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Sample records for densely populated coastal

  1. Modeling of Dense Water Production and Salt Transport from Alaskan Coastal Polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2000-01-01

    The main significance of this paper is that a realistic, three-dimensional, high-resolution primitive equation model has been developed to study the effects of dense water formation in Arctic coastal polynyas. The model includes realistic ambient stratification, realistic bottom topography, and is forced by time-variant surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and time-dependent coastal flow. The salt and heat fluxes, and the surface ice drift, are derived from satellite observations (SSM/I and NSCAT sensors). The model is used to study the stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon during the 1996/97 winter season. The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model using the wind-transport regression. The results show that for the 1996/97 winter the northeastward coastal current exports 13% to 26% of the salt produced by coastal polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon in 20 to 30 days. The salt export occurs more rapidly during less persistent polynyas. The inclusion of ice-water stress in the model makes the coastal current slightly weaker and much wider due to the combined effects of surface drag and offshore Ekman transport.

  2. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neumann

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential

  3. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  4. Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding - A Global Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  5. Animal reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis in densely populated urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Soraia A; Silva, Fabiana L; Carvalho Neta, Alcina C; Bueno, Regina; Guerra, Rita M S N C; Abreu-Silva, Ana L; Santos, Renato L

    2008-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease of major public health and veterinary importance, affecting 88 countries with up to 2 million cases per year. This review emphasizes the animal reservoirs and spreading of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas, particularly in two Brazilian metropolitan areas, namely São Luis and Belo Horizonte, where the disease has become endemic in the past few years. Urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil during the last decades has created favorable epidemiological conditions for maintenance of the disease, with dense human populations sharing a tropical environment with abundant populations of the mammalian reservoir and the invertebrate vector, facilitating transmission of the disease.

  6. Inference of population structure using dense haplotype data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel John Lawson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of genome-wide dense variation data provides an opportunity to investigate ancestry in unprecedented detail, but presents new statistical challenges. We propose a novel inference framework that aims to efficiently capture information on population structure provided by patterns of haplotype similarity. Each individual in a sample is considered in turn as a recipient, whose chromosomes are reconstructed using chunks of DNA donated by the other individuals. Results of this "chromosome painting" can be summarized as a "coancestry matrix," which directly reveals key information about ancestral relationships among individuals. If markers are viewed as independent, we show that this matrix almost completely captures the information used by both standard Principal Components Analysis (PCA and model-based approaches such as STRUCTURE in a unified manner. Furthermore, when markers are in linkage disequilibrium, the matrix combines information across successive markers to increase the ability to discern fine-scale population structure using PCA. In parallel, we have developed an efficient model-based approach to identify discrete populations using this matrix, which offers advantages over PCA in terms of interpretability and over existing clustering algorithms in terms of speed, number of separable populations, and sensitivity to subtle population structure. We analyse Human Genome Diversity Panel data for 938 individuals and 641,000 markers, and we identify 226 populations reflecting differences on continental, regional, local, and family scales. We present multiple lines of evidence that, while many methods capture similar information among strongly differentiated groups, more subtle population structure in human populations is consistently present at a much finer level than currently available geographic labels and is only captured by the haplotype-based approach. The software used for this article, ChromoPainter and fineSTRUCTURE, is

  7. Modeling dense water production and salt transport from Alaskan coastal polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2002-09-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model was used to assess the effects of dense water formation from winter (1996/1997) polynyas on the ambient stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon. The model, which includes ambient stratification and bottom topography, is forced by time-varying surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and coastal flow. The influence of sea ice drift on the circulation and salt transport is also analyzed by prescribing ice water stress at the sea surface. The surface fluxes and ice drift are derived from satellite observations (Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) sensors). The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model by using a wind-transport regression. One set of experiments was forced by strong and persistent polynyas, simulated by 20-day averaged heat and salt fluxes originating from the largest events. In this set of experiments both strong and weak steady coastal currents were imposed. The amount of salt exported from the generation area depended on the strength of the current. Another set of experiments was forced by weaker and less persistent polynyas using time-varying forcing. The experiments with time-varying polynya forcing were conducted with two ambient vertical stratifications, one representing fall conditions and one representing winter conditions. The amount of salt retained on the shelf was found to be quite sensitive to the initial stratification. Weaker vertical stratification promotes a deeper mixed layer, which develops 20 times faster than the horizontal advective timescale of the coastal current, thus increasing the residence time of the salt generated by the polynya on the shelf. The time-varying northeastward coastal current, combined with the offshore Ekman transport, can export 29-73% of the salt produced by polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon, depending upon the

  8. Extended Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for Coastal Impact Assessment: Spatial Coastal Population Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.

    2016-04-01

    This work extends the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) by developing spatial projections of global coastal population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of coastal migration drivers, which were identified from existing literature, we develop coastal narratives for the five basic SSPs (SSP1-5). These narratives account for differences in coastal versus inland population development in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates which differ for coastal and inland as well as for urban and rural regions. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data. We then adjust these rates for each SSP based on the coastal narratives. The resulting global population grids depict the projected distribution of coastal population for each SSP, until the end of the 21st century, at a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds. These grids exhibit a three- to four-fold increase in coastal population compared to the basic SSPs. Across all SSPs, except for SSP3, coastal population peaks by the middle of the 21st century and declines afterwards. In SSP3 the coastal population grows continuously until 2100. Compared to the base year 2000 the coastal population increases considerably in all SSPs. The extended SSPs are intended to be utilised in Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability (IAV) assessments as they allow for improved analysis of exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding under different physical and socioeconomic scenarios.

  9. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    .... Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four...

  10. Tsunami inundation modelling based on detailed roughness maps of densely populated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gayer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An important part within the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS project was the detailed numerical investigation of the impact of tsunamis in densely populated coastal areas of Indonesia. This work, carried out by the German Research Centre Geesthacht (GKSS, in co-operation with DHI-WASY, also provides the basis for the preparation of high resolution hazard and risk maps by the German Aerospace Center (DLR.

    In this paper a method is described of how to prepare very detailed roughness maps for scenario computations performed with the MIKE 21 Flow Model FM in three highly resolved (~10 m priority regions, namely Kuta (Bali, Padang (West-Sumatra, and Cilacap (southern coast of Java. Roughness values are assigned to 43 land use classes, e.g. different types of buildings, rural and urban sub-areas, by using equivalent coefficients found in literature or by performing numerical experiments.

    Comparisons of simulations using differentiated roughness maps with simulations using constant values (a widely used approach are presented and it is demonstrated that roughness takes considerable influence on run-up and inundation.

    Out of all simulations, the results of the worst case scenarios for each of the three priority areas are discussed. Earthquakes with magnitudes of MW=8.5 or higher lead to considerable inundation in all study sites. A spatially distinguished consideration of roughness has been found to be necessary for detailed modelling onshore.

  11. Tsunami inundation modelling based on detailed roughness maps of densely populated areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, G.; Leschka, S.; Nöhren, I.; Larsen, O.; Günther, H.

    2010-08-01

    An important part within the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project was the detailed numerical investigation of the impact of tsunamis in densely populated coastal areas of Indonesia. This work, carried out by the German Research Centre Geesthacht (GKSS), in co-operation with DHI-WASY, also provides the basis for the preparation of high resolution hazard and risk maps by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). In this paper a method is described of how to prepare very detailed roughness maps for scenario computations performed with the MIKE 21 Flow Model FM in three highly resolved (~10 m) priority regions, namely Kuta (Bali), Padang (West-Sumatra), and Cilacap (southern coast of Java). Roughness values are assigned to 43 land use classes, e.g. different types of buildings, rural and urban sub-areas, by using equivalent coefficients found in literature or by performing numerical experiments. Comparisons of simulations using differentiated roughness maps with simulations using constant values (a widely used approach) are presented and it is demonstrated that roughness takes considerable influence on run-up and inundation. Out of all simulations, the results of the worst case scenarios for each of the three priority areas are discussed. Earthquakes with magnitudes of MW=8.5 or higher lead to considerable inundation in all study sites. A spatially distinguished consideration of roughness has been found to be necessary for detailed modelling onshore.

  12. China's coastal population and economic development: summary of the symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, R

    1992-01-01

    China's coastal areas have led the rest of China in economic development and low fertility rates; migration from inland areas and urbanization are well advanced. A symposium on China's coastal population and economic development was conducted in 1990 by the Population Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Liaoning Population Institute, and the Dalian Population Institute at the request of the China Population Institute. There were 50 people in attendance representing major research institutes and family planning associations and media organizations. 26 papers were submitted. The opening speaker addressed developing the economy as a positive cycle of population and development, and accelerating change. Discussion focused on the following topics: the relationship between fertility rate changes and coastal economic development, population mobility and migration to coast areas, population urbanization, and related problems. In the summation by Professor Tian Xueyuan, 7 trends were identified: continued coastal population growth, a two-directional change in natural population growth, an increase in the rate of coastal population migration, rapid urban population growth, productive age population growth and changes in the employment structure, improvements in economic and technological progess and quality of life, and rapid population aging. The symposium was considered particularly timely in highlighting the current problems and strengths, integrating theorists with field workers, and maintaining an open exchange of ideas and information. Problems were identified as regional open areas in Heihai in Guangxi, Heihe in Heilongjiang, and Dalian in Liaoning Province. Although the population is considered professionally better qualified than in other regions, there is still a lack of technicians and skilled workers and an excess of untrained workers. Development is being slowed and mismanaged due to deficiencies in the job allocation and personnel

  13. Human health-related ecosystem services of avian-dense coastal wetlands adjacent to a Western Lake Erie swimming beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Chris L; Bisesi, Michael S; Mitsch, William; Andridge, Rebecca; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide many valuable ecosystem services, including water quality improvement to protect downstream aquatic ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, and estuaries. However, their ability to improve water quality to safe levels for direct human exposure while largely surrounded by agricultural lands and hosting large wildlife populations remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the ecosystem service capabilities of an avian-dense coastal wetland surrounded by agricultural lands along the southwestern shore of Lake Erie in Ohio by assessing the quality of water as it flows through the wetland (Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR)) and into Lake Erie beach waters. Our study used total phosphorus and fecal indicator (Escherichia coli) concentrations as water quality metrics across the wetland and at an adjacent Lake Erie swimming beach during the 2012 summer swim season. E. coli and total P levels were consistently highest at the site, where water enters the ONWR (mean E. coli = 507 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 535 μg/L), and steadily decreased as water flowed through the wetland and into the adjacent beach (mean E. coli = 10 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 41 μg/L). E. coli and total P showed statistically significant (α = 0.01) correlations with phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH; total P was also significantly correlated with total N. The results suggest that this wetland may be contributing to improving water quality, which is beneficial for human health as well as to downstream ecosystem health (e.g., limiting eutrophication promoting conditions, etc.).

  14. Uncertainties in measuring populations potentially impacted by sea level rise and coastal flooding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mondal, Pinki; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    ... the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available - LandScan...

  15. going children in a densely populated township in Lilongwe, Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    beverages is implicated among the factors that fuel childhood obesity. Despite the growing ... help in guiding interventions and public health nutrition policies. Aim. We aimed to ... consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SBs), such as carbonated ..... of population-based prevention of childhood obesity. A set of tools for.

  16. Coping with Climate Change in A densely Populated Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, H.P.; Loon-Steensma, Van J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The expected effects of climate change and economic and population growth have motivated the Netherlands government to reformulate its policies on flood protection and water management. Flood protection and drainage are needed to make this low-lying country habitable and suitable for agriculture and

  17. Documentation of dislocated boulders and monitoring of coastal sites in western Greece by terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Röbke, Björn; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Dislocated boulders are one evidence of high-energy coastal inundation by tsunamis and storms. The accurate determination of the mass and the lateral areas of these boulders are important input parameters for wave transport equations, which calculate the necessary wave height and velocity for dislocation. Several studies have revealed that these boulder parameters are not easy to estimate by simply measuring the axes of a boulder, as their morphology is mostly complex. In addition, there is an ongoing debate, how tsunami and storm impacts are distinguishable by wave transport equations. Therefore, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as dense image matching from the ground and by an unmanned aerial system (UAS) have been used to accurately document dislocated boulders. In addition, several different coastal sites in western Greece were monitored since 2009 in order to distinguish gradual changes. This specific region is characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk, due to the nearby plate boundaries. In addition, severe storms during winter time can considerably alter the coasts. The 3D data, gathered by the different methods, was used to derive 3D models of the boulders and enabled the calculation of the volume of each boulder and the corresponding lateral areas as well. The mass of the boulders was achieved by the incorporation of density values. Likewise, the accurate position, orientation and distance to the sea were measured. High-resolution digital elevation models (2.5D) of each site were compared to each other in order to determine changes. For all measurements, marked base points were used for RTK-GPS and tachymetric measurements. Thus, all data is georeferenced and comparable over the observed years. The results of the field campaigns show that the dislocated boulders can be accurately documented and monitored. Their volume and the lateral areas are considerably smaller than estimations by axes measurements. The new data shows reduced wave

  18. Probabilistic estimation of dune erosion and coastal zone risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal erosion has gained global attention and has been studied for many decades. As a soft sea defence structure, coastal sandy dunes protect coastal zones all over the world, which usually are densely populated areas with tremendous economic value. The coastal zone of the Netherlands, one of the

  19. Population vulnerability to storm surge flooding in coastal Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Behr, Joshua G; Diaz, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to assess the vulnerability of populations to storm surge flooding in 12 coastal localities of Virginia, USA. Population vulnerability is assessed by way of 3 physical factors (elevation, slope, and storm surge category), 3 built-up components (road availability, access to hospitals, and access to shelters), and 3 household conditions (storm preparedness, financial constraints to recovering from severe weather events, and health fragility). Fuzzy analysis is used to generate maps illustrating variation in several types of population vulnerability across the region. When considering physical factors and household conditions, the most vulnerable neighborhoods to sea level rise and storm surge flooding are largely found in urban areas. However, when considering access to critical infrastructure, we find rural residents to be more vulnerable than nonrural residents. These detailed assessments can inform both local and state governments in catastrophic planning. In addition, the methodology may be generalized to assess vulnerability in other coastal corridors and communities. The originality is highlighted by evaluating socioeconomic conditions at refined scale, incorporating a broader range of human perceptions and predispositions, and employing a geoinformatics approach combining physical, built-up, and socioeconomic conditions for population vulnerability assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:500-509. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Quorum quenching in cultivable bacteria from dense marine coastal microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Manuel; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Cabello, Ana María; Otero, Ana

    2011-02-01

    Acylhomoserine lactone (AHLs)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) processes seem to be common in the marine environment and among marine pathogenic bacteria, but no data are available on the prevalence of bacteria capable of interfering with QS in the sea, a process that has been generally termed 'quorum quenching' (QQ). One hundred and sixty-six strains isolated from different marine dense microbial communities were screened for their ability to interfere with AHL activity. Twenty-four strains (14.4%) were able to eliminate or significantly reduce N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone activity as detected by the biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, a much higher percentage than that reported for soil isolates, which reinforces the ecological role of QS and QQ in the marine environment. Among these, 15 strains were also able to inhibit N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone activity and all of them were confirmed to enzymatically inactivate the AHL signals by HPLC-MS. Active isolates belonged to nine different genera of prevalently or exclusively marine origin, including members of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria (8), Actinobacteria (2), Firmicutes (4) and Bacteroidetes (1). Whether the high frequency and diversity of cultivable bacteria with QQ activity found in near-shore marine isolates reflects their prevalence among pelagic marine bacterial communities deserves further investigation in order to understand the ecological importance of AHL-mediated QS and QQ processes in the marine environment. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gridded population projections for the coastal zone under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.

