with low BMD were recruited and divided into 2 groups of 40 each (bisphosphonate treatment group and control group). The mean Dkk1 level in the treatment group was significantly reduced to 2358.18 vs 3749.80 pg\\/mL in the control group (p<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficient showed negative correlation between Dkk1 and BMD at lumbar spine (r=-0.55) and femoral neck in the control group; however, no such correlation was found in the treatment group (r=-0.05). Hence, bisphosphonate therapy leads to reduction in Dkk1 levels, but it does not correlate with BMD in such patients.

  3. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  4. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  5. Bone density, body composition, and psychopathology of anorexia nervosa spectrum disorders in DSM-IV vs DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Melanie; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Dichtel, Laura E; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Meenaghan, Erinne; Lederfine Paskal, Margaret; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Faje, Alexander T; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2017-04-01

    DSM-5 revised the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) by eliminating the amenorrhea requirement, liberalizing weight and psychological criteria, and adding the formal diagnosis of "atypical AN" for individuals with AN psychological symptoms without low weight. We sought to determine whether bone density (BMD) is impaired in women diagnosed with AN using the new, more liberal, DSM-5 criteria. Cross-sectional study of 168 women, 18 - 45y: (1) AN by DSM-IV (DSM-IV AN) (n = 37), (2) AN by DSM-5 but not DSM-IV criteria (DSM-5 AN) (n = 33), (3) atypical AN (ATYPICAL AN) (n = 77), (4) healthy comparison group (HC) (n = 21). Measurements included dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales. BMD Z-score DSM-IV, 82% of DSM-5, and 69% of ATYPICAL. Mean Z-scores were comparably low in DSM-IV and DSM-5, intermediate in ATYPICAL, and highest in HC. Lack of prior low weight or amenorrhea was, but history of overweight/obesity was not, protective against bone loss. Mean lean mass and percent fat mass were significantly lower in all AN groups than HC. DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ATYPICAL had comparable psychopathology. Despite liberalizing diagnostic criteria, many women diagnosed with AN and atypical AN using DSM-5 criteria have low BMD. Presence or history of low weight and/or amenorrhea remain important indications for DXA. Loss of lean mass, in addition to fat mass, is present in all AN groups, and may contribute to low BMD. The deleterious effect of eating disorders on BMD extends beyond those with current low weight and amenorrhea. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:343-351). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Subcutaneous DMPA vs. intramuscular DMPA: a 2-year randomized study of contraceptive efficacy and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunitz, Andrew M; Darney, Philip D; Ross, Douglas; Wolter, Kevin D; Speroff, Leon

    2009-07-01

    A formulation of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) has been developed that allows subcutaneous injection (104 mg/0.65 mL; DMPA-SC) and achieves highly effective contraception with a similar tolerability profile to intramuscular DMPA (150 mg/mL; DMPA-IM). This randomized, evaluator-blinded study was designed to compare efficacy, safety, and user satisfaction in women receiving DMPA-SC (n=266) or DMPA-IM (n=268) for 2 years with an option to continue for a third year. The primary objectives were to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) changes and contraceptive efficacy after 2 years. A total of 225 women completed the first 2 years of this study (DMPA-SC, n=116; DMPA-IM, n=109). After 2 years of DMPA use, BMD loss was marginally smaller in the DMPA-SC group than in the DMPA-IM group at both the total hip (-3.3% and -3.6%, respectively) and lumbar spine (-4.3% and -5.0%, respectively). In those women who received DMPA during the third year, there were no statistically significant differences in BMD loss between DMPA-SC and DMPA-IM groups at the end of Year 3. Recovery of BMD was observed in the small subpopulation of women who had discontinued DMPA-SC or DMPA-IM after the second year. The 2-year treatment-failure cumulative pregnancy rate was 0% in the DMPA-SC group and 0.8% (95% confidence interval, 0.00-2.37%) in the DMPA-IM group (life-table method). Adverse events were similar in the two groups except that injection site reactions were more common in the DMPA-SC group. DMPA-SC is an effective and well-tolerated contraceptive option, providing comparable efficacy and BMD safety to DMPA-IM.

  7. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui RT

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rongtao Cui,1 Lin Zhou,2 Zuohong Li,2 Qing Li,2 Zhiming Qi,2 Junyong Zhang3 1Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Surgical Research, Duisburg-Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Orthopedics, Dalian Central Hospital, Dalian, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG, and bone mineral density (BMD, making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis.Materials and methods: A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.Results: The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001, and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001. People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that

  8. Combining areal DXA bone mineral density and vertebrae postero-anterior width improves the prediction of vertebral strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taton, Grzegorz; Rokita, Eugeniusz [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Biophysics, Krakow (Poland); Wrobel, Andrzej [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Korkosz, Mariusz [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Division of Rheumatology, Krakow (Poland)

    2013-12-15

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an important determinant of bone strength (BS), despite the fact that the correlation between aBMD and BS is relatively weak. Parameters that describe BS more accurately are desired. The aim of this study was to determine whether the geometrical corrections applied to aBMD would improve its ability for BS prediction. We considered new parameters, estimated from a single DXA measurement, as well as BMAD (bone mineral apparent density) reported in the literature. In vitro studies were performed with the L3 vertebrae from 20 cadavers, which were studied with DXA and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). A mechanical strength assessment was carried out. Two new parameters were introduced: vBMD{sub min} = (aBMD)/(W{sub PA}{sup min}) and vBMD{sub av} = (aBMD)/(W{sub PA}{sup av}) (W{sub PA}{sup min} - minimal vertebral body width in postero-anterior (PA) view, W{sub PA}{sup av} - average PA vertebral body width). Volumetric BMD measured by QCT (vBMD), aBMD, BMAD, vBMD{sub min}, and vBMD{sub av} were correlated to ultimate load and ultimate stress (P{sub max}) to find the best predictor of vertebrae BS. The coefficients of correlation between P{sub max} and vBMD{sub min}, vBMD{sub av}, as well as BMAD, were r = 0.626 (p = 0.005), r = 0.610 (p = 0.006) and r = 0.567 (p = 0.012), respectively. Coefficients for vBMD and aBMD are r = 0.648 (p = 0.003) and r = 0.511 (p = 0.03), respectively. Our results showed that aBMD normalized by vertebrae dimensions describes vertebrae BS better than aBMD alone. The considered indices vBMD{sub av}, vBMD{sub min}, and BMAD can be measured in routine PA DXA and considerably improve BS variability prediction. vBMD{sub min} is superior compared to vBMD{sub av} and BMAD. (orig.)

  9. Screening, prevention and management of osteoporosis and bone loss in adult and pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClune, B L; Polgreen, L E; Burmeister, L A; Blaes, A H; Mulrooney, D A; Burns, L J; Majhail, N S

    2011-01-01

    Long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and subsequent osteoporosis. There is a lack of clear guidelines for the screening, prevention and treatment of bone loss after HCT. We reviewed the prevailing literature and provide guidelines developed by our center for the screening and management of this complication. Bone loss occurs predominantly within the first 6-12 months after autologous and allogeneic HCT. Recovery first occurs in the lumbar spine and is followed by a slower recovery of BMD in the femoral neck. BMD may not return to baseline levels in patients with continuing exposure to corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. All HCT recipients should be advised general interventions to reduce fracture risk including adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. We recommend screening all adult allogeneic and autologous HCT recipients with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 1 year after transplantation. Patients at high risk for bone loss (for example, patients receiving ≥ 5 mg of prednisone equivalent daily for > 3 months) can be screened earlier (for example, 3-6 months after HCT). Where indicated, bisphosphonates or other anti-resorptive agents (for example, calcitonin) can be used for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis in adult HCT recipients. Pediatric HCT recipients should be referred to a pediatric endocrinologist for evaluation and treatment of bone loss. There remain several areas of uncertainty that need further research in adult and pediatric HCT recipients, such as the optimal timing and frequency of screening for loss of bone mineral density, relationship of bone loss with risk of fractures, selection of appropriate patients for pharmacologic therapy, and optimal dosing schedule and duration of therapy with anti-resorptive agents.

  10. Reduced bone mineral density and altered bone turnover markers in patients with non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B or C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingolf Schiefke; Andreas Fach; Marcus Wiedmann; Andreas V. Aretin; Eva Schenker; Gudrun Borte; Manfred Wiese; Joachim Moessner

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Previous studies suggest that loss of bone mineral density (BMD) frequently occurs in patients with chronic viral liver disease, presenting with histologically proven liver cirrhosis. However, little is known about the occurrence of bone disease in non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to evaluate this particular population for BMD and bone turnover markers.METHODS: Biochemical markers of bone turnover and BMD were measured in 43 consecutive patients with HCV (n = 30)or HBV (n = 13) infection without histological evidence for liver cirrhosis. Mean age was 49 years (range 26-77 years). BMD was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in the femoral neck (FN) and the lumbar spine (LS) region. In addition, bone metabolism markers were measured.RESULTS: BMD was lowered in 25 (58%) of the patients with chronic hepatitis B or C (FN: 0.76 (0.53-0.99); LS:0.96 (0.62-1.23) g/cm2). Eight (32%) osteopenic patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.005) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (P = 0.001) were significantly elevated in the more advanced stages of fibrosis. Mean 7-score value was lower in patients with chronic hepatitis C as compared to patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.09).CONCLUSION: There was a significantly reduced BMD in non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B or C infection. Alterations of bone metabolism already occurred in advanced liver fibrosis without cirrhosis. According to our results, these secondary effects of chronic viral hepatitis should be further investigated.

  11. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  12. Changes in bone turnover and bone loss in HIV-infected patients changing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine.

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    Hila Haskelberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Those receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF-FTC had greater bone loss compared with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC-3TC in a randomized simplification trial (STEAL study. Previous studies associated increased bone turnover and bone loss with initiation of antiretroviral treatment, however it is unclear whether change in bone mineral density (BMD was a result of specific drugs, from immune reconstitution or from suppression of HIV replication. This analysis determined predictors of BMD change in the hip and spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in virologically suppressed participants through week 96. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bone turnover markers (BTMS tested were: formation [bone alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP]; resorption (C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen [CTx]; and bone cytokine-signalling (osteoprotegerin, RANK ligand. Independent predictors of BMD change were determined using forward, stepwise, linear regression. BTM changes and fracture risk (FRAX® at week 96 were compared by t-test. Baseline characteristics (n = 301 were: 98% male, mean age 45 years, current protease-inhibitor (PI 23%, tenofovir/abacavir-naïve 52%. Independent baseline predictors of greater hip and spine bone loss were TDF-FTC randomisation (p ≤ 0.013, lower fat mass (p-trend ≤ 0.009, lower P1NP (p = 0.015, and higher hip T score/spine BMD (p-trend ≤ 0.006. Baseline PI use was associated with greater spine bone loss (p = 0.004. TDF-FTC increased P1NP and CTx through Wk96 (p<0.01. Early changes in BTM did not predict bone loss at week 96. No significant between-group difference was found in fracture risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tenofovir/emtricitabine treatment, lower bone formation and lower fat mass predicted subsequent bone loss. There was no association between TDF-FTC and fracture risk.

  13. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff Helge, E; Melin, Anna Katarina; Waaddegaard, M

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...

  14. Identification of a linkage disequilibrium block in chromosome 1q associated with BMD in premenopausal white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Koller, Daniel L; Curry, Leah R; Lai, Dongbing; Xuei, Xiaoling; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Doheny, Kimberly F; Edenberg, Howard J; Hui, Siu L; Foroud, Tatiana; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. A major determinant of osteoporotic fractures is peak BMD obtained during young adulthood. We previously reported linkage of chromosome 1q (LOD = 4.3) with variation in spinal areal BMD in healthy premenopausal white women. In this study, we used a two-stage genotyping approach to identify genes in the linked region that contributed to the variation of femoral neck and lumbar spine areal BMD. In the first stage, 654 SNPs across the linked region were genotyped in a sample of 1309 premenopausal white women. The most significant evidence of association for lumbar spine (p = 1.3 x 10(-6)) was found with rs1127091 in the GATAD2B gene. In the second stage, 52 SNPs around this candidate gene were genotyped in an expanded sample of 1692 white women. Significant evidence of association with spinal BMD (p 2.5% of the variation in spinal BMD in these women. The 230-kb LD block contains 11 genes, but because of the extensive LD, the specific gene(s) contributing to the variation in BMD could not be determined. In conclusion, the significant association between spinal BMD and SNPs in the 230-kb LD block in chromosome 1q indicates that genetic factor(s) in this block plays an important role in peak spinal BMD in healthy premenopausal white women.

  15. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torq...

  16. Computer Aided Modeling to Determine the Effectiveness of Resistive Exercises as Countermeasures for Bone Mineral Density Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin M.

    1999-01-01

    Due to the loss of gravitational loading, astronauts have a tendency to lose bone mineral density in their lumbar spine and lower extremities on orbit. NASA requires astronauts to perform exercises during space flight to help reduce the amount of demineralization. To test these exercises on earth, 17 week bed rest studies are conducted that consist of specific diet and exercise regimes. Developing a finite element model of these exercises will help to quantify the stress distribution imposed by of each of these exercises. To help develop this model, MRI images are acquired from individuals participating in the bed rest studies. The MRIs can be used to create a subject specific model of each individual for testing. The MRIs are processed in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Transfer System program to develop a three-dimensional finite element model of the femur for evaluation. Modifications were made to the MRIDTS that simplified the model creation process. These modifications made it possible to construct two separate models of different portions of a bone simultaneously and then later connect them manually. This helped alleviate the warping problem associated with the drastic changes in geometry found in some body parts, such as the joints. The code was also modified to incorporate material properties of various bone components into the model. Interior meshing was also incorporated into the program to allow for both the cortical shell and the entire bone to be modeled. A prototype model of the right femur of an adult female is being constructed and tested to determine the feasibility of finite element analysis as a tool for evaluating exercise effectiveness. The model is being run through the ANSYS finite element program on the Alabama Super Computer Network. After the model is validated, models of bedrest subjects can be generated to investigate exercise countermeasures.

  17. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  18. Bone mineral density and breaking strength of White Leghorns housed in conventional, modified, and commercially available colony battery cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendral, M J; Korver, D R; Church, J S; Feddes, J J R

    2008-05-01

    Limited opportunity for movement and load-bearing exercise for conventionally caged laying hens leads to bone loss and increased susceptibility to osteoporosis, bone fractures, and cage layer fatigue, all of which compromise hen welfare and have negative consequences for production. The objective of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) and strength measures of White Leghorns housed in conventional battery cages (CONV), cages modified to incorporate a nest box and perch (MOD), and commercially available, furnished colony cages with (CWDB) or without (CWODB) a raised dust bath. Hens reared on floor litter were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 cage systems at 19 wk of age. Hen-day production and egg quality were measured between 20 and 64 wk. At 65 wk, hens were killed, and right femur, tibia, and humerus were excised. Bone mineral density was assessed using quantitative computed tomography, and breaking strength was measured with an Instron Materials Tester. In the femur and tibia, CONV hens exhibited lower total BMD, bone mass, cortical bone area, cortical bone mass, and bone-breaking strength than CWDB, CWODB, and MOD hens. Density and cross-sectional area of bone in the trabecular space was highest in CONV. In the humerus, total and cortical BMD and mass and breaking strength values were higher for colony-housed birds than hens in CONV and MOD. The MOD birds did not exhibit increased humeral BMD or strength measures over CONV hens. These findings provide evidence that hens housed in modified and colony cages, furnished systems that promote load-bearing movement, are better able to preserve cortical structural bone than conventionally caged hens and simultaneously have stronger bones. Furthermore, inclusion of raised amenities that encourage wing loading is necessary to reduce humeral cortical bone loss. The overall absence of correlation between egg production or quality and bone quality measures also suggests that improved bone quality in CWDB, CWODB

  19. Bariatric bypasses contribute to loss of bone mineral density but reduce axial back pain in morbidly obese patients considering spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many spine surgeons recommend stringent weight loss, including bariatric bypass procedures, prior to “elective” spine surgery (should not be for axial back pain alone) in morbidly obese patients (defined by a body mass index (BMI) of >40 mg/kg2 or >35 mg/kg2 with two or more major comorbidities) to reduce their greater risk for major perioperative complications. Although bypasses typically lead to marked weight reduction and even reduced axial back pain, they also promote unrecognized and often insufficiently treated vitamin D deficiency and loss of bone mineral density. Methods: Morbidly obese patients who are under consideration for “elective” spine operations (other than for back pain alone) are often told to lose weight. Some choose to undergo bariatric bypass procedures, but are unaware of the potential risks/complications of these procedures. Results: Within the first 2 years following most bariatric bypass procedures, patients experience not only marked loss of weight and muscle mass, but also significant vitamin D deficiency and loss of bone mineral density, increasing their susceptibility to fractures. Nevertheless, some patients also experience a sufficient reduction of axial back pain to avoid spinal surgery. Conclusions: Morbidly obese patients under consideration for “elective” spine surgery may undergo bariatric bypass procedures that lead to a significant reduction of vitamin D levels and loss of bone mineral density. However, potential benefits may include a sufficient reduction of axial back pain to avoid surgery in a select subset of patients altogether. PMID:28217392

  20. Raloxifene Administration in Women Treated with Long Term Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist for Severe Endometriosis: Effects on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Hwa; Um, Mi Jung; Kim, Suk Jin; Kim, Soo Ah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of raloxifene in preventing bone loss associated with long term gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administration. Methods Twenty-two premenopausal women with severe endometriosis were treated with leuprolide acetate depot at a dosage of 3.75 mg/4 weeks, for 48 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated at admission, and after 12 treatment cycles. Results At cycle 12 of GnRH-a plus raloxifene treatment, lumbar spine, trochanter femoral neck, and Ward's BMD differed from before the treatment. A year after treatment, the lumbar spine and trochanter decreased slightly, but were not significantly different. Conclusions Our study shows that the administration of GnRH-a plus raloxifene in pre-menopausal women with severe endometriosis, is an effective long-term treatment to prevent bone loss. PMID:28119898

  1. Coronary arterial calcification and thoracic spine mineral density in early menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabara, Y; Camp, J; Holmes, D; Lahr, B; Bailey, K; Miller, V M; Kearns, A E

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis increase in women after menopause. While aortic calcification is associated with bone loss in women, a similar relationship for coronary arterial calcification (CAC), a risk factor for coronary artery disease in women, is less clear. This study was designed to examine the relationship between CAC and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in women (n=137) who were within a median of 18 months past their last menses at screening for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). CAC was measured using 64-slice computed tomography; vBMD was measured from these images using the Spine Cancer Assessment program. Concentrations of osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resident acid phosphatase-5b and osteopontin as bone matrix protein in serum and plasma were evaluated by ELISA. CAC scores ranged from 0 to 327.6 Agatston Units (AU); 113 women had a score of 0 AU, 20 had a CAC score between 0 and 50 AU, and four had a CAC score>50 AU. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward decreasing central density of thoracic T9 with increasing CAC. On average, levels of markers of bone turnover were within the normal range but did not correlate with age or with months past menopause. Clinically significant CAC and spine vBMD are quantifiable from the same scans within the first 3 years of menopause. Additional work is needed to determine how these measurements change with increasing age or with estrogenic treatments.

