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Sample records for density bmd bone

  1. Influence of lean and fat mass on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytfeld, Joanna; Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Gowin, Ewelina; Michalak, Michał; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Despite known positive association between body mass and bone mineral density (BMD), relative contribution of fat and lean tissue to BMD remains under debate. We aimed at investigating the effect of selected anthropometric parameters, including fat content and lean body mass (LBM) on BMD in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women with body mass index (BMI) > 20 kg/m(2). The study involved 92 never-treated women (mean age 69.5 ± 7.3). L1-L4 and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Absolute (kg) and relative (%) fat and LBM were assessed by means of electric bioimpedance method. We showed both FN and L1-L4 BMD were positively correlated with body mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and LBM (kg). Fat content correlated with FN BMD (r = 0.36, p obese. Obese women displayed the highest BMD. Both L1-L4 and FN BMD were higher in women with WC > 80 cm. In postmenopausal osteoporotic women with BMI > 20 kg/m(2) both fat and lean tissue might contribute to BMD. Positive association between body mass and BMD does not make obesity and osteoporosis mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wölfl

    Full Text Available The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1, as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b, during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.

  3. The association between major depressive disorder, use of antidepressants and bone mineral density (BMD) in men.

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    Rauma, P H; Pasco, J A; Berk, M; Stuart, A L; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H; Honkanen, R J; Hodge, J M; Williams, L J

    2015-06-01

    Both depression and use of antidepressants have been negatively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) but mainly in studies among postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate these relationships in men. Between 2006 and 2011, 928 men (aged 24-98 years) from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study completed a comprehensive questionnaire, clinical measurements and had BMD assessments at the forearm, spine, total hip and total body. Major depressive disorder (MDD) was identified using a structured clinical interview (SCID-I/NP). The cross-sectional associations between BMD and both MDD and antidepressant use were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Of the study population, 84 (9.1%) men had a single MDD episode, 50 (5.4%) had recurrent episodes and 65 (7.0%) were using antidepressants at the time of assessment. Following adjustments, recurrent MDD was associated with lower BMD at the forearm and total body (-6.5%, P=0.033 and -2.5%, P=0.033, respectively compared to men with no history of MDD), while single MDD episodes were associated with higher BMD at the total hip (+3.4%, P=0.030). Antidepressant use was associated with lower BMD only in lower-weight men (depression and use of antidepressants should be taken into account as possible risk factors for osteoporosis in men.

  4. Influence of Contrast Media on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Measurements from Routine Contrast-Enhanced MDCT Datasets using a Phantom-less BMD Measurement Tool.

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    Toelly, Andrea; Bardach, Constanze; Weber, Michael; Gong, Rui; Lai, Yanbo; Wang, Pei; Guo, Yulin; Kirschke, Jan; Baum, Thomas; Gruber, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Aim  To evaluate the differences in phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in contrast-enhanced routine MDCT scans at different contrast phases, and to develop an algorithm for calculating a reliable BMD value. Materials and Methods  112 postmenopausal women from the age of 40 to 77 years (mean age: 57.31 years; SD 9.61) who underwent a clinically indicated MDCT scan, consisting of an unenhanced, an arterial, and a venous phase, were included. A retrospective analysis of the BMD values of the Th12 to L4 vertebrae in each phase was performed using a commercially available phantom-less measurement tool. Results  The mean BMD value in the unenhanced MDCT scans was 79.76 mg/cm³ (SD 31.20), in the arterial phase it was 85.09 mg/cm³ (SD 31.61), and in the venous phase it was 86.18 mg/cm³ (SD 31.30). A significant difference (p Influence of Contrast Media on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Measurements from Routine Contrast-Enhanced MDCT Datasets using a Phantom-less BMD Measurement Tool. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 537 - 543. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. CT evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine in patients after gastrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Uetani, Masataka; Eto, Toshifumi; Matsumoto, Teiji; Yamada, Naoyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The late postoperative complications in patients after gastrectomy include anemia and metabolic bone disorders. We studied to determine whether gastric surgery is associated with metabolic bone disease. Vertebral BMD was measured in 55 patients after gastric resection by using DEQCT (dual energy quantitative CT). Forty patients were symptomatic, having bone or joint pain, history of bone fracture, or dental caries. The control group consisted of 161 patients without metabolic bone disorders. Forty percent of the patients with either the symptoms or history of bone fracture or dental caries, and 20% of the patients without the symptoms or the history showed decreased BMD. BMD was significantly lower in males in their 60s and in females in their 50s and 70s than BMD in age-matched control groups. When male subjects were grouped according to the years following the operation (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20 years), BMD was found to be decreased in 27%, 29%, 40% and 50% of the patients in each group, respectively, and the degree of the decrease tended to be greater with increasing time after surgery. Higher incidence of decreased BMD was found in the patients after total gastrectomy when compared with those after subtotal gastrecotmy. Among the patients with subtotal gastrectomy, the incidence of decreased BMD was higher in patients with Billroth II anastomosis than in those with Billroth I anastomosis. In cases with compression fracture on thoracolumbar radiographs, BMD was significantly lower in comparison with cases with no fracture. It was difficult to differentiate between osteomalacia and osteoporosis only by the thoracolumbar radiographs. While the clinical information such as patients' complaints, histories of fracture and laboratory findings are important to evaluate the bone changes following gastric resection. BMD measurement is most useful in quantitatively determining the degree of bone loss after gastrectomy. (author)

  6. CT evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine in patients after gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Uetani, Masataka; Eto, Toshifumi; Matsumoto, Teiji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Yamada, Naoyuki

    1990-11-01

    The late postoperative complications in patients after gastrectomy include anemia and metabolic bone disorders. We studied to determine whether gastric surgery is associated with metabolic bone disease. Vertebral BMD was measured in 55 patients after gastric resection by using DEQCT (dual energy quantitative CT). Forty patients were symptomatic, having bone or joint pain, history of bone fracture, or dental caries. The control group consisted of 161 patients without metabolic bone disorders. Forty percent of the patients with either the symptoms or history of bone fracture or dental caries, and 20% of the patients without the symptoms or the history showed decreased BMD. BMD was significantly lower in males in their 60s and in females in their 50s and 70s than BMD in age-matched control groups. When male subjects were grouped according to the years following the operation (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20 years), BMD was found to be decreased in 27%, 29%, 40% and 50% of the patients in each group, respectively, and the degree of the decrease tended to be greater with increasing time after surgery. Higher incidence of decreased BMD was found in the patients after total gastrectomy when compared with those after subtotal gastrecotmy. Among the patients with subtotal gastrectomy, the incidence of decreased BMD was higher in patients with Billroth II anastomosis than in those with Billroth I anastomosis. In cases with compression fracture on thoracolumbar radiographs, BMD was significantly lower in comparison with cases with no fracture. It was difficult to differentiate between osteomalacia and osteoporosis only by the thoracolumbar radiographs. While the clinical information such as patients' complaints, histories of fracture and laboratory findings are important to evaluate the bone changes following gastric resection. BMD measurement is most useful in quantitatively determining the degree of bone loss after gastrectomy. (author).

  7. A study on the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by life habit and physical condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Geun [Woosuk University Oriental Medical Hospital, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the correlation between BMD and life habit such as drinking exercise smoking or physical condition such as age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). I evaluated the BMD of the femoral neck and L2-L4 spines of 321 persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk university oriental medical hospital from February to April in 2006 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. The age of persons ranged from 20 years to 75 years (mean 45.10 {+-} 11.54) and there were 160 males and 161 females. In males, BMD of the femoral head was highest at 2nd decade, BMD of the spine was highest at 4th decade, and BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was lowest at 6th decade. In fenales, BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was highest at 4th decade and lowest at 6th decade. Among the various physical conditions, only height of persons showed significant correlation with BMD in both males and females, BMD was increased according to increasing height. In males, BMD of persons who had habit such as drinking, exercise or smoking did not show significant change statistically. But in females, drinking group showed high BMD relative to non-drinking group in both femoral head and lumbar spine. BMD was different according to age, sex, height and life habit. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors decreasing BMD for prevention of problems by osteoporosis.

  8. A study on the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by life habit and physical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Geun

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between BMD and life habit such as drinking exercise smoking or physical condition such as age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). I evaluated the BMD of the femoral neck and L2-L4 spines of 321 persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk university oriental medical hospital from February to April in 2006 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. The age of persons ranged from 20 years to 75 years (mean 45.10 ± 11.54) and there were 160 males and 161 females. In males, BMD of the femoral head was highest at 2nd decade, BMD of the spine was highest at 4th decade, and BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was lowest at 6th decade. In fenales, BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was highest at 4th decade and lowest at 6th decade. Among the various physical conditions, only height of persons showed significant correlation with BMD in both males and females, BMD was increased according to increasing height. In males, BMD of persons who had habit such as drinking, exercise or smoking did not show significant change statistically. But in females, drinking group showed high BMD relative to non-drinking group in both femoral head and lumbar spine. BMD was different according to age, sex, height and life habit. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors decreasing BMD for prevention of problems by osteoporosis

  9. Bone mineral density (BMD) and computer tomographic measurements of the equine proximal phalanx in correlation with breaking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, P; Horváth, C; Ferencz, V; Tóth, B; Váradi, A; Szenci, O; Bodó, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important fracture risk predictor in human medicine, studies in equine orthopedic research are still lacking. We hypothesized that BMD correlates with bone failure and fatigue fractures of this bone. Thus, the objectives of this study were to measure the structural and mechanical properties of the proximal phalanx with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to correlate the data obtained from DXA and computer tomography (CT) measurements to those obtained by loading pressure examination and to establish representative region of interest (ROI) for in vitro BMD measurements of the equine proximal phalanx for predicting bone failure force. DXA was used to measure the whole bone BMD and additional three ROI sites in 14 equine proximal phalanges. Following evaluation of the bone density, whole bone, cortical width and area in the mid-diaphyseal plane were measured on CT images. Bones were broken using a manually controlled universal bone crusher to measure bone failure force and reevaluated for the site of fractures on follow-up CT images. Compressive load was applied at a constant displacement rate of 2 mm/min until failure, defined as the first clear drop in the load measurement. The lowest BMD was measured at the trabecular region (mean +/- SD: 1.52 +/- 0.12 g/cm2; median: 1.48 g/cm2; range: 1.38-1.83 g/cm2). There was a significant positive linear correlation between trabelcular BMD and the breaking strength (P = 0.023, r = 0.62). The trabecular region of the proximal phalanx appears to be the only significant indicator of failure of strength in vitro. This finding should be reassessed to further reveal the prognostic value of trabecular BMD in an in vivo fracture risk model.

  10. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

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    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  11. Bone mineral content (bmc and bone mineral density (bmd in postmenopausal women formerly practising kayaking and fencing

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    B Raczyńska

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was aimed at answering the following questions: 1 Can a prolonged career in sports associated with considerable training loads, in conjunction with other osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present, affect the bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD of the former female athletes in their postmenopausal period of life?, and 2 How does the present lifestyle of the tested women, including physical activity and diet (calcium intake, influence the preservation of the optimal bone mass in these subjects? The postmenopausal subjects recruited to the present study included 15 former athletes (ten kayakers and five fencers and 11 women who never actively engaged in sports (control group. BMC (g and BMD (g/cm2 were densitometrically determined in the lumbar segment (L2-L4 of the spine, and the bone stiffness coefficient was ultrasonically determined in calcaneus. The effects of the osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present were estimated from individual replies to the questionnaire inquiries about the past career in sports, present physical activity, gonadal dysfunctions (dysmenorrhoea during the career and the present need for hormonal supplementary treatment, and the current dietary patterns. The results indicate that mean BMC and BMD values detected in the former athletes did not differ significant from those obtained in the non-athlete, control women: the BMC values equalled to 54.5±10.5, 52.6±14.6, and 46.5±3.2 g in the kayakers, the fencers, and the control women, respectively, while the respective BMD values were 1.05±0.45, 0.96±0.66, and 1.08±0.58 g/cm2. The questionnaire-based studies showed that neither the former female athletes nor the non-athlete controls exhibited in the past longer (i.e., lasting more than three months periods of hormonal disorders (amenorrhoea. As assessed from the dietary intake, only in the former fencers the diet covered the demand for calcium in 100%. In conclusion

  12. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

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    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is a potential risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in astronauts. Although lumbar spine (LS) BMD declines rapidly, more than expected for age, there have been no fragility fractures in astronauts that can clearly be attributed to spaceflight. Recently, astronauts have been returning from 6-month spaceflights with absolute BMD still above young adult mean BMD. In spite of these BMD measurements, we project that the rapid loss in bone mass over long-duration spaceflight affects the bone microarchitecture of the LS which might predispose astronauts to premature vertebral fractures. Thus, we evaluated TBS, a novel texture index correlated with vertebral bone microarchitecture, as a means of monitoring changes to bone microarchitecture in astronauts as they age. We previously reported that TBS detects an effect of spaceflight (6-month duration), independent of BMD, in 51 astronauts (47+/-4 y) (Smith et al, J Clin Densitometry 2014). Hence, TBS was evaluated in serial DXA scans (Hologic Discovery W) conducted triennially in all active and retired astronauts and more frequently (before spaceflight, after spaceflight and until recovery) in the subset of astronauts flying 4-6- month missions. We used non-linear models to describe trends in observations (BMD or TBS) plotted as a function of astronaut age. We fitted 1175 observations of 311 astronauts, pre-flight and then postflight starting 3 years after landing or after astronaut's BMD for LS was restored to within 2% of preflight BMD. Observations were then grouped and defined as follows: 1) LD: after exposure to at least one long-duration spaceflight > 100 days and 2) SD: before LD and after exposure to at least one short-duration spaceflight < 30 days. Data from males and females were analyzed separately. Models of SD observations revealed that TBS and BMD had similar curvilinear declines with age for both male and female astronauts. However, models of LD observations showed TBS declining with age while

  13. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

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    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  14. Decrease in local volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in osteoarthritic joints is associated with the increase in cartilage damage: a pQCT study

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    Tamaddon, Maryam; Chen, Shen Mao; Vanaclocha, Leyre; Hart, Alister; El-Husseiny, Moataz; Henckel, Johann; Liu, Chaozong

    2017-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis and a major cause of disability in the adult population. It affects both cartilage and subchondral bone in the joints. There has been some progress in understanding the changes in subchondral bone with progression of osteoarthritis. However, local changes in subchondral bone such as microstructure or volumetric bone mineral density in connection with the defect in cartilage are relatively unexplored. To develop an effective treatment for progression of OA, it is important to understand how the physical environment provided by the subchondral bone affects the overlying cartilage. In this study we examined the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) distribution in the osteoarthritic joint tissues obtained from total hip replacement surgeries due to osteoarthritis, using peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). It was found that there is a significant decrease in volumetric bone mineral density, which co-localises with the damage in the overlying cartilage. This was not limited to the subchondral bone immediately adjacent to the cartilage defect but continued in the layers below. Bone resorption and cyst formation in the OA tissues were also detected. We observed that the bone surrounding subchondral bone cysts exhibited much higher volumetric bone mineral density than that of the surrounding bones. PQCT was able to detect significant changes in vBMD between OA and non-OA samples, as well as between areas of different cartilage degeneration, which points to its potential as a technique for detection of early OA.

  15. Trps1 differentially modulates the bone mineral density between male and female mice and its polymorphism associates with BMD differently between women and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishi Wang

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to identify genetic factors that regulate bone mineral density (BMD in mice using well defined recombinant inbred strains. For this purpose we chose the BXD recombinant inbred (RI strains derived from progeny of the C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 progenitor strains. We sampled both male and female mice (∼4 each of 46 strains at 3 months-of-age, measured their BMD, and conducted QTL mapping. The data were analyzed to identify candidates genes contained within the most significant quantitative trait locus (QTL. Evaluation of candidate genes included functional assessment, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping and direct sequencing. We established that there was a QTL for BMD in males on chromosome 15 that has the impact larger than QTLs on all other chromosomes. The QTL on chromosome 15 was narrowed to a genomic region between 38 Mbp and 52 Mbp. By examining transcripts within this region, we found an important candidate gene: trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I (Trps1. SNP analysis identified a nonsynonymous SNP (rs32398060 in Trps1 that co-segregated with bone mineral density. Analysis of association between this SNP within TRPS1 and BMD in a human population confirmed its significance.

  16. Bone mineral density test

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    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  17. Functional autonomy, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum osteocalcin levels in older female participants of an aquatic exercise program (AAG).

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    Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, pAAG when compared to the CG. The AAG achieved the best results for BMD; however, no inter or intragroup statistical differences were recorded for total femur -p=0.975 and lumbar L(2)-L(4)p=0.597. For serum osteocalcin, intra and intergroup statistical differences of p=0.042 and p=0.027 were observed in the AAG, respectively. This demonstrates that an eight-month aquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of association of smoking with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures in a cohort of pakistani males ages <= 50 years and postmenopausal females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhlaq, U.; Ayaz, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to determine the association between smoking, bone mineral density (BMD), and fragility fractures in a cohort of Pakistani males aged > 50 years and postmenopausal females. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi from Jan 2010 to Jan 2011. Through non-probability purposive sampling, we included male patients of age > 50 years and postmenopausal women. All subjects were submitted to dual energy X-Ray absorptiometery at lumbar spine (L2 > L4) and at both femoral by Hologic Discovery-A machine . The lowest BMD was noted and expressed in the form of T-score.Using SPSS V 20, descriptive statistics were calculated for the various variables. Independent samples t-test was used to determine the significance of difference between mean T-score in between smokers and non-smokers. Association between smoking and the risk of fracture was carried out using Fisher exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of a total of 328 patients, 142 (43.3%) were male (mean age 64 ± 8, range: 50 - 82 years) and 186 (56.7%) were female (mean age 61 ± 8, range: 43 - 92 years). Sixteen (8.6%) females and 52 (36.6%) males were smokers. In males, the mean T-score was -1.6 ± 1.3 in non-smokers and -1.9 ± 1.2 in smokers (p=0.17). Two of the non-smokers and nine of the smokers had a fracture. (p=0.002). In females, the mean T-score was -2.9 ± 1.9 in smokers and -2.3 ± 1.4 in non-smokers (p=0.23). Twelve of the non-smokers and 15 smokers had a fracture. (p<0.001) Conclusion: Smoking was significantly associated with increased percentage of fragility fractures but not with a reduction in BMD in our sample of postmenopausal women and men of age > 50 years. (author)

  19. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) around the cemented Exeter stem: a prospective study in 18 women with 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank Lindhøj; Nissen, Nis; Jørgensen, Hans R I

    2008-01-01

    THA changes the pattern of strain distribution in the proximal femur. We quantified the changes in BMD for 5 years after insertion of the cemented Exeter stem in women.......THA changes the pattern of strain distribution in the proximal femur. We quantified the changes in BMD for 5 years after insertion of the cemented Exeter stem in women....

  20. Effects of genes, sex, age, and activity on BMC, bone size, and areal and volumetric BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Lorena M; Mahaney, Michael C; L Binkley, Teresa; Specker, Bonny L

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative genetic analyses of bone data for 710 inter-related individuals 8-85 yr of age found high heritability estimates for BMC, bone area, and areal and volumetric BMD that varied across bone sites. Activity levels, especially time in moderate plus vigorous activity, had notable effects on bone. In some cases, these effects were age and sex specific. Genetic and environmental factors play a complex role in determining BMC, bone size, and BMD. This study assessed the heritability of bone measures; characterized the effects of age, sex, and physical activity on bone; and tested for age- and sex-specific bone effects of activity. Measures of bone size and areal and volumetric density (aBMD and vBMD, respectively) were obtained by DXA and pQCT on 710 related individuals (466 women) 8-85 yr of age. Measures of activity included percent time in moderate + vigorous activity (%ModVig), stair flights climbed per day, and miles walked per day. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to model the effects of activity and covariates on bone outcomes. Accounting for effects of age, sex, and activity levels, genes explained 40-62% of the residual variation in BMC and BMD and 27-75% in bone size (all pBMC and cross-sectional area (CSA) at the 4% radius, but this was not observed among women (sex-by-activity interaction, both p BMD (Cort-vBMD) than younger men, with minimal difference between low and high activity levels. Influence of activity was greater in older women: older women with low activity had lower Cort-vBMD than older men, but older women with high activity had higher Cort-vBMD than older men (age-by-sex-by-activity interaction, p=0.04). High heritability estimates for DXA and pQCT measures varied across bone sites. Percent time spent in moderate to vigorous activity had the most notable effect on bone, and in some cases, this effect was age or sex specific.

  1. Microarchitecture Parameters Describe Bone Structure and Its Strength Better Than BMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Topoliński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Hypothesis. Some papers have shown that bone mineral density (BMD may not be accurate in predicting fracture risk. Recently microarchitecture parameters have been reported to give information on bone characteristics. The aim of this study was to find out if the values of volume, fractal dimension, and bone mineral density are correlated with bone strength. Methods. Forty-two human bone samples harvested during total hip replacement surgery were cut to cylindrical samples. The geometrical mesh of layers of bone mass obtained from microCT investigation and the volumes of each layer and fractal dimension were calculated. The finite element method was applied to calculate the compression force F causing ε=0.8% strain. Results. There were stronger correlations for microarchitecture parameters with strength than those for bone mineral density. The values of determination coefficient R2 for mean volume and force were 0.88 and 0.90 for mean fractal dimension and force, while for BMD and force the value was 0.53. The samples with bigger mean bone volume of layers and bigger mean fractal dimension of layers (more complex structure presented higher strength. Conclusion. The volumetric and fractal dimension parameters better describe bone structure and strength than BMD.

  2. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) around the cemented Exeter stem: a prospective study in 18 women with 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank; Nissen, Nis; Jørgensen, Hans R I

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: THA changes the pattern of strain distribution in the proximal femur. We quantified the changes in BMD for 5 years after insertion of the cemented Exeter stem in women. METHODS: 18 women aged 55-79 years, undergoing unilateral THA with the cemented Exeter stem, were included...

  3. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  4. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  5. Rural versus nonrural differences in BMC, volumetric BMD, and bone size: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa; Fahrenwald, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    Despite reports of lower fracture risk among rural versus urban populations, few studies have investigated rural versus urban differences in bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Population differences in cross-sectional bone geometry and understanding lifestyle factors responsible for these differences may reveal insights into the reason for differences in fracture risk. We hypothesized that if lifestyle differences in bone mass, size, and geometry are a result of muscle strength, activity, or dietary differences, Hutterite and rural populations should have greater bone mass compared to nonrural populations. The study population consisted of 1189 individuals: 504 rural Hutterites (188 men), 349 rural individuals (>75% life farming, 184 men), and 336 nonrural individuals (never lived on farm, 134 men) aged 20 to 66 years. BMC, bone area, and areal BMD (aBMD) of the total body (TB), hip, femoral neck (FN), and spine by DXA; volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone geometry at the 4% and 20% radius; polar stress strain index (pSSI), a measure of bone strength, at the 20% pQCT site; and strength, 7-day activity recall, and 24-h diet recall were collected and compared among groups. Hutterite women and men had greater grip strength compared to rural and nonrural populations (both, P BMC and areal size than the nonrural population, while Hutterites had greater BMC and areal size than rural population at some (TB, FN for females only), but not all (proximal hip), sites. Cortical vBMD was inversely associated with periosteal circumference at the 20% radius in women (r=-0.25, P BMC, aBMD, vBMD, or bone size.

  6. Bone mineral density and body composition before and during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in children with central precocious and early puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractMajor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition occur during puberty. In the present longitudinal study, we evaluated BMD and calculated volumetric BMD [bone mineral apparent density (BMAD)], bone metabolism, and body composition of children

  7. Administration of growth hormone in selectively protein-deprived rats decreases BMD and bone strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Patrick; Brennan, Tara C; Mekraldi, Samia; Aubert, Michel L; Rizzoli, René

    2010-06-01

    Isocaloric protein undernutrition is associated with decreased bone mass and decreased bone strength, together with lower IGF-I levels. It remains unclear whether administration of growth hormone (GH) corrects these alterations in bone metabolism. Six-month-old female rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 2.5% or 15% casein for 2 weeks. Bovine growth hormone (bGH, 0.5 or 2.5mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle was then administered as subcutaneous injections, twice daily, to rats on either diet for 4 weeks. At the proximal tibia, analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), maximal load and histomorphometry were performed. In addition, urinary deoxypyridinoline, plasma osteocalcin and IGF-I concentrations were measured. Weight was monitored weekly. bGH caused a dose-dependent increase in plasma IGF-I regardless of the dietary protein content. However, bGH dose-dependently decreased BMD and bone strength in rats fed the low-protein diet. There was no significant effect of bGH on BMD in rats fed the normal protein diet within this short-term treatment period, however bone formation as detected by histomorphometry was improved in this group but not the low-protein group. Osteoclast surface was increased in the low-protein bGH-treated animals only. Changes in bone turnover markers were detectable under both normal and low-protein diets. These results emphasize the major importance of dietary protein intake in the bone response to short-term GH administration, and highlight the need for further investigation into the effects of GH treatment in patients with reduced protein intake. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Bone Mineral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nicolien A; Noordam, Raymond; van Klinken, Jan B

    2018-01-01

    With population aging, prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and associated fracture risk are increased. To determine whether low circulating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels within the normal range are causally related to BMD, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR...

  9. Effect of ovariectomy on BMD, micro-architecture and biomechanics of cortical and cancellous bones in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi-xiang; Lei, Wei; Hu, Yun-yu; Wang, Hai-qiang; Wan, Shi-yong; Ma, Zhen-sheng; Sang, Hong-xun; Fu, Suo-chao; Han, Yi-sheng

    2008-11-01

    Osteoporotic/osteopenia fractures occur most frequently in trabeculae-rich skeletal sites. The purpose of this study was to use a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dual energy X-ray absorptionmeter (DEXA) to investigate the changes in micro-architecture and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sheep model resulted from ovariectomy (OVX). Biomechanical tests were performed to evaluate the strength of the trabecular bone. Twenty adult sheeps were randomly divided into three groups: sham group (n=8), group 1 (n=4) and group 2 (n=8). In groups 1 and 2, all sheep were ovariectomized (OVX); in the sham group, the ovaries were located and the oviducts were ligated. In all animals, BMD for lumbar spine was obtained during the surgical procedure. BMD at the spine, femoral neck and femoral condyle was determined 6 months (group 1) and 12 months (group 2) post-OVX. Lumbar spines and femora were obtained and underwent BMD scan, micro-CT analysis. Compressive mechanical properties were determined from biopsies of vertebral bodies and femoral condyles. BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties of cancellous bone did not decrease significantly at 6 months post-OVX. Twelve months after OVX, BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties decreased significantly. The results of linear regression analyses showed that trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (r=0.945, R2=0.886) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (r=0.783, R2=0.586) had strong (R2>0.5) correlation to compression stress. In OVX sheep, changes in the structural parameters of trabecular bone are comparable to the human situation during osteoporosis was induced. The sheep model presented seems to meet the criteria for an osteopenia model for fracture treatment with respect to morphometric and mechanical properties. But the duration of OVX must be longer than 12 months to ensure the animal model can be established successfully.

  10. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  11. Assessment of bone mineral density in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis: a cross-sectional long-term followup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Hassager, C; Lovell, D J

    1999-01-01

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD.......To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD....

  12. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...... males, but it also stresses the fact that the strong covariation between the examined variables is a shortcoming of the cross-sectional design....

  13. Accuracy of DXA scanning of the thoracic spine: cadaveric studies comparing BMC, areal BMD and geometric estimates of volumetric BMD against ash weight and CT measures of bone volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, Meena M; Khan, Karim M; Keiver, Kathy; Chew, Jason B; McKay, Heather A; Oxland, Thomas R

    2005-12-01

    Biomechanical studies of the thoracic spine often scan cadaveric segments by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to obtain measures of bone mass. Only one study has reported the accuracy of lateral scans of thoracic vertebral bodies. The accuracy of DXA scans of thoracic spine segments and of anterior-posterior (AP) thoracic scans has not been investigated. We have examined the accuracy of AP and lateral thoracic DXA scans by comparison with ash weight, the gold-standard for measuring bone mineral content (BMC). We have also compared three methods of estimating volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) with a novel standard-ash weight (g)/bone volume (cm3) as measured by computed tomography (CT). Twelve T5-T8 spine segments were scanned with DXA (AP and lateral) and CT. The T6 vertebrae were excised, the posterior elements removed and then the vertebral bodies were ashed in a muffle furnace. We proposed a new method of estimating vBMD and compared it with two previously published methods. BMC values from lateral DXA scans displayed the strongest correlation with ash weight (r=0.99) and were on average 12.8% higher (pBMC (AP or lateral) was more strongly correlated with ash weight than areal bone mineral density (aBMD; AP: r=0.54, or lateral: r=0.71) or estimated vBMD. Estimates of vBMD with either of the three methods were strongly and similarly correlated with volumetric BMD calculated by dividing ash weight by CT-derived volume. These data suggest that readily available DXA scanning is an appropriate surrogate measure for thoracic spine bone mineral and that the lateral scan might be the scan method of choice.

  14. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  15. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  16. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  17. Bone mineral density and nutritional status in children with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); J. Bouquet (Jan); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Osteoporosis has been reported in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease. AIMS: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), nutritional status, and determinants of BMD in children with inflammatory bowel disease. PATIENTS: Fifty five patients

  18. Serum biomarker profile associated with high bone turnover and BMD in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Achenbach, Sara J; Khosla, Sundeep; Suva, Larry J

    2008-07-01

    Early diagnosis of the onset of osteoporosis is key to the delivery of effective therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide a means of evaluating skeletal dynamics that complements static measurements of BMD by DXA. Conventional clinical measurements of bone turnover, primarily the estimation of collagen and its breakdown products in the blood or urine, lack both sensitivity and specificity as a reliable diagnostic tool. As a result, improved tests are needed to augment the use of BMD measurements as the principle diagnostic modality. In this study, the serum proteome of 58 postmenopausal women with high or low/normal bone turnover (training set) was analyzed by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a diagnostic fingerprint was identified using a variety of statistical and machine learning tools. The diagnostic fingerprint was validated in a separate distinct test set, consisting of serum samples from an additional 59 postmenopausal women obtained from the same Mayo cohort, with a gap of 2 yr. Specific protein peaks that discriminate between postmenopausal patients with high or low/normal bone turnover were identified and validated. Multiple supervised learning approaches were able to classify the level of bone turnover in the training set with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, the individual protein peaks were also significantly correlated with BMD measurements in these patients. Four of the major discriminatory peaks in the diagnostic profile were identified as fragments of interalpha-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain H4 precursor (ITIH4), a plasma kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein that is a component of the host response system. These data suggest that these serum protein fragments are the serum-borne reflection of the increased osteoclast activity, leading to the increased bone turnover that is associated with decreasing BMD and presumably an increased risk of fracture. In conjunction with the

  19. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT......) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...

  20. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Kotzmann, H.; Svoboda, T.; Kainberger, F.M.; Bankier, A.; Seidl, G.

    1993-01-01

    Acromegaly is regarded as a cause for secondary osteoporosis, whereas recent papers suggest that growth hormone increases bone mineral density (BMD). In 16 patients with active acromegaly we found an increased BMD compared to normal controls in the lumbar spine and the proximal femur by means of dual energy X-ray absoptiometry. This increase in BMD was statistically significant in the femoral neck and in Ward's triangle (P=0.05). Moreover, no signs of osteoporosis were found radiologically. (orig.) [de

  1. Bone mineral density abnormalities in HIV infected patients and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone mineral density abnormalities in HIV infected patients and HIV ... Comprehensive Care Clinic (CCC) and a HIV negative control group seen at the ... Older patients had lower levels of BMD (i.e. more negative BMD. p-value = 0.032).

  2. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.L.; Luken, J.S.; van den Burg, P.J.M.; de Kort, W.L.A.M.; Koopman, M.M.W.; Vrielink, H.; van Schoor, N.M.; den Heijer, M.; Lips, P.

    2015-01-01

    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115

  3. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  4. Changes in hand bone mineral density and the association with the level of disease activity in patients with RA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, L.; Guler-Yuksel, M.; de Beus, W.M.; Ronday, H.K.; Speyer, I.; Huizinga, T.W.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Allaart, C.F.; Lems, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine if metacarpal bone mineral density (mBMD) gain occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). If mBMD loss is driven by inflammation, we expect to find mBMD gain in patients who are in remission. Methods. mBMD was measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry in consecutive

  5. Scintigraphic findings of bone and bone-marrow and determination of bone mineral density using photon absorptiometry in osteopetrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    On a 15-year-old girl with osteopetrosis, bone and bonemarrow scintigraphy were performed. Also, bone mineral density (BMD) with quantitative CT (QCT), single photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) were measured. On bone scintigraphy the diffusely increased skeletal uptake and relatively diminished renal uptake were noted. On the other hand, on bone marrow scintigraphy poor accumulation in central marrow and peripheral expansion were shown. BMD value by QCT and DPA (mainly trabecular bone) was markedly high, while BMD by SPA (mainly cortical bone) was within normal range. Thus, it was shown that bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy combined with BMD measurement by photon absorptiometry were useful and essential in evaluating the pathophysiology of osteosclerosis. (author)

  6. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... an age-matched reference population. Low TBS was associated with high age (P = .014) and smoking (P = .03). Smoking and physical inactivity were associated with low BMD in spine (P = .034, P = .032). GC treatment was not associated with TBS. CONCLUSION: We could not find altered TBS values among MS...

  7. Phenotypic Dissection of Bone Mineral Density Reveals Skeletal Site Specificity and Facilitates the Identification of Novel Loci in the Genetic Regulation of Bone Mass Attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Kemp (John); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); B. St Pourcain (Beate); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); N.M. Warrington (Nicole); L. Oei (Ling); S.M. Ring (Susan); C.J. Kruithof (Claudia); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); L.E. Wolber (Lisa); S. Reppe (Sjur); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); E. Grundberg (Elin); B. Ge (Bing); B.C.J. van der Eerden (Bram); J. van de Peppel (Jeroen); M.A. Hibbs (Matthew); C.L. Ackert-Bicknell (Cheryl); K. Choi (Kunho); D.L. Koller (Daniel); M.J. Econs (Michael); F.M. Williams (Frances); T. Foroud (Tatiana); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); G. Davey-Smith (George); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.H. Tobias (Jon); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); D.M. Evans (David)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHeritability of bone mineral density (BMD) varies across skeletal sites, reflecting different relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. To quantify the degree to which common genetic variants tag and environmental factors influence BMD, at different sites, we

  8. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  9. Bone Density in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhlaspour, Laya; Baskaran, Charumathi; Campoverde, Karen Joanie; Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Neumeyer, Ann M.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for fracture, and peri-pubertal boys with ASD have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than controls. Data are lacking regarding BMD in older adolescents with ASD. We compared BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 9 adolescents/young adults with ASD against 9 typically…

  10. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Chen, J; Gantz, M; Punyanitya, M; Heymsfield, S B; Gallagher, D; Albu, J; Engelson, E; Kotler, D; Pi-Sunyer, X; Shapses, S

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18-88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r = -0.533, -0.576, respectively; P BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premenopausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations.

  11. Bone mineral density among female sports participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Elizabeth; Reilly, Thomas; Giacomoni, Magali; Redmond, Louise; Turner, Clare

    2006-02-01

    Training for and participation in impact-loading sports are associated with alterations in bone strength which are specific to anatomical site and type of strain. The effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) depends on the type of activity engaged in. Sports with high impact loading seem to have a positive effect in promoting bone mineralisation, whereas those with low impacts may have negative or no effects. The aims of the present study were to compare BMD and body composition measures among female participants in three distinctly different sports and investigate differences from sedentary control subjects. Participants were club and university level Rugby Union football players (n = 30, age: 21.4 +/- 1.9 years, height: 1.67 +/- 0.05 m, mass: 73.3 +/- 10.7 kg), netball players (n = 20, 20.7 +/- 1.3 years, 1.68 +/- 0.07 m, 64.3 +/- 7.2 kg), distance runners (n = 11, 21.5 +/- 2.6 years, 1.68 +/- 0.04 m, 57.1 +/- 6.1 kg), and sedentary controls (n = 25, 21.4 +/- 1.1 years; 1.64 +/- 0.07 m, 56.8 +/- 6.8 kg). With the exception of three distance runners, all participants were eumenorrhoeic. Bone mineral density scans were performed for whole-body, left proximal femur, and lumbar spine (L1-4) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat mass, percent body fat, and fat-free soft tissue mass were assessed from whole-body scans. Regional and segmental analysis was also carried out on whole-body BMD data using standard procedures. The runners had a lower fat mass and percent body fat compared to the other sports participants and the controls. All sports groups had higher BMD values than had the controls. Density of bone in the upper body was most pronounced in the rugby football players and least pronounced in the runners. Positive effects were evident at all sites for the rugby players. There were significant correlations between BMD and fat-free soft tissue mass, BMD and body mass, and BMD and training volume. It is concluded that sports participation has positive

  12. Bone mineral density and bone turnover among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Eriko; Morakote, Nuntana; Chaovistsaree, Somsak; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2014-03-12

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of lifestyle on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A total of 177 young women affiliated with Chiang Mai University hospital were enrolled. Firstly, questionnaires about their lifestyle and the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) were examined. The measurement of BMD was assessed by Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). Secondly, based on the measurement of BMD, the subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Low BMD group (L group: less than YAM-1.0SD) and a Normal BMD group (N group: more than YAM-1.0SD). L group (n=23) and N group (n=23) were examined using Osteocalcine (OC), type 1 collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) as bone turnover markers, and serum Ca, 1,25-(OH)2Vitamin D, Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2 (MK-4) as bone turnover related factors. Based on the results, the percentage of Low BMD group was 23.2%. Concerning lifestyle and BMD, the BMD of the low cheese intake group was 99.7± 17.0 and the BMD of the high cheese intake one was 110.0± 23.3 (pChiang Mai, Thailand.

  13. Constitutive melanin density is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and potentially total body BMD in older Caucasian adults via increased sun tolerance and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M J W; Jones, G; Aitken, D A

    2018-06-01

    Greater skin pigmentation reduces dose equivalent cutaneous vitamin D3 production, potentially impacting lifetime vitamin D status and fracture risk. We show that melanin density was positively associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D and total body bone mineral density. These relationships were partially explained by greater sun exposure due to more permissive skin phenotype. Higher cutaneous melanin reduces vitamin D3 production. This may impact lifetime vitamin D status and increase fracture risk. This study aimed to describe the relationship between spectrophotometrically determined constitutive melanin density, osteoporotic risk factors and potential intermediaries in a cohort of exclusively older Caucasian adults. One thousand seventy-two community-dwelling adults aged 50-80 years had constitutive melanin density quantified using spectrophotometry. Sun exposure, skin phenotype, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) prevalence and smoking status were assessed by questionnaire. Bone mineral density (BMD), falls risk, physical activity and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured using DXA, the short form Physiological Profile Assessment, pedometer and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Higher melanin density was independently associated with greater ability to tan (RR = 1.27, p density and sun exposure (RR = 1.05-1.11, p density (β = 1.71-2.05, p = 0.001). The association between melanin density and total body BMD (β = 0.007, p = 0.04) became non-significant after adjustment for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. There was no association between melanin density and physical activity, falls risk or BMD at other sites. Our data support a model of higher constitutive melanin density underpinning a less photosensitive skin phenotype, permitting greater sun exposure with fewer sequelae and yielding higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and, potentially, total body BMD.

  14. Bone mineral density change during adjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyun Ahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeOsteoporosis is currently receiving particular attention as a sequela in survivors of childhood osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD changes during methotrexate-based chemotherapy in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma.MethodsNine patients with osteosarcoma were included in this retrospective study and compared with eight healthy controls. BMD of the lumbar spine and unaffected femur neck of patients was serially measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and just after chemotherapy and compared with controls.ResultsFour patients (44% showed decreased lumbar spine BMD and seven patients (78% showed decreased femur neck BMD, while all controls showed increased lumbar and femur BMD (P=0.024 and P=0.023. The femur neck BMD z-scores decreased from -0.49±1.14 to -1.63±1.50 (P=0.032. At the end of therapy, five patients (56% showed femur neck BMD z-scores below -2.0.ConclusionThe bone metabolism is disturbed during therapy in children with osteosarcoma, resulting in a reduced BMD with respect to healthy controls. Since a reduced BMD predisposes to osteoporosis, specific attention and therapeutic interventions should be considered.

  15. Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardes Jendrik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone mineral density (BMD accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4, both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years. Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2, calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3 and bone mineral content (BMC, g were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18, areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082 and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347 which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36, the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9 in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0 for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis

  16. Familial aggregation of forearm bone mineral density in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xiumei; Niu Tianhua; Chen Changzhong; Wang Binyan; Venners, Scott A.; Fang Zhian; Xu Xiping

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern and its prevalence can be predicted based on forearm bone mineral density (BMD). This study is to investigate the familial aggregation of forearm BMD in a population-based, cross-sectional study in Anhui, China. Information on sociodemographic and environmental variables was obtained from 1,636 subjects from 409 nuclear families (including mother, father, and their first two children) by a standardized questionnaire. The forearm BMD was measured by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA). Using generalized additive models with a sequential adjustment for covariates, it was clearly indicated that the forearm BMD of the mother, the father, and the first sibling each had a significant and independent relation to the forearm BMD of the second sibling. Furthermore, using multiple logistic regression, the second sibling had an odds ratio (OR) of 5.3 (95%CI: 2.0-14.5) of having an extremely low (bottom 10th percentile) proximal forearm BMD and an OR of 4.3 (95%CI: 1.6-12.0) of having an extremely low distal forearm BMD when the parental mean forearm BMD was low and the first sibling's forearm BMD was low. Our findings showing strong familial aggregation of both proximal and distal forearm BMD values suggest that genetic factors play a significant role in determining both traits

  17. Lower trabecular volumetric BMD at metaphyseal regions of weight-bearing bones is associated with prior fracture in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Tomás, Rita; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the etiology of skeletal fragility during growth is critical for the development of treatments and prevention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of childhood fractures. Thus we evaluated the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters in young girls. Data from 465 girls aged 8 to 13 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the nondominant femur and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess femur, tibia, lumbar spine, and total body less head bone mineral content. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters, controlling for maturity, body mass, leg length, ethnicity, and physical activity. Associations between prior fracture and all DXA and pQCT bone parameters at diaphyseal sites were nonsignificant. In contrast, lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at distal metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia was significantly associated with prior fracture. After adjustment for covariates, every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of the distal femur and tibia was associated with 1.4 (1.1-1.9) and 1.3 (1.0-1.7) times higher fracture prevalence, respectively. Prior fracture was not associated with metaphyseal bone size (ie, periosteal circumference). In conclusion, fractures in girls are associated with lower trabecular vBMD, but not bone size, at metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. Lower trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of long bones may be an early marker of skeletal fragility in girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  19. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, M.; Al-Jurayyan, N.