    2016-10-01

    Existing quantifications of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) used for climate impact assessment do not account for subnational population dynamics such as coastward-migration that can be critical for coastal impact assessment. This paper extends the SSPs by developing spatial projections of global coastal population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of coastal migration drivers we develop coastal narratives for each SSP. These narratives account for differences in coastal and inland population developments in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population, we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates, which differ for coastal and inland as well as for urban and rural regions, to project coastal population for each SSP. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data and adjusted for each SSP based on the coastal narratives. Our results show that, compared to the year 2000 (638 million), the population living in the Low Elevated Coastal Zone (LECZ) increases by 58% to 71% until 2050 and exceeds one billion in all SSPs. By the end of the 21st century, global coastal population declines to 830-907 million in all SSPs except for SSP3, where coastal population growth continues and reaches 1.184 billion. Overall, the population living in the LECZ is higher by 85 to 239 million compared to the original IIASA projections. Asia expects the highest absolute growth (238-303 million), Africa the highest relative growth (153% to 218%). Our results highlight regions where high coastal population growth is expected and will therefore face an increased exposure to coastal flooding.

  2. Selection in coastal Synechococcus (cyanobacteria populations evaluated from environmental metagenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Tai

    Full Text Available Environmental metagenomics provides snippets of genomic sequences from all organisms in an environmental sample and are an unprecedented resource of information for investigating microbial population genetics. Current analytical methods, however, are poorly equipped to handle metagenomic data, particularly of short, unlinked sequences. A custom analytical pipeline was developed to calculate dN/dS ratios, a common metric to evaluate the role of selection in the evolution of a gene, from environmental metagenomes sequenced using 454 technology of flow-sorted populations of marine Synechococcus, the dominant cyanobacteria in coastal environments. The large majority of genes (98% have evolved under purifying selection (dN/dS1, 77 out of 83 (93% were hypothetical. Notable among annotated genes, ribosomal protein L35 appears to be under positive selection in one Synechococcus population. Other annotated genes, in particular a possible porin, a large-conductance mechanosensitive channel, an ATP binding component of an ABC transporter, and a homologue of a pilus retraction protein had regions of the gene with elevated dN/dS. With the increasing use of next-generation sequencing in metagenomic investigations of microbial diversity and ecology, analytical methods need to accommodate the peculiarities of these data streams. By developing a means to analyze population diversity data from these environmental metagenomes, we have provided the first insight into the role of selection in the evolution of Synechococcus, a globally significant primary producer.

  3. A Multi-Step Assessment Scheme for Seismic Network Site Selection in Densely Populated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenkers, Katrin; Husen, Stephan; Kraft, Toni

    2015-10-01

    We developed a multi-step assessment scheme for improved site selection during seismic network installation in densely populated areas. Site selection is a complex process where different aspects (seismic background noise, geology, and financing) have to be taken into account. In order to improve this process, we developed a step-wise approach that allows quantifying the quality of a site by using, in addition to expert judgement and test measurements, two weighting functions as well as reference stations. Our approach ensures that the recording quality aimed for is reached and makes different sites quantitatively comparable to each other. Last but not least, it is an easy way to document the decision process, because all relevant parameters are listed, quantified, and weighted.

  4. Bird populations in coastal habitats, Arctic National Wildlife Range, Alaska: Results of 1978 and 1979 surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the coastal zone of the Arctic National Wildlife Range, the highest breeding populations of birds occurred in wet and flooded sedge tundra areas surrounded by...

  5. Terrestrial bird populations and habitat use on coastal plain tundra of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers terrestrial bird populations and habitat use on the coastal plain tundra of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Bird census plots were monitored....

  6. The Out-of-the-Delta Hypothesis: dense human populations in low-lying river deltas served as agents for the evolution of a deadly pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eBoucher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is a diarrheal disease that has changed the history of mankind, devastating the world with seven pandemics from 1817 to the present day. Although there is little doubt in the causative agent of these pandemics being Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup, where, when, and how this pathogen emerged is not well understood. V. cholerae is a ubiquitous coastal species that likely existed for tens of thousands of years. However, the evolution of a strain capable of causing a large-scale epidemic is likely more recent historically. Here, we propose that the unique human and physical geography of low-lying river deltas made it possible for an environmental bacterium to evolve into a deadly human pathogen. Such areas are often densely populated and salt intrusion in drinking water frequent. As V. cholerae is most abundant in brackish water, its favored environment, it is likely that coastal inhabitants would regularly ingest the bacterium and release it back in the environment. This creates a continuous selection pressure for V. cholerae to adapt to life in the human gut.

  7. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations.

  8. Predicting Effects of Coastal Acidification on Marine Bivalve Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) is increasing in the oceans and causing changes in seawater pH commonly described as ocean or coastal acidification. It is now well-established that, when reproduced in laboratory experiments, these increases in pCO2 can reduce survi...

  9. A Comparative study on the prevalence of HCC seromarkers among tribal and coastal population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Selvin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An extensive study on the prevalence of seromarkers (HBsAg and AFP of hepatocellular carcinoma among two low socioeconomic groups of Karumanthurai tribes and Kanyakumari coastal population was carried out. The results obtained suggest that the mean HBsAg value of tribal was more than that of the coastal population. The mean AFP of elevated and normal cases was found to be invariably significant (P< 0.01 over the two areas. Coastal patients tended to be significantly older than the tribal patients (P < 0.005, Wilcoxon rank sum test. All two racial/geographic regions showed a preponderance of male patients but this tendency was significantly more marked (P < 0.05 in the tribal group than in the coastal sample. Liquor habit and lack of personal hygienic practices were associated with the prevalence of HBsAg and AFP in both the areas. Surprisingly a positive association has been found between the consumption of marine foods and reduced risk of HCC. Thus the reduced risk of HCC among coastal population can probably be due to the development of immunity against HBV due to the dietary pattern of marine food consumption by coastal population.

  10. Uncertainties in measuring populations potentially impacted by sea level rise and coastal flooding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Mondal

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available - LandScan and the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP. This has been undertaken without consideration of the effects of this choice, which are a function of the quality of input datasets and differences in methods used to construct each spatial population dataset. Here we calculate estimated low elevation coastal zone resident population sizes from LandScan and GRUMP using previously adopted approaches, and quantify the absolute and relative differences achieved through switching datasets. Our findings suggest that the choice of one particular dataset over another can translate to a difference of more than 7.5 million vulnerable people for countries with extensive coastal populations, such as Indonesia and Japan. Our findings also show variations in estimates of proportions of national populations at risk range from <0.1% to 45% differences when switching between datasets, with large differences predominantly for countries where coarse and outdated input data were used in the construction of the spatial population datasets. The results highlight the need for the construction of spatial population datasets built on accurate, contemporary and detailed census data for use in climate change impact studies and the importance of acknowledging uncertainties inherent in existing spatial population datasets when estimating the demographic impacts of climate change.

  11. Uncertainties in measuring populations potentially impacted by sea level rise and coastal flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available - LandScan and the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). This has been undertaken without consideration of the effects of this choice, which are a function of the quality of input datasets and differences in methods used to construct each spatial population dataset. Here we calculate estimated low elevation coastal zone resident population sizes from LandScan and GRUMP using previously adopted approaches, and quantify the absolute and relative differences achieved through switching datasets. Our findings suggest that the choice of one particular dataset over another can translate to a difference of more than 7.5 million vulnerable people for countries with extensive coastal populations, such as Indonesia and Japan. Our findings also show variations in estimates of proportions of national populations at risk range from population datasets. The results highlight the need for the construction of spatial population datasets built on accurate, contemporary and detailed census data for use in climate change impact studies and the importance of acknowledging uncertainties inherent in existing spatial population datasets when estimating the demographic impacts of climate change.

  12. Pedestrian injuries in the most densely populated city in Nigeria-an epidemic calling for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solagberu, Babatunde A; Balogun, Rufai A; Mustafa, Ibrahim A; Ibrahim, Nasiru A; Oludara, Mobolaji A; Ajani, Abdulwahab O; Idowu, Olufemi E; Osuoji, Roland I

    2015-01-01

    Since the first pedestrian road fatality of 1896, pedestrians still remain vulnerable, with fatalities in Africa being 55% of global statistics. Many previous reports from Nigeria have emphasized passengers and drivers over pedestrians; this study was done in the most densely populated Nigerian city with no previous publication exclusively dedicated to pedestrians-the megacity has been projected by the World Bank to be the third largest in the world by 2015 (after Tokyo and Mumbai), so the study results would aid injury control and reduce morbidity and mortality. This is a one-year prospective study on pedestrians attending the surgical emergency room of the busiest referral hospital in Lagos, Nigeria, detailing age, sex, occupation, regions injured, injury mechanism, incident vehicles, highway collisions, and immediate outcomes. Some 702 pedestrians were seen, including 494 (70%) males with overall peak incidence in the third decade, but the peak incidence among females is lower and in the first decade. Common injuries sustained were to the head (40%), lower limbs (35%), upper limbs (9%), multiple regions (6%), pelvis (3%), and others (7%). Gender differences also were noted-the predominant injury location in males was the head, followed by lower limbs; the opposite was true for females, though both regional injuries were fewer in females than in males. Students were 20% of the entire pedestrians, with nearly half of them injured by a motorcycle. The mechanism of injury included crossing a highway (63%), walking along the pavement (17%), standing by a bus stop (12%), at a shop/house (5%), and others (3%). However, 76% injuries occurred on highways, 22% on inner city roads, and 2% elsewhere. Vehicles included motorcycles (33%), cars (27%), buses (22%), trucks (6%), tricycles (2.4%), and other (9%). Overall fatality was 10% and about half were due to being knocked down by buses and cars. This study suggests a high incidence and significant underreporting of

  13. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Oscar; Ortinez, Abraham; Castro, Telma; Espinosa, Maria; Saavedra, Isabel; Alvarez, Harry; Basaldud, Roberto; Paramo, Víctor; Martínez, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  14. Multivariate spatial analysis of a heavy rain event in a densely populated delta city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, Santiago; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; Bruni, Guenda; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Delta cities account for half of the world's population and host key infrastructure and services for the global economic growth. Due to the characteristic geography of delta areas, these cities face high vulnerability to extreme weather and pluvial flooding risks, that are expected to increase as climate change drives heavier rain events. Besides, delta cities are subjected to fast urban densification processes that progressively make them more vulnerable to pluvial flooding. Delta cities need to be adapted to better cope with this threat. The mechanism leading to damage after heavy rains is not completely understood. For instance, current research has shown that rain intensities and volumes can only partially explain the occurrence and localization of rain-related insurance claims (Spekkers et al., 2013). The goal of this paper is to provide further insights into spatial characteristics of the urban environment that can significantly be linked to pluvial-related flooding impacts. To that end, a study-case has been selected: on October 12 to 14 2013, a heavy rain event triggered pluvial floods in Rotterdam, a densely populated city which is undergoing multiple climate adaptation efforts and is located in the Meuse river Delta. While the average yearly precipitation in this city is around 800 mm, local rain gauge measurements ranged from aprox. 60 to 130 mm just during these three days. More than 600 citizens' telephonic complaints reported impacts related to rainfall. The registry of those complaints, which comprises around 300 calls made to the municipality and another 300 to the fire brigade, was made available for research. Other accessible information about this city includes a series of rainfall measurements with up to 1 min time-step at 7 different locations around the city, ground-based radar rainfall data (1 Km^2 spatial resolution and 5 min time-step), a digital elevation model (50 cm of horizontal resolution), a model of overland-flow paths, cadastral

  15. On the importance of coastal areas in the survival of Neanderthal populations during the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the distribution of Neanderthal populations across Europe and the Middle East. Key geographical variables are used to identify major population strongholds. Four are identified: southern Iberia, Atlantic Europe, Black Sea-Aegean and coastal Italy. Neanderthal site density in each stronghold was found to correspond closely with the predicted suitability of each area. A strong correlation was found between area suitability and last Neanderthal dates and the process of population fragmentation and extinction was found to affect continental areas first and coastal ones last. Oceanic influence, inter-area connectivity and proximity to coasts were found to be key variables in the Neanderthal extinction process. The functional ecological significance of coastal areas to Neanderthals is discussed.

  16. Utilization and Management of Small Fishery Population Resources in Coastal and Offshore Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua LE; Xiangguo ZHANG; Yingqi ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous types of living resources in coastal and offshore areas of China. In recent years,both the population type and quantity structure have significant changes,and the stock of small fishery population resources is increasing. This population is precious protein resource. It is urgent to study how to take prompt and effective fishing and take full advantage of processing,utilization and management. Traditional utilization methods are limited by many factors. The utilization efficiency is extremely low. The feed conversion rate of some mariculture fishes with fresh small trash fishes as feeds is even as low as 0. 2. Innovative production and management organization model with aquatic enterprises as leaders greatly increases the utilization efficiency of small fish resources with the aid of marine processing mother ship. In order to further accelerate developing and utilizing small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,China should launch survey and utilization researches of small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,formulate practical and feasible laws,regulations and policies,actively encourage and support autonomous innovative management mode of enterprises,and promote effective utilization and management of coastal and offshore fishery resources.

  17. Nonlinear Absorption-Gain Response and Population Dynamics in a Laser-Driven Four-Level Dense Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-Hua; LIU Ji-Bing; LUO Jin-Ming; XIE Xiao-Tao

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the response of nonlinear absorption and population dynamics in optically dense media of four-level atoms driven by a single-mode probe laser, via taking the density-dependent near dipoledipole (NDD) interactions into consideration. The influence of the NDD effects on the absorption of the probe field and population dynamics is predicted via numerical calculations. It is shown that the NDD effects can reduce gradually to transient absorption with the increase of the strengths of the NDD interactions, and transient amplification can be achieved. In the steady-state limit, the probe field exhibits transparency for strong NDD interactions. Alternatively, the population entirely remains at the ground state due to the NDD effects.

  18. Tracking the source of mercury in coastal populations of California Cougars (puma concolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Wilmers, C.; Yovovich, V.; Houghtaling, P.; Torregrosa, A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a project on the cycling of mercury (Hg) from the ocean to fog and deposition to land in coastal California, the whiskers of pumas from coastal and inland populations in California were analyzed for total Hg (HgT). Previous studies have shown that fog water in coastal California contains enhanced concentrations of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) compared to rain water. The likely source of fog MMHg is from evasion and demethylation of dimethyl Hg (DMHg) from coastal ocean upwelling. The California coast receives seasonal inputs of fog drip, and we hypothesized that if fog water deposition of MMHg was making an impact, the observable effects might be seen in high trophic level predators of the terrestrial ecosystem. Puma whiskers from 88 individuals from the Santa Cruz Mountains, a sub-range of the California Coast Range, were obtained and compared with puma whiskers from 12 individuals from the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Mean total Hg in puma whiskers from the coastal population is 1.0 ± 1.5 ug Hg / g whisker (ppm), whereas mean HgT from the inland puma population is 0.13 ± 0.09 ppm. The difference between these means is significant to the 95% confidence level. For the coastal puma population, the whiskers from 10 individuals had HgT concentrations > 2.0 ppm and 3 individuals had HgT > 4 ppm, which exceeds the U.S. EPA reference dose for humans (1 ppm) approaches a level of concern found for other large mammals such as polar bears (5 ppm). The study is ongoing and HgT concentrations will be determined in the fur and flesh of deer from the same locations as the puma whiskers, since deer comprise ~95% of the puma diet. Samples of plants that are likely fed upon by deer that span the coastal-inland transect will also be analyzed for HgT. Estimates of fog frequency spatial patterns, derived from weather satellite observations and topographic modeling, will be compared with the HgT content of plant and animal tissue in coastal California to quantify

  19. A system for household enumeration and re-identification in densely populated slums to facilitate community research, education, and advocacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana R Thomson

    Full Text Available We devised and implemented an innovative Location-Based Household Coding System (LBHCS appropriate to a densely populated informal settlement in Mumbai, India.LBHCS codes were designed to double as unique household identifiers and as walking directions; when an entire community is enumerated, LBHCS codes can be used to identify the number of households located per road (or lane segment. LBHCS was used in community-wide biometric, mental health, diarrheal disease, and water poverty studies. It also facilitated targeted health interventions by a research team of youth from Mumbai, including intensive door-to-door education of residents, targeted follow-up meetings, and a full census. In addition, LBHCS permitted rapid and low-cost preparation of GIS mapping of all households in the slum, and spatial summation and spatial analysis of survey data.LBHCS was an effective, easy-to-use, affordable approach to household enumeration and re-identification in a densely populated informal settlement where alternative satellite imagery and GPS technologies could not be used.