  2. Trabecular Structure Quantified With the MRI-Based Virtual Bone Biopsy in Postmenopausal Women Contributes to Vertebral Deformity Burden Independent of Areal Vertebral BMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinsky, Glenn A; Vasilic, Branimir; Popescu, Andra M; Wald, Michael; Zemel, Babette S; Snyder, Peter J; Loh, Louise; Song, Hee Kwon; Saha, Punam K; Wright, Alexander C; Wehrli, Felix W

    2008-01-01

    In postmenopausal women with a wide range of vertebral deformities, MRI-based structural measures of topology and scale at the distal radius are shown to account for as much as 30% of vertebral deformity, independent of integral vertebral BMD. Introduction Trabecular bone architecture has been postulated to contribute to overall bone strength independent of vertebral BMD measured by DXA. However, there has thus far been only sparse in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis. Materials and Methods Postmenopausal women, 60–80 yr of age, were screened by DXA, and those with T-scores at either the hip or spine falling within the range of −2.5 ± 1.0 were studied with the MRI-based virtual bone biopsy, along with heel broadband ultrasound absorption and pQCT of the tibia. The data from 98 subjects meeting the enrollment criteria were subjected to μMRI at the distal tibia and radius, and measures of topology and scale of the trabecular bone network were computed. A spinal deformity index (SDI) was obtained from morphometric measurements in midline sagittal MR images of the thoracic and lumbar spine to evaluate associations between structure and deformity burden. Results A number of structural indices obtained at the distal radius were correlated with the SDI. Among these were the topological surface density (a measure of trabecular plates) and trabecular bone volume fraction, which were inversely correlated with SDI (p < 0.0001). Combinations of two structural parameters accounted for up to 30% of the variation in SDI (p < 0.0001) independent of spinal BMD, which was not significantly correlated. pQCT trabecular BMD was also weakly associated, whereas broadband ultrasound absorption was not. No significant association between SDI and structural indices were found at the tibia. Conclusions Structural measures at the distal radius obtained in vivo by μMRI explained a significant portion of the variation in total spinal deformity burden in postmenopausal women

  3. Bone mineral density in young females with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Study of bone mineral density (BMD in young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is important because long-term administration of glucocorticoids and the presence of chronic systemic inflammation can lead to loss of bone tissue in young people with chronic inflammatory disease in anamnesis. Objective: the study of BMD in young female with juvenile onset of JIA. Materials and methods. Ninety-nine female patients aged 19 to 39 years were divided into two groups: І — 59 healthy young female, ІІ — 40 young female with JIA. The following parameters were evaluated: the age of the disease onset, the duration of delayed diagnosis, disease duration, the ILAR-variant in the disease onset, the BMD in different areas and their T and Z scores. Results. It was found that the onset of JIA was at the age of 11.16  ±  4.34 years, it took 23.52 ± 21.37 months from the beginning of the first clinical manifestations to the time of diagnosis, the disease duration was 11.9 ± 9.4 years, persistant oligoarthritis was detected in 25  % of patients, RF-negative polyarthritis in 22.5  %, extended oligoarthritis in 10  %, RF-positive polyarthritis in 10  %, systemic-onset JIA in 12.5  %, enthesitis-related JIA in 15  %, undifferentiated arthritis in 10  %, psoriatic arthritis in 5  % of patients. BMD (p < 0.000001, T (p = 0.00001 and Z scores in the lumbar spine were lower in female with JIA than in healthy people. Femoral neck BMD (p < 0.000001 and T score (p = 0.00002, total body BMD (p < 0.000001, T- (p = 0.00009 and Z-scores (p < 0.000001 were lower in patients with JIA than in healthy people. However, ultradistal forearm BMD in the female patients differed from healthy ones’ only in T and Z scores (p = 0.004. Z score < –2 SD in young adults was detected in 40  % of patients in the lumbar spine, in 24  % of patients in the femoral neck, in 35.5 % of patients in the total body and in 52.9  % of patients in ultra

  4. Risk factors for bone loss with prostate cancer in Korean men not receiving androgen deprivation therapy

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    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172 according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42 and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130. The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI, serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20, but without statistic significance (p = 0.235. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010 and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001, a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001, low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001, and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040 were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001 and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first step in the clinical

  5. Prevention of Bone Loss with Risedronate in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Susan L.; Vujevich, Karen T.; Brufsky, Adam; Lembersky, Barry C.; van Londen, G.J.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Puhalla, Shannon L.; Rastogi, Priya; Perera, Subashan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, are associated with bone loss and fractures. Our objectives were to determine if 1) oral bisphosphonate therapy can prevent bone loss in women on an AI and, 2) early changes in bone turnover markers (BTM) can predict later changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Methods We conducted a 2 year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial in 109 postmenopausal women with low bone mass on an aromatase inhibitor (AI-anastrozole, letrozole, or exemestane) for hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Participants were randomized to once weekly risedronate 35 mg or placebo and all received calcium plus vitamin D. The main outcome measures included BMD, BTM [carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] and safety. Results Eighty-seven percent completed 24 months. BMD increased more in the active treatment group compared to placebo with an adjusted difference at 24 months of 3.9 ± 0.7 percentage points at the spine and 3.2 ± 0.5 percentage points at the hip (both p<0.05). The adjusted difference between the active treatment and placebo groups were 0.09 ± 0.04 nmol/LBCE for CTX and 23.3 ± 4.8 µg/mL for P1NP (both p<0.05). Women with greater 12-month decreases in CTX and P1NP in the active treatment group had a greater 24-month increase in spinal BMD (p<0.05). The oral therapy was safe and well tolerated. Conclusion In postmenopausal women with low bone mass and breast cancer on an AI, the oral bisphosphonate risedronate maintained skeletal health. PMID:25792492

  6. Relation of statin use and bone loss: a prospective population-based cohort study in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, J; Sirola, J; Honkanen, R; Kröger, H; Jurvelin, J S; Mäenpää, P; Saarikoski, S

    2002-07-01

    Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies have suggested that the lipid-lowering drugs, statins, may have bone-protective effects. We studied the effects of statin use on the change in bone mineral density (BMD) in a prospective 4.5-year cohort study based on subjects from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) Study, Finland. Six hundred and twenty women aged 53-64 years were divided into four groups: 55 women reported continuous and 63 women occasional statin use during the follow-up; 142 non-users of statins reported hypercholesterolemia whereas 360 non-users did not. Spinal and femoral BMDs were measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry in 1995-1996 and 1999-2000 and the BMD changes of the four groups were compared. Characteristics of the study population were obtained with postal inquiries. The mean annual spinal and femoral BMD changes of the study groups were 0.29% and -0.50% for the continuous statin users, 0.19% and -0.57% for the occasional statin users, 0.52% and -0.29% for the hypercholesterolemic non-users of statins, and 0.39% and -0.33% for the non-users of statins without hypercholesterolemia, ( p = 0.398 and p = 0.404) respectively. The corresponding BMD changes adjusted for age, years since menopause, body mass index, BMD at baseline, calcium intake, estrogen and cortisone therapy, duration of follow-up and statin use before the baseline were -0.20% and -0.47%, 0.19% and -0.54%, 0.54% and -0.32%, 0.47% and -0.33% ( p = 0.134 and p = 0.628), respectively. Our results suggest that statins do not protect from early postmenopausal bone loss. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these results.

  7. Elements of a BMD C3 (Command, Control and Communications) V & H Program,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-14

    function of yield 0 The vulnerability of the network to cratering and ground motion effects * the duration of temporary disruption in any link which can be...Long Distance Links 0 be assured? --Satellites --Aircraft/Airborne Relays e RF Propagation --Reflection By Perturbed D-layer -- Meteor Scatter...existing data base should be adequate. Another technology which might be examined for BMD applications is meteor burst communications. Nuclear

  8. Proposing an adaptive mutation to improve XCSF performance to classify ADHD and BMD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatnezhad, Khadijeh; Boostani, Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    There is extensive overlap of clinical symptoms observed among children with bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, diagnosis according to clinical symptoms cannot be very accurate. It is therefore desirable to develop quantitative criteria for automatic discrimination between these disorders. This study is aimed at designing an efficient decision maker to accurately classify ADHD and BMD patients by analyzing their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this study, 22 channels of EEGs have been recorded from 21 subjects with ADHD and 22 individuals with BMD. Several informative features, such as fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive coefficients, were extracted from the recorded signals. Considering the multimodal overlapping distribution of the obtained features, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to reduce the input dimension in a more separable space to make it more appropriate for the proposed classifier. A piecewise linear classifier based on the extended classifier system for function approximation (XCSF) was modified by developing an adaptive mutation rate, which was proportional to the genotypic content of best individuals and their fitness in each generation. The proposed operator controlled the trade-off between exploration and exploitation while maintaining the diversity in the classifier's population to avoid premature convergence. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the extracted features were applied to support vector machine, LDA, nearest neighbor and XCSF classifiers. To evaluate the method, a noisy environment was simulated with different noise amplitudes. It is shown that the results of the proposed technique are more robust as compared to conventional classifiers. Statistical tests demonstrate that the proposed classifier is a promising method for discriminating between ADHD and BMD patients.

  9. Self-reported weight at birth predicts measures of femoral size but not volumetric BMD in eldery men: MrOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, M Kassim; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Lui, Li-Yung; Cawthon, Peggy; Arden, Nigel K; Lang, Thomas; Lane, Nancy E; Orwoll, Eric; Barrett-Conner, Elizabeth; Nevitt, Michael C; Cooper, Cyrus; Cummings, Steven R

    2011-08-01

    The mechanism whereby poor intrauterine growth increases risk of adult hip fracture is unclear. We report the association between birth weight and proximal femoral geometry and density in community-dwelling elderly men. We used self-reported birth weight, measured adult height and weight and proximal femoral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements of femoral neck axis length, cross-sectional area, and volumetric BMD (vBMD) among the participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), a cohort study of community-dwelling US men aged 65 and older. We compared men with birth weight <7 pounds (lower birth weight [LBW]; n = 501) and ≥ 9 pounds (higher birth weight [HBW]; n = 262) with those weighing 7-8.9 pounds (medium birth weight [MBW], referent group; n = 1068) using linear regression adjusting for current age, height, and BMI. The mean age of the 1831 men who had both birth weight and QCT measurements was 73 years (SD 5.9). Compared with the referent MBW, HBW men had concordantly longer femoral neck (+0.16 SD; p = .028) and cross-sectional area (+0.24 SD, p = .001). LBW men had a smaller cross-sectional (-0.26 SD, p < .001) but longer femoral neck for their height (+0.11 SD, p = .05). Neither cortical nor trabecular vBMD at the femoral neck was associated with birth weight. These findings support the hypothesis that the skeletal envelope, but not density, is set, in part, at birth. Further research exploring the association between early developmental factors and lifetime fracture risk is needed and may inform primary preventative strategies for fracture prevention.

  10. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  11. Diabetes and change in bone mineral density at the hip, calcaneus, spine, and radius in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann V. Schwartz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM have higher bone mineral density (BMD but also have higher rates of fracture compared to those without DM. Limited evidence suggests that DM may also be associated with more rapid bone loss. To determine if bone loss rates differ by DM status in older women, we analyzed BMD data in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF between 1986 and 1998. SOF participants were women >65 years at baseline who were recruited from four regions in the U.S. DM was ascertained by self-report. BMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at least one follow-up visit at the hip (N=6624 and calcaneus (N=6700 and, on a subset of women, at the spine (N=396 and distal radius (N=306. Annualized percent change in BMD was compared by DM status, using random effects models. Of 6,867 women with at least one follow-up DXA scan, 409 had DM at baseline. Mean age was 70.8 (SD 4.7 years. Baseline BMD was higher in women with DM at all measured sites. In models adjusted for age and clinic, women with prevalent DM lost bone more rapidly than those without DM at the femoral neck (-0.96% vs. -0.59% per year, p < 0.001, total hip (-0.98% vs. -0.70% per year, p<0.001, calcaneus (-1.64% vs. -1.40% per year, p=0.005, and spine (-0.33% vs. +0.33% per year, p=0.033, but not at the distal radius (-0.97% vs. -0.90% per year, p=0.91. These findings suggest that despite higher baseline BMD, older women with DM experience more rapid bone loss than those without DM at the hip, spine and calcaneus, but not the radius. Higher rates of bone loss may partially explain higher fracture rates in older women with DM.

  12. Low bone mineral density and peripheral blood monocyte activation profile in calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A; Fuentès, V; Desaint, C; Bataille, P; Westeel, A; Brazier, M; Prin, L; Fournier, A

    1997-01-01

    Calcium stone formers (CaSF) with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have been shown to have decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The mechanism of their bone loss remains obscure. Monokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are involved in bone remodeling, but only IL-1 excess has been incriminated in the bone loss of CaSF with IH. Therefore, to more precisely delineate the role of monocyte activation in the pathogenesis of bone loss in these patients, we studied the production of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF by unstimulated or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cultured peripheral blood monocytes in 15 CaSF with IH, in 10 CaSF with dietary calcium-dependent hypercalciuria (DH), and in 10 healthy controls (C). Cytokines were measured in the culture medium by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and vertebral BMD by single energy computed tomography. The decrease of vertebral BMD in IH compared with DH, was confirmed (Z score: -1.2 +/- 0.2 vs. -0.5 +/- 0.2; P = 0.04; Mann-Whitney). In the supernatant of unstimulated peripheral blood monocytes, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha levels were higher in IH than in C (respectively, 40 +/- 21 vs. 7 +/- 1 pg/mL, P = 0.008 and 236 +/- 136 vs. 39 +/- 23 pg/mL, P = 0.03); those of GM-CSF were greater in IH than in DH and C (respectively, 52 +/- 27 vs. 6 +/- 2, P = 0.04 and 6 +/- 2 pg/mL, P = 0.01) and those of IL-6 were not significantly different among the groups. After in vitro stimulation by LPS (10 micrograms/mL), the levels of the various monokines were not significantly different. In IH patients, the post-LPS levels of IL-6 were negatively correlated to vertebral BMD (n = 15, Z = -1.97, P = 0.04; Spearman), whereas those of GM-CSF were positively related to vertebral BMD (n = 15, Z = 2.01, P = 0.04). In this study, calcium stone formers with IH have bone mineral decrease and a particular profile of peripheral

  13. Loss of Function of GALNT2 Lowers High-Density Lipoproteins in Humans, Nonhuman Primates, and Rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Christoffersen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    models. We identified two humans homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in GALNT2 who demonstrated low HDL-C. We also found that GALNT2 loss of function in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates decreased HDL-C. O-glycoproteomics studies of a human GALNT2-deficient subject validated ANGPTL3 and Apo...

  14. Risk of low bone mineral density and low body mass index in patients with non-celiac wheat-sensitivity: a prospective observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroccio, Antonio; Soresi, Maurizio; D'Alcamo, Alberto; Sciumè, Carmelo; Iacono, Giuseppe; Geraci, Girolamo; Brusca, Ignazio; Seidita, Aurelio; Adragna, Floriana; Carta, Miriam; Mansueto, Pasquale

    2014-11-28

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or 'wheat sensitivity' (NCWS) is included in the spectrum of gluten-related disorders. No data are available on the prevalence of low bone mass density (BMD) in NCWS. Our study aims to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in NCWS patients and search for correlations with other clinical characteristics. This prospective observation study included 75 NCWS patients (63 women; median age 36 years) with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms, 65 IBS and 50 celiac controls. Patients were recruited at two Internal Medicine Departments. Elimination diet and double-blind placebo controlled (DBPC) wheat challenge proved the NCWS diagnosis. All subjects underwent BMD assessment by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA), duodenal histology, HLA DQ typing, body mass index (BMI) evaluation and assessment for daily calcium intake. DBPC cow's milk proteins challenge showed that 30 of the 75 NCWS patients suffered from multiple food sensitivity. Osteopenia and osteoporosis frequency increased from IBS to NCWS and to celiac disease (CD) (P <0.0001). Thirty-five NCWS patients (46.6%) showed osteopenia or osteoporosis. Low BMD was related to low BMI and multiple food sensitivity. Values of daily dietary calcium intake in NCWS patients were significantly lower than in IBS controls. An elevated frequency of bone mass loss in NCWS patients was found; this was related to low BMI and was more frequent in patients with NCWS associated with other food sensitivity. A low daily intake of dietary calcium was observed in patients with NCWS.

  15. High-Dose Vitamin D and Calcium Attenuates Bone Loss with Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Chan, Ellen S.; Brown, Todd T.; Tebas, Pablo; McComsey, Grace A.; Melbourne, Kathleen M.; Napoli, Andrew; Hardin, William Royce; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Yin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for HIV-1 infection is associated with 2-6% loss in bone mineral density (BMD). Objective To evaluate vitamin D3 (4000 IU daily) plus calcium (1000 mg calcium carbonate daily) supplementation on bone loss associated with ART initiation. Design 48-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting Thirty nine AIDS Clinical Trials Network research units. Participants ART-naïve HIV-infected adults. Measurements BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate metabolism, markers of bone turnover and systemic inflammation. Results 165 eligible subjects were randomized (79 Vitamin D/calcium (VitD/Cal); 86 placebo); 142 subjects with evaluable DXA data were included in the primary analysis. The study arms were well-balanced at baseline: median age 33 years; 90% male; 33% non-Hispanic black; median CD4 count 341 cells/mm3; and median 25(OH)D 23 ng/mL (57 nmol/L). At 48 weeks, subjects receiving placebo had greater decline in total hip BMD than VitD/Cal: −3.19% median change (1st-3rd quartile (Q1, Q3) −5.12%, −1.02%) vs. (−1.46% −3.16%,−0.40%). respectively (p=0.001). Lumbar spine BMD loss for the two groups was similar: −2.91% (−4.84%, −1.06%) vs. −1.41% (−3.78%, 0.00%), (p=0.085). At week 48, 90% of participants achieved HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL. Levels of 25(OH)D3 increased in the VitD/Cal but not the placebo group: median change of 24.5 (14.6, 37.8) vs. 0.7 (−5.3, 4.3) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). Additionally, increases in markers of bone turnover were blunted in the VitD/Cal group. Limitations No international sites were included; only 48 weeks of follow up Conclusion Vitamin D/calcium supplementation mitigates the loss of BMD seen with initiation of efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir, particularly at the total hip, which is the site of greatest concern for fragility fracture. Primary Funding

  16. Factors affecting the population density of weeds and yield loss of them in wheat: a case study in Golestan province – Bandargaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaman Nekahi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the factors affecting the population density of weeds and yield loss of them in wheat, a non systematic survey experiment was conducted in 45 fields in the township of Bandar-gaz (Sarmahaleh village in 2012. Sampling of wheat and weeds were taken in two stages (Heading and Harvest maturity by randomized to the five points of each field using quadrate size 1m*1m. In this study all information about crop management including Land area , farmers experience , the seed bed preparation, sowing date , cultivar and site preparation of them, sowing ways , seed rate , weeds control ways , kind , amount and time of herbicide , fungicide use and wheat harvest time were collected during a growing season by preparing questionnaire and complete them with farmers. At the end of the growing season, the actual yield harvested by farmers’ ‬ recorded. Among the various parameters, Wheat plant and raceme density, farmer experience, Kind of variety and use of Tapic+Geranestar herbicide had significant effects on weed population. With increased wheat plant density, weed density decreased. Also there was less weed density in field of high experience farmer. Weed density was lesser in N8118 variety than N8019 variety and not use Tapic+granestar herbicide due to increased of weeds density. Among weed different species, Avena sp, Phalaris minor and Sinapis arvense had highest negative effect on wheat yield. Model study showed if wheat plant density was optimum and there were weeds, yield will be 2713kg/ha and if weeds remove yield will increase to 2877kg/ha (yield gap equal164kg/ha. Amaong weed, Phalaris minor (12 plant per m-2, Sinapis arvensis (3plant per m-2 and Avena sp (2 plant per m-2 with 65, 18 and 17% yield loss respectively, were the strongest competitor with wheat.

  17. Risk factors for low bone mass in healthy young adults from North India: studies on BMD and bone turnover markers

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    Anita Fotedar Verma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite availability of adequate sunshine, Indian population has the highest prevalence of low bone mass and Bone Mineral Content (BMC. Risk factors for osteoporosis have been extensively studied in the west but poorly investigated in India. We studied BMD and Bone Turnover Markers (BTMs among healthy young adults. Methods: Fifty one healthy young adults (28 Males, 23 Females in the age group of 20-35 years were studied. Morphometric, biochemical parameters and BMD (whole body, spine, hip and wrist were recorded. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, BMI and Waist/Hip Ratio (WHR. BTMs studied included - serum Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (sBAP, serum Collagen cross-linked C-Terminal telopeptide (sCTx, serum Osteocalcin (OC and human intact parathyroid hormone (hPTH using standard ELISA kits. Results: Of 51 healthy volunteers 21.57% had normal BMD, 13.73% were frankly osteoporotic and 64.70% were osteopenic. Age, weight and BMI were the best predictors of total BMD and BMC at all sites. sCTX positively correlated with Total Bone Area (TBA, BMD at Hip and Forearm. Using multiple regressions - age, weight, and BMI were significant predictors of BMD in young adults. Percentage body fat had inverse correlation with BMC, BMD and TBA. Weight and height positively correlated with BMD at femoral neck, inter-trochanter and Ward's triangle. Body weight was best predictor of BMD at femoral neck, Ward's triangle, forearm UD, forearm MID and forearm1/3. Conclusion: Majority of healthy young Indians have poor bone health as evidenced by bone markers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 933-939

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Sheehan's Syndrome; Prevalence of Low Bone Mass and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Chaker, Fatma; Belouidhnine, Manel; Kanoun, Faouzi; Lamine, Faiza; Ftouhi, Bochra; Sahli, Hela; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-10-01

    Hypopituitarism is a known cause of bone mineral loss. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Sheehan's syndrome (SS) and to determine the risk factors. This is a retrospective study of 60 cases of SS that have had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected. The parameters of osteodensitometry at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine of 60 patients with SS were compared with those of 60 age-, height-, and weight-matched control women. The mean age at BMD measurement was 49.4 ± 9.9 yr (range: 25-76 yr). The mean duration of SS was 19.3 ± 8.5 yr (range: 3-41 yr). All patients had corticotropin deficiency and were treated with hydrocortisone at a mean daily dose of 26.3 ± 4.1 mg. Fifty-seven patients (95%) had thyrotropin deficiency and were treated with thyroxine at a mean daily dose of 124.3 ± 47.4 µg. Thirty-five of the 49 patients, aged less than 50 yr at diagnosis and having gonadotropin deficiency (71.4%), had estrogen-progesterone substitution. Osteopenia was present in 25 patients (41.7%) and osteoporosis in 21 (35.0%). The BMD was significantly lower in the group with SS than in the control group (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of osteopenia-osteoporosis was 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.8) at the femoral neck and 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-7.8) at the lumbar spine. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected by low bone mineral mass (p < 0.05). The duration of the disease and the daily dose of hydrocortisone were independently and inversely associated with BMD at the femoral neck. The daily dose of thyroxine was independently and inversely associated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Estrogen-progesterone replacement therapy was not associated with BMD. Low bone mineral mass was very common in patients with SS. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected. The duration of the disease and the doses of

  19. The Effect of Alendronate and Calcitonin Treatments on Bone Mineral Density and Quality of Life in Women With Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taşçıoğlu

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of alendronate and calcitonin treatments on bone mineral density (BMD and quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. One hundred ninety-three patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 93 patients received daily doses of 10 mg alendronate and calcium 1000 mg, and 98 patients used intranasal salmon calcitonin (sCt at a dosage of 200 IU/day and they also received daily doses of 1000 mg calcium supplements. DXA was used for the measurement of BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur before and after the study period. SF-36 was used as a measure of health-related quality of life. At the end of the treatment, ALN produced significant increases in BMD at the lumbar spine (p< 0.001, femur neck (p<0.05, trochanteric region (p<0.001 and at the Ward triangle (p<0.05. In contrast, intranasal sCt treatment resulted in a significant bone loss in the femur neck (p<0.01 and Ward triangle (p<0.05, and only a significant increase in BMD of the lumbar spine was observed with calcitonin treatment(p< 0.05. Quality of life as assessed by SF-36 improved significantly in both groups(p<0.05. In conclusion, alendronate seemed to be more effective than calcitonin, increasing both spinal and femoral BMD, for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Both treatments were found to be effective for the improvement of quality of life.