    1997-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Bone mineral density in children with systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashef, S.; Saki, F.; Karamizadeh, Z.; Kashef, Mohammed Amin

    2007-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in bone metabolism in patients with rheumatic disorders, few data exist on bone mineral density (BMD) in children with rheumatic disorders or on the association of BMD with disease-related variables. We determined BMD in Iranian children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) to evaluate the relationship between disease related variables and BMD. Twenty patients (13 girls and 7 boys) with SLE (n=5) and JRA (n=5) with a mean age of 13.10+-3.29 years (range, 6-17 years), attending a pediatric rheumatology clinic and 20 healthy controls (matched for age and sex with each patient) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study between 2001 and 2003. BMD (g/cm) of the femoral neck (BMD-F) and lumbar vertebrae (BMD-L) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The correlation between BMD and cumulative dose of steroids, daily dose of steroid, disease duration, disease activity, height, weight and age was investigated. BMD in the patients (BMD-F=0.72+-0.15, BMD-L=0.70+-0.19) was significantly lower than controls (BMD-F=0.95+-0.17, BMD-L=0.98+-0.20, P<0.001). The severity of decreased BMD was more prominent in lumbar vertebrae than the femoral neck (P=0.04). None of the variables were consistently related to decrease in BMD. BMD was significantly lower in patients compared with controls. It was more prominent in lumbar vertebrae (trabecular bone). Although cumulative doses of steroids and disease duration appeared to have some influence on BMD, none were independently correlated with BMD. (author)

  1. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  2. An expression relating breaking stress and density of trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajapakse, C.S.; Thomsen, J.S.; Ortiz, J.S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the principal diagnostic tool used in clinical settings to diagnose and monitor osteoporosis. Experimental studies on ex vivo bone samples from multiple skeletal locations have been used to propose that their breaking stress bears a power-law relationship to volumetric...

  3. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those...

  4. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; Higuchi, Tohru; Nishihara, Kaori; Kayano, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Naoki; Nambo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured...

  5. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, Michael J.; Morgan, Sarah L.; Lopez-Ben, Robert; Steelman, Rebecca E.; Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria; Fineberg, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  6. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  7. Relation between obesity and bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in Korean postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Chol; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Sei-Young; Im, Jee-Aee; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2010-11-01

    The traditional belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has been questioned. Recent epidemiologic studies show that body fat itself may be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome and the individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are also risk factors for low bone mineral density. Using a cross sectional study design, we evaluated the associations between obesity or metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) or vertebral fracture. A total of 907 postmenopausal healthy female subjects, aged 60-79 years, were recruited from woman hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. BMD, vetebral fracture, bone markers, and body composition including body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, and waist circumference were measured. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total calcium intake, and total energy intake, waist circumference was negatively related to BMD of all sites (lumbar BMD p = 0.037, all sites of femur BMD p related to BMD of all sites (p related to femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0366) and was lower in the control group than the fracture group (p = 0.011). In contrast to the effect favorable body weight on bone mineral density, high percentage body fat and waist circumference are related to low BMD and a vertebral fracture. Some components of metabolic syndrome were related to BMD and a vertebral fracture.

  8. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    values decreased with age (P shoulder BMD levels increased significantly with increased body mass index (BMI) (P positive relationship between the increased hip/shoulder BMD differential with BMI supports the conclusion that the shoulder is subject......The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... of osteoporosis compared with hip scans, the latter representing a weight-bearing part of the skeleton. We developed a scanning procedure, including a shoulder fixation device, and determined the most appropriate software in order to establish a reference material with the highest possible precision. Duplicate...

  9. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeong Han; Kam, Shin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  10. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  11. A hospital based study of biochemical markers of bone turnovers & bone mineral density in north Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Devi, Salam Gyaneshwori; Mittal, Soniya; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: The osteoporotic risk for women increases soon after menopause. Bone turnover markers are known to be associated with bone loss and fracture risk. This study was aimed to assess bone turnover using bone markers and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD) in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: A total of 255 healthy women (160 pre- and 95 post-menopausal) were enrolled. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP) and serum N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were measured to evaluate the bone formation and resorption, respectively. Bone mineral density was determined at lumbar spine (L2-L4) anteroposteriorly, femoral neck and Ward's triangle using Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. The comparison of years since menopause with respect to BMD and bone markers was also evaluated. Results: NTX and sBAP showed significant negative correlation with BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle in postmenopausal women. BMD of all three sides were significant variables for NTX and BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle for sBAP in postmenopausal women. BMD lumbar spine was a significant variable for sBAP in premenopausal women. The mean values of NTX increased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. The BMD of all three sides decreased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. Interpretation & conclusions: Serum NTX and sBAP were inversely correlated to BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle in post-menopausal women. Simultaneous measurements of NTX and BMD in the north Indian women, suggest that bone resorption in women with low BMD remains high after menopause. PMID:23481051

  12. Intravenous pamidronate in combination with calcium and vitamin D: highly effective in the treatment of low bone mineral density in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Deley, Maartje; van der Spek, Mirjam; Verberne, Hein J.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; Hommes, Daniel W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and an increased risk of fractures has been reported. Guidelines state bisphosphonate treatment for IBD patients with decreased BMD, but orally available bisphosphonates have been associated with

  13. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Othman, Saleh M.; Fouda, Mona A.

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  14. Low Bone Mineral Density Risk Factors and Testing Patterns in Institutionalized Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mailee; Campagna, Elizabeth J.; Jensen, Kristin M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual or developmental disability (ID/DD) have multiple risks for low bone mineral density (BMD) without formal guidelines to guide testing. We sought to identify risk factors and patterns of BMD testing among institutionalized adults with ID/DD. Methods: We evaluated risk factors for low BMD (Z-/T-score < -1) and…

  15. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  16. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  17. The effect of bisphosphonates on bone mineral density in patients with ankylosing spondylitis in daily clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, S.; Veneberg, J.G.; Wink, F.R.; Bos, R.; Brouwer, E.; Van Der Veer, E.; Bootsma, H.; Van Roon, E.N.; Maas, F.; Spoorenberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not only characterized by excessive bone formation, but also by excessive bone loss which may lead to low bone mineral density (BMD). So far, little is known about the effect of treatment with bisphosphonates on BMD in patients with AS. Objectives: To

  18. Effect of short-term upper-body resistance training on muscular strength, bone metabolic markers, and BMD in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang MT

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael TC Liang,1 Lorena Quezada,1 WY Jamie Lau,1 Bulent Sokmen,2 Thomas W Spalding11Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USAAbstract: To examine the effect of a 10-week upper-body resistance training program on bone turnover markers and site-specific bone mineral density (BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius in untrained and healthy young premenopausal women.Methods: Twenty-two subjects (aged 22.1 ± 1.8 years were randomly assigned to a resistance training (n = 12 or no training control (n = 10 group. The following outcome variables were measured before and after 10 weeks of resistance training: (1 bone formation biomarker osteocalcin, and bone resorption biomarker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b; (2 BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius; (3 isokinetic strength of the elbow and knee extensors and flexors; (4 dynamic strength of the arm extensors and flexors; and (5 maximum number of push-ups.Results: The 10-week upper body resistance training intervention resulted in improved strength performance in push-ups (resistance training versus control: P < 0.05, chest presses (P < 0.05, and pulldowns (P < 0.05. However, there was no improvement in the BMD of the wrist (P > 0.05, BMD of the distal half of the ulna and radius (P > 0.05, and metabolic biomarkers osteocalcin (P > 0.05 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (P > 0.05, except for the osteocalcin/tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b ratio. Also, no improvement in the resistance training group was observed for isokinetic strength of the knee and elbow flexion/extension.Conclusion: Upper-body muscular strength performance, but not bone metabolic markers and BMD of the wrist, can be improved with a 10-week upper body resistance training program of the nonweight-bearing limbs in

  19. Prevalence and clinical determinants of low bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Marielle; Landewé-Cleuren, Sabine; Wojciechowski, Franz; Kruseman, Arie Nieuwenhuijzen

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of low bone mass in anorexia nervosa (AN) and the association with clinical parameters. A cross-sectional study on 286 Caucasian women with AN. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with DXA. Low BMD was defined as a Z-score ever (pyear between highest BMI ever and BMI at time of DXA was more rapid in subjects with a normal BMD (p=0.016) as compared to patients with low BMD. Low BMD was found to be independently associated with 'lowest BMI ever' (OR: 0.78; 95%CI=0.66-0.93), and with 'BMI decline per year' (OR: 0.83; 95%CI=0.71-0.97). We conclude that low BMD is frequent in AN. The best indicator of low BMD appeared to be the lowest reported BMI ever.

  20. Influence of Ghrelin and Adipocytokines on Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Female Athletes with Amenorrhea and Eumenorrheic Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic at...

  1. Low bone mineral density in achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Kadono, Izumi; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH) are the most common form of short-limb skeletal dysplasias caused by activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling. Although decreased bone mass was reported in gain-of-function mutation in Fgfr3 mice, both disorders have never been described as osteoporotic. In the present study, we evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) in ACH and HCH patients. We measured spinal BMD (L1-L4) in 18 ACH and four HCH patients with an average age of 19.8 ± 7.5 years (range, 10-33 years). BMD Z-score in each individual was calculated for normalizing age and gender. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD was analyzed. Moreover, BMD and Z-score were compared between ACH patients and HCH patients. The average BMD of ACH/HCH patients was 0.805 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) (range, 0.554-1.056 g/cm(2) ), resulting in an average Z-score of -1.1 ± 0.8 (range, -2.4 to 0.6) of the standard value. A slightly positive correlation was observed between BMI and BMD (r = 0.45; P = 0.13). There was no significant difference in BMD and Z-score between ACH and HCH patients. Spinal BMD was reduced in ACH/HCH patients, and was mildly correlated with individual BMI. We should carefully monitor BMD and examine osteoporosis-related symptoms in adolescent and adult ACH/HCH patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Reduced bone mineral density in Chinese children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kundi; Shen, Ming; Li, Honglei; Li, Xiaowen; He, Chun

    2017-05-24

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. Dietary control of classic PKU needs restriction of natural proteins. The diet results in unbalanced nutrition, which might affect the physical development of the patients. Our aim was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children with PKU. To investigate the BMD of children with PKU, 41 children with PKU and 64 healthy controls were recruited (all 3-4 years of age). Body weight and height, BMD, Phe blood levels, thyroid function, calcium, phosphorus, iron metabolism markers, and vitamin D3 were measured. Body height and BMD of patients were lower than in controls. The BMD of controls was positively associated with age, body weight and height. In patients, BMD was positively associated with body weight. There was no correlation between Phe blood levels and BMD in patients. Blood levels of alkaline phosphatase were higher in patients compared to controls. Blood calcium levels were higher in 4-year-old patients, while the body weight was lower compared to controls. Thyroid function, iron metabolism markers, vitamin D3 levels and IGF-1 levels were normal. Reduced BMD was observed in children with phenylketonuria, but the exact reasons for this remain to be elucidated.

  3. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different types of bone strength are required for various ... To statically analyse various methods to find BMD and related material ... bone study for research purpose. ..... and Dagoberto Vela Arvizo 2007 A qualitative stress analysis of a cross ...

  4. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  5. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured by DXA and RBAE. There was a strong correlation between BMD values measured by QCT and those measured by DXA (R2=0.85); correlation was also observed between values obtained by QCT and those obtained by RBAE (R2=0.61). To investigate changes in BMD with age, 37 right metacarpal bones, including 7 from horses euthanized because of fracture were examined by QCT. The BMD value of samples from horses dramatically increased until 2 years of age and then plateaued, a pattern similar to the growth curve. The BMD values of bone samples from horses euthanized because of fracture were within the population range, and samples of morbid fracture were not included. The relationship between BMD and age provides a reference for further quantitative studies of bone development and remodeling. Quantitative measurement of BMD using QCT may have great potential for the evaluation of bone biology for breeding and rearing management. PMID:26435681

  6. Effects of obesity and diabetes on rate of bone density loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, W D; Morin, S N; Majumdar, S R; Lix, L M

    2018-01-01

    In this large registry-based study, women with diabetes had marginally greater bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the femoral neck but not at other measurement sites, whereas obesity was not associated with greater BMD loss. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rapid BMD loss explains the increased fracture risk associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity observed in prior studies. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) which may be less protective against fracture than previously assumed. Inconsistent data suggest that rapid BMD loss may be a contributing factor. We examined the rate of BMD loss in women with diabetes and/or obesity in a population-based BMD registry for Manitoba, Canada. We identified 4960 women aged ≥ 40 years undergoing baseline and follow-up BMD assessments (mean interval 4.3 years) without confounding medication use or large weight fluctuation. We calculated annualized rate of BMD change for the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck in relation to diagnosed diabetes and body mass index (BMI) category. Baseline age-adjusted BMD was greater in women with diabetes and for increasing BMI category (all P obese women but BMI did not significantly affect hip BMD loss.

  7. Quantification of bone mineral density at 3rd lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ono, Shimato

    1987-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD), by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA), at the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L 3 ) was measured in healthy subjects (37 males and 49 females). BMD values on 1 slice of vertebral body (L 3 ), employed as a routine, showed good correlation to the mean BMD values, calculated from multiple slices of whole L 3 . BMD values, by DPA, at L 3 were better correlation to concentrations of bone mineral equivalent material, by quantitative computed tomography, at the trabecular bone of L 3 than to BMD values, by single photon absorptiometry, at distal radius (predominantly cortical bone). Furthermore, by this DPA technique, bone diminution at L 3 with aging was shown in both sexes. These data suggest that measurements of BMD by DPA is greatly useful for evaluating the spinal bone mineral content. (author)

  8. Dual-energy digital radiography for the assessment of bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvanainen, Paeivi S.; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Tervonen, Osmo; Jaemsae, Timo; Nieminen, Miika T. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Oulu, Oulu (Finland)), e-mail: paivi.tahvanainen@oulu.fi; Pulkkinen, Pasi (Dept. of Medical Technology, Univ. of Oulu, Oulu (Finland))

    2010-06-15

    Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) is usually determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Digital radiography (DR) has enabled the application of dual-energy techniques for separating bone and soft tissue, but it is not clear yet whether BMD information can reliably be obtained using DR. Purpose: To determine the ability of dual-energy digital radiography (DEDR) to predict BMD as determined by DXA. Material and Methods: Reindeer femora (n=15) were imaged in a water bath at a typical clinical imaging voltage of 79 kVp and additionally at 100 kVp on a DR system. BMD was determined in four segmented regions (femoral neck, trochanter, inter-trochanter, Ward's triangle) from these images using the DXA calculation principle. BMD results as determined by DEDR were compared with BMD values as determined by DXA. Results: Significant moderate to high linear correlations (0.66-0.76) were observed at the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter between BMD values as determined by the two techniques. The coefficient of variation (CVRMS) ranged between 2.2 and 4.7% and 0.2 and 1.8% for DEDR and DXA analyses, respectively. Conclusion: DXA-based BMD information can be obtained with moderate precision and accuracy using DEDR. In future, combining BMD measurements using DEDR with structural and geometrical information available on digital radiographs could enable a more comprehensive assessment of bone . Keywords: BMD, DXA, bone assessment

  9. Epistasis between QTLs for bone density variation in Copenhagen × dark agouti F2 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, Daniel L.; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, o...

  10. Quantification of bone mineral density at 3rd lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ono, Shimato; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Muranaka, Akira; Furukawa, Takako; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    To know bone mineral content of both cortical and spongy bones with aging and pathologic changes, bone mineral density (BMD) in the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) and distal radius (DR) was measured using dual photon absorptiometry and single photon absorptiometry, respectively, in 151 normal subjects (N) and four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). In the N group, BMD in both L3 and DR decreased with aging. This was more noted, and occurred earlier in L3, irrespective of sex, than DR. In three PHP patients manifested as bone type, BMD was high in L3, and low in DR. Such a tendency was not seen in the remaining one patient with stone type PHP. The findings suggest the need to measure BMD in both cortical (L3) and spongy (DR) bones for elucidating bone pathophysiology in metabolic bone disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase and calcaneus bone density predict fractures: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P D; Kress, B C; Parson, R E; Wasnich, R D; Armour, K A; Mizrahi, I A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), creatinine-corrected urinary collagen crosslinks (CTx) and calcaneus bone mineral density (BMD) to identify postmenopausal women who have an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Calcaneus BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum bone ALP and urinary CTx) were measured in 512 community-dwelling postmenopausal women (mean age at baseline 69 years) participating in the Hawaii Osteoporosis Study. New spine and nonspine fractures subsequent to the BMD and biochemical bone markers measurements were recorded over an average of 2.7 years. Lateral spinal radiographs were used to identify spine fractures. Nonspine fractures were identified by self-report at the time of each examination. During the 2.7-year follow-up, at least one osteoporotic fracture occurred in 55 (10.7%) of the 512 women. Mean baseline serum bone ALP and urinary CTx were significantly higher among women who experienced an osteoporotic fracture compared with those women who did not fracture. In separate age-adjusted logistic regression models, serum bone ALP, urinary CTx and calcaneus BMD were each significantly associated with new fractures (odds ratios of 1.53, 1.54 and 1.61 per SD, respectively). Multiple variable logistic regression analysis identified BMD and serum bone ALP as significant predictors of fracture (p = 0.002 and 0.017, respectively). The results from this investigation indicate that increased bone turnover is significantly associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women. This association is similar in magnitude and independent of that observed for BMD.

  12. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I. E.; Teixeira, N.; Abma, E. M.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Mourits, M. J. E.; de Bock, G. H.

    Background Oophorectomy is recommended for women at increased risk for ovarian cancer. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. Objective To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  13. Correlations between insulin sensitivity and bone mineral density in non-diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Rohold, A.; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate relationships between bone mineral density (BMD), insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, controlling for body composition, in view of data suggesting that hyperglycaemia [corrected] leads to decreased osteoblast proliferation and a negative calcium balance and that insulin...

  14. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-15

    Sep 15, 2011 ... Cost and Burden of Osteoporosis in 2011), released ... Women who had a forearm BMD below this threshold were ~10 times more likely to have osteoporosis of the spine. ..... assessing bone density, cost and effectiveness.

  15. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkaoui Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT in carotid artery (CA and femoral artery (FA. Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33, Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30 and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28 while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in

  16. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.D.; Graham, J.; Farnell, D.J.J.; Harrison, E.J.; Jacobs, R.; Nicopoulou-Karyianni, K.; Lindh, C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Horner, K.; Devlin, H.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  17. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8...

  18. Long-term hormone replacement therapy preserves bone mineral density in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Hjerrild, Britta E; Lauridsen, Anna L

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures are present in many women with Turner syndrome (TS). OBJECTIVE: Examine longitudinal changes in BMD in TS and relate changes to biochemical parameters. DESIGN: Prospective, pragmatic, and observational study. Examinations...

  19. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77

  20. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  1. Relationships of muscle strength and bone mineral density in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-L; Lin, K-C; Wu, C-Y; Ke, J-Y; Wang, C-J; Chen, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The knee extensor strength, but not motor function, was related to aBMD. Thus, muscle strength, especially antigravity muscle strength, was more associated with aBMD in these children than motor function. Muscle strength is related to bone density in normal children. However, no studies have examined these relationships in ambulatory children with CP. This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and aBMD in ambulatory children with CP. Forty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP, aged 5-15 years, were classified into two groups based on Gross Motor Function Classification System levels: I (n = 28) and II (n = 20). Another 31 normal development (ND) children were recruited as the comparison group for the aBMD. Children with CP underwent assessments of growth, lumbar and distal femur aBMD, Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66), and muscle strength of knee extensor and flexor by isokinetic dynamometer. The distal femur aBMD, but not lumbar aBMD, was lower in children with CP than in ND children (p antigravity muscle strength, were more associated with the bone density of ambulatory children with CP than motor function. The data may allow clinicians for early identifying the ambulatory CP children of potential low bone density.

  2. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to establish a triage cut-off point or threshold for peripheral bone mineral density (BMD), applicable to black postmenopausal women, and that could be used as a screening method to differentiate between women with normal BMD, and those with possible central osteoporosis.

  3. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8) for a...

  4. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown.

  5. Effects of mometasone, fluticasone, and montelukast on bone mineral density in adults with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maspero, Jorge; Backer, Vibeke; Yao, Ruji

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with bone mineral density (BMD) loss have not been characterized consistently. OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind study assessed effects of mometasone furoate (MF) administered via dry powder inhaler on BMD of patients with persisten...

  6. Bone mineral density and body composition in Noonan's syndrome: effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, C.; Span, J.; van Rijn, R. R.; Gomes-Jardin, E.; van Kuijk, C.; Otten, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in children with Noonan's syndrome (NS) before and during growth hormone (GH) treatment. Sixteen children (12 boys, 4 girls) with NS aged 5.8-14.2 (mean 10.0) years were studied for 2 years. Anthropometry, BMD measurements by radiographic

  7. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) treated with GH during the transition period. Methods: BMD and body composition, measured by dual-energy X-ray

  8. Bone mineral density among elderly patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is one of the major extra-pulmonary manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which limits the physical activity. The present study was undertaken to study the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in the elderly COPD patients. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  9. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  10. Prior ankle fractures in postmenopausal women are associated with low areal bone mineral density and bone microstructure alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier, C; Chevalley, T; Herrmann, F R; Ferrari, S; Rizzoli, R

    2015-08-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis in postmenopausal women, prior ankle fractures were associated with lower areal bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone alterations compared to no fracture history. Compared to women with forearm fractures, microstructure alterations were of lower magnitude. These data suggest that ankle fractures are another manifestation of bone fragility. Whether ankle fractures represent fragility fractures associated with low areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and/or bone microstructure alterations remains unclear, in contrast to the well-recognised association between forearm fractures and osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate aBMD, vBMD and bone microstructure in postmenopausal women with prior ankle fracture in adulthood, compared with women without prior fracture or with women with prior forearm fractures, considered as typically of osteoporotic origin. In a cross-sectional analysis in the Geneva Retirees Cohort study, 63 women with ankle fracture and 59 with forearm fracture were compared to 433 women without fracture (mean age, 65 ± 1 years). aBMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; distal radius and tibia vBMD and bone microstructure were measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Compared with women without fracture, those with ankle fractures had lower aBMD, radius vBMD (-7.9%), trabecular density (-10.7%), number (-7.3%) and thickness (-4.6%) and higher trabecular spacing (+14.5%) (P ankle fractures were 2.2 and 1.6, respectively, vs 2.2 and 2.7 for forearm fracture, respectively (P ≤ 0.001 for all). Compared to women with forearm fractures, those with ankle fractures had similar spine and hip aBMD, but microstructure alterations of lower magnitude. Women with ankle fractures have lower aBMD and vBMD and trabecular bone alterations, suggesting that ankle fractures are another manifestation of bone fragility.

  11. Association of unipedal standing time and bone mineral density in community-dwelling Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A; Toba, N; Takeda, M; Suzuki, M; Abe, Y; Aoyagi, K; Nakamura, T

    2009-05-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with age. In community-dwelling Japanese women, unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD while in women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is associated with BMD. The aim of this study was to clarify whether unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD in community-dwelling women. The subjects were 90 community-dwelling Japanese women aged 54.7 years. BMD of the second metacarpal bone was measured by computed X-ray densitometry. We measured unipedal standing time as well as timed up and go test to assess physical performance of the lower extremities. Unipedal standing time decreased with increased age. Timed up and go test significantly correlated with age. Low BMD was significantly associated with old age, short unipedal standing time, and long timed up and go test. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that age, unipedal standing time, and timed up and go test were significant factors associated with BMD. In 21 participants aged 70 years and over, body weight and unipedal standing time, but not age, were significantly associated with BMD. BMD and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with older age. Unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD in community-dwelling Japanese women. In women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD.

  12. Peak bone mass and bone mineral density correlates for 9 to 24 year-old Mexican women, using corrected BMD Pico mineral óseo y factores asociados a la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres mexicanas de 9 a 24 años de edad usando densidad mineral ósea corregida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Torres-Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of peak bone mass (PBM in Mexican women and factors associated with both BMDa and corrected BMD (BMDcorr at the femoral neck and the spine (L2-L4. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 461 women between 9 and 24 years old was used. An interview was performed and height and weight were measured. BMDa was measured by a densitometer and BMDcorr by the method proposed by Kröger et al. (1992. RESULTS: PBM at the spine (L2-L4 was observed later than at the femoral neck. Both BMDa and BMDcorr at the lumbar spine correlate with age, socio-economic status, body fat percentage and height. BMDa at the femoral neck correlates with overweight and obesity, body fat percentage, height and moderate physical activity; the same variables were associated with BMDcorr except for height. CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed by Kröger et al. was more precise at the femoral neck than at the spine.OBJETIVO: Determinar la edad del pico de masa ósea (PMO y los factores asociados a DMOa y a DMOcorr del cuello femoral y de la columna vertebral (L2-L4 en mujeres mexicanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de 461 mujeres de 9 a 24 años de edad. La DMO se midió mediante un densitómetro y la DMOcorr mediante el método propuesto por Kröger et al. (1992. RESULTADOS: El PMO en la columna vertebral (L2-L4 se observó más tarde que en el cuello femoral. A la DMOa y DMOcorr de la columna se asociaron: edad, estado socio económico, porcentaje de grasa corporal y la talla. A DMOa del cuello femoral se asociaron: sobrepeso y obesidad, porcentaje de grasa corporal, talla y actividad física moderada; las mismas variables se asociaron con la DMOcorr excepto talla. CONCLUSIONES: El método propuesto por Kröger et al. fue más preciso para el cuello femoral que para la columna.

  13. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  14. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  15. Increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzibegovic, I.; Miskic, B.; Prvulovic, D.; Bistrovic, D.; Cosic, V.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus have shown conflicting results. We conducted this study to determine whether postmenopausal women with diabetes have higher BMD than non-diabetic women of similar age and to investigate the relationship between BMD and relevant clinical characteristics in these groups of women. We retrospectively analyzed lumbar spine, femoral neck and radius BMD data and other relevant clinical data for 130 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 166 non-diabetic women collected during a voluntary screening for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without a history of low bone mass or osteoporotic fractures. Women with type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly higher mean lumbar spine BMD (0.903 +-0.165 vs. 0.824+-0.199, respectively, P<0.001) and mean femoral neck BMD (0.870+-0.132 vs. 0.832+-0.134, respectively, P<0.05) than non-diabetic women. In both groups of women, age correlated negatively with BMD levels at all three anatomical sites. Higher body mass index was associated only with higher lumber spine BMD in both groups. Alkaline phosphatase levels showed a negative correlation with BMD at all sites in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher BMD levels than non-diabetic women with similar clinical characteristics and require a more scrutinized approach in managing low bone mass. (author)

  16. Determinants of low bone mineral density in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Choong Yi; Kong, Ann Nie; Noordin, Mazidah; Poh, Bee Koon; Ong, Lai Choo; Ng, Ching Ching

    2018-01-01

    Children with epilepsy on long-term antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at risk of low bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of low BMD among Malaysian children with epilepsy. Cross-sectional study of ambulant children with epilepsy on long-term AEDs for >1 year seen in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from 2014 to 2015. Detailed assessment of anthropometric measurements; environmental lifestyle risk factors; serum vitamin D, calcium and parathyroid hormone levels; genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes in vitamin D and calcium metabolism; and lumbar spine BMD were obtained. Low BMD was defined as BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0 SD. Eighty-seven children with mean age of 11.9 years (56 males) participated in the study. The prevalence of low lumbar BMD was 21.8% (19 patients). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified polytherapy >2 AEDs (OR: 7.86; 95% CI 1.03-59.96), small frame size with wrist breadth of 2 AEDs, underweight or with small frame size as they are at higher risk of having low BMD. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of optimal X-ray exposure conditions in consideration of bone mineral density. Relation between bone mineral density and image contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) increases through infancy and adolescence, reaching a maximum at 20-30 years of age. Thereafter, BMD gradually decreases with age in both sexes. The image contrast of radiographs of bones varies with the change in BMD owing to the changes in the X-ray absorption of bone. The image contrast of bone generally is higher in the young adult than in the older adult. To examine the relation between BMD and image visibility, we carried out the following experiments. We measured the image contrast of radiographs of a lumbar vertebra phantom in which BMD was equivalent to the average BMD for each developmental period. We examined image visibility at various levels of imaging contrast using the Howlett chart. The results indicated that differences in BMD affect the image contrast of radiographs, and, consequently, image visibility. It was also found that image visibility in the young adult was higher than that in the older adult. The findings showed that, in digital radiography of young adults with high BMD, X-ray exposure can be decreased according the ratio of improvement in image visibility. (author)

  18. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desouki, M. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jurayyan, N. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-02-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (``superscan``) in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm{sup 2}(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm {sup 2}(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Proximal tibia volumetric bone mineral density is correlated to the magnitude of local acceleration in male long-distance runners

    OpenAIRE

    Dériaz, Olivier; Najafi, Bijan; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Crettenand, Antoinette; Gobelet, Charles; Aminian, Kamiar; Rizzoli, René; Gremion, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The beneficial effect of physical exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) is at least partly explained by the forces exerted directly on the bones. Male runners present generally higher BMD than sedentary individuals. We postulated that the proximal tibia BMD is related to the running distance, as well as to the magnitude of the shocks (while running) in male runners. A prospective study (three yearly measurements) included 81 healthy male subjects: 16 sedentary lean subjects, and 3 groups of ...

  20. High-density polymorphisms analysis of 23 candidate genes for association with bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Sylvie; Elfassihi, Latifa; Clément, Valérie; Bussières, Johanne; Bureau, Alexandre; Cole, David E C; Rousseau, François

    2010-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), a highly heritable and polygenic trait. Women are more prone than men to develop osteoporosis due to a lower peak bone mass and accelerated bone loss at menopause. Peak bone mass has been convincingly shown to be due to genetic factors with heritability up to 80%. Menopausal bone loss has been shown to have around 38% to 49% heritability depending on the site studied. To have more statistical power to detect small genetic effects we focused on premenopausal women. We studied 23 candidate genes, some involved in calcium and vitamin-D regulation and others because estrogens strongly induced their gene expression in mice where it was correlated with humerus trabecular bone density. High-density polymorphisms were selected to cover the entire gene variability and 231 polymorphisms were genotyped in a first sample of 709 premenopausal women. Positive associations were retested in a second, independent, sample of 673 premenopausal women. Ten polymorphisms remained associated with BMD in the combined samples and one was further associated in a large sample of postmenopausal women (1401 women). This associated polymorphism was located in the gene CSF3R (granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor) that had never been associated with BMD before. The results reported in this study suggest a role for CSF3R in the determination of bone density in women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. BMD improvements after operation for primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolighed, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Heickendorff, Lene

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) changes following surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and to assess their relationship with clinical and biochemical variables. METHODS: A historic cohort of 236 PHPT patients with DXA scans pre- and 1-year...... postoperatively, clinical data, and biochemical data was analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age was 60 years (range 19-86) and 81 % of the patients were women. A significant postoperative 2.6 % (95 % CI, 2.1; 3.1) increase in lumbar spine BMD was seen. The increase in BMD was positively associated with preoperative...

  2. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  3. Assessment of bone mineral density in young female handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathyane Krahenbühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing bone mass gain during childhood and adolescence may help prevent bone diseases in advanced ages. The aim of this study was to verify the bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC in female adolescent’s handball players. This is a cross-sectional study where 68 female adolescents (12–17 years were allocated into two groups: handball players (n = 29 (HG and control group (n = 39 (CG. BMC and BMD from total body (TB, total body less head (TBLH, lumbar spine (L1–L4, femoral neck (FN, Ward’s triangle (WT and respectively Z-scores were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Sexual maturity, menarche, PHV, time of sun exposure, physical activity level and Calcium and vitamin D intake were assessed. The HG showed significantly higher BMC, BMD as well Z-scores values (p≤0.05 of total body, TBLH, femoral neck, hip and lumbar spine than the CG. When the values were adjusted for lean soft tissue (LST the HG showed significantly higher BMC of femoral neck (p≤0.05, as well as BMD of TBLH and femoral neck (p≤0.05 and Z-score values all bone sites except hip, than the CG. We conclude that handball players have significantly higher bone mass values compared to group of girls of the same age.

  4. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon

    2008-01-01

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8±6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8±7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1±6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0±9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1±2.7 kg/m 2 . 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged ≥50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged ≥40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  5. Combination of Micro nutrients for Bone (COMB) Study: Bone Density after Micro nutrient Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genuis, S.J.; Bouchard, Th.P.

    2012-01-01

    Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micro nutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD). After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micro nutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micro nutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bis phosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micro nutrient protocol. This micro nutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bis phosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy

  6. Bone mineral density of girls with idiopathic scoliosis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameri E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have suggested higher incidence of osteoporosis in patients with idiopathic scoliosis in comparison with the normal population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low bone mass among adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study performed in shafa Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2011-2012, we recruited fifty-seven 12- to-20-year old girls with idiopathic scoliosis and compared them with 100 age-matched healthy girls. The patients had no other diseases including neuromuscular disorders, congenital vertebral anomalies or a history of spinal surgery. Bone mineral densities (BMD of the hip and spine were evaluated and compared in all 157 participants using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Standard BMD (sBMD was also calculated at the lumbar spine. Results: Analysis of the data revealed that hip BMD was significantly (P=0.004 lower in patients with idiopathic scoliosis versus the controls. Moreover, BMD and sBMD of the Spine were also significantly lower in the patients (respectively, P=0.030 and P=0.030. Curve location had no effect on the values of hip BMD, spine BMD or spine sBMD (respectively, P=0.061 and P=0.274 and P=0.208.Finally, with more severe curves a lower bone mass was detected for sBMD and spine BMD (respectively, P=0.017 and P=0.016, but it was not significant for hip BMD (P=0.069.Conclusion: Adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis had lower bone mass compared with their healthy peers. The lower bone mass was correlated with the severity of the curve but not its location.

  7. Effect of zoledronic acid on bone density and markers of bone turnover in a community clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ria; Zailskas, Susan; Goldsby, Tashauna U; Lukens, Carrie; Muravev, Rostislav; Dulipsingh, Latha

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to document the efficacy of zoledronic acid by comparing bone densities and markers of bone turnover, in patients with osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) and urinary N-telopeptide, a marker of bone turnover, were compared before and after treatment with intravenous zoledronic acid. 52 participants had atleast two doses of zoledronic acid over 36 months. Significant increases in BMD were found in the spine (t=4.38, Pturnover marker N-telopeptide (t=3.30, P=0.002). Small but significant correlations were determined between prior steroid use and change in BMD in the spine (r=0.35, P<0.05), and family history of osteoporosis and change in BMD in the right femur (r=0.38, P<0.05). Annual infusions of zoledronic acid for at least two years, revealed a significant increase in bone density at the spine and a decrease in urinary N-telopeptide in patients treated at our center.

  8. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

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    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  9. Bone Density Characteristics and Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Mendes, Nara; Russell, Melissa; Herzog, David B.; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common during adolescence, a time period characterized by rapid bone mineral accrual. MDD has recently been associated with lower bone mineral density in adults. Our objective was to determine whether MDD is associated with bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, vitamin D and gonadal steroids in adolescents. Methods Sixty five adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (32 boys: 16 with MDD and 16 controls, and 33 girls: 17 with MDD and 16 controls) were included in a cross-sectional study. BMD and body composition were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Estradiol, testosterone, 25-OH vitamin D levels and P1NP, a marker of bone formation, and CTX, a marker of bone resorption, were measured. Results Boys with MDD had significantly lower BMD at the hip (Mean [SD] of 0.99 [0.17] vs. 1.04 [0.18] g/cm2; BMI-adjusted p=0.005) and femoral neck (0.92 [0.17] vs. 0.94 [0.17] g/cm2; adjusted; BMI-adjusted p=0.024) compared to healthy controls after adjusting for BMI. This significant finding was maintained after also adjusting for lean mass and bone age (hip: p=0.007; femoral neck: p=0.020). In girls, there were no significant differences in BMD between the girls with MDD and the controls after adjusting for BMI (p-values>.17). Conclusions Male adolescents with MDD have significantly lower BMD as compared to healthy controls after adjusting for body mass and maturity. This association is not observed in girls. PMID:23362498

  10. Genetic and Dynamic Analyses of Murine Peak Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    bone density in mice. Femurs from young adult B6, C3H, and CAST females at 4 months of age were measured by pQCT (XCT-960M, Norland Med Sys., Ft...progenitor strains - B6, C3H, and CAST - showed that adult skeletal peak BMD was established at 4 months. Therefore, F2 mice were necropsied at 4...calcium depletion causes hypocalcemia , which leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, subsequently resulting in increased bone resorption. Conversely

  11. Gene-dietary fat interaction, bone mineral density and bone speed of sound in Children: a twin study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ji; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Scope Dietary fat correlates with bone mineral density (BMD). We tested the association between fat intake and BMD, and tested if fat intake modified the degree of genetic influence on BMD and bone speed of sound (SOS). Methods and results We included 622 twins aged 7–15 y from South China. Data on anthropometry, dietary intake, BMD, and SOS were collected. Quantitative genetic analyses of structural equation models were fit using the Mx statistical package. The within-pair intra-class correlations (ICC) for BMD in DZ twins were nearly half of that for MZ twins (ICC=0.39 vs 0.70). The heritability of BMD and SOS were 71% and 79%. Phenotypic correlation between fat intake and SOS was significant (r=−0.19, p=0.04). SOS was negatively correlated with fat intake in boys (r=−0.11, p=0.05), but not in girls. Full Cholesky decomposition models showed SOS has a strong genetic correlation with fat intake (rA =−0.88, 95% CI=−0.94, 0.01); the environmental correlation between fat intake and SOS was weak (rE =−0.04, 95% CI=−0.20, 0.13). Fat intake modified the additive genetic effects on BMD. Conclusion Genetic factors explained 71% and 79% of individual variance in BMD and SOS, respectively. Low fat intake counteracts genetic predisposition to low BMD. PMID:25546604

  12. Determination of bone mineral density at distal radius measured by single photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Hitomi, Go; Murakami, Akihiko; Suemori, Shinji; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Ishii, Koshi; Hiji, Hiroo

    1988-01-01

    We have discussed the index of the bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal radius measured by single photon absorptiometry. Initially, the shape at the distal radius was evaluated using an X-ray photogram of the forearm and a calculation formula of the cross-sectional area at the distal radius was performed using an X-CT photogram of the forearm. A new index for the bone mineral density (modified BMD, mBMD), bone mineral content/cross-sectional area, at the distal radius was obtained for 154 young normal subjects (20 ∼ 44 yrs.). No significant differences in the mBMD values between young normal males and females, except for the group 20 ∼ 24 year-old group, were observed. Furthermore, a significantly decreased in the mBMD values with aging was observed in females between the ages of 20 ∼ 24 and 40 ∼ 44. However, no significant changes in the mBMD values were recognized in the men. Thus, it was shown that the new BMD index, mBMD, was useful for evaluating the changes of the bone mass. (author)

  13. Bone mineral density in immigrants from southern China to Denmark. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Wang, S; Overgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Immigration from Japan to USA has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat in women. The effects of immigration between other geographical areas on bone mass and body composition are largely unknown, especially in men. In the present study, we measured bone mass and body...... composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-2000) in 73 healthy premenopausal women (age 35 +/- 8 years) and 69 men (age 40 +/- 12 years) who had immigrated from southern China to Denmark 2 months to 36 years ago. The BMD measurements (Total BMD, trunk BMD and leg BMD) were related positively...... to years since immigration (YSI) (R2 = 0.10-0.16, p women, but not in men. Fat distribution was related mainly to age in both premenopausal women and men (R2 = 0.16-0.26, p women (age 36 +/- 6 years). Chinese...

  14. Risk factors for low bone density in pediatric nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Disturbances in bone mineral metabolism and side effects of corticosteroid treatment may cause decreased bone density in patients v.ith nephrotic syndrome (NS. Objectives To compare the prevalence oflow bone mineral density (BMD in children with and 'Without NS and to assess the effect of corticosteroid treatment on bone density in NS patients.  Methods We conducted a retrospective, cohort study in children aged 5-18 years diagnosed 'With NS for more than 2 months prior to data collection, and in children v.ithout NS as a control. BMD was assessed on calcaneal bone wlith ultrasound bone densitometry. Serum calcium, albumin, creatinine and phosphate levels were also assessed. Results The prevalence of low BMD was significantly higher in NS patients than nonNS subjects, 73.3% (22 in 30 vs. 33% (11 in 33, respectively. The prevalence ratio was 6.3 (95% CI 2.1 to 18.9. NS patients had lower serum calcium levels, With mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.27 to -0.07 mMollL, P<0.009, and lower serum albumin, with mean difference of  -0.88 (95% CI -1.27 to -0.49 gIL; PBMD. Steroid-resistant and steroid-dependent patients had lower BMD than steroid-sensitive subjects (P=0.02. There was also a significant correlation between the onset of corticosteroid treatment and BMD (r=O.3; P=0.02. Conclusions NS patients had higher risk for low BMD compared to normal subjects. Response to steroid treatment influences the severity of impaired bone density.

  15. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  16. Bone mineral density in adults with Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K.; Sakadamis, A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 ± 4.45 and 23.65 ± 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 ± 3.46 and 23.86 ± 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.)

  17. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

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    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  18. Bone mineral density and effects of growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind van Wijngaarden, R.F. de; Festen, D.A.M.; Otten, B.J.; Mil, E.G. van; Rotteveel, J.J.; Odink, R.J.; Leeuwen, M. van; Haring, D.A.; Bocca, G.; Mieke Houdijk, E.C.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone mineral density (BMD) is unknown in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), but is decreased in adults with PWS. In patients with GH deficiency, BMD increases during GH treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate BMD in children with PWS and to study the effects

  19. Bone Mineral Density and Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment in Prepubertal Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijngaarden, Roderick F. A. de Lind; Festen, Dederieke A. M.; Otten, Barto J.; van Mil, Edgar G. A. H.; Rotteveel, Joost; Odink, Roelof J.; van Leeuwen, Mariette; Haring, Danny A. J. P.; Bocca, Gianni; Houdijk, E. C. A. Mieke; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) is unknown in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), but is decreased in adults with PWS. In patients with GH deficiency, BMD increases during GH treatment. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate BMD in children with PWS and to study the effects

  20. Development of a food group-based diet score and its association with bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de E.A.L.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Voortman, T.; Schoufour, J.D.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Rivadeneira, F.

    2015-01-01

    No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the

  1. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrada, Karol; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associ...