  20. Urban habitat fragmentation and genetic population structure of bobcats in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruell, E.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Douglas, M.R.; Antolin, M.F.; Pollinger, J.R.; Tracey, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Crooks, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is recognized as a primary threat to biodiversity, the effects of urban development on genetic population structure vary among species and landscapes and are not yet well understood. Here we use non-invasive genetic sampling to compare the effects of fragmentation by major roads and urban development on levels of dispersal, genetic diversity, and relatedness between paired bobcat populations in replicate landscapes in coastal southern California. We hypothesized that bobcat populations in sites surrounded by urbanization would experience reduced functional connectivity relative to less isolated nearby populations. Our results show that bobcat genetic population structure is affected by roads and development but not always as predicted by the degree that these landscape features surround fragments. Instead, we suggest that urban development may affect functional connectivity between bobcat populations more by limiting the number and genetic diversity of source populations of migrants than by creating impermeable barriers to dispersal.

  1. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Nel

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or1700 nests pa (index area especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area, but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality. Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures.

  2. A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Walter; Starczak, Victoria; Govindarajan, Annette F.; Guzman, Héctor M.; Girdhar, Yogesh; Holleman, Rusty C.; Churchill, James; Singh, Hanumant; Ralston, David K.

    2016-01-01

    A research cruise to Hannibal Bank, a seamount and an ecological hotspot in the coastal eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Panama, explored the zonation, biodiversity, and the ecological processes that contribute to the seamount’s elevated biomass. Here we describe the spatial structure of a benthic anomuran red crab population, using submarine video and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) photographs. High density aggregations and a swarm of red crabs were associated with a dense turbid layer 4–10 m above the bottom. The high density aggregations were constrained to 355–385 m water depth over the Northwest flank of the seamount, although the crabs also occurred at lower densities in shallower waters (∼280 m) and in another location of the seamount. The crab aggregations occurred in hypoxic water, with oxygen levels of 0.04 ml/l. Barcoding of Hannibal red crabs, and pelagic red crabs sampled in a mass stranding event in 2015 at a beach in San Diego, California, USA, revealed that the Panamanian and the Californian crabs are likely the same species, Pleuroncodes planipes, and these findings represent an extension of the southern endrange of this species. Measurements along a 1.6 km transect revealed three high density aggregations, with the highest density up to 78 crabs/m2, and that the crabs were patchily distributed. Crab density peaked in the middle of the patch, a density structure similar to that of swarming insects. PMID:27114859

  3. A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pineda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A research cruise to Hannibal Bank, a seamount and an ecological hotspot in the coastal eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Panama, explored the zonation, biodiversity, and the ecological processes that contribute to the seamount’s elevated biomass. Here we describe the spatial structure of a benthic anomuran red crab population, using submarine video and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV photographs. High density aggregations and a swarm of red crabs were associated with a dense turbid layer 4–10 m above the bottom. The high density aggregations were constrained to 355–385 m water depth over the Northwest flank of the seamount, although the crabs also occurred at lower densities in shallower waters (∼280 m and in another location of the seamount. The crab aggregations occurred in hypoxic water, with oxygen levels of 0.04 ml/l. Barcoding of Hannibal red crabs, and pelagic red crabs sampled in a mass stranding event in 2015 at a beach in San Diego, California, USA, revealed that the Panamanian and the Californian crabs are likely the same species, Pleuroncodes planipes, and these findings represent an extension of the southern endrange of this species. Measurements along a 1.6 km transect revealed three high density aggregations, with the highest density up to 78 crabs/m2, and that the crabs were patchily distributed. Crab density peaked in the middle of the patch, a density structure similar to that of swarming insects.

  4. A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jesús; Cho, Walter; Starczak, Victoria; Govindarajan, Annette F; Guzman, Héctor M; Girdhar, Yogesh; Holleman, Rusty C; Churchill, James; Singh, Hanumant; Ralston, David K

    2016-01-01

    A research cruise to Hannibal Bank, a seamount and an ecological hotspot in the coastal eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Panama, explored the zonation, biodiversity, and the ecological processes that contribute to the seamount's elevated biomass. Here we describe the spatial structure of a benthic anomuran red crab population, using submarine video and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) photographs. High density aggregations and a swarm of red crabs were associated with a dense turbid layer 4-10 m above the bottom. The high density aggregations were constrained to 355-385 m water depth over the Northwest flank of the seamount, although the crabs also occurred at lower densities in shallower waters (∼280 m) and in another location of the seamount. The crab aggregations occurred in hypoxic water, with oxygen levels of 0.04 ml/l. Barcoding of Hannibal red crabs, and pelagic red crabs sampled in a mass stranding event in 2015 at a beach in San Diego, California, USA, revealed that the Panamanian and the Californian crabs are likely the same species, Pleuroncodes planipes, and these findings represent an extension of the southern endrange of this species. Measurements along a 1.6 km transect revealed three high density aggregations, with the highest density up to 78 crabs/m(2), and that the crabs were patchily distributed. Crab density peaked in the middle of the patch, a density structure similar to that of swarming insects.

  5. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bigham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association

  6. Association of TSHR gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves’ disease in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor(TSHR)gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves’disease(GD)in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province

  7. Pro-apoptotic Bax molecules densely populate the edges of membrane pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwana, Tomomi; Olson, Norman H; Kiosses, William B; Peters, Bjoern; Newmeyer, Donald D

    2016-06-03

    How the pro-apoptotic Bax protein permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane is not fully understood. Previously, using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we showed that activated Bax forms large, growing pores. Whether formed in liposomes or in mitochondrial outer membranes, Bax-induced pores exhibit the same morphology, with negative curvature flanking the edges and with no visible protein structure protruding from the membranes. Here we used cryo-EM to show that gold-labeled Bax molecules, after activation by Bid, became localized strictly at pore edges. This argues that Bax acts at short range to deform the membrane. Also, Bax molecules populated the walls of both small and large pores at the same density, implying that Bax is continuously recruited to the pores as they widen. Moreover, because all Bax molecules became oligomerized after membrane insertion, we infer that Bax oligomers are present at pore edges. We suggest that oligomerization may promote pore enlargement.

  8. Risk from lava flow inundations in densely populated areas: the case of Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Negro, C.; Cappello, A.; Bilotta, G.; Ganci, G.; Herault, A.

    2016-12-01

    The ever-expanding use of areas near the volcano increases the potential impact of future eruptions on the regional economy and on the health and safety of the inhabitants. The increasing exposure of a larger population, which has almost tripled in the area around Mt. Etna during the last 150 years, is often derived from a poor assessment of the volcanic hazard, allowing inappropriate land use in vulnerable areas. Therefore, a correct assessment is an essential component in reducing the losses due to volcanic disasters. A detailed map showing areas that are likely to be inundated by future lava flows is extremely useful, allowing people living nearby to judge for themselves the relation between potentially dangerous areas and their daily lives. Here we quantify the lava flow risk at Etna volcano using a GIS-based methodology that integrates the hazard with the exposure of elements at stake. The hazard, showing the long-term probability related to lava flow inundation, is obtained combining three different kinds of information: the spatiotemporal probability for the future opening of new eruptive vents, the event probability associated with classes of expected eruptions, and the overlapping of lava flow paths simulated by the MAGFLOW model. Data including all elements at stake were gathered from different web portals and organized in four thematic layers: population, strategic buildings, other buildings and networks, and land use. The total exposure is given by a weighted linear combination of the four thematic layers, where weights are calculated using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The resulting risk map shows the likely damage caused by a lava flow eruption, allowing rapidly visualizing the areas in which there would be the greatest amount of losses in case of a flank eruption occurs at Etna.

  9. The influence of coastal topography, circulation patterns, and rafting in structuring populations of an intertidal alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlin, J F; Engel, C R; Stessel, R; Weatherbee, R A; Brawley, S H

    2008-03-01

    Understanding the dispersal processes that influence genetic structure in marine species requires estimating gene flow in a dynamic, fluid environment that is often poorly characterized at scales relevant to multiple dispersive stages (e.g. spores, gametes, zygotes, larvae, adults). We examine genetic structure in the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus L., which inhabits moderately exposed shores in the northern Atlantic but releases gametes only under sunny, calm conditions. We predicted genetic structure would correlate with coastal topography because weather frequently varies across coastal promontories on the Maine shore when F. vesiculosus is reproductive, which causes one side to experience high levels of water motion (= no gamete release) while one side is calm (= gamete release). Furthermore, we expected that the effect of low dispersal capacities of gametes and zygotes would result in spatial genetic structure over short distances. Using surface drifters, we characterized near-shore circulation patterns around the study sites to investigate whether directionality of gene flow was correlated with directionality of currents. We found significant genetic differentiation among sites sampled at two different peninsulas, but patterns of differentiation were unrelated to coastal topography and there was no within-site spatial structuring. Our genetic and near-shore circulation data, combined with an examination of gamete longevity, support the dependency of gene flow on storm-detached, rafting, reproductive adults. This study highlights the significance of rafting as a mechanism for structuring established populations of macroalgae and associated biota and demonstrates the importance of coupling population genetics' research with relevant hydrodynamic studies.

  10. The small Blue Straggler star population in the dense Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6752

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, E; Sills, A; Rood, & R T

    2004-01-01

    We have used high resolution WFPC2-HST and wide field ground-based observations to construct a catalog of blue straggler stars (BSS) which spans the entire radial extent of the globular cluster NGC 6752. The BSS sample is the most extensive ever obtained for this cluster. Though NGC 6752 is a high density cluster with a large binary population, we found that its BSS content is surprisingly low: the specific number of BSS is among the lowest ever measured in a cluster. The BSS distribution is highly peaked in the cluster center, shows a rapid decrease at intermediate radii, and finally rises again at larger distances. This distribution closely resembles those observed in M3 and 47Tuc by Ferraro et al. (1993), Ferraro et al. (2003c). To date, BSS surveys covering the central regions with HST and the outer regions with wide field CCD ground-based observations have been performed for only these three clusters. Despite the different dynamical properties, a bimodal radial distribution has been found in each. A deta...

  11. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J. Russell; Nalugwa, Allen

    2013-01-01

    -fertilizing, this species has been reported to be preferentially out crossing. In this study, we characterized the population genetic structure of 19 B. globosus populations sampled across the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. Population genetic structure was characterized...

  12. Completeness of the dog registry and estimation of the dog population size in a densely populated area of Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Antonino; Sala, Marcello; Panetta, Valentina; Battisti, Sabrina; Meoli, Roberta; Rombolà, Pasquale; Spallucci, Valentina; Eleni, Claudia; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In most European countries, registration and identification of dogs is compulsory. In Italy, the national dog registry is composed of regional dog registries. Although dog registries have been established for many years, the issue related to completeness of data has not been addressed so far. The objective of this study was twofold: first to assess the completeness of data of the dog registry through telephone interview of a sample of dog owners drawn from the dog registry, then to estimate the total owned dog population in 4 boroughs of Rome. For the second objective, a capture-recapture method was applied using data from the dog registry and data from a face-to-face questionnaire submitted to people waiting in the sitting room of 5 points of access for booking and payment of primary and specialist care. Different scenarios are proposed to verify the assumptions of the estimation procedure and potential biases are discussed. The completeness of data of the dog registry was 88.9% (95% CI: 85.8-91.9%) and the owned-dog population was estimated at 26,244 dogs (95% CI: 24,110-28,383). The dog registry is an important source of information especially when it is properly updated and completeness of data is known.

  13. Gene flow between insular, coastal and interior populations of brown bears in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetkau, D; Shields, G F; Strobeck, C

    1998-10-01

    The brown bears of coastal Alaska have been recently regarded as comprising from one to three distinct genetic groups. We sampled brown bears from each of the regions for which hypotheses of genetic uniqueness have been made, including the bears of the Kodiak Archipelago and the bears of Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands in southeast Alaska. These samples were analysed with a suite of nuclear microsatellite markers. The 'big brown bears' of coastal Alaska were found to be part of the continuous continental distribution of brown bears, and not genetically isolated from the physically smaller 'grizzly bears' of the interior. By contrast, Kodiak brown bears appear to have experienced little or no genetic exchange with continental populations in recent generations. The bears of the ABC Islands, which have previously been shown to undergo little or no female-mediated gene flow with mainland populations, were found not to be genetically isolated from mainland bears. The data from the four insular populations indicate that female and male dispersal can be reduced or eliminated by water barriers of 2-4 km and 7 km in width, respectively.

  14. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.;

    2000-01-01

    of population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...... fishery collapse. Harvesting strategies for northern cod should recognize the existence of genetic diversity between inshore and offshore components as well as among coastal components. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  15. Predicting Dynamic Coastal Delta Change in Response to Sea-Level Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Lageweg, W.I.; Slangen, A.B.A.

    2017-01-01

    The world’s largest deltas are densely populated, of significant economic importance and among the most valuable coastal ecosystems. Projected twenty-first century sea-level rise (SLR) poses a threat to these low-lying coastal environments with inhabitants, resources and ecology becoming

  16. Research on spectral factors towards determining nocturnal ground irradiance under overcast sky conditions in densely populated regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petržala, Jaromír; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    Light pollution is closely correlated with the meteorological factors, specifically cloudiness that is one of the major amplifiers of night sky radiances in urban regions. Although the decisive effects of cloud deck on artificial nighttime skyglow have been recognized experimentally, the radiative transfer modelling in a heterogeneous nocturnal environment illuminated from many light sources is a non-trivial problem that is difficult to solve both theoretically and numerically. A satisfactorily accurate evaluation of ground-reaching diffuse light is, however, an important issue as some optical properties (e.g. horizontal irradiance) are usually difficult to obtain with common instruments. Overcast sky represents a special class of situations in which clouds can act as amplifiers of the light pollution of the city. In this paper we proceeded with a simple two-stream approach to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation (RTE) under overcast conditions. The technique we are using allows for a rapid prediction of ground irradiances in densely populated regions assuming various emission functions. We have shown that the classical RTE concept can be adopted in determining the diffuse irradiance, while the model abilities are illustrated in a set of numerical experiments for low and high turbidity states.

  17. Design and testing of the high speed signal densely populated ATLAS calorimeter trigger board dedicate to jet identification

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira De Souza, Julio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Abstract—The ATLAS experiment has planned a major upgrade in view of the enhanced luminosity of the beam delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2021. As part of this, the trigger at Level-1 based on calorimeter data will be upgraded to exploit fine-granularity readout using a new system of Feature Extractors (three in total), which each uses different physics objects for the trigger selection. The contribution focusses on the jet Feature EXtractor (jFEX) prototype. Up to a data volume of 2 TB/s has to be processed to provide jet identification (including large area jets) and measurements of global variables within few hundred nanoseconds latency budget. Such requirements translate into the use of large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with the largest number of Multi Gigabit Transceivers (MGTs) available on the market. The jFEX board prototype hosts four large FPGAs from the Xilinx Ultrascale family with 120 MGTs each, connected to 24 opto-electrical devices, resulting in a densely populated hi...