  20. Effects of short-term swimming exercise on bone mineral density, geometry, and microstructural properties in sham and ovariectomized rats

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    Foong Kiew Ooi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists about the effects of swimming exercise on bone health in ovariectomized animals with estrogen deficiency, which resembles the postmenopausal state and age-related bone loss in humans. This study investigated the effects of swimming exercise on tibia and femur bone mineral density (BMD, geometry, and microstructure in sham and ovariectomized rats. Forty 3-month-old female rats were divided into four groups: sham operated-sedentary control (Sham-control, sham operated with swimming exercise group (Sham-Swim, ovariectomy-sedentary control (OVx-control, and ovariectomy and swimming exercise (OVx-Swim groups. Swimming sessions were performed by the rats 90 minutes/day for 5 days/week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of the study, tibial and femoral proximal volumetric total BMD, midshaft cortical volumetric BMD, cross-sectional area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia (MOI, and bone microstructural properties were measured for comparison. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The Sham-Swim group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA greater values in bone geometry parameters, that is, tibial midshaft cortical area and MOI compared to the Sham-control group. However, no significant differences were observed in these parameters between the Ovx-Swim and Ovx-control groups. There were no significant differences in femoral BMD between the Sham-Swim and Sham-control groups. Nevertheless, the Ovx-Swim group elicited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA higher femoral proximal total BMD and improved bone microstructure compared to the Ovx-Sham group. In conclusion, the positive effects of swimming on bone properties in the ovariectomized rats in the present study may suggest that swimming as a non- or low-weight-bearing exercise may be beneficial for enhancing bone health in the postmenopausal population.

  1. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome – the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Methods We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. Results This intensive lifestyle intervention (15–20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. Conclusion After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917 PMID:26376093

  2. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome--the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. This intensive lifestyle intervention (15-20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917.

  3. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome--the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Courteix

    Full Text Available Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS. However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC and density (BMD.We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention.This intensive lifestyle intervention (15-20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC.After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917.

  4. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) treatment prevents bone loss and reduces body fat in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearbey, Jeffrey D; Gao, Wenqing; Narayanan, Ramesh; Fisher, Scott J; Wu, Di; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2007-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the bone and body composition effects of S-4, an aryl-propionamide derived Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) in an ovariectomy induced model of accelerated bone loss. One hundred twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats aged to twenty-three weeks were randomly assigned to twelve treatment groups. Drug treatment was initiated immediately following ovariectomy and continued for one hundred twenty days. Whole body bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and lumbar vertebrae BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. More stringent regional pQCT and biomechanical strength testing was performed on excised femurs. We found that S-4 treatment maintained whole body and trabecular BMD, cortical content, and increased bone strength while decreasing body fat in these animals. The data presented herein show the protective skeletal effects of S-4. Our previous reports have shown the tissue selectivity and muscle anabolic activity of S-4. Together these data suggest that S-4 could reduce the incidence of fracture via two different mechanisms (i.e., via direct effects in bone and reducing the incidence of falls through increased muscle strength). This approach to fracture reduction would be advantageous over current therapies in these patients which are primarily antiresorptive in nature.

  5. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) Treatment Prevents Bone Loss and Reduces Body Fat in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearbey, Jeffrey D.; Gao, Wenqing; Narayanan, Ramesh; Fisher, Scott J.; Wu, Di; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to examine the bone and body composition effects of S-4, an arylpropionamide derived Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) in an ovariectomy induced model of accelerated bone loss. Methods One hundred twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats aged to twenty-three weeks were randomly assigned to twelve treatment groups. Drug treatment was initiated immediately following ovariectomy and continued for one hundred twenty days. Whole body bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and lumbar vertebrae BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. More stringent regional pQCT and biomechanical strength testing was performed on excised femurs. Results We found that S-4 treatment maintained whole body and trabecular BMD, cortical content, and increased bone strength while decreasing body fat in these animals. Conclusions The data presented herein show the protective skeletal effects of S-4. Our previous reports have shown the tissue selectivity and muscle anabolic activity of S-4. Together these data suggest that S-4 could reduce the incidence of fracture via two different mechanisms (i.e., via direct effects in bone and reducing the incidence of falls through increased muscle strength). This approach to fracture reduction would be advantageous over current therapies in these patients which are primarily antiresorptive in nature. PMID:17063395

  6. The effect of the Oxford uncemented medial compartment arthroplasty on the bone mineral density and content of the proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, G J; Gilchrist, N; Maxwell, R; March, R; Heard, A; Frampton, C

    2013-11-01

    We studied the bone mineral density (BMD) and the bone mineral content (BMC) of the proximal tibia in patients with a well-functioning uncemented Oxford medial compartment arthroplasty using the Lunar iDXA bone densitometer. Our hypothesis was that there would be decreased BMD and BMC adjacent to the tibial base plate and increased BMD and BMC at the tip of the keel. There were 79 consecutive patients (33 men, 46 women) with a mean age of 65 years (44 to 84) with a minimum two-year follow-up (mean 2.6 years (2.0 to 5.0)) after unilateral arthroplasty, who were scanned using a validated standard protocol where seven regions of interest (ROI) were examined and compared with the contralateral normal knee. All had well-functioning knees with a mean Oxford knee score of 43 (14 to 48) and mean Knee Society function score of 90 (20 to 100), showing a correlation with the increasing scores and higher BMC and BMD values in ROI 2 in the non-implanted knee relative to the implanted knee (p = 0.013 and p = 0.015, respectively). The absolute and percentage changes in BMD and BMC were decreased in all ROIs in the implanted knee compared with the non-implanted knee, but this did not reach statistical significance. Bone loss was markedly less than reported losses with total knee replacement. There was no significant association with side, although there was a tendency for the BMC to decrease with age in men. The BMC was less in the implanted side relative to the non-implanted side in men compared with women in ROI 2 (p = 0.027), ROI 3 (p = 0.049) and ROI 4 (p = 0.029). The uncemented Oxford medial compartment arthroplasty appears to allow relative preservation of the BMC and BMD of the proximal tibia, suggesting that the implant acts more physiologically than total knee replacement. Peri-prosthetic bone loss is an important factor in assessing long-term implant stability and survival, and the results of this study are encouraging for the long-term outcome of this arthroplasty.

  7. Polymorphism rs2073618 of the TNFRSF11B (OPG Gene and Bone Mineral Density in Mexican Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    C. A. Nava-Valdivia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis (OP is highly prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and is influenced by genetic factors. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2073618 in the TNFRSF11B osteoprotegerin (OPG gene has been related to postmenopausal OP although, to date, no information has been described concerning whether this polymorphism is implied in abnormalities of bone mineral density (BMD in RA. We evaluated, in a case-control study performed in Mexican-Mestizo women with RA, whether SNP rs2073618 in the TNFRSF11B gene is associated with a decrease in BMD. RA patients were classified as follows: (1 low BMD and (2 normal BMD. All patients were genotyped for the rs2073618 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP. The frequency of low BMD was 74.4%. Higher age was observed in RA with low BMD versus normal BMD (62 and 54 years, resp.; p<0.001. Worse functioning and lower BMI were observed in RA with low BMD (p=0.003 and p=0.002, resp.. We found similar genotype frequencies in RA with low BMD versus RA with normal BMD (GG genotype 71% versus 64.4%, GC 26% versus 33%, and CC 3% versus 2.2%, resp.; p=0.6. We concluded that in Mexican-Mestizo female patients with RA, the rs2073618 polymorphism of the TNRFS11B gene is not associated with low BMD.

  8. Familial interactions and physical, lifestyle, and dietary factors to affect bone mineral density of children in the KNHANES 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Park, Chung-Yill; Ham, Jung-O; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2014-07-01

    We examined familial bone mineral density (BMD) interactions between parents and children and lifestyle factors affecting BMD in the Korean general population of children under 20 and parents under 50 years of age. This cross-sectional study included 2,453 participants (667 daughters, 705 sons, 719 mothers, and 362 fathers) in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for BMD values of whole femur, femur neck, lumbar spine, and whole body excluding the head being in the low tertile in adolescents according to parental BMD tertile after adjusting for physical, lifestyle, and dietary factors. For daughters and sons, there were significant differences in BMD at the four bone sites according to age group, body fat percentage, regular walking and exercise, and milk consumption compared to the reference value for each classification category. Surprisingly, there were no differences in BMD according to serum 25-OH-D levels. Birth order affected BMD of only whole body except head, but its impact was less than that of lifestyle factors. The mean differences in BMD between daughters and sons in the first and third parental BMD tertiles were statistically significant. Notably, the prevalence ratio of whole body without head BMD being in the low tertile increased eight and ten-folds in adolescent daughters and sons, respectively, when parents were in the low BMD tertile. In specific bone regions, parental BMD had a greater effect on total femur in daughters but in the lumbar spine in sons. In conclusion, parental BMD positively influences BMD in daughters and sons after adjustment for environmental parameters. This suggests that the children from parents with low BMD need to make an extra effort to increase BMD through dietary and lifestyle changes.

  9. Evaluation of Growth Indices and Estimation Seed Yield Loss Threshold of Canola in Response to Various Densities of Crop and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Anafjeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to study the effect of various densities of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. on growth indices of Canola (Brassica napus L. in climate of Molathani, Ahvaz, an experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, in 2006-2007. The split-plot set of treatments was arranged within randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included of wild mustard at five levels (0, 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants m2 and Canola at three densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. The results showed that the increase in mustard density rates lead to decreasing total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and mean pod dry matter in three canola densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. Somewhat the lowest growth indices was obtained in 35 plants mustard (that is the highest mustard density. In addition damage rate of mustard decreased canola seed yield for 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants mustard up to 61, 71, 76 and 91%, respectively. Keywords: Plant density, Competition, Yield loss threshold, Growth indices, Canola, Mustard

  10. Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ester A. L.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Voortman, Trudy; Schoufour, Josje D.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Franco, Oscar H.; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the BMD-Diet Score and the Healthy Diet Indicator, a score based on guidelines of the World Health Organization, with BMD in Dutch elderly participating in a prospective cohort study, the Rotterdam Study (n = 5144). Baseline dietary intake, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, was categorized into food groups. Food groups that were consistently associated with BMD in the literature were included in the BMD-Diet Score. BMD was measured repeatedly and was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD-Diet Score considered intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, whole grains, legumes/beans and dairy products as “high-BMD” components and meat and confectionary as “low-BMD” components. After adjustment, the BMD-Diet Score was positively associated with BMD (β (95% confidence interval) = 0.009 (0.005, 0.012) g/cm2 per standard deviation). This effect size was approximately three times as large as has been observed for the Healthy Diet Indicator. The food groups included in our BMD-Diet Score could be considered in the development of future dietary guidelines for healthy ageing. PMID:26295256

  11. Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester A.L. de Jonge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD in the elderly. Our aims were (a to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b to examine the association of the BMD-Diet Score and the Healthy Diet Indicator, a score based on guidelines of the World Health Organization, with BMD in Dutch elderly participating in a prospective cohort study, the Rotterdam Study (n = 5144. Baseline dietary intake, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, was categorized into food groups. Food groups that were consistently associated with BMD in the literature were included in the BMD-Diet Score. BMD was measured repeatedly and was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD-Diet Score considered intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, whole grains, legumes/beans and dairy products as “high-BMD” components and meat and confectionary as “low-BMD” components. After adjustment, the BMD-Diet Score was positively associated with BMD (β (95% confidence interval = 0.009 (0.005, 0.012 g/cm2 per standard deviation. This effect size was approximately three times as large as has been observed for the Healthy Diet Indicator. The food groups included in our BMD-Diet Score could be considered in the development of future dietary guidelines for healthy ageing.

  12. PTHR1 polymorphisms influence BMD variation through effects on the growing skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Miles, Lisa J; Duncan, Emma L

    2007-01-01

    -intron boundaries, and 1,500 bp of its promoter region, was screened for polymorphisms by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and sequencing in 36 osteoporotic cases. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one tetranucleotide repeat, and one tetranucleotide deletion were identified....... A cohort of 634 families, including 1,236 men (39%) and 1,926 women (61%) ascertained with probands with low BMD (ZParents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort (785 unrelated individuals, mean age 118 months), were genotyped for the five...

  13. EE.UU. y el debate del sistema de defensa estratégica BMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David García

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el desarrollo por parte de EE.UU. de un sistema de defensa estratégica contra misiles balísticos (BMD, en el contexto de la crítica al concepto de disuasión nuclear tras la Guerra Fría y de la política de seguridad y defensa de la Administración Bush. En las conclusiones, se relacionan estas capacidades con la política espacial estadounidense y la creación de sistemas de defensa basados en el espacio.

  14. Are Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors a Secondary Cause of Low Bone Density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that can significantly impact numerous aspects of health and wellness. The individual consequences of osteoporosis can be devastating, often resulting in substantial loss of independence and sometimes death. One of the few illnesses with greater disease burden than low bone mineral density (BMD is major depressive disorder (MDD. Both depression and antidepressant use have been identified as secondary causes of osteoporosis. The objective of this paper is to review and summarize the current findings on the relationship between antidepressant use and BMD. Methods. Relevant sources were identified from the Pubmed and MEDLINE databases, citing articles from the first relevant publication to September 1st, 2010. Results. 2001 articles initially met the search criteria, and 35 studies were thoroughly reviewed for evidence of an association between SSRI use and BMD, and 8 clinical studies were detailed and summarized in this paper. Conclusions. Current findings suggest a link between mental illness and osteoporosis that is of clinical relevance. Additional longitudinal studies and further research on possible mechanisms surrounding the association between SSRI use on bone metabolism need to be conducted. Treatment algorithms need to recognize this association to ensure that vulnerable populations are screened.

  15. Mutifactorial analysis of risk factors for reduced bone mineral density in patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah A Bartram; Robert T Peaston; David J Rawlings; David Walshaw; Roger M Francis; Nick P Thompson

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in a cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and to identify the relative significance of risk factors for osteoporosis.METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight unselected patients (92 M, 166 F) with CD were studied. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine and hip by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) and bone resorption by measuring urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD)and N-telopeptide (NTX).RESULTS: Between 11.6%-13.6% patients were osteoporotic (T score < -2.5) at the lumbar spine and/or hip. NTX levels were significantly higher in the patients with osteoporosis (P < 0.05) but BSAP and DPD levels were not significantly different. Independent risk factors for osteoporosis at either the lumbar spine or hip were a low body mass index (P < 0.001), increasing corticosteroid use (P < 0.005), and male sex (P < 0.01).These factors combined accounted for 23% and 37% of the reduction in BMD at the lumbar spine and hip respectively.CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that osteoporosis is common in patients with CD and suggest that increased bone resorption is the mechanism responsible for the bone loss. However, less than half of the reduction in BMD can be attributed to risk factors such as corticosteroid use and low BMI and therefore remains unexplained.

  16. CALCIUM REGULATING HORMONES IN SERUM AND BONE MASS DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜晓东; 黄忠; 胡映玉

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of calcium regulating hormones in serum and bone mass in patients with diabetes mellitus.Methods The levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), total triiodthyronine (TT3), total thyroid hormone(TT4), parathyroid hormone (PTH-SP), calci-tonin (CT) were measured in serum of 227 patients with diabetes and 268 healthy controls by radioim-munoassay, and bone mass density (BMD) at lumbar vertebrae, hip, foream were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The subjects were divided into three age groups.Results T of male in three age subgroups of diabetes was significantly lower (P<0.01 or P<0.05) and PTH was significantly higher (P< 0.001 or P< 0.01) than that in controls. BMD at lumbar 3, lumbar 4 in diabetes was lower than that in controls but BMD at hip, foream was higher.Conclusion The level of T declines and PTH increases in diabetes. Bone mass loss mostly occurs at lumbar vertebrae in diabetes patients.

  17. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States) Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  18. Differential Bone Loss in Mouse Models of Colon Cancer Cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, Andrea; Kays, Joshua K; Parker, Valorie A; Matthews, Ryan R; Barreto, Rafael; Puppa, Melissa J; Kang, Kyung S; Carson, James A; Guise, Theresa A; Mohammad, Khalid S; Robling, Alexander G; Couch, Marion E; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia is a distinctive feature of colorectal cancer associated with body weight loss and progressive muscle wasting. Several mechanisms responsible for muscle and fat wasting have been identified, however it is not known whether the physiologic and molecular crosstalk between muscle and bone tissue may also contribute to the cachectic phenotype in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether tumor growth associates with bone loss using several experimental models of colorectal cancer cachexia, namely C26, HT-29, and Apc(Min/+). The effects of cachexia on bone structure and strength were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro computed tomography (μCT), and three-point bending test. We found that all models showed tumor growth consistent with severe cachexia. While muscle wasting in C26 hosts was accompanied by moderate bone depletion, no loss of bone strength was observed. However, HT-29 tumor bearing mice showed bone abnormalities including significant reductions in whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), femoral trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), but no declines in strength. Similarly, cachexia in the Apc(Min/+) mice was associated with significant decreases in BMD, BMC, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th as well as decreased strength. Our data suggest that colorectal cancer is associated with muscle wasting and may be accompanied by bone loss dependent upon tumor type, burden, stage and duration of the disease. It is clear that preserving muscle mass promotes survival in cancer cachexia. Future studies will determine whether strategies aimed at preventing bone loss can also improve outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer cachexia.