  2. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

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    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  3. [Effect of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and lifestyle on bone mineral density and bone mineral density decrement rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Z; Miyamura, T; Iijima, S; Asaka, A

    1995-12-01

    The effects of genetic and environmental factors on bone mineral density (BMD) were investigated in 108 healthy Japanese women. Of the 108 subjects, BMD (from the second to forth lumbar vertebrae) was measured in 1992 in 103, in 1993 in 100, and in both years in 95 by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism in intron 8 was used as a genetic marker. Information on menstruation, health status, lifestyle, quantities of nutrient intake and frequencies of food intake was obtained by questionnaire. The frequency of allele B (825bp), whose polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products cannot be cut with BsmI, was 0.259 and the frequency of allele b (650bp), whose PCR products can be cut with BsmI, was 0.741. The subjects in our study obeyed the Hardy-Weinberg law. While the frequency of allele B was 0.448 in European whites as reported by Morrison et al, it was 0.259 in our Japanese subjects, suggesting a racial difference. Z score values (average value 0, standard deviation 1) increased in the order BB, Bb and bb. This result indicates that allele B is associated with the lower BMD in Japanese, as in European whites. The BMD decrement rate increased in the order bb, Bb and BB, indicating that VDR gene polymorphism may be a regulatory factor for losing BMD. Most of lifestyle variables, calcium intake and vitamin D intake were not correlated with BMD, but the food frequency score (which was defined as values weighted in each of three food categories obtained by factor analysis) was significantly correlated with BMD. Multiple regression analysis showed significant influences of years after menopause, the food frequency score and VDR genotype on BMD. VDR genotype and years after menopause influenced the BMD decrement rate significantly in multiple regression analysis. Neither a relationship between BMD and calcium intake nor between BMD and vitamin D intake by VDR genotype was found. These results suggest that the VDR gene is a genetic factor

  4. Bone density and body composition in chronic renal failure: effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, I. M.; Boot, A. M.; Nauta, J.; Hop, W. C.; de Jong, M. C.; Lilien, M. R.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Wijk, A. E.; Pols, H. A.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease and growth retardation are common complications of chronic renal failure (CRF). We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition and growth in children with CRF, and the effect of growth hormone treatment (GHRx) on these variables. Thirty-three

  5. Parallel Assessment of Bone Mineral Density and RANKL/OPG Ratio in Saudi Females

    OpenAIRE

    AI Hassan; SA Eltarhouny; HE Hashem; SA Algaidi; AR Abdallah; AM Sandokji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a significant risk factor for morbidity, and its high prevalence among Saudi women should be considered to be a public health problem. Quantitative ultrasound was recommended for bone mineral density (BMD) screening. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and their ratio are critical for physiological bone remodelling, and related abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies. Methods: The BMD of 499 Saudi female...

  6. Bone mineral density and trabecular bone tissue quality in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are the two metabolic dise­ases with increased prevalence over last decades and a strong impact on the global morbidity and mortality have gained a status of major health threats worldwide. There is evidence that the higher body mass index (BMI values are associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD resulting in a site-specific protective effect for fragility fractures. On the other hand, higher BMI values increases incidence of falls and is associated with worse fractures consolidation. However, trabecular bone score (TBS indirectly explores bone quali­ty, independently of BMD. The aim of the study was to determine the connection between the BMD and TBS parameters in Ukrainian men suffering from obesity. Methods. We examined 396 men aged 40–89 years, by the BMI all the subjects were divided into 2 groups: Group A — with obesity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (n = 129 and Group B — without obesity and BMI < 30 kg/m2 (n = 267. The BMD of total body, lumbar spine at the site L1–L4, femur and forearm were measured by DXA (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. The TBS of L1–L4 was assessed by means of TBS iNsight (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France. Results. In general, obese men had a significantly higher BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, total body and ultradistal forearm (p < 0.001 in comparison with men without obesity. The TBS of L1–L4 was significantly lower in obese men compared to non-obese men (p < 0.001. The significant positive correlation between the fat mass and the BMD at different sites was observed. The correlation between the fat mass and TBS of L1–L4 was also significant, but negative. Conclusions. Obesity negatively affects the quality of trabecular bone, while bone mineral density was significantly higher.

  7. Evaluation of bone mineral density with dual energy quantitative computed tomography (DEQCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Yamada, Naoyuki.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate the precision and accuracy of dual energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and to investigate age-related changes of bone marrow density (BMD) in patients without metabolic disorders. Rapid kilovolt peak switching system, with which SOMATOM DR-H CT is equipped, allows dual energy scanning. KV-separated images and material-separated images were calculated from dual energy scan data. KV-separated data was regarded as single energy QCT. In phantom studies, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate solution, water, and ethanol were used to simulate bone mineral, lean soft tissue, and fat, respectively. Values of BMD obtained by dual energy scanning method had an error of 5.5% per 10% increase of fat, as compared with 12% for BMD values obtained by single energy scanning method. However, single energy scanning method had a higher precision than dual energy scanning method in determining BMD. The selection of CT section is considered most important in the clinical determination of BMD. In a study of age-related changes of BMD in the vertebral trabecular and cortical bones in 161 patients, BMD was found to have two peaks for women in their twenties and thirties, and one peak for men in their twenties. Bone marrow density rapidly declined among women aged 50 years or more. These results suggest that the content of fat in the trabecular bone may increase progressively after the age of 40, regardless of sex. (N.K.)

  8. In-vitro studies of change in edge detection with changes in bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, N.; Noakes, K.; Griffiths, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires edge detection software to identify the skeletal regions for quantitation of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). As bone mass decreases, the detection of bone edges becomes more difficult and this potentially could cause errors in DXA estimations of areal BMD or BMC. To address this issue, we have used an in-vitro model to study the effects of 'bone loss' on calculated bone area, BMD and BMC. Multiple vertebral phantoms, of equal cross-sectional area but incrementally decreased areal BMD, were constructed using calcium sulphate hemihydrate. The weight of each phantom vertebra, measured accurately using an electronic balance, was used as an index of its true 'bone mass equivalent' (BME). The phantoms were scanned and analysed in the lumbar spine mode using a Lunar DPX-L (L) and Hologic QDR-1000 (H). The changes in BME were compared to changes in measured area, BMC and areal BMD. The results demonstrate that, in an in-vitro model, as bone mass decreases, measured bone area and consequently BMC will decrease as the edge detection algorithms have greater difficulty in detecting the true edges. In conclusion, in an in-vitro model, the DXA edge detection algorithms will underestimate bone area as bone mass decreases. This has potential implications for monitoring changes in bone mass in vivo

  9. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  11. Comparison of the relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and volumetric bone mineral density in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, pBMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining areal DXA bone mineral density and vertebrae postero-anterior width improves the prediction of vertebral strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taton, Grzegorz; Rokita, Eugeniusz [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Biophysics, Krakow (Poland); Wrobel, Andrzej [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Korkosz, Mariusz [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Division of Rheumatology, Krakow (Poland)

    2013-12-15

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an important determinant of bone strength (BS), despite the fact that the correlation between aBMD and BS is relatively weak. Parameters that describe BS more accurately are desired. The aim of this study was to determine whether the geometrical corrections applied to aBMD would improve its ability for BS prediction. We considered new parameters, estimated from a single DXA measurement, as well as BMAD (bone mineral apparent density) reported in the literature. In vitro studies were performed with the L3 vertebrae from 20 cadavers, which were studied with DXA and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). A mechanical strength assessment was carried out. Two new parameters were introduced: vBMD{sub min} = (aBMD)/(W{sub PA}{sup min}) and vBMD{sub av} = (aBMD)/(W{sub PA}{sup av}) (W{sub PA}{sup min} - minimal vertebral body width in postero-anterior (PA) view, W{sub PA}{sup av} - average PA vertebral body width). Volumetric BMD measured by QCT (vBMD), aBMD, BMAD, vBMD{sub min}, and vBMD{sub av} were correlated to ultimate load and ultimate stress (P{sub max}) to find the best predictor of vertebrae BS. The coefficients of correlation between P{sub max} and vBMD{sub min}, vBMD{sub av}, as well as BMAD, were r = 0.626 (p = 0.005), r = 0.610 (p = 0.006) and r = 0.567 (p = 0.012), respectively. Coefficients for vBMD and aBMD are r = 0.648 (p = 0.003) and r = 0.511 (p = 0.03), respectively. Our results showed that aBMD normalized by vertebrae dimensions describes vertebrae BS better than aBMD alone. The considered indices vBMD{sub av}, vBMD{sub min}, and BMAD can be measured in routine PA DXA and considerably improve BS variability prediction. vBMD{sub min} is superior compared to vBMD{sub av} and BMAD. (orig.)

  13. Reproducibility of central lumbar vertebral BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.; Pocock, N.; Griffiths, M.; Majerovic, Y.; Freund, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has generally been calculated from a region of interest which includes the entire vertebral body. Although this region excludes part of the transverse processes, it does include the outer cortical shell of the vertebra. Recent software has been devised to calculate BMD in a central vertebral region of interest which excludes the outer cortical envelope. Theoretically this area may be more sensitive to detecting osteoporosis which affects trabecular bone to a greater extent than cortical bone. Apart from the sensitivity of BMD estimation, the reproducibility of any measurement is important owing to the slow rate of change of bone mass. We have evaluated the reproducibility of this new vertebral region of interest in 23 women who had duplicate lumbar spine DXA scans performed on the same day. The patients were repositioned between each measurement. Central vertebral analysis was performed for L2-L4 and the reproducibility of area, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD calculated as the coefficient of variation; these values were compared with those from conventional analysis. Thus we have shown that the reproducibility of the central BMD is comparable to the conventional analysis which is essential if this technique is to provide any additional clinical data. The reasons for the decrease in reproducibility of the area and hence BMC requires further investigation

  14. Bone density of women who have recovered from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, D; Crisp, A; Rooney, B; Rackow, C; Atkinson, R; Patel, S

    2000-07-01

    To examine bone density in 19 women who had previously experienced classical anorexia nervosa from which they had been fully recovered for a mean of 21 years (current characteristics: median age 40.2 years; Eating Attitudes Test [EAT] score 2; body mass index [BMI] 21.1; average 1.8 offspring). Probands were compared, blindly, in respect of bone density, with 13 control subjects matched for age and sex and with no history of eating disorders. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the head of the femur. Femur BMD was still significantly less among ex-anorectic sufferers. Two subjects had experienced pathological fractures while anorectic, both having been strenuous exercisers. None appeared to have suffered post illness fractures. BMD at follow-up did not relate to the severity or chronicity of previous anorexia nervosa. Full clinical recovery from anorexia nervosa does not quite confer full establishment of normal bone density. However, pathological fractures are not a feature thereafter, within middle life. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Bone mineral density before and after OLT: long-term follow-up and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichelaar, Maureen M J; Kendall, Rebecca; Malinchoc, Michael; Hay, J Eileen

    2006-09-01

    Fracturing after liver transplantation (OLT) occurs due to the combination of preexisting low bone mineral density (BMD) and early posttransplant bone loss, the risk factors for which are poorly defined. The prevalence and predictive factors for hepatic osteopenia and osteoporosis, posttransplant bone loss, and subsequent bone gain were studied by the long-term posttransplant follow-up of 360 consecutive adult patients with end-stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Only 20% of patients with advanced PBC or PSC have normal bone mass. Risk factors for low spinal BMD are low body mass index, older age, postmenopausal status, muscle wasting, high alkaline phosphatase and low serum albumin. A high rate of spinal bone loss occurred in the first 4 posttransplant months (annual rate of 16%) especially in those with younger age, PSC, higher pretransplant bone density, no inflammatory bowel disease, shorter duration of liver disease, current smoking, and ongoing cholestasis at 4 months. Factors favoring spinal bone gain from 4 to 24 months after transplantation were lower baseline and/or 4-month bone density, premenopausal status, lower cumulative glucocorticoids, no ongoing cholestasis, and higher levels of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. Bone mass therefore improves most in patients with lowest pretransplant BMD who undergo successful transplantation with normal hepatic function and improved gonadal and nutritional status. Patients transplanted most recently have improved bone mass before OLT, and although bone loss still occurs early after OLT, these patients also have a greater recovery in BMD over the years following OLT.

  16. Bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition of children with chronic renal failure, with and without growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A. M.; Nauta, J.; de Jong, M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Lilien, M. R.; van Wijk, J. A.; Kist-van Holthe, J. E.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; Pols, H. A.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Osteopenia has been reported in adult patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Only a few studies have been performed in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover, body composition in children with CRF and to study the effect of GH

  17. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2014-01-01

    Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture...

  18. The correlation between metacarpal bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the jawbone in implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshinobu; Takamori, Hitoshi; Yosue, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    This study estimated the relationship between metacarpal bone mineral content and jawbone density. The subjects were 141 patients who desired implant treatment and had undergone a thorough pre-operative CT examination. In the maxilla, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the cancellous bone between the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus. In the mandible, BMD was measured at the cancellous bone beneath the mental foramen. The CT numbers were corrected by the quantitative computer tomography (QCT) method. Furthermore, the cortical indices of the mandible, i.e. C-PMI (Central-Panoramic Mandibular Index), and MCW (Mandibular Cortical Width) were measured and calculated from panoramic radiographs. The bone mineral content of the total body was obtained by ΣGS/D and MCI through Microdensitometry. The following results were obtained. Between the maxillary BMD and ΣGS/D and between the mandibular BMD and ΣGS/D, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. Between the maxillary BMD and MCI, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. However, in the mandibular BMD and MCI there was no correlation in females and males. Between C-PMI and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between C-PMI and MCI there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and MCI there was a correlation in females, but no correlation in males. From the above results, it was concluded that the maxillary BMD and the cortical index of the mandible reflected changes in the metacarpal bone mineral content, while mandibular BMD did not. (author)

  19. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    and body fat percentage were measured and 96.7% (n = 15,038) of the participants answered a self-reported questionnaire with information on passive smoking, other lifestyle factors, education, etc. The association between passive smoking and BMD was examined using multiple linear regression analysis...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...

  20. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hagman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD, as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age-matched men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35 aged 65–80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35 aged 18–30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35 and young (UY, n = 35 men. All participants underwent a regional dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1, procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP, and sclerostin were measured. Results: FTE had 7.3%–12.9% higher (p < 0.05 BMD of the femoral neck, wards, shaft, and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UE, and 9.3%–9.7% higher (p < 0.05 BMD in femoral trochanter in both legs compared to UY. FTY had 24.3%–37.4% higher (p < 0.001 BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p < 0.05 leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p < 0.001 whole-body BMD and 18.2% higher (p < 0.001 leg BMD compared to UY. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin, CTX-1, and P1NP were 29%, 53%, and 52% higher (p < 0.01, respectively, in FTY compared to UY. Conclusion: BMD of the proximal femur and whole-body BMD are markedly higher in lifelong trained male football players aged 65–80 years and young elite football players aged 18–30 years compared to age-matched untrained men. Elderly football

  1. Outcome of bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa patients 11.7 years after first admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, W; Minne, H; Deter, C; Leidig, G; Schellberg, D; Wüster, C; Gronwald, R; Sarembe, E; Kröger, F; Bergmann, G

    1993-05-01

    Osteopenia is a typical finding in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa. Unfortunately, available longitudinal studies are limited by a relatively short follow-up period. Therefore cross-sectional long-term followup studies may help to determine both the outcome of this bone lesion and variables that influence its subsequent development. Of an initial 66 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa, 51 (77.3%) could be further evaluated. After an average of 11.7 years following first admission, cross-sectional measurements of lumbar and proximal radial bone mineral density (BMD) were performed. The ability to predict BMD using variables obtained from anamnestic and clinical data was then determined by multiple-regression analysis. The BMD of both radial and lumbar bone in anorexic patients with poor disease outcome (as defined by the Morgan-Russell general outcome categories) deviated by -2.18 and -1.73 SD (Z score), respectively. In patients with a good disease outcome lumbar BMD was significantly less reduced compared with radial BMD (-0.26 versus -0.68 SD). Variables reflecting estrogen deficiency and nutritional status in the course of the disease, that is, relative estrogen exposure (for lumbar BMD) and years of anorexia nervosa (for radial BMD), allowed the best prediction of BMD. A marked reduction in cortical and trabecular BMD in anorexic patients with poor disease outcome suggests a higher risk of fractures in these patients. Furthermore, the finding of a persistently reduced cortical and a slightly reduced trabecular BMD, even in patients with good disease outcome, suggests that a recovery of trabecular BMD might be possible, at least in part. Recovery of cortical bone, if possible at all, seems to proceed more slowly.

  2. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients with Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia are associated with many osteopathies like osteoporosis. Methods. This observational study was carried out to compare the bone mineral density (BMD in transfusion dependent thalassemics with that of healthy controls. Thirty-two thalassemia patients, aged 2–18 years, and 32 age and sex matched controls were studied. The bone mineral concentration (BMC and BMD were assessed at lumbar spine, distal radius, and neck of femur. Biochemical parameters like serum calcium and vitamin D levels were also assessed. Results. The BMC of neck of femur was significantly low in cases in comparison to controls. We also observed significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine in cases in comparison to controls. A significantly positive correlation was observed between serum calcium levels and BMD at neck of femur. Conclusion. Hence, low serum calcium may be used as a predictor of low BMD especially in populations where incidence of hypovitaminosis D is very high.

  3. Bone mineral density in patients with destructive arthrosis of the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Ko; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the existence of subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint (RDA), and the findings suggest that osteopenia is related to the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of this disease. Therefore, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in RDA patients. We measured BMD of the lumbar spine, radius, and calcaneus using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 19 patients with RDA and 75 with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA) and compared BMD at different skeletal sites between RDA and OA patients. No significant differences were observed in BMD of the lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, mid-radius, and calcaneous between the RDA and OA groups. Our data suggest that RDA is not accompanied by generalized osteoporosis. Factors other than generalized bone status, for example, BMD around the affected hip joint before destruction, need to be analyzed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of RDA.

  4. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  5. The correlationship between mandibular radiomorphometric indices in panorama and bone mineral density in Cu-equivalent image of intraoral film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether the mandibular radiomorphometric indices in panoramic radiography are correlated with the bone mineral density of Cu-equivalent images in intraoral film. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the mandibular premolar area was measured in the Cu-equivalent image of intraoral film. The Panoramic Mandibular Index (PMI) and Mandibular Cortical Width (MCW) were measured in panoramic radiographs of six dry mandibles, and the Pearson correlation between PMI, MCW, and BMD were tested. There were no significant correlations between PMI and BMD (r=0.280), nor between MCW and BMD (r=0.237). The results show that PMI and MCW were poor diagnostic indicators of mandibular BMD in the six dry mandibles used in this study. The correlationship between the mandibular radiomorphometric indices (PMI and MCW) and mandibular BMD needs to be researched further using large in vivo patient samples.

  6. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Annemieke M; Krenning, Eric P; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F

    2011-01-01

    The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, total body and femoral neck (FN) and body composition were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Volumetric BMD, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), of the lumbar spine and FN was calculated. In females, 25OHD level was positively associated with FN BMD and BMAD (both ppercentage body fat (pbody BMD and lean body mass (p=0.03 and p=0.01). 25OHD level is a determinant of peak BMD in both sexes. Vitamin D status was associated with body fat in females and with lean body mass in males.

  7. Relationship between nutritional profile, measures of adiposity, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Saudi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Alnahdi, Wafa A; Alama, Nabeel; Ferns, Gordon A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis remains a major health problem in all developed countries and is a condition in which several dietary factors have been implicated. To assess the nutritional status and levels of adiposity of postmenopausal women in relation to bone mineral density. A cross-sectional study in which dietary intake was estimated by a food frequency questionnaire in 300 Saudi postmenopausal women aged 46-88 years. Bone profile biochemistry (serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone [PTH], vitamin D) and bone mineral density (BMD) in 3 skeletal sites were determined for all participants. Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent among the study population. No significant correlation was found between dietary calcium and vitamin D and bone mass at any site. Dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D was significantly less than the recommended levels for a large proportion of the cohort. Energy-adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, fat, protein, and unsaturated fatty acids were associated with BMD in the postmenopausal women. Age, body weight, and residency type were predictors of BMD at all sites. Serum-intact PTH was a predictor of BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck. Waist : hip ratio (WHR) was a predictor for BMD at femoral neck. These results suggest that BMD is influenced by dietary factors other than calcium and vitamin D. However, nondietary factors such as age, WHR, PTH, and body weight may be important determinants of BMD in postmenopausal women.

  8. Parallel Assessment of Bone Mineral Density and RANKL/OPG Ratio in Saudi Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a significant risk factor for morbidity, and its high prevalence among Saudi women should be considered to be a public health problem. Quantitative ultrasound was recommended for bone mineral density (BMD screening. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG and their ratio are critical for physiological bone remodelling, and related abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies. Methods: The BMD of 499 Saudi females aged 20 to 65 years was measured using quantitative ultrasound from the beginning of October 2013 to the end of March 2014 at the female medical unit of Taibah University, Madinah, KSA. Possible associated risk factors for low BMD were studied. Blood RANKL and OPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: No significant differences were found between participants with normal and low BMD regarding the studied risk factors. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.05 between BMD and regular physical activity among participants aged 20 years to less than 35 years, and women aged 35–50 years with higher body mass index (BMI had higher BMD. The RANKL/OPG ratio was inversely associated (p = 0.04 with BMD. Conclusions: Regular physical activity is crucial for maximizing BMD in young females and decreasing the possibility of developing osteoporosis with ageing. The RANKL/OPG ratio might be considered a useful and easy-to-use tool for the prediction of low BMD.

  9. Precision of bone densitometry measurements: When is change true change and does it vary across bone density values?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.C.H.; Griffiths, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The precision error of the bone densitometer is used to interpret significant change in bone mineral density (BMD) in serial studies. The precision error can be expressed as standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variation (CV). The aims of this study are to determine the precision error over a range of BMD values and to demonstrate the application of the precision error in clinical practice. A bone phantom was used consisting of a perspex block with eight compartments containing varying amounts of hydroxyapatite powder to simulate a range of bone densities. The block was scanned 21 times and manual regions placed over each compartment to measure the BMD in each compartment. There were no significant differences in the variances or SD for all eight compartments, that is, over the range of BMD normally encountered in clinical practice. However, the calculated CV show a progressive fall in values as the BMD rises. Therefore, the SD should be used to calculate significant BMD change. In a practise with quality control procedures in place to detect calibration drift and with appropriately trained personnel, a change of approximately 0.05 g/cm 2 is generally regarded as being a significant change at a 95% confidence level. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Bone mineral density in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. Seventy-three patients aged 18–45 years with inflammatory back pain lasting at least 3 months and not more than 5 years were examined. Axial SpA was diagnosed according to the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS C-reactive protein (CRP values were used to estimate disease activity; BASFI was employed to evaluate functional status. The examination encompassed determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their injuries, densitometry of LS (LI-IV and FN. By taking into account the young age of patients, the Z-score was applied to measure BMD. The latter is considered lower if the Z-score is 1–2 standard deviations (SD in at least one of the segments under study.Results. The median Z-score was -0.7 (-1.3; -0.3 SD for FN and 0.9 (-1.6; -0.5 SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at least one of the segments under study was detected in 13 (17.8% patients: that in LS and FN in 11 (15.1% and 5 (6.8% patients, respectively. Lower BMD was observed in two segments in 3 (4.1% patients. No association was found between lower BMD and age, gender, disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS, and laboratory inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and CRP. A relationship was established between inflammatory changes according to the data of MRI of LS (MRI spondylitis and reduced BMD in the same segment. MRI spondylitis was detected in 8 patients. Five and 3 patients with spondylitis of LS were found to have lower and normal BMD in this segment, respectively. Six out of 65 patients without MRI spondylitis in LS had its reduced BMD and the remaining (n=59 patients had its normal BMD (p=0.0014.Conclusion. There was an

  11. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4± 11.0 y (1)v 57.6± 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 ± 0.08m (1) v 1.61 ± 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 ± 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg ± 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 ± 0.18g/cm 2 (1) v 0.94± 0.21 g/cm 2 (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 ± 0.16 g/cm 2 v 0.76 ± 0.18 g/cm 2 (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R 2 = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R 2 = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD

  13. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  14. Relationships between bone mineral density and new indices of body composition in young, sedentary men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kęska

    2018-03-01

    The use of IFM and ILM in the present study, allowed the observation that in young adults lean body mass was associated with BMD, regardless of gender, while fat mass is significant for bone mineral density only in women

  15. Effect of treadmill gait on bone markers and bone mineral density of quadriplegic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.L. Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Quadriplegic subjects present extensive muscle mass paralysis which is responsible for the dramatic decrease in bone mass, increasing the risk of bone fractures. There has been much effort to find an efficient treatment to prevent or reverse this significant bone loss. We used 21 male subjects, mean age 31.95 ± 8.01 years, with chronic quadriplegia, between C4 and C8, to evaluate the effect of treadmill gait training using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, with 30-50% weight relief, on bone mass, comparing individual dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry responses and biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Subjects were divided into gait (N = 11 and control (N = 10 groups. The gait group underwent gait training for 6 months, twice a week, for 20 min, while the control group did not perform gait. Bone mineral density (BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanteric area, and total femur, and biochemical markers (osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline were measured at the beginning of the study and 6 months later. In the gait group, 81.8% of the subjects presented a significant increase in bone formation and 66.7% also presented a significant decrease of bone resorption markers, whereas 30% of the controls did not present any change in markers and 20% presented an increase in bone formation. Marker results did not always agree with BMD data. Indeed, many individuals with increased bone formation presented a decrease in BMD. Most individuals in the gait group presented an increase in bone formation markers and a decrease in bone resorption markers, suggesting that gait training, even with 30-50% body weight support, was efficient in improving the bone mass of chronic quadriplegics.

  16. The association between vitamin D status and parameters for bone density and quality is modified by Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohl, E.; Jongh, de R.T.; Swart, K.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Velde, van der N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Velde, te S.J.; Lips, P.; Schoor, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) and Quantitative Ultrasound measurements (QUS) has been inconsistent in previous studies, probably caused by moderating effects. This study explored (1) the association of vitamin D status with QUS and BMD, and (2) whether these

  17. The Association Between Vitamin D Status and Parameters for Bone Density and Quality is Modified by Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohl, E.; de Jongh, R.T.; Swart, C.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; van Wijngaarden, J.P.; van Dijk, S.C.; van der Ham, A.C.; van der Zwaluw, N.L.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; van der Velde, N.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Lips, P.; van Schoor, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) and Quantitative Ultrasound measurements (QUS) has been inconsistent in previous studies, probably caused by moderating effects. This study explored (1) the association of vitamin D status with QUS and BMD, and (2) whether these

  18. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the

  19. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-02-07

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  20. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels <24mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation

  1. Vitamin K2 improves femoral bone strength without altering bone mineral density in gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) induces osteopenia in rats. The present study examined the skeletal effects of vitamin K2 in GX rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 wk old) were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following three groups of 10 animals each: sham operation (control) group; GX group; and GX+oral vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg, 5 d/wk) group. Treatment was initiated at 1 wk after surgery. After 6 wk of treatment, the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and mechanical strength of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis were determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength tests, respectively. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis. Vitamin K2 did not significantly influence the BMC or BMD of the femoral diaphysis or distal metaphysis in GX rats, but attenuated the decrease in the ultimate force and increased the stiffness of the femoral diaphysis. The present study showed that administration of vitamin K2 to GX rats improved the bone strength of the femoral diaphysis without altering the BMC or BMD, suggesting effects of vitamin K2 on the cortical bone quality.

  2. Femoral neck BMD is a strong predictor of hip fracture susceptibility in elderly men and women because it detects cortical bone instability: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; De Laet, Chris Edh; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Beck, Thomas J; Pols, Huibert Ap

    2007-11-01

    We studied HSA measurements in relation to hip fracture risk in 4,806 individuals (2,740 women). Hip fractures (n = 147) occurred at the same absolute levels of bone instability in both sexes. Cortical instability (propensity of thinner cortices in wide diameters to buckle) explains why hip fracture risk at different BMD levels is the same across sexes. Despite the sexual dimorphism of bone, hip fracture risk is very similar in men and women at the same absolute BMD. We aimed to elucidate the main structural properties of bone that underlie the measured BMD and that ultimately determines the risk of hip fracture in elderly men and women. This study is part of the Rotterdam Study (a large prospective population-based cohort) and included 147 incident hip fracture cases in 4,806 participants with DXA-derived hip structural analysis (mean follow-up, 8.6 yr). Indices compared in relation to fracture included neck width, cortical thickness, section modulus (an index of bending strength), and buckling ratio (an index of cortical bone instability). We used a mathematical model to calculate the hip fracture distribution by femoral neck BMD, BMC, bone area, and hip structure analysis (HSA) parameters (cortical thickness, section modulus narrow neck width, and buckling ratio) and compared it with prospective data from the Rotterdam Study. In the prospective data, hip fracture cases in both sexes had lower BMD, thinner cortices, greater bone width, lower strength, and higher instability at baseline. In fractured individuals, men had an average BMD that was 0.09 g/cm(2) higher than women (p men and women. No significant differences were observed between the areas under the ROC curves of BMD (0.8146 in women and 0.8048 in men) and the buckling ratio (0.8161 in women and 0.7759 in men). The buckling ratio (an index of bone instability) portrays in both sexes the critical balance between cortical thickness and bone width. Our findings suggest that extreme thinning of cortices in

  3. Inflammation and bone mineral density: A Mendelian randomization study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jian V.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common age-related disorder leading to an increase in osteoporotic fractures and resulting in significant suffering and disability. Inflammation may contribute to osteoporosis, as it does to many other chronic diseases. We examined whether inflammation is etiologically relevant to osteoporosis, assessed from bone mineral density (BMD), as a new potential target of intervention, or whether it is a symptom/biomarker of osteoporosis. We obtained genetic predictors of inflammato...

  4. Combined oral contraceptives' influence on weight, body composition, height, and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warholm, Lina; Petersen, Kresten R; Ravn, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years.......Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years....

  5. Derivation of standardised BMD using the European Spine Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to compare peak bone mass in a range of populations and to examine the determinants of any differences which may be observed. Bone mineral density (areal BMD) has been measured by densitometers manufactured by two companies, Hologic (Waltham, USA) and Lunar (Madison, USA). Systematic differences exist between tile manufacturers in several stages of the scanning procedure (e.g. edge-detection, calibration) so that the normal ranges produced are specific to each brand. To allow comparison of BMD between manufacturers (and thus between centres) we have therefore undertaken a cross-calibration of the scanners in order to derive a standardised BMD

  6. Bone mineral density comparison of adolescents with constitutional thinness and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray

    2018-04-25

    The negative impact of anorexia nervosa (AN) on bone health is well defined. However, there are very few studies evaluating the effect of constitutional thinness on bone health, especially in the adolescent period and in the male gender. The aim of this study is to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of adolescents with AN and with constitutional thinness. Between April 2013 and March 2014, 40 adolescents with AN and 36 adolescents with constitutional thinness participated in the study. The femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean lumbar z and BMD scores of adolescents with constitutional thinness were significantly lower than in adolescents with AN, whereas the mean femoral z and BMD scores were not significantly different. When males were compared separately, lumbar z and BMD values of the constitutionally thin group were found to be significantly lower than in the AN group. This difference was not significant for females. The difference between the male and female results of our study suggested two hypotheses. The significantly lower BMD values in constitutionally thin boys are attributed to their longer duration of low body mass index (BMI). Although the duration of low BMI is also longer for constitutionally thin girls, similar BMD values of AN and constitutionally thin female groups are attributed to the additional negative impact of estrogen deficiency on the bone health of girls with AN.

  7. Association of neck strength with upper femoral geometry and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip fracture is a severe health burden in the elderly population. In order to prevent, it is to evaluate the bone strength by establishing the relation between bone mineral density (BMD, neck strength, and geometry. Materials and Methods: The subjects under study were 100 postmenopausal women who visited bone clinic of Bharat Scan Centre. After recording general profile such as age, body mass index (BMI, geometric measures such as hip axis length (HAL, neck shaft angle (NSA, and neck width (NW were measured from digital X-ray. For the same individuals, BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. From the DXA print out neck strength was calculated using the formula = sectional modulus/HAL. Results: The correlation test was analyzed among BMD, neck strength, anthropometric, and geometric factors using Statistical packages for social services (SPSS software. BMD is inversely related with age and positively correlated with height, weight, and BMI. HAL, NSA, and NW had a weaker association with BMD. Age, BMD, and NSA had a negative relation with neck strength. HAL and NW had a positive relation with neck strength. Conclusion: Noninvasive means of associating neck strength with BMD and geometry will provide improved estimates for fracture risk beyond any other invasive method of assessing bone mineral properties.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Seul Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a medical condition of global concern, with increasing incidence in both sexes. Bone mineral density (BMD, a highly heritable trait, has been proven a useful diagnostic factor in predicting fracture. Because medical information is lacking about male osteoporotic genetics, we conducted a genome-wide association study of BMD in Korean men. With 1,176 participants, we analyzed 4,414,664 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs after genomic imputation, and identified five SNPs and three loci correlated with bone density and strength. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to adjust for age and body mass index interference. Rs17124500 (p = 6.42 × 10-7, rs34594869 (p = 6.53 × 10-7 and rs17124504 (p = 6.53 × 10-7 in 14q31.3 and rs140155614 (p = 8.64 × 10-7 in 15q25.1 were significantly associated with lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD, while rs111822233 (p = 6.35 × 10-7 was linked with the femur total BMD (FT-BMD. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between BMD and five genes previously identified in Korean men. Rs61382873 (p = 0.0009 in LRP5, rs9567003 (p = 0.0033 in TNFSF11 and rs9935828 (p = 0.0248 in FOXL1 were observed for LS-BMD. Furthermore, rs33997547 (p = 0.0057 in ZBTB and rs1664496 (p = 0.0012 in MEF2C were found to influence FT-BMD and rs61769193 (p = 0.0114 in ZBTB to influence femur neck BMD. We identified five SNPs and three genomic regions, associated with BMD. The significance of our results lies in the discovery of new loci, while also affirming a previously significant locus, as potential osteoporotic factors in the Korean male population.

  9. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion of chemoth...... % CI -3.3; -0.1, p = 0.04) compared to never/former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy supplemented with prednisolone was not associated with loss of BMD. Postmenopausal women gained bone mass, whereas current smokers lost bone mass....... were excluded: seven because of initiation of bisphosphonate treatment due to osteoporosis at baseline, and one had non-interpretable DXA. The final cohort included 97 patients with a mean age of 53 years (range 34-72). Mean cumulative prednisolone dose was 1308 mg (95 % CI 1255; 1362). BMD increased 1.......36 % (95 % CI 0.7; 2.0, p smokers decreased 1.67 % (95...

  10. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; við Streym, Susanna; Mosekilde, Leif

    2012-01-01

    In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone...... in fat mass differed according to breastfeeding status with a slower decline in women who continued breastfeeding. Calcium and vitamin D intake was not associated with BMD changes. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone loss. At 19 months postpartum, BMD has returned to pre-pregnancy...... loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding. INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results have been reported on effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on BMD and body composition (BC). In a controlled cohort study, we elucidate...

  11. A Follow-up Association Study of Genetic Variants for Bone Mineral Density in a Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokjin Ham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD is one of the quantitative traits that are genetically inherited and affected by various factors. Over the past years, genome-wide association studies (GWASs have searched for many genetic loci that influence BMD. A recent meta-analysis of 17 GWASs for BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine is the largest GWAS for BMD to date and offers 64 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 56 associated loci. We investigated these BMD loci in a Korean population called Korea Association REsource (KARE to identify their validity in an independent study. The KARE population contains genotypes from 8,842 individuals, and their BMD levels were measured at the distal radius (BMD-RT and midshaft tibia (BMD-TT. Thirteen genomic loci among 56 loci were significantly associated with BMD variations, and 3 loci were involved in known biological pathways related to BMD. In order to find putative functional variants, nearby SNPs in relation to linkage equilibrium were annotated, and their possible functional effects were predicted. These findings reveal that tens of variants, not a single factor, may contribute to the genetic architecture of BMD; have an important role regardless of ethnic group; and may highlight the importance of a replication study in GWASs to validate genuine loci for BMD variation.

  12. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea and bone mineral density in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Mariani,1 Daniela Fiore,1 Laura Varone,2 Sabrina Basciani,1 Agnese Persichetti,1 Mikiko Watanabe,1 Maurizio Saponara,3 Giovanni Spera,1 Costanzo Moretti,4 Lucio Gnessi11Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Audiology and Phonation, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of System Medicine, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology University of TorVergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital "San Giovanni Calibita" Rome, ItalyContext: Obesity and its co-morbidities may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a major complication of obesity. To date, the effects of OSA on BMD in obese patients have been poorly studied.Objective: To examine whether the severity of OSA independently correlates with BMD in obese patients.Methods: One hundred and fifteen obese subjects with OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5 events per hour were included in the study. BMD was measured at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, and representative measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammation (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen were also evaluated.Results: BMD did not differ among obese individuals regardless of OSA severity. Correlation coefficient analysis for all the covariates showed a lack of association between AHI and BMD that was strongly influenced by age and weight.Conclusion: Our study does not support an independent association between AHI and BMD in obese patients. Controlled studies involving a greater number of patients are warranted.Keywords: obesity, polysomnography, metabolic syndrome

  14. A case-control study assessing bone mineral density in severe haemophilia A in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A J; McLaughlin, P; Simmonds, J V; Prouse, P J; Prelevic, G; Gill, S; Chowdary, P

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that bone mineral density (BMD) may be lower in patients with haemophilia (PWH). A comparison to control subjects is required to thoroughly assess current BMD in PWH in the UK. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that BMD is lower in PWH than in controls, and in patients with more severely affected joints or lower activity levels. In this case-control study, 37 patients with severe haemophilia A were recruited from two haemophilia centres in the UK. A group of 37 age, gender and ethnicity-matched control participants were recruited. All participants had a bone density scan, a musculoskeletal assessment, a blood test for vitamin D and completed a functional activity questionnaire. Of the case group, 5% had osteoporosis and 24% had BMD lower than expected for age. No control participants had osteoporosis, 3% had osteopenia and 14% had BMD lower than expected for age. Ninety one per cent of case participants and 92% of control participants had reduced 25(OH)D levels. Case participants had significantly lower BMD than control participants, and case participants with more severely affected joints, lower activity levels, HIV, history of hepatitis C or lower BMI had significantly lower BMD. Patients with severe haemophilia have a higher risk of low BMD than men without haemophilia. Patients with more severely affected joints and lower activity levels have lower BMD. It remains unclear whether patients with low BMD reached adequate peak bone mass. Low vitamin D may be present in the majority of PWH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksud, F A N; Kakehasi, A M; Guimarães, M F B R; Machado, C J; Barbosa, A J A

    2017-05-18

    Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD) in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52.70±11.40 years). Patients with RA presented higher ghrelin-immunoreactive cells density in gastric mucosa (P=0.008) compared with healthy females. There was a positive relationship between femoral neck BMD and gastric ghrelin cell density (P=0.007). However, these same patients presented a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and total femoral BMD (P=0.03). The present results indicate that ghrelin may be involved in bone metabolism of patients with RA. However, the higher density of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa of these patients does not seem to induce a corresponding elevation in the plasma levels of this peptide.

  16. Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.N. Maksud

    Full Text Available Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52.70±11.40 years. Patients with RA presented higher ghrelin-immunoreactive cells density in gastric mucosa (P=0.008 compared with healthy females. There was a positive relationship between femoral neck BMD and gastric ghrelin cell density (P=0.007. However, these same patients presented a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and total femoral BMD (P=0.03. The present results indicate that ghrelin may be involved in bone metabolism of patients with RA. However, the higher density of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa of these patients does not seem to induce a corresponding elevation in the plasma levels of this peptide.

  17. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...

  18. The use of bone age for bone mineral density interpretation in a cohort of pediatric brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.B.; Shelso, John; Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Li, Chin-Shang; Thomas, Nicole A.; Karimova, E.J.; Merchant, Thomas; Gajjar, Amar; Kaste, Sue C.

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal bone accretion occurs throughout childhood. The integrity of this process can influence future adult bone health and the risk of osteoporosis. Although surveillance of children who are at risk of poor bone accretion is important, the most appropriate method to monitor childhood bone health has not been established. Previous investigators have proposed using bone age (BA) rather than chronological age (CA) when interpreting bone mineral density (BMD) values in children. To investigate the value of BA assessment for BMD measurement in a cohort of children at risk of poor accretion. A cohort of 163 children with brain tumors who completed both a BMD assessment (quantitative computed tomography, QCT) and who had a BA within a 6-month interval were identified. The difference in BMD Z-scores determined by CA and BA was determined. The impact of salient clinical features was assessed. No significant difference between CA and BA Z-scores was detected in the overall cohort (P 0.056). However, the scores in 18 children (all boys between the ages of 11 years and 15 years) were statistically determined to be outliers from the values in the rest of the cohort. Interpretation of BMD with BA measurement might be appropriate and affect treatment decisions in peripubertal males. (orig.)

  19. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

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    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  20. BMI and BMD: The Potential Interplay between Obesity and Bone Fragility

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    Andrea Palermo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence demonstrating an increased fracture risk among obese individuals suggests that adipose tissue may negatively impact bone health, challenging the traditional paradigm of fat mass playing a protective role towards bone health. White adipose tissue, far from being a mere energy depot, is a dynamic tissue actively implicated in metabolic reactions, and in fact secretes several hormones called adipokines and inflammatory factors that may in turn promote bone resorption. More specifically, Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT may potentially prove detrimental. It is widely acknowledged that obesity is positively associated to many chronic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes, conditions that could themselves affect bone health. Although aging is largely known to decrease bone strength, little is yet known on the mechanisms via which obesity and its comorbidities may contribute to such damage. Given the exponentially growing obesity rate in recent years and the increased life expectancy of western countries it appears of utmost importance to timely focus on this topic.

  1. Genetic Sharing with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Diabetes Reveals Novel Bone Mineral Density Loci.

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    Sjur Reppe

    Full Text Available Bone Mineral Density (BMD is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. We used a novel genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional False Discovery Rate (FDR method to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with BMD by leveraging cardiovascular disease (CVD associated disorders and metabolic traits. By conditioning on SNPs associated with the CVD-related phenotypes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and waist hip ratio, we identified 65 novel independent BMD loci (26 with femoral neck BMD and 47 with lumbar spine BMD at conditional FDR < 0.01. Many of the loci were confirmed in genetic expression studies. Genes validated at the mRNA levels were characteristic for the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage, Wnt signaling pathway and bone metabolism. The results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms of variability in BMD, and a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of clinical comorbidity.

  2. Replication of associations between LRP5 and ESRRA variants and bone density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, S; Elfassihi, L; Cole, D E C; Rousseau, F

    2008-12-01

    Replication is a critical step to validate positive genetic associations. In this study, we tested two previously reported positive associations. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) Val667Met and lumbar spine bone density are replicated. This result is in line with results from large consortiums such as Genomos. However, the estrogen-related receptor alpha (ESRRA) repeat in the promoter is not replicated although the polymorphism studied was functional and could have been a causative variant. We sought to validate associations previously reported between LRP5 V667M polymorphism and lumbar spine (LS, p = 0.013) and femoral neck (FN, p = 0.0002) bone mineral density (BMD), and between ESRRA 23 base pair repeat polymorphism and LS BMD (p = 0.0036) in a sample of premenopausal Caucasian women using an independent sample. For the replication sample, we recruited 673 premenopausal women from the Toronto metropolitan area. All women were Caucasian and had BMD measured. LRP5 V667M was genotyped by allele-specific PCR and ESRRA repeats by sizing of PCR products on agarose gels. We reproduced the same association as we reported previously between LRP5 V667M and LS BMD (p = 0.015) but not with FN BMD (p = 0.254). The combined data from the two populations indicate an effect size of 0.28SD for LS BMD (p = 0.00048) and an effect size of 0.26 SD for FN BMD (p = 0.00037). In contrast, the association we reported earlier between ESRRA repeats and LS BMD was not replicated in the sample from Toronto (p = 0.645). The association between LRP5 V667M and LS BMD is confirmed but not that between ESRRA repeats and LS BMD. This result indicates that it is imperative to validate any positive association in an independent sample.