  18. Ants in Tropical Urban Habitats: The Myrmecofauna in a Densely Populated Area of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKHMAD RIZALI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ants are the most abundant animals in tropical habitats and have been widely studied in natural and semi-natural tropical systems. However, species in urban tropical habitats remain poorly studied, despite their abundance and potentially important roles in urban ecosystems and pest dynamics. We investigated the ant fauna of Bogor and its surroundings to contribute to the characterization of the myrmecofauna of one of Southeast Asia’s most densely populated regions. Ants were collected both by hand collection and from honey baits in the most common habitats: garbage dumps, households, and home gardens. In total, 94 species were recorded, over two thirds of which occurred in home gardens, which underlines the importance of vegetated habitats for urban planning to support complex ant assemblages. Twelve sampled species are well-known as tramp species that occur primarily in human-dominated landscapes. The two tramp species Anoplolepis gracilipes and Paratrechina longicornis dominated ant assemblages in all locations and most habitat types. The assemblages of tramp species were affected by habitat type, whereas that of non tramp species were not. Forty-five species were also recorded in the Bogor Botanical Garden and five species are also known to be common in cacao agroforests. Hence, research in urban tropical habitats can increase our knowledge of the occurrence of ant species, allowing us to better assess the biodiversity and conservation potential of semi-natural habitats.

  19. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF PALMS (ARECACEAE IN A FOREST FRAGMENT OF LOWLAND DENSE HUMID FOREST IN SOUTH BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cappelatti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the Dense Humid Forest is reduced to less than 5% of its original cover. However, it still has the highest richness of palms in this state, which constitute an important and economically relevant group. Environmental and demographic aspects of plant populations in forest fragments are of great importance for their management and conservation. We conducted a study on the spatial distribution and age structure of five palm species in a forest fragment at the municipality of Três Cachoeiras, in the north coast of Rio Grande do Sul. We delimited 25 10×10 m plots and counted the number of individuals in the stages of seedling, juvenile and adult for each palm species. Aggregation Indices were calculated with software SADIEShell. We performed variation partitioning analyses among species distribution and environmental variables canopy openness and soil moisture. A total of 1,443 plants were counted and the most abundant species was Euterpe edulis. The average density was of 57.72 ind. 100 m-2. Three species showed a pattern of “inverse J”, which indicated that they have a potential for regenerating in that palm community. The predominant spatial pattern was aggregated (Ia>1 and canopy openness did not influence species abundances. Only the distribution of Bactris setosa and Geonoma gamiova, both understory species, was explained by soil moisture, suggesting that other abiotic or biotic factors may be influencing the spatial arrangement of the canopy species.

  20. Deeply Embedded Protostellar Population in the Central Molecular Zone Suggested by H$_2$O Masers and Dense Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xing; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Longmore, Steven N; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Battersby, Cara

    2016-01-01

    The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), usually referring to the inner 500 pc of the Galaxy, contains a dozen of massive ($\\sim10^5$ $M_\\odot$) molecular clouds. Are these clouds going to actively form stars like Sgr B2? How are they affected by the extreme physical conditions in the CMZ, such as strong turbulence? Here we present a first step towards answering these questions. Using high-sensitivity, high angular resolution radio and (sub)millimeter observations, we studied deeply embedded star formation in six massive clouds in the CMZ, including the 20 and 50 km s$^{-1}$ clouds, Sgr B1 off (as known as dust ridge clouds e/f), Sgr C, Sgr D, and G0.253-0.016. The VLA water maser observations suggest a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates, many of which are new detections. The SMA 1.3 mm continuum observations reveal peaks in dust emission associated with the masers, suggesting the existence of dense cores. While our findings confirm that clouds such as G0.253-0.016 lack internal compact substructu...

  1. Stereospecific growth of densely populated rutile mesoporous TiO2 nanoplate films: a facile low temperature chemical synthesis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Go-Woon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Cho, Young-Jin; Mane, Rajaram S.; Shashikala, V.; Yadav, Jyotiprakash; Gaikwad, Rajendra S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Han, Sung-Hwan; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2010-03-01

    We report for the first time, using a simple and environmentally benign chemical method, the low temperature synthesis of densely populated upright-standing rutile TiO2 nanoplate films onto a glass substrate from a mixture of titanium trichloride, hydrogen peroxide and thiourea in triply distilled water. The rutile TiO2 nanoplate films (the phase is confirmed from x-ray diffraction analysis, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and Raman shift) are 20-35 nm wide and 100-120 nm long. The chemical reaction kinetics for the growth of these upright-standing TiO2 nanoplate films is also interpreted. Films of TiO2 nanoplates are optically transparent in the visible region with a sharp absorption edge close to 350 nm, confirming an indirect band gap energy of 3.12 eV. The Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area, Barret-Joyner-Halenda pore volume and pore diameter, obtained from N2 physisorption studies, are 82 m2 g - 1, 0.0964 cm3 g - 1 and 3.5 nm, respectively, confirming the mesoporosity of scratched rutile TiO2 nanoplate powder that would be ideal for the direct fabrication of nanoscaled devices including upcoming dye-sensitized solar cells and gas sensors.

  2. Applications of Extensive Green-roof Systems in Contributing to Sustainable Development in Densely Populated Cities: a Hong Kong Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed cities such as Hong Kong are usually densely populated. Since the land is limited, high-rise buildings are constructed. When the building height becomes higher, air flow is reduced and heat is trapped among high-rise buildings. Air temperature will be greatly increased and air pollution becomes a serious problem. This creates a walled building problem. To reduce air temperature caused by the wall-effects, various methods have been developed in the previous studies. One typical method is the use of green roof systems. The application of extensive green roofs on the existing building rooftops has been recommended in Hong Kong since 2001. The advantage of this practice is that no additional floor area is required and it can also improve urban greenery. Although a green roof system has been introduced and adopted in Hong Kong since 2001, the emphasis is mainly given to the application of intensive green roofs for podium garden instead of extensive green roofs. It is considered valuable and necessary of the extensive green roofs for the buildings. This paper investigates the current practice of using extensive green roofs in Hong Kong. The constraints in applying extensive green roofs are investigated, which leads to studying the solutions for mitigating these constraints and improving the future development of the implementation.

  3. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEsteves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species can induce infections in humans. Therefore understanding the structure and dynamics of non-pandemic environmental populations in temperate regions, such as Mediterranean coastal systems, is important if we are to evaluate the risks of infection to humans.Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n=109 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=89 sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA. V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity conditions for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk.

  4. Palatal changes of reverse smokers in a rural coastal Andhra population with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sreenivasa Bharath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate and record the palatal changes in individuals habituated to reverse chutta smoking in rural coastal Andhra population. Materials and Methods: Sixty individuals out of whom 47 females and 13 males habituated to reverse smoking with no other tobacco and alcohol habits and no other systemic disturbances were selected. The palatal changes were recorded by six examiners. Database were searched for the following terms "reverse smokers," "nicotina palatini" and "palatal lesions." Results: The mean and percentage prevalence of the each lesion recorded and agreed by six examiners among 60 subjects showed presence of 87.77% hyperpigmented areas, 64.44% depigmented areas, 51.66% excrescences, 32.22% potentially malignant lesions and 9.72% frank ulcerations. Conclusion: Reverse smoking is an endemic tobacco habit still practiced in the coastal rural Andhra Pradesh. It is a well-established and socially acceptable habit among adult females. The changes recorded clinically shows characteristic features that are unique among this population group.

  5. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...

  6. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-09-13

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  7. The population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from island and continental locations in Coastal Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Solano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We undertook a population genetics analysis of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a major vector of sleeping sickness in West Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Our aims were to estimate effective population size and the degree of isolation between coastal sites on the mainland of Guinea and Loos Islands. The sampling locations encompassed Dubréka, the area with the highest Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT prevalence in West Africa, mangrove and savannah sites on the mainland, and two islands, Fotoba and Kassa, within the Loos archipelago. These data are discussed with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of control strategies in those sites currently experiencing, or at risk of, sleeping sickness. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found very low migration rates between sites except between those sampled around the Dubréka area that seems to contain a widely dispersed and panmictic population. In the Kassa island samples, various effective population size estimates all converged on surprisingly small values (10population sizes suggest high levels of inbreeding in tsetse flies within the island samples in marked contrast to the large diffuse deme in Dubréka zones. We discuss how these genetic results suggest that different tsetse control strategies should be applied on the mainland and islands.

  8. The population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from island and continental locations in Coastal Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Philippe; Ravel, Sophie; Bouyer, Jeremy; Camara, Mamadou; Kagbadouno, Moise S; Dyer, Naomi; Gardes, Laetitia; Herault, Damien; Donnelly, Martin J; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    We undertook a population genetics analysis of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a major vector of sleeping sickness in West Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Our aims were to estimate effective population size and the degree of isolation between coastal sites on the mainland of Guinea and Loos Islands. The sampling locations encompassed Dubréka, the area with the highest Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) prevalence in West Africa, mangrove and savannah sites on the mainland, and two islands, Fotoba and Kassa, within the Loos archipelago. These data are discussed with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of control strategies in those sites currently experiencing, or at risk of, sleeping sickness. We found very low migration rates between sites except between those sampled around the Dubréka area that seems to contain a widely dispersed and panmictic population. In the Kassa island samples, various effective population size estimates all converged on surprisingly small values (10population sizes suggest high levels of inbreeding in tsetse flies within the island samples in marked contrast to the large diffuse deme in Dubréka zones. We discuss how these genetic results suggest that different tsetse control strategies should be applied on the mainland and islands.

  9. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk.

  10. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk. PMID:26236294

  11. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  12. A STUDY OF METABOLIC PARAMETER AND MORBIDITY PROFILE AMONG ELDERLY POPULATION IN RURAL COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global population ageing is an important challenge and opportunity faced by all countries. With advances in medicine helping more people to live longer lives, the number of people over age 60 years is expected to double by 2050 and will require radical social change according to a new report released by the WHO for the international day. Present study is designed to evaluate metabolic parameter and morbidity profile in elderly people in rural coastal Andhra Pradesh; 30% of male and 31% of the female was diabetic; 26.4% of the male and 37.5% of the female was having osteoarthritis; 41.18% of the male and 37.5% of the female have acid peptic disease; 10.1% of male and 12.75% of the female have ischemic heart disease. So it is required to provide promotional, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services in an integrated manner for the elderly

  13. Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961–1990. Methods. All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results. The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. Conclusions. The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited.

  14. Genetic analysis of threatened Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena suggests recruitment to coastal rivers from an unstructured marine larval source population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, D J; Crook, D A; O'Connor, J P; Hughes, J M

    2011-01-01

    Population genetic variation of Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena was examined to determine whether the dispersal strategy of this amphidromous species favours retention of larvae and juveniles in close proximity to their natal river, or mixing of populations via marine dispersal. Variation in microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers was unstructured and differentiation was indistinguishable from zero across four coastal rivers spanning approximately one-quarter of the continental range of the species. This result indicates that the marine larval and juvenile phase probably facilitates extensive gene flow among coastal rivers and agrees with a previous analysis of otolith chemistry that suggested larvae probably move into the sea rather than remain in estuaries. It appears likely that the dispersal strategy of P. maraena would enable recolonization of rivers that experience localized extinction provided that connectivity between freshwater habitats and the sea is sufficient to permit migration and that enough source populations remain intact to support viability of the wider population.

  15. Dense Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also appear white on mammography, they can be hidden by or within dense breast tissue. Other imaging ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  16. ESTUARINE AND COASTAL CHALLENGES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉余; 陈沈良

    2002-01-01

    Estuaries and coasts are conjunctions of four spheres (atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere) and important matter and energy convergence/divergence zones, where developed economy, dense population and highly intensive exploitation induce adverse environmental changes and serious destruction of resources, which have great impacts on coastal sustainable development, especially as the highly intensive development in river basins has direct and pronounced effects on estuaries and their adjacent coasts. In the new century, China's estuaries and coast are faced with four main challenges: sharp decrease of sediment discharge into the sea, rapid increase of pollution matter into the sea, loss of coastal wetland, and the impacts of global sea level rise on the coastallowlands of China. Therefore, it is undoubtedly very important and urgent to carry out studies on estuarine and coastal environmental changes, in order to resolve the issue of national sustainable development, especially that of rational use of coastal zone resources. ``

  17. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    OpenAIRE

    Salud Deudero; Maite Vázquez-Luis; Elvira Álvarez

    2015-01-01

    Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source) versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protec...

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of dense cell populations for metabolic studies and bioreactor engineering: a synergistic partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, B E; Gillies, R J

    1991-01-01

    Commercial exploitation of the fruits of recombinant DNA and cell fusion technologies is significantly limited by the lack of fundamental metabolic information on the cell lines of interest, whether these are plant, animal, insect, or microbial cells. NMR can help to provide this information and thereby improve bioreactor design and operation. However, in the case of on-line NMR of dense cell culture devices for metabolic studies, these devices are inherently heterogeneous bioreactors. To ensure that the metabolic information generated is reliable, a number of precautions should be taken. These are the same precautions that should be taken to ensure that commercial bioreactors operate in a reaction-controlled regime. Therefore, reactor engineering methodologies, particularly diffusion and reaction analyses and reaction monitoring by whole-cell NMR must go hand in hand, each extending, complementing, and validating the other.

  19. Incineration of Pre-Treated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW for Energy Co-Generation in a Non-Densely Populated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The planning actions in municipal solid waste (MSW management must follow strategies aimed at obtaining economies of scale. At the regional basin, a proper feasibility analysis of treatment and disposal plants should be based on the collection and analysis of data available on production rate and technological characteristics of waste. Considering the regulations constraint, the energy recovery is limited by the creation of small or medium-sized incineration plants, while separated collection strongly influences the heating value of the residual MSW. Moreover, separated collection of organic fraction in non-densely populated area is burdensome and difficult to manage. The paper shows the results of the analysis carried out to evaluate the potential energy recovery using a combined cycle for the incineration of mechanically pre-treated MSW in Basilicata, a non-densely populated region in Southern Italy. In order to focalize the role of sieving as pre-treatment, the evaluation on the MSW sieved fraction heating value was presented. Co-generative (heat and power production plant was compared to other MSW management solutions (e.g., direct landfilling, also considering the environmental impact in terms of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  20. Coastal Wetland Dynamics and Wildlife Populations: Modeling the Effects of Sea Level Rise and Landscape Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assess the potential impacts of sea level rise on coastal ecosystems and related wildlife resources. Develop a Bayesian Belief network that projects the impact of...

  1. Population structure, length-weight and length-length relationships of six populations of the Bartail Flathead Platycephalus indicus (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae along the Persian Gulf coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mousavi-Sabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The size frequency distribution for age structure, length-weight (LWR and length-length (LLR relationships of six populations of Platycephalus indicus along the Persian Gulf coastal waters in Iran are reported.  A total of 180 P. indicus specimens were studied from six localities including Charak, Bandar-Abbas, Shif, Motaf, Khur-Musa and Bahrekan.  The maximum standard length recorded for the studied populations ranged between 300 to 510 mm and the b values of the length-weight relationships ranged between 3.0 and 3.2.  The obtained results indicated isometric growth patterns for all these populations with the exception of the Bahrekan population which showed a positive allometric growth pattern.  The LLR between the total and standard lengths in these populations were found to be highly significant.  The results would be useful for further studies on population assessment and sustainable conservation of the fish along the Persian Gulf coastal waters.

  2. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G

    2009-01-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied...

  3. Survival, nesting success, and habitat selection in wild turkey populations in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, William F.

    2007-07-01

    ABSRACT. We compared survival rates between hunted and unhunted wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) gobblers in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina to assess the impact of spring gobbler-only hunts on populations. Gobblers were captured on the Savannah River Site (SRS), which contains long-established populations that have never been hunted, and on Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area and Ecological reserve (CWMA), which has held spring hunts since 1983. In January-March of 1998-2000, 46 gobblers were captured on SRS and 19 were captured no CWMA. Each turkey was fitted with a backpack radio transmitter and monitored 3 times per week.