  19. Differential Bone Loss in Mouse Models of Colon Cancer Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, Andrea; Kays, Joshua K.; Parker, Valorie A.; Matthews, Ryan R.; Barreto, Rafael; Puppa, Melissa J.; Kang, Kyung S.; Carson, James A.; Guise, Theresa A.; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Robling, Alexander G.; Couch, Marion E.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Cachexia is a distinctive feature of colorectal cancer associated with body weight loss and progressive muscle wasting. Several mechanisms responsible for muscle and fat wasting have been identified, however it is not known whether the physiologic and molecular crosstalk between muscle and bone tissue may also contribute to the cachectic phenotype in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether tumor growth associates with bone loss using several experimental models of colorectal cancer cachexia, namely C26, HT-29, and ApcMin/+. The effects of cachexia on bone structure and strength were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro computed tomography (μCT), and three-point bending test. We found that all models showed tumor growth consistent with severe cachexia. While muscle wasting in C26 hosts was accompanied by moderate bone depletion, no loss of bone strength was observed. However, HT-29 tumor bearing mice showed bone abnormalities including significant reductions in whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), femoral trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), but no declines in strength. Similarly, cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mice was associated with significant decreases in BMD, BMC, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th as well as decreased strength. Our data suggest that colorectal cancer is associated with muscle wasting and may be accompanied by bone loss dependent upon tumor type, burden, stage and duration of the disease. It is clear that preserving muscle mass promotes survival in cancer cachexia. Future studies will determine whether strategies aimed at preventing bone loss can also improve outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer cachexia. PMID:28123369

  20. The Intravertebral BMD Variation Measured by QCT%腰椎定量CT骨密度测量椎体内差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李葆青; 孙金磊; 张祥; 王月卿; 王效丽; 程晓光; 陈祥述

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To improve the reproducibility and accuracy of spinal QCT by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) within different regions of interest (ROI) in the same vertebral body. Materials and Methods Two CT scanners were used to scan the lumbar vertebrae in 206 subjects (99 examples using 16-row Toshiba CT scanner and 107 examples using 64-row GE CT scanner). All CT scan data were transferred to the QCT pro workstation to measure the BMD of L1,L2 and L3 vertebral bodies. The region of interest (ROI) was placed in the upper,middle and lower parts of each vertebra to assess the variation of BMD. Results The average BMD values in the upper,middle and lower parts of L1-L3 was 116.75 (mg/cm3) ,126.37 (mg/cm3) and 123.77 (mg/cm3). This variation was statistically significant,but less than 8%. Conclusion There is intravertebral variation in BMD measured by QCT. The region of interest (ROI) should be placed in the middle of the vertebral body consistently to avoid measurement error.%目的 研究受检者椎体内不同感兴趣区(ROI)腰椎定量CT(QCT)骨密度测量结果的差异,以提高其测量的准确性和可重复性.资料与方法 对206例受检者进行腰椎检查(99例经GE 64排螺旋CT扫描,107例经东芝16排螺旋CT扫描),获取扫描数据,通过Mindways QCT PRO工作站进行分析处理,使用软件的3D测量模式进行测量,ROI分别放在每个椎体的上、中、下1/3部位,分别测量L1~L3椎体上、中、下3个部位松质骨骨密度(BMD).结果 L1~L3椎体上、中、下平均BMD分别为(116.75±47.73) mg/cm3、(126.37±47.63) mg/cm3和(123.77±52.67) mg/cm3,椎体内BMD差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),椎体内各部分骨密度相差<8%.结论 腰椎椎体内BMD存在区域性差异,QCT BMD测量时应选择相同的感兴趣区以减少误差,但在实际临床应用中影响较小.

  1. Bioprocess-centered molecular design (BMD) for the efficient production of an interfacially active peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Giacomo; Lee, Eun Gyo; Jones, Daniel B; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2004-09-30

    The efficient expression and purification of an interfacially active peptide (mLac21) was achieved by using bioprocess-centered molecular design (BMD), wherein key bioprocess considerations are addressed during the initial molecular biology work. The 21 amino acid mLac21 peptide sequence is derived from the lac repressor protein and is shown to have high affinity for the oil-water interface, causing a substantial reduction in interfacial tension following adsorption. The DNA coding for the peptide sequence was cloned into a modified pET-31(b) vector to permit the expression of mLac21 as a fusion to ketosteroid isomerase (KSI). Rational iterative molecular design, taking into account the need for a scaleable bioprocess flowsheet, led to a simple and efficient bioprocess yielding mLac21 at 86% purity following ion exchange chromatography (and >98% following chromatographic polishing). This case study demonstrates that it is possible to produce acceptably pure peptide for potential commodity applications using common scaleable bioprocess unit operations. Moreover, it is shown that BMD is a powerful strategy that can be deployed to reduce bioseparation complexity.

  2. Presenting a Spatial-Geometric EEG Feature to Classify BMD and Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh AliMardani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar mood disorder (BMD patients demonstrate some similar signs and symptoms; therefore, distinguishing those using qualitative criteria is not an easy task especially when these patients experience manic or hallucination phases. This study is aimed at classifying these patients by spatial analysis of their electroencephalogram (EEG signals. In this way, 22-channels EEG signals were recorded from 52 patients (26 patients with SZ and 26 patients with BMD. No stimulus has been used during the signal recording in order to investigate whether background EEGs of these patients in the idle state contain discriminative information or not. The EEG signals of all channels were segmented into stationary intervals called “frame” and the covariance matrix of each frame is separately represented in manifold space. Exploiting Riemannian metrics in the manifold space, the classification of sample covariance matrices is carried out by a simple nearest neighbor classifier. To evaluate our method, leave one patient out cross validation approach has been used. The achieved results imply that the difference in the spatial information between the patients along with control subjects is meaningful. Nevertheless, to enhance the diagnosis rate, a new algorithm is introduced in the manifold space to select those frames which are less deviated around the mean as the most probable noise free frames. The classification accuracy is highly improved up to 98.95% compared to the conventional methods. The achieved result is promising and the computational complexity is also suitable for real time processing.

  3. Infrared thermography applied to the evaluation of metabolic heat loss of chicks fed with different energy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VMOS Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil must comply with international quality standards and animal welfare requirements in order to maintain its position as world's largest exporter of poultry meat. With the scenario of global climate change there is the forecast of occurrence of extreme events with characteristics of both excess cold and heat for several regions of the country. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using images of infrared thermography to evaluate the loss of sensible heat in young broilers fed different dietary energy levels. Twenty birds were reared in a house with appropriate brooding using infrared lamps. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental into two treatments: T1 (control diet with 2950 kcal ME/kg-1, and T2 (high-energy diet with 3950 kcal ME/kg-1. Infrared thermographic images of the birds were recorded for four consecutive days. One bird was randomly chosen per treatment, and had special images taken and analyzed. Average surface temperature of the body area was calculated using the surface temperature recorded at 100 spots (50 at the front and 50 at the lateral side of the bird's body. Mean surface temperature of the flock was calculated recording 100 spots on the group of birds. Total radiant heat loss was calculated based on the average data of surface temperature. The results indicated that the young broilers fed the high-energy diet presented a metabolic energy loss equivalent to 0.64 kcal h-1, while the birds fed with the control diet lost 2.18 kcal h-1. This finding confirms that oil supplementation to the diet reduces bird heat loss. The infrared camera was able to record young broilers' surface temperature variation when birds were fed diets with different energy contents.

  4. Ferroelectric Polymers with Ultrahigh Energy Density, Low Loss, and Broad Operation Temperature for Navy Pulse Power Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    depending on the crystallinity.[29]This extremely low low-field cunent explains why there is virtually no conduction loss in polypropylene at low voltages...electrical conduction in polypropylene ," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 609, 1981. [30] J. M. Levy-Leblond and J. P. Provost, "Critical...K. Tripathi, and R. G. Mendiratta, " Thermally stimulated discharge current studies in polarized polypropylene ," p^/co status solidi (a), vol. 67

  5. The effect of chronic mild hyponatremia on bone mineral loss evaluated by retrospective national Danish patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Christian; Eiken, Pia; Verbalis, Joseph;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of chronic mild hyponatremia ([Na+]=130-137mmol/L) on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) loss through multiple, serial dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. METHODS: Utilizing biochemical and DXA scan data from two Danish regions...... between 2004 and 2011, supplemented with national Danish patient diagnosis and prescription reimbursement databases, a retrospective cohort study was performed. All subjects with more than one DXA scan were included, then stratified into "normonatremia" ([Na(+)]=[137.00-147.00] mmol/L) and "mild...

  6. Ten-year prediction of osteoporosis from baseline bone mineral density: development of prognostic thresholds in healthy postmenopausal women. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rejnmark, Lars; Nielsen, Stig Pors;

    2006-01-01

    Osteopenia is common in healthy women examined in the first year or two following menopause. Short-term fracture risk is low, but we lack algorithms to assess long-term risk of osteoporosis. Because bone loss proceeds at only a few percent per year, we speculated that baseline bone mineral density...... (BMD) would predict a large proportion of 10-year BMD and be useful for deriving predictive thresholds. We aimed to identify prognostic thresholds associated with less than 10% risk of osteoporosis by 10 years in the individual participant, in order to allow rational osteodensitometry and intervention....... We analyzed dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) from 872 women, who participated in the non-HRT arms of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study and had remained on no HRT, bisphosphonates or raloxifene since inclusion 10 years ago. We defined...

  7. Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hou-Feng; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Estrada, Karol; Rosello-Diez, Alberto; Leo, Paul J; Dahia, Chitra L; Park-Min, Kyung Hyun; Tobias, Jonathan H; Kooperberg, Charles; Kleinman, Aaron; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Liu, Ching-Ti; Uggla, Charlotta; Evans, Daniel S; Nielson, Carrie M; Walter, Klaudia; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; McCarthy, Shane; Eriksson, Joel; Kwan, Tony; Jhamai, Mila; Trajanoska, Katerina; Memari, Yasin; Min, Josine; Huang, Jie; Danecek, Petr; Wilmot, Beth; Li, Rui; Chou, Wen-Chi; Mokry, Lauren E; Moayyeri, Alireza; Claussnitzer, Melina; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Cheung, Warren; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Ge, Bing; Chen, Shu-Huang; Choi, Kwangbom; Oei, Ling; Fraser, James; Kraaij, Robert; Hibbs, Matthew A; Gregson, Celia L; Paquette, Denis; Hofman, Albert; Wibom, Carl; Tranah, Gregory J; Marshall, Mhairi; Gardiner, Brooke B; Cremin, Katie; Auer, Paul; Hsu, Li; Ring, Sue; Tung, Joyce Y; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Enneman, Anke W; van Schoor, Natasja M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van der Velde, Nathalie; Melin, Beatrice; Kemp, John P; Christiansen, Claus; Sayers, Adrian; Zhou, Yanhua; Calderari, Sophie; van Rooij, Jeroen; Carlson, Chris; Peters, Ulrike; Berlivet, Soizik; Dostie, Josée; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Williams, Stephen R; Farber, Charles; Grinberg, Daniel; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Haessler, Jeff; Chasman, Daniel I; Giulianini, Franco; Rose, Lynda M; Ridker, Paul M; Eisman, John A; Nguyen, Tuan V; Center, Jacqueline R; Nogues, Xavier; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Launer, Lenore L; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Mellström, Dan; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Amin, Najaf; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Karlsson, Magnus K; Ljunggren, Östen; Svensson, Olle; Hallmans, Göran; Rousseau, François; Giroux, Sylvie; Bussière, Johanne; Arp, Pascal P; Koromani, Fjorda; Prince, Richard L; Lewis, Joshua R; Langdahl, Bente L; Hermann, A Pernille; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Kaptoge, Stephen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Reeve, Jonathan; Formosa, Melissa M; Xuereb-Anastasi, Angela; Åkesson, Kristina; McGuigan, Fiona E; Garg, Gaurav; Olmos, Jose M; Zarrabeitia, Maria T; Riancho, Jose A; Ralston, Stuart H; Alonso, Nerea; Jiang, Xi; Goltzman, David; Pastinen, Tomi; Grundberg, Elin; Gauguier, Dominique; Orwoll, Eric S; Karasik, David; Davey-Smith, George; Smith, Albert V; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Harris, Tamara B; Zillikens, M Carola; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Maurano, Matthew T; Timpson, Nicholas J; Soranzo, Nicole; Durbin, Richard; Wilson, Scott G; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Brown, Matthew A; Stefansson, Kari; Hinds, David A; Spector, Tim; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ohlsson, Claes; Greenwood, Celia M T; Jackson, Rebecca D; Rowe, David W; Loomis, Cynthia A; Evans, David M; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L; Joyner, Alexandra L; Duncan, Emma L; Kiel, Douglas P; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Richards, J Brent

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well as rare, population-specific, coding variants. Here we identify novel non-coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (ntotal = 53,236) and fracture (ntotal = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population. Associations for BMD were derived from whole-genome sequencing (n = 2,882 from UK10K (ref. 10); a population-based genome sequencing consortium), whole-exome sequencing (n = 3,549), deep imputation of genotyped samples using a combined UK10K/1000 Genomes reference panel (n = 26,534), and de novo replication genotyping (n = 20,271). We identified a low-frequency non-coding variant near a novel locus, EN1, with an effect size fourfold larger than the mean of previously reported common variants for lumbar spine BMD (rs11692564(T), MAF = 1.6%, replication effect size = +0.20 s.d., Pmeta = 2 × 10(-14)), which was also associated with a decreased risk of fracture (odds ratio = 0.85; P = 2 × 10(-11); ncases = 98,742 and ncontrols = 409,511). Using an En1(cre/flox) mouse model, we observed that conditional loss of En1 results in low bone mass, probably as a consequence of high bone turnover. We also identified a novel low-frequency non-coding variant with large effects on BMD near WNT16 (rs148771817(T), MAF = 1.2%, replication effect size = +0.41 s.d., Pmeta = 1 × 10(-11)). In general, there was an excess of association signals arising from deleterious coding and conserved non-coding variants. These findings provide evidence that low-frequency non-coding variants have large effects on BMD and fracture

  8. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  9. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  10. Bone mineral density in adult patients treated with various antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Viken, Janina; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting, that older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and some of the newer ones decrease bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is only limited and conflicting data concerning the effect of levetiracetam on BMD. In this cross-sectional study we analysed data from 1...

  11. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.D.; Graham, J.; Farnell, D.J.J.; Harrison, E.J.; Jacobs, R.; Nicopoulou-Karyianni, K.; Lindh, C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Horner, K.; Devlin, H.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  12. Hyperinsulinemia and bone mineral density in an elderly population : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; VanDaele, PLA; Pols, HAP; Burger, H; Hofman, A; Birkenhager, JC; Lamberts, SWJ; Grobbee, DE

    1996-01-01

    We studied the association between insulin and glucose levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a population based study of 5931 elderly men and women, Serum insulin was measured 2 h after a nonfasting oral glucose load in subjects not using antidiabetes medication, BMD was measured by dual-energy X

  13. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77

  14. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77 con

  15. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8) for a...

  16. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huibert A. P.); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (J. Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. W

  17. Hyperinsulinemia and bone mineral density in an elderly population : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; VanDaele, PLA; Pols, HAP; Burger, H; Hofman, A; Birkenhager, JC; Lamberts, SWJ; Grobbee, DE

    We studied the association between insulin and glucose levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a population based study of 5931 elderly men and women, Serum insulin was measured 2 h after a nonfasting oral glucose load in subjects not using antidiabetes medication, BMD was measured by dual-energy

  18. Segmental acetabular rim defects, bone loss, oversizing, and press fit cup in total hip arthroplasty evaluated with a probabilistic finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, Farid; Solitro, Giovanni F; Walia, Amit; Gonzalez, Mark; Bobko, Aimee

    2017-08-01

    Management of segmental rim defects and bone mineral density (BMD) loss in the elderly prior to total hip replacement is unclear within classification systems for acetabular bone loss. In this study, our objectives were (1) to understand how a reduction in BMD in the elderly affects the oversizing of a press-fit cup for primary fixation and (2) to evaluate whether the location of the segmental defect affected cup fixation. A finite element (FE) model was used to simulate and evaluate cup insertion and fixation in the context of segmental rim defects. We focused on the distribution of patients over age 70 and used BMD (estimated from CT) as a proxy for aging's implications on THR and used probabilistic FE analysis to understand how BMD loss affects oversizing of a press-fit cup. A cup oversized by 1.10 ± 0.28 mm provides sufficient fixation and lower stresses at the cup-bone interface for elderly patients. Defects in the anterior column and posterior column both required the same mean insertion force for cup seating of 84% (taken as an average of 2 anterior column and 2 posterior column defects) compared to the control configuration, which was 5% greater than the insertion force for a superior rim defect and 12% greater than the insertion force for an inferior rim defect. A defect along the superior or inferior rim had a minimal effect on cup fixation, while a defect in the columns created cup instability and increased stress at the defect location.

  19. Brimonidine suppresses loss of retinal neurons and visual function in a murine model of optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoli; Namekata, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Atsuko; Noro, Takahiko; Azuchi, Yuriko; Semba, Kentaro; Harada, Chikako; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Harada, Takayuki

    2015-04-10

    Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve and is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system. It leads to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and can cause severe vision loss. Brimonidine (BMD) is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist that is used clinically for the treatment of glaucoma. BMD lowers intraocular pressure, but recent evidence suggests that its therapeutic efficacy may also mediate through mechanisms independent of modulation of intraocular pressure. In this study, we examined the effects of topical administration of BMD on retinal degeneration during optic neuritis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. EAE was induced with MOG35-55 in C57BL/6J mice and BMD eyedrops were applied daily. In the EAE retina, the number of RGCs was significantly decreased and this effect was suppressed with BMD treatment. Consistent with histological analyses, the visual impairment observed in EAE mice was inhibited with BMD treatment, indicating the functional significance of the neuroprotective effect of BMD. Furthermore, BMD increased the expression level of basic fibroblast growth factor in the EAE retina, particularly in Müller glial cells and RGCs. Our findings suggest that topical administration of BMD may be available for RGC protection during optic neuritis, as well as for glaucoma.

  20. Analysis of the relationships between edentulism, periodontal health, body composition, and bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasiak Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zofia Ignasiak,1 Malgorzata Radwan-Oczko,2 Krystyna Rozek-Piechura,3 Marta Cholewa,4 Anna Skrzek,5 Tomasz Ignasiak,6 Teresa Slawinska1 1Department of Biostructure, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 2Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Physiotherapy and Occupation Therapy in Internal Diseases, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 4DENTARAMA Dentistry Center, Walbrzych, Poland; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Ocupation Therapy in Motor-System Dysfunction, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 6Karkonosze State Higher School in Jelenia Gora, Jelenia Gora, Poland Objective: The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and tooth loss in conjunction with periodontal disease is not clear. The suggested effects include alteration in bone remodeling rates as well as the multifaceted etiology of edentulism. There is also a question if other body-related variables besides BMD, such as body composition, may be associated with tooth number and general periodontal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if tooth number and marginal periodontal status are associated with body composition and BMD in a sample of elderly women. Materials and methods: The study involved 91 postmenopausal women. Data included basic anthropometric characteristics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and BMD analysis at the distal end of the radial bone of the nondominant arm via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A dental examination was performed to assess tooth number, periodontal pocket depth (PD, and gingival bleeding. Results: In nonosteoporotic women, a significant positive correlation was found between BMD and lean body mass, total body water, and muscle mass. The indicators of bone metabolism correlated negatively with PD. Such relationships did not appear in osteoporotic women. In both groups, basic anthropometric

  1. Effect of Cistanches Herba Aqueous Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiguo Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of traditional Chinese medicine Cistanches Herba extract (CHE to prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized (OVX rat, Cistanches Herba extract (CHE was administered intragastrically to the rats. Female rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (40 mg kg−1, i.p., and their ovaries were removed bilaterally. The rats in the sham-operated group were anesthetized, laparotomized, and sutured without removing their ovaries. After 1 week of recovery from surgery, the OVX rats were randomly divided into three groups and orally treated with H2O (OVX group or CHE (100 or 200 mg kg−1 daily for 3 months. The sham-operated group (n = 8 was orally treated with H2O. After 3 months, the total body bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, Bone biomechanical index, blood mineral levels and blood antioxidant enzymes activities were examined in sham-operated, ovariectomized and Cistanches Herba extract treated rats. Results showed that Cistanches Herba extract treatment significantly dose-dependently enhanced bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, maximum load, displacement at maximum load, stress at maximum load, load at auto break, displacement at auto break, and stress at auto break, and blood antioxidant enzymes activities, decreased blood Ca, Zn and Cu levels compared to the OVX group. This experiment demonstrates that the administration of Cistanches Herba extract to ovariectomized rats reverses bone loss and prevents osteoporosis.

  2. Effects of water vapor density on cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss and body temperature in green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygoda, Mark L; Kersten, Constance A

    2013-01-01

    Increased cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (Rc) in tree frogs results in decreased water loss rate and increased body temperature. We examined sensitivity of Rc to water vapor density (WVD) in Hyla cinerea by exposing individual frogs and agar models to four different WVD environments and measuring cutaneous evaporative water loss rate and body temperature simultaneously using a gravimetric wind tunnel measuring system. We found that water loss rate varied inversely and body temperature directly with WVD but that models were affected to a greater extent than were animals. Mean Rc was significantly different between the highest WVD environment and each of the three drier environments but did not differ among the drier environments, indicating that Rc initially increases and then reaches a plateau in response to decreasing WVD. Rc was equivalent when calculated using either WVD difference or WVD deficit as the driving force for evaporation. We also directly observed secretions from cutaneous glands while measuring body temperature and tested secretions and skin samples for the presence of lipids. We found that irregular transient body temperature depressions observed during wind tunnel trials occur due to evaporative cooling from intermittent skin secretions containing lipids, although we were unable to identify lipid-secreting glands.