  3. Contributions of Caucasian-associated bone mass loci to the variation in bone mineral density in Vietnamese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Nguyen, Sing C; Tran, Bich; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is under strong genetic regulation, but it is not clear which genes are involved in the regulation, particularly in Asian populations. This study sought to determine the association between 29 genes discovered by Caucasian-based genome-wide association studies and BMD in a Vietnamese population. The study involved 564 Vietnamese men and women aged 18 years and over (average age: 47 years) who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City. BMD at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, total hip and whole body was measured by DXA (Hologic QDR4500, Bedford, MA, USA). Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 29 genes were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY technology. The magnitude of association between SNPs and BMD was analyzed by the linear regression model. The Bayesian model average method was used to identify SNPs that are independently associated with BMD. The distribution of genotypes of all, but two, SNPs was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law. After adjusting for age, gender and weight, 3 SNPs were associated with BMD: rs2016266 (SP7 gene), rs7543680 (ZBTB40 gene), and rs1373004 (MBL2/DKK1 gene). Among the three genetic variants, the SNP rs2016266 had the strongest association, with each minor allele being associated with ~0.02 g/cm(2) increase in BMD at the femoral neck and whole body. Each of these genetic variant explained about 0.2 to 1.1% variance of BMD. All other SNPs were not significantly associated with BMD. These results suggest that genetic variants in the SP7, ZBTB40 and MBL2/DKK1 genes are associated with BMD in the Vietnamese population, and that the effect of these genes on BMD is likely to be modest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Depression, antidepressants, and bone mineral density in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Eaton, William W; Golden, Sherita Hill; Wand, Gary; Lee, Hochang Benjamin

    2008-12-01

    It is uncertain whether depression and antidepressant use are associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and whether these relationships differ for men and women. The study used a case-cohort design within the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, a population-based sample of adults that recently completed its 23-year follow-up. Depression was measured at four time points during the follow-up period by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Lower spine BMD was measured at the fourth wave by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The association of BMD with lifetime history of depression and antidepressant medication use was studied using linear regression with bootstrap standard errors. A history of depression was associated with lower spine BMD after controlling for age, sex, race, calcium intake, alcohol use, smoking status, level of physical activity, percent body fat, and antidepressant medication use (-0.140 g/cm(2); p history of depression predicted decreased lumbar spine BMD in men and women, and antidepressant use predicted decreased BMD in women even after controlling for depression. The magnitude of the effect of depression on BMD was approximately equivalent to 1 standard deviation in BMD and was therefore clinically significant. Providers should be aware of the physiologic consequences of depression as well as the possible risks to bone strength associated with antidepressant use in older patients.

  5. Relationship between bone mineral density and alcohol intake: A nationwide health survey analysis of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Dong Jang

    Full Text Available Among a variety of relevant factors of osteoporosis, the association between alcohol intake and postmenopausal women's bone mineral density (BMD by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was evaluated in this study.Among a total of 31,596 subjects, males, premenopausal women, participants without BMD data were excluded. Finally, a total number of subjects in the study was 3,312. The frequency and amount of alcohol intake were determined by self-reported questionnaires, and BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.Mean femoral BMD for light drinkers was statistically significantly greater than that for heavy drinkers and non-drinkers. We observed the characteristic trends for BMD by drinking frequency; the mean BMD gradually increased from non-drinkers to the participants who drank 2-3 times per week; these participants exhibited the highest BMD. Participants who drank alcohol greater than 4 times per week showed a lower BMD. In the risk factor analysis, the adjusted odds ratio for osteoporosis (at femoral neck was 1.68 in non-drinkers and 1.70 in heavy drinkers compared with light drinkers.Light alcohol intake (2-3 times per week and 1-2 or 5-6 glasses per occasion in South Korean postmenopausal women was related to high femoral BMD. Non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had approximately a 1.7-times greater risk for osteoporosis than light drinkers.

  6. Increased bone mineral density in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: impact of body composition differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple-Brown, L J; Hughes, J; Piers, L S; Ward, L C; Meerkin, J; Eisman, J A; Center, J R; Pocock, N A; Jerums, G; O'Dea, K

    2012-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported to be both higher and lower in Indigenous women from different populations. Body composition data have been reported for Indigenous Australians, but there are few published BMD data in this population. We assessed BMD in 161 Indigenous Australians, identified as Aboriginal (n=70), Torres Strait Islander (n=68) or both (n=23). BMD measurements were made on Norland-XR46 (n=107) and Hologic (n=90) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines. Norland BMD and body composition measurements in these individuals, and also in 36 Caucasian Australians, were converted to equivalent Hologic BMD (BMD(H)) and body composition measurements for comparison. Femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine Z-scores were high in Indigenous participants (mean FN Z-score: Indigenous men +0.98, pAboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander than Caucasian participants, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes and height and remained higher in men after addition of lean mass to the model. We conclude that FN BMD is higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians than Caucasian Australian reference ranges and these differences still remained significant in men after adjustment for lean mass. It remains to be seen whether these BMD differences translate to differences in fracture rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  8. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  9. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone mineral density and postoperative migration of humeral head resurfacing implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Klebe, Thomas Martin; Døssing, Kaj Verner

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant migration, bone mineral density (BMD), length of glenohumeral offset (LGHO), and clinical results were compared for the Copeland (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Global C.A.P. (DePuy Int, Warsaw, IN, USA) humeral head resurfacing implants (HHRIs). METHODS: The study...... improved over time for both implant groups (P migration and good clinical results. Periprosthetic BMD and LGHO both increased for the Copeland HHRI more than for the Global C.A.P HHRI....

  10. Genetic predisposition for adult lactose intolerance and relation to diet, bone density, and bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara M; Bonelli, Christine M; Walter, Daniela E; Kuhn, Regina J; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Berghold, Andrea; Goessler, Walter; Stepan, Vinzenz; Dobnig, Harald; Leb, Georg; Renner, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    Evidence that genetic disposition for adult lactose intolerance significantly affects calcium intake, bone density, and fractures in postmenopausal women is presented. PCR-based genotyping of lactase gene polymorphisms may complement diagnostic procedures to identify persons at risk for both lactose malabsorption and osteoporosis. Lactase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive condition resulting in decreased intestinal lactose degradation. A -13910 T/C dimorphism (LCT) near the lactase phlorizin hydrolase gene, reported to be strongly associated with adult lactase nonpersistence, may have an impact on calcium supply, bone density, and osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. We determined LCT genotypes TT, TC, and CC in 258 postmenopausal women using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay. Genotypes were related to milk intolerance, nutritional calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, bone mineral density (BMD), and nonvertebral fractures. Twenty-four percent of all women were found to have CC genotypes and genetic lactase deficiency. Age-adjusted BMD at the hip in CC genotypes and at the spine in CC and TC genotypes was reduced by -7% to -11% depending on the site measured (p = 0.04). LCT(T/C-13910) polymorphisms alone accounted for 2-4% of BMD in a multiple regression model. Bone fracture incidence was significantly associated with CC genotypes (p = 0.001). Milk calcium intake was significantly lower (-55%, p = 0.004) and aversion to milk consumption was significantly higher (+166%, p = 0.01) in women with the CC genotype, but there were no differences in overall dietary calcium intake or in intestinal calcium absorption test values. The LCT(T/C-13910) polymorphism is associated with subjective milk intolerance, reduced milk calcium intake, and reduced BMD at the hip and the lumbar spine and may predispose to bone fractures. Genetic testing for lactase deficiency may complement indirect methods in the detection of individuals at risk for both lactose

  11. Beneficial impact of aerobic exercises on bone mineral density in obese premenopausal women under caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Iman Abbas; Elghawabi, Hamed Samir; Younan, Wael Bahat Fahmy; Sabbour, Adly Aly; Gobrial, Mona Abdel Messih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of caloric restriction diet versus caloric restriction diet combined with aerobic exercises on bone mineral density (BMD) in obese premenopausal women. Forty premenopausal obese women were classified randomly into two groups equal in number. The first group (group A) received caloric restriction diet, while the second (group B) received caloric restriction diet combined with a program of aerobic exercises, over 3 months. The variables measured in this study included age, weight, height, body mass index, fat weight, lean mass, fat percent, basal metabolic rate, and BMD. The comparison between group A and group B showed significantly higher post-treatment lean mass, basal metabolic rate, and BMD in weight-bearing bones (L2-L4 lumbar spine and total hip) in group B compared to group A. In contrast to the BMD of the weight-bearing bones, the BMD of the radius showed significant decrease between the pre- and post-treatment results in groups A and B with no significant differences between the two groups. A greater improvement in the BMD of weight-bearing bones was observed in obese premenopausal women undergoing caloric restriction combined with exercise than in those not undergoing exercise. Anaerobic exercises incorporated into weight loss programs help offset the adverse effects of dietary restriction on bone.

  12. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  13. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  14. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, A.Z., E-mail: pollacka@mail.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mumford, S.L. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wactawski-Wende, J. [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  15. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  16. Phenotypic dissection of bone mineral density reveals skeletal site specificity and facilitates the identification of novel loci in the genetic regulation of bone mass attainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Kemp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heritability of bone mineral density (BMD varies across skeletal sites, reflecting different relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. To quantify the degree to which common genetic variants tag and environmental factors influence BMD, at different sites, we estimated the genetic (rg and residual (re correlations between BMD measured at the upper limbs (UL-BMD, lower limbs (LL-BMD and skull (SK-BMD, using total-body DXA scans of ∼ 4,890 participants recruited by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (ALSPAC. Point estimates of rg indicated that appendicular sites have a greater proportion of shared genetic architecture (LL-/UL-BMD rg = 0.78 between them, than with the skull (UL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.58 and LL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.43. Likewise, the residual correlation between BMD at appendicular sites (r(e = 0.55 was higher than the residual correlation between SK-BMD and BMD at appendicular sites (r(e = 0.20-0.24. To explore the basis for the observed differences in rg and re, genome-wide association meta-analyses were performed (n ∼ 9,395, combining data from ALSPAC and the Generation R Study identifying 15 independent signals from 13 loci associated at genome-wide significant level across different skeletal regions. Results suggested that previously identified BMD-associated variants may exert site-specific effects (i.e. differ in the strength of their association and magnitude of effect across different skeletal sites. In particular, variants at CPED1 exerted a larger influence on SK-BMD and UL-BMD when compared to LL-BMD (P = 2.01 × 10(-37, whilst variants at WNT16 influenced UL-BMD to a greater degree when compared to SK- and LL-BMD (P = 2.31 × 10(-14. In addition, we report a novel association between RIN3 (previously associated with Paget's disease and LL-BMD (rs754388: β = 0.13, SE = 0.02, P = 1.4 × 10(-10. Our results suggest that BMD at different skeletal sites is under a mixture of shared and

  17. Phenotypic dissection of bone mineral density reveals skeletal site specificity and facilitates the identification of novel loci in the genetic regulation of bone mass attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, John P; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Estrada, Karol; St Pourcain, Beate; Heppe, Denise H M; Warrington, Nicole M; Oei, Ling; Ring, Susan M; Kruithof, Claudia J; Timpson, Nicholas J; Wolber, Lisa E; Reppe, Sjur; Gautvik, Kaare; Grundberg, Elin; Ge, Bing; van der Eerden, Bram; van de Peppel, Jeroen; Hibbs, Matthew A; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L; Choi, Kwangbom; Koller, Daniel L; Econs, Michael J; Williams, Frances M K; Foroud, Tatiana; Zillikens, M Carola; Ohlsson, Claes; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Davey Smith, George; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tobias, Jonathan H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Evans, David M

    2014-06-01

    Heritability of bone mineral density (BMD) varies across skeletal sites, reflecting different relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. To quantify the degree to which common genetic variants tag and environmental factors influence BMD, at different sites, we estimated the genetic (rg) and residual (re) correlations between BMD measured at the upper limbs (UL-BMD), lower limbs (LL-BMD) and skull (SK-BMD), using total-body DXA scans of ∼ 4,890 participants recruited by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (ALSPAC). Point estimates of rg indicated that appendicular sites have a greater proportion of shared genetic architecture (LL-/UL-BMD rg = 0.78) between them, than with the skull (UL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.58 and LL-/SK-BMD rg = 0.43). Likewise, the residual correlation between BMD at appendicular sites (r(e) = 0.55) was higher than the residual correlation between SK-BMD and BMD at appendicular sites (r(e) = 0.20-0.24). To explore the basis for the observed differences in rg and re, genome-wide association meta-analyses were performed (n ∼ 9,395), combining data from ALSPAC and the Generation R Study identifying 15 independent signals from 13 loci associated at genome-wide significant level across different skeletal regions. Results suggested that previously identified BMD-associated variants may exert site-specific effects (i.e. differ in the strength of their association and magnitude of effect across different skeletal sites). In particular, variants at CPED1 exerted a larger influence on SK-BMD and UL-BMD when compared to LL-BMD (P = 2.01 × 10(-37)), whilst variants at WNT16 influenced UL-BMD to a greater degree when compared to SK- and LL-BMD (P = 2.31 × 10(-14)). In addition, we report a novel association between RIN3 (previously associated with Paget's disease) and LL-BMD (rs754388: β = 0.13, SE = 0.02, P = 1.4 × 10(-10)). Our results suggest that BMD at different skeletal sites is under a mixture of shared and

  18. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength Assessed by HR-pQCT in Adult Patients with Hypophosphatemic Rickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Hansen, Stinus; Folkestad, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is characterized by a generalized mineralization defect. Although densitometric studies have found the patients to have an elevated bone mineral density (BMD), data on bone geometry and microstructure are scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to a......Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is characterized by a generalized mineralization defect. Although densitometric studies have found the patients to have an elevated bone mineral density (BMD), data on bone geometry and microstructure are scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study...

  19. Sex-specific factors for bone density in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Huang, Tiao-Lai; Wang, Hong-Song; Chang, Yue-Cune; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are susceptible to low bone mineral density (BMD). Many risk factors have been suggested. However, it remains uncertain whether the risk factors differ between men and women. In addition, the study of bone density in men is neglected more often than that in women. This study aims to examine specific risk factors of low BMD in different sexes. Men (n=80) and women (n=115) with schizophrenia, similar in demographic and clinical characteristics, were enrolled in three centers. Clinical and laboratory variables (including blood levels of prolactin, sex and thyroid hormones, cortisol, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase) were collected. BMD was measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer. Men had lower BMD than women. Predictors for BMD in men included hyperprolactinemia (B=-0.821, P=0.009), body weight (B=0.024, P=0.046), and Global Assessment of Functioning score (B=0.027, P=0.043); in women, BMD was associated with menopause (B=-1.070, Pweight (B=0.027, P=0.003), and positive symptoms (B=0.094, Ploss in patients with schizophrenia. Physicians should pay particular attention to bone density in men with hyperprolactinemia and postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies in other populations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  20. Hand grip strength and maximum peak expiratory flow: determinants of bone mineral density of adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Lee-Andruske, Cynthia; de Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Almonacid-Fierro, Alejandro; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2018-03-02

    Maintaining and building healthy bones during the lifetime requires a complicated interaction between a number of physiological and lifestyle factors. Our goal of this study was to analyze the association between hand grip strength and the maximum peak expiratory flow with bone mineral density and content in adolescent students. The research team studied 1427 adolescent students of both sexes (750 males and 677 females) between the ages of 11.0 and 18.9 years in the Maule Region of Talca (Chile). Weight, standing height, sitting height, hand grip strength (HGS), and maximum peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured. Furthermore, bone mineral density (BMD) and total body bone mineral content (BMC) were determined by using the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Hand grip strength and PEF were categorized in tertiles (lowest, middle, and highest). Linear regression was performed in steps to analyze the relationship between the variables. Differences between categories were determined through ANOVA. In males, the hand grip strength explained 18-19% of the BMD and 20-23% of the BMC. For the females, the percentage of variation occurred between 12 and 13% of the BMD and 17-18% of the BMC. The variation of PEF for the males was observed as 33% of the BMD and 36% of the BMC. For the females, both the BMD and BMC showed a variation of 19%. The HGS and PEF were divided into three categories (lowest, middle, and highest). In both cases, significant differences occurred in bone density health between the three categories. In conclusion, the HGS and the PEF related positively to the bone density health of both sexes of adolescent students. The adolescents with poor values for hand grip strength and expiratory flow showed reduced values of BMD and BMC for the total body. Furthermore, the PEF had a greater influence on bone density health with respect to the HGS of the adolescents of both sexes.

  1. An assessment of osteoporosis and low bone density in postmenopausal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.; Khurshid, R.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of bone mineral density and other risk factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal age group of Pakistani population and to compare them with premenopausal group. The risk factors of osteoporosis were studied both in premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. These risk factors can be exogenous or endogenous. Endogenous risk factors are aging, altered menstrual status, low bone mass, positive family history and oestrogen deficiency. Exogenous factors include lack of adequate nutrition (milk, calcium, vitamin D etc.) and lack of physical exercise. These risk factors were evaluated by taking history, recording height and weight, doing blood parameters and checking bone mineral density. Oestrogen level was carried out by the Eliza technique. Bone mass density was carried out by the bone heel densitometer. The data was analyzed statistically and the values of two groups were compared. The risk factors in postmenopausal group were low BMD, low oestrogen levels, poor intake of milk and calcium and lack of physical exercise. All women should get checked their BMD in this age group. Regular exercise and adequate calcium intake can still help in postmenopausal age group. (author)

  2. Bone mineral density in children with Down's syndrome detected by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Chen, C.C.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in ten children with Down's syndrome (seven boys, three girls; aged 10-16 years) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using an M and SE Osteo Tech 300 scanner. The BMD of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae was measured and the mean density presented as g cm -2 . The BMD of Down's syndrome was compared with the BMD of normal Chinese children of the same age group. The results showed that the BMD in Down's syndrome was significantly lower compared to that found in normal children. The percentage of decreased BMD is 8.47 ± 2.69% (mean ± 1 S.E.M.) in Down's syndrome compared to normal children of the same age group. The distribution curve of BMD against ages in Down's syndrome has a delay of 2.3 ± 0.5 (mean ± 1 S.E.M.) years compared to normal children. In our conclusion, the children with Down's syndrome have lower BMD than the normal children of the same age group. (Author)

  3. Discordant effect of body mass index on bone mineral density and speed of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagag Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased BMI may affect the determination of bone mineral density (BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and speed of sound (SOS measured across bones. Preliminary data suggest that axial SOS is less affected by soft tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI on BMD and SOS measured along bones. Methods We compared axial BMD determined by DXA with SOS along the phalanx, radius and tibia in 22 overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2, and 11 lean (BMI = 21 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion determined bone turnover. Results Mean femoral neck – but not lumbar spine BMD was higher in the overweight – as compared with the lean group (0.70 ± 0.82, -0.99 ± 0.52, P P Conclusions The high BMI of postmenopausal women may result in spuriously high BMD. SOS measured along bones may be a more appropriate means for evaluating bones of overweight women.

  4. EFFECTS OF TAEKWONDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Young Ho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bone fractures has increased in the current decade due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, or the amount of mineralized bone, is an important determinant of risk for bone fractures. Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Taekwondo, a Korean martial art, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of taekwondo training on the bone health of female high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to clarify the relationships between body weight and BMD in this sample. Thirty taekwondo players (TKD and 30 sedentary high school girls (CON voluntarily participated in the present study and were split into three groups by weight: light weight (L under 51 kg; middle weight (M between 51 and under 57 kg; and heavy weight (H over 57 kg. BMD was determined from dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, and percent body fat was measured by the skin-fold method. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were not significantly different between light, middle and heavy body weight groups. However, the average BMD in the TKD group was significantly greater than in the CON group for all lumbar spine regions (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest that taekwondo training during growth significantly improved bone health in all weight groups.

  5. Relationships between serum Omentin-1 levels and bone mineral density in older men with osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Xin-Lan Zhao; Bin Liao; Ai-Ping Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between serum Omentin-1 levels and the presence of osteoporosis in older men. Methods: Serum Omentin-1, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 45 older men with osteoporosis or 45 older men without osteoporosis (65e70 years old). Results: Omentin-1 levels were increased in older men with osteoporosis, and the differences remained significant after con-trolling for fat mass. Omentin-1 was negatively correlated with BMD. In a multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, Omentin-1, lean mass, but not fat mass, were independent predictors of BMD for the combined group. Significant negative correlations between Omentin-1 and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and bone cross-linked N-telopeptides of typeⅠcollagen (NTX) were found. Omentin-1 was also independently associated with BMD and bone turnover markers in older men with osteoporosis and control groups that were considered separately. Conclusions: Omentin-1 is an independent predictor of BMD in older men with osteoporosis, and it is negatively correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. It is suggested that Omentin-1 may exert a negative effect on bone mass through the regulation of the osteoblast differentiation in the older men with osteoporosis.

  6. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  7. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  8. Influence of nutrition and lifestyle on bone mineral density in children from adoptive and biological families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetic, Selma; Baric, Irena Colic; Satalic, Zvonimir; Keser, Irena; Bobic, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    The precise contributions of hereditary and environmental factors to bone density are not known. We compared lifestyle predictors of bone density among adopted and biological children. The study comprised 18 adopted children (mean [SD] age, 14.0 [4.1] years) with their non-biological parents and 17 children with their biological parents. Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2)) was measured at the lumbar spine, total femur, and distal radius. Nutritional intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Information on smoking and physical activity was obtained by questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients, corrected for energy intake, and all lifestyle characteristics except sleep duration were similar in biological children and their parents. As compared with their parents, adopted children had significantly different energy, protein, and calcium intakes and physical activity levels. In a regression model, BMD z scores of adopted children and their parents were significantly inversely associated at the spine and total femur, whereas BMD z scores of biological children and their parents were significantly positively associated at all measurement sites. The greatest proportion of total variance in BMD was accounted for by calcium intake among adopted children and by parental BMD among biological children. For some lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes, the differences between parents and children were more obvious among adoptive families than among biological families. The most important lifestyle predictor of bone density was calcium intake.

  9. Observation of the bone mineral density of newly formed bone using rabbits. Compared with newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Hiroshi; Numata, Yasuko; Sakae, Toshiro; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takao

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies reporting that newly formed bone around implants is spongy bone. However, although the morphology is reported as being like spongy bone, it is difficult to discriminate whether the bone quality of newly formed bone appears similar to osteoid or cortical bone; therefore, evaluation of bone quality is required. The aims of this study were to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) values of newly formed bone around implants after 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 weeks, to represent these values on three-dimensional color mapping (3Dmap), and to evaluate the change in bone quality associated with newly formed bone around implants. The animal experimental protocol of this study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experiments of our University. This experiment used 20 surface treatment implants (Ti-6Al-4V alloy: 3.1 mm in diameter and 30.0 mm in length) by grit-blasting. They were embedded into surgically created flaws in femurs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits (16 weeks old, male). The rabbits were sacrificed with an ear intravenous overdose of pentobarbital sodium under general anesthesia each period, and the femurs were resected. We measured BMD of newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone using Micro-CT, and the BMD distribution map of 3Dmap (TRI/3D Bon BMD, Ratoc System Engineering). The BMD of cortical bone was 1,026.3±44.3 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 1,023.8±40.9 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 1,048.2±45.6 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 1,067.2±60.2 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 1,069.3±50.7 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a non-significant increase each period. The BMD of newly formed bone around implants was 296.8±25.6 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 525.0±72.4 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 691.2±26.0 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 776.9±27.7 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 845.2±23.1 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a significant increase after each period. It was revealed that the color scale of newly formed bone was Low level at 4 weeks, and then it

  10. Polymorphism rs2073618 of the TNFRSF11B (OPG Gene and Bone Mineral Density in Mexican Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Nava-Valdivia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis (OP is highly prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and is influenced by genetic factors. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2073618 in the TNFRSF11B osteoprotegerin (OPG gene has been related to postmenopausal OP although, to date, no information has been described concerning whether this polymorphism is implied in abnormalities of bone mineral density (BMD in RA. We evaluated, in a case-control study performed in Mexican-Mestizo women with RA, whether SNP rs2073618 in the TNFRSF11B gene is associated with a decrease in BMD. RA patients were classified as follows: (1 low BMD and (2 normal BMD. All patients were genotyped for the rs2073618 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP. The frequency of low BMD was 74.4%. Higher age was observed in RA with low BMD versus normal BMD (62 and 54 years, resp.; p<0.001. Worse functioning and lower BMI were observed in RA with low BMD (p=0.003 and p=0.002, resp.. We found similar genotype frequencies in RA with low BMD versus RA with normal BMD (GG genotype 71% versus 64.4%, GC 26% versus 33%, and CC 3% versus 2.2%, resp.; p=0.6. We concluded that in Mexican-Mestizo female patients with RA, the rs2073618 polymorphism of the TNRFS11B gene is not associated with low BMD.

  11. Association of pioglitazone treatment with decreased bone mineral density in obese premenopausal patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Andersen, Mikael; Hagen, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study at an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. PATIENTS......, sex hormones, and body composition. CONCLUSION: Pioglitazone treatment was followed by decreased lumbar and hip BMD and decreased measures of bone turnover in a premenopausal study population relatively protected from bone mineral loss Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  12. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry underestimates in vivo lumbar spine bone mineral density in overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Rim; Vico, Laurence; Laroche, Norbert; Sakly, Mohsen; Attia, Nebil; Lavet, Cedric

    2018-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely used technique for measuring areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, several studies have shown inaccuracy, with either overestimation or underestimation of DXA BMD measurements in the case of overweight or obese individuals. We have designed an overweight rat model based on junk food to compare the effect of obesity on in vivo and ex vivo BMD and bone mineral content measurements. Thirty-eight 6-month old male rats were given a chow diet (n = 13) or a high fat and sucrose diet (n = 25), with the calorie amount being kept the same in the two groups, for 19 weeks. L1 BMD, L1 bone mineral content, amount of abdominal fat, and amount of abdominal lean were obtained from in vivo DXA scan. Ex vivo L1 BMD was also measured. A difference between in vivo and ex vivo DXA BMD measurements (P body weight, perirenal fat, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that body weight, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean were independently related to ex vivo BMD. DXA underestimated lumbar in vivo BMD in overweight rats, and this measurement error is related to body weight and abdominal fat. Therefore, caution must be used when one is interpreting BMD among overweight and obese individuals.

  13. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  14. Testosterone is an independent determinant of bone mineral density in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkova, Olga; Mokhort, Tatiana; Sanec, Igor; Sharshakova, Tamara; Hayashida, Naomi; Takamura, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    Although many reports have elucidated pathophysiological characteristics of abnormal bone metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DT2), determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with DT2 are still controversial. We examined 168 Belarussian men 45-60 years of age. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), immunoreactive insulin, and C-reactive protein concentrations were assessed. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray densitometry of the lumbar spine (L(1)-L(4)). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured, and free testosterone (FT) was calculated. Using univariate linear regression analysis, BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly correlated with FT (r=0.32, pDT2.

  15. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs

  16. Gender disparity in BMD conversion: a comparison between Lunar and Hologic densitometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda, Kirtan; Nguyen, Tuan V; Pocock, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Female-derived inter-conversion and standardised BMD equations at the lumbar spine and hip have not been validated in men. This study of 110 male subjects scanned on Hologic and Lunar densitometers demonstrates that published equations may not applicable to men at the lumbar spine. Male inter-conversion equations have also been derived. Currently, available equations for inter-manufacturer conversion of bone mineral density (BMD) and calculation of standardised BMD (sBMD) are used in both males and females, despite being derived and validated only in women. Our aim was to test the validity of the published equations in men. One hundred ten men underwent lumbar spine (L2-4), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using Hologic and Lunar scanners. Hologic BMD was converted to Lunar using published equations derived from women for L2-4 and FN. Actual Lunar BMD (A-Lunar) was compared to converted (Lunar equivalent) Hologic BMD values (H-Lunar). sBMD was calculated separately using Hologic (sBMD-H) and Lunar BMD (sBMD-L) at L2-4, FN and TH. Conversion equations in men for Hologic to Lunar BMD were derived using Deming regression analysis. There was a strong linear correlation between Lunar and Hologic BMD at all skeletal sites. A-Lunar BMD was however significantly higher than derived H-Lunar BMD (p Lunar BMD to Hologic BMD, and formulae for lumbar spine sBMD, derived in women may not be applicable to men.

  17. Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Azin; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols

  18. Increased Leg Bone Mineral Density and Content During the Initial Years of College Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerpella, John J; Buehring, Bjoern; Hetzel, Scott J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2018-04-01

    Scerpella, JJ, Buehring, B, Hetzel, SJ, and Heiderscheit, BC. Increased leg bone mineral density and content during the initial years of college sport. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1123-1130, 2018-Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) data are useful parameters for evaluating how training practices promote bone health. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to longitudinally assess sport-specific growth in leg and total body BMD/BMC over the initial 2 years of collegiate training. Eighty-five Division 1 collegiate basketball, hockey, and soccer athletes (50 males and 35 females; age 19.0 [0.8] years) underwent annual DXA scans. Leg and total body BMD/BMC were compared within and across two 1-year intervals (periods 1 and 2) using repeated-measures analysis of variance, adjusting for age, sex, race, and sport. Leg BMD, leg BMC, and total body BMC all increased over period 1 (0.05 g·cm [p = 0.001], 0.07 kg [p = 0.002], and 0.19 kg [p BMC (p BMC (p = 0.005). Leg lean mass increased more during period 2 than period 1 (p = 0.018). Sports participation was the only significant predictor of change in leg BMD. Significant increases in both leg BMD and BMC were demonstrated over both 2-year periods, with greater gains during period 1. These gains highlight the importance of attentive training procedures, capitalizing on attendant physical benefits of increased BMD/BMC. Additional research in young adults, evaluating bone mass acquisition, will optimize performance and decrease risk of bone stress injury among collegiate athletes.

  19. Significance of determination of bone mineral density and osteocalcin in diabetic patients with diabetic microvascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xianghui; Mu Junqing; Lu Kuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of diabetic microvascular complications on bone mineral density (BMI) and osteocalcin (BGP). Methods: 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied, including 33 with microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) (group 1) and 27 without complications (group 2). Fasting blood glucose, serum fructosamine (GSP), total alkaline phosphatase (TALP), calcium (Ca 2+ ) levels were measured by biochemical method; osteocalcin (BGP) level was detected by RIA. BMD of the lumbar spine and femur was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in all patients. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the height and body weight. Results: The BMI, GSP, FBG, TALP and Ca 2+ values in the two groups were not much different, but BGP and BMD in group 1 were significantly lower than those in group 2. Conclusion: Bone mineral density (BMD) and BGP values were closely related to the microvascular complications in diabetes, which could decrease bone formation and increase the frequency of osteoporosis

  20. Dietary patterns and longitudinal change in hip bone mineral density among older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T S; Harrison, S; Judd, S; Orwoll, E S; Marshall, L M; Shannon, J; Langsetmo, L; Lane, N E; Shikany, J M

    2018-05-01

    Studying dietary patterns is often more informative than individual nutrients or foods. We found that a Prudent dietary pattern (rich in vegetables and fish) was associated with reduced loss of total hip BMD in older men. A Prudent dietary pattern may be a potential lifestyle strategy for minimizing bone loss. This study aimed to identify baseline dietary patterns using factor analysis in a cohort of older men and to evaluate whether the dietary patterns were associated with bone mineral density change (%ΔBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck over time. Participants (n = 4379; mean age 72.9 ± 5.5 years) were from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) prospective cohort study and had dietary data collected at baseline (March 2000-April 2002) and BMD measured at baseline and Visit 2 (March 2005-May 2006). Dietary intake was assessed with a brief Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); %ΔBMD was calculated from baseline to Visit 2. We used generalized linear regression to estimate least square (LS) means of %ΔBMD in quartiles of the dietary pattern scores adjusted for potential confounding factors. Two major dietary patterns were derived: Prudent (abundant in vegetables, salad, and non-fried fish) and Western (rich in hamburger, fries, processed meats, cheese, and sweets/desserts). There was an inverse association between adherence to the Prudent pattern and total hip %ΔBMD (p-trend = 0.028 after adjusting for age and clinical site; p-trend = 0.033 after further adjustment for smoking, calcium supplement use, diabetes, hypertension, and total energy intake). No other consistent associations between dietary patterns and %ΔBMD were observed. Greater adherence to a Prudent dietary pattern may attenuate total hip BMD loss (%ΔBMD) in older men.

  1. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon [Dept. of Radiologic Techology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8{+-}6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8{+-}7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1{+-}6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0{+-}9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1{+-}2.7 kg/m{sup 2}. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged {>=}50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged {>=}40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  2. Bone mineral density and insulin-like growth factor-1 in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, H; Shatla, R; Elsayed, R; Tawfik, E; Osman, N; Korra, S; Ibrahim, A

    2017-04-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have significant decrease linear growth rate and low bone mineral density (BMD). This study is to evaluate BMD in children with CP and its relation to the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 58 children suffering from spastic CP with the age range 4-12 years compared to 19 controls. All assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure BMD, serum level of IGF-1, and serum vitamin D. The patients were classified according to their GMFCS. Fractures were reported in seven (12.1%) of cases. Our study demonstrated that, IGF-1 level and BMD decrease in correlation with the severity of CP. IGF-1correlates positively with serum vitamin D, BMI, and BMD. CP children with severe GMFCS level or who use anticonvulsive drugs are at a high risk for low BMD and low levels of IGF-1. Both BMD and IGF-1 were significantly in low children with spastic CP; IGF-1 negatively correlates with the severity of osteopenia in children with spastic. Children with CP who are not independently ambulant or with severe GMFCS level or who use anticonvulsive drugs are at a high risk for developing low BMD.

  3. The Relationship between Cortisol and Bone Mineral Density in Competitive Male Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Mathis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race day cortisol was related to bone mineral density (BMD in competitive male cyclists. A secondary purpose was to determine additional factors associated with BMD in competitive male cyclists. Methods. Measurements of lumbar spine and hip BMD were performed in 35 male competitors in a state championship cycling time trial event. Salivary cortisol was measured 10 minutes prior to the start of the race and 5 minutes after race finished. Participants reported daily calcium intake, age, years of bike training, races per season, and average weekly minutes spent riding a bike, weight training, and running on a survey. Results. Cortisol level increased significantly from pre- to postcompetition but was not significantly associated with BMD. Increased weekly minutes of weight training was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and the hip. The increased number of years of cycling experience was associated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Increased daily calcium intake was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Conclusions. Findings indicate that cyclists should participate in weight training and increase calcium intake in order to increase or maintain BMD of the lumbar spine and hip.

  4. Impact of Weight Loss With Intragastric Balloon on Bone Density and Microstructure in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Eduardo; Madeira, Miguel; Guedes, Erika Paniago; Mafort, Thiago Thomaz; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Lima, Inayá Correa Barbosa; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; de Pinho, Paulo Roberto Alves; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss

    2018-03-21

    The historical concept that obesity protects against bone fractures has been questioned. Weight loss appears to reduce bone mineral density (BMD); however, the results in young adults are inconsistent, and data on the effects of weight loss on bone microstructure are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of weight loss using an intragastric balloon (IGB) on bone density and microstructure. Forty obese patients with metabolic syndrome (mean age 35.1 ± 7.3 yr) used an IGB continuously for 6 mo. Laboratory tests, areal BMD, and body composition measurements via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and volumetric BMD and bone microstructure measurements via high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography were conducted before IGB placement and after IGB removal. The mean weight loss was 11.5%. After 6 mo, there were significant increases in vitamin D and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen levels. After IGB use, areal BMD increased in the spine but decreased in the total femur and the 33% radius. Cortical BMD increased in the distal radius but tended to decrease in the distal tibia. The observed trabecular bone loss in the distal tibia contributed to the decline in the total volumetric BMD at this site. There was a negative correlation between the changes in leptin levels and the measures of trabecular quality in the tibia on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Weight loss may negatively impact bone microstructure in young patients, especially for weight-bearing bones, in which obesity has a more prominent effect. Copyright © 2018 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997 of postmenopausal women (n=266; 56.6±4.7 years participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4, and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT, total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P<0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward’s triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.

  6. Bone mineral density and mortality in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Klift, M; Pols, H A P; Geleijnse, J M; Van Der Kuip, D A M; Hofman, A; De Laet, C E D H

    2002-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that a low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Most studies have investigated this relationship in women only and presented their risk estimates per standard deviation change in BMD. However, when using this approach, a BMD threshold might be missed when relative risks are presented in the traditional manner. Therefore, in this study our aim was to model the relation between BMD and all-cause mortality. In the Rotterdam Study, follow-up was complete for 5819 men and women aged > or =55 years for whom BMD data were available. During an average follow-up of 5.4 years, 399 men and 317 women died. We calculated BMD Z scores using measurements performed at the femoral neck. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to fit the model. An average BMD, reflected by a Z score = 0, was used as the reference. For women, no significant relationship between BMD and overall mortality was observed. For men, however, a cubic model best fitted the relationship under study, also after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). The risk of mortality increased when BMD was below average. Similar results were found when separate curves were made for diabetics and nondiabetics, smokers (ever or never), and tertiles of BMI. Excluding subjects who had suffered hip fractures, or adjusting for the number of drugs used and for lower limb disability, essentially did not change results. This suggests that low BMD is not mainly due to morbidity and impaired mobility in our cohort, which makes this a less likely explanation for the observed relation with mortality. The results of our study suggest that, in men, a nonlinear relationship between BMD and mortality exists, which is independent of comorbidity, whereas, in women, no significant relationship was observed.

  7. Bone mineral density across a range of physical activity volumes: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Kohrt, Wendy M; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Kohl, Harold W

    2015-02-01

    The association between aerobic physical activity volume and bone mineral density (BMD) is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between BMD and aerobic activity across a broad range of activity volumes, particularly volumes between those recommended in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and those of trained endurance athletes. Data from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to quantify the association between reported physical activity and BMD at the lumbar spine and proximal femur across the entire range of activity volumes reported by US adults. Participants were categorized into multiples of the minimum guideline-recommended volume based on reported moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure activity. Lumbar and proximal femur BMD were assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among women, multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses revealed no significant differences in lumbar BMD across activity categories, whereas proximal femur BMD was significantly higher among those who exceeded the guidelines by 2-4 times than those who reported no activity. Among men, multivariable-adjusted BMD at both sites neared its highest values among those who exceeded the guidelines by at least 4 times and was not progressively higher with additional activity. Logistic regression estimating the odds of low BMD generally echoed the linear regression results. The association between physical activity volume and BMD is complex. Among women, exceeding guidelines by 2-4 times may be important for maximizing BMD at the proximal femur, whereas among men, exceeding guidelines by ≥4 times may be beneficial for lumbar and proximal femur BMD.

  8. Unipedal standing exercise and hip bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Akinori; Oshige, Toshihisa; Zenke, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Nagaishi, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of unipedal standing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip in postmenopausal women. Japanese postmenopausal women (n = 94) were assigned at random to an exercise or control group (no exercise). The 6-month exercise program consisted of standing on a single foot for 1 min per leg 3 times per day. BMD of the hip was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no significant difference in age and baseline hip BMD between the exercise group (n = 49) and control group (n = 45). Exercise did not improve hip BMD compared with the control group. Stepwise regression analysis identified old age as a significant determinant (p = 0.034) of increased hip total BMD at 6 months after exercise. In 31 participants aged >/=70 years, the exercise group (n = 20) showed significant increase in the values of hip BMD at the areas of total (p = 0.008), intertrochanteric (p = 0.023), and Ward's triangle (p = 0.032). The same parameters were decreased in the control group (n = 11). The percent changes in hip BMD of the exercise group were not significantly different from those of the control group either in the participants with low baseline hip total BMD ( or =80% of the young adult mean). In conclusion, unipedal standing exercise for 6 months did not improve hip BMD in Japanese postmenopausal women. Effect of exercise on hip total BMD was age dependent. In participants aged > or =70 years, the exercise significantly increased hip total BMD.

  9. Defining the bone morphometry, micro-architecture and volumetric density profile in osteopenic vs non-osteopenic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lee, Wayne Yuk-Wai; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Yip, Benjamin Hon-Kei; Yu, Fiona Wai-Ping; Yu, Wing-Sze; Zhu, Feng; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2017-06-01

    Osteopenia has been widely reported in about 30 % of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, the bone quality profile of the 70 % non-osteopenic AIS defined by areal bone mineral density (BMD) with conventional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has not been adequately studied. Our purpose was to verify whether abnormal volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone structure (morphometry and micro-architecture) also existed in the non-osteopenic AIS when compared with matched controls using both DXA and high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT). This was a case-control cross-sectional study. 257 AIS girls with a mean age of 12.7 (SD = 0.8) years old and 187 age- and gender-matched normal controls with an average age of 12.9 (SD = 0.5) years old were included. Areal BMD (aBMD) and bone quality were measured with standard DXA and HR-pQCT, respectively. The parameters of HR-pQCT could be categorized as bone morphometry, vBMD and bone micro-architecture. The results were compared between the osteopenic AIS and osteopenic control, and between the non-osteopenic AIS and non-osteopenic control. In addition to the lower aBMD and vBMD, osteopenic AIS showed significantly greater cortical perimeter and trabecular area than the osteopenic control even after adjustments of age (P architecture and volumetric density profile compared with their normal matched controls. The observed abnormalities were suggestive of decreased endocortical bone apposition or active endocortical resorption that could affect the mechanical bone strength in AIS. The underlying pathomechanism might be attributed to abnormal bone modeling/remodeling that could be associated with the etiopathogenesis of AIS.

  10. Bone mineral density in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Tsou, C.T.; Chen, C.C.; Wang, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in 38 male patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using a M and SE Osteo Tech 300 scanner. The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured and the mean density was presented as g cm -2 . The patients were distinguished according to the following three criteria: (1) blood sugar control was good or poor; (2) the duration of diabetes was long or short; (3) renal function was evaluated by effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) as good or poor. The results showed about half the cases of NIDDM had lower BMD. The patients with poor blood sugar control, longer disease duration and poor renal function had lower BMD. However, the difference between any two groups distinguished by the three criteria is not significant. We think that the causes of osteoporosis in patients with NIDDM may not be explained by only a single factor. (author)

  11. Antineoplastic treatment effect on bone mineral density in Mexican breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy-Cisneros, Karina; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E.; Guevara-Torres, Alfonso G.; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O.; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly malignancy in Mexican women. Although treatment has improved, it may significantly affect bone mineral status in those who receive it. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), in patients with breast cancer and explore the interaction of menopausal status and clinical stage with cancer treatment on such changes. A quasi-experimental design was applied with measurements before and after a chemotherapy treatment in 40 patients with primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. BMD and body composition measurements were taken by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and changes in these variables due to therapy were analyzed using mixed regression for repeated measurements. Significant loss was found in femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD (p < 0.001). Patients diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis received calcium + vitamin D supplementation (600 mg/200 IU day). It showed a protective effect in the decrease of femoral neck BMD and total BMC. BMD loss in both femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD was higher in premenopausal women: 0.023 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.063 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p < 0.001), while in postmenopausal women BMD loss was 0.015 g/cm 2 in femoral neck and 0.035 g/cm 2 in L2-L4 (p = 0.021 and p = 0.001 respectively). Change in lumbar spine BMD was prominent in premenopausal women with advanced clinical stage (IIB, IIIA, IIIB): 0.066 g/cm 2 (p = 0.003). The antineoplastic breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy had a negative impact on BMD, in premenopausal women overall, although a differential effect was found according to clinical stage and calcium supplementation status

  12. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones......-ray absoptiometry (r = 0.86, p Relative to this age-related loss, the reported short...... sites and a precision that potentially allows for relatively short observation intervals. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-null...