  4. Three-dimensional resistivity tomography in extreme coastal terrain amidst dense cultural signals: application to cliff stability assessment at the historic D-Day site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, Suwimon; Günther, Thomas; Everett, Mark E.; Warden, Robert R.; Briaud, Jean-Louis

    2011-04-01

    Pointe du Hoc overlooking the English Channel in Normandy, France was host to one of the most important military engagements of World War II but is vulnerable to cliff collapses that threaten important German fortifications including the forward observation post (OP) and Rudder's command post. The objective of this study is to apply advanced 3-D resistivity tomography towards a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to the two at-risk buildings. 3-D resistivity tomography data sets at Pointe du Hoc in the presence of extreme topography and dense cultural clutter have been successfully acquired, inverted and interpreted. A cliff stability hazard assessment scheme has been designed in which regions of high resistivity are interpreted as zones of open, dry fractures with a moderate mass movement potential. Regions of low resistivity are zones of wet, clay-filled fractures with a high mass movement potential. The OP tomography results indicate that the highest mass movement hazard appears to be associated with the marine caverns at the base of the cliff that are positioned at the point of strongest wave attack. These caverns likely occupy the future site of development of a sea arch that will threaten the OP building. The mass movement potential at the Rudder's command post area is low to moderate. The greatest risk there is associated with soil wedge failures at the top of the cliffs.

  5. Some New Lidar Equations for Laser Pulses Scattered Back from Optically Thick Media Such as Clouds, Dense Aerosol Plumes, Sea Ice, Snow, and Turbid Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.

    2013-01-01

    I survey the theoretical foundations of the slowly-but-surely emerging field of multiple scattering lidar, which has already found applications in atmospheric and cryospheric optics that I also discuss. In multiple scattering lidar, returned pulses are stretched far beyond recognition, and there is no longer a one-to-one connection between range and return-trip timing. Moreover, one can exploit the radial profile of the diffuse radiance field excited by the laser source that, by its very nature, is highly concentrated in space and collimated in direction. One needs, however, a new class of lidar equations to explore this new phenomenology. A very useful set is derived from radiative diffusion theory, which is found at the opposite asymptotic limit of radiative transfer theory than the conventional (single-scattering) limit used to derive the standard lidar equation. In particular, one can use it to show that, even if the simple time-of-flight-to-range connection is irretrievably lost, multiply-scattered lidar light can be used to restore a unique profiling capability with coarser resolution but much deeper penetration into a wide variety of optical thick media in nature. Several new applications are proposed, including a laser bathymetry technique that should work for highly turbid coastal waters.

  6. Leaf n-alkanes as characters differentiating coastal and continental Juniperus deltoides populations from the Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-07-01

    The composition of the cuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of nine populations of Juniperus deltoides R.P.Adams from continental and coastal areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. n-Tritriacontane (C33 ) was dominant in the waxes of all populations, but variations between the populations in the contents of all n-alkanes were observed. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses) were used to investigate the diversity and variability of the cuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the nine J. deltoides populations. This is the first report on the n-alkane composition for this species. The multivariate statistical analyses evidenced a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane pattern with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon.

  7. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J Russell; Nalugwa, Allen; Webster, Bonnie L; Lange, Charles N; Jørgensen, Aslak; Rollinson, David; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2013-11-01

    Bulinus globosus, a key intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium that causes urinary schistosomiasis, is a hermaphroditic freshwater Planorbid snail species that inhabits patchy and transient water bodies prone to large seasonal variations in water availability. Although capable of self-fertilizing, this species has been reported to be preferentially out crossing. In this study, we characterized the population genetic structure of 19 B. globosus populations sampled across the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. Population genetic structure was characterized and quantified using FST statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms. The four loci used in this study contained sufficient statistical power to detect low levels of population genetic differentiation and were highly polymorphic with the number of alleles per locus across populations ranging from 16 to 22. Average observed and expected heterozygosities across loci in each population ranged from 0.13 to 0.69 and from 0.39 to 0.79, respectively. Twenty-five of the seventy-six possible population-locus comparisons significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions after Bonferroni corrections, mostly due to the deficiency of heterozygotes. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between populations and Bayesian inferences identified 15 genetic clusters. The excess homozygosity, significant inbreeding and population genetic differentiation observed in B. globosus populations are likely to be due to the habitat patchiness, mating system and the proneness to cyclic extinction and recolonization in transient habitats.

  8. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  9. Holocene phreatomagmatic eruptions alongside the densely populated northern shoreline of Lake Kivu, East African Rift: timing and hazard implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Smets, Benoît; Fontijn, Karen; Rukeza, Montfort Bagalwa; De Marie Fikiri Migabo, Antoine; Milungu, Albert Kyambikwa; Namogo, Didier Birimwiragi; Kervyn, François; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-11-01

    The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) represents the most active zone of volcanism in the western branch of the East African Rift System. While the VVP's two historically active volcanoes, Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo, have built scoria cones and lava flows in the adjacent lava fields, several small phreatomagmatic eruptive centers lie along Lake Kivu's northern shoreline, highlighting the potential for explosive magma-water interaction. Their presence in the densely urbanized Sake-Goma-Gisenyi area necessitates an assessment of their eruptive mechanisms and chronology. Some of these eruptive centers possess multiple vents, and depositional contacts suggest distinct eruptive phases within a single structure. Depositional facies range from polymict tuff breccia to tuff and loose lapilli, often impacted by blocks and volcanic bombs. Along with the presence of dilute pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits, indicators of magma-water interaction include the presence of fine palagonitized ash, ash aggregates, cross-bedding, and ballistic impact sags. We estimate that at least 15 phreatomagmatic eruptions occurred in the Holocene, during which Lake Kivu rose to its current water level. Radiocarbon dates of five paleosols in the top of volcanic tuff deposits range between ˜2500 and ˜150 cal. year bp and suggest centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence of phreatomagmatic activity. A vast part of the currently urbanized zone on the northern shoreline of Lake Kivu was most likely impacted by products from phreatomagmatic activity, including PDC events, during the Late Holocene, highlighting the need to consider explosive magma-water interaction as a potential scenario in future risk assessments.

  10. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  11. Seasonal occurrence and population structure of the broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus in coastal habitats of south-east Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, A; Stevens, J D; Frusher, S D; Semmens, J M

    2010-11-01

    Research longline sampling was conducted seasonally from December 2006 to February 2009 to investigate the occurrence and population structure of the broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus in coastal areas of south-east Tasmania. Notorynchus cepedianus showed a consistent temporal trend in seasonal occurrence in Norfolk Bay characterized by high abundances in summer to near absence in winter. This pattern was less pronounced in the Derwent Estuary, where fish were still caught during winter. The absence of smaller total length (L(T) ) classes (<80 cm) from the catches suggests that N. cepedianus are not using these coastal habitats as nursery areas. Of the 457 individuals tagged, 68 (15%) were recaptured. Time at liberty ranged from 6 days to almost 4 years and all but one of the recaptures were caught in its original tagging location, suggesting site fidelity. The large number of N. cepedianus in these coastal systems over summer indicates that these areas are important habitats for this species and that N. cepedianus may have a significant influence on community dynamics through both direct and indirect predator-prey interactions.

  12. Spatial Ecology of the Critically Endangered Fijian Crested Iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an Extremely Dense Population: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F.; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs. PMID:24019902

  13. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S; Keogh, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  14. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F Morrison

    Full Text Available The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  15. Population structure of an invasive parthenogenetic gastropod in coastal lakes and estuaries of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS. In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH. All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m(-2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20-30 mm SH which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked "brood pouch ecology", which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other

  16. Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and trace metals in River Nile up- and downstream of a densely populated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2017-02-01

    Cairo city is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Efforts to restore fish habitat and recreational use of the river have raised concerns about its water, sediment and biota quality. This study provides a baseline data on the levels of PCBs and trace metals in River Nile along Cairo sector and implements the formulation of monitoring activities of the river's pollution status. Water, sediment and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) samples were collected during summer season, 2013 from two sites, up- and downstream, for detection and determination of 11 PCB congeners (PCBs 28, 44, 52, 70, 101, 105, 118, 138, 152, 180 and 192) as well as six trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Fe). Evidences of long- or short-term exposures to these contaminants as well as its accumulation tendency were assessed by integrating the obtained analytical results of biotic and abiotic components of this aquatic ecosystem. All calculated lifetime cancer risk values for PCBs showed unacceptable risk of cancer for human consumers at both normal and subsistence fish consumption rates. The calculated hazard index for total PCBs indicates that fish are not safe for human consumption except in site 1 at normal consumption rate. Meanwhile, trace metals do not pose unacceptable risks at both consumption rates except for Pb in site 1 at subsistence consumption rate.

  17. Peripatric differentiation among adjacent marine lake and lagoon populations of a coastal fish, Sphaeramia orbicularis (Apogonidae, Perciformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Ryo O; Sekimoto, Hidekatsu; Chiba, Satoru N; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of geographical isolation on speciation, particularly within short geographical ranges, is poorly understood among marine organisms. Focusing on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, we investigated the effect of geographical isolation on Sphaeramia orbicularis, a coastal fish inhabiting marine lakes and lagoons. We collected a total of 157 individuals from three meromictic marine lakes and three lagoon sites, and analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of the populations based on complete sequences of the mitochondrial control region (824 bp). The analyses show that the genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations. Moreover, a mismatch distribution analysis suggests that marine lake populations have experienced a decrease followed by a rapid expansion of their population size. These results reveal that marine lake populations have experienced severe founder and/or bottleneck events during the last thousand to tens of thousand years. Pairwise Phi(ST )values ranged from 0.531 to 0.848 between marine lake and lagoon populations and from 0.429 to 0.870 among marine lake populations, indicating a high degree of genetic differentiation. We speculate that such peripatric differentiation between marine lake and lagoon populations was caused by a small number of individuals colonizing the lakes from the lagoon (founder event) followed by repetitive bottleneck events, such as those generated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). So far, such high genetic divergences in extremely short geographical ranges (approximately 150-250 m) have scarcely been reported for marine organisms. We suggest that the marine lake is one of the good model of geographical isolation in marine organisms and each marine lake population is in the early stages of speciation.

  18. Foliage maturity of Quercus ilex affects the larval development of a Croatian coastal population of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar is one of the most important forest pests in the world. Numerous previous studies focused only on different host tree species, but small number of them on foliage age. Since recent genetic analyses showed that there are significant differences between Croatian continental and coastal population we investigated coastal population since there was no previous research. For this research juvenile and mature foliage of Holm oak (Quercus ilex was used. Larval development was investigated in two laboratory experiments. One experiment involved rearing trials consisting of 50 individual larvae per treatment while a parallel experiment investigated gregarious feeding conditions using 120 larvae in a rearing treatment. Larval mortality was lower and development time shorter for individuals reared on juvenile foliage. High pupation success in both the individual and group rearing experiment for larvae reared on juvenile foliage was also observed. To conclude, our results showed high mortality, poor larval development and low pupation success in larvae reared on mature foliage. This research is significant because in the aspect of ongoing climate changes there is a possibility that gypsy moth will move to the north and shift its distribution by expanding into new climatic area.

  19. Twelve years of repeated wild hog activity promotes population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Callie A; Evans, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    Invasive animals can facilitate the success of invasive plant populations through disturbance. We examined the relationship between the repeated foraging disturbance of an invasive animal and the population maintenance of an invasive plant in a coastal dune ecosystem. We hypothesized that feral wild hog (Sus scrofa) populations repeatedly utilized tubers of the clonal perennial, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) as a food source and evaluated whether hog activity promoted the long-term maintenance of yellow nutsedge populations on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, United States. Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period. We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots. Wild hogs redisturbed the disturbed plots approximately every 5 years. Our research provides demographic evidence that repeated foraging disturbances by an invasive animal promote the long-term population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant. Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world.

  20. Adaptation to sea level rise: does local adaptation influence the demography of coastal fish populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, K M; Klerks, P L; Leberg, P L

    2010-10-01

    This study compared the growth of two western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis populations that were previously demonstrated to have genetic adaptations that increased survival under lethal salinity exposures. The objective was to evaluate how genetic adaptations to lethal salinity stress affect population demography when exposed to sublethal salinity stress. Results indicate that chronic salinity exposure had a generally negative impact on population size, but fish originating from one of the two populations established with fish from a brackish site exhibited an increase in population size. Saltwater intrusion seems to result in reduced population size for most populations. Some populations inhabiting more saline sites, however, may develop localized adaptations, mitigating the consequences of increased salinity on population productivity.

  1. Seasonal variations in virus-host populations in Norwegian coastal waters: focusing on the cyanophage community infecting marine Synechococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Larsen, Aud

    2006-07-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous components of the marine ecosystem. In the current study we investigated seasonal variations in the viral community in Norwegian coastal waters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results demonstrated that the viral community was diverse, displaying dynamic seasonal variation, and that viral populations of 29 different sizes in the range from 26 to 500 kb were present. Virus populations from 260 to 500 kb and dominating autotrophic pico- and nanoeukaryotes showed similar dynamic variations. Using flow cytometry and real-time PCR, we focused in particular on one host-virus system: Synechococcus spp. and cyanophages. The two groups covaried throughout the year and were found in the highest amounts in fall with concentrations of 7.3 x 10(4) Synechococcus cells ml(-1) and 7.2 x 10(3) cyanophage ml(-1). By using primers targeting the g20 gene in PCRs on DNA extracted from PFGE bands, we demonstrated that cyanophages were found in a genomic size range of 26 to 380 kb. The genetic richness of the cyanophage community, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified g20 gene fragments, revealed seasonal shifts in the populations, with one community dominating in spring and summer and a different one dominating in fall. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences originating from PFGE and DGGE bands grouped the sequences into three groups, all with homology to cyanomyoviruses present in cultures. Our results show that the cyanophage community in Norwegian coastal waters is dynamic and genetically diverse and has a surprisingly wide genomic size range.

  2. Coastal dynamics in western Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown

  3. Effects of watershed land-cover on the biogeochemical properties of estuarine tidal flat sediments: A test in a densely-populated subtropical island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akiko; Touyama, Shouji; Kuwae, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Osamu; Sakamaki, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of watershed land cover on the biogeochemical properties of estuarine tidal flat sediment were examined in estuarine tidal flats of 16 watersheds in a densely populated, subtropical island of Japan. Despite the small sizes of the watersheds (human nutrient inputs significantly increase algae-derived deposits in estuaries with relatively more developed watersheds. The δ13C of particulate organic matter (POM) was negatively related to watershed forest cover. This suggests that terrestrially derived-origin POM deposits are substantial in the estuaries connected to watersheds with relatively high forest cover. However, the chemical properties of tidal flat sediment were not related to chemical indicators of POM in the base flow. We hypothesize that substantial terrestrially derived POM is discharged to estuaries of high-forest-cover watersheds during high flow, and this partially controls the chemical properties of estuarine sediments. Our results demonstrate that the chemical properties of estuarine tidal flats are associated with watershed land cover, and that the dominant processes controlling estuarine sediment properties differ among watersheds depending on land cover composition.

  4. Stereospecific growth of densely populated rutile mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoplate films: a facile low temperature chemical synthesis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Go-Woon; Cho, Young-Jin; Mane, Rajaram S; Shashikala, V; Yadav, Jyotiprakash; Gaikwad, Rajendra S; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Ambade, Swapnil B; Lee, Soo-Hyoung [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Nanomaterials Processing Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: shlee66@jbnu.ac.kr, E-mail: joocat@kist.re.kr [Inorganic Nanomaterials Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-12

    We report for the first time, using a simple and environmentally benign chemical method, the low temperature synthesis of densely populated upright-standing rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoplate films onto a glass substrate from a mixture of titanium trichloride, hydrogen peroxide and thiourea in triply distilled water. The rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoplate films (the phase is confirmed from x-ray diffraction analysis, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and Raman shift) are 20-35 nm wide and 100-120 nm long. The chemical reaction kinetics for the growth of these upright-standing TiO{sub 2} nanoplate films is also interpreted. Films of TiO{sub 2} nanoplates are optically transparent in the visible region with a sharp absorption edge close to 350 nm, confirming an indirect band gap energy of 3.12 eV. The Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area, Barret-Joyner-Halenda pore volume and pore diameter, obtained from N{sub 2} physisorption studies, are 82 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, 0.0964 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} and 3.5 nm, respectively, confirming the mesoporosity of scratched rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoplate powder that would be ideal for the direct fabrication of nanoscaled devices including upcoming dye-sensitized solar cells and gas sensors.