  3. Prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized rats by combined treatment with risedronate and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erben, R.G.; Mosekilde, Li.; Thomsen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    and in combination, for the prevention of ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. One hundred ten female 4-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this experiment. Ninety rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX), 10 rats were sham-operated (SHAM), and 10 rats were killed at the time of surgery as a baseline......Bisphosphonates inhibit bone loss through inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. At low doses, vitamin D metabolites can prevent bone loss in models of osteopenia in rats by an antiresorptive effect, while at high doses they also stimulate osteoblast activity and show an anabolic effect...... deficiency-induced bone loss was prevented by individual prophylactic administration of risedronate or calcitriol, OVX rats treated with a combination of risedronate and calcitriol had higher bone mineral density (BMD), cancellous bone area (B.Ar), and bone strength in long bones and vertebrae compared...

  4. Radial Distribution of Production Rates, Loss Rates and Densities Corresponding to Ion Masses <=40 amu in the Inner Coma of Comet Halley: Composition and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, S A; Bhardwaj, Anil

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the chemistry of C, H, N, O, and S compounds corresponding to ions of masses <=40 amu in the inner coma of the comet 1P/Halley. The production rates, loss rates, and ion mass densities are calculated using the Analytical Yield Spectrum approach and solving coupled continuity equation controlled by the steady state photochemical equilibrium condition. The primary ionization sources in the model are solar EUV photons, photoelectrons, and auroral electrons of the solar wind origin. The chemical model couples ion-neutral, electron-neutral, photon-neutral and electron-ion reactions among ions, neutrals, electrons, and photons through over 600 chemical reactions. Of the 46 ions considered in the model the chemistry of 24 important ions are discussed in this paper. The calculated ion mass densities are compared with the Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) data at radial distances 1500, 3500, and 6000 km.

  5. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  6. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  7. High-Density Lipoprotein-Associated miR-223 Is Altered after Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Males.

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    Fatiha Tabet

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate metabolic processes, including obesity. The levels of circulating miRNAs are affected by metabolic changes in obesity, as well as in diet-induced weight loss. Circulating miRNAs are transported by high-density lipoproteins (HDL but the regulation of HDL-associated miRNAs after diet-induced weight loss has not been studied. We aim to determine if HDL-associated miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 levels are altered by diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males.HDL were isolated from 47 subjects following 12 weeks weight loss comparing a high protein diet (HP, 30% of energy with a normal protein diet (NP, 20% of energy. HDL-associated miRNAs (miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 at baseline and after 12 weeks of weight loss were quantified by TaqMan miRNA assays. HDL particle sizes were determined by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of human HDL constituents were measured immunoturbidometrically or enzymatically.miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 were present on HDL from overweight and obese subjects at baseline and after 12 weeks of the HP and NP weight loss diets. The HP diet induced a significant decrease in HDL-associated miR-223 levels (p = 0.015, which positively correlated with changes in body weight (r = 0.488, p = 0.032. Changes in miR-223 levels were not associated to changes in HDL composition or size.HDL-associated miR-223 levels are significantly decreased after HP diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males. This is the first study reporting changes in HDL-associated miRNA levels with diet-induced weight loss.

  8. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

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    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  9. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

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    Cherkaoui Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT in carotid artery (CA and femoral artery (FA. Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33, Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30 and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28 while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in

  10. Predicting fractures in an international cohort using risk factor algorithms without BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Philip N; Flahive, Julie; Hooven, Fred H; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland; Lindsay, Robert; Nguyen, Tuan V; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Greenspan, Susan L; Hosmer, David; Netelenbos, J Coen; Adachi, Jonathan D; Watts, Nelson B; Cooper, Cyrus; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Compston, Juliet E; LaCroix, Andrea; Gehlbach, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Clinical risk factors are associated with increased probability of fracture in postmenopausal women. We sought to compare prediction models using self-reported clinical risk factors, excluding BMD, to predict incident fracture among postmenopausal women. The GLOW study enrolled women aged 55 years or older from 723 primary-care practices in 10 countries. The population comprised 19,586 women aged 60 years or older who were not receiving antiosteoporosis medication and were followed annually for 2 years. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, and health status. The main outcome measure compares the C index for models using the WHO Fracture Risk (FRAX), the Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator (FRC), and a simple model using age and prior fracture. Over 2 years, 880 women reported incident fractures including 69 hip fractures, 468 "major fractures" (as defined by FRAX), and 583 "osteoporotic fractures" (as defined by FRC). Using baseline clinical risk factors, both FRAX and FRC showed a moderate ability to correctly order hip fracture times (C index for hip fracture 0.78 and 0.76, respectively). C indices for "major" and "osteoporotic" fractures showed lower values, at 0.61 and 0.64. Neither algorithm was better than the model based on age + fracture history alone (C index for hip fracture 0.78). In conclusion, estimation of fracture risk in an international primary-care population of postmenopausal women can be made using clinical risk factors alone without BMD. However, more sophisticated models incorporating multiple clinical risk factors including falls were not superior to more parsimonious models in predicting future fracture in this population.

  11. Highly porous PEM fuel cell cathodes based on low density carbon aerogels as Pt-support: Experimental study of the mass-transport losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Julien; Chenitz, Regis; Chatenet, Marian; Berthon-Fabry, Sandrine; Cornet, Nathalie; Achard, Patrick

    Carbon aerogels exhibiting high porous volumes and high surface areas, differentiated by their pore-size distributions were used as Pt-supports in the cathode catalytic layer of H 2/air-fed PEM fuel cell. The cathodes were tested as 50 cm 2 membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The porous structure of the synthesized catalytic layers was impacted by the nanostructure of the Pt-doped carbon aerogels (Pt/CAs). In this paper thus we present an experimental study aiming at establishing links between the porous structure of the cathode catalytic layers and the MEAs performances. For that purpose, the polarization curves of the MEAs were decomposed in 3 contributions: the kinetic loss, the ohmic loss and the mass-transport loss. We showed that the MEAs made with the different carbon aerogels had similar kinetic activities (low current density performance) but very different mass-transport voltage losses. It was found that the higher the pore-size of the initial carbon aerogel, the higher the mass-transport voltage losses. Supported by our porosimetry (N 2-adsorption and Hg-porosimetry) measurement, we interpret this apparent contradiction as the consequence of the more important Nafion penetration into the carbon aeorogel with larger pore-size. Indeed, the catalytic layers made from the larger pore-size carbon aerogel had lower porosities. We thus show in this work that carbon aerogels are materials with tailored nanostructured structure which can be used as model materials for experimentally testing the optimization of the PEM fuel cell catalytic layers.

  12. [Modification of bone quality by extreme physical stress. Bone density measurements in high-performance athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Reiter, A; Pfeil, J; Güssbacher, A; Niethard, F U

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Rehabilitation programs which stress strengthening exercises as well as impact loading activities increase the bone mass. On the other side activity level early in life has not been proven to correlate with increased bone mineral content later in life. Little is known on the influence of high performance sports on the bone density especially in athletes with high demands on weight bearing of the spine. In (n = 40) internationally top ranked high performance athletes of different disciplines (n = 28 weight-lifters, n = 6 sports-boxers and n = 6 bicycle-racers) bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and the left hip were performed. The measurements were carried out by dual-photonabsorptiometry (DEXA; QDR 2000, Siemens) and evaluated by an interactive software-programme (Hologic Inc.). The results were compared to the measurements of 21 age-matched male control individuals. In the high performance weight lifters there was an increase of bone density compared to the control individuals of 23% in the Ward's triangle (p boxers had an increase up to 17% (lumbar spine), 9% (hip) and 7% (Wards' triangle). In the third athletes group (Tour de France-bikers) BMD was decreased 10% in the lumbar spine, 14% in the hip and 17% in the Wards' triangle. Our results show that training programs stressing axial loads of the skeletal system may lead to an increase of BMD in the spine and the hip of young individuals. Other authors findings, that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease, is confirmed. Nevertheless the bikers BMD-loss of 10 to 17% was surprisingly high.

  13. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States

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    Domke Grant M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Results Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Conclusions Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog

  14. Bone loss during partial weight bearing (1/6th gravity) is mitigated by resistance and aerobic exercise in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, R. D.; Metzger, C. E.; Macias, B. R.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Hogan, H. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    Astronauts on long duration missions continue to experience bone loss, as much as 1-2% each month, for up to 4.5 years after a mission. Mechanical loading of bone with exercise has been shown to increase bone formation, mass, and geometry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two exercise protocols during a period of reduced gravitational loading (1/6th body weight) in mice. Since muscle contractions via resistance exercise impart the largest physiological loads on the skeleton, we hypothesized that resistance training (via vertical tower climbing) would better protect against the deleterious musculoskeletal effects of reduced gravitational weight bearing when compared to endurance exercise (treadmill running). Young adult female BALB/cBYJ mice were randomly assigned to three groups: 1/6 g (G/6; n=6), 1/6 g with treadmill running (G/6+RUN; n=8), or 1/6 g with vertical tower climbing (G/6+CLB; n=9). Exercise was performed five times per week. Reduced weight bearing for 21 days was achieved through a novel harness suspension system. Treadmill velocity (12-20 m/min) and daily run time duration (32-51 min) increased incrementally throughout the study. Bone geometry and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at proximal metaphysis and mid-diaphysis tibia were assessed by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) on days 0 and 21 and standard dynamic histomorphometry was performed on undemineralized sections of the mid-diaphysis after tissue harvest. G/6 caused a significant decrease (P<0.001) in proximal tibia metaphysis total vBMD (-9.6%). These reductions of tibia metaphyseal vBMD in G/6 mice were mitigated in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB groups (P<0.05). After 21 days of G/6, we saw an absolute increase in tibia mid-diaphysis vBMD and in distal metaphysis femur vBMD in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB mice (P<0.05). Substantial increases in endocortical and periosteal mineralizing surface (MS/BS) at mid-diaphysis tibia in G/6+CLB demonstrate that

  15. Parallel Assessment of Bone Mineral Density and RANKL/OPG Ratio in Saudi Females

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    AI Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a significant risk factor for morbidity, and its high prevalence among Saudi women should be considered to be a public health problem. Quantitative ultrasound was recommended for bone mineral density (BMD screening. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG and their ratio are critical for physiological bone remodelling, and related abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies. Methods: The BMD of 499 Saudi females aged 20 to 65 years was measured using quantitative ultrasound from the beginning of October 2013 to the end of March 2014 at the female medical unit of Taibah University, Madinah, KSA. Possible associated risk factors for low BMD were studied. Blood RANKL and OPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: No significant differences were found between participants with normal and low BMD regarding the studied risk factors. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.05 between BMD and regular physical activity among participants aged 20 years to less than 35 years, and women aged 35–50 years with higher body mass index (BMI had higher BMD. The RANKL/OPG ratio was inversely associated (p = 0.04 with BMD. Conclusions: Regular physical activity is crucial for maximizing BMD in young females and decreasing the possibility of developing osteoporosis with ageing. The RANKL/OPG ratio might be considered a useful and easy-to-use tool for the prediction of low BMD.

  16. Association of serum leptin with bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saba; Baig, Mukhtiar; Tariq, Sundus; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Present study was designed to find out whether leptin is a predictor of bone mass density (BMD) in premenopausal women (PMW) and postmenopausal osteoporotic women (PMOPW) or it has no association with BMD. One hundred and ninety two women (98 PMOPW and 94 PMW) were recruited for this study. The control group was BMI matched with osteoporotic subjects. BMD assessment was done on calcaneus by peripheral ultrasound bone densitometry and T scores were determined. Serum leptin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum leptin and BMD values were significantly different in both groups (leptin, 18.56 ± 8.65 ng/ml versus 21.64 ± 9.80 ng/ml, p = 0.02) and (BMD, -0.70 ± 0.19 versus -3.17 ± 0.59, p = 0.000), respectively. In PMOPW serum leptin and BMD were considerably correlated with weight (lep, r = 0.53, p = leptin level was not found to be the predictor of BMD in both groups. The present results indicate that body weight and BMI have an impact on BMD while serum leptin is not associated with BMD in PMW and PMOPW.

  17. A candidate gene association study of bone mineral density in an Iranian population.

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    Seyed Alireza Dastgheib

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genetic epidemiology of variation in bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis is not well studied in Iranian populations and needs more research. We report a candidate gene association study of BMD variation in a healthy cross sectional study of 501 males and females sampled from the IMOS study Shiraz, Iran. We selected to study the association with 21 SNPs located in the 7 candidate genes LRP5, RANK, RANKL, OPG, P2RX7, VDR and ESR1. BMD was measured at the three sites L2-L4, neck of femur and total hip. Association between BMD and each SNP was assessed using multiple linear regression assuming an allele dose (additive effect on BMD (adjusted for age and sex. Statistically significant (at the unadjusted 5% level associations were seen with 7 SNPs in 5 of the candidate genes. Two SNPs showed statistically significant association with more than one BMD site. Significant association was seen between BMD at all three sites with the VDR SNP rs731246 (L2-L4 p=0.038; neck of femur p=0.001 and total hip p<0.001. The T allele was consistently associated with lower BMD than the C allele. Significant association was also seen for the P2RX7 SNP rs3751143 where the G allele was consistently associated with lower BMD than the T allele, (L2-L4 p=0.069; neck of femur p=0.024, total hip p=0.045.

  18. Bone mineral density of girls with idiopathic scoliosis: a comparative study

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    E Ameri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have suggested higher incidence of osteoporosis in patients with idiopathic scoliosis in comparison with the normal population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low bone mass among adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study performed in shafa Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2011-2012, we recruited fifty-seven 12- to-20-year old girls with idiopathic scoliosis and compared them with 100 age-matched healthy girls. The patients had no other diseases including neuromuscular disorders, congenital vertebral anomalies or a history of spinal surgery. Bone mineral densities (BMD of the hip and spine were evaluated and compared in all 157 participants using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Standard BMD (sBMD was also calculated at the lumbar spine. Results: Analysis of the data revealed that hip BMD was significantly (P=0.004 lower in patients with idiopathic scoliosis versus the controls. Moreover, BMD and sBMD of the Spine were also significantly lower in the patients (respectively, P=0.030 and P=0.030. Curve location had no effect on the values of hip BMD, spine BMD or spine sBMD (respectively, P=0.061 and P=0.274 and P=0.208.Finally, with more severe curves a lower bone mass was detected for sBMD and spine BMD (respectively, P=0.017 and P=0.016, but it was not significant for hip BMD (P=0.069.Conclusion: Adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis had lower bone mass compared with their healthy peers. The lower bone mass was correlated with the severity of the curve but not its location. 

  19. High serum total bilirubin as a protective factor against hip bone loss in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Koh, Jung-Min; Ahn, Seong Hee; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Eun Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Kim, Ghi Su

    2013-06-01

    Bilirubin is known to have a physiologic role as an antioxidant that efficiently scavenges peroxyl radicals and suppresses oxidation, and oxidative stress has detrimental effects on bone metabolism. In the present study, we performed a 3-year longitudinal study of healthy middle-aged men, investigating the association between serum total bilirubin concentrations and annualized changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The study enrolled a total of 917 Korean men aged 40 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations with an average follow-up interval of 3 years. BMD at proximal femur sites was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the same equipment at baseline and follow-up. The overall mean annualized rates of bone loss at the total femur, femoral neck, and trochanter were -0.25 %/year, -0.34 %/year, and -0.44 %/year, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the rates of bone loss at all proximal femur sites were significantly attenuated in a dose-response fashion across increasing bilirubin concentrations (P = 0.006-0.046). Moreover, compared to subjects in the lowest bilirubin quartile category, those in the highest bilirubin quartile category showed significantly less bone loss at all proximal femur sites after adjustment for confounding factors (P = 0.010-0.048). This study provides the first clinical evidence that serum total bilirubin could be a protective marker against future bone loss, especially in subjects without liver diseases.

  20. The Relationship Between Biomechanics Agents and BMD of Female Osteoporosis Patient%生物力学因素与女性骨质疏松症病人骨密度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂伟志; 石关桐

    2002-01-01

    目的:分析女性骨质疏松症病人骨密度与体重、体成分、肌力等的关系,从生物力学角度探讨骨质疏松症的危险因素.方法:以本院骨质疏松专科就诊的女性病人为研究对象,先用DEXA测定股骨颈骨密度,随即用MES测定身高、体重、全身脂肪含量、下肢肌肉分布系数、下肢最大肌力.从上述受试者中选取股骨颈骨密度T值低于同性别年轻人骨密度峰值-2SD者,诊为OP病人.用Excel软件分析骨密度与体重、体重指数、全身脂肪含量、下肢肌肉分布、下肢最大肌力的相关系数.结果:股骨颈骨密度的影响因素依次是:体重>下肢最大肌力>下肢肌肉分布系数>体重指数>脂肪含量,其中脂肪含量与股骨颈骨密度的相关性无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:体重、体重指数、肌肉分布、最大肌力是股骨颈骨密度的影响因素.体成分中主要是肌肉对骨密度起决定作用;肌肉对骨密度的影响主要是通过动态负荷即肌力引起,其次才是静态负荷即肌肉本身产生的重力引起.%Objective:To study the the relationship between Biomechanics agents and bone mineral density(BMD) of female osteoporosis patients with MES(muscle evaluation system),and discuss the risk factors of biomechanics for osteoporosis.Methods:select female patients from osteoporosis department of our hospital,assay the femur neck BMD with DEXA(dual energy X-ray absorptiometry),then assay the body weight,the fat content of total body,the muscle distribution coefficient of lower limb,the maximum muscle strength.Assay body height(BH),calculate body mass index(BMI).Among the above objects,select the ones whose T-score of femur neck BMD under -2SD(standard difference) as osteoporosis patients.Analyse the relationship between the BW,BMI,the fat content of total body,the muscle distribution coefficient of lower limb,the maximum muscle strength and the BMD with Excel software.Results:From maximum to

  1. Genetic association study of WNT10B polymorphisms with BMD and adiposity parameters in Danish and Belgian males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Camp, Jasmijn K; Beckers, Sigri; Zegers, Doreen;

    2013-01-01

    Because of the importance of the Wnt pathway in the development and maintenance of both adipose and bone tissue, we wanted to evaluate the involvement of WNT10B, a Wnt pathway activator, in adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in humans. Genetic association between WNT10B polymorphisms and adiposity...... a previously shown negative effect on BMD. No significant associations were observed in the SIBLOS population. In the present study, no association between WNT10B polymorphisms and adiposity parameters was found. However, our results clearly illustrate a role for WNT10B variants in determining human BMD...

  2. Bone mineral density and the subsequent risk of cancer in the NHANES I follow-up cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jane

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Bone mineral density (BMD is a marker of long-term estrogen exposure. BMD measurement has been used in this context to investigate the association of estrogen with breast cancer risk in three cohorts. In order to assess further BMD as a predictor of estrogen related cancer risk, the association of BMD with colorectal and corpus uteri cancer was investigated in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS cohort along with breast cancer and prostate cancer. Methods Participants were members of the NHEFS cohort who had BMD measurement in 1974–1975. Age, race, and BMI adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for incidence of cancers of the corpus uterus, breast, colorectum, prostate, and of osteoporosis and hip fracture related to baseline BMD. Results Data were available for 6046 individuals. One hundred cases of breast cancer, 94 prostate cancers, 115 colorectal cancers, 29 uterine cancers, 110 cases of hip fracture and 103 cases of osteoporosis were reported between 1974 and 1993. Hip fracture and osteoporosis were both significantly inversely associated with BMD. Uterine cancer was positively associated (p = 0.005, test for linear trend and colorectal cancer negatively associated (p = 0.03 with BMD. No association was found between elevated BMD and incidence of breast cancer (p = 0.74 or prostate cancer (p = 0.37 in the overall cohort, although a weak association was seen between BMD and subsequent breast cancer incidence when BMD was measured in post-menopausal women (p = 0.04. Conclusion The findings related to cancers of the uterus and colorectum as well as the weak association of BMD with breast cancer strengthen the use of BMD as a marker of estrogen exposure and cancer risk.

  3. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smietana, Michael J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Arruda, Ellen M. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Program in Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Larkin, Lisa M., E-mail: llarkin@umich.edu [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These

  4. Severity and pattern of bone mineral loss in endocrine causes of osteoporosis as compared to age-related bone mineral loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data are scant on bone health in endocrinopathies from India. This study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD loss in endocrinopathies [Graves′ disease (GD, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HypoH, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyperH, hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT] as compared to age-related BMD loss [postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO, andropause]. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of records of patients >30 years age attending a bone clinic from August 2014 to January 2016 was done. Results: Five-hundred and seven records were screened, out of which 420 (females:male = 294:126 were analyzed. A significantly higher occurrence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was noted in T1DM (89.09%, HyperH (85%, and HypoH (79.59% compared to age-related BMD loss (60.02%; P < 0.001. The occurrence of osteoporosis among females and males was 55.41% and 53.97%, respectively, and of osteopenia among females and males was 28.91% and 32.54%, respectively. In females, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (92%, HyperH (85%, and HypoH (59.26% compared to PMO (49.34%; P < 0.001. Z score at LS, TF, NOF, and greater trochanter (GT was consistently lowest in T1DM women. Among men, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (76.67% and HypoH (54.55% compared to andropause (45.45%; P = 0.001. Z score at LS, TF, NOF, GT, and TR was consistently lowest in T1DM men. In GD, the burden of osteoporosis was similar to PMO and andropause. BMD difference among the study groups was not significantly different after adjusting for body mass index (BMI and vitamin D. Conclusion: Low bone mass is extremely common in endocrinopathies, warranting routine screening and intervention. Concomitant vitamin D deficiency compounds the problem. Calcium and vitamin D supplementations may improve bone health in this setting.