  13. Association of adiposity indices with bone density and bone turnover in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Yan, D; Hou, X; Chen, P; Sun, Q; Bao, Y; Hu, C; Zhang, Z; Jia, W

    2017-09-01

    Associations of adiposity indices with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers were evaluated in Chinese participants. Body mass index, fat mass, and lean mass are positively related to BMD in both genders. Subcutaneous fat area was proved to be negatively associated with BMD and positively correlated with osteocalcin in postmenopausal females. Obesity is highly associated with osteoporosis, but the effect of adipose tissue on bone is contradictory. Our study aimed to assess the associations of adiposity indices with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in the Chinese population. Our study recruited 5215 participants from the Shanghai area, evaluated related anthropometric and biochemical traits in all participants, tested serum BTMs, calculated fat distribution using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and image analysis software, and tested BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. When controlled for age, all adiposity indices were positively correlated with BMD of all sites for both genders. As for the stepwise regression analysis, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and lean mass were protective for BMD in both genders. However, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) was detrimental for BMD of the L1-4 and femoral neck (β ± SE -0.0742 ± 0.0174; p = 2.11E-05; β ± SE -0.0612 ± 0.0147; p = 3.07E-05). Adiposity indices showed a negative correlation with BTMs adjusting for age, especially with osteocalcin. In the stepwise regression analysis, fat mass was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (β ± SE -8.8712 ± 1.4902; p = 4.17E-09) and lean mass showed a negative correlation with N-terminal procollagen of type I collagen (PINP) for males (β ± SE -0.3169 ± 0.0917; p = 0.0006). In females, BMI and visceral fat area (VFA) were all negatively associated with osteocalcin (β ± SE -0.4423 ± 0.0663; p = 2.85E-11; β ± SE -7.1982 ± 1.1094; p = 9.95E-11), while SFA showed a positive correlation

  14. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  15. The relationship of depression, anxiety and stress with low bone mineral density in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Hany Burstein; Weller, Aron; Vaisman, Nachum; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships of depression, anxiety and stress with bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized negative relations between those mood variables and BMD in three assessed areas. The study showed association between depression and decreased BMD. The hypothesis regarding anxiety and stress was partially confirmed. In the last decade, the relationship of osteoporosis to psychological variables has been increasingly studied. The accumulating evidence from these studies supports the conclusion that depression is related to decreased BMD. Nevertheless, several studies found no support for this relationship. Moreover, only a small number of studies examined the association between anxiety or stress and decreased BMD. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships of depression, anxiety and stress with BMD by means of adequate measuring instruments, while controlling for background factors known to be related to BMD decrease (e.g., body mass index, family history). The study included 135 post-menopausal female participants, who arrived for BMD screening, between the years 2006 and 2009. Several days prior to the examination, participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing depression and anxiety. BMD was measured using DXA, in spine, right and left hip. The study showed negative associations between depression and BMD variables in the three assessed areas. There were negative correlations between anxiety, stress and spine BMD, as well as a tendency towards negative relations in the right and left hip BMD. Concurrent hierarchical regressions showed that the addition of the three psychological variables increased the explained variance by 6–8 %. In addition, depression was found to have a unique significant contribution to the explained variance in right and left hip BMD. The findings provide supporting evidence for the existence of associations between mood variables and decreased BMD. Further

  16. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with 45 Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total 45 Ca content and 45 Ca/dry and 45 Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region (-36 to -46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss

  17. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  18. Peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.B.; Guanzon, M.L.V.V.; Balderas, J.A.J.; Villaruel, C.M.; Santos, F.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).The design used is cross-sectional study. The study include 23 females and 22 males, with 3 to 4 subjects for each age range of 5. The methods used was bone mass density measurements on the lumbar spine and the femur using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DPXI lunar) were taken. The values were also age-matched and matched with that of a young adult based on programmed Caucasian norm provided by Lunar Co. The values were then scattered against age for each sex. Ten (10) cc of blood was also extracted from the patients, with 5 cc of blood separated for future studies. Patients were also interviewed as to their lifestyle, diet, use of contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement treatment, using a Filipino version of the revised questionnaire on the WHO Study on osteoporosis. The mean bone mass density at the L21.4 level for females was 1.12±0.11 g/cm 2 and 0,91±0.11 g/cm 2 at the femur. The highest BMD in both the lumbar spine femoral neck measurements among females was achieved between the ages 30-35 years of age with the lowest BMD occurring between 15-20 yrs. old and incidentally in 2 subjects with ages between 40-44. There seems to be little bone loss among beyond the age 35, unlike in the females. Bone mass density among a sample Metro Manila residents was determined using DEXA and the measurements on the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These were age-matched with that of young adult based on Caucasian norm provided by the Lunar Co. Peak bone mass density in the L2L4 level among the females is reached between the ages 30-35 years old, after which there is progressive bone loss with values in the 45-50 years old approximating the values in the 15-19 years old age range. A similar pattern is seen in the measurements taken at the femoral neck. Among males, the peak BMD is reached during the 30-35 years old, but there seems to be no rapid decline or rapid bone

  19. BMD T-Score Values Expeditions 1-23 (n=30)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This chart shows the T-Values for the Bone Mass Density (BMD) of three areas of the body (i.e., lumbar spine, femoral neck and trochanter) for both pre-spaceflight and post-spaceflight for 30 subjects.

  20. The negative correlation between thyrotropin receptor-stimulating antibodies and bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Medea; Korinteli, Maka; Zerekidze, Tamar; Jikurauli, Nino; Shanava, Shorena; Tsagareli, Marina; Giorgadze, Elen

    2013-06-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder with various clinical manifestations. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs), the circulating autoantibodies specific to Graves' disease, are the cause for hyperthyroidism, the most prevalent abnormality. Hyperthyroidism leads to increased bone turnover and a negative bone balance. The aims of the present study were to determine the relationship between TRAbs and bone mineral density (BMD), to assess the extent of BMD change in patients with Graves' disease, and to determine the impact of conservative and surgical therapy on BMD. Fifty female postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease were chosen for this study. Twenty women had a recent diagnosis of Graves' disease, 30 women presented with a compensated disease state after either conservative or surgical treatment, and 30 healthy postmenopausal women served as controls. Thyroid parameters were measured, and BMD values were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan.Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and T-scores were significantly lower in newly diagnosed patients compared with the control group, but a difference was not observed between the treated and control groups. Statistical analysis revealed a strong and significant negative correlation between femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and TRAb values.Both surgical and conservative therapies are effective for restoring BMD in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease, and the increased level of TRAb can be a useful marker of bone density impairment.

  1. RECOVERY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FERTILITY IN A FORMER AMENORRHEIC ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate dietary intake and prolonged amenorrhea in women athletes can lead to bone loss, particularly at the spine, which may be irreversible. This report presents the case of a woman endurance runner, followed prospectively over 6 years after presenting with the female athlete triad. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, lumbar spine (LS, total hip and total body (TB BMD Z-scores were -2.2, -0.5 and -0.3 respectively. At 6 years, following a recovery plan of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, weight gain, improved dietary intake and reduced training load, the athlete regained menstrual function and BMD. LS, TB and hip BMD Z-scores improved to -0.6, -0.1 and 0.1 respectively. Restoration of fertility was indicated by pregnancy, following only 4 months of regular menstruation. This case report suggests that bone density and fertility may not be completely jeopardised in formerly amenorrheic and osteopenic athletes, providing recovery through diet, weight gain, and return of menstruation is achieved within the third decade. Longitudinal studies tracking bone changes in women with amenorrhea and low BMD are required and would have important implications for the treatment of the female athlete triad

  2. Loss of lean body mass affects low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid cachexia, the loss of lean body mass, is another. However, the relationship between decreased lean body mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA has not been well studied. This study included 413 participants, comprising 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical data, BMD, bone metabolic markers (BMM) and body composition, such as lean body mass and percent fat, were collected. Risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with RA including the relationship BMD and body composition were analyzed. Patients with RA showed low BMD and high BMM compared with controls. Moreover, lean body mass was lower and percent fat was higher in patients with RA. Lean body mass correlated positively and percent fat negatively with BMD. Lean body mass was a positive and disease duration was a negative independent factor for BMD in multivariate statistical analysis. BMD and lean body mass were significantly lower in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Lean body mass correlated positively with BMD and decreased lean body mass and disease duration affected low BMD in patients with RA. [UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , UMIN000003876].

  3. Temporal trends in obesity, osteoporosis treatment, bone mineral density, and fracture rates: a population-based historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, William D; Lix, Lisa M; Yogendran, Marina S; Morin, Suzanne N; Metge, Colleen J; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2014-04-01

    Diverging international trends in fracture rates have been observed, with most reports showing that fracture rates have stabilized or decreased in North American and many European populations. We studied two complementary population-based historical cohorts from the Province of Manitoba, Canada (1996-2006) to determine whether declining osteoporotic fracture rates in Canada are attributable to trends in obesity, osteoporosis treatment, or bone mineral density (BMD). The Population Fracture Registry included women aged 50 years and older with major osteoporotic fractures, and was used to assess impact of changes in osteoporosis treatment. The BMD Registry included all women aged 50 years and older undergoing BMD tests, and was used to assess impact of changes in obesity and BMD. Model-based estimates of temporal changes in fracture rates (Fracture Registry) were calculated. Temporal changes in obesity and BMD and their association with fracture rates (BMD Registry) were estimated. In the Fracture Registry (n=27,341), fracture rates declined 1.6% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3% to 2.0%). Although osteoporosis treatment increased from 5.6% to 17.4%, the decline in fractures was independent of osteoporosis treatment. In the BMD Registry (n=36,587), obesity increased from 12.7% to 27.4%. Femoral neck BMD increased 0.52% per year and lumbar spine BMD increased 0.32% per year after covariate adjustment (pobesity or osteoporosis treatment. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. Role of bone mineral density in predicting morphometric vertebral fractures in patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, T; Gotti, D; Cristiano, A; Maffezzoni, F; Mazziotti, G; Focà, E; Castelli, F; Giustina, A; Quiros-Roldan, E

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the bone of HIV patients both in terms of quantity and quality. It was found that HIV-infected patients did fracture independently of the degree of bone demineralization as in other forms of secondary osteoporosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFs) in HIV patients who were screened by bone mineral density (BMD) and to explore possible factors associated with VFs. This is a cross-sectional study that included HIV-infected patients recruited in the Clinic of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and that underwent BMD measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and hip (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare). For the assessment of VFs, anteroposterior and lateral X-ray examinations of the thoracic and lumbar spines were performed and were centrally digitized. Logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis of factors associated with VFs. One hundred thirty-one consecutive patients with HIV infection (93 M, 38 F, median age 51 years; range, 36-75) underwent BMD measurement: 25.2 % of patients showed normal BMD, while 45 % were osteopenic and 29.7 % osteoporotic. Prevalence of low BMD (osteopenia and osteoporosis) was higher in females as compared to males (90 vs 69 %) with no significant correlation with age and body mass index. VFs occurred more frequently in patients with low BMD as compared to patients with normal BMD (88.5 vs. 11.4 %; p osteoporosis (43 vs. 46 %; p = 0.073). VFs were significantly associated with older age and previous AIDS events. These results suggest a BMD patients at risk of skeletal fragility and, therefore, good candidates for morphometric evaluation of spine X-ray in line with other forms of secondary osteoporosis with impaired bone quality.

  5. Relationship between MRI-measured bone marrow adipose tissue and hip and spine bone mineral density in African-American and Caucasian participants: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gantz, Madeleine; Chen, Jun; Punyanitya, Mark; Lewis, Cora E; Grunfeld, Carl

    2012-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Our previous study of Caucasian women demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between BMAT and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and skeletal muscle had an effect on the relationship between BMAT and BMD. In the present study we investigated the relationship between pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT with hip and lumbar spine BMD in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) sample with adjustment for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured VAT, SAT, and skeletal muscle. T1-weighted MRI was acquired for 210 healthy African-American and Caucasian men and women (age 38-52 yr). Hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT had negative correlations with hip and lumbar spine BMD (r = -0.399 to -0.550, P BMAT and BMD remained strong after adjusting for demographics, weight, skeletal muscle, SAT, VAT, total adipose tissue (TAT), menopausal status, lifestyle factors, and inflammatory markers (standardized regression coefficients = -0. 296 to -0.549, P BMAT (standardized regression coefficients = 0.268-0.614, P BMAT and hip and lumbar spine BMD independent of demographics and body composition. These observations support the growing evidence linking BMAT with low bone density.

  6. Adipose tissue depot volume relationships with spinal trabecular bone mineral density in African Americans with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Chan

    Full Text Available Changes in select adipose tissue volumes may differentially impact bone mineral density. This study was performed to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between computed tomography-determined visceral (VAT, subcutaneous (SAT, inter-muscular (IMAT, and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT volumes with respective changes in thoracic vertebral and lumbar vertebral volumetric trabecular bone mineral density (vBMD in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Generalized linear models were fitted to test relationships between baseline and change in adipose volumes with change in vBMD in 300 African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants; adjustment was performed for age, sex, diabetes duration, study interval, smoking, hypertension, BMI, kidney function, and medications. Participants were 50% female with mean ± SD age 55.1±9.0 years, diabetes duration 10.2±7.2 years, and BMI 34.7±7.7 kg/m2. Over 5.3 ± 1.4 years, mean vBMD decreased in thoracic/lumbar spine, while mean adipose tissue volumes increased in SAT, IMAT, and PAT, but not VAT depots. In fully-adjusted models, changes in lumbar and thoracic vBMD were positively associated with change in SAT (β[SE] 0.045[0.011], p<0.0001; 0.40[0.013], p = 0.002, respectively. Change in thoracic vBMD was positively associated with change in IMAT (p = 0.029 and VAT (p = 0.016; and change in lumbar vBMD positively associated with baseline IMAT (p<0.0001. In contrast, vBMD was not associated with change in PAT. After adjusting for BMI, baseline and change in volumes of select adipose depots were associated with increases in thoracic and lumbar trabecular vBMD in African Americans. Effects of adiposity on trabecular bone appear to be site-specific and related to factors beyond mechanical load.

  7. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  8. Bone edema on magnetic resonance imaging is highly associated with low bone mineral density in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danmin Wang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between bone marrow edema (BME on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS.The study included 333 patients with AS who underwent BMD measurements and axial MRI. Additionally, 106 normal controls were included. The modified New York criteria were used as the classification criteria of AS. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected and analyzed. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined by a Z-score ≤-2. The Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC MRI index was used to assess inflammation at the sacroiliac joint (SIJ and spine.Among the 333 patients, the male:female ratio was 4.6:1, mean patient age was 28.5±10.6 years, and mean disease duration was 7.3±6.8 years. The prevalences of low BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis were significantly higher among AS patients than among controls (19.8%, 62.8%, and 5.7% vs. 4.7%, 33.0%, and 0%, respectively, P = 0.000. The BMD values were significantly lower and prevalences of low BMD at both the spine and femur were significantly higher among patients with BME on MRI than among those without BME. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that male sex (OR 3.87, 95% CI 1.21-7.36, P = 0.023, high ASDAS-CRP score (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.36-4.76, P = 0.015, the presence of BME on sacroiliac MRI (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.77-6.23, P = 0.000 and spinal MRI (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.96-8.46, P = 0.000, and high grade of sacroiliitis (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.82-4.45, P = 0.002 were risk factors for low BMD (any site. The SPARCC scores of the SIJ were negatively correlated with femoral BMD (r = -0.22, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.10, P = 0.000. Additionally, the SPARCC scores of the spine were negatively correlated with BMD values (r = -0.23, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.09, P = 0.003 and Z-scores (r = -0.24, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.12, P = 0.001 at the

  9. Epistasis between QTLs for bone density variation in Copenhagen × dark agouti F2 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted bone density (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine genome-wide significance thresholds for the full model and epistasis (interaction) LOD scores corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. A novel locus on chromosome 15 and a previously reported chromosome 14 QTL demonstrated a strong epistatic effect on BMD at the femur by DXA (LOD = 5.4). Two novel QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 12 were found to interact to affect total BMD at the femur midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.0). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified QTL in the rat, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTL or with other novel loci to contribute to BMD variation. PMID:19153792

  10. Epistasis between QTLs for bone density variation in Copenhagen x dark agouti F2 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2009-03-01

    The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted bone density (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine genome-wide significance thresholds for the full model and epistasis (interaction) LOD scores corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. A novel locus on chromosome 15 and a previously reported chromosome 14 QTL demonstrated a strong epistatic effect on BMD at the femur by DXA (LOD = 5.4). Two novel QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 12 were found to interact to affect total BMD at the femur midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.0). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified QTL in the rat, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTL or with other novel loci to contribute to BMD variation.

  11. Areal and volumetric Bone Mineral Density and risk of multiple types of fracture in older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub, Didier; Orwoll, Eric S.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Boudreau, Robert; Greenspan, Susan; Newman, Anne B.; Zmuda, Joseph; Bauer, Douglas; Cummings, Steven; Cauley, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the association between low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in older men, none have simultaneously studied the relationship between multiple BMD sites and risk of different types of fractures. Using data from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study, we evaluated the association between areal BMD (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements, and different types of fractures during an average of 9.7 years of follow up. Men answered questionnaires about fractures every 4 months (>97% completions). Fractures were confirmed by centralized review of radiographic reports; pathological fractures were excluded. Risk of fractures was assessed at the hip, spine, wrist, shoulder, rib/chest/sternum, ankle/foot/toe, arm, hand/finger, leg, pelvis/coccyx, skull/face and any non-spine fracture. Age and race adjusted Cox proportional-hazards modeling was used to assess the risk of fracture in 3301 older men with both aBMD (at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine) and vBMD (at the trabecular spine and FN, and cortical FN) measurements, with hazard ratios (HRs) expressed per standard deviation (SD) decrease. Lower FN and spine aBMD were associated with an increased risk of fracture at the hip, spine, wrist, shoulder, rib/chest/sternum, arm, and any non-spine fracture (statistically significant HRs per SD decrease ranged from 1.24 - 3.57). Lower trabecular spine and FN vBMD were associated with increased risk of most fractures with statistically significant HRs ranging between 1.27 and 3.69. There was a statistically significant association between FN cortical vBMD and fracture risk at the hip (HR=1.55) and spine sites (HR=1.26), but no association at other fracture sites. In summary, both lower aBMD and vBMD were associated with increased fracture risk. The stronger associations observed for trabecular vBMD than cortical vBMD may reflect the greater

  12. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...

  13. Effect of alpha-calciferol on bone mineral density, bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanics in rats by radiative injury to kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Feipeng; Wang Hongfu; Gao Linfeng; Jin Weifang

    2003-01-01

    The work is to study the effects of alpha-calciferol on bone mineral density, histomorphometry and biomechanics in rats with osteoporosis induced by irradiation of the rat kidney. 32 male SD rats of six months in age were randomly divided into 4 groups (8 rats per group), i.e. the model group, the sham group, the bone one group and the fosamax group. Osteoporosis was developed in the rats by irradiating the kidney. Then the rats were administrated orally as follows in a 90 days, 0.1 g·kg -1 BW.d of alpha-calciferol for the bone one group, 10 mg·kg -1 BW.d of alendronate sodium in 1 mL CMC for the fosamax group, and 1 mL CMC for both the model group and sham group. BMD of L1-4, bone histomorphometry and the bone biomechanical properties were measured. Compared with the model group, both the bone one group and the fosamax group were characterized with significantly higher BMD of L1-4 (p<0.01), significantly larger volume and width of bone trabecula, smaller space of bone trabecula (p<0.05, p<0.01), and significantly larger maximal stress of femur and lumbar vertebra (p<0.05, p<0.01). It is concluded that Alpha-calciferol can improve BMD, bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanical properties in rat osteoporosis induced by kidney irradiation

  14. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Yilmaz, G.; Alkan, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Kuscu, L.; Laleli, Y.; Eksioglu, F.; Sepici, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density (BMD) of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last two Research Coordinated Meetings, in San Diego, CA, October 1996 and Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 1998. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone

  15. Correlation between bone mineral density of jaws and skeletal sites in an Iranian population using dual X-ray energy absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanizadeh, Nasrin; Davaie, Sotoudeh; Rokn, A R; Daneshparvar, Hamid Reza; Bayat, Noushin; Khondi, Nasrin; Ajvadi, Sara; Ghandi, Mostafa

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone density of various regions of jaws and skeletal bones. A total of 110 patients with a mean age of 55.01 ± 10.77 years were selected for the purpose of the present descriptive study. Dual X-ray Energy Absorptiometry (DXA) was carried out to determine bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. Then all the subjects underwent DXA of the jaw bones and BMD values were determined at four jaw regions. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software, and the correlation between the various BMD values was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results showed that 42.7% of females had normal BMD values in the femur, and in vertebrae, 20% were osteopenic and 37.3% suffered from osteoporosis, with statistically significant differences in the BMD values of the jaws between the three above-mentioned groups (P < 0.001). There was an increasing tendency toward osteopenia and osteoporosis with age. There was a positive correlation between BMD values of the femur and lumbar vertebrae and those of all the jaw regions under study (P < 0.005). There was a negative correlation (P < 0.01) between age and the BMD values of the femur, lumbar vertebrae and anterior maxilla. The bone density of the maxilla and mandible and presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia in these bones might reflect the same problem in skeletal bones.

  16. The effect of life-long thyroxine treatment and physical activity on bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, M. J. E.; Vulsma, T.; Wiedijk, B. M.; de Vijlder, J. J. M.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.; Verberne, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Normalization of plasma thyrotropin in T4-supplemented patients with thyroidal congenital hypothyroidism (CH) requires elevated plasma FT4-concentrations compared to patients with acquired thyroidal hypothyroidism. We investigated bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with CH. PATIENTS

  17. Longitudinal follow-up of bone density and body composition in children with precocious or early puberty before, during and after cessation of GnRH agonist therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe studied bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, and body composition in 47 children with central precocious puberty (n = 36) or early puberty (n = 11) before, during, and after cessation of GnRH agonist. Bone density and body composition were measured with dual

  18. Bone mineral density changes of lumbar spine and femur in osteoporotic patient treated with bisphosphonates and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB): Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Currently available approaches to osteoporosis treatment include application of antiresorptive and anabolic agents influencing bone tissue metabolism. The aim of the study was to present bone mineral density (BMD) changes of lumbar spine in osteoporotic patient treated with bisphosphonates such as ibandronic acid and pamidronic acid, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). BMD and volumetric BMD (vBMD) of lumbar spine were measured during the 6 year observation period with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The described case report of osteoporotic patient with family history of severe osteoporosis has shown site-dependent response of bone tissue to antiosteoporotic treatment with bisphosphonates. Twenty-five-month treatment with ibandronic acid improved proximal femur BMD with relatively poor effects on lumbar spine BMD. Over 15-month therapy with pamidronic acid was effective to improve lumbar spine BMD, while in the proximal femur the treatment was not effective. A total of 61-week long oral administration with calcium salt of HMB improved vBMD of lumbar spine in the trabecular and cortical bone compartments when monitored by QCT. Positive effects of nearly 2.5 year HMB treatment on BMD of lumbar spine and femur in the patient were also confirmed using DEXA method. The results obtained indicate that HMB may be applied for the effective treatment of osteoporosis in humans. Further studies on wider human population are recommended to evaluate mechanisms influencing bone tissue metabolism by HMB.

  19. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm 3 , which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm 3 , requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm 3 ) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm 3 and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0.05, Tukey's HSD

  20. The association of bone mineral density measures with incident cardiovascular disease in older men and women: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farhat, G.N.; Newman, A.B.; Sutton-Tyrell, K.; Matthews, K.A.; Boudreau, R.; Schwartz, A.; Harris, T.B.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Visser, M.; Cauley, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: The associations of volumetric and areal bone mineral density (BMD) measures with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied in a biracial cohort of 2,310 older adults. BMD measures were inversely related to CVD in women and white men, independent of age and shared risk factors for

  1. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases spine bone mineral density in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in adolescents/young adults receiving TDF. Methods: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 50,000 IU vs. placebo every 4 ...

  2. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James); V. Aalto (Ville); T.A. van Alen (Theo); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. LaCroix (Andrea); S.U. Lee (Seung); P.C. Leung (Ping); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); M.M. Woo (Margaret M.); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E.S. Lagboom (P Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S. Th Palsson (Stefan); S. Reppe (Sjur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S. Cummings; P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E.V. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nick); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.W.C. Kung (Annie); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top

  3. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  4. Intra- and inter-observer agreement and reliability of bone mineral density measurements around acetabular cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    in measuring bone density (BMD) in complex anatomic structures which might be overcome using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT).PurposeTo test inter- and intra-observer agreement and reliability of in-house segmentation software measuring BMD adjacent to acetabular cup and to compare measurements performed...... with single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT in cemented and cementless cups.Material and Methods: Twenty-four acetabular cups inserted in porcine hip specimens were scanned with SECT and DECT. Bone density was measured in a three-dimensional volume adjacent to the cup. Double measurements were performed.......Results: BMD derived from SECT was approximately four times higher than that of DECT. In both scan modes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was >0.90 with no differences between repeated measurements, except for uncemented cups where a statistically significant difference of 11 mg/cm3 was found...

  5. Evaluation of measurement precision errors at different bone density values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.; Wong, J.; Bartlett, M.; Lee, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The precision error commonly used in serial monitoring of BMD values using Dual Energy X Ray Absorptometry (DEXA) is 0.01-0.015g/cm - for both the L2 L4 lumbar spine and total femur. However, this limit is based on normal individuals with bone densities similar to the population mean. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate precision errors over the range of bone density values encountered in clinical practice. In 96 patients a BMD scan of the spine and femur was immediately repeated by the same technologist with the patient taken off the bed and repositioned between scans. Nine technologists participated. Values were obtained for the total femur and spine. Each value was classified as low range (0.75-1.05 g/cm ) and medium range (1.05- 1.35g/cm ) for the spine, low range (0.55 0. 85 g/cm ) and medium range (0.85-1.15 g/cm ) for the total femur. Results show that the precision error was significantly lower in the medium range for total femur results with the medium range value at 0.015 g/cm - and the low range at 0.025 g/cm - (p<0.01). No significant difference was found for the spine results. We also analysed precision errors between three technologists and found a significant difference (p=0.05) occurred between only two technologists and this was seen in the spine data only. We conclude that there is some evidence that the precision error increases at the outer limits of the normal bone density range. Also, the results show that having multiple trained operators does not greatly increase the BMD precision error. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); V. Forgetta (Vincenzo); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Rosello-Diez (Alberto); P.J. Leo (Paul); C.L. Dahia (Chitra L.); K.H. Park-Min (Kyung Hyun); J.H. Tobias (Jon); C. Kooperberg (Charles); A. Kleinman (Aaron); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); C. Uggla (Charlotta); D.S. Evans (Daniel); C. Nielson (Carrie); K. Walter (Klaudia); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); S. McCarthy (Shane); J. Eriksson (Joel); T. Kwan (Tony); M. Jhamai (Mila); K. Trajanoska (Katerina); Y. Memari (Yasin); J.L. Min (Josine L.); J. Huang (Jie); P. Danecek (Petr); B. Wilmot (Beth); R. Li (Rui); W.-C. Chou (Wen-Chi); L.E. Mokry (Lauren E.); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); M. Claussnitzer (Melina); C.-H. Cheng (Chia-Ho); W. Cheung (Warren); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); B. Ge (Bing); S.-H. Chen (Shu-Huang); K. Choi (Kunho); L. Oei (Ling); J. Fraser (James); R. Kraaij (Robert); M.A. Hibbs (Matthew A.); C.L. Gregson (Celia L.); D. Paquette (Denis); A. Hofman (Albert); C. Wibom (Carl); G.J. Tranah (Gregory); M. Marshall (Mhairi); B.B. Gardiner (Brooke B.); K. Cremin (Katie); P. Auer (Paul); L. Hsu (Li); S. Ring (Susan); J.Y. Tung (Joyce Y.); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A.W. Enneman (Anke); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); B. Melin (Beatrice); J.P. Kemp (John); C. Christiansen; I. Sayers (Ian); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); S. Calderari (Sophie); J. Van Rooij (Jeroen); C. Carlson (Chris); U. Peters (Ulrike); S. Berlivet (Soizik); J. Dostie (Josée); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.R. Williams (Stephen R.); C. Farber (Charles); D. Grinberg (Daniel); A.Z. LaCroix (Andrea); J. Haessler (Jeff); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Giulianini (Franco); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.A. Eisman (John); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); X. Nogues (Xavier); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); L.J. Launer (Lenore); V. Gudnason (Vilmunder); D. Mellström (Dan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); N. Amin (Najaf); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M. Karlsson (Magnus); O. Ljunggren (Östen); O. Svensson (Olle); G. Hallmans (Göran); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); S. Giroux (Sylvie); J. Bussière (Johanne); P.P. Arp (Pascal); F. Koromani (Fjorda); R.L. Prince (Richard L.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); A.P. Hermann (A. Pernille); J.-E.B. Jensen (Jens-Erik B.); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); K.T. Khaw; J. Reeve (Jonathan); M.M. Formosa (Melissa M.); A. Xuereb-Anastasi (Angela); K. Åkesson (Kristina); F.E. McGuigan; G. Garg (Gaurav); D. Olmos (David); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); J.A. Riancho (José); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); N. Alonso (Nerea); X. Jiang (Xi); D. Goltzman (David); T. Pastinen (Tomi); E. Grundberg (Elin); D. Gauguier (Dominique); E.S. Orwoll (Eric); D. Karasik (David); G.D. Smith; G.D. Smith; K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); T.B. Harris (Tamara); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M.T. Maurano (Matthew T.); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); N. Soranzo (Nicole); R. Durbin (Richard); S.G. Wilson (Scott); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); D.A. Hinds (David A.); T.D. Spector (Timothy); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C.M.T. Greenwood (Celia); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); D.W. Rowe (David W.); C.A. Loomis (Cynthia A.); D.M. Evans (David M.); C.L. Ackert-Bicknell (Cheryl); A.L. Joyner (Alexandra L.); E.L. Duncan (Emma); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.B. Richards (Brent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures,

  7. Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Hou-Feng; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Estrada, Karol; Rosello-Diez, Alberto; Leo, Paul J.; Dahia, Chitra L.; Park-Min, Kyung Hyun; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kleinman, Aaron; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Liu, Ching-Ti; Uggla, Charlotta; Evans, Daniel S.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Walter, Klaudia; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Mccarthy, Shane; Eriksson, Joel; Kwan, Tony; Jhamai, Mila; Trajanoska, Katerina; Memari, Yasin; Min, Josine; Huang, Jie; Danecek, Petr; Wilmot, Beth; Li, Rui; Chou, Wen-Chi; Mokry, Lauren E.; Moayyeri, Alireza; Claussnitzer, Melina; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Cheung, Warren; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Ge, Bing; Chen, Shu-Huang; Choi, Kwangbom; Oei, Ling; Fraser, James; Kraaij, Robert; Hibbs, Matthew A.; Gregson, Celia L.; Paquette, Denis; Hofman, Albert; Wibom, Carl; Tranah, Gregory J.; Marshall, Mhairi; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Cremin, Katie; Auer, Paul; Hsu, Li; Ring, Sue; Tung, Joyce Y.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Enneman, Anke W.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Melin, Beatrice; Kemp, John P.; Christiansen, Claus; Sayers, Adrian; Zhou, Yanhua; Calderari, Sophie; van Rooij, Jeroen; Carlson, Chris; Peters, Ulrike; Berlivet, Soizik; Dostie, Josée; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Williams, Stephen R.; Farber, Charles; Grinberg, Daniel; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Haessler, Jeff; Chasman, Daniel I.; Giulianini, Franco; Rose, Lynda M.; Ridker, Paul M.; Eisman, John A.; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Center, Jacqueline R.; Nogues, Xavier; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Launer, Lenore L.; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Mellström, Dan; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Amin, Najaf; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Ljunggren, Östen; Svensson, Olle; Hallmans, Göran; Rousseau, François; Giroux, Sylvie; Bussière, Johanne; Arp, Pascal P.; Koromani, Fjorda; Prince, Richard L.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Langdahl, Bente L.; Hermann, A. Pernille; Jensen, Jens-Erik B.; Kaptoge, Stephen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Reeve, Jonathan; Formosa, Melissa M.; Xuereb-Anastasi, Angela; Åkesson, Kristina; McGuigan, Fiona E.; Garg, Gaurav; Olmos, Jose M.; Zarrabeitia, Maria T.; Riancho, Jose A.; Ralston, Stuart H.; Alonso, Nerea; Jiang, Xi; Goltzman, David; Pastinen, Tomi; Grundberg, Elin; Gauguier, Dominique; Orwoll, Eric S.; Karasik, David; Davey-Smith, George; Smith, Albert V.; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Harris, Tamara B.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Maurano, Matthew T.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Soranzo, Nicole; Durbin, Richard; Wilson, Scott G.; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Brown, Matthew A.; Stefansson, Kari; Hinds, David A.; Spector, Tim; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Ohlsson, Claes; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Rowe, David W.; Loomis, Cynthia A.; Evans, David M.; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Duncan, Emma L.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Richards, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF <= 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been

  8. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from Hologic...

  9. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  10. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and

  11. Analysis of bone mass density of lumbar spine zone of athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate T-Z scores of lumbar spine zone (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4) bone mass density (BMD) of elite active male athletes in different branches and to determine the differences between them. 42 healthy male athletes aged 18 - 25 competing in different branches (Taekwondo 12, wrestling 8, Judo ...

  12. Bone Mass Density and Risk of Breast Cancer and Survival in Older Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganry, O.; Baudoin, C.; Fardellone, P.; Peng, J.; Raverdy, N.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Older women with high bone mineral density (BMD) have an increased risk of breast cancer but it is not well known whether this association is associated with the stage of the tumor. The objective of the study is to determine if older women with high BMD are likely to develop a more aggressive form of breast cancer, as defined by mortality. Patients: We prospectively studied 1504 women who were 75 years of age or older at the entry in the study (range, 75-90 years), between 1992 and 1994. BMD was measured by dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry at three skeletal sites (trochanter, Ward's triangle, femoral neck). The women were followed for a mean of 7 years for the occurrence of breast cancer. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to obtain estimates of the relative risk of breast cancer and relative risk of death according to the BMD. Main results: Forty-five incident breast cancer cases were identified. In multivariate analyses of the risk of breast cancer for women in the highest tertile of BMD was greater than for women in the lowest tertile. Indeed, the women with a trochanter BMD in the highest tertile were at 2.3-fold increased risk compared with women in the lowest tertile. The women with highest tertile BMD measured at the Ward's triangle and at the femoral neck were respectively at 2.2-and 3.3-fold increased risk compared with women at the lowest risk. The 7-year survival rates were markedly less favorable for women in the second and third tertile of the three skeletal sites compared with the lowest tertile. The risk of death was greater for women in the highest tertile of BMD than for women in the lowest tertile at every skeletal site. Conclusion: Elderly women with high BMD have an increased risk of breast cancer, especially advanced cancer, compared with women with low BMD

  13. Testosterone Replacement and Bone Mineral Density in Male Pituitary Tumor Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypopituitarism is associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia especially when hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is present. Despite hypopituitarism being an important cause of secondary osteoporosis, osteoporosis in patients receiving surgery for pituitary tumors in Korea has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT on bone mineral density (BMD in postoperative hypogonadal patients with pituitary tumors.MethodsTo examine the effect of TRT on BMD, we performed a retrospective observational study in 21 postoperative male patients who underwent pituitary tumor surgery between 2003 and 2012 at the Ajou University Hospital. Testosterone was replaced in postoperative hypogonadal patients by regular intramuscular injection, daily oral medication, or application of transdermal gel. BMD (g/cm2 measurements of central skeletal sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar. For lumbar spine BMD, L1 to L4 values were chosen for analysis. Femur neck and total femur were also analyzed.ResultsDuring the follow-up period (mean, 56 months; range, 12 to 99 months serum testosterone levels increased with the administration of TRT (P=0.007. There was significant improvement (4.56%±9.81% in the lumbar spine BMD compared to baseline BMD. There were no significant changes in the femur neck BMD or total femur BMD. We did not find any statistically significant relationships between changes in testosterone levels and BMD using Spearman correlation analysis.ConclusionOur results indicated that TRT used in the postoperative period for hypogonadal pituitary tumor surgery patients may have beneficial effects on the BMD of the spine.

  14. Bone mineral density and the subsequent risk of cancer in the NHANES I follow-up cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Richard L; Turyk, Mary; Kim, Jane; Persky, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is a marker of long-term estrogen exposure. BMD measurement has been used in this context to investigate the association of estrogen with breast cancer risk in three cohorts. In order to assess further BMD as a predictor of estrogen related cancer risk, the association of BMD with colorectal and corpus uteri cancer was investigated in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS) cohort along with breast cancer and prostate cancer. Participants were members of the NHEFS cohort who had BMD measurement in 1974–1975. Age, race, and BMI adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for incidence of cancers of the corpus uterus, breast, colorectum, prostate, and of osteoporosis and hip fracture related to baseline BMD. Data were available for 6046 individuals. One hundred cases of breast cancer, 94 prostate cancers, 115 colorectal cancers, 29 uterine cancers, 110 cases of hip fracture and 103 cases of osteoporosis were reported between 1974 and 1993. Hip fracture and osteoporosis were both significantly inversely associated with BMD. Uterine cancer was positively associated (p = 0.005, test for linear trend) and colorectal cancer negatively associated (p = 0.03) with BMD. No association was found between elevated BMD and incidence of breast cancer (p = 0.74) or prostate cancer (p = 0.37) in the overall cohort, although a weak association was seen between BMD and subsequent breast cancer incidence when BMD was measured in post-menopausal women (p = 0.04). The findings related to cancers of the uterus and colorectum as well as the weak association of BMD with breast cancer strengthen the use of BMD as a marker of estrogen exposure and cancer risk

  15. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN MIDLIFE WOMEN: THE STUDY OF WOMEN’S HEALTH IN QATAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Linda M.; Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Ali, Hala M.; Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Liu, Lyn Q.; Verjee, Mohamud

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate bone mineral density (BMD) for a large cross-section of midlife Arab women living in Qatar and to evaluate the association of body mass index, menopause status, and nationality, on BMD of the spine and femur. Study design A cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 40–60 recruited from nine primary care health centers in Qatar. BMD (g/m2) was assessed at the lumbar spine and the femur. Results The combined prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 4% at the femur and 16.2% at the spine. BMI and menstrual status were both independently associated with BMD at the spine and at the femur (all p values Nationality was not associated with mean BMD of the spine or the femur. Conclusions No significant differences were observed between Qatari and non-Qatari women in terms of mean BMD values at the spine and the femur except for femur in the age group 55–60, where values were lower among non-Qataris (p=0.04). Multivariate analysis showed that BMI and menstrual status were found to be strongly associated with BMD levels at the spine and femur. The high prevalence of obesity observed in this sample may explain the low levels of osteopenia and osteoporosis observed. PMID:25032729

  16. On the physical factors influencing on the bone mineral density of the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yoh; Abe, Shinji; Ogura, Izumi; Ishiguchi, Kohji; Matsui, Yohko; Moriki, Hisakazu; Suzuki, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    Individual characteristics such as sex, age, height and weight have been considered as the factors influencing bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of this study is to analyze the relation between these factors and the data of BMD obtained from 387 healthy old persons (176 males and 211 females) at the age of 65 and over who are living in an urban community in a western suburb of Tokyo and chosen by randomized sampling. BMD of the third lumbar spine from lateral projection using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the van was measured during a general health survey which included other physical examinations such as weight, height, blood pressure and so on. BMD obtained was analyzed in relation to these variables using both simple and multiple regression analyses. Standard regression coefficients showed that all physical variables had a significant relationship to BMD except the height in males. Standard regression coefficients of height and age for the males were the same, but height was evaluated to have slight influence on BMD by statistically. In a multiple regression analysis, the multiple correlation coefficient was somewhat lower in both sexes (males: R=0.448; females: R=0.381) than expected. Our analyses of these factors showed that there might be other possible factors influencing BMD regarding the elderly with the exception of age, sex, height and weight. (author)

  17. Scattered image artifacts from cone beam computed tomography and its clinical potential in bone mineral density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hoon; Jeong, Kwanmoon; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Jun, Hong Young; Jeong, Changwon; Lee, Myeung Su; Nam, Yunyoung; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    Image artifacts affect the quality of medical images and may obscure anatomic structure and pathology. Numerous methods for suppression and correction of scattered image artifacts have been suggested in the past three decades. In this paper, we assessed the feasibility of use of information on scattered artifacts for estimation of bone mineral density (BMD) without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or quantitative computed tomographic imaging (QCT). To investigate the relationship between scattered image artifacts and BMD, we first used a forearm phantom and cone-beam computed tomography. In the phantom, we considered two regions of interest-bone-equivalent solid material containing 50 mg HA per cm(-3) and water-to represent low- and high-density trabecular bone, respectively. We compared the scattered image artifacts in the high-density material with those in the low-density material. The technique was then applied to osteoporosis patients and healthy subjects to assess its feasibility for BMD estimation. The high-density material produced a greater number of scattered image artifacts than the low-density material. Moreover, the radius and ulna of healthy subjects produced a greater number of scattered image artifacts than those from osteoporosis patients. Although other parameters, such as bone thickness and X-ray incidence, should be considered, our technique facilitated BMD estimation directly without DXA or QCT. We believe that BMD estimation based on assessment of scattered image artifacts may benefit the prevention, early treatment and management of osteoporosis.