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Socially-Marginalized Female Population in Coastal Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Segundo R.; Konda, Kelika A.; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Pajuelo, Jose B.; Rosasco, Ana M.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Results. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%–12.3%). The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.6) and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.9). Conclusions. A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted. PMID:19584943

  6. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brischoux

    Full Text Available The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1 without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging. More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  7. Hypernatremia in Dice Snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a Coastal Population: Implications for Osmoregulation in Marine Snake Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol.l−1) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands. PMID:24658047

  8. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V

    2014-01-01

    The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1)) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Socially-Marginalized Female Population in Coastal Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo R. Leon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Results. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%–12.3%. The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.6 and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.9. Conclusions. A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted.

  10. Mitochondrial population genomics supports a single pre-Clovis origin with a coastal route for the peopling of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nelson J R; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C S; Bogo, Mauricio R; Salzano, Francisco M; Smith, David Glenn; Silva, Wilson A; Zago, Marco A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K; Santos, Sidney E B; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2008-03-01

    It is well accepted that the Americas were the last continents reached by modern humans, most likely through Beringia. However, the precise time and mode of the colonization of the New World remain hotly disputed issues. Native American populations exhibit almost exclusively five mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (A-D and X). Haplogroups A-D are also frequent in Asia, suggesting a northeastern Asian origin of these lineages. However, the differential pattern of distribution and frequency of haplogroup X led some to suggest that it may represent an independent migration to the Americas. Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models. A detailed demographic history of the mtDNA sequences estimated with a Bayesian coalescent method indicates a complex model for the peopling of the Americas, in which the initial differentiation from Asian populations ended with a moderate bottleneck in Beringia during the last glacial maximum (LGM), around approximately 23,000 to approximately 19,000 years ago. Toward the end of the LGM, a strong population expansion started approximately 18,000 and finished approximately 15,000 years ago. These results support a pre-Clovis occupation of the New World, suggesting a rapid settlement of the continent along a Pacific coastal route.

  11. Heavy metal contamination of coastal lagoon sediments: Fongafale Islet, Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masafumi; Ide, Yoichi; Sato, Daisaku; Kench, Paul S; Kuwahara, Yuji; Yokoki, Hiromune; Kayanne, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate contamination of coastal sediments along Fongafale Islet, Central Pacific, a field survey was conducted in densely populated, sparsely populated, open dumping and undisturbed natural areas. Current measurements in shallow water of the lagoon indicated that contaminants from the densely populated area would only be transported for a small proportion of a tidal cycle. Acid-volatile sulfides were detected in both the intertidal beach and nearshore zones of the densely populated area, whereas these were no detection in the other areas. This observation lends support to argument that the coastal pollution mechanism that during ebb tide, domestic wastewater leaking from poorly constructed sanitary facilities seeps into the coast. The total concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were relatively high in all of the areas except the undisturbed natural area. The indices of contamination factor, pollution load index and geoaccumulation index were indicative of heavy metal pollution in the three areas. The densely populated area has the most significant contamination; domestic wastewater led to significant contamination of coastal sediments with Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The open dumping area is noteworthy with respect to Mn and Ni, which can be derived from disposed batteries. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trace element reference intervals in the blood of healthy green sea turtles to evaluate exposure of coastal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C A; Flint, M; Bell, I; Hof, C; Limpus, C J; Gaus, C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to essential and non-essential elements may be elevated for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) that forage close to shore. Biomonitoring of trace elements in turtle blood can identify temporal trends over repeated sampling events, but any interpretation of potential health risks due to an elevated exposure first requires a comparison against a baseline. This study aims to use clinical reference interval (RI) methods to produce exposure baseline limits for essential and non-essential elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) using blood from healthy subadult turtles foraging in a remote and offshore part of the Great Barrier Reef. Subsequent blood biomonitoring of three additional coastal populations, which forage in areas dominated by agricultural, urban and military activities, showed clear habitat-specific differences in blood metal profiles relative to the those observed in the offshore population. Coastal turtles were most often found to have elevated concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Mg, Na, As, Sb, and Pb relative to the corresponding RIs. In particular, blood from turtles from the agricultural site had Co concentrations ranging from 160 to 840 μg/L (4-25 times above RI), which are within the order expected to elicit acute effects in many vertebrates. Additional clinical blood biochemistry and haematology results indicate signs of a systemic disease and the prevalence of an active inflammatory response in a high proportion (44%) of turtles from the agricultural site. Elevated Co, Sb, and Mn in the blood of these turtles significantly correlated with elevated markers of acute inflammation (total white cell counts) and liver dysfunction (alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin). The results of this study support the notion that elevated trace element exposures may be adversely affecting the health of nearshore green sea turtles.

  13. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Cidón B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bárbara Fernández-Cidón,1–3 Ariadna Padró-Miquel,1 Pedro Alía-Ramos,1 María José Castro-Castro,1 Marta Fanlo-Maresma,4 Dolors Dot-Bach,1 José Valero-Politi,1 Xavier Pintó-Sala,4 Beatriz Candás-Estébanez1 1Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 2Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacogenetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 4Cardiovascular Risk Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Background: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation. Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results: The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73 + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13, demonstrating no significant statistical differences

  14. Phylogenetics and population genetics of Plotosus canius (Siluriformes: Plotosidae from Malaysian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Khalili Samani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plotosus canius (Hamilton, 1822 is a significant marine species in Malaysia from nutritional and commercial perspectives. Despite numerous fundamental research on biological characteristics of P. canius, there are various concerns on the level of population differentiation, genomic structure, and the level of genetic variability among their populations due to deficiency of genetic-based studies. Deficiency on basic contexts such as stock identification, phylogenetic relationship and population genetic structure would negatively impact their sustainable conservation. Hence, this study was conducted to characterize the genetic structure of P. canius for the first time through the application of mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI gene, cross amplification of Tandanus tandanus microsatellites, and a total of 117 collected specimens across five selected populations of Malaysia. The experimental results of the mitochondrial analysis revealed that the haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity varied from 0.395–0.771 and 0.033–0.65 respectively. Moreover, the statistical analysis of microsatellites addressed a considerable heterozygote insufficiency in all populations, with average observed heterozygosity (Ho value of 0.2168, which was lower than the standard heterozygosity in marine populations (Ho = 0.79. This alongside the high Fis values estimation, high pairwise differentiation among populations and low within population variations are supposed to be associated with small sample size, and inbreeding system. Besides, the significant finding of this study was the sharing of common haplotype KR086940, which reflects a historical genetic connectivity between Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo populations due to the geological history of Southeast Asia during Pleistocene era. Demographic analyses showed that all populations were in an equilibrium state with no significant evidence of population expansion. To put it briefly, the current study has

  15. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify driv...

  16. Effects of tidal amplitude on intertidal resource availability and dispersal pressure in prehistoric human coastal populations: the Mediterranean Atlantic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Darren Andrew

    2008-11-01

    In this paper I argue that there is a growing body of evidence supporting an increasingly central position of coastal environments in human evolution and dispersals, rather than as merely peripheral habitats. Eustatic fluctuations during glacial cycles have meant that most prehistoric coastlines are now underwater, and lack of evidence to date of a close relationship between people and the coast can be most plausibly ascribed to the limited studies so far on submerged sites. Coastal environments provide high diversity in food resources, consisting of multiple ecotones in close proximity, which reduces the need to forage widely. One of the richest and most easily exploited coastal resources by human populations living on the coast are molluscs from marine rocky intertidal communities, which recent evidence has highlighted as important as far back as the Middle Palaeolithic. However, the density of these resources is limited by a number of factors, and this varies geographically. One of the main large-scale factors limiting rocky intertidal mollusc densities is tidal amplitude, beyond which smaller-scale local factors such as exposure to wave action and shore aspect, further affect species distributions. The area around the Strait of Gibraltar is used as a case study of an area, which is affected by large variations in tidal amplitudes thus allowing for quantitative comparisons between taxonomically and climatically similar regions. Shorelines along the Mediterranean coast, with reduced tidal amplitudes, exhibit compressed zonations and harbour fewer macro-mollusc individuals, with the reverse being the case along the Atlantic coast, which has significantly larger tides. Data from Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites along the Strait are used to establish harvested species and present-day data are used to model the potential distributions and associated variables such as calorific returns of key food species. An optimal foraging model is used to explore the effects of

  17. Enhanced primary production in summer and winter-spring seasons in a populated NW Mediterranean coastal ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guallar, Carles; Flos, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    Populated coastal ecosystems in the NW Mediterranean present three main characteristics that distinguish them from the open water ecosystem: a sea-land interaction, with freshwater influence from river mouths; a shallow seabed, which facilitates the interaction between the euphotic water column and the sediments; and high anthropogenic pressure, due to submarine sewage discharges. As a result, relatively high nutrient concentrations are measured in these ecosystems, with ammonia being an important fraction. These characteristics entail a different scenario from the open water ecosystem. Here, we present the distribution of phytoplankton primary production in the Barcelona coastal waters during summer and winter-spring seasons, by means of photosynthesis-irradiance experiments using the 14C technique. In winter-spring, stratification of the water column may begin earlier than in open water due to freshwater inputs. Therefore, with the water-column slightly stratified, chlorophyll-a and primary production become localised in the surface layers, due to the lower daily irradiance during this season. In these conditions, Total Primary Production (TPP) values measured ranged between 0.27 and 14.52 mgC m- 3 h- 1. As spring progresses and the stratification develops, surface waters tend to become nutrient depleted and nutrients are mainly localised in bottom waters between the thermocline and the seafloor. Under these conditions, high chlorophyll layers develop near the bottom. With the exception of their nutrient enrichment, these structures, referred to as coastal deep chlorophyll maxima, are comparable to the oceanic deep chlorophyll maxima in temperate oligotrophic seas. The nutrient enrichment is the result of the sediment resuspension from the seabed and the presence of sewage water discharged from the submarine outfall. These structures are highly productive (ca. 60% of water column primary production), comparable to the winter-spring bloom, and are sustained

  18. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in populations of the clam Chione californiensis in coastal lagoons of the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-González, Héctor H; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Mendoza-Salgado, Renato A; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A

    2016-07-02

    This study examines the potential public health risk due to the massive use of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in agriculture in the Gulf of California. Specimens of the clam Chione californiensis were collected from three coastal lagoons (Yavaros, Altata and Reforma). Sites were classified as polluted/nonpolluted based on the presence/absence of OCs as an indicator of the persistence of these pollutants; in polluted sites, the time elapsed since pesticide application (past or recent) was estimated. Screening values (SV) for protecting human health as per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were used for risk assessment. OCs detected were ranked according to frequency of occurrence as follows: γ-chlordane (75%) > endrin (54%) > aldrin (48%) > heptachlor, and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDE) (37%) > β-heptachlor epoxide (30%) > lindane (α-BHC, δ-BHC) and endosulphan I (≤ 6%). Specifically, OCs detected at the highest concentration were heptachlor in Yavaros (0.0168 µgg(-1)) and Altata (0.0046 µgg(-1)), and aldrin in Reforma (0.0019 µgg(-1)). β-Heptachlor epoxide in Altata and Reforma was the only OC with a concentration exceeding the EPA Screening Value. From our results and based on the monthly consumption limit set forth by EPA, the maximum safe consumption of clams to avoid a carcinogenic risk derived from β-heptachlor epoxide in the fishing villages of Yavaros and Altata is 4 servings per month (1 serving = 0.227 kg) by a 70-kg person. These findings suggest that concentrations of OCs and their isomers in C. californiensis populations reflect environmental persistence as well as recent inputs of OCs into coastal lagoons in the Gulf of California.

  19. Electrofishing as a sampling technique for coastal stream fish populations and communities in the Southeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni; Fenerich-Verani; Caramaschi

    2000-05-01

    Electrofishing adequacy was tested as a technique to obtain quantitative data of coastal stream fish populations and communities in the Southeast of Brazil. Seven field trips, between July/94 and July/95, were done in 5 localities of the Ubatiba fluvial system (Maricá, RJ). Seventeen species, among the 22 collected, had their numbers estimated through the Zipping method, the model used to test the sampling methodology. At each field trip, three removals with electrofishing were done in each locality and, according to the number of obtained species at each locality/field trip, we analysed 315 cases. Nineteen cases, among 315, showed failure condition. Estimates were significant (p catchability and the estimated number of individuals and/or environmental characteristics. High values for sampling efficiency (> 85%) were found for all estimates. An experimental analyses were done for one locality and, the comparison between the estimates for 3 and 6 successive removals showed a mean error and a standard deviation of 5.5% and 2.1% respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that electrofishing was an efficient method for quantitative data analysis of fish populations and communities in the Ubatiba fluvial system.

  20. Quantifying age-related rates of social contact using diaries in a rural coastal population of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Chapa Kiti

    Full Text Available Improved understanding and quantification of social contact patterns that govern the transmission dynamics of respiratory viral infections has utility in the design of preventative and control measures such as vaccination and social distancing. The objective of this study was to quantify an age-specific matrix of contact rates for a predominantly rural low-income population that would support transmission dynamic modeling of respiratory viruses.From the population register of the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, coastal Kenya, 150 individuals per age group (50 years exhibited the highest inter-generational contacts. Rural contact rates were higher than semiurban (18.8 vs 15.6, p = 0.002, with rural primary school students having twice as many assortative contacts as their semiurban peers.This is the first age-specific contact matrix to be defined for tropical Sub-Saharan Africa and has utility in age-structured models to assess the potential impact of interventions for directly transmitted respiratory infections.

  1. Quantifying Age-Related Rates of Social Contact Using Diaries in a Rural Coastal Population of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiti, Moses Chapa; Kinyanjui, Timothy Muiruri; Koech, Dorothy Chelagat; Munywoki, Patrick Kiio; Medley, Graham Francis; Nokes, David James

    2014-01-01

    Background Improved understanding and quantification of social contact patterns that govern the transmission dynamics of respiratory viral infections has utility in the design of preventative and control measures such as vaccination and social distancing. The objective of this study was to quantify an age-specific matrix of contact rates for a predominantly rural low-income population that would support transmission dynamic modeling of respiratory viruses. Methods and Findings From the population register of the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, coastal Kenya, 150 individuals per age group (50 years) exhibited the highest inter-generational contacts. Rural contact rates were higher than semiurban (18.8 vs 15.6, p = 0.002), with rural primary school students having twice as many assortative contacts as their semiurban peers. Conclusions and Significance This is the first age-specific contact matrix to be defined for tropical Sub-Saharan Africa and has utility in age-structured models to assess the potential impact of interventions for directly transmitted respiratory infections. PMID:25127257

  2. Shit and piss : An environmental history of the meaning and management of human excrement in densely populated areas and urban regions, with a focus on agriculture and public health issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steinig, Wenzel

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses individual and societal relations to human excrement by looking at historical and contemporary examples of symbolics and management systems of human shit and piss. It furthermore connects urban culture to a particular type of perception of the meaning of human waste. End-of-pipe, large scale sewerage solutions for densely populated areas and cities are analysed for their historical origins and contemporary ramifications, and contrasted with examples of classical, mediaeva...