  5. Decrease in hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion after weight loss is inversely associated with changes in circulating leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkos, F; Fabbrini, E; McCrea, J; Patterson, B W; Eagon, J C; Klein, S

    2010-07-01

    Although weight loss usually decreases very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) secretion rate, the change in VLDL-TG kinetics is not directly related to the change in body weight. Circulating leptin also declines with weight loss and can affect hepatic lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether circulating leptin is associated with weight loss-induced changes in VLDL-TG secretion. Ten extremely obese subjects were studied. VLDL-TG secretion rate and the contribution of systemic (derived from lipolysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue TG) and non-systemic fatty acids (derived primarily from lipolysis of intrahepatic and intraperitoneal TG, and de novo lipogenesis) to VLDL-TG production were determined by using stable isotopically labelled tracer methods before and 1 year after gastric bypass surgery. Subjects lost 33 +/- 12% of body weight, and VLDL-TG secretion rate decreased by 46 +/- 23% (p = 0.001), primarily because of a decrease in the secretion of VLDL-TG from non-systemic fatty acids (p = 0.002). Changes in VLDL-TG secretion rates were not significantly related to reductions in body weight, body mass index, plasma palmitate flux, free fatty acid or insulin concentrations. The change in VLDL-TG secretion was inversely correlated with the change in plasma leptin concentration (r = -0.72, p = 0.013), because of a negative association between changes in leptin and VLDL-TG secretion from non-systemic fatty acids (r = -0.95, p Weight loss-induced changes in plasma leptin concentration are inversely associated with changes in VLDL-TG secretion rate. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the correlation between circulating leptin and VLDL-TG secretion represents a cause-and-effect relationship.

  6. Association between skeletal muscle fat content and very-low-density lipoprotein-apolipoprotein B-100 transport in obesity: effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D C; Gan, S K; Wong, A T Y; Barrett, P H R; Watts, G F

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic deposition of fat in skeletal muscle is a feature of metabolic syndrome, but its specific association with very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 metabolism remains unclear. We examined the association between skeletal muscle fat content and VLDL-apoB-100 kinetics in 25 obese subjects, and the responses of these variables to weight loss. The fat contents of liver, abdomen and skeletal muscle were determined by magnetic resonance imaging, and VLDL-apoB-100 kinetics were assessed using stable isotope tracers. In obese subjects who were insulin sensitive (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA, score ≤ 2.6, n = 12), skeletal muscle fat content was significantly associated with hepatic fat content (r = 0.636), energy intake (r = 0.694), plasma triglyceride (r = 0.644), apoB-100 (r = 0.529), glucose (r = 0.622), VLDL-apoB-100 concentrations (r = 0.860), VLDL-apoB-100 fractional catabolic rate (FCR; r = -0.581) and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion rate (r = 0.607). These associations were not found in obese subjects who were insulin resistant (HOMA score >2.6, n = 13). Of these 25 subjects, 10 obese subjects underwent a 16-week weight loss program. The low-fat diet achieved significant reduction (p fat areas, liver and skeletal muscle fat, energy intake, triglyceride, insulin, HOMA score, VLDL-apoB100 concentrations and VLDL-apoB100 secretion rate. The percentage reduction of skeletal muscle fat with weight loss was significantly associated with the corresponding changes in VLDL-apoB100 concentration (r = 0.770, p = 0.009) and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion (r = 0.682, p = 0.030). Skeletal muscle fat content is associated with VLDL-apoB-100 transport. Weight loss lowers skeletal muscle fat and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Estrogen Receptor Gene (ESR1 PVUII and XBAI Polymorphisms and Bone Mineral Density in Kazakh Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Akilzhanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a common age-related disease that is strongly influenced by genetics. Polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor gene alpha (ESR1 are consistently been associated with bone mineral density (BMD and fracture. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate potential association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP variants of the ESR1 gene and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine in Kazakh women. Methods: 140 female participants in Pavlodar clinics with varying measures of BMD. We are examined the potential association of BMD with 2 SNPs from the ESR1 gene (rs2234693 [PvuII] and rs9340799 [XbaI]. Genotyping of the PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms was performed by direct sequencing of the gene fragments containing restriction sites with the identification of genotypes PP, Pp, pp and XX, Xx, xx respectively. Results: Unadjusted mean BMD values ranged from 1.14±0.14 g/cm2 in Caucasian women and 1.03±0.11 g/cm2 in Asian women. The association between PvuII polymorphism and BMD at the lumbar spine (p= 0.04 for PP=Pp=pp was statistically significant in all women. The XbaI polymorphism was not associated with BMD at lumbar spine. The relative risk for low BMD was higher for the marker PvuII (RR=1.51 than for the marker XbaI (RR=1.35. Conclusion: The PvuII polymorphism had a weak association with lumbar spine BMD.  XbaI polymorphism was unlikely to be a predictor of lumbar spine BMD in Kazakh women. These conclusions could help to determine the genetic risk factors for osteoporosis; however, further studies on the association between gene polymorphisms and BMD are needed including larger numbers of participants and genes to clarify genetic risks.

  8. Relationship between leptin, adiponectin, bone mineral density, and measures of adiposity among pre-menopausal Hispanic and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fasting serum leptin and adiponectin levels with bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women. Participants' (68 Hispanic and 36 Caucasian) BMD and bone mineral content were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body density was measured by hydrodensitometry. Serum leptin was determined by enzyme immunoassay and adiponectin by ELISA. Hispanic women had significantly higher leptin, BMD, and fat mass (FM), and lower adiponectin than Caucasian women. There was no significant correlation between leptin and BMD for Hispanic or Caucasian women; adiponectin was inversely correlated with BMD in Caucasian women only (p = 0.01). In both Hispanic and Caucasian women, lean body mass and adiponectin best explained the variance in BMD (r(2) = 0.25, p < 0.001). These data demonstrate no significant relationship between leptin and BMD of pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women, and a significant inverse relationship between adiponectin and BMD in Caucasian women. The role of adipocytokines in the regulation of BMD remains inconclusive and may vary across ethnic groups.

  9. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE WOMEN ASSESSED BY ULTRASOUND DESINTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marijanac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Physical activity has a positive effect on bone tissue, and it is recommended to prevent bone loss which comes with age. Methods: In purpose of determining bone mineral density in women who are physically active we examined 35 women divided into two groups – subjects who are premenopausal (n=20, 43.52 ± 7.56 years, and subjects who are postmenopausal (n=15, 55.89 ± 5.48. The subjects exercised Pilates method twice a week for one hour. Bone mineral density measurements were done by ultrasound densitometer „Sahara“ through the calcaneus. We get the data of the estimated bone density and T-score for right and left foot separate. Results: According to results premenopausal women have normal bone density, and postmenopausal values represent osteopenia, according to the WHO. There is no subjects who established osteoporosis. Discussion: Previous investigations have confirmed that physical activity is important for the preservation of the bone quality. Increasing steps, using simple everyday tasks, can prevent decrease in BMD in postmenopausal women (Muir et al., 2013, Ashe et al, 2008. There’s difference in the density of the calcaneus between physically active and those who are not, measured by ultrasound densitometry (Vainionpää et al, 2005. We use quantitative ultrasound densitometry to describe BMI of women who exercise Pilates and support the finding that physical activity is one of the ways that may prevent the BMD loss. These research was done as a part of long-term project entitled „Impact of physical activity of the working population“ which is co-financed by Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development.

  10. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H;

    1999-01-01

    Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... of fat mass parameters, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis can be equally achieved in thinner and heavier women....... (r = -0.12 to -0.15, p treatment effect of alendronate was dependent on these risk factors, the group treated with 5 mg of alendronate was included (n = 403). There were no associations between fat mass parameters and response to alendronate treatment, which...

  11. Serum estradiol levels and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal women are at high risk of disease, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, malignancies, dementia and osteoporosis. This is due to decreased levels of estrogen/estradiol, produced mainly in the ovaries, leading to reduced bone mineral density (BMD, which is the gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between serum estradiol levels and BMD in postmenopausal women. The study, which was of cross-sectional design, involved 184 postmenopausal women meeting the inclusion criteria, viz. healthy postmenopausal women aged between 47 and 60 years having taken no hormonal medications in the previous 3 years. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric and biochemical characteristics, including BMD and serum estradiol levels. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the distal radius by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA instrument. The mean serum estradiol concentration was 7.54 ± 4.65 pg/ml, while in 49.5% of the subjects the estradiol concentration was £ 5 pg/ml. In postmenopausal women with estradiol concentrations of > 5 pg/ml, a significant positive relationship was found between BMD and the T-scores for the femoral neck. Thus the higher the serum estradiol levels, the higher the BMD values for femoral neck region. In conclusion, the results of this study point to estradiol levels as a major factor in determining the BMD values in postmenopausal women.

  12. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  13. Association between leukocyte telomere length and bone mineral density in women 25-93 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Bendix, Laila

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and bone mineral density (BMD) are associated with health and mortality. Because osteoporosis is an age-related condition and LTL is considered to be a biomarker of aging, we hypothesized that shorter LTL could predict lower BMD. The aim of our study was to assess...

  14. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lum

  15. Genome-wide association study using extreme truncate selection identifies novel genes affecting bone mineral density and fracture risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Duncan (Emma); P. Danoy (Patrick); J.P. Kemp (John); P.J. Leo (Paul); E. McCloskey (Eugene); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); R. Eastell (Richard); R.L. Prince (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); G. Jones (Graeme); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); I.R. Reid (Ian); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); J. Wark (John); J.B. Richards (Brent); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Esapa (Chris); R.D. Cox (Roger); S.D.M. Brown (Steve); R.V. Thakker (Rajesh); K.A. Addison (Kathryn); L.A. Bradbury (Linda); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); C. Cooper (Cyrus); C. Cremin (Catherine); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D. Felsenberg (Dieter); C.-C. Glüer (Claus-); J. Hadler (Johanna); M.J. Henry (Margaret); A. Hofman (Albert); M.A. Kotowicz (Mark); J. Makovey (Joanna); S.C. Nguyen (Sing); J.A. Pasco (Julie); K. Pryce (Karena); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); C. Roux (Christian); K. Stefansson (Kari); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); R. Tichawangana (Rumbidzai); D.M. Evans (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have larg

  16. Normal bone mineral density and lean body mass, but increased fat mass, in young adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia attributable to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid administration, even in substitution doses, may cause decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine BMD, lean mass, a

  17. Influence of birth size and body composition on bone mineral density in early adulthood : the PROGRAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, R. W. J.; Stijnen, T.; Boot, A. M.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background/objectives Low bone mineral density (BMD) may lead to osteoporosis and is associated with increased fracture risk. Associations between BMD and various factors have been reported. Our objective was to investigate whether birth size, lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) are determinants

  18. Effect of anti-osteoporotic agents on the prevention of bone loss in unloaded bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Wing Sum; Ko, Chun Hay; Hung, Leung Kim; Lau, Ching Po; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments. This model was created by unloading the hind limbs of the rats in order to create a state of weightlessness in their hindlimb bones. Validation of the model was performed with non-suspended rats. This study included five groups of suspended rats fed with different agents, such as distilled water (control), high-, medium- and low-dose raloxifene and a bisphosphonate (alendronate). The experiment lasted for 28 days. Comparisons were made between the suspended control and treatment groups. Ovariectomized and sham‑operated rats were also included as a reference for bone changes during osteoporosis. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal femur and proximal tibia, microarchitecture at the distal femur and biomechanical strength at the diaphyseal femur were studied. Reduction of BMD and deterioration of trabeculae were similar between the suspended control and ovariectomized rats. Loss of BMD induced by tail suspension was reduced most effectively by medium-dose raloxifene. Deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture was also prevented by raloxifene. The tail-suspension rat model is suitable for the study of disuse osteoporosis under the effects of various therapeutic agents. The preventive effects of raloxifene against bone loss under disuse conditions have been demonstrated using this model.

  19. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon [Dept. of Radiologic Techology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8{+-}6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8{+-}7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1{+-}6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0{+-}9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1{+-}2.7 kg/m{sup 2}. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged {>=}50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged {>=}40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  20. HLA alleles association with changes in bone mineral density in HIV-1-infected adults changing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Haskelberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding the influence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA polymorphisms on reduced bone mineral density (BMD. We investigated the relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD in HIV-infected adults changing their existing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC or abacavir-lamivudine (ABC-3TC in the STEAL study. METHODS: Lumbar spine and right hip BMD were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. HLA genotypes at the 2-digit level were classified into class I and II supertypes. Student's t-tests were used to test the association between HLA supertypes and changes in hip and spine BMD over 96 weeks for the whole cohort and stratified by randomised groups. The relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD was also assessed in the subgroup of participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at study entry. RESULTS: Class II supertypes were mainly associated with hip BMD change. Overall, compared to participants not carrying HLA-DQ3, participants expressing DQ3 had less bone loss over 96 weeks at both the hip and spine (hip: 0.003 vs. -0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.002 to 0.017, p = 0.016; spine: 0.006 vs. -0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.001 to 0.023, p = 0.041. In participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at baseline and randomised to TDF-FTC, DQ3 was significantly associated with less bone loss compared with those not carrying DQ3 (hip: 0.001 vs. -0.032 g/cm2; diff 0.033; 95%CI 0.017 to 0.049; p<0.001; spine: 0.007 vs. -0.023 g/cm2; diff 0.035; 95%CI 0.014 to 0.056; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of HIV-infected adults, there was an association between bone status and HLA supertypes, particularly HLA-DQ3. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192634.

  1. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density and Bone Biomarkers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Canagliflozin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilezikian, John P; Watts, Nelson B; Usiskin, Keith; Polidori, David; Fung, Albert; Sullivan, Daniel; Rosenthal, Norm

    2016-01-01

    Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor developed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our objective is to describe the effects of canagliflozin on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone biomarkers in patients with T2DM. This was a randomized study, consisting of a 26-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled period and a 78-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled extension. This study was undertaken in 90 centers in 17 countries. Patients were aged 55-80 years (N = 716) and whose T2DM was inadequately controlled on a stable antihyperglycemic regimen. Canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo were administered once daily. BMD was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at weeks 26, 52, and 104. Bone strength was assessed using quantitative computed tomography and finite element analysis at week 52. Serum collagen type 1 β-carboxy-telopeptide, osteocalcin, and estradiol were assessed at weeks 26 and 52. Canagliflozin doses of 100 and 300 mg were associated with a decrease in total hip BMD over 104 weeks, (placebo-subtracted changes: -0.9% and -1.2%, respectively), but not at other sites measured (femoral neck, lumbar spine, or distal forearm). No meaningful changes in bone strength were observed. At week 52, canagliflozin was associated with an increase in collagen type 1 β-carboxy-telopeptide that was significantly correlated with a reduction in body weight, an increase in osteocalcin, and, in women, a decrease in estradiol. In older patients with T2DM, canagliflozin showed small but significant reductions in total hip BMD and increases in bone formation and resorption biomarkers, due at least in part to weight loss.

  2. Missile Defense in the 21st Century Acquisition Environment: Exploring a BMD-Capable LCS Mission Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    the littoral BMD mission. The sea state, wind speed, precipitation, and cloud cover for the DRM region was estimated using data for the Gulf of Sidra ...civilian air traffic with the area surrounding the Gulf of Sidra having 144 airports, 64 of those being paved (CIA World Fact Book, 2012). The large

  3. Association of loss-of-function mutations in the ABCA1 gene with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, R.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Stene, M.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Context Low levels of high- density lipoprotein ( HDL) cholesterol are inversely related to cardiovascular risk. Whether this is a causal effect is unclear. Objective To determine whether genetically reduced HDL cholesterol due to heterozygosity for 4 loss- of- function mutations in ABCA1 cause...... Study ( CGPS), a cross- sectional general population study ( n= 31 241; 76 heterozygotes); and the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study ( CIHDS), a case- control study ( n= 16 623; 44 heterozygotes). End points in all 3 studies were recorded during the period of January 1, 1976, through July 9, 2007....... Main Outcome Measures Levels of HDL cholesterol in the general population, cellular cholesterol efflux, and the association between IHD and HDL cholesterol and genotype. Results Heterozygotes vs noncarriers for 4 ABCA1 mutations ( P1065S, G1216V, N1800H, R2144X) had HDL cholesterol levels of 41 mg/ d...

  4. Screening of Dystrophin Gene Deletions in Egyptian Patients with DMD/BMD Muscular Dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila K. Effat

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD are allelic disorders caused by mutations within the dystrophin gene. Our study has identified 100 Egyptian families collected from the Human Genetics Clinic, National Research Center, Cairo. All cases were subjected to complete clinical evaluation pedigree analysis, electromyography studies, estimation of serum creatine phosphokinase enzyme (CPK levels and DNA analysis. Multiplex PCR using 18 pairs of specific primers were used for screening of deletion mutations within the dystrophin gene. A frequency of 55% among the families. Sixty per cent of detected deletions involved multiple exons spanning the major or the minor hot spot of the dystrophin gene. The remainder 40% which mainly involved exon 45. Comparing these findings with frequencies of other countries it was found that our figures fall within the reported range of 40%– for deletions. The distribution of deletions in our study and other different studies was variable and specific ethnic differences do not apparently account for specific deletions. In addition this study concluded that employment of the 18 exon analysis is a cost effective and a highly accurate (97% to launch a nationwide program.

  5. Preventive Effects of Collagen Peptide from Deer Sinew on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer sinew (DS has been used traditionally for various illnesses, and the major active constituent is collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of collagen peptide from DS on bone loss in the ovariectomized rats. Wister female rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: sham-operated (SHAM, ovariectomized control (OVX, OVX given 1.0 mg/kg/week nylestriol (OVX + N, OVX given 0.4 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OVX + H, OVX given 0.2 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + M, and OVX given 0.1 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + L, respectively. After 13 weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and the effects of collagen peptide on body weight, uterine weight, bone mineral density (BMD, serum biochemical indicators, bone histomorphometry, and bone mechanics were observed. The data showed that BMD and concentration of serum hydroxyproline were significantly increased and the levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased. Besides, histomorphometric parameters and mechanical indicators were improved. However, collagen peptide of DS has no effect on estradiol level, body weight, and uterine weight. Therefore, these results suggest that the collagen peptide supplementation may also prevent and treat bone loss.

  6. Loss of animal seed dispersal increases extinction risk in a tropical tree species due to pervasive negative density dependence across life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlin, T Trevor; Ferguson, Jake M; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Levey, Douglas J

    2015-01-07

    Overhunting in tropical forests reduces populations of vertebrate seed dispersers. If reduced seed dispersal has a negative impact on tree population viability, overhunting could lead to altered forest structure and dynamics, including decreased biodiversity. However, empirical data showing decreased animal-dispersed tree abundance in overhunted forests contradict demographic models which predict minimal sensitivity of tree population growth rate to early life stages. One resolution to this discrepancy is that seed dispersal determines spatial aggregation, which could have demographic consequences for all life stages. We tested the impact of dispersal loss on population viability of a tropical tree species, Miliusa horsfieldii, currently dispersed by an intact community of large mammals in a Thai forest. We evaluated the effect of spatial aggregation for all tree life stages, from seeds to adult trees, and constructed simulation models to compare population viability with and without animal-mediated seed dispersal. In simulated populations, disperser loss increased spatial aggregation by fourfold, leading to increased negative density dependence across the life cycle and a 10-fold increase in the probability of extinction. Given that the majority of tree species in tropical forests are animal-dispersed, overhunting will potentially result in forests that are fundamentally different from those existing now.

  7. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function.

  8. A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Payton, Mark E; Gu, Jennifer; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-03-01

    Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5 g of CC containing 500 mg of elemental calcium and 200 IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500 mg of calcium and 200 IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  9. Bone density threshold and other predictors of vertebral fracture in patients receiving oral glucocorticoid therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staa, T.P. van; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Barton, I.P.; Cohen, S.; Reid, D.M.; Cooper, C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors of vertebral fractures, including a threshold for bone mineral density (BMD), in patients receiving oral glucocorticoids (GCs). METHODS: Data were obtained from 2 randomized clinical trials (prevention and treatment trials of risedronate) using similar methods, but

  10. Correlations between insulin sensitivity and bone mineral density in non-diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Rohold, A.; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate relationships between bone mineral density (BMD), insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, controlling for body composition, in view of data suggesting that hyperglycaemia [corrected] leads to decreased osteoblast proliferation and a negative calcium balance and that insulin...