  18. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  19. Effect of Denosumab on Peripheral Compartmental Bone Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonani, Marco; Meyer, Ursina; Frey, Diana; Graf, Nicole; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Wüthrich, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized controlled clinical trial in kidney transplant recipients (NCT01377467) we have recently shown that RANKL inhibition with denosumab significantly improved areal bone mineral density (aBMD) when given during the first year after transplantation. The effect of denosumab on skeletal microstructure and bone strength in kidney transplant recipients is not known. The purpose of the present bone microarchitecture ancillary study was to investigate high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) data from the distal tibia and distal radius in 24 study patients that had been randomized to receive either two injections of denosumab 60 mg at baseline and after 6 months (n=10) or no treatment (n=14). Consistent with the full trial findings, denosumab reduced biomarkers of bone turnover, and significantly increased aBMD at the lumbar spine (median difference of 4.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6 - 7.8; pBone quality as assessed by total and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (Tot. vBMD, Ct.vBMD) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) increased significantly at the tibia, while changes at the radius were less pronounced. The trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD), thickness (Tb. Th), separation (Tb.Sp) and number (Tb.N) and the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) at the tibia and the radius did not significantly change in both treatment groups. Micro-finite element analysis (µFEA) showed that bone stiffness increased significantly at the tibia (median difference 5.6%; 95% CI 1.8% - 9.2%; p=0.002) but not at the radius (median difference 2.9%, 95% CI -3.7% - 9.1%; p=0.369). Likewise, failure load increased significantly at the tibia (median difference 5.1%; 95% CI 2.1% - 8.1%; p=0.002) but not at the radius (median difference 2.4%, 95% CI -3.2% - 8.5%; p=0.336). These findings demonstrate that denosumab improves bone density and bone quality in first-year kidney transplant recipients at risk to develop osteoporosis. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S

  20. Serum γ-Glutamyl Transferase Is Inversely Associated with Bone Mineral Density Independently of Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundγ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT is a well-known marker of chronic alcohol consumption or hepatobiliary diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated that serum levels of GGT are independently associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to test if serum GGT levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 462 subjects (289 men and 173 women, who visited Severance Hospital for medical checkup, were included in this study. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional association between serum GGT and BMD was evaluated.ResultsAs serum GGT levels increased from the lowest tertile (tertile 1 to the highest tertile (tertile 3, BMD decreased after adjusting for confounders such as age, body mass index, amount of alcohol consumed, smoking, regular exercise, postmenopausal state (in women, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between log-transformed serum GGT levels and BMD. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, tertile 3 of serum GGT level was associated with an increased risk for low bone mass compared to tertile 1 (odds ratio, 2.271; 95% confidence interval, 1.340 to 3.850; P=0.002.ConclusionSerum GGT level was inversely associated with BMD in Korean adults. Further study is necessary to fully elucidate the mechanism of the inverse relationship.

  1. Duration of television viewing and bone mineral density in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sunyue; Song, Aihua; Yang, Min; Ma, Xiaoguang; Fu, Xiaohua; Zhu, Shankuan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the relationship between television (TV) viewing and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether longer duration of TV viewing increased the risk of lower BMD in Chinese women. A total of 626 female adults were voluntarily recruited into the study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Body composition including total body and regional BMD was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The duration of TV viewing was categorized into 4 groups: TV viewing and total and regional BMD in all subjects and in subjects stratified by age of 45 years, respectively. After adjusting for age, BMI, alcohol use, smoking, education, income, urbanicity, leisure time physical activity, occupational physical activity, and menopause, the significant trend of pelvic BMD across categories of TV viewing was observed in all subjects (p women aged women aged TV viewing was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese women, especially in those aged 18-44 years. It might be sensible to reduce TV viewing time to prevent bone loss in young women.

  2. Reduced bone mineral density in adult women diagnosed with menstrual disorders during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiksten-Almströmer, Marianne; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindën; Hagenfeldt, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in their adolescence. Prospective follow-up study six years after the initial investigation. A youth clinic that is part of the school health system in Stockholm. Eighty-seven women diagnosed with secondary amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea in adolescence. Subjects underwent gynecological examination, evaluation of eating behavior and physical activity. Whole body Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD. BMD. The overall frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis was 52%, and three girls had osteoporosis. Women with previous secondary amenorrhea had significantly lower BMD in the pelvis and lumbar spine than those with previous oligomenorrhea. The strongest predictor of low BMD was a restrictive eating disorder in adolescence and the most important counteraction was high physical activity at follow-up and a body mass index (BMI) > or = 22. Persistent menstrual dysfunction at follow-up was associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and lower frequency of osteopenia. This clinical follow-up study has demonstrated a high frequency of osteopenia in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in adolescence. Previous anorectic behavior was the strongest negative predictor of BMD. It is important to pay attention to an underlying eating disorder in young women with menstrual dysfunction in order to promote bone health.

  3. A comparative study of bone mineral density between premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonya-Ussadorn, Trirat; Punkaew, Boondharika; Sriassawaamorn, Narongchai

    2010-11-01

    To compare bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) analyzed by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and in healthy premenopausal women. Cross-sectional study included 49 premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and 49 healthy premenopausal women. Age, weight and body mass index (BMI) were comparable in both groups. All subjects had a BMD measurement by DXA in the region of L1-L4, TH and FN and the unpaired t-test was used to analyze. The mean BMD of premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism at L1-L4, TH and FN was 0.928, 0.838 and 0.774 g/cm2, which were lower than those of healthy premenopausal women; 0.991, 0.917 and 0.832 g/cm2 respectively (p-value is less than 0.05). Time interval that had elapsed for active hyperthyroidism was not associated with the decrease of BMD at L1-L4, TH and FN in hyperthyroid women. The BMD of L1-L4, TH and FN in premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism were significantly lower than those of healthy premenopausal women. Therefore, overt hyperthyroidism could be associated with bone loss and may be a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. However, time interval of active hyperthyroidism was not related to the decrease of BMD in hyperthyroid women.

  4. Association of Protein Intake with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content among Elderly Women: The OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, M; Sirola, J; Mursu, J; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Erkkilä, A T

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high protein intakes are associated with lower bone mineral content (BMC). Previous studies yield conflicting results and thus far no studies have undertaken the interaction of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with protein intakes in relation to BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the associations of dietary total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with BMC and BMD and their changes. We tested also the interactions of protein intake with, obesity (BMI ≤30 vs. >30 kg/m2) and physical activity level (passive vs. active). Design/ Setting: Prospective cohort study (Osteoporosis Risk-Factor and Fracture-Prevention Study). Participants/measures: At the baseline, 554 women aged 65-72 years filled out a 3-day food record and a questionnaire covering data on lifestyle, physical activity, diseases, and medications. Intervention group received calcium 1000 mg/d and cholecalciferol 800 IU for 3 years. Control group received neither supplementation nor placebo. Bone density was measured at baseline and year 3, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between protein intake and BMD and BMC. In cross-sectional analyses energy-adjusted TP (P≤0·029) and AP (P≤0·045) but not PP (g/d) were negatively associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD and BMC. Women with TP≥1·2 g/kg/body weight (BW) (Ptrend≤0·009) had lower FN, lumbar spine (LS) and total BMD and BMC. In follow-up analysis, TP (g/kg/BW) was inversely associated with LS BMD and LS BMC. The detrimental associations were stronger in women with BMI30 kg/m2 and physical activity.

  5. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook; Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not

  6. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Diagonostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not.

  7. Association of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region genotype with lower bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, M I; Kung, S; Frye, M A; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Drake, M T; Jankowski, M D; Clarke, B L

    2017-08-22

    The serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) S allele is linked to pathogenesis of depression and slower response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); depression and SSRIs are independently associated with bone loss. We aimed to determine whether 5-HTTLPR was associated with bone loss. This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients with both 5-HTTLPR analysis and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment (hip and spine Z-scores if age <50 years and T-scores if ⩾50 years). BMD association with 5-HTTLPR was evaluated under models with additive allele effects and dominant S allele effects using linear regression models. Patients were stratified by age (<50 and ⩾50 years) and sex. Of 3016 patients with 5-HTTLPR genotyping, 239 had BMD assessments. Among the younger patients, the S allele was associated with lower Z-scores at the hip (P=0.002, dominant S allele effects; P=0.004, additive allele effects) and spine (P=0.0006, dominant S allele effects; P=0.01, additive allele effects). In sex-stratified analyses, the association of the S allele with lower BMD in the younger patients was also significant in the subset of women (P⩽0.003 for both hip and spine BMD under the additive allele effect model). In the small group of men younger than 50 years, the S allele was marginally associated with higher spine BMD (P=0.05). BMD T-scores were not associated with 5-HTTLPR genotypes in patients 50 years or older. The 5-HTTLPR variants may modify serotonin effects on bone with sex-specific effects.

  8. Bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa: Only weight and menses recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Sabaté, Juan

    2016-11-01

    The study objectives were to analyze the presence of reduced bone mass in a sample of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and amenorrhea, to assess Bone Mineral Density (BMD) recovery after having a normal weight is reached and regular menses are resumed, and to predict BMD after a treatment period considering different variables (baseline BMD, baseline and final body mass index (BMI), treatment duration). 35 patients with AN (mean age 20.57±5.77) were studied at treatment start (T 0 ) and after they had recovered their normal weight and regular menses (T 1 ) in order to measure their BMD using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the lumbar spine (L2-L4). At T 0 , 2.86% of patients had normal BMD, while a reduced bone mass consistent with osteopenia or with osteoporosis was found in 22.86% and 74.28% of patients respectively. At T 1 , the percentages were 20%, 20%, and 60% respectively. No significant differences were seen in L2-L3 and mean BMD (L2-L4). A significant difference was however found for L4 (p11 months, but not when the time period was ≤11 months. This follow-up study of changes not only in BMD but also in BMI and recovery of menses has clinical relevance from the viewpoint of the day-by-day treatment process. Use of QCT makes the study more relevant because this is a more advanced technique that allows for differentiating trabecular and cortical bone. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Low bone mineral density in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Prevalence and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Zavala, Rocío; Núñez Cuadros, Esmeralda; Martín Pedraz, Laura; Díaz-Cordovés Rego, Gisela; Sierra Salinas, Carlos; Urda Cardona, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Height adjustment is currently recommended for Z-score bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. At present there are no studies that evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in paediatric patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) in Spain following current recommendations. To evaluate low BMD in JIA in paediatric patients with JIA in Spain following the latest recommendations, as well as to assess associated factors. Observational cross-sectional study of Spanish JIA patients from 5 to 16 years-old, followed-up in a Paediatric Rheumatology Unit between July 2014 and July 2015. Anthropometric, clinical and treatment data were recorded. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone metabolism parameters were collected, and a completed diet and exercise questionnaire was obtained. A total of 92 children participated. The population prevalence estimation of low BMD was less than 5% (95% CI). A significant positive correlation was found in the multiple linear regression analysis between the body mass index percentile (B: 0.021; P<.001) and lean mass index (B: 0.0002; P=.012), and BMD Z-score adjusted for height (Z-SAH). A significant negative correlation was found between fat mass index (B: -0.0001; P=.018) and serum type I collagen N-propeptide (B: -0,0006; P=.036) and Z-SAH. Low BMD prevalence in JIA patients in our population is low. An adequate nutritional status and the prevalence of lean over fat mass seem to promote the acquisition of bone mass. Those JIA patients with lower BMD could be subjected to an increase of bone turnover. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin D and K status influences bone mineral density and bone accrual in children and adolescents with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, D R; Qiao, J; Turner, J

    2012-04-01

    Children with celiac disease (CD) are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD) because of fat-soluble vitamin malabsorption, inflammation and/or under-nutrition. The study objective was to determine the interrelationships between vitamin K/D status and lifestyle variables on BMD in children and adolescents with CD at diagnosis and after 1 year on the gluten-free diet (GFD). Children and adolescents aged 3-17 years with biopsy proven CD at diagnosis and after 1 year on the GFD were studied. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relevant variables included: anthropometrics, vitamin D/K status, diet, physical activity and sunlight exposure. Whole-body and lumbar-spine BMD-z scores were low (vitamin D (90.3±24.8 versus 70.5±19.8 nmol/l) were significantly lower in older children (>10 years) when compared with younger children (vitamin D status (25(OH)-vitamin D vitamin K status at diagnosis; all resolved after 1 year. Children and adolescents with CD are at risk for suboptimal bone health at time of diagnosis and after 1 year on GFD; likely due in part to suboptimal vitamin D/K status. Therapeutic strategies aimed at optimizing vitamin K/D intake may contribute to improved BMD in children with CD.

  11. Is whole body bone mineral density measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry applied to evaluate risk of osteoporosis among Japanese adult females?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yumiko; Koike, George; Numata, Makoto; Taneda, Kiyoshi; Jingu, Sumie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure whole body fat accurately, the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely utilized. Simultaneously, bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body can also be measured. BMD is one of important information to diagnose osteoporosis. However, it is not established to use whole body BMD for this diagnosis. It is recommended that lumbar and/or hip BMD should be used for diagnosing osteoporosis by the guideline for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although it is possible to measure whole body BMD and lumbar and/or hip BMD separately at the same visit, it is inevitable to expose patients to more X-ray. Therefore, an aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between whole body BMD and lumbar BMD to find the cut off point of whole body BMD for screening of osteoporosis. Two hundred and thirty six Japanese adult females were ascertained to this study. Whole body BMD and lumbar BMD of each subject were measured with the use of Delphi W (Hologic, USA). One hundred and sixty five subjects were judged as possible osteoporosis (less than 80% of young adult mean (YAM) of lumbar BMD and/or definite fracture of lumbar vertebras). The cut off point of whole body BMD for screening possible osteoporosis was estimated by receiver operated characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cut off point of whole body BMD was 84% of YAM, equivalent to 80% of YAM of lumbar BMD, with the following sensitivity and specificity (0.84 and 0.79, respectively), indicating that whole body BMD could be used for screening osteoporosis. (author)

  12. Bone mineral density in girls with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjected to estroprogestagen treatment--a 4-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska-Przepiera, Elżbieta; Chełstowski, Kornel; Friebe, Zbigniew; Syrenicz, Anhelli

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4-year estroprogestagen therapy (EP) on the bone mineral density (BMD) of 16- to 17-year-old girls with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA, n = 78). Baseline values of hormonal parameters, bone fraction of alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and cross-linked n-telopeptide of type I collagen (Ntx) were taken along with BMD measurements. Follow-up measurements of laboratory parameters were performed after 6 months of EP treatment. BMD was measured on a yearly basis. Six-month treatment resulted in a marked increase in estradiol levels and a significant decrease in BALP and Ntx. The relative increase in BMD was highest after the second year of treatment. Based on the dynamics of BMD changes during the first year of treatment, we identified a subgroup with no or insignificant reactions to the treatment. It was characterized by significantly higher baseline BMD and markedly lower baseline Ntx compared to the patients who responded to 1-year therapy well or extremely well. Further follow-up proved, however, that this subgroup did not differ significantly in terms of the long-term prognosis for BMD normalization. In conclusion, this study showed that EP therapy is effective in the treatment of BMD disorders associated with FHA.

  13. Mouse genome-wide association and systems genetics identify Asxl2 as a regulator of bone mineral density and osteoclastogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Farber

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in the discovery of genes affecting bone mineral density (BMD; however, our understanding of its genetic basis remains incomplete. In the current study, genome-wide association (GWA and co-expression network analysis were used in the recently described Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP to identify and functionally characterize novel BMD genes. In the HMDP, a GWA of total body, spinal, and femoral BMD revealed four significant associations (-log10P>5.39 affecting at least one BMD trait on chromosomes (Chrs. 7, 11, 12, and 17. The associations implicated a total of 163 genes with each association harboring between 14 and 112 genes. This list was reduced to 26 functional candidates by identifying those genes that were regulated by local eQTL in bone or harbored potentially functional non-synonymous (NS SNPs. This analysis revealed that the most significant BMD SNP on Chr. 12 was a NS SNP in the additional sex combs like-2 (Asxl2 gene that was predicted to be functional. The involvement of Asxl2 in the regulation of bone mass was confirmed by the observation that Asxl2 knockout mice had reduced BMD. To begin to unravel the mechanism through which Asxl2 influenced BMD, a gene co-expression network was created using cortical bone gene expression microarray data from the HMDP strains. Asxl2 was identified as a member of a co-expression module enriched for genes involved in the differentiation of myeloid cells. In bone, osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells of myeloid origin, suggesting that Asxl2 may play a role in osteoclast differentiation. In agreement, the knockdown of Asxl2 in bone marrow macrophages impaired their ability to form osteoclasts. This study identifies a new regulator of BMD and osteoclastogenesis and highlights the power of GWA and systems genetics in the mouse for dissecting complex genetic traits.

  14. The relationship between bone mineral density and adipose tissue of postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, HwaMyeong Iisin christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and obesity due to changes in hormones. The relationship between osteoporosis and body weight is known, and its relation with body fat mass is discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density(BMD) changes of epicardial adipose tissue(EAT) and abdominal subcutaneous fat. The subjects of this study were 160 postmenopausal women who underwent BMD and echocardiography. The thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue was measured in three sections and the BMD were meassured according to the diagnostic criteria. The results of this study that age increase the risk of osteoporosis increases, and as the weight and BMI decrease, the risk of osteoporosis increases(p<0.05). The relationship between changes in bone mineral density and adipose tissue in postmenopausal women, increased epicardial adipose tissue was negatively correlated with the bone mineral density(p<0.05). conversely, increased abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was positively correlated with bone mineral density(p<0.05). In other words, the effect of bone mineral density on the location of adipose tissue was different. If Echocardiography is used to periodically examine changes in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue, it may be prevented before proceeding to osteoporosis.

  15. Decreased bone mineral density in experimental myasthenia gravis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Minako; Iida-Klein, Akiko; Maruta, Takahiro; Deitiker, Philip R; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2017-09-01

    Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of myasthenia gravis (MG), can be induced in C57BL/6 (B6, H-2  b ) mice by 2-3 injections with Torpedo californica AChR (tAChR) in complete Freund's adjuvant. Some EAMG mice exhibit weight loss with muscle weakness. The loss in body weight, which is closely associated with bone structure, is particularly evident in EAMG mice with severe muscle weakness. However, the relationship between muscle weakness and bone loss in EAMG has not been studied before. Recent investigations on bone have shed light on association of bone health and immunological states. It is possible that muscle weakness in EAMG developed by anti-tAChR immune responses might accompany bone loss. We determined whether reduced muscle strength associates with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in EAMG mice. EAMG was induced by two injections at 4-week interval of tAChR and adjuvants in two different age groups. The first tAChR injection was either at age 8 weeks or at 15 weeks. We measured BMD at three skeletal sites, including femur, tibia, and lumbar vertebrae, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among these bone areas, femur of EAMG mice in both age groups showed a significant decrease in BMD compared to control adjuvant-injected and to non-immunized mice. Reduction in BMD in induced EAMG at a later-age appears to parallel the severity of the disease. The results indicate that anti-tAChR autoimmune response alone can reduce bone density in EAMG mice. BMD reduction was also observed in adjuvant-injected mice in comparison to normal un-injected mice, suggesting that BMD decrease can occur even when muscle activity is normal. Decreased BMD observed in both tAChR-injected and adjuvant-injected mice groups were discussed in relation to innate immunity and bone-related immunology involving activated T cells and tumour necrosis factor-related cytokines that trigger osteoclastogenesis and bone loss.

  16. Increased serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and decreased patellar bone mineral density in patients with chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; FitzGerald, O; Saxne, T; Bresnihan, B

    2002-11-01

    Chondromalacia patellae is a potentially disabling disorder characterised by features of patellar cartilage degradation. To evaluate markers of cartilage and bone turnover in patients with chondromalacia patellae. 18 patients with chondromalacia patellae were studied. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (s-COMP) and bone sialoprotein (s-BSP) levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared with those of age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) of both knee joints was assessed by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA). s-COMP levels were significantly raised in all patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with healthy control subjects (p=0.0001). s-BSP levels did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.41). BMD of the patella was significantly reduced in patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with the control subjects (p=0.016). In patients with bilateral chondromalacia patellae, BMD of the patella was lower in the more symptomatic knee joint (p=0.005). Changes in periarticular BMD were localised to the patella and were not present in femoral regions. Neither s-COMP (p=0.18) nor s-BSP (p=0.40) levels correlated with patellar BMD. Increased s-COMP levels, reflecting cartilage degradation, and reduced BMD localised to the patella may represent clinically useful markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with chondromalacia patellae. Measures of cartilage degradation did not correlate with loss of patellar bone density, suggesting dissociated pathophysiological mechanisms.

  17. Visceral Fat Is a Negative Predictor of Bone Density Measures in Obese Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Melissa; Mendes, Nara; Miller, Karen K.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Lee, Hang; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional fat is increasingly recognized as a determinant of bone mineral density (BMD), an association that may be mediated by adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, and inflammatory fat products. Chronic inflammation is deleterious to bone, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) predicts inflammatory markers such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin, whereas sc adipose tissue (SAT) and VAT predict IL-6 in adolescents.

  18. Is multidetector CT-based bone mineral density and quantitative bone microstructure assessment at the spine still feasible using ultra-low tube current and sparse sampling?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Kai; Kopp, Felix K.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J.; Gersing, Alexandra S.; Sauter, Andreas; Muenzel, Daniela; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Munich (Germany); Bippus, Rolf [Research Laboratories, Philips GmbH Innovative Technologies, Hamburg (Germany); Koehler, Thomas [Research Laboratories, Philips GmbH Innovative Technologies, Hamburg (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM Institute for Advanced Studies, Garching (Germany); Fehringer, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Biomedizinische Physik, Garching (Germany); Pfeiffer, Franz [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM Institute for Advanced Studies, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Biomedizinische Physik, Garching (Germany); Kirschke, Jan S. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Section of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Noel, Peter B. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Biomedizinische Physik, Garching (Germany); Baum, Thomas [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Munich (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Section of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Osteoporosis diagnosis using multidetector CT (MDCT) is limited to relatively high radiation exposure. We investigated the effect of simulated ultra-low-dose protocols on in-vivo bone mineral density (BMD) and quantitative trabecular bone assessment. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Twelve subjects with osteoporotic vertebral fractures and 12 age- and gender-matched controls undergoing routine thoracic and abdominal MDCT were included (average effective dose: 10 mSv). Ultra-low radiation examinations were achieved by simulating lower tube currents and sparse samplings at 50%, 25% and 10% of the original dose. BMD and trabecular bone parameters were extracted in T10-L5. Except for BMD measurements in sparse sampling data, absolute values of all parameters derived from ultra-low-dose data were significantly different from those derived from original dose images (p<0.05). BMD, apparent bone fraction and trabecular thickness were still consistently lower in subjects with than in those without fractures (p<0.05). In ultra-low-dose scans, BMD and microstructure parameters were able to differentiate subjects with and without vertebral fractures, suggesting osteoporosis diagnosis is feasible. However, absolute values differed from original values. BMD from sparse sampling appeared to be more robust. This dose-dependency of parameters should be considered for future clinical use. (orig.)

  19. Is multidetector CT-based bone mineral density and quantitative bone microstructure assessment at the spine still feasible using ultra-low tube current and sparse sampling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Kai; Kopp, Felix K.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J.; Gersing, Alexandra S.; Sauter, Andreas; Muenzel, Daniela; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Bippus, Rolf; Koehler, Thomas; Fehringer, Andreas; Pfeiffer, Franz; Kirschke, Jan S.; Noel, Peter B.; Baum, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis diagnosis using multidetector CT (MDCT) is limited to relatively high radiation exposure. We investigated the effect of simulated ultra-low-dose protocols on in-vivo bone mineral density (BMD) and quantitative trabecular bone assessment. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Twelve subjects with osteoporotic vertebral fractures and 12 age- and gender-matched controls undergoing routine thoracic and abdominal MDCT were included (average effective dose: 10 mSv). Ultra-low radiation examinations were achieved by simulating lower tube currents and sparse samplings at 50%, 25% and 10% of the original dose. BMD and trabecular bone parameters were extracted in T10-L5. Except for BMD measurements in sparse sampling data, absolute values of all parameters derived from ultra-low-dose data were significantly different from those derived from original dose images (p<0.05). BMD, apparent bone fraction and trabecular thickness were still consistently lower in subjects with than in those without fractures (p<0.05). In ultra-low-dose scans, BMD and microstructure parameters were able to differentiate subjects with and without vertebral fractures, suggesting osteoporosis diagnosis is feasible. However, absolute values differed from original values. BMD from sparse sampling appeared to be more robust. This dose-dependency of parameters should be considered for future clinical use. (orig.)

  20. Bone Density, Microarchitecture, and Tissue Quality Long-term After Kidney Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Herrera, Sabina; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Nogués, Xavier; Vera, María; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Mir, Marisa; Güerri, Roberto; Crespo, Marta; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Pascual, Julio

    2017-06-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is used to assess bone health in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Trabecular bone score and in vivo microindentation are novel techniques that directly measure trabecular microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone at a tissue level and independently predict fracture risk. We tested the bone status of long-term KTR using all 3 techniques. Cross-sectional study including 40 KTR with more than 10 years of follow-up and 94 healthy nontransplanted subjects as controls. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar spine and the hip. Trabecular bone score was measured by specific software on the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of lumbar spine in 39 KTR and 77 controls. Microindentation was performed at the anterior tibial face with a reference-point indenter device. Bone measurements were standardized as percentage of a reference value, expressed as bone material strength index (BMSi) units. Multivariable (age, sex, and body mass index-adjusted) linear regression models were fitted to study the association between KTR and BMD/BMSi/trabecular bone score. Bone mineral density was lower at lumbar spine (0.925 ± 0.15 vs 0.982 ± 0.14; P = 0.025), total hip (0.792 ± 0.14 vs 0.902 ± 0.13; P bone score was borderline lower (1.21 ± 0.14 vs 1.3 ± 0.15; adjusted P = 0.072) in KTR. Despite persistent decrease in BMD, trabecular microarchitecture and tissue quality remain normal in long-term KTR, suggesting important recovery of bone health.

  1. Delay in estrogen commencement is associated with lower bone mineral density in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H H; Wong, P; Strauss, B J; Jones, G; Ebeling, P R; Milat, F; Vincent, A

    2017-10-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with hypogonadism, osteoporosis and fractures. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for low bone density and fractures in a TS cohort. We included 76 TS patients (median age 28.5 years) attending a tertiary hospital between 1998 and 2015 who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Spine and femoral neck (FN) areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were compared with those of a control group. To adjust for smaller bone size, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated. Primary amenorrhea was common (83%) in the TS cohort; the median age of pubertal induction was 15 years (range 11-30 years), and non-continuous estrogen therapy (ET) recorded in 40%. Almost one-third of TS patients reported fractures. TS patients had lower median spinal aBMD (1.026 g/cm 2 vs. 1.221 g/cm 2 ) and BMAD (0.156 g/cm 3 vs. 0.161 g/cm 3 ) than controls, and lower median FN aBMD (0.850 g/cm 2 vs. 1.026 g/cm 2 ) (all p < 0.01). More women with TS had spinal Z-score < -2.0 compared to controls (26.0% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.001). Spine and FN aBMD, BMAD and Z-scores were inversely associated with age commencing ET or years of estrogen deficiency. Delay in ET commencement was an independent risk factor for the lower bone density observed in women with TS. Early pubertal induction and ET compliance are important targets to optimize aBMD.

  2. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  3. Predictors of bone mineral density reduction in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J; Lázaro, L; Pons, F; Halperin, I; Toro, J

    2000-11-01

    To determine which variables are associated with a significant reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent anorexia nervosa and to establish guidelines for indication of bone densitometry. One hundred seventy patients (treated from 1997 until 1999), aged 10 to 17 years, with a DSM-IV diagnosis of anorexia nervosa were evaluated by dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the femoral neck. The results were compared with the normative data for BMD values by age and sex in Spanish adolescents. 44.1% of patients had osteopenia at the lumbar spine and 24.7% at the femoral neck. The following variables were related to osteopenia: more than 12 months since onset of the disorder (p anorexia nervosa patients with the characteristics outlined above are at high risk of reduced BMD, and densitometry is recommended to determine the degree of osteopenia.

  4. A cross-sectional study exploring useful indicators for low bone mineral density in male alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horai T

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tadasu Horai,1 Akitoyo Hishimoto,1 Ikuo Otsuka,1 Tatsuhiro So,2 Kentaro Mouri,1 Naofumi Shimmyo,1 Shuken Boku,1 Noriaki Okishio,3 Ichiro Sora1 1Department of Psychiatry, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan; 2So Mental Clinic, Kobe, Japan; 3Hyogo Mental Health Center, Kobe, Japan Background: Alcohol dependence induces low bone mineral density (BMD, predicting osteoporosis, while low and moderate alcohol consumption may even increase BMD. In recent years, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b, bone turnover markers, have gained special interest as useful indicators of low BMD. However, it remains unclear whether other alcohol-related variables (eg, duration of abstinence and continuous drinking are linked to aberrant BMD. In addition, no previous study has investigated whether ucOC or TRACP-5b is clinically useful to predict low BMD not only in the general population, but also in alcohol-dependent subjects.Patients and methods: We recruited 275 male alcohol-dependent subjects and collected information about their drinking habits, comorbid diseases, smoking history and walking exercise behavior. BMD in each subject was determined by ultrasonography. Serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, ChE, γ-GTP and LDH, ucOC and TRACP-5b were measured in all subjects. T-scores were calculated according to BMD for all subjects.Results: The mean T-scores of our subjects were negatively shifted compared to the general population (-0.75±1.36 SD. We divided our subjects into a normal BMD group (n=137 and a low BMD group (n=138 according to their T-scores (T-score ≥-1 SD, normal BMD; T-score <-1 SD, low BMD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (BMI was negatively associated with low BMD (95% CI: 0.75–0.90. By contrast, long abstinence period (95% CI: 1.40–4.21, smoking (95% CI: 1.30–5.56, hypertension (95% CI: 1.04–3.76, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (95

  5. [Dietary patterns in college freshmen and its relation to bone mineral density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Mu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shu, Long; Li, Qingyan; Li, Yingchun

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the bone density of freshmen, and to analyze the association between dietary pattern and bone mineral density (BMD). A questionnaire survey on the situation of dietary pattern was conducted in 1414 freshmen. Effective dietary survey questionnaires and bone mineral density measurements were completed for 1319 participants. Bone mass was assessed by using an Ultrasound Bone Densitometer on the right calcaneus (CM-200, Furuno Electric Corporation, Japan), and the speed of sound (SOS, m/s) was used as an indicator for bone density. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify the dietary patterns. After adjusting for confounders, covariance with Bonferroni's was used to further examine the associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD). (1) Four major dietary patterns were noticed. Western food pattern (high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars). Animal protein pattern (high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver). Calcium pattern (high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products). Traditional Chinese pattern (high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork). (2) No association was observed between the western food pattern and bone mineral density. High animal protein pattern showed lower SOS value compared with low animal protein pattern. High calcium pattern showed higher SOS value compared with low calcium pattern. High traditional Chinese pattern showed higher SOS value compared with the low traditional Chinese pattern. Dietary patterns are closely related with bone mineral density (BMD) of freshmen.

  6. Correlation of bone mineral density with biochemical markers in different menopausal statuses of Pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, A.; Nadia, N.; Farzana, A.; Bashir, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The present study is aimed to use bone mineral density (BMD) and various biochemical markers to predict the fracture risk at different menopausal statuses in Pakistani women. Method: Seventy women aged between 28-80 years at various menopausal statuses participated in this study. BMD (T score) of right calcaneus was determined using SAHARA ultrasound bone densitometer that measures the transmission of high frequency from heel. Various biochemical markers such as alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured from the serum of venous blood using standard kits of Randox. Results: Alkaline phosphates was raised in per menopausal, postmenopausal and postmenopausal with hysterectomy and ligation groups of women as compared to premenopausal women but did not achieve significance (P>0.05). Serum calcium level was significantly lower in postmenopausal women than premenopausal women and inorganic phosphorus decrease significantly when compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal with ligation and hysterectomy. BMD (T score) values of postmenopausal osteopenic and postmenopausal osteoprotic women were significantly lower than those of premenopausal women. BMD values of women under study have negative correlation with age, alkaline phosphates and calcium. Conclusion: Our study conclude that in addition to BMD, serum levels of alkaline phosphate, calcium and inorganic phosphorus can be valuable biochemical markers in predicting bone fracture risk at different menopausal states. (author)

  7. [Multiple linear regression and ROC curve analysis of the factors of lumbar spine bone mineral density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yinxia; Hu, Shaoyong; Hao, Shuai; Yan, Jiewen; Zhang, Lingyan; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shaolin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the correlation between the lumbar vertebra bone mineral density (BMD) and age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, waistline, hipline, bone marrow and abdomen fat, and to explore the key factor affecting the BMD. A total of 72 cases were randomly recruited. All the subjects underwent a spectroscopic examination of the third lumber vertebra with single-voxel method in 1.5T MR. Lipid fractions (FF%) were measured. Quantitative CT were also performed to get the BMD of L3 and the corresponding abdomen subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The statistical analysis were performed by SPSS 19.0. Multiple linear regression showed except the age and FF% showed significant difference (P0.05). The correlation of age and FF% with BMD was statistically negatively significant (r=-0.830, -0.521, P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivety and specificity of predicting osteoporosis were 81.8% and 86.9%, with a threshold of 58.5 years old. And it showed that the sensitivety and specificity of predicting osteoporosis were 90.9% and 55.7%, with a threshold of 52.8% for FF%. The lumbar vertebra BMD was significantly and negatively correlated with age and bone marrow FF%, but it was not significantly correlated with gender, height, weight, BMI, waistline, hipline, SAT and VAT. And age was the critical factor.

  8. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.

  9. Are serotonin metabolite levels related to bone mineral density in patients with neuroendocrine tumours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Piya; Grozinsky-Glasberg, Simona; Drake, William M; Akker, Scott A; Perry, Les; Grossman, Ashley B; Druce, Maralyn R

    2014-02-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by multiple factors. Recent studies have highlighted a possible relationship between serotonin and BMD. Patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) frequently have elevated urinary 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, a serotonin metabolite. Evaluation of the relationship between 5-HIAA and BMD in patients with NETs may provide insights into the relationship between serotonin and BMD. One-year audit of consecutive patients with NETs within two institutions. Relationships between urinary 5-HIAA and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-scan-measured BMD were investigated by group comparisons, correlation and regression. Of 65 patients with NETs, 19 did not participate or were excluded. Of 46 subjects evaluated (48·9% males, 63·8 ± 10·5 years, BMI 26·6 ± 4·4 kg/m(2) ) with 32 gastrointestinal, 9 pancreatic, 3 pulmonary and 2 ovarian NETs, 72·3% had the carcinoid syndrome. Median interval from diagnosis was 4·0 years (IQR 2·0-6·0); 41·3% had osteoporosis and 32·6% osteopaenia (WHO definition). The group with a higher urinary 5-HIAA had a lower hip BMD (total T-score and Z-score), confirmed on individual analysis (Spearman's rank correlation -0·41, P = 0·004; -0·44, P = 0·002, respectively); urinary 5-HIAA was not found to be an independent predictor for BMD on multiple linear regression analysis. These data of patients with NETs with higher serotonin metabolites having a lower BMD at the hip in group and individual comparisons, warrants further evaluation. Urinary 5-HIAA measurement alone cannot be used to predict future BMD. A larger cohort with prospective design including fractures as a clinical outcome will aid these data in determining whether patients with NETs should be subject to targeted osteoporosis prevention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Bone mineral density in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, L M; Bener, A; Al-Ali, H M; Hammoudeh, M; Liu, L Q; Verjee, M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate bone mineral density (BMD) for a large cross-section of midlife Arab women living in Qatar and to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI), menopause status, and nationality, on BMD of the spine and femur. A cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 40-60 years recruited from nine primary-care health centers in Qatar. BMD (g/m(2)) was assessed at the lumbar spine and the femur. The combined prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 4% at the femur and 16.2% at the spine. BMI and menstrual status were both independently associated with BMD at the spine and at the femur (all p values < 0.001). As BMI increased, BMD increased at both the spine and femur. Women who menstruated in the past 12 months had 0.82 g/cm(2) and 0.61 g/cm(2) greater BMD at the spine and femur, respectively, compared with women who had not menstruated in 12 months. Nationality was not associated with mean BMD of the spine or the femur. No significant differences were observed between Qatari and non-Qatari women in terms of mean BMD values at the spine and the femur except for the femur in the age group 55-60, where values were lower among non-Qataris (p = 0.04). Multivariable analyses showed that BMI and menstrual status were found to be strongly associated with BMD levels at the spine and femur. The high prevalence of obesity observed in this sample may explain the low levels of osteopenia and osteoporosis observed.

  11. Are bone turnover markers associated with volumetric bone density, size, and strength in older men and women? The AGES-Reykjavik study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, E A; Gudnason, V; Sigurdsson, G; Lang, T; Johannesdottir, F; Siggeirsdottir, K; Launer, L; Eiriksdottir, G; Harris, T B

    2016-05-01

    Association between serum bone formation and resorption markers and bone mineral, structural, and strength variables derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in a population-based cohort of 1745 older adults was assessed. The association was weak for lumbar spine and femoral neck areal and volumetric bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs; osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and procollagen type 1N propeptide (P1NP)) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-derived bone density, geometry, and strength indices in the lumbar spine and femoral neck (FN). A total of 1745 older individuals (773 men and 972 women, aged 66-92 years) from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik cohort were studied. QCT was performed in the lumbar spine and hip to estimate volumetric trabecular, cortical, and integral bone mineral density (BMD), areal BMD, bone geometry, and bone strength indices. Association between BTMs and QCT variables were explored using multivariable linear regression. Major findings showed that all BMD measures, FN cortical index, and compressive strength had a low negative correlation with the BTM levels in both men and women. Correlations between BTMs and bone size parameters were minimal or not significant. No associations were found between BTMs and vertebral cross-sectional area in women. BTMs alone accounted for only a relatively small percentage of the bone parameter variance (1-10 %). Serum CTX, OC, and P1NP were weakly correlated with lumbar spine and FN areal and volumetric BMD and strength measures. Most of the bone size indices were not associated with BTMs; thus, the selected bone remodeling markers do not reflect periosteal bone formation. These results confirmed the limited ability of the most sensitive established BTMs to predict bone structural integrity in older adults.

  12. Estrogen and peptide YY are associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, J L; Toombs, R J; Ducher, G; Gibbs, J C; Williams, N I; De Souza, M J

    2011-08-01

    In women with anorexia nervosa, elevated fasting peptide YY (PYY) is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Prior research from our lab has demonstrated that fasting total PYY concentrations are elevated in exercising women with amenorrhea compared to ovulatory exercising women. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between fasting total PYY, average monthly estrogen exposure and BMD in non-obese premenopausal exercising women. Daily urine samples were collected and assessed for metabolites of estrone 1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnandiol glucuronide (PdG) for at least one menstrual cycle if ovulatory or a 28-day monitoring period if amenorrheic. Fasting serum samples were pooled over the measurement period and analyzed for total PYY and leptin. BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine whether measures of body composition, estrogen status, exercise minutes, leptin and PYY explained a significant amount of the variance in BMD at multiple sites. Premenopausal exercising women aged 23.8±0.9years with a mean BMI of 21.2±0.4kg/m(2) exercised 346±48min/week and had a peak oxygen uptake of 49.1±1.8mL/kg/min. Thirty-nine percent (17/44) of the women had amenorrhea. Fasting total PYY concentrations were negatively associated with total body BMD (p=0.033) and total hip BMD (p=0.043). Mean E1G concentrations were positively associated with total body BMD (p=0.033) and lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD (p=0.047). The proportion of variance in lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD explained by body weight and E1G cycle mean was 16.4% (R(2)=0.204, p=0.012). The proportion of variance in hip BMD explained by PYY cycle mean was 8.6% (R(2)=0.109, p=0.033). The proportion of variance in total body BMD explained by body weight and E1G cycle mean was 21.9% (R(2)=0.257, p=0.003). PYY, mean E1G and body weight are associated with BMD in premenopausal exercising women. Thus, elevated

  13. The relationship of total body composition with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Valer'evich Klimontov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and total body composition in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. The study included 78 women, from 50 to 70 years of age (median 63 years. Twenty women had normal body mass index (BMI, 29 ones were overweight and 29 had obesity. The body composition and BMD was studied by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Women with normal BMD had higher BMI, total and truncal fat mass, as well lean mass as compared to women with osteoporosis and osteopenia (all p

  14. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femur in acromegaly. Knochendichte an Lendenwirbelsaeule und Femur bei Akromegalie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebsch, P. (Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria)); Kotzmann, H. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Innere Medizin 3, Vienna (Austria)); Svoboda, T. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Innere Medizin 3, Vienna (Austria)); Kainberger, F.M. (Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria)); Bankier, A. (Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria)); Seidl, G. (Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria))

    1993-08-01

    Acromegaly is regarded as a cause for secondary osteoporosis, whereas recent papers suggest that growth hormone increases bone mineral density (BMD). In 16 patients with active acromegaly we found an increased BMD compared to normal controls in the lumbar spine and the proximal femur by means of dual energy X-ray absoptiometry. This increase in BMD was statistically significant in the femoral neck and in Ward's triangle (P=0.05). Moreover, no signs of osteoporosis were found radiologically. (orig.)

  15. Prevalence of Оsteoporosis and Low Bone Mineral Density in Ukrainian Women with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of osteoporosis and low bone mineral density (BMD in Ukrainian women with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. The study involved 1,605 persons, whose mean age was 62.31 ± 9.52 years, the average body mass — 76.48 ± 14.65 kg. All women were in postmenopausal period. Patients were divided into three groups. First group (800 people included women without obesity, second one (572 persons — with obesity. Third group (233 people consisted of patients with metabolic syndrome. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absortiometer (Prodigy, 2005. Conclusion about normal BMD, osteoporosis and low BMD was made according to the ISCD (2007 criteria for official position (updated in 2015. Results. The incidence of osteoporosis and low BMD in women from the second and third groups were compared with those in the first group. We have found no significant differences in performance of BMD between patients of second and third groups unlike the first group. Conclusions. In patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of osteoporosis and low BMD is significantly lower as compared with the group of women without obesity, and metabolic syndrome and obesity have equally positive effect on bone mineral density.

  16. Bone mineral density, growth, pubertal development and other parameters in Brazilian children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwes, M; Souza de Carvalho, T F; Cipolotti, R; Gurgel, R Q; Ferrão, T O; Peters, M; Agyemang, C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratorial characteristics in children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia living in Northeast-Brazil, and to assess the role of radiography in diagnosing low BMD. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 27 patients with Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) aged 7-28 years. Clinical history, calcium and calorie intake, laboratory measurements, anthropometrics and pubertal development were assessed, and X-rays were obtained. Z-scores and T-scores for weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMD were calculated using age and gender matched reference data. Mean lumbar spine BMD Z-scores and T-scores were -1.81 SD in boys and -0.80 SD in girls. BMD Z-scores were below -2 SD in 33.3% of girls and in 46.7% of boys. Low BMD (developing low BMD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the different types of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhong; Lin, Jinkuang; Cai, Siqing; Yan, Lisheng; Pan, Yuancheng; Yao, Xuedong; Zhuang, Huafeng; Wang, Peiwen; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were 95 menopausal females of age ≥ 50 years with fragility fracture of hip, including 55 cases of femoral neck fracture and 40 cases of trochanteric fracture. Another 63 non-fractured females with normal bone mineral density (BMD) were chosen as control. BMD, hip axis length, neck-shaft angle and structural parameters including cross surface area, cortical thickness and buckling ratio were detected and compared. Compared with control group, the patients with femoral neck fracture or trochanteric fractures had significantly lower BMD of femoral neck, as well as lower cross surface area and cortical thickness and higher buckling ratio in femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were no significant differences of BMD and structural parameters in the femoral neck fracture group and intertrochanteric fracture group. Hip axis length and neck-shaft angle were not significantly different among three groups. The significant changes of BMD and proximal femur geometry were present in the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. The different types of hip fractures cannot be explained by these changes.