  3. 性能化设计在小型人员密集场所中的应用%Application of performance-based design in small densely populated places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘米达

    2011-01-01

    针对人员密集场所的建筑特点、火灾隐患现状,采用论述的方法,分析了小型人员密集场所的基本情况及普遍存在的火灾隐患,总结了应用性能化消防设计指导小型人员密集场所火灾隐患整改的意义,并通过多因数分析,结合消防监督工作实践,介绍了当前性能化消防设计的思路,以提高小型人员密集场所综合防御火灾的能力和经营者的消防意识,从而避免出现群死群伤的恶性火灾事故.%Based on the building characteristics of densely populated places and the current situation of fire hazards, analyses were made of the general situation of small densely-populated places and common fire hazards.The significance of fire hazards rectification at small densely populated places directed by the performance-based fire fighting design was summarized.Meanwhile, based on multi-factor analysis and fire fighting supervising practice, current thought of performance-based fire fighting design was introduced to improve comprehensive abilities of fire prevention in small densely populated places and strengthen operators' awareness of fire fighting so that fatal fire accidents of heavy group casualties can be avoided.

  4. Pleistocene glacial refugia across the Appalachian Mountains and coastal plain in the millipede genus Narceus: Evidence from population genetic, phylogeographic, and paleoclimatic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Paul E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species that are widespread throughout historically glaciated and currently non-glaciated areas provide excellent opportunities to investigate the role of Pleistocene climatic change on the distribution of North American biodiversity. Many studies indicate that northern animal populations exhibit low levels of genetic diversity over geographically widespread areas whereas southern populations exhibit relatively high levels. Recently, paleoclimatic data have been combined with niche-based distribution modeling to locate possible refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Using phylogeographic, population, and paleoclimatic data, we show that the distribution and mitochondrial data for the millipede genus Narceus are consistent with classical examples of Pleistocene refugia and subsequent post-glacial population expansion seen in other organismal groups. Results The phylogeographic structure of Narceus reveals a complex evolutionary history with signatures of multiple refugia in southeastern North America followed by two major northern expansions. Evidence for refugial populations were found in the southern Appalachian Mountains and in the coastal plain. The northern expansions appear to have radiated from two separate refugia, one from the Gulf Coastal Plain area and the other from the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Distributional models of Narceus during the Last Glacial Maximum show a dramatic reduction from the current distribution, with suitable ecological zones concentrated along the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. We found a strong correlation between these zones of ecological suitability inferred from our paleo-model with levels of genetic diversity derived from phylogenetic and population estimates of genetic structuring. Conclusion The signature of climatic change, during and after the Pleistocene, on the distribution of the millipede genus Narceus is evident in the genetic data presented. Niche-based historical

  5. Pleistocene glacial refugia across the Appalachian Mountains and coastal plain in the millipede genus Narceus: evidence from population genetic, phylogeographic, and paleoclimatic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matt J; Stockman, Amy K; Marek, Paul E; Bond, Jason E

    2009-01-30

    Species that are widespread throughout historically glaciated and currently non-glaciated areas provide excellent opportunities to investigate the role of Pleistocene climatic change on the distribution of North American biodiversity. Many studies indicate that northern animal populations exhibit low levels of genetic diversity over geographically widespread areas whereas southern populations exhibit relatively high levels. Recently, paleoclimatic data have been combined with niche-based distribution modeling to locate possible refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Using phylogeographic, population, and paleoclimatic data, we show that the distribution and mitochondrial data for the millipede genus Narceus are consistent with classical examples of Pleistocene refugia and subsequent post-glacial population expansion seen in other organismal groups. The phylogeographic structure of Narceus reveals a complex evolutionary history with signatures of multiple refugia in southeastern North America followed by two major northern expansions. Evidence for refugial populations were found in the southern Appalachian Mountains and in the coastal plain. The northern expansions appear to have radiated from two separate refugia, one from the Gulf Coastal Plain area and the other from the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Distributional models of Narceus during the Last Glacial Maximum show a dramatic reduction from the current distribution, with suitable ecological zones concentrated along the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. We found a strong correlation between these zones of ecological suitability inferred from our paleo-model with levels of genetic diversity derived from phylogenetic and population estimates of genetic structuring. The signature of climatic change, during and after the Pleistocene, on the distribution of the millipede genus Narceus is evident in the genetic data presented. Niche-based historical distribution modeling strengthens the conclusions drawn from the

  6. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  7. Biomarker measurements in a coastal fish-eating population environmentally exposed to organochlorines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Lambert, George H; Perkins, Sherry L; Poon, Raymond; Feeley, Mark; Larochelle, Christian; Pereg, Daria

    2005-10-01

    The Lower North Shore region of the St. Lawrence River is home to a fish-eating population that displays an unusually high body burden of several organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). We measured biomarkers indicative of liver enzyme induction and investigated the relationship with organochlorine body burden in adult volunteers from this population. We determined plasma concentrations of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) with electron capture detection. DLC concentrations were measured by the dioxin-receptor chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay and in a subset of participants, by HRGC/high-resolution mass spectrometry. We measured cotinine, d-glucaric acid, and porphyrins in morning urine samples and determined liver CYP1A2 activity in vivo using the caffeine breath test. Neither DLC concentrations as measured by the DR-CALUX nor PCB-153 concentrations, the latter representing total PCB exposure, were correlated with biomarkers of effects. Smoking (morning urinary cotinine concentration) was positively related to CYP1A2 activity as measured by the caffeine breath test (p biomarkers of hepatic enzyme induction. Our data are consistent with smoking-induced liver CYP1A2 activity altering heme metabolism and increasing the biotransformation of mono-ortho PCB congeners.

  8. The role of advection in the distribution of plankton populations at a moored 1-D coastal observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jaimie; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.; Hosegood, Philip J.; Torres, Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    The degree to which advection modulates the distribution of plankton populations at a 1-D coastal observatory was assessed at station L4 in the western English Channel (50°15‧N 4°13‧W, depth 50 m), part of the Western Channel Observatory (WCO). Five tidal-cycle surveys were conducted, three in spring and two in summer 2010. Observations of the physical characteristics of L4 were obtained by using a moored acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) and a free-falling microstructure sensor (MSS). The moored ADCP highlighted the presence of vertical shear, with typical values of U during spring tides of ∼0.5 m s-1 at the surface and ∼0.2 m s-1 at the bed. The distribution of phyto- and zooplankton populations above a size threshold of 200 μm were examined using an in-line holographic imaging system, the Holocam. Variability in time as well as depth is a common feature throughout each of the surveys, with examples of recorded numbers of phytoplankton that ranged between 1300 L-1 and 2300 L-1 at the same depth but at different points within the tidal cycle. Further, at the same points in the tidal cycle the number of recorded zooplankton was also seen to vary, specifically with the identification of gelatinous planula in spring that increased the observed number to maximums of between 140 L-1 and 220 L-1 in the upper layer, considerably higher that the corresponding WP-2 net counts for a similar period. Specific aspects of the movement and transfer of plankton relating to advection and interaction with the pycnocline are identified, both across tidal cycles and seasons.

  9. Dense topological spaces and dense continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwoah, Khaled A.

    2013-09-01

    There are several attempts to generalize (or "widen") the concept of topological space. This paper uses equivalence relations to generalize the concept of topological space via the concept of equivalence relations. By the generalization, we can introduce from particular topology on a nonempty set X many new topologies, we call anyone of these new topologies a dense topology. In addition, we formulate some simple properties of dense topologies and study suitable generalizations of the concepts of limit points, closeness and continuity, as well as Jackson, Nörlund and Hahn dense topologies.

  10. Local and global influences on population declines of coastal waders: Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima numbers in the Moray Firth, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ron W.; Foster, Simon; Swann, Bob; Etheridge, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Declines in numbers by several wader species in Britain have been linked to climate change, but the mechanism for the declines has rarely been explored. Britain lies at the northern end of the East Atlantic Flyway, and supports 1.3 million out of the Flyway's 8.5 million coastal waders (Charadrii) in winter and the Purple Sandpiper is one of the species whose numbers have declined. Here, we examine the dynamics of the decline as observed in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland, investigating whether the decline was due to poorer apparent survival (return rate) or poorer recruitment of young birds. The maximum number in the Moray Firth declined from 860 in 1987/88 to 236 in 2006/07, with some increase during winters 2007/08 and 2008/09. At the three main high-tide roosts (Balintore, Lossiemouth and Buckie) the maximum combined number declined from 574 to 90. Changes in survival and recruitment (percentage of first-year birds) were examined at these roosts from captured samples, which were ringed and recaptured. There were no significant changes between winters in survival rates, nor were there differences between the survival rates of age groups (first-year and adult) or bill size groups, which represented birds of different sex and breeding origin. Annual survival estimates for the three roosts ranged from 72 to 77%. The percentage of first-year birds varied among roosts and years; the lowest values were during the late 1980s/early 1990s and early 2000s. A free-running population model incorporating varying percentages of first-year birds and constant mortality for each roost provided a plausible explanation for the decline. Although modelled numbers followed the observed pattern, a discrepancy in one year was carried forward in subsequent years, so that the fit with the observed numbers was parallel rather than similar. However, it seems that the decline in numbers was largely due to poorer recruitment. We discuss whether breeding success had declined, whether the

  11. Continental patterns of submarine groundwater discharge reveal coastal vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; David, Cédric H.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2016-08-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) delivers water and dissolved chemicals from continents to oceans, and its spatial distribution affects coastal water quality. Unlike rivers, SGD is broadly distributed and relatively difficult to measure, especially at continental scales. We present spatially resolved estimates of fresh (land-derived) SGD for the contiguous United States based on historical climate records and high-resolution hydrographic data. Climate controls regional patterns in fresh SGD, while coastal drainage geometry imparts strong local variability. Because the recharge zones that contribute fresh SGD are densely populated, the quality and quantity of fresh SGD are both vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance. Our analysis unveils hot spots for contaminant discharge to marine waters and saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers.

  12. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  13. Proxy measures of fitness suggest coastal fish farms can act as population sources and not ecological traps for wild gadoid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Dempster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological traps form when artificial structures are added to natural habitats and induce mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences. Their existence in terrestrial systems has been documented, yet little evidence suggests they occur in marine environments. Coastal fish farms are widespread artificial structures in coastal ecosystems and are highly attractive to wild fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if coastal salmon farms act as ecological traps for wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and saithe (Pollachius virens, we compared proxy measures of fitness between farm-associated fish and control fish caught distant from farms in nine locations throughout coastal Norway, the largest coastal fish farming industry in the world. Farms modified wild fish diets in both quality and quantity, thereby providing farm-associated wild fish with a strong trophic subsidy. This translated to greater somatic (saithe: 1.06-1.12 times; cod: 1.06-1.11 times and liver condition indices (saithe: 1.4-1.8 times; cod: 2.0-2.8 times than control fish caught distant from farms. Parasite loads of farm-associated wild fish were modified from control fish, with increased external and decreased internal parasites, however the strong effect of the trophic subsidy overrode any effects of altered loads upon condition. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Proxy measures of fitness provided no evidence that salmon farms function as ecological traps for wild fish. We suggest fish farms may act as population sources for wild fish, provided they are protected from fishing while resident at farms to allow their increased condition to manifest as greater reproductive output.

  14. Population biology and habitat associations of benthic fish species in the shallow areas of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (SE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Verdiell Cubedo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the seasonal variation in fish abundance, fish biomass, reproductive status and population structure of four dominant benthic fish species, Salaria pavo, Pomatoschistus marmoratus, Gobius cobitis and Gobius niger, in the shallow and littoral areas of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon. In addition, the seasonal habitat associations of each species were studied by assessing environmental variables related to the habitat structure: submerged vegetation cover, submerged vegetation density, water depth and substrate composition. The temporal variations in fish density, standing stock and size frequency distributions of these species can largely be attributed to the seasonality of their breeding and juvenile recruitment periods. Moreover, habitat associations for these species were similar to those obtained in other Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal lagoons.

  15. Dense with Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Ingkanisorn, W. Patricia; Mancini, Christine; Arai, Andrew E.

    2005-09-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) with a low encoding strength phase-cycled meta-DENSE readout and a two fold SENSE acceleration ( R = 2) is described. This combination reduces total breath-hold times for increased patient comfort during cardiac regional myocardial contractility studies. Images from phantoms, normal volunteers, and a patient are provided to demonstrate the SENSE-DENSE combination of methods. The overall breath-hold time is halved while preserving strain map quality.

  16. Social-psychological well-being of rural population in the White Sea coastal area as a risk factor for the Russian Arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey O. Podoplekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a generalized data from sociological survey of social-psychological well-being of the rural population of the coastal areas in Arkhangelsk region (included into the Russian Arctic zone held in 2015. The data shows a critical level of social pessimism, assurance of residents in continuation of negative social-economic dynamics, deficiency of motivation and readiness for active participation and inclusion into the development of territories. Such a status is based on a deep degradation of local industries, infrastructures and social sphere, which has been confirmed by statistic data. The revealed indicators explain high migration preparedness, especially in groups of working ages, proceeding, in the middle-term prospective, to the risk of depopulation and disintegration of social carcass in the coastal areas which, in their turn, possess a significant resource potential. At that, residential population on these areas considered as strategic factor from the perspective of Russian geopolitical interests in the Arctic. A positive trend may be provided through implementation of spatial approach to the social-economic development, which has been already applied in activities held by the Russian State Commission on the Arctic Development. With that there is obvious relevance of correction of the Russian legislation toward transformation of residential population into the beneficiary party of the macro-regional development, which may be provided by establishing of special regimes and preferences in spheres of natural resource use, tax assessment, entrepreneurship and crediting for all groups indigenous (resident population, including aboriginal people of the North.

  17. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  18. Quantum dense key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S; Rastello, M L; Bovino, F A; Colla, A M; Castagnoli, G C

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than BB84 one. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

  19. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  20. Spatial distribution of populations of solitarious adult desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsk.) on the coastal plain of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldewahid, G.; Werf, van der W.; Huis, van A.; Stein, A.

    2004-01-01

    1 Densities of solitarious adult desert locusts were measured on regular grids of up to 126 sample sites in the southern part of the coastal plain of Sudan during the winters of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Geostatistical procedures were used to characterize spatial dependence of locust density, to eval

  1. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups.

  2. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B Hawkins

    Full Text Available Germinal centers (GCs are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  3. Cholera in coastal Africa: a systematic review of its heterogeneous environmental determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudet, Stanislas; Sudre, Bertrand; Faucher, Benoît; Piarroux, Renaud

    2013-11-01

    According to the "cholera paradigm," epidemiology of this prototypical waterborne disease is considered to be driven directly by climate-induced variations in coastal aquatic reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae. This systematic review on environmental determinants of cholera in coastal Africa shows that instead coastal epidemics constitute a minor part of the continental cholera burden. Most of coastal cholera foci are located near estuaries, lagoons, mangrove forests, and on islands. Yet outbreaks often originate in coastal cities, where cholera is more likely to be imported from distant areas. Cholera outbreaks also may intensify in densely populated slum quarters before spreading to adjacent regions. Frequent seasonality of cholera incidence appears driven by the rainfall-induced contamination of unprotected water sources through latrine overflow and sewage, as well as by the periodicity of human activities like fishing or traveling. Lulls in transmission periods of several years are repeatedly recorded even in high-risk coastal areas. To date, environmental studies have failed to demonstrate a perennial aquatic reservoir of toxigenic V. cholerae around the continent. Finally, applicability of the cholera paradigm therefore appears questionable in Africa, although available data remain limited. Thorough surveys with microbiological analyses of water samples and prospective genotyping of environmental and clinical strains of V. cholerae are needed to understand determinants of cholera in coastal Africa and better target prevention and control measures.