  11. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, Ingrid E; Teixeira, Natalia; Abma, Elske Marije; Slart, Riemer H J A; Mourits, Marian J E; de Bock, Geertruida H

    BACKGROUND: Oophorectomy is recommended to women at increased ovarian cancer risk. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. OBJECTIVE: To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  12. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I. E.; Teixeira, N.; Abma, E. M.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Mourits, M. J. E.; de Bock, G. H.

    Background Oophorectomy is recommended for women at increased risk for ovarian cancer. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. Objective To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  13. Reversal of weightlessness-induced musculoskeletal losses with androgens: quantification by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalawansa, S M; Chapa, M T; Wei, J N; Westlund, K N; Quast, M J; Wimalawansa, S J

    1999-06-01

    Microgravity causes rapid decrement in musculoskeletal mass is associated with a marked decrease in circulatory testosterone levels, as we reported in hindlimb-suspended (HLS) rats. In this model which simulates microgravity, we hypothesized that testosterone supplementation should prevent these losses, and we tested this in two studies. Muscle volumes and bone masses were quantitated by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on day 12. In the first study, 12-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats that were HLS for 12 days lost 28.5% of muscle volume (53.3 +/- 4.8 vs. 74.5 +/- 3.6 cm3 in the ground control rats; P < 0.001) and had a 5% decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) (P < 0.05). In the second study, 30 male 12-wk-old Wistar rats were HLS and were administered either a vehicle (control), testosterone, or nandrolone decanoate (ND). An additional 20 rats were used as ground controls, one-half of which received testosterone. HLS rats had a significant reduction in muscle volume (42.9 +/- 3.0 vs. 56 +/- 1.8 cm3 in ground control rats; P < 0.01). Both testosterone and ND treatments prevented this muscle loss (51.5 +/- 2 and 51.6 +/- 1.2 cm3, respectively; a 63% improvement; P < 0. 05). There were no statistical differences between the two active treatment groups nor with the ground controls. Similarly, there was an 85% improvement in BMD in the testosterone group (1.15 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.04 density units in vehicle controls; P < 0.05) and a 76% improvement in the ND group (1.13 +/- 0.07 density units), whereas ground control rats had a BMD of 1.17 +/- 0.03 density units. Because serum testosterone levels are markedly reduced in this model of simulated microgravity, androgen replacement seems to be a rational countermeasure to prevent microgravity-induced musculoskeletal losses.

  14. Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI. We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP. Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r=0.33. HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r=-0.31 which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation.

  15. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C L; Luken, J S; van den Burg, P J M; de Kort, W L A M; Koopman, M M W; Vrielink, H; van Schoor, N M; den Heijer, M; Lips, P

    2015-11-01

    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115 times in up to 15 years) with that of 20 whole blood donors (for 15 years or more) aged 55-70. BMD in the lumbar spine was not lower in apheresis donors than in blood donors (mean ± SD 1.00 ± 0.18 vs. 0.92 ± 0.12, P = 0.09). In the hip, BMD was not different between the groups.

  16. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  17. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  18. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  19. Effect of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) on Bone Mineral Density in Women of Reproductive Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling GAI; Jing-lu ZHANG; Hui-zhen ZHANG; Ping GAI; Yong-hong LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare bone mineral density (BMD) between users of intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate(DMPA) and nonhormonal control subjects. Methods The study included 68 women aged between 25 and 40 years using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for 24 months and 59 women aged between 25 and 40 years using nonhormonal contraception as control subjects. BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were obtained using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results At 24 months of treatment, as compared with baseline, the mean BMD in lumbar spine and femoral neck was decreased by 5.5% and 5.9%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in women who used DMPA were significantly decreased compared with the subjects in nonuser (P<0.001). Conclusion These results show BMD declined during using DMPA in women aged 25 -40 years old.

  20. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  1. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  2. Analysis of Bone Mineral Density According to the Biochemical Variable Markers in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Geun [Dept. of Radiology, Woosuk University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae Cheol; Song, Woon Heung [Shinheung College University, Uijungbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers. We evaluated the BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spines of 998(male 568, female 430) persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk University Hospital from September 2007 to March 2008 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. Results of BMD are different in terms of biochemical markers. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. Degree of osteoporosis increases with age. A steep decrease of BMD can be found in postmenopausal women who have low level of female hormone. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors that can reduce BMD values for prevention of problems by osteoporosis. In essence, research on factors related to other biochemical markers must be studied continuously.

  3. Assessment of femur and tibia subchondral parts mineral bone density in gonarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Zaitseva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess association between bone mineral density (BMD of parts of femur and tibia gonarthrosis stage. Material and methods. 53 female with bilateral gonarthrosis aged 42 to 84 years with body mass index from 21,2 to 43 kg/m2 were included. Knee joints X-ray examination, densitometry of lumbar spine, femoral neck and condyles of femur and tibia were performed. Subchondral BMD assessment was done in 5 regions of knee. Results. Increase of gonarthrosis stage was accompanied by rise of subchondral tibia BMD values. Increase of medial femur condyles BMD was associated with knee joint space decrease, presence of subchondral osteosclerosis and marginal osteophytes so as knee varus deformity. Subchondral femur BMD values correlated only with the presence of marginal osteophytes.

  4. Bone mineral density in patients with destructive arthrosis of the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Ko; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the existence of subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint (RDA), and the findings suggest that osteopenia is related to the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of this disease. Therefore, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in RDA patients. We measured BMD of the lumbar spine, radius, and calcaneus using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 19 patients with RDA and 75 with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA) and compared BMD at different skeletal sites between RDA and OA patients. No significant differences were observed in BMD of the lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, mid-radius, and calcaneous between the RDA and OA groups. Our data suggest that RDA is not accompanied by generalized osteoporosis. Factors other than generalized bone status, for example, BMD around the affected hip joint before destruction, need to be analyzed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of RDA.

  5. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  6. Size and density of East Greenland polar bear (Ursus maritimus) skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.; Bechshøft, T.O.; Rigét, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    density (BMD) in 87 East Greenland male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in the time period of 1892-2010. The purpose of the study was to investigate if these measures are potential candidates as indicators for stress associated with climate change and long-range transported toxic industrial...... chemicals. The analyses showed that both BMD and CBL in polar bears sampled in period 4 (1999-2010, n = 57) were significantly lower when compared with period 2 (1920-1936, n = 19) (both p ... that BMD and body size have decreased in East Greenland polar bear males over the past 120 years and that exposure to organohalogen contaminants may explain the BMD reductions. It is, however, not entirely clear if and how climatic oscillations affected the reductions in body size and BMD mainly because...

  7. Association of Sp1 Collagen Type Iα1 Gene Polymorphisms with Bone Mineral Density in Bulgarian Women Referred for Bone Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon K. Toshev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between bone mineral density (BMD and collagen type Iα1 (COLIA1 gene polymorphisms in a case-control study.Materials and Methods: 400 unrelated postmenopausal Bulgarian women participated - 180 with normal BMD and 220 with low BMD. BMD was measured at the forearm, lumbar spine and femoral neck by X-ray absorptiometry. A PCR product of 261 bp was digested and electrophoresed. The prevalence of S and s alleles as well as the different genotypes was determined. All analyses were tested for statistical significance (c2-test.Results: 408 s and 392 S alleles were found. Of the 220 women with low BMD, 20 had the SS genotype, 94 – the Ss genotype, and 106 – the ss genotype. Among the 180 controls with normal BMD, 93 had the SS genotype, 76 - the Ss, and 11 – the ss genotype. The SS genotype was associated with higher BMD and the ss – with lower BMD at all sites. The odds ratio for low BMD in the presence of the ss genotype was 10.69.Conclusion: In our study sample, the COLIA1 polymorphism was associated with low BMD. This particular genetic polymorphism may become a useful genetic screening tool for osteoporosis. Türk Jem 2011; 15: 66-70

  8. Lumbar and radial bone mineral density in children and adolescents with X-linked hypophosphatemia: evaluation with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, R.M.; Poznanski, A.K. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Langman, C.B. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Memorial Hospital and Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Objective. To evaluate the bone mineral status of children being treated for X-linked hypophosphatemia, including potential differences between cortical bone in the radial diaphysis and combined cortical and trabecular bone in the lumbar spine.Design and patients. Forty-four bone mineral evaluations were performed in 11 children and adolescents with X-linked hypophosphatemia. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the radial diaphysis were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), second metacarpal cortical thickness was measured on hand radiographs, and these results were expressed as Z-scores (standard deviations from the mean). Results. For the 11 initial examinations, Z-scores (mean{+-}SD) were: radial BMD, -2.73{+-}1.15, lumbar BMD, +1.28{+-}1.53; and cortical thickness, -2.21{+-}0.95. Lumbar BMD Z-scores were significantly greater than those for radial BMD and cortical thickness. On follow-up examinations there was a mild increase in radial BMD and decrease in lumbar BMD. Although these changes were statistically significant, they were quite small and the discordance between radial and lumbar BMD was not corrected. Conclusions. Children and adolescents who are being treated for X-linked hypophosphatemia manifest a bone mineral disorder characterized by decreased BMD in the appendicular skeleton and increased BMD in the lumbar spine. Although current therapy is successful in its anti-rachitic effects, it does not correct this bone mineral disorder and additional therapeutic trials should be considered. (orig.)

  9. 2型糖尿病患者骨密度的测定%Measurement of bone mineral density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉华; 康后生; 毛淑芳; 严宗逊

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate into the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: BMD of lumbar ver-tebrae 2 -4 and femur in 63 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes mel-litua were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) andwere compared with age, sex and BMI-matched normal controlgroup. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in BMD of lumbarvertebrae 2 -4 in female of menopause with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (P>0.05), but BMD of total were lower than that of the controls (P<0. 05), BMD of neck were significantly lower than thai of the controls (P<0.01); No significant differences were found in BMD of I2-4 and femurin male of 50 years old above with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: BMD of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is different according todifferent sex, BMD of female of menopause with type 2 diabetes mellituswere descended easily, especially in areas of neck BMD, it should cause topay attention to in order to prevent pathologic bone fracture; BMD of maleof 50 years old above with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have no the obviouschanges than that of the controls.

  10. DXA测量BMD与超声测量SOS的比较%Comparison between SOS of quantitative ultrasound and BMD meas ured by DXA in diagnostic value of osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安珍; 杨定焯; 王文志; 张祖君; 姜光瑶

    2001-01-01

    目的 本文通过对同一个人的跟骨超声声速(SOS)测量与双能X线吸收法测量腰2- 4,股骨近端骨密度(BMD)的临床对比来评价超声骨密度仪测量跟骨的SOS对诊断骨质疏松症 的敏感性和与DXA测量BMD的相关性。方法 对523名8~87岁健康人群同时采用DXA测量L2-4,股骨近端(N eck,Ward三角,Troch)BMD和超声骨密度仪测量左跟骨SOS值并进行相关分析。对1006名3~8 7岁健康人群测量左右跟骨的SOS值。结果 SOS与DXA测量BMD的骨峰值(PBM)均出现在20~39岁,SOS的PBM男性 为(1542.83±27.44)m/s,女性为(1531.02±29.96)m/s。40岁以后随着年龄的增加,二 者均逐渐下降。健康成人中BMD与SOS的相关系数为0.3~0.6,骨质疏松患者BMD与SOS的相 关系数(r=0.16~0.39)较健康人(r=0.33~0.61)低。左右足跟SOS无显著差异 ,DXA的BMD与SOS诊断骨质疏松症(OP)的符合率为60%。结论 DXA测量BMD与超声SOS为中等相关。建议在单独使用超声骨密度仪测 量SOS来诊断OP时,应当参照临床症状和X线的检查全面考虑,以免造成漏诊或误诊。%Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry(DXA) is a method o f measur ing the material properties of bone, that is, bone mineral density(BMD), whereas the quantitative ultrasound(QUS) is a method of assessing the mechanical proper ties of bone by the reflection and attenuation of ultrasound. We evaluated the s ensitivity of ultrasound in measuring bone mass by comparing with dual energy x -ray absorptiometry. BMD at lumbar spine and proximal part of the femur was mea sured by DXA and SOS at calcaneus by QUS in 892 subjects of 3 to 87 years in Chengdu. The results showed that SOS peaked at the age of 20 and declined with aging. The peak SOS was (1542.83±27.44)m/s in males and (1531.02±28.96)m/s in females. The correlation coefficients between SOS and BMD were 0.12~0.21 in children and 0.3~0.6 in adults, respectively. The homogeneity rate of the

  11. Increasing the Number of Unloading/Reambulation Cycles does not Adversely Impact Body Composition and Lumbar Bone Mineral Density but Reduces Tissue Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Manske, Sarah L; Judex, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    A single exposure to hindlimb unloading leads to changes in body mass, body composition and bone, but the consequences of multiple exposures are not yet understood. Within a 18wk period, adult C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to one (1x-HLU), two (2x-HLU) or three (3x-HLU) cycles of 2 wk of hindlimb unloading (HLU) followed by 4 wk of reambulation (RA), or served as ambulatory age-matched controls. In vivo µCT longitudinally tracked changes in abdominal adipose and lean tissues, lumbar vertebral apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area before and after the final HLU and RA cycle. Significant decreases in total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD were observed such that all unloaded animals reached similar values after the final unloading cycle. However, the magnitude of these losses diminished in mice undergoing their 2nd or 3rd HLU cycle. Irrespective of the number of HLU/RA cycles, total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD recovered and were no different from age-matched controls after the final RA period. In contrast, upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area was significantly lower than controls in all unloaded groups after the final RA period. These results suggest that tissues in the abdominal region are more resilient to multiple bouts of unloading and more amenable to recovery during reambulation than the peripheral musculoskeletal system. PMID:23976804

  12. Lean Mass and Fat Mass as Mediators of the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jing; Chen, Yongjie; Wang, Yupeng; Su, Shaofei; Wang, Xinyu; Xie, Biao; Zhang, Qiuju; Liu, Meina

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between physical activity (PA) and bone health is well known, but the role of lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) in this relationship remains uncertain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of LM and FM on the relationship between PA and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study involved 282 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 65 year, who were randomly selected from Hongqi community of Harbin City in China. PA was measured using an International PA Questionnaire. Body composition, BMD of the lumbar spine, hip, and total body were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mediation analysis was performed to investigate the mediating effect of LM and FM on the relationship between PA and BMD. In partial correlation analysis, PA, LM, and FM were positively related to BMD. Positive correlation was found between PA and LM. There were significant differences in BMD between different categories of PA, but the differences disappeared after adjusting for LM. Mediation analysis showed that LM and FM played a mediating role in the relationship between PA and BMD. LM appeared to mediate the effect of BMD in the spine, hip, and total body by 26.91%, 19.55% and 47.98%, respectively; and FM was 22.23%, 27.97%, and 33.02%, respectively. LM and FM affected the relationship between PA and BMD as mediator. Postmenopausal women with high LM and FM had more BMD.

  13. Development and Application of ECG Acquisition System Based on BMD101 Chip%基于BMD101芯片的心电采集器的开发和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王廷宇; 高军晖

    2015-01-01

    该文利用BMD101芯片,开发了一套心电测量系统。整个系统由心电数据采集及分析软件(运行在Android手机上)、BMD心电采集器、贴敷电极组成。利用这套系统,对人群进行心电测试,发现心率随年龄的变化规律。%In this paper,we use BMD101 chipA set of ECG measurement system is developed.(Running on Android)、 ECG acquisition、Electrode composition. Use of the system,ECG test for people,The change of heart rate with age.

  14. Bone mineral density is reduced by telmisartan in male spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birocale, Antonio Marcos; Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; Takayama, Liliam; de Oliveira, José Martins; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-12-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker, and treadmill running were compared for their effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical properties of male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It was hypothesized that running (18m/min/60min/d) and telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) would have a positive effect on bone parameters. Three-month-old male SHRs were divided into three groups: sedentary (S), telmisartan (T), and exercise (E). At the end of an 8-week protocol, femur and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for bone mineral density and by the three-point bending test for biomechanical properties. Blood pressure in all groups was measured by a tail-cuff manometer. Telmisartan and treadmill running reduced blood pressure when compared to the sedentary group; however, telmisartan did not improve bone characteristics. Instead, it reduced BMD of femur total and lumbar vertebrae and worsened bone biomechanic properties. Treadmill running maintained bone characteristics and hence was effective in maintaining bone health. Results showed that telmisartan negatively affected bones suggesting that caution should be taken in possible therapeutic applications for protecting bone health in hypertensive conditions. More studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms through which telmisartan favors bone loss in this model. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of calibrated and uncalibrated bone mineral density by CT to DEXA in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabara, Y; Holmes, D; Camp, J; Miller, V M; Kearns, A E

    2012-08-01

    Coronary artery disease and osteoporosis increase in women after menopause. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the heart used to evaluate coronary arterial calcification include images of the thoracic vertebrae. The utility of using these images to assess bone health in women remains to be defined. Analyses of thoracic spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) from CT scans of the heart were performed to determine how specific calibration affects the ability to assess vBMD in recently menopausal women and to evaluate how vBMD relates to areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Women (n = 111) enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic underwent a CT scan of the heart that included calibration phantoms and a DEXA of the lumbar spine. The Spine Cancer Assessment program was used to determine vBMD of thoracic vertebrae with and without the calibration correction. Trabecular bone vBMD at T8 averaged 163.57±28.58 and 157.94±27.55 mg/cc (mean±standard deviation, SD) for calibrated and uncalibrated values, respectively. The relationship between calibrated and uncalibrated measures approached unity (R = 0.98). Lumbar spine (L2-4) aBMD was 1.19±0.16 g/cm(2) (mean±SD). Both calibrated and uncalibrated thoracic vBMD correlated positively and significantly with lumbar aBMD, but the relationship was less than unity (R = 0.63). Uncalibrated measures of thoracic spine vBMD obtained from CT scans of the heart may provide clinically relevant information about bone health and osteoporosis/osteopenia risk in recently menopausal women.

  16. Bone turnover in elderly men: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Jacqueline R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether bone turnover markers can be used to make inference regarding changes in bone mineral density (BMD in untreated healthy elderly men. The present study was designed to address three specific questions: (i is there a relationship between bone turnover markers and femoral neck BMD within an individual; (ii is there a relationship between baseline measurements of bone turnover markers and subsequent change in BMD; and (iii is there a relationship between changes in bone turnover markers and changes in femoral neck BMD? Methods The present study was part of the on-going Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, which was designed as a prospective investigation. Men who had had at least 3 sequential visits with serum samples available during follow-up were selected from the study population. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sICTP, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (sPINP and femoral neck BMD were measured by competitive radioimmunoassays. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD was measured by a densitometer (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI. Various mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between the markers and changes in BMD. Results One hundred and one men aged 70 ± 4.1 years (mean ± SD met the criteria of selection for analysis. On average, sPINP decreased by 0.7% per year (p = 0.026, sICTP increased by 1.7% per year (p = 0.0002, and femoral neck BMD decreased by 0.4% per year (p Conclusion These results suggest that in elderly men of Caucasian background, changes in sPINP were inversely related to changes in BMD within an individual. However, neither sPINP nor sICTP was sufficiently sensitive to predict the rate of change in BMD for a group of individuals or for an individual.

  17. The Relationship between Cortisol and Bone Mineral Density in Competitive Male Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Mathis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race day cortisol was related to bone mineral density (BMD in competitive male cyclists. A secondary purpose was to determine additional factors associated with BMD in competitive male cyclists. Methods. Measurements of lumbar spine and hip BMD were performed in 35 male competitors in a state championship cycling time trial event. Salivary cortisol was measured 10 minutes prior to the start of the race and 5 minutes after race finished. Participants reported daily calcium intake, age, years of bike training, races per season, and average weekly minutes spent riding a bike, weight training, and running on a survey. Results. Cortisol level increased significantly from pre- to postcompetition but was not significantly associated with BMD. Increased weekly minutes of weight training was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and the hip. The increased number of years of cycling experience was associated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Increased daily calcium intake was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Conclusions. Findings indicate that cyclists should participate in weight training and increase calcium intake in order to increase or maintain BMD of the lumbar spine and hip.