  18. Influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the different types of hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were 95 menopausal females of age ≥ 50 years with fragility fracture of hip, including 55 cases of femoral neck fracture and 40 cases of trochanteric fracture. Another 63 non-fractured females with normal bone mineral density (BMD were chosen as control. BMD, hip axis length, neck-shaft angle and structural parameters including cross surface area, cortical thickness and buckling ratio were detected and compared. Compared with control group, the patients with femoral neck fracture or trochanteric fractures had significantly lower BMD of femoral neck, as well as lower cross surface area and cortical thickness and higher buckling ratio in femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were no significant differences of BMD and structural parameters in the femoral neck fracture group and intertrochanteric fracture group. Hip axis length and neck-shaft angle were not significantly different among three groups. The significant changes of BMD and proximal femur geometry were present in the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. The different types of hip fractures cannot be explained by these changes.

  19. Association between bone mineral density and low backache in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayum, M.; Ali, W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine association between bone mineral density (BMD) and low backache in post menopausal women in general population of Lahore. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological outpatint department of Punjab Rangers Hospital Lahore during the period, from Feb 2015 to Feb 2016. Material and Methods: Screening for association between BMD and low backache in 481 post menopausal women was carried out. Low back pain was considered clinically relevant if the patient complained of moderate to severe pain, or if the patient needed any medical treatment. Their BMD was measured. The measurement site for BMD was the calcaneus of patient. The diagnosis was based on T score. Data was analyzed. Result: Osteoporosis was found in 303 (88.3%) of 50-60 years age group and 40 (11.7%) of 61-plus years age group. Conclusion: Bone mineral density was significantly lower in postmenopausal women and there was a strong association between low back ache and decreased BMD value. (author)

  20. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  1. Age, gender, and race/ethnic differences in total body and subregional bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, A C; Melton, L J; Harris, T; Borrud, L; Shepherd, J; McGowan, J

    2009-07-01

    Total body bone density of adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 differed as expected for some groups (men>women and blacks>whites) but not others (whites>Mexican Americans). Cross-sectional age patterns in bone mineral density (BMD) of older adults differed at skeletal sites that varied by degree of weight-bearing. Total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data offer the opportunity to compare bone density of demographic groups across the entire skeleton. The present study uses total body DXA data (Hologic QDR 4500A, Hologic, Bedford MA, USA) from the NHANES 1999-2004 to examine BMD of the total body and selected skeletal subregions in a wide age range of adult men and women from three race/ethnic groups. Total body, lumbar spine, pelvis, right leg, and left arm BMD and lean mass from 13,091 adults aged 20 years and older were used. The subregions were chosen to represent sites with different degrees of weight-bearing. Mean BMD varied in expected ways for some demographic characteristics (men>women and non-Hispanic blacks>non-Hispanic whites) but not others (non-Hispanic whites>Mexican Americans). Differences in age patterns in BMD also emerged for some characteristics (sex) but not others (race/ethnicity). Differences in cross-sectional age patterns in BMD and lean mass by degree of weight-bearing in older adults were observed for the pelvis, leg, and arm. This information may be useful for generating hypotheses about age, race, and sex differences in fracture risk in the population.

  2. Bone density of the radius, spine, and proximal femur in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Barden, H.; Ettinger, M.; Schultz, E.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 140 normal young women (aged 20 to 39 years) and in 423 consecutive women over age 40 referred for evaluation of osteoporosis. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD was measured using dual-photon absorptiometry ( 153 Gd), whereas the radius shaft measurement used single-photon absorptiometry ( 125 I). There were 324 older women with no fractures, of which 278 aged 60 to 80 years served as age-matched controls. There were 99 women with fractures including 32 with vertebral and 22 with hip fractures. Subsequently, another 25 women with hip fractures had BMD measured in another laboratory; their mean BMD was within 2% of that of the original series. The mean age in both the nonfracture and fracture groups was 70 +/- 5 years. The BMD in the age-matched controls was 20% to 25% below that of normal young women for the radius, spine, and femur, but the Ward's triangle region of the femur showed even greater loss (35%). The mean BMD at all sites in the crush fracture cases was about 10% to 15% below that of age-matched controls. Spinal abnormality was best discriminated by spine and femoral measurements (Z score about 0.9). In women with hip fractures, the BMD was 10% below that of age-matched controls for the radius and the spine, and the BMD for the femoral sites was about 25% to 30% below that of age-matched control (Z score about 1.6). Femoral densities gave the best discrimination of hip fracture cases and even reflected spinal osteopenia. In contrast, neither the spine nor the radius reflected the full extent of femoral osteopenia in hip fracture

  3. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  4. Peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, Mary Anne V.; Gacutan-Liwag, Aretha Ann C.; Balderas, Jubilia Araceli J.; Guanzon, Ma. Vicenta Luz; Guzman, Angel de

    2002-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and to correlate factors such as age, height, weight, body mass index, total caloric, protein and calcium intake to bone mass density. Design: Cross sectional study Setting: Philippine General Hospital and St Luke's Medical Center, tertiary government and private owned hospitals, respectively. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-eight 228) healthy randomly chosen subjects from amongst hospital companion, aged 15-52 years old, distributed at 25 subjects per group of five per sex. Methods: Bone mass density measurements were done on lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPXL). Ten (10) cc of blood was extracted on one hundred fourteen (114) patients; 5 cc of which was used for biochemical studies while the rest of the sample was stored for fixture studies. One hundred fourteen (114) patients were then interviewed using the Filipino version of the WHO questionnaire for the Study of Osteoporosis, and their nutritional intake was assessed using a previous day food recall. Results: At present, there are a total of 228 patients recruited. The mean weight and height were 57-43±11.17 kg and 158.16±8.44 cm, respectively, and the mean BMI was 22.99±4.11. The mean daily calcium intake was 501.17±357.79 gms/day (n=64). The mean BMD at the L2-L4 spine for females was 1.14±0.15 gm/cm 2 and 1.12±0.21 gm/cm 2 for the males. The highest BMD was 1.23±0.20 gm/cm 2 in the 35-39 year old age group for the females and 1.26±0.31 gm/cm 2 in the 30-34 age group for the males. The mean femoral neck BMD was 0.91±0.12 gm/cm 2 for the females and 1.00±0.13 gm/cm 2 for the males. The highest femoral neck BMD was 0.931±0.12 gm/cm 2 in the 20-24 females and 1.03±0.18 gm/cm 2 in the 20-24 age group for the males. Calcium intake and weight was significantly correlated in the lumbar spine. Height and sex was correlated with both

  5. Bone mineral density and factors influencing it in Asian Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadishkumar Kamalanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess bone mineral density (BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and its relation, if any, to clinical, hormonal and metabolic factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of 194 T2DM patients (97 men and 97 women was carried out. BMD was done with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA at the lumbar spine and total hip. Physical activity, nutritional intake and sunlight exposure were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal tests included serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH D], parathyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Glycosylated hemoglobin and complete lipid profiles were done in patients with diabetes. Five hundred and seventy one non-diabetic controls (262 males and 309 females were evaluated for BMD alone. Results: BMD was normal (Z score > -2 in 156 (80.5% and low (Z score ≤ -2 in 38 (19.5% patients in the diabetes study group. BMD in the diabetes group was significantly higher than the control group in both sexes at the hip and spine. The difference was no longer significant on analysis of a BMI matched control subgroup. Weight and BMI showed significant correlation to BMD. Duration of T2DM, degree of glycemic control, use of drugs like statins and thiazolidinediones, 25(OH D levels, calcium intake, sunlight exposure and physical activity did not significantly affect BMD in this cohort of individuals with diabetes. Conclusions: Bone mineral density of Asian Indian T2DM subjects was similar to that of healthy volunteers in this study.

  6. Life-Course Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis of Total Body BMD and Assessment of Age-Specific Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P.; Trajanoska, Katerina; Luan, Jian'an; Chesi, Alessandra; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Ham, Annelies; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Evans, Daniel S.; Joro, Raimo; Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Zhu, Kun; Atalay, Mustafa; Liu, Ching-Ti; Nethander, Maria; Broer, Linda; Porleifsson, Gudmar; Mullin, Benjamin H.; Handelman, Samuel K.; Nalls, Mike A.; Jessen, Leon E.; Heppe, Denise H. M.; Richards, J. Brent; Wang, Carol; Chawes, Bo; Schraut, Katharina E.; Amin, Najaf; Wareham, Nick; Karasik, David; van der Velde, Nathalie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Zemel, Babette S.; Zhou, Yanhua; Carlsson, Christian J.; Liu, Yongmei; McGuigan, Fiona E.; Boer, Cindy G.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Ralston, Stuart H.; Robbins, John A.; Walsh, John P.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Langenberg, Claudia; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Williams, Frances M. K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Akesson, Kristina; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; den Heijer, Martin; van der Eerden, Bram C. J.; van de Peppel, Jeroen; Spector, Timothy D.; Pennell, Craig; Horta, Bernardo L.; Felix, Janine F.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Wilson, Scott G.; de Mutsert, Renée; Bisgaard, Hans; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Orwoll, Eric; Lakka, Timo A.; Scott, Robert; Grant, Struan F. A.; Lorentzon, Mattias; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wilson, James F.; Stefansson, Kari; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ntzani, Evangelia; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Logan, John G.; Williams, Graham R.; Bassett, J. H. Duncan; Croucher, Peter I.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have been

  7. Life-Course Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis of Total Body BMD and Assessment of Age-Specific Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P.; Trajanoska, Katerina

    2018-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have b...

  8. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Sikjaer, Tanja; Heickendorff, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment...... with melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual...... X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin...

  9. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Yilmaz, G.; Alkanl, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Kuscu, L.; Laleli, Y.; Eksioglu, F.; Sepici, B.; Gunel, U.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density, BMD, of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last RCM in San Diego, CA, October 7-10,1996. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone. To this end, bone mineral density measurements, trace element studies, neutron activation analysis, fluoride analysis and atomic absorption analysis were undertaken and resulting data were analysed

  10. Divergent Significance of Bone Mineral Density Changes in Aging Depending on Sites and Sex Revealed through Separate Analyses of Bone Mineral Content and Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumoto Matsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (aBMD is equivalent to bone mineral content (BMC divided by area. We rechecked the significance of aBMD changes in aging by examining BMC and area separately. Subjects were 1167 community-dwelling Japanese men and women, aged 40–79 years. ABMDs of femoral neck and lumbar spine were assessed by DXA twice, at 6-year intervals. The change rates of BMC and area, as well as aBMD, were calculated and described separately by the age stratum and by sex. In the femoral neck region, aBMDs were significantly decreased in all age strata by an increase in area as well as BMC loss in the same pattern in both sexes. In the lumbar spine region, aBMDs decreased until the age of 60 in women, caused by the significant BMC decrease accompanying the small area change. Very differently in men, aBMDs increased after their 50s due to BMC increase, accompanied by an area increase. Separate analyses of BMC and area change revealed that the significance of aBMD changes in aging was very divergent among sites and between sexes. This may explain in part the dissociation of aBMD change and bone strength, suggesting that we should be more cautious when interpreting the meaning of aBMD change.

  11. The relationship between anthropometric parameters and bone mineral density in an Iranian referral population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Soltani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health concern in both developed and developing countries. In this study the association between anthropometric measures and osteoporosis was investigated in 3630 males and females visiting BMD clinic of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran, a teaching hospital and referral center for osteoporosis affiliated to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Anthropometric measurements obtained and also Bone Mineral Density (BMD measurement was done using a Lunar DPXMD densitometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS with Chi-square and ANOVA with post-hoc tests. Results showed that the weight, BMI and age had the strongest correlation with the BMD values in the studied people. While age is negatively correlated with BMD in all the studied people, a positive association was noted between weight, height and BMI and BMD parameters (P<0.01. It was concluded that certain anthropometric parameters (BMI and weight can considerably affect one's risk of developing osteoporosis. Further research on the effect of these variables on the association of weight and BMD is needed.

  12. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da; Battaglino, Ricardo; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    2013-01-01

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  13. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da, E-mail: nelson@forp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica Pediatrica, Preventiva e Odontologia Comunitaria; Morse, Leslie [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Battaglino, Ricardo [Department of Skeletal Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomacologia e Fisiologia

    2013-05-15

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  14. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  15. Association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haiyu; Xu, Shaonan; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jiayin; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Yazeng; Ru, Bin; Jin, Yongming; Zhang, Qi; Ying, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese adolescents. Three hundred eighty-four Chinese adolescents aged 14-18 yr (148 males and 236 females) were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Total body and regional BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Duration of playing video games, defined as hours per day, was measured by a self-report questionnaire. We examined the association between duration of playing video games and BMD using multiple linear regression analysis. After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, parental education, body mass index, adolescents with longer video game duration were more likely to have lower legs, trunk, pelvic, spine, and total BMD (p video game was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese adolescents. These findings provide support for reducing duration of playing video games as a possible means to increase BMD in adolescents. Future research is needed to elucidate the underlined mechanisms linking playing video games and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bone mineral density and nutritional indices in adolescent females with recently diagnosed anorexia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.C.H.; Lewindon, P.J.; Mortimer, R.; Sheperd, R.W.; Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Osteopenia/osteoporosis and fractures have been shown to occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study evaluated adolescent females diagnosed with AN less than 12 months previously to determine the presence of any significant bone mass reduction at this early stage of diagnosis and to evaluate the correlation between total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral densities (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and nutritional indices (body weight, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, fat mass and percentage fat). The subjects were 22 adolescent females aged 12-17 years (mean= 14.3 years) diagnosed with AN less than 12 months earlier (range 2.5-11 months; mean = 6.7 months). They had bone density measurements of the TB and LS using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Comparison was made with values of age-matched controls in the Lunar normative database. Although there was a tendency towards low TB and LS bone mass, these changes were not statistically significant. Bivariate analyses showed significant correlation between TB BMD and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.001) and between TB BMC and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.01). There was similar significant correlation between LS BMD and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P<0.01), and between LS BMC and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P < 0.01). With stepwise regression analysis, only lean mass remained significantly correlated with TB BMD and BMC and LS BMD and BMC. There was no longer any significant correlation with weight. In this study, the weight percentile was found to be correlated highly with the LS BMD Z-score (P < 0.01). Therefore, during adolescence, the lean mass in particular, but also body weight, are good indicators of bone densities. Adolescent females do not appear to show bone mass reduction in the early stages of diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. This suggests early intervention may preserve bone gain and attainment of normal peak bone mass

  17. A Novel Method for Estimation of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Using Forearm Images from Peripheral Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanmoon Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of osteoporosis treatment is prevention of osteoporosis-induced bone fracture. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and quantitative computed tomographic imaging (QCT are widely used for assessment of bone mineral density (BMD. However, they have limitations in patients with special conditions. This study evaluated a method for diagnosis of osteoporosis using peripheral cone beam computed tomography (CBCT to estimate BMD. We investigated the correlation between the ratio of cortical and total bone areas of the forearm and femoral neck BMD. Based on the correlation, we established a linear transformation between the ratio and femoral neck BMD. We obtained forearm images using CBCT and femoral neck BMDs using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for 23 subjects. We first calculated the ratio of the cortical to the total bone area in the forearm from the CBCT images, and investigated the relationship with the femoral neck BMDs obtained from DXA. Based on this relationship, we further investigated the optimal forearm region to provide the highest correlation coefficient. We used the optimized forearm region to establish a linear transformation of the form to estimate femoral neck BMD from the calculated ratio. We observed the correlation factor of r = 0.857 (root mean square error = 0.056435 g/cm2; mean absolute percentage error = 4.5105% between femoral neck BMD and the ratio of the cortical and total bone areas. The strongest correlation was observed for the average ratios of the mid-shaft regions of the ulna and radius. Our results suggest that femoral neck BMD can be estimated from forearm CBCT images and may be useful for screening osteoporosis, with patients in a convenient sitting position. We believe that peripheral CBCT image-based BMD estimation may have significant preventative value for early osteoporosis treatment and management.

  18. Do Patients After Chondrosarcoma Treatment Have Age-appropriate Bone Mineral Density in the Long Term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobusch, Gerhard M; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Patsch, Janina; Krall, Christoph; Holzer, Gerold

    2016-06-01

    In long-term survivors of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma treated with the addition of radio- and chemotherapy, low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures have been observed, presumably resulting from these adjuvants. Because patients with chondrosarcoma usually are not treated with conventional adjuvant treatment, observation of low BMD in patients with chondrosarcoma presumably would be the result of other mechanisms. However, BMD in patients with a history of chondrosarcoma has not been well characterized. The aim of our study was to address the following questions: (1) Do long-term survivors of chondrosarcoma have normal BMD and, if not, which factors contribute to low BMD? (2) Is there a greater risk of fracture and does the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(®)) score reflect fracture likelihood? All known patients with a history of chondrosarcoma treated at our institution before 2006 were identified. Of 127 patients believed to be alive at the time of this study, 30 agreed to participate in this study (11 females, 19 males; mean age at surgery, 39 ± 12 years; mean followup, 12 ± 5 years). With the data available, the 30 participants were not different from the 97 nonparticipants in terms of age, sex, BMI, tumor grade, tumor location (axial versus appendicular, lower extremity versus elsewhere), and use of any treatment known to influence osteopenia (chemotherapy, lower extremity surgery). BMD was measured and history of fractures was assessed using a questionnaire. The patients´ BMD measurements in this study were sex- and age-matched with a normative sex- and age-categorized reference population reported by Kudlacek et al. Associations were tested by univariate regressions and ANOVAs of all measures of BMD and eligible oncologic and demographic factors. Eighteen of 30 (60%) patients had a pathologic BMD according to the WHO dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry definition, 15 (50%) had osteopenia, and three (10%) had osteoporosis. T-scores in the

  19. Evaluation of bone mineral density and osteonecrosis in the recovered severe acute respiratory syndrome patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Wei; Yu Wei; Lin Qiang; Li Taisheng; Fan Hongwei; Tian Junping; Meng Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteonecrosis in the recovered patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Methods: Sixty-four patients with SARS were recruited in the study. There were 19 males with mean age 37 years (26-57 years) and 45 females with mean age 39 years (21-67 years) who divided into ten year cohorts for the analysis. BMD measurements were obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the sites of both lumbar spine (L2-4) and hip (neck, Ward's triangle, greater trochanter) which compared with those of the control groups. In addition to BMD measurements, hip MRI examinations were performed on 55 patients among the 64 patients for evaluating the osteonecrosis during an average of 10-12 months follow up after discharged from hospital. The BMD were also compared between the patients with osteonecrosis and without osteonecrosis. Results: BMD results of the 19 male SARS patients were not different from those of the normal reference, except that the 40-49 age-group at the site of L2-4 whose BMD was significantly higher than that of the normal group (P=0.016). For the 45 female recovered SARS patients, the BMD at femur neck of 20-29 age-group and greater trochanter of 40-49 age-group were significantly higher than those of normal reference respectively (P=0.0013, P=0.041). Besides that there were no significant BMD differences between any other age-groups when comparison with each site, although the BMD results of the female group were slightly higher than those of the normal reference in general. Osteonecrosis of the femur was diagnosed by MRI in 6 of the 55 patients. Although BMD results in the patients with osteonecrosis were slightly lower than those patients without osteonecrosis for each site, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Therapy with glucocorticoids in short period may not influence the BMD results in the recovered SARS patients within this near 10-12 months follow up

  20. Negative correlation between bone mineral density and TSH receptor antibodies in long-term euthyroid postmenopausal women with treated Graves’ disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ercolano, Monica A; Drnovsek, Monica L; Croome, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a cause of secondary osteoporosis. High concentrations of triiodotironine (T3) in Graves' disease stimulate bone turnover, but it is unclear if euthyroidism will always normalize bone metabolism. Thyrotropin (TSH) is known to affect directly the bone metabolism through the TSH...... receptor and TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) may have an important role in bone turn-over.The aim of our study was to determine, in pre and postmenopausal euthyroidism patients with previous overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as factors that could affect BMD...

  1. Predictors of Fracture Risk and Bone Mineral Density in Men with Prostate Cancer on Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Neubecker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of bone mineral density (BMD and fracture risk is increased in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. We looked at possible predictors of decreased BMD and increased fracture risk in men with prostate cancer; most of whom were on ADT. In a retrospective study, we analyzed serum, BMD, and clinical risk factors used in the Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX tool and others in 78 men with prostate cancer with reported height loss. The subjects were divided in two groups: 22 men with and 56 without vertebral fractures. 17 of the 22 men with vertebral fractures on spine X-rays did not know they had a vertebral fracture. Of those 17 men, 9 had not previously qualified for treatment based on preradiograph FRAX score calculated with BMD, and 6 based on FRAX calculated without BMD. Performing spine films increased the predictive ability of FRAX for vertebral fracture. Vertebral fracture was better predicted by FRAX for other osteoporotic fractures than FRAX for hip fractures. The inclusion of BMD in FRAX calculations did not affect the predictive ability of FRAX. The PSA level showed a positive correlation with lumbar spine BMD and accounted for about 9% of spine BMD.

  2. Vertebral Fractures and Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism on Long-Term Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Himika; Saha, Soma; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Sharma, Raju; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Goswami, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is increased in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency, hypocalcemic seizures, and anticonvulsants could compromise skeletal health in IH. We assessed vertebral fractures (VFs) and related factors in IH and change in BMD during follow-up. VFs were assessed by morphometry. BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometery at the lumbar spine, hip, and forearm. Change in BMD was assessed in a subset after a 10-year follow-up. The endocrine clinic of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Included were 104 patients with IH and 64 healthy controls. Hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, normal kidney function, and low serum PTH levels were used to diagnose IH. VFs were seen in 18.3% of patients with IH and 4.7% of controls (odds ratio, 4.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 16.04). Use of anticonvulsants and menopause were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with VF. Mean BMD at lumbar spine and hip were higher by 21.4% and 8.6%, respectively, in IH than in controls (P < 0.001), respectively. BMD significantly increased during follow-up at all sites. Change in BMD correlated with maintenance of the serum calcium/phosphorus ratio during follow-up. Despite increased BMD, prevalence of vertebral-fractures is greater in patients with IH, especially in postmenopausal women and those on anticonvulsant therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  3. Combined Treatment of Alendronate and Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS Increases Bone Mineral Density at the Cancellous Bone Osteotomy Site in Aged Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aonuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During fracture healing, alendronate encourages callus volume by inhibiting bone resorption, whereas low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances bone regeneration by promoting an anabolic response. Methods: In the present study, 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, with a unilateral proximal tibial osteotomy, were treated with alendronate (daily, 1 g/kg plus sham-LIPUS (n = 14, saline plus LIPUS (20 min/day (n = 18, alendronate plus LIPUS (n = 16, or saline plus sham- LIPUS as a control (n = 13 for 4 weeks. The rats were then examined for changes in bone mineral density (BMD during metaphyseal bone repair. Results: The combined therapy signi cantly increased BMD at the osteotomy site at 4 weeks (p < 0.001 compared with the control, without affecting the contralateral, non-osteotomized tibia. Both alendronate and LIPUS alone also exerted a positive, albeit less, effect on BMD in the affected limb (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions: Alendronate and LIPUS cooperate to enhance BMD during metaphyseal bone healing. Keywords: LIPUS, bisphosphonate, bone mineral density.

  4. Relationship between glycemic control and OPG gene polymorphisms with lower bone mineral density in patients with type 1 Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Bezerra Loureiro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to investigate the bone mineral density (BMD of patients with type 1 Diabetes mellitus (T1DM. We also assessed the association between osteoprotegerin (OPG genetic polymorphisms and BMD. Genotyping was performed for 1181G>C and 163A>G OPG polymorphisms by allelic discrimination in 119 patients with T1DM and 161 normoglycemic (NG individuals, aged 6 to 20 years old. Glycemic control, serum parameters of bone metabolism and BMD were evaluated. T1DM patients showed low BMD, poor glycemic control and decreased total calcium values when compared to controls (p < 0.05. For all the polymorphisms studied, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with T1DM were not significantly different from the controls. In patients with T1DM, carriers of OPG 1181CC showed higher concentrations of ionized calcium compared to patients with GG+GC genotypes. These results suggest that low BMD is associated with poor glycemic control in T1DM. Despite the lack of a detected association between OPG polymorphisms and BMD in these patients, the increased ionized calcium in those carrying OPG 1181CC suggests a possible increase in osteoclastogenesis, a conclusion that may be supported by the lower BMD observed in these subjects.

  5. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  6. Population-Stratified Analysis of Bone Mineral Density Distribution in Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of Chinese from Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Department of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing 100035 (China); Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Tian, Wei [Department of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.

  7. Population=stratified analysis of bone mineral density distribution in cervical and lumbar vertebrae of chinese from quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chen Xin [Dept. of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Dept. of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing (China); Tian, Wei [Dept. of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.

  8. Maternal Obesity, 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Concentration, and Bone Density in Breastfeeding Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Penfield-Cyr, Annie; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and bone density in mother-infant pairs. The study was a secondary analysis of 234 exclusively breastfeeding dyads who were recruited in the first postpartum month for a randomized controlled trial of maternal vs infant vitamin D supplementation. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD) were compared by BMI group. The adjusted association between maternal BMI and 25(OH)D and bone density was examined at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum. Obese breastfeeding women had lower 25(OH)D concentrations and higher BMD than lean women at all 3 time points (P  maternal BMI was associated with lower maternal serum levels of 25(OH)D at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum (adjusted β = -0.45 ng/ml per kg/m 2 , 95% CI -.076, -0.14, at 1 month) and higher BMD at the same time points (β = 0.006 BMD z score; 95% CI 0.003, 0.01 at 1 month). Seventy-six percent of infants were vitamin D deficient at 1 month of age. Infants born to overweight and obese mothers had lower 25(OH)D concentrations than infants of lean mothers (P maternal supplementation group, higher maternal BMI was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentrations at 4 months (β = -0.68; 95% CI -1.17, -0.20) and lower bone density at 7 months (β = -0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). In exclusively breastfeeding dyads, maternal obesity is associated with lower maternal and infant serum 25(OH)D concentrations, which may impact infant bone density. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00412074. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lumbar disc degeneration was not related to spine and hip bone mineral densities in Chinese: facet joint osteoarthritis may confound the association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianjiang; Lu, Xuan; Yang, Ge; Han, Yongmei; Tong, Xiang; Wang, Yue

    2017-12-01

    A sample of 512 Chinese was studied and we observed that greater disc degeneration on MRI was associated with greater spine DXA BMD. Yet, this association may be confounded by facet joint osteoarthritis. BMD may not be a risk factor for lumbar disc degeneration in Chinese. Evidence suggested that lumbar vertebral bone and intervertebral disc interact with each other in multiple ways. The current paper aims to determine the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lumbar disc degeneration using a sample of Chinese. We studied 165 patients with back disorders and 347 general subjects from China. All subjects had lumbar spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine BMD studies, and a subset of general subjects had additional hip BMD measurements. On T2-weighted MR images, Pfirrmann score was used to evaluate the degree of lumbar disc degeneration and facet joint osteoarthritis was assessed as none, slight-moderate, and severe. Regression analyses were used to examine the associations between lumbar and hip BMD and disc degeneration, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), lumbar region, and facet joint osteoarthritis. Greater facet joint osteoarthritis was associated with greater spine BMD (P osteoarthritis entered the regression model, however, greater spine BMD was associated with greater facet joint osteoarthritis (P  0.05). No statistical association was observed between spine BMD and lumbar disc degeneration in patients with back disorders (P > 0.05), and between hip BMD and disc degeneration in general subjects (P > 0.05). BMD may not be a risk factor for lumbar disc degeneration in Chinese. Facet joint osteoarthritis inflates DXA spine BMD measurements and therefore, may confound the association between spine BMD and disc degeneration.

  10. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral density in Shanghai residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Li Deyi; Ma Jixiao; Huang Qiren

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid development of bone mineral density determination technique provides a powerful research tool to diagnose osteoporosis and prevent fracture. Since the beginning of 1995, the research group incooperation with Shanghai 6th people's hospital is carrying on bone density measurements as a part of Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) organized by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of this study is to determine the age of peak bone mass in each study group of Shanghai residents and to quantify differences in bone density as functions of the age and sex of persons in the study groups. At the same time the authors should get the normal human BMD (Bone Mineral Density) reference database specially for Shanghai residents, China. The roles of various life styles, exercise, diet and so on are also investigated

  11. Study of whole-body bone mineral density measurement in 6 to 19 year-old students in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiachang; Ouyang Qiaohong; Zhang Jin; Liu Qing; Teng Xiaomei

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of bone mineral density (BMD) in young boys and girls from 6-19 years old in Beijing area. Methods: 1139 healthy young boys and girls undergoing whole body scanning with dual energy X-ray bone densitometer were divided into different groups according to sex and age. Results: There were no significant difference in body height, weight, BMD and bone mineral contents (BMC) between boys and girls from 6 to 10 years old. The annual growth rates of body height, BMD, and BMC were the fastest in girls from 6 to 14 and boys from 6 to 16 years old, respectively. Thereafter, the annual growth rates of body height, BMD, and BMC didn't significantly increase in boys and girls. There were two fast-growth periods in BMD growth stage, being at 11 and 14 years old in girls, and at 12 and 15 years old in boys. The total body BMD was significantly correlated with the height in girls under 12 years (P < 0.001, r = 0.485-0.575) and in boys under 14 years (P < 0.01-0.001, r=0.402-0.814). Afterwards, no marked correlation was found between BMD and the height in various groups. Nevertheless, the body weight was always markedly correlated with BMD in boys and girls (P < 0.001, r=0.654-0.864). Conclusions: The body height and BMD in young boys and girls had their own characteristics, and the important growth periods were under 14 years in girls and under 16 years in boys

  12. Vitamin D and Calcium Addition during Denosumab Therapy over a Period of Four Years Significantly Improves Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Osteoporosis Patients

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    Takako Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether or not vitamin D and calcium supplementation affected bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD over a period of four years of denosumab therapy in patients with primary osteoporosis. Patients were divided into a denosumab monotherapy group (22 cases or a denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium supplementation group (combination group, 21 cases. We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP-5b, urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX, and BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral hips (H-BMD at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months of treatment. There were no significant differences in patient background. Serum BAP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly and comparably inhibited in both groups from 12 to 48 months versus baseline values. L-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in both groups, while H-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in the combination group only. There were significant differences between the groups for L-BMD at 24, 36, and 48 months (P < 0.05 and for H-BMD at 12 months (P < 0.05. Compared with denosumab monotherapy, combination therapy of denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium significantly increased H-BMD at 12 months and L-BMD from 24 to 48 months. These findings indicate that continuous vitamin D and calcium supplementation is important, especially for 12 months to improve H-BMD and from 24 to 48 months to improve L-BMD.

  13. Metabolically healthy/unhealthy components may modify bone mineral density in obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzababaei, Atieh; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Khorrami-Nezhad, Leila; Maghbooli, Zhila; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2017-10-29

    Link between obesity and bone health is controversial. It seems that maybe the difference in metabolic status leads to this difference. We studied relation between metabolically healthy/unhealthy components with bone mineral density. Results showed metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) phenotypes have better bone status at hip site than metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Also, component metabolic can effect on BMD in different sites. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare total BMD and L-L4 BMD in MHO and MUHO base on Karelis criteria. We enrolled 272 Iranian obese women and men (BMI ≥ 30). According to Karelis criteria, the participants were grouped base to MHO and MUHO. The body composition and BMD were assessed for all cases. Serum HDL-C, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were quantified by ELISA method. Our results demonstrate MUHO phenotype have high total BMD more than MHO (P = 0.01, CI = 0.12 to 0.21). Also, the results of logistic regression analysis showed MUHO have strongly associated with total BMD (β = -0.42, CI = - 0.31 to - 0.04, P = 0.009), but did not affected L2-L4 BMD (β = - 0.09, CI = - 0.14 to 0.08, P = 0.578); this represents that there was discordance in MUHO subjects. Our evidence implicated that HOMA-IR, high level serum TG, hs-CRP, and low level serum HDL had mediatory effect on relationship between obesity and high BMD at the hip region in MUHO subjects (P < 0.05). Present evidence indicates that, could be a novel link between difference in MUH phenotype and MH phenotype with bone status. Also, component metabolic can effect on BMD in different sites.

  14. Impact of hepatitis C virus infection on bone mineral density in renal transplant recipients.

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    Wen-Hung Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in renal transplant recipients is 10%. Studies of these patients with HCV infection usually focuses on long-term graft survival and patient survival. Studies of the correlation between HCV infection and bone mineral density (BMD in renal transplant patients are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCV infection is a risk factor for BMD change during a short follow-up period. METHODS: Seventy-six renal transplant recipients underwent 2 separate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scans during a mean period of 14 months. Fifteen patients were HCV infection. First bone mineral density (BMD at the lumbar spine, hip, and femoral neck was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA between September 2008 and March 2009. After that, 34 patients took alendronate sodium 70 mg per week. Subgroups risk factors analysis was also performed into with or without alendronate. Immunosuppressive agents, bisphosphonates, patient characteristics, and biochemical factors were analyzed to identify associations with BMD. RESULTS: After 14 months, in 76 patients, BMD of the lumbar spine had significantly increased (from 0.9 g/cm² to 0.92 g/cm², p<0.001, whereas BMD of the hip and femoral neck had not. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HCV infection was negatively associated with BMD change in the lumbar spine ( β: -0.247, 95% CI, -0.035 to -0.002; p = 0.028. Moreover, in subgroup analysis, among 42 patients without alendronate, multiple linear regression analysis showed HCV infection was a risk factor for adverse BMD change of the lumbar spine ( β: -0.371, 95% CI, -0.043 to -0.003; p = 0.023. CONCLUSION: HCV infection in renal transplant recipients was a negative risk factor for BMD change in the lumbar spine. Moreover, alendronate may be able to reverse the negative effect of HCV infection on bone in renal transplant recipients.

  15. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinya Niu

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD among older Boston Puerto Rican adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47-79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates.Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women.Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached.

  16. Normal tempo of bone formation in Turner syndrome despite signs of accelerated bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Holm, Kirsten Bagge; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n...

  17. Normal Tempo of Bone Formation in Turner Syndrome despite Signs of Accelerated Bone Resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n...

  18. Computed tomographic analysis of tibiotarsal bone mineral density and content in turkeys as influenced by age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuta, A.; Cooper, R.G.; Pierzchala, M.; Horbanczuk, J.O.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of tibiotarsal bones of growing turkeys as affected by birds' age, sex, and within-the-bone location, respectively, were determined by computed tomography. The research was performed on 165 heavy-type BIG 6 turkeys reared between weeks (wk) 3-16 of age. The computed tomography measurement, conducted at 18 and 50% of the bone length, comprised a bone fragment which was 0.07 mm thick for the compact and the spongious substance collectively. It should be noted that the diaphyses of the tibiotarsal bones in turkeys (580 mg/cubic cm) had significantly greater vBMD than the proximal metaphyses (300 mg/cubic cm). BMC was higher in metaphyses for both sexes. Significant differences between the BMC of the metaphyses and the diaphyses were observed in males and females at wk 3, 6 and 9, and at wk 3 and 12, respectively. vBMD in the diaphyses gradually attenuated with age for both sexes, from 688 mg/cubic cm (wk 3) to 532 mg/cubic cm (wk 16). vBMD of the metaphyses was constant in females, but in males it achieved maximum values of 350 mg/cubic cm at wk 6 and 12 and minimum of 260 mg/cubic cm at wk 9 and 16. Correlations between body weight and vBMD of the diaphyses were observed in males (r = -0.85, P less than 0.001) and females (r = -0.52, P less than 0.01). It can be concluded that vBMD loss in diaphyses diminished bone-breaking strength leading in investigated turkeys to deformities and bone fractures

  19. The relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density of middle-aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, K A; Beck, B R; Adlard, K N; Skinner, T L; Cormie, P; Galvão, D A; Spry, N; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R

    2014-11-01

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) accounts for activities that affect bone but has not been used in studies with older adults. Relationships exist between the BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density in healthy middle-aged and older men but not men with prostate cancer. Disease-related treatments detrimental to bone should be considered when administering the BPAQ. The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) was developed to account for bone-specific loading. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in middle-aged and older men with and without prostate cancer. Two groups, 36 healthy men and 69 men with prostate cancer receiving androgen suppression therapy (AST), completed the BPAQ and had whole body, total hip, femoral (FN) and lumbar spine BMD assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Past (pBPAQ), current (cBPAQ) and total BPAQ (tBPAQ) scores for the healthy men were related to FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.36, p = 0.030; cBPAQ r s = 0.35, p = 0.034; tBPAQ r = 0.41, p = 0.014), and pBPAQ and tBPAQ were related to total hip (r s = 0.35, p = 0.035 and r s = 0.36, p = 0.029, respectively) and whole body BMD (r s = 0.44, p = 0.007 and r s = 0.45, p = 0.006, respectively). In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not significantly associated with BMD. In stepwise regression analyses, body mass and tBPAQ predicted 30 % of the variance in total hip BMD (p = 0.003), cBPAQ predicted 14 % of the variance in FN BMD (p = 0.002), and body mass, age and tBPAQ predicted 47% of the variance in whole body BMD (p men. In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not an independent predictor of BMD. Although BPAQ-derived estimates of physical activity are related to bone status in healthy middle-aged and older men, the adverse effect of AST on bone appears to obscure this relationship in men

  20. Associations between ethnicity, body composition, and bone mineral density in a Southeast Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P L S; Lu, Y; Khoo, C M; Leow, M K S; Khoo, E Y H; Teo, A; Lee, Y S; Das De, S; Chong, Y S; Gluckman, P D; Tai, E S; Venkataraman, K; Ng, C M A

    2013-11-01

    Chinese men in Singapore have a higher incidence of hip fractures than Malay and Indian men. We investigated whether there were corresponding ethnic differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) in young men and whether differences in body composition influenced peak BMD. This was a cross-sectional study of healthy volunteers in a tertiary medical center. A total of 100 Chinese, 82 Malay, and 80 Indian men aged 21 to 40 years, with body mass index between 18 and 30 kg/m(2) underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess BMD, lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM), and magnetic resonance imaging to quantify abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Multiple linear regression models, with adjustment for age and height (as a proxy for skeletal size), were used. Malay and Indian men had significantly higher BMD than Chinese men at the lumbar spine (Malay: B, 0.06 ± 0.02, P = .001; Indian: B, 0.03 ± 0.02, P = .049), femoral neck (Malay: B 0.04 ± 0.02, P = .034; Indian: B, 0.04 ± 0.02, P = .041), hip (Malay: B, 0.05 ± 0.02, P = .016; Indian: B, 0.06 ± 0.02, P = .001), and ultradistal radius (Malay: B, 0.03 ± 0.01, P Malay men at the femoral neck and in Indian men at the ultradistal radius. LM was an important independent determinant of BMD at all sites, whereas FM, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and visceral adipose tissue were not significantly associated with BMD at any site. Lower peak BMD in Chinese men may partly explain the higher fracture incidence in this ethnic group. Further studies are needed to elucidate the reasons for these ethnic differences in bone accumulation.

  1. Age-related changes in bone biochemical markers and their relationship with bone mineral density in normal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yin-Zhen; Wu, Xian-Ping; Liu, Shi-Ping; Luo, Xiang-Hang; Cao, Xing-Zhi; Xie, Hui; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of bone biochemical markers are increasingly being used to evaluate the state of bone turnover in the management of bone metabolic diseases, especially osteoporosis. However, changes in the bone turnover rate vary with age. The aim of this study was to establish the laboratory reference range of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), serum type I collagen cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide (sCTx), and urine CTx (uCTx), based on values from 665 healthy Chinese women aged 20-80 years. We measured the levels of sBAP, sCTx, serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP), and uCTx and evaluated the age-related changes and their relationship with bone mineral density (BMD) in the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine, hip, and left forearm. We found significant correlations between biochemical markers and age, with coefficients of determination (R (2)) of 0.358 for sBAP, 0.126 for sCTx, 0.125 for uCTx, and 0.336 for sALP. The net changes in different biochemical markers were inversely correlated with the rates of BMD loss in the AP lumbar spine. After correction for age, body weight, and height, the levels of the markers had significant negative correlations with the BMD of the AP lumbar spine, femoral neck, and ultradistal forearm. All four biochemical markers had the highest negative correlation with BMD of the AP lumbar spine (partial correlation coefficients of -0.366, -0.296, -0.290, and -0.258 for sBAP, sCTx, uCTx, and sALP, respectively). The mean and SD values of these markers in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with normal BMD values were used as the normal reference ranges. The reference ranges of sBAP, sCTx, and uCTx for pre- vs postmenopausal women were 17.3 +/- 6.23 vs 18.9 +/- 7.52 U/l, 3.18 +/- 1.49 vs 3.23 +/- 1.57 nmol/l, and 15.5 +/- 11.4 vs 16.2 +/- 12.4 nM bone collagen equivalents/mM urinary creatinine, respectively. Levels of the bone formation marker (sBAP) and bone resorption markers (sCTx, uCTx) increased rapidly in women with

  2. Short-term precision assessment of trabecular bone score and bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with different scan modes: an in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Poloni, Alessandro; Messina, Carmelo; Petrini, Marcello [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Papini, Giacomo Davide Edoardo; Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo [IRCCS Fondazione Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Milano (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    We estimated the in vivo reproducibility of trabecular bone score (TBS) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using different imaging modes to be compared to that of bone mineral density (BMD). We enrolled 30 patients for each imaging mode: fast-array, array, high definition. Each patient underwent two DXA examinations with in-between repositioning. BMD and TBS were obtained according to the International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between root mean square standard deviation and mean, percent least significant change (LSC) as 2.77 x CoV, reproducibility as the complement to 100 % LSC. Fast-array imaging mode resulted in 0.8 % CoV and 2.1 % LSC for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.3 % for TBS, respectively; array imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 % for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.2 %, for TBS; high-definition imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 %, for BMD; 2.0 % and 5.4 % for TBS, respectively. Reproducibility of TBS (95 %) was significantly lower than that of BMD (98 %) (p < 0.012). Difference in reproducibility among the imaging modes was not significant for either BMD or TBS (p = 0.942). While TBS reproducibility was significantly lower than that of BMD, differences among imaging modes were not significant for both TBS and BMD. (orig.)

  3. Determination of bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body using photon absorptiometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanpalmer, Janos; Kullenberg, Ragnar; Hansson, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Dual-photon absorptiometry and triple-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to investigate the total bone mineral content and density as well as the trabecular bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body. Both anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) measurements were performed. By combining the two projections it was found that the mean trabecular bone mineral density for all 202 subjects included in the study was 52% (SD±20%) of the total bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body. The mean trabecular bone mineral density as a fraction of the total vertebral body bone mineral density decreased as a function of age. The relative annual change in this fraction differed between males and females. It was also found that neither trabecular nor total bone mineral density differed significantly between male and female subjects aged 25-35 years, and bone mineral density (BMD), expressed in g/cm 3 , showed no correlation to subject height, body weight or body mass index (BMI). Male and female individuals showed different rates of change of trabecular bone mineral density with age

  4. Spatial mapping of humeral head bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidousti, Hamidreza; Giles, Joshua W; Emery, Roger J H; Jeffers, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Short-stem humeral replacements achieve fixation by anchoring to the metaphyseal trabecular bone. Fixing the implant in high-density bone can provide strong fixation and reduce the risk of loosening. However, there is a lack of data mapping the bone density distribution in the proximal humerus. The aim of the study was to investigate the bone density in proximal humerus. Eight computed tomography scans of healthy cadaveric humeri were used to map bone density distribution in the humeral head. The proximal humeral head was divided into 12 slices parallel to the humeral anatomic neck. Each slice was then divided into 4 concentric circles. The slices below the anatomic neck, where short-stem implants have their fixation features, were further divided into radial sectors. The average bone density for each of these regions was calculated, and regions of interest were compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with significance set at P density was found to decrease from proximal to distal regions, with the majority of higher bone density proximal to the anatomic neck of the humerus (P density increases from central to peripheral regions, where cortical bone eventually occupies the space (P density distribution in the medial calcar region was also observed. This study indicates that it is advantageous with respect to implant fixation to preserve some bone above the anatomic neck and epiphyseal plate and to use the denser bone at the periphery. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to bone mineral density in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty: a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võsoberg, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Tamm, Anna-Liisa; Jürimäe, Toivo; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-04-01

    To investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in rhythmic gymnasts (RG) entering puberty and their age-matched untrained controls (UC) over the 36-month period, and associations with leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin over this period. Whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, WB bone mineral content (BMC), and leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were measured in 35 RG and 33 UC girls at baseline and at 12-month intervals over the next 3 years. The change over the 36 months was calculated (∆ score). The pubertal development over the next 36 months was slower in RG compard to UC, while there was no difference in bone age development between the groups. BMD at all sites was higher in RG in comparison with UC at every measurement point. ∆LS BMD and ∆FN BMD, but not ∆WB BMD and ∆WB BMC, were higher in RG compared with UC. None of the measured hormones at baseline or their ∆ scores correlated with ∆BMD and ∆BMC in RG. Baseline fat free mass correlated with ∆WB BMD and ∆WB BMC in RG, while baseline leptin was related to ∆WB BMC, ∆WB BMD and ∆LS BMD in UC. Measured baseline hormones and their ∆ scores did not correlate with increases in bone mineral values in RG entering puberty. Although the pubertal development in RG was slower than in UC, high-intensity training appeared to increase BMD growth and counterbalance negative effects of slow pubertal develpment, lower fat mass and leptin in RG.

  6. Short-term, high-dose glucocorticoid treatment does not contribute to reduced bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A.; Oturai, D B; Sørensen, P S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate...... the importance of short-term, high-dose GC treatment and other risk factors that affect BMD in patients with MS. METHODS: A total of 260 patients with MS received short-term high-dose GC treatment and had their BMD measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. BMD was compared to a healthy age-matched reference...... population (Z-scores). Data regarding GCs, age, body mass index (BMI), serum 25(OH)D, disease duration and severity were collected retrospectively and analysed in a multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between each risk factor and BMD. RESULTS: Osteopenia was present in 38...

  7. Drinking water fluoridation: bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, R; Wapniarz, M; Hofmann, B; Pieper, B; Haubitz, I; Allolio, B

    1998-03-01

    The role of drinking water fluoride content for prevention of osteoporosis remains controversial. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of drinking water fluoridation on the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) in two different communities in eastern Germany: in Chemnitz, drinking water was fluoridated (1 mg/L) over a period of 30 years; in Halle, the water was not fluoridated. BMD was measured in healthy hospital employees aged 20-60 years (Halle: 214 women, 98 men; Chemnitz: 201 women, 43 men, respectively) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip fractures in patients > or = 35 years admitted to the local hospitals in the years 1987-1989 were collected from the clinic registers. There was no difference in age, anthropometric, hormonal, or lifestyle variables between the two groups. Mean fluoride exposure in Chemnitz was 25.2 +/- 7.3 years. No correlation was found between fluoride exposure and age-adjusted BMD. We found no significant difference in spinal or femoral BMD between subjects living in Halle and Chemnitz [lumbar spine: 0.997 +/- 0.129 (g/cm2) vs. 1.045 + 0.171 (g/cm2), p = 0.08, for men; 1.055 +/- 0.112 (g/cm2) vs. 1.046 +/- 0.117 (g/cm2), p = 0.47, for women]. The fracture incidence showed an exponential increase with aging in men and women with an incidence about 3.5 times higher for women. In Chemnitz, we calculated an age-adjusted annual incidence of 142.2 per 100,000 for women and 72.5 per 100,000 for men, respectively. In Halle, the incidences were 178.5 per 100,000 for women and 89.2 per 100,000 for men. There was a lower hip fracture incidence after the age of 85 in women in Chemnitz (1391 per 100,000 in Chemnitz vs. 1957 per 100,000) in Halle, p = 0.006). Using the age-adjusted incidences, significantly fewer hip fractures occurred in Chemnitz in both men and women. In conclusion, our study suggests that optimal drinking water fluoridation (1 mg/L), which is advocated for prevention of dental caries, does

  8. Short-term, high-dose glucocorticoid treatment does not contribute to reduced bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, D B; Sørensen, P S; Oturai, P S; Oturai, A B

    2015-10-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate the importance of short-term, high-dose GC treatment and other risk factors that affect BMD in patients with MS. A total of 260 patients with MS received short-term high-dose GC treatment and had their BMD measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. BMD was compared to a healthy age-matched reference population (Z-scores). Data regarding GCs, age, body mass index (BMI), serum 25(OH)D, disease duration and severity were collected retrospectively and analysed in a multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between each risk factor and BMD. Osteopenia was present in 38% and osteoporosis in 7% of the study population. Mean Z-score was significantly below zero, indicating a decreased BMD in our MS patients. Multiple linear regression analysis showed no significant association between GCs and BMD. In contrast, age, BMI and disease severity were independently associated with both lumbar and femoral BMD. Reduced BMD was prevalent in patients with MS. GC treatment appears not to be the primary underlying cause of secondary osteoporosis in MS patients. © The Author(s), 2015.

  9. Cross-sex pattern of bone mineral density in early onset gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidants in Bone Mineral Density of Iranian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Oveisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(s Bone is a dynamic tissue that is continuously renewed throughout life by the process of bone remodeling. Antioxidant system might be involved in the pathogenesis of bone loss, so the aim of this study was to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC, vitamin C and vitamin E levels of plasma besides measuring enzymatic antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR enzymes activity in Iranian osteoporotic women comparing to the control group.Materials and MethodsBone mineral density (BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. The participants were divided into groups: a total participants (-3.9 ≤ T–score ≤ 3.6 including 192 women, b the control group (T-score ≥ -1 including 76 women, c the total patients (T-score < -1 including 76 women. Then, plasma TAC, vitamin C levels, SOD and GR activities, erythrocyte CAT were measured using spectrophotometrical methods separately, and for vitamin E by HPLC analysis.ResultsComparing the control group and osteoporotic women showed that: a plasma levels for vitamin C and erythrocyte CAT were markedly lower in the patients than in the controls, but plasma activity of TAC, SOD and GR were significantly higher, respectively. b the differences were higher between control and patients with severe disease (T-score <-1.7 comparing to patients in the group with milder disease (-1.7 ≤ T-score <-1. c Femoral neck BMD adjusted with age and BMI showed a positive and significant correlation with plasma levels of vitamin C in all subjects, but this relation was reverse or negative for TAC, SOD and GR.ConclusionIt seems that a physiologic increase in the amount of some antioxidants occurs in osteoporosis; even though this amount may not be sufficient for the human body requirements.

  11. Evaluating the risk of osteoporosis through bone mass density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, S.A.; Khaliq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disorder, characterized by loss of bone mass density. Osteoporosis affects more than 30 percent of post-menopausal women. Osteoporosis is often associated with restricted body movement, pain and joint deformities. Early identification and early intervention can help in reducing these complications. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the burden of Osteoporosis in Urban setting of Sindh among women of different age groups and to access the effect of different protective measures that can reduce the risk of Osteoporosis. Method: In this study, 500 women's of 3 major cities of Sindh were approached by non-probability convenience sampling technique. Women bearing age 20 years or more were included. Women who fall under inclusion criteria were screened for BMD (Bone mineral density) test and were classified as Healthy, Osteopenic and Osteoporotic based on their T-score. The association of different protective measures and risk of osteoporosis was assessed by prevalence relative risk (PRR). Result: The result of this study indicate that the burden of Osteoporosis is very high among the women of Sindh, only 17.4 percent (84) women were found to have normal BMD score. The life style of majority of women was sedentary. The PRR calculated for Exposure to sunlight, regular exercise, and use of nutritional supplement was 12.5, 5.19 and 2.72 folds respectively. Conclusion: The results of study reveal that exposure to sunlight, regular physical exercise and use of nutritional supplements found to be effective in reducing the risk of osteoporosis among women of all age group. Health education and promotion toward osteoporosis prevention can significantly contribute in reducing the morbidity of osteoporosis. (author)

  12. Evaluating The Risk Of Osteoporosis Through Bone Mass Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Sayeeda Amber; Khaliq, Asif; Mahmood, Ashar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disorder, characterized by loss of bone mass density. Osteoporosis affects more than 30% of post-menopausal women. Osteoporosis is often associated with restricted body movement, pain and joint deformities. Early identification and early intervention can help in reducing these complications. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the burden of Osteoporosis in Urban setting of Sindh among women of different age groups and to access the effect of different protective measures that can reduce the risk of Osteoporosis. In this study, 500 women's of 3 major cities of Sindh were approached by non-probability convenience sampling technique. Women bearing age 20 years or more were included. Women who fall under inclusion criteria were screened for BMD (Bone mineral density) test and were classified as Healthy, Osteopenic and Osteoporotic based on their T-score. The association of different protective measures and risk of osteoporosis was assessed by prevalence relative risk (PRR). The result of this study indicate that the burden of Osteoporosis is very high among the women of Sindh, only 17.4% (84) women were found to have normal BMD score. The life style of majority of women was sedentary. The PRR calculated for Exposure to sunlight, regular exercise, and use of nutritional supplement was 12.5, 5.19 and 2.72 folds respectively. The results of study reveal that exposure to sunlight, regular physical exercise and use of nutritional supplements found to be effective in reducing the risk of osteoporosis among women of all age group. Health education and promotion toward osteoporosis prevention can significantly contribute in reducing the morbidity of osteoporosis.

  13. Normal values of bone mineral density of the accessory carpus bone in Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) horse breed using optical densitometry in radiographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, C.L.B. de; Vulcano, L.C.; Santos, F.A.M.; Soares, J.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic values of the bone mineral density (BMD) of the accessory carpal bone in Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) horse breed were determined by radiographic optic densitometry (ROD), expressed in milimiters of alumminun (mmAl). Lateromedial radiographs of the carpus were taken from 12 intact males and 12 females, from 20 and up to 30 months of age. No significant difference was found in the average mineral bone density of the accessory carpal bone between males (4.7 ± 0.1mmAl) and females (4.,6 ± 0,1mmAl) from 20 to 30 months of age [pt

  14. Osteoporosis in clinical practice – bone densitometry and fracture risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteoporosis is a condition of decreased bone mass and bone density associated with an increase in fracture risk. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur can be reliably measured by double-beam X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which provides a measure of bone strength. Reduction in BMD is a ...

  15. Determination of bone mineral density of the distal extremity of the radio in Rottweiller, by radiographic optic densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Jefferson Douglas Soares; Sterman, Franklin de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    This study allowed the standardization of the bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal extremity of the radio of 36 dogs adults in Rottweiler breed by radiographic optic densitometry. The limbs of the animals were radiographed with scale of aluminum that served as a reference. The radiographs images were digitalized and analyzed by a computer program for comparison of gray tones between the standard image and the image of the reference scale radiographed with the bone. Afterwards the values of density were expressed in millimeters of aluminum. Also studied the correlations between BMD and the sex, weight and external measures as the length of spine, height of the animal and circumference the distal extremity of the limb in study. The mean values and standard deviations of the bone mineral density of the distal extremity of the radio were: for the metaphyseal region the average of BMD of 7,88±0,89 mmAl, the diaphyseal region 1 the average of BMD of 8,58±0,80 mmAl and for diaphyseal region 2 of BMD of 9,00±0,74 mmAl. (author)

  16. Physical activity and bone: The importance of the various mechanical stimuli for bone mineral density. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Morseth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported benefits of regular physical activity on bone mineral density (BMD. The effects of physical activity on BMD are primarily linked to the mechanisms of mechanical loading, but the understanding of the precise mechanism behind the association is incomplete. The aim of this paper was to review the main findings concerning sources and types of mechanical stimuli in relation to BMD. Mechanical forces that act on bone are generated from impact with the ground (ground-reaction forces and from skeletal muscle contractions (muscle forces or muscle-joint forces, but the relative importance of these two sources has not been elucidated. Both muscle-joint forces and gravitational forces seem to be able to induce bone adaptation independently, and there may be differences in the importance of loading sources at different skeletal sites. The nature of the stimuli is affected by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of the activity. The activity should be dynamic, not static, and the magnitude and rate of the stimuli should be high. In accordance with this, cross-sectional studies report highest BMD in athletes of high-impact activities such as dancing, soccer, volleyball, basketball, squash, speed skating, gymnastics, hockey, and step-aerobics. Endurance activities such as orienteering, skiing, and triathlon seem to be beneficial to a lesser degree, whereas low-impact activities such as swimming and cycling are associated with lower BMD than controls. Both the intensity and frequency of the activity should be varied and increased beyond the habitual level. Duration of the activity seems to be less important, and a few loading cycles seem to be sufficient.

  17. Lifetime physical activity and calcium intake related to bone density in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Ballard, Joyce E

    2002-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant public health problem associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between lifetime physical activity and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and BMC (bone mineral content) in 42 regularly menstruating Caucasian women (age 21.26+/-1.91 years, BMI 23.83+/-5.85). BMD and BMC at the lumbar spine (L2-L4), hip (femoral neck, trochanter, total), and total body were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lifetime history of physical activity and calcium intake was obtained by a structured interview using valid and reliable instruments. Measures of both lifetime physical activity and calcium intake were highly correlated. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, lean mass was the most important and consistent factor for predicting BMD and BMC at all skeletal sites (attributable r2 = 28.8%-78.7%). Lifetime physical activity contributed to 3.0% of the variation in total body BMD, and life-time weight-bearing physical activity explained 15.1% of variance in lumbar spine BMC. Current calcium intake predicted 6% of the variance in BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter. We found lean mass to be a powerful predictor of BMD and BMC in young women. Because lean mass can be modified to some extent by physical activity, public health efforts must be directed at increasing physical activity throughout the lifespan. Furthermore, our results suggest that adequate calcium intake may help to enhance bone mass, thus decreasing the risk of osteoporotic fracture later in life.

  18. Evaluation of bone mineral density in premenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Zahedan, Southeast Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Z.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the BMD in premenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 60 premenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus and 60 normal premenopausal subjects. The groups were not completely matched regarding BMI; but they were in the range of obesity. Bone mineral density was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to define bone mineral density (BMD) in second to fourth lumbar vertebrae and the neck of the femur (g/cm/sup 2/). Results: The results showed that BMD, T- and Z-score of femoral neck, total femur, L2, and Ward's were not significantly different between type 2 diabetic and normal premenopausal women (p>0.5). A significant increase of L3 BMD and L2-L4 Z-score was observed in diabetic group (p<0.05). In addition BMD, T- and Z-score of L4 were significantly higher in type 2 diabetic women than normal premenopausal women (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher BMD was noted over the spine in diabetic group which may be due to higher BMI in this group. (author)

  19. Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of Low Bone Mineral Density in Untreated Female Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Different studies have shown decreased bone mineral density (BMD in patients with SLE. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and possible risk factors of low BMD in untreated female patients with SLE in Chinese population. A total of 119 untreated female patients with SLE were included. BMD was measured at lumbar spine and at total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The associations between decreased BMD and demographic variables, clinical variables, and bone metabolism variables were analyzed. These SLE patients had the following characteristics: mean age was 32.6±11.9 years, mean disease duration was 22.1±34.5 months, and mean SLEDAI was 11.4±5.4. Osteopenia was present in 31.1% of the patients and osteoporosis in 8.5%. A significant negative association between low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and BMD at the lumbar spine (correlation coefficient = −0.242; P=0.023 and total hip (correlation coefficient = −0.259; P=0.019 was shown. These results seem to indicate that increased LDL-c may be an important risk factor for low BMD at lumbar spine and total hip in untreated female SLE patients.

  20. Changes in bone density and turnover after alendronate or estrogen withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasnich, Richard D; Bagger, Yu Z; Hosking, David J

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover changes after therapy withdrawal in postmenopausal women treated with alendronate or estrogen-progestin. DESIGN: In this randomized, blinded, multinational, placebo-controlled trial, 1,609 healthy postmenopausal women ages 45 to 59...... years were assigned to receive alendronate, placebo, or open-label estrogen-progestin (conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate or a cyclic regimen of 17 beta-estradiol, norethisterone acetate and estradiol). Of the original women, one third after year 2 and one third after year 4...... were switched from alendronate to placebo, while remaining blinded to treatment assignment. The women taking estrogen-progestin in years 1 to 4 were followed off therapy in years 5 and 6. BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured. RESULTS: The treatment...

  1. Hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism: effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjaritruk, Tavitiya; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Aurpibul, Linda; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kurniati, Nia; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2016-04-24

    The impact of hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism on bone mineral density (BMD) in the setting of pediatric HIV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism and their effects on bone turnover and BMD among HIV-infected adolescents in Southeast Asia. A multicenter, cross-sectional study evaluating bone health and vitamin D metabolism in HIV-infected adolescents in Thailand and Indonesia. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-18 years on antiretroviral therapy with virologic suppression were enrolled. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover markers (C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide) were assessed; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 20 ng/ml and intact parathyroid hormone more than 65 pg/ml were defined as hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD Z-score -2 or less was defined as low BMD. Of 394 adolescents, 57% were women. The median age [interquartile range (IQR)] was 15.0 (13.3-16.9) years. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, hyperparathyroidism, and both conditions were 21% [95% confidence interval (CI): 17-25%], 17% (95% CI: 13-20%), and 5% (95% CI: 3-7%), respectively. Adolescents with hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism had the highest median bone resorption (C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen: 1610 vs. 1270 ng/l; P = 0.04) and bone formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide: 572 vs. 330 μg/l; P = 0.02) markers, and the greatest proportion of low BMD (42 vs. 15%; P = 0.01) compared with the rest of the cohort. Hypovitaminosis D complicated with secondary hyperparathyroidism was associated with increased bone turnover and bone loss. Early treatment of hypovitaminosis D before hyperparathyroidism occurs may be important to prevent bone mass deterioration.

  2. Reliability of using DXA around RTHAs. Bone Mineral Density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

      Background and purpose: Resurfacing Total Hip Arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone-stock post-operatively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD), could theoretically be affected by the hip-position, and bias longitudinal studies. We aimed to investigate BMD precision dependency on type...... was rotated in increments of 15° and 30°, the mean CVs rose to 7.2%, 7.3% and 11.8%.  Rotation affected the precision most in the model that divided the neck in 6 sub regions, predominantly in the lateral and distal regions. For larger-region models, some rotation could be allowed without compromising...

  3. Genetic Screening of WNT4 and WNT5B in Two Populations with Deviating Bone Mineral Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendrickx, Gretl; Boudin, Eveline; Steenackers, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    A role for WNT4 and WNT5B in bone metabolism was indicated by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a Wnt4 knockout mouse model. The aim of this study was therefore to replicate and further investigate the causality between genetic variation in WNT4 and WNT5B and deviating bone mineral density...... (BMD) values. A WNT4 and WNT5B mutation screening was performed in patients with craniotubular hyperostosis using Sanger sequencing. Here, no putative causal mutations were detected. Moreover, a high and low BMD cohort was selected from the Odense Androgen Study population for re-sequencing. In WNT4 we...

  4. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Perna, Simone; Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Negro, Massimo; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subj...

  5. Low bone mineral density is not related to failure in femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viberg, Bjarke; Ryg, Jesper; Overgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the importance of low bone mineral density (BMD). Patients and methods - 140 consecutive patients (105 females, median age 80) treated with IF had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the hip performed median 80 days after treatment. The patients' radiographs were evaluated for fracture displacement......, implant positioning, and quality of reduction. From a questionnaire completed during admission, 2 variables for comorbidity and walking disability were chosen. Primary outcome was low hip BMD (amount of mineral matter per square centimeter of hip bone) compared to hip failure (resection, arthroplasty...

  6. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Bahtiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy, reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-nine postmenopausal women were recruited to enter this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD of total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and serum Hcy, vitamin B12, parathyroid hormone (PTH, total calcium and magnesium levels were determined. In addition, we investigated the relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 and BMD using a meta-analysis approach. Results: Serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic women when compared to other BMD groups, and were inversely related to lumbar spine BMD and femur neck BMD. Body mass index and serum Hcy levels were shown to be significant predictors of BMD at lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip. The performed meta-analysis showed that serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects compared to normal BMD subjects. Conclusion: This study shows that Hcy status, but not vitamin B12 status, is associated with BMD in this cohort of postmenopausal women. We therefore confirm that high Hcy levels are an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. BMD evaluation in women at post menopause with high Hcy levels may be helpful in advising precautionary measures.

  7. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, E; Islami, H; Rexhepi, S; Qorraj-Bytyqi, H; Thaçi, K; Thaçi, S; Karakulak, C; Hoxha, R

    2015-01-01

    The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. One hundred thirty-nine postmenopausal women were recruited to enter this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum Hcy, vitamin B12, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total calcium and magnesium levels were determined. In addition, we investigated the relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 and BMD using a meta-analysis approach. Serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic women when compared to other BMD groups, and were inversely related to lumbar spine BMD and femur neck BMD. Body mass index and serum Hcy levels were shown to be significant predictors of BMD at lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip. The performed meta-analysis showed that serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects compared to normal BMD subjects. This study shows that Hcy status, but not vitamin B12 status, is associated with BMD in this cohort of postmenopausal women. We therefore confirm that high Hcy levels are an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. BMD evaluation in women at post menopause with high Hcy levels may be helpful in advising precautionary measures.

  8. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Barr, Ronald D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm{sup -2} for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm{sup -2}). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences

  9. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm -2 for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm -2 ). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences between

  10. Multiple Comparison of Age Groups in Bone Mineral Density under Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sezer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a silent disease because individuals may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so fragile. Bone mineral density (BMD test helps to detect osteoporosis and determine the risk fractures. This study covers bone measurement data from total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for 28,454 persons who participated in the 1996–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in USA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA method is known as the primary method for detecting osteoporosis because of its high precision and accuracy. Testing the equality of the means of normal populations when the variances are unknown and unequal is a fundamental problem in clinical trials and biomedical research. In this study we compare age groups based upon BMD in case of unequal variance being present among the groups. First we test equality of variances among the age groups by the Hartley test. And then Scott-Smith test is used to test equality of BMD means for the age groups. Finally, Tukey-Cramer confidence intervals are constructed to detect which groups start to differ from the reference group in which BMD reaches the peak level.

  11. Bone mineral density in healthy Syrian women measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mohamed Adel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of bone mineral density (BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA technique is considered as a standard technique for diagnosing osteopenia and osteoporosis and evaluating the severity of such diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated the necessity to establish an ethnic-specific reference data for Bone mineral density measurements. Such data are lacking for the Syrian population. The objectives of this study are (1 to establish BMD reference values in a group of healthy Syrian women using DXA technique, (2 to compare with values from other populations, (3 to study the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Syrian women using the manufacturer reference values. A total of 951 healthy Syrian women aged 20-79 years participated in this study. Weight, height, and BMI have been determined. BMD measurements were performed using Lunar Prodigy Advance System (GE. The data were compared with those from other populations. The results have demonstrated the expected decline in BMD with age after peaking at 30-39 years old group. The peak values of the lumbar spine and femur neck were 1.16 (0.12, and 0.95 (0.13 g/cm2, respectively. The results of the Syrian women were compared with those from other populations and the differences were presented. Osteopenia was diagnosed in 35.80% and 60.31% and osteoporosis in 6.23% and 2.72% in lumbar spine and femur neck, respectively, of women 50-59 years of age. These ratios increased to 36.84%, 68.42% and 23.68%, 13.10%, respectively, in the age group more than 59 years. BMD values of the Syrian women were determined for the first time. The results demonstrate the importance of establishing population-specific reference range for BMD values for an accurate assessment of Osteoporosis. High prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was demonstrated in Syrian using the manufacturer reference values.

  12. Associations between bone mineral density and subclinical atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional study of a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong-Ke; Bai, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Bing; Han, Lu-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Yang, Jun; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2014-02-01

    The significance of associations between bone mineral density (BMD) and atherosclerosis in the Asian population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level associations between BMD and subclinical atherosclerosis. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Shenyang, China. A total of 385 Chinese women and men aged 37-87 years were studied. The BMD was measured at the total hip and lumbar spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were measured to assess atherosclerosis. Multiple regression analysis was applied to study the associations. Multicolinearity was examined using the variance inflation factor, condition index, and variance proportions. Factor analysis and principal component regression were used to remove the problem of multicolinearity. The differences of ABI, PWV, and CIMT among the normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups were not found. Total hip BMD was correlated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (r = 0.156). Sex-specific regression models included adjustment for age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, menopausal status (women), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, serum uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. Total hip BMD was associated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (per SD decrease in ABI: -0.130 g/cm(2), P = .022), but the association was borderline significant after full adjustment (P = .045). Total hip BMD and lumbar spine BMD were not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT after full adjustment in participants without a fracture history. The risk of osteoporosis was not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT. Low BMD is not associated with

  13. [Association between bone turnover markers, bone mineral density and vitamin D in Moroccan postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaataoui, A; Elmachtani Idrissi, S; Dami, A; Bouhsain, S; Chabraoui, L; Ouzzif, Z

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation between bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in a cohort of Moroccan postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study, conducted over a period of 12 months from October 2008 to November 2009. Five hundred Moroccan postmenopausal women volunteers participated in this study and we included only 185. In this cohort of 185 women, average age 60 years, the percentage of osteoporotic women was 35.7%, they were older 62.09 (9.13) years and they had an average of the body mass index (BMI), the lowest 29.58 (4.45). The values of the bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the lumbar spine correlated positively and significantly with BMI (P<0.001), serum calcium (P=0.026), negatively with age (P<0.001) and osteocalcin (OC) (P=0.0033). As for the results of BMD measured at the femoral neck, they show a negative and highly significant correlation with age (P<0.001) and osteocalcin. Looking for an association between the biochemical markers of bone remodeling, a weak positive correlation was found between the calcium (Ca) and alkaline phosphatase (PAL) on the one hand and Ca and intact parathyroid hormone (PTHi) in the other hand. And a significant positive correlation was found between PTHi and PAL, and between PTHi and OC. Finally, a significant positive correlation was found between the cross-laps (β-CTX) and Ca and between PAL and OC. Our results are in agree to some international studies and disagree to others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density. PMID:21772969

  15. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    study investigated BMD in seven Danish national team rowers with previous rib stress fracture (RSF) and 7 controls (C) matched for gender, age, height, weight and training experience. Total body scan and specific scans of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck and distal radius were performed using......Exercise-induced rib stress fractures have been reported frequently in elite rowers during the past decade. The etiology of rib stress fractures is unclear, but low bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for stress fractures in weight-bearing bones. The present...... density may be a potential risk factor for the development of exercise-induced rib stress fractures in elite rowers....

  16. Determinants of change in bone mineral density and fracture risk during bisphosphonate holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L H R; Adams-Huet, B; Poindexter, J R; Maalouf, N M

    2016-05-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 208 osteoporotic patients followed during a bisphosphonate holiday, lower body weight and risedronate use were associated with a more rapid decline in bone mineral density during the bisphosphonate holiday, while bone mineral density (BMD) trends were similar in patients who sustained vs. did not sustain a fracture. A drug holiday has been suggested for some bisphosphonate-treated patients with osteoporosis to minimize potential side effects from prolonged use. However, there is limited information on the evolution of BMD during a bisphosphonate holiday. Our study analyzed the longitudinal course of BMD following bisphosphonate discontinuation and assessed its determinants. Retrospective single-center cohort study of osteoporosis patients treated with alendronate or risedronate for at least 2 years and then discontinued their bisphosphonate for a drug holiday. Patients were stratified by bisphosphonate type and by fracture occurrence during drug holiday. A total of 208 patients were included in this analysis (87.5 % female). At the time of bisphosphonate cessation, mean ± SD age was 66.9 ± 8.9 years and BMI 24.5 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). Duration of bisphosphonate treatment was 5.2 ± 2.3 years, and follow-up during holiday was 3.3 ± 1.7 years. During the first 2 years of the holiday, BMD remained stable at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, but declined significantly at the total hip. BMD declined significantly at all sites thereafter. Significant predictors of BMD decline during bisphosphonate holiday included lower BMI at the start of the holiday and change in body weight during the holiday. BMD decline was more pronounced in former risedronate compared to former alendronate users. BMD trends were similar in patients who sustained vs. did not sustain a fracture during the holiday. BMD at the total hip declines significantly within 1 year of bisphosphonate discontinuation, particularly in lean patients

  17. Mitochondrial Point Mutation m.3243A>G Associates With Lower Bone Mineral Density, Thinner Cortices, and Reduced Bone Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jakob Høgild; Frederiksen, Anja Lisbeth; Hansen, Stinus Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with several clinical manifestations including diabetes mellitus (DM), neurological disorders, renal and hepatic diseases, and myopathy. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation in mouse...... at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck in cases. Mean lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck T-scores were -1.5, -1.3, and -1.6 in cases, respectively, and -0.8, -0.3, and -0.7 in controls (all p G mutation was associated with lower BMD, cortical but not trabecular density...

  18. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Boettcher, Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Pfeil, Alexander; Kaiser, Werner A.; John, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Joachim; Vollandt, Ruediger

    2005-01-01

    Loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are known complications after renal transplantation in adults. Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids. In this preliminary study of quantification of bone loss in children after renal transplantation, we evaluated the applicability of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of hand radiographs to estimate cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). A total of 23 renal transplant recipients (9 girls, 14 boys; age 6.5-20 years, median 16.3 years) underwent DXR measurements for calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using radiographs of the non-dominant left hand. The duration between transplantation and the DXR evaluation, the duration of dialysis and medication were considered. The results were compared to a local age-matched and gender-matched reference data base. Our study revealed a significant decrease in bone mineral density compared to an age-matched and sex-matched normal population (P<0.05). In three patients the DXR-BMD was reduced more than -2.5 SD. In 12 patients the DXR-BMD was between -1 and -2.5 SD, and in 7 patients the DXR-BMD was in the normal range. In one patient, evaluation was not possible. Fractures were documented in three patients following transplantation. Reduced DXR-BMD was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy or the duration of dialysis, and there was no significant correlation between DXR-BMD and the time between transplantation and DXR evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Boettcher, Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Pfeil, Alexander; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); John, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jena (Germany); Vollandt, Ruediger [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are known complications after renal transplantation in adults. Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids. In this preliminary study of quantification of bone loss in children after renal transplantation, we evaluated the applicability of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of hand radiographs to estimate cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). A total of 23 renal transplant recipients (9 girls, 14 boys; age 6.5-20 years, median 16.3 years) underwent DXR measurements for calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using radiographs of the non-dominant left hand. The duration between transplantation and the DXR evaluation, the duration of dialysis and medication were considered. The results were compared to a local age-matched and gender-matched reference data base. Our study revealed a significant decrease in bone mineral density compared to an age-matched and sex-matched normal population (P<0.05). In three patients the DXR-BMD was reduced more than -2.5 SD. In 12 patients the DXR-BMD was between -1 and -2.5 SD, and in 7 patients the DXR-BMD was in the normal range. In one patient, evaluation was not possible. Fractures were documented in three patients following transplantation. Reduced DXR-BMD was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy or the duration of dialysis, and there was no significant correlation between DXR-BMD and the time between transplantation and DXR evaluation. (orig.)

  20. Hyponatremia and decreased bone density in adolescent inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Shraga, Yael; David, Dana; Vered, Iris; Kochavi, Brigitte; Stein, Daniel; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrated an association between low serum sodium levels and reduced bone density. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at greater risk for osteoporosis as well as for hyponatremia. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between hyponatremia and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large cohort of adolescent inpatients with AN. A historic cohort study of 174 adolescent females (mean age 15.7 ± 1.8 y) hospitalized because of AN between 2003 and 2013. Demographic and clinical data, including age, psychiatric comorbidity, anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests, and BMD scores were obtained from the patients' medical charts. Mean lumbar spine BMD z-score of the patients was lower than expected in the normal population (mean -1.5 ± 1.2) and positively correlated with body mass index standard deviation score (r = 0.42, P adolescent females with AN. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether the correction of hyponatremia will improve BMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adequate nutrition status important for bone mineral density improvement in a patient with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Y

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Yukio Nakamura,1,2 Mikio Kamimura,3 Hidefumi Koiwai,4 Hiroyuki Kato1 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane, Japan; 3Center of Osteoporosis and Spinal Disorders, Kamimura Orthopedic Clinic, Matsumoto, Japan; 4Koiwai Orthopedic Clinic, Komoro, Japan Abstract: Low bone mineral density (BMD is one of the most frequent complications of anorexia nervosa (AN. We report the clinical outcomes of a female patient with severe AN, whose chest had become deformed due to thoracic fracture. Lumbar BMD was 0.358 g/cm2 (T-score = −6.3, and total hip BMD was 0.411 g/cm2 (T-score = −4.4. Active vitamin D increased these parameters by 81.0% and 57.4%, respectively, but a drop in her nutrition status afterward resulted in a sharp decrease in BMD values. These findings suggest that adequate nutrient intake is essential for effective osteoporosis treatment in patients with AN. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bone mineral density, daily teriparatide, osteoporosis

  2. Bone Density and Timing of Puberty in a Longitudinal Study of Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattran, Ashley M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Pinney, Susan M; Huang, Bin; Biro, Frank M

    2015-06-01

    Primary: To examine the relationship between relative timing of puberty with bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of adolescent girls; Secondary: To determine if family history of breast cancer was associated with bone mineral density. Longitudinal study of girls recruited between 6 and 7 years of age seen every 6 months for 5 years, and subsequently seen annually. BMD of the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at mean age of 12.5 years; age- and race-specific Z-scores (BMDz) were calculated. Age of pubertal onset was determined by the first occurrence of breast stage 2, and participants were categorized into race-specific early, on-time and late puberty onset groups. BMDz by timing of pubertal onset, and by family history of breast cancer. DXA scans were performed on 227 study participants, and a second scan was performed on 114 participants 2 years later. Age of onset of puberty was inversely correlated with BMDz, r = -0.31 (P puberty was associated with higher BMD. The high shared variance of BMD and timing of pubertal onset implies an underlying biologic basis. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymorphisms of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist gene and forearm bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivka T Ivanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA gene polymorphism have provided conflicting data regarding the bone mass and quality. Aim and Design: The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the association between the forearm bone mineral density (BMD and the IL1RA gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 postmenopausal Bulgarian women participated in this study. BMD was measured at the forearm by X-ray absorptiometry on a DTX-100 device (Osteometer Meditech, USA. A PCR product was isolated. The alleles were scored according to their length: A1 - 410 bp - 4 repeats; A2 - 240 bp - 2 repeats; A3 - 500 bp - 5 repeats; A4 - 325 bp - 3 repeats; A5 - 595 bp - 6 repeats. All analyses were evaluated for statistical significance (χ2 -test and T-test. Results: Four alleles were observed - A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1A1 genotype was more common in cases with low BMD than in controls with normal BMD (95% vs. 90%, χ2 P < 0.01. The A2A2 genotype was equally distributed among cases and controls (both 5%. The other two genotypes (A3A3 and A4A4 as well as A1A3 were present only in controls with normal BMD. The A2A2 genotype was associated with higher BMD and the A1A1 - with lower BMD at both forearm sites. The odds ratio for low BMD in the presence of the A1A1 genotype was 2.11. The etiological factor reflecting the association between the polymorphism and the disease was 0.50. In our study sample the IL1RA genetic polymorphisms were associated with the forearm BMD. Conclusion: This genetic polymorphism may become a useful genetic marker for the study of osteoporosis.

  4. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F.

    2007-01-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 OH 2 ], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 μm (±5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm -3 and 1.92 g.cm -3 respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content in the samples was then

  5. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  6. Use of bisphosphonate might be important to improve bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis even under tight control: the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Masahiro; Inui, Kentaro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Okano, Tadashi; Anno, Shohei; Koike, Tatsuya

    2017-06-01

    Although patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are prone to osteoporosis, tight control of disease activity might have a positive effect on bone metabolism. We aimed to determine whether bisphosphonate use is still important to improve bone mineral density (BMD) in RA patients whose disease activity was tightly controlled and the dose of glucocorticoid was reduced. This study was a sub-analysis of the 10-year prospective cohort TOtal Management Of Risk factors in Rheumatoid arthritis patients to lOWer morbidity and mortality: the TOMORROW which started from 2010. We compared BMD between 192 patients with RA and age- and sex-matched volunteers between 2010 and 2013 using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in whole body mode. We then determined ratios of changes in BMD (%ΔBMD) to assess factors influencing increases in BMD among the patients using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The BMD was significantly lower in the patients than in the controls at all sites surveyed during 2010 and 2013. The %ΔBMD of the total spine was significantly higher among the patients treated with, than without bisphosphonate (6.2 vs. 1.8%, P = 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that use of bisphosphonate was a significant factor contributing to BMD increase (odds ratio 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-4.38, P = 0.041). Meanwhile, use of biologic agents, reducing glucocorticoid dose, and control of disease activity were not significant factors for gain of BMD. The BMD was lower among patients with RA than non-RA controls. Use of bisphosphonate significantly increased the BMD of the spine in patients over a period of 3 years and was important for maintaining the BMD among patients with RA under the control of inflammation and disease activity.

  7. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to

  8. Periacetabular Bone Mineral Density Changes After Resurfacing Hip Arthroplasty Versus Conventional Total Hip Arthroplasty. A Randomized Controlled DEXA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, J.M.H.; Pakvis, D.F.; Hendrickx, B.W.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; van Susante, J.L.C.

    2013-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate acetabular bone mineral density (BMD) changes after hip resurfacing (RHA) versus an established conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 71 patients were allocated randomly to receive either an RHA press-fit cobalt–chromium cup (n

  9. Positive association between the course of vitamin D intake and bone mineral density at 36 years in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, C.E. van; Boer, M.R. de; Koppes, L.L.J.; Roos, J.C.; Lips, P.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Studies on the association of vitamin D and bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescence and young adults have shown contrasting results. None of these studies have examined the course and baseline in vitamin D intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between

  10. Positive association between the course of vitamin D intake and bone mineral density at 36 years in men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, C.E. van; Boer, M.R. de; Koppes, L.L.J.; Roos, J.C.; Lips, P.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies on the association of vitamin D and bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescence and young adults have shown contrasting results. None of these studies have examined the course and baseline in vitamin D intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between

  11. The outcome of bone mineral density measurements on patients referred from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia Inez; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Rosenzweig, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing and the general practitioner is integral to identifying these patients. It is, therefore, of interest to characterize the referral pattern of patients scheduled for determination of bone density by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Alt......) increased the predictive value considerably. A low BMI is a good indicator for referral of women less than 60 yr for measurements of bone density. Forty-five percent of the referred women from general practitioners had a normal BMD....

  12. Bone Mineral Density after Weight Gain in 160 Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najate Achamrah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low bone mineral density (BMD is a frequent complication in anorexia nervosa (AN. There are controversial points of views regarding the restoration of bone mineralization after recovery in AN. We aimed to assess changes of BMD at 3 years in patients with AN and to explore the relationships between body composition, physical activity, and BMD. Patients with AN were included from 2009 to 2011 in a first visit (T0 with evaluation of weight, height, body mass index (BMI, body composition [fat mass (FM and fat-free mass], and BMD. Those who had low BMD, either osteoporosis or osteopenia, were admitted in a second visit (T1 to carry out a new bone densitometry examination and body composition; they were also asked for their physical activity. At T0, our study involved 160 patients. Low BMD was observed in 53.6% of them and significant factors associated with demineralization were lower BMIs (16.5 ± 2.1 vs 17.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2, p = 0.01 and higher duration of AN (11.4 ± 10.5 vs 6.4 ± 6.5 years, p = 0.001. At 3 years follow-up (T1, 42 patients were involved and no significant changes in BMD were observed despite body weight increase (3.8 ± 6.1 kg. Interestingly, FM gain was a significant factor associated with BMD improvement at follow-up (8.0 ± 9.1 vs 3.0 ± 3.5 kg, p = 0.02. Our findings suggest that the restoration of normal bone values is not related to the increase of body weight, at least after 3 years. FM seems to play an important role in the pathophysiological mechanism of osteoporosis and osteopenia in AN.

  13. Chronic intermittent hypoxia preserves bone density in a mouse model of sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marta; Montserrat, Josep M; Pavía, Javier; Dalmases, Mireia; Ros, Domenec; Fernandez, Yolanda; Barbé, Ferran; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    Very recent clinical research has investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may modulate bone homeostasis but the few data available are conflicting. Here we report novel data obtained in a mouse study specifically designed to determine whether chronic intermittent hypoxia realistically mimicking OSA modifies bone mineral density (BMD). Normal male and female mice and orchidectomized mice (N=10 each group) were subjected to a pattern of high-frequency intermittent hypoxia (20s at 5% and 40s at 21%, 60 cycles/h) for 6h/day. Identical groups breathing room air (normoxia) were the controls. After 32 days of intermittent hypoxia/normoxia the trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the peripheral femora were measured by micro-CT scanning. When compared with normoxia (two-way ANOVA), intermittent hypoxia did not significantly modify BMD in the three animal groups tested. Data in this study suggest that the type of intermittent hypoxia characterizing OSA, applied as a single challenge, preserves bone homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lack of biochemical hypogonadism in elderly Arab males with low bone mineral density disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attia, Haider M; Jaysundaram, Krishnasamy; Saraj, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to study the relationship between androgen levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Arab males. Forty-five elderly Arab males underwent Dual X-ray absorptiometry for measurement of BMD. The outcomes were defined as per WHO description. Assays for testosterone (T), gonadotropins (LH and FSH) and estradiol (E2), in the serum were carried out. The ratio of T/LH was used as a surrogate for the cFT assay. We excluded patients receiving hormonal ablation for prostatic neoplasm and patients with chronic liver or renal disease and patients receiving corticosteroids. Twelve were osteoporotic (26.5%); 22 osteopenic (49%); and 11(24.5%) had normal outcome. Osteoporotic patients were significantly older (78.17 +/- 7.59 years) than the osteopenic (70.14 +/- 5.92, P Arab males had reduced bone density that appears to be independent of androgen levels. Osteoporotics were significantly older than those with osteopenia or normal bone density. Aging seemed to have overridden the effect of normal sex hormones on bone density in these patients. Before considering these results as a possible exception to the widely established role of the hypoandrogenemia in male osteoporosis, other potential factors impacting on bone density need to be considered.

  15. Bone mineral density at the hip predicts mortality in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, D P; Khaw, K T

    2001-01-01

    Low bone density as assessed by calcaneal ultrasound has been associated with mortality in elderly men and women. We examined the relationship between bone density measured at the hip and all cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly men. Men aged 65-76 years from the general community were recruited from general practices in Cambridge