  18. Association between low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density variation in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wang

    Full Text Available Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 gene (LRP2 is located next to the genomic region showing suggestive linkage with both hip and wrist bone mineral density (BMD phenotypes. LRP2 knockout mice showed severe vitamin D deficiency and bone disease, indicating the involvement of LRP2 in the preservation of vitamin D metabolites and delivery of the precursor to the kidney for the generation of 1α,25(OH(2D(3. In order to investigate the contribution of LRP2 gene polymorphisms to the variation of BMD in Chinese population, a total of 330 Chinese female-offspring nuclear families with 1088 individuals and 400 Chinese male-offspring nuclear families with 1215 individuals were genotyped at six tagSNPs of the LRP2 gene (rs2389557, rs2544381, rs7600336, rs10210408, rs2075252 and rs4667591. BMD values at the lumbar spine 1-4 (L1-4 and hip sites were measured by DXA. The association between LRP2 polymorphisms and BMD phenotypes was assessed by quantitative transmission disequilibrium tests (QTDTs in female- and male-offspring nuclear families separately. In the female-offspring nuclear families, rs2075252 and haplotype GA of rs4667591 and rs2075252 were identified in the nominally significant total association with peak BMD at L1-4; however, no significant within-family association was found between peak BMD at the L1-4 and hip sites and six tagSNPs or haplotypes. In male-offspring nuclear families, neither the six tagSNPs nor the haplotypes was in total association or within-family association with the peak BMD variation at the L1-4 and hip sites by QTDT analysis. Our findings suggested that the polymorphisms of LRP2 gene is not a major factor that contributes to the peak BMD variation in Chinese population.

  19. Tandem mass spectrometry and density functional theory of RDX fragmentation pathways: Role of ion-molecule complexes in loss of NO3 and lack of molecular ion peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeilani, Yassin A; Duncan, Kameron A; Newallo, Domnique S; Thompson, Albert N; Bose, Nripendra K

    2015-05-15

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is an explosive compound that finds a wide range of military and civilian applications. RDX has been a target in environmental matrices by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). MS/MS in negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode of RDX provides important fragmentation patterns that are useful for structural elucidation. The fragmentation patterns are needed for proper identification of precursor and product ions in analytical methods that depend on MS/MS approaches for a reliable identification of RDX. This study focuses on the MS fragmentation mechanisms of RDX in NCI mode using both MS/MS and density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies were performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. The DFT results showed that NCI of RDX leads to the formation of an anion-molecule complex that was energetically more stable than the RDX anion. The fragmentation proceeds through two pathways, leading to the loss of NO(2) and NO(3). The loss of NO(3) takes place in an anion-molecule complex leading to the formation of characteristic nitroso group fragment ions. Using the fragmentation schemes, important ion structures are proposed including structures for m/z 160, 129, 102, and 86. The results demonstrate the importance of both charge-induced and charge-remote dissociations in RDX pathways. The ion structures identified along the pathways could be used as targets in analytical methods for reliable identification purposes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Glutamine repeat variants in human RUNX2 associated with decreased femoral neck BMD, broadband ultrasound attenuation and target gene transactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel A Morrison

    Full Text Available RUNX2 is an essential transcription factor required for skeletal development and cartilage formation. Haploinsufficiency of RUNX2 leads to cleidocranial displaysia (CCD a skeletal disorder characterised by gross dysgenesis of bones particularly those derived from intramembranous bone formation. A notable feature of the RUNX2 protein is the polyglutamine and polyalanine (23Q/17A domain coded by a repeat sequence. Since none of the known mutations causing CCD characterised to date map in the glutamine repeat region, we hypothesised that Q-repeat mutations may be related to a more subtle bone phenotype. We screened subjects derived from four normal populations for Q-repeat variants. A total of 22 subjects were identified who were heterozygous for a wild type allele and a Q-repeat variant allele: (15Q, 16Q, 18Q and 30Q. Although not every subject had data for all measures, Q-repeat variants had a significant deficit in BMD with an average decrease of 0.7SD measured over 12 BMD-related parameters (p = 0.005. Femoral neck BMD was measured in all subjects (-0.6SD, p = 0.0007. The transactivation function of RUNX2 was determined for 16Q and 30Q alleles using a reporter gene assay. 16Q and 30Q alleles displayed significantly lower transactivation function compared to wild type (23Q. Our analysis has identified novel Q-repeat mutations that occur at a collective frequency of about 0.4%. These mutations significantly alter BMD and display impaired transactivation function, introducing a new class of functionally relevant RUNX2 mutants.

  1. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (Trenbolone) preserves bone mineral density in skeletally mature orchiectomized rats without prostate enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sean C; Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Borsa, Paul A; Tillman, Mark D; Conrad, Bryan P; Pingel, Jennifer E; Wronski, Thomas J; Johnson, Sally E; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Ye, Fan; Borst, Stephen E

    2012-10-01

    Testosterone enanthate (TE) administration attenuates bone loss in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. However, testosterone administration may increase risk for prostate/lower urinary tract related adverse events and polycythemia in humans. Trenbolone enanthate (TREN) is a synthetic testosterone analogue that preserves bone mineral density (BMD) and results in less prostate enlargement than testosterone in young ORX rodents. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if intramuscular TREN administration attenuates bone loss and maintains bone strength, without increasing prostate mass or hemoglobin concentrations in skeletally mature ORX rodents. Forty, 10 month old male F344/Brown Norway rats were randomized into SHAM, ORX, ORX+TE (7.0mg/week), and ORX+TREN (1.0mg/week) groups. Following surgery, animals recovered for 1 week and then received weekly: vehicle, TE, or TREN intramuscularly for 5 weeks. ORX reduced total and trabecular (t) BMD at the distal femoral metaphysis compared with SHAMs, while both TREN and TE completely prevented these reductions. TREN treatment also increased femoral neck strength by 28% compared with ORX animals (pTREN induced a non-significant 20% reduction in prostate mass compared with SHAMs, ultimately producing a prostate mass that was 64% below that found in ORX+TE animals (pTREN animals to a similar degree above both SHAM and ORX conditions (pTREN completely prevented the ORX-induced loss of tBMD at the distal femoral metaphysis and increased LABC mass. TREN also augmented femoral neck strength and maintained prostate mass at SHAM levels. These findings indicate that TREN may be an advantageous agent for future clinical trials evaluating agents capable of preventing bone loss resulting from androgen deficiency.

  2. Hand bone loss in early rheumatoid arthritis during a methotrexate-based treat-to-target strategy with or without adalimumab-a substudy of the optimized treatment algorithm in early RA (OPERA) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, L M; Østergaard, M; Jensen, T

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate 1-year hand bone loss (HBL1-year) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with a methotrexate (MTX) and intra-articular triamcinolone treat-to-target strategy +/- adalimumab and to determine if HBL6months is associated with radiographic progression after 2...... years. In a clinical trial (OPERA) of 180 treatment-naive early RA patients, bone mineral density (BMD) was estimated from hand radiographs with digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) at baseline, after 6 (n = 90) and 12 months (n = 70) of follow-up. Baseline and 2-year radiographs were scored according...

  3. Bone mineral density in obese young adults%肥胖青年骨密度状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕明丽; 余飞; 陆思琦; 李丹; 王舰; 吕中伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析肥胖青年骨密度(bone mineral density,BMD)的变化.方法 60例诊断为单纯性肥胖的患者,其中男性26例,女性34例.对照组青年与肥胖青年年龄相仿(出生日期相差<6个月).所有入选对象均排除继发性肥胖与骨代谢性疾病患者.全身诸骨扇束扫描行全身及上肢、肋骨,胸椎、腰椎、骨盆、下肢和头部7个部位骨量、骨密度测定.结果 肥胖组全身的骨量、骨密度均高于志愿者组(P<0.05).肋骨、胸椎及头部这些非承重骨肥胖组的BMC要高于志愿者组,而BMD在两组之间差异没有统计学意义;上下肢、腰椎、骨盆这些承重骨的骨量及骨密度肥胖组均明显高于志愿者组(P<0.05).结论 肥胖青年承重骨骨量及骨密度与其体质量相关,在平衡体脂因素后肥胖者与对照组骨密度无显著差别.提示肥胖患者在进行体重控制的同时应加强运动来减少体质量减轻所造成的骨量流失.%Objective To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in obese young adults. Methods Sixty obese adolescents (26 males and 34 females) who visited outpatient clinic for obesity were enrolled in study (obese group) and 60 age- and sex-matched normal medical students served as control group. Subjects with secondary obesity and metabolic bone disease were excluded from the study. The BMD and bone mineral contents ( BMC) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for whole body, at arms, ribs, thoracic spines, lumbar spines, pelvis, legs and head. Results The overall BMC and BMD of obese group was higher than those of control group (P 0.05). Both BMC and BMD in load-bearing bones (arms, lumbar spine, pelvis, legs) of obese group was higher than those of control group (P <0.05). Conclusion The BMC and BMD of load-bearing bones in obese adolescent are related to their body weight; after adjustment for lean mass, there are no differences in BMC and BMD between obese and normal young adults. The

  4. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; van der Veer, E

    2002-01-01

    Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked a

  5. Low-trauma fractures and bone mineral density testing in adults with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, R; Wood, J; Dobranowski, K; Lin, E; Wilton, A; Jaglal, S B; Gemmill, M; Lunsky, Y

    2017-02-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at risk for low-trauma fractures. We investigated the rate of low-trauma fractures and the odds of BMD testing in adults with/without IDD. Adults with IDD were more likely to have a low-trauma fracture, but there was no difference in bone mineral density (BMD) testing rates.

  6. Bone mineral density and fractures after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, Ingrid E.; Abma, Elske Marije; Westrik, Iris G.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    AIM: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) reduces ovarian cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. RRSO is assumed to decrease bone mineral density (BMD) and increase fracture risk more than natural menopause. We aimed to compare BMD and fracture incidence after premenopausal RRSO to general

  7. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effects of denosumab for the treatment of men with low bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orwoll, Eric; Teglbjærg, Christence S; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt;

    2012-01-01

    Context: Men with low bone mineral density (BMD) were treated with denosumab. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effects of denosumab compared with placebo in men with low BMD after 1 yr of treatment. Design, Subjects, and Intervention: This was a placebo-controlled, phase 3 study to...

  8. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases spine bone mineral density in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in adolescents/young adults receiving TDF. Methods: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 50,000 IU vs. placebo every 4 ...

  9. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James); V. Aalto (Ville); T.A. van Alen (Theo); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. LaCroix (Andrea); S.U. Lee (Seung); P.C. Leung (Ping); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); M.M. Woo (Margaret M.); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E.S. Lagboom (P Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S. Th Palsson (Stefan); S. Reppe (Sjur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S. Cummings; P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E.V. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); N.J. Wareham (Nick); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.W.C. Kung (Annie); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top B

  10. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  11. Effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise on bone mineral density in healthy premenopausal women: the Sendai Bone Health Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kaijun; Ahola, Riikka; Guo, Hui; Korpelainen, Raija; Uchimaru, Jin; Vainionpää, Aki; Sato, Kyoko; Sakai, Aiko; Salo, Sinikka; Kishimoto, Koshi; Itoi, Eiji; Komatsu, Shoko; Jämsä, Timo; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2010-09-01

    Although there is ample evidence supporting the effectiveness of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, there are no previous studies to examine the effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise (HIE) on bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy premenopausal women. This study evaluated the effects of office-based HIE on BMD in healthy premenopausal Japanese women. Ninety-one healthy premenopausal women were randomized to receive stretching exercise (SE) or HIE (stretching, along with up to 5 × 10 vertical and versatile jumps) for 12 months. The BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Several cardiovascular risk factors and leg strength also were assessed. An accelerometer-based recorder was used to measure daily impact loading in four 1-week samples. The progression of the HIE program was ensured by the accelerometer. Thirty-three women (71.7%) in the SE group and 34 (75.6%) in the HIE group completed the study. There was a significant difference in the change in the femoral neck BMD between the groups in favor of the HIE group [0.6% (95% CI: -0.4, 1.7) vs. -1.0% (95% CI: -2.2, 0.2)]. Adiponectin, LDL, HDL, and the leg strength of participants in both the groups improved during the intervention. These finding suggested that office-based brief HIE can be recommended for premenopausal women for preventing bone mineral loss.

  12. A randomised controlled trial of cemented and cementless femoral components for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing: a bone mineral density study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, A; Kim, P; Dinh, L; Ryu, J J; Beaulé, P E

    2015-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing was to compare the effect of using a cementless or cemented femoral component on the subsequent bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck. This was a single-centre, prospective, double-blinded control trial which randomised 120 patients (105 men and 15 women) with a mean age of 49.4 years (21 to 68) to receive either a cemented or cementless femoral component. Follow-up was to two years. Outcome measures included total and six-point region-of-interest BMD of the femoral neck, radiological measurements of acetabular inclination, neck-shaft and stem-shaft angles, and functional outcome scores including the Harris hip score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and the University of California at Los Angeles activity scale. In total, 17 patients were lost to follow-up leaving 103 patients at two years. There were no revisions in the cementless group and three revisions (5%) in the cemented group (two because of hip pain and one for pseudotumour). The total BMD was significantly higher in the cementless group at six months (p < 0.001) and one year (p = 0.01) than in the cemented group, although there was a loss of statistical significance in the difference at two years (p = 0.155). All patient outcomes improved significantly: there were no significant differences between the two groups. The results show better preservation of femoral neck BMD with a cementless femoral component after two years of follow-up. Further investigation is needed to establish whether this translates into improved survivorship.

  13. Pinealectomy affects bone mineral density and structure - an experimental study in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egermann Marcus

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis and associated fractures are a major public health burden and there is great need for a large animal model. Melatonin, the hormone of the pineal gland, has been shown to influence bone metabolism. This study aims to evaluate whether absence of melatonin due to pinealectomy affects the bone mass, structure and remodeling in an ovine animal model. Methods Female sheep were arranged into four groups: Control, surgically ovariectomized (Ovx, surgically pinealectomized (Px and Ovx+Px. Before and 6 months after surgery, iliac crest biopsies were harvested and structural parameters were measured using μCT. Markers of bone formation and resorption were determined. To evaluate long term changes after pinealectomy, bone mineral density (BMD was analyzed at the distal radius at 0, 3, 9, 18 and 30 months. Results Cancellous bone volume (BV/TV declined after 6 months by -13.3% Px and -21.5% OvxPx. The bone loss was due to increased trabecular separation as well as decreased thickness. The histomorphometric quantification and determination of collagen degradation products showed increased bone resorption following pinealectomy. Ovariectomy alone results in a transient bone loss at the distal radius followed by continuous increase to baseline levels. The bone resorption activity after pinealectomy causes a bone loss which was not transient, since a continuous decrease in BMD was observed until 30 months. Conclusions The changes after pinealectomy in sheep are indicative of bone loss. Overall, these findings suggest that the pineal gland may influence bone metabolism and that pinealectomy can be used to induce bone loss in sheep.

  14. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA.

  15. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  16. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  17. Bone mineral density in elderly patients with osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Mitrofanova

    2008-01-01

    Results. Both the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients facilitated the development of osteopenia. Involvement of a larger number of joints into a pathological process was followed by a significant BMD reduction in the predominant number of patients with OA. With the more progressive X-ray stage of the disease, a significantly higher BMD was observed in the distal forearm of patients from all groups. The patients aged 75 years or older who had gonarthrosis and polyosteoarthrosis showed a significant reduction in BMD as compared with those of less than 75 years of age. A greater reduction in the T test was shown to correspond to less body weight. The examinees' inactivity correlated with decreased BMD. In patients with polyosteoarthritis, early onset and longer menopause negatively affected BMD in the distal forearm. Conclusion. Reduced distal forearm BMD in elderly patients with OA is associated with patients' older age and a longer menopause, less body weight, early menopause, and no regular exercises. Progression of the X-ray stage of OA correlates with increased bone density.

  18. Bone mineral density in elderly patients with osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Mitrofanova

    2008-12-01

    Results. Both the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients facilitated the development of osteopenia. Involvement of a larger number of joints into a pathological process was followed by a significant BMD reduction in the predominant number of patients with OA. With the more progressive X-ray stage of the disease, a significantly higher BMD was observed in the distal forearm of patients from all groups. The patients aged 75 years or older who had gonarthrosis and polyosteoarthrosis showed a significant reduction in BMD as compared with those of less than 75 years of age. A greater reduction in the T test was shown to correspond to less body weight. The examinees' inactivity correlated with decreased BMD. In patients with polyosteoarthritis, early onset and longer menopause negatively affected BMD in the distal forearm. Conclusion. Reduced distal forearm BMD in elderly patients with OA is associated with patients' older age and a longer menopause, less body weight, early menopause, and no regular exercises. Progression of the X-ray stage of OA correlates with increased bone density.

  19. Measurement of Bone Mineral Density in Male Detainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to investigate the increased risk for osteoporosis due to closed environment and sedentary lifestyle of prisoners. In this way, we planned to inform prisoners and supervisors for protective measures that should be taken if low bone mineral density (BMD is detected compared with normal population. Materials and Methods: Sixty six prisoner men over the age of 45 as the study group and 66 male volunteers who are not detainees over the age of 45 as a control group were included in the study. All participants' age, occupation, duration in prison, habits, nutrition, exercise, diseases and medications used were noted. BMD values were measured using a phalangeal radiographic absorptiometry (Alara Metriscan®. Results: BMD values in the study group were measured as 0.341±0.030 g/cm2 and as 0.346±0.029 g/cm2 in the control group (p=0.968. BMD values of the study group were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion: In this study, we found that BMD values of the detainees were lower than those of the control group but this difference was not statistically significant. However, there was a negative correlation between BMD values and duration in prison. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 81-5

  20. Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, S; Di Somma, C; Di Rella, F; Angelillo, N; Ferone, D; Colao, A; Merola, B; Lombardi, G

    1998-11-01

    Acromegalic patients present an increase of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, showing a different effect on the axial and appendicular skeletal structures. At this regard controversial data about bone mineral density (BMD) have been published in literature. In fact an increase of BMD levels in femoral neck and Ward's triangle without any difference in lumbar spine has been described. On the other hand normal BMD levels at forearm and reduced BMD levels at lumbar spine were found. These patients seem to have a reduction of trabecular BMD similar to postmenopausal osteoporotic patients despite normal or slightly elevated cortical BMD. Recently, it has been described that cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), are implicated in the pathogenetic mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Taking into account that growth hormone (GH) can increase TNF-alpha and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear blood cells, the evaluation of possible relationship between the reduced BMD at lumbar spine and circulating cytokines levels was carried out in acromegalic patients. In addition we evaluated the effect of acute octreotide administration on serum TNF-alpha and IL-I concentrations. Eleven patients with active acromegaly and eleven healthy age-, sex-, weight- and heightmatched subjects were enrolled in this study. BMD was significantly reduced at lumbar spine (0.80 +/- 0.29 g/cm2 vs 1.02 +/- 0.11 g/cm2; p affect bone turnover inducing an increase of cytokines acting by a paracrine/autocrine mechanism cannot be ruled out.

  1. Serum osteocalcin and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti Susanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since high bone turnover is associated with decreased bone mass, biochemical markers of bone remodeling, such as serum osteocalcin, may be used to assess osteoporosis and to predict fractures in elderly women, particulary those involving trabecular bone, and use of a combination of bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical markers may improve fracture prediction. The serum levels of osteocalcin constitute a specific biochemical parameter of bone formation. Compared to imaging techniques, assays for osteocalcin are safe, noninvasive and easily performed. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of serum osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women in South Jakarta from February to April 2010. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric characteristics, serum osteocalcin levels and BMD. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the left distal radius by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean serum osteocalcin was 28.99 ± 10.02 ng/ml. The Pearson correlation test on all subjects indicated a significant inverse correlation between serum osteocalcin and femoral neck BMD (r = - 0.29; p=0.034. By arranging the data into tertiles, a significant association was found in non-obese subjects between mean femoral neck BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.036. The Tukey posthoc multiple comparison test showed a significant mean difference in femoral neck BMD between the lowest and the highest tertiles of osteocalcin serum concentrations (p=0.028. Maintenance of body weight is important for maintaining BMD in postmenopausal women.

  2. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  3. Vegetarianism, bone loss, fracture and vitamin D: a longitudinal study in Asian vegans and non-vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, L T; Vu, B Q; Lai, T Q; Nguyen, N D; Nguyen, T V

    2012-01-01

    The effect of vegan diet on bone loss has not been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the association between veganism and bone loss in postmenopausal women. The study was designed as a prospective longitudinal investigation with 210 women, including 105 vegans and 105 omnivores. Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 2008 and 2010 by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR4500). The incidence of vertebral fracture was ascertained by X-ray report. Serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were measured by Roche Elecsys assays. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were measured by electrochemiluminescence. Among the 210 women who initially participated in the study in 2008, 181 women had completed the study and 29 women were lost to follow-up. The rate of loss in FN BMD was -1.91±3.45%/year in omnivores and -0.86±3.81%/year (P=0.08) in vegans. Lower body weight, higher intakes of animal protein and lipid, and corticosteroid use were associated with greater rate of bone loss. The 2-year incidence of fracture was 5.7% (n=5/88) in vegans, which was not significantly different from omnivores (5.4%, n=6/93). There were no significant difference