  4. Ground-based LiDAR application to characterize sea cliff instability processes along a densely populated coastline in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Semaan, Fouad; Salvini, Riccardo; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Sea cliff retreatment along the coastline of the Campi Flegrei volcanic area (Southern Italy) is becoming a threat for public and private structures due to the massive urbanization occurred in the last few decades. In this area, geological features of the outcropping rocks represent one of the most important factors conditioning the sea cliff retreatment. In fact, pyroclastic deposits formed by pumices, scoria, ashes and lapilli are arranged in weakly to moderately welded layers of variable thicknesses, resulting very erodible and prone to landslide processes. Available methods to evaluate topographic changes and retreat rates of sea cliffs include a variety of geomatic techniques, like terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). By means of such techniques, it is in fact possible to obtain high resolution topography of sea cliffs and perform multi-temporal change detection analysis. In this contribution, we present an application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS or ground-based LiDAR) aimed to identify and quantify instability processes acting along the Torrefumo coastal cliff, in the Campi Flegrei area. Specifically, we acquired a series of 3D point clouds on the years 2013 and 2016, and compared them through a cloud-to-cloud distance computation. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was applied to the change detection results. In this way, an inventory of the cliff failures occurred along the Torrefumo cliff in the 2013-2016 time span was created, as well as the spatial and volumetric distribution of these failures was evaluated. The volumetric analysis shows that large collapses occurred rarely, whereas the spatial analysis shows that the majority of failures occurred in the middle and upper parts of the cliff face. Results also show that both rock fall and surficial erosion processes contribute to the cliff retreatment, acting in turn according to the geological properties of the involved pyroclastic deposits. The presented

  5. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness they are no......Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness...... they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  6. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  7. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt's Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Hereher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Mediterranean coast was examined for the vulnerability to sea-level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (CVI, which was derived from the geologic and physical characteristics of the coast. This paper is the first to apply the CVI along the Egyptian coasts. The coast has different geomorphologic aspects ranging from steep-slope-rocky cliffs to gentle sloping deltaic sediments. Although the coast is under low tidal effect and low height waves, results showed that more than one-third of the 1000 km long coast is severely vulnerable to sea-level rise. Unfortunately, the area under high vulnerability to sea-level rise comprises the densely populated Nile Delta coast. National actions should be implemented to safeguard the entire coast at the threatened locations.

  8. Comments on “Cascades of dense water around the world ocean”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu de Madron, X.; Zervakis, V.; Theocharis, A.; Georgopoulos, D.

    2005-01-01

    Evidences of temperature-controlled dense water cascading off the Gulf of Lion shelf, in the northwestern Mediterranean, and several Aegean shelves in the northeastern Mediterranean are reported. Together with the Adiatic shelf, already listed by Ivanov, Shapiro, Huthnance, Aleynik, & Golovin (2004), these zones represent the major coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea where dense water is produced.

  9. A variant in the ABO gene explains the variation in soluble E-selectin levels-results from dense genotyping in two independent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Karakas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated soluble (s E-selectin levels have been associated with various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, genetic variants in the ABO blood group have been related to E-selectin levels in a small cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes. We evaluated whether this association is reproducible in two large samples of Caucasians. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data of the present study was drawn from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg study (n = 1,482 and the patients-based LURIC study (n = 1,546. A high-density genotyping array (50K IBC Chip containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from E-selectin candidate genes selected on known biology of E-selectin metabolism, mouse genetic studies, and human genetic association studies, was used for genotyping. Linear regression analyses with adjustment for age and sex (and survey in KORA were applied to assess associations between gene variants and sE-selectin concentrations. A number of 12 SNPs (in KORA and 13 SNPs (in LURIC, all from the ABO blood group gene, were significantly associated with the log-transformed concentration of E-selectin. The strongest association was observed for rs651007 with a change of log-transformed sE-selectin per one copy of the minor allele of -0.37 ng/ml (p = 1.87×10(-103 in KORA and -0.35 ng/ml (p = 5.11×10(-84 in LURIC. Inclusion of rs651007 increased the explained sE-selectin variance by 0.256 in KORA and 0.213 in LURIC. All SNPs had minor allele frequencies above 20% showing a substantial gene variation. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings in two independent samples indicate that the genetic variants at the ABO locus affect sE-selectin levels. Since distinct genome-wide association studies linked the ABO gene with myocardial infarction (MI in the presence of coronary atherosclerosis and with coronary artery disease, these findings may not only enhance our understanding of adhesion molecule biology, but may also provide a focus for several

  10. A Climate Change Vulnerability Index and Case Study in a Brazilian Coastal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Baccarin Zanetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are highly susceptible to the effects of climate change, particularly to sea-level rise and extreme rainfall events, resulting in increased social and environmental vulnerabilities. In this context, the need for predictive planning instruments, especially in densely populated coastal areas, is a critical management priority. A number of indexes has been developed to assess coastal vulnerability. However, coastal vulnerability indexes are yet to simultaneously consider inland (e.g., landslides and flooding and ocean (sea-level rise and coastal erosion hazards in conjunction. To help fill this gap, we developed the Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index for Coastal Areas. The proposed index is a diagnostic tool to assess the socio-environmental vulnerability of coastal regions in the context of climate change. Applied to the city of Santos, a coastal municipality in São Paulo state, Brazil, the index revealed that most of the city are in areas highly vulnerable to sea-level rise and floods related to extreme rainfall events. Findings show that, in fact, approximately 70% of the area of Santos (27.5 km2 consists of high vulnerability areas mostly located close to urban drainage channels, residential, and other built-in areas. Another 0.12% (0.05 km2 were classified as very high vulnerability areas compromising port and industrial infrastructure. These results highlights the susceptibility of the urban insular area of Santos to climatic change hazards. This study might prove relevant to support local decision-makers in preparing adaptation plans and responding to climate-related risks in vulnerable coastal cities.

  11. Natural and traditional defense mechanisms to reduce climate risks in coastal zones of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ataur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantially resourceful and densely populated coastal zones of Bangladesh experience numerous extreme events linked to hydro-meteorological processes viz. cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusion and erosion etc. These hazards give rise to extensive damage to property and loss of lives every year. Further, anthropogenic activities in the coastal zones are accentuating environmental degradation causing widespread suffering. Cyclones and tornadoes in particular damage infrastructures and crops every year affecting the economy of the country negatively. Some naturally adapted plants as well as landscapes usually reduce the speed of cyclones and tornadoes and thus, protect the coastal zones. However, human activities have destroyed many of the forests and landscapes. Sundarbans and Chokoria Sundarbans mangrove forests of Bangladesh are under a great threat of extinction due to illicit logging and agricultural expansion. At least 34 plant species of tropical forest are on the verge of extinction. Many animals e.g., cats, bears, porcupines, wild boars, pythons and anteaters are in the process of being wiped out from the coastal areas. Among the marine and coastal species, Red crabs, jelly-fish, sharks, and dolphins are also rare but these were the major species prior to 1980s. This study revealed that during the recent decades there has been massive plantations and construction of embankment and polderization but these and other measures have been found to be impractical and ineffective in reducing disasters in coastal areas. There is a need for integration of traditional coping practices and wisdoms with modern approaches. Available knowledge on some of these traditional practices has been documented for establishing a sustainable policy for management of coastal zones of Bangladesh. By combining traditional and scientific management of coastal ecosystem with mangroves and other plants following triple-tier mechanism and habitat, it is

  12. Using science to strengthen our Nation's resilience to tomorrow's challenges: understanding and preparing for coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Dale L.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Dean, Teresa A.; Focazio, Michael J.; Fulton, John W.; Haines, John W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Young, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused unprecedented damage across some of the most densely populated coastal areas of the northeastern United States. The costly, landscape-altering destruction left in the wake of this storm is a stark reminder of our Nation’s need to become more resilient as we inevitably face future coastal hazards. As our Nation recovers from this devastating natural disaster, it is clear that accurate scientific information is essential as we seek to identify and develop strategies to address trends in coastal landscape change and reduce our future vulnerability to major storm events. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received $43.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to conduct the scientific research needed to guide response, recovery, and rebuilding activities and to develop effective strategies for protecting coastal communities and resources in the future. This fact sheet describes how the USGS is combining interdisciplinary science with state-of-the-art technologies to achieve a comprehensive understanding of coastal change caused by Hurricane Sandy. By assessing coastal change impacts through research and by developing tools that enhance our science capabilities, support coastal stakeholders, and facilitate effective decision making, we continue to build a greater understanding of the processes at work across our Nation’s complex coastal environment—from wetlands, estuaries, barrier islands, and nearshore marine areas to infrastructure and human communities. This improved understanding will increase our resilience as we prepare for future short-term, extreme events as well as long-term coastal change.

  13. A comparison of Aedes vigilax larval population densities and associated vegetation categories in a coastal wetland, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacups, S P; Kurucz, N; Whelan, P I; Carter, J M

    2009-12-01

    Darwin's northern suburbs border an extensive coastal reed and upper mangrove wetland recognized as an important larval habitat for Aedes vigilax (Skuse), the northern salt marsh mosquito, an established vector for Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses and an appreciable pest species. We sought to identify the most important vegetation categories associated with Ae. vigilax breeding to maximize the efficiency of mosquito control efforts. Using a generalized linear model with negative binominal distribution and log link, this study compares larval densities, determined by focused dipping, between 13 discernable vegetation categories. The incidence rate ratios (RR) generated can be used to compare the magnitude of larval densities for each vegetation category, compared with the reference category. Aedes vigilax larval densities were almost ten times greater in artificial drainage areas (RR=9.82), followed by tide-affected reticulate (Sporobolus/Xerochloa) areas (RR=8.15), then Schoenoplectus/mangroves (RR=2.29), compared with the reference vegetation category "lower mangroves." Furthermore, larval densities were highest in May, due to tidal inundation, for drainage areas and tide-affected reticulates (RR=12.2, 11.7, respectively) compared with March, the reference month. Thus, to maximize the efficiency of aerial salt marsh mosquito control operations in this wetland, larval control is best accomplished by concentrating on drains, Schoenoplectus/mangroves, and tide-affected reticulate areas, commencing early after the wet season. These results should apply to other areas of salt marsh mosquito breeding across northern Australia.

  14. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate.

  15. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  16. Exceptional dense water formation on the Adriatic shelf in the winter of 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mihanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we document dense water formation throughout the Adriatic shelf and coastal area in January/February 2012, resulting in record-breaking densities observed during and after the event. The unprecedented dense water generation was preconditioned by a dry and warm year which resulted in a significant reduction of coastal freshwaters, superimposed on a long-term basin-wide salinity increase. The final event that triggered the dense water formation was an extended period of cold weather with strong and severe winds. Record-breaking potential density anomalies (above 30 kg m−3 were measured at several formation sites. Accumulated surface net heat and water losses in some coastal regions exceeded 1.5 GJ m−2 and 250 kg m−2 over 21 days, respectively. Excessiveness, importance of shelf-type dense water formation and effects on the thermohaline circulation and deep aquatic systems are discussed.

  17. Mycorrhizal status of Lycium europaeum in the coastal dunes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... This portion of the Atlantic coastal contains also the reserve of Sidi ..... landside by a dense forest of Juniperus phoenicea that is extended through the .... fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and.

  18. Modeling the population-level effects of hypoxia on a coastal fish: implications of a spatially-explicit individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Creekmore, S.; Thomas, P.; Craig, K.; Neilan, R.; Rahman, S.; Wang, L.; Justic, D.

    2016-02-01

    The northwestern Gulf of Mexico (USA) currently experiences a large hypoxic area ("dead zone") during the summer. The population-level effects of hypoxia on coastal fish are largely unknown. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model to analyze how hypoxia effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of individual Atlantic croaker could lead to population-level responses. The model follows the hourly growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement of individuals on a 300 x 800 spatial grid of 1 km2 cells for 140 years. Chlorophyll-a concentration and water temperature were specified daily for each grid cell. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was obtained from a 3-D water quality model for four years that differed in their severity of hypoxia. A bioenergetics model was used to represent growth, mortality was assumed stage- and age-dependent, and movement behavior was based on temperature preferences and avoidance of low DO. Hypoxia effects were imposed using exposure-effects sub-models that converted time-varying exposure to DO to reductions in growth and fecundity, and increases in mortality. Using sequences of mild, intermediate, and severe hypoxia years, the model predicted a 20% decrease in population abundance. Additional simulations were performed under the assumption that river-based nutrients loadings that lead to more hypoxia also lead to higher primary production and more food for croaker. Twenty-five percent and 50% nutrient reduction scenarios were simulated by adjusting the cholorphyll-a concentrations used as food proxy for the croaker. We then incrementally increased the DO concentrations to determine how much hypoxia would need to be reduced to offset the lower food production resulting from reduced nutrients. We discuss the generality of our results, the hidden effects of hypoxia on fish, and our overall strategy of combining laboratory and field studies with modeling to produce robust predictions of population responses to stressors under

  19. Prevalence of Willis-Ekbom disease in rural coastal Ecuador. A two-phase, door-to-door, population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R

    2014-09-15

    To estimate the prevalence of Willis-Ekbom disease (WED) in a racially homogeneous population of adults Amerindians living in rural coastal Ecuador, and to assess the reliability of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire when used in population-based studies. Two-phase, door-to-door, population-based survey. During Phase I, rural doctors screened all Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years with the IRLSSG questionnaire. In Phase II, neurologists evaluated suspected WED cases and a matched sample of negative individuals. The census identified 665 persons aged ≥40 years. An affirmative response to the questionnaire was obtained in 94 persons. Medical history and neurological examination confirmed the diagnosis of WED in 40 of them. The evaluation of 188 non-suspected individuals revealed no further cases. The questionnaire had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 89% to 100%), a specificity of 78% (95% CI, 72% to 83%), a positive predictive value of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.53), and a negative predictive value of 1 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1). The prevalence of WED in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years was 6%. The prevalence of WED in this adult Ecuadorian population is higher than that reported from most studies conducted in tropical countries, but similar to that found in Brazil. Specificity and positive predictive value of the IRLSSG questionnaire are poor, which reinforces the need for a second phase that should include an expert interview. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Do changes in the frequency, magnitude and timing of extreme climatic events threaten the population viability of coastal birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Ens, Bruno J.; Heg, Dik; Brouwer, Lyanne; Krol, Johan; Maier, Martin; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Oosterbeek, Kees; Lok, Tamar; Eising, Corine M.; Koffijberg, Kees

    P>1. Climate change encompasses changes in both the means and the extremes of climatic variables, but the population consequences of the latter are intrinsically difficult to study. 2. We investigated whether the frequency, magnitude and timing of rare but catastrophic flooding events have changed

  1. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the

  2. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the e

  3. Estimating the cumulative effects of the nature-based tourism in a coastal dolphin population from southern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jorge, Sergi; Louzao, Maite; Oro, Daniel; Pereira, Thalia; Corne, Chloe; Wijtten, Zeno; Gomes, Inês; Wambua, John; Christiansen, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Due to the growth of nature-based tourism worldwide, behavioural studies are needed to assess the impact of this industry on wildlife populations and understand their short-term effect. Tourism impact on dolphin populations remain poorly documented in developing countries. This study investigates the effects of nature-based tourism on the behaviour of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in southern Kenya. We used Markov chain models to estimate transition probabilities between behavioural states in the presence and absence of tourist boats, and assess the overall behavioural budgets. Based on these data and the tourism intensity in the area, we quantified the potential tourist boat disturbance over the period 2006-2013. Our results demonstrated that tourist boat interactions affected dolphins' behavioural budgets, with a significant decrease in the overall amount of time travelling and an increase in diving. The average duration of travelling and resting decreased significantly in the presence of boats. Although the cumulative tourism exposure was not significant for the dolphin population at their current levels, these impacts should be taken into consideration with the potential tourism growth in the area. This is particularly important if tourism reaches periods of high intensity, as we have shown that these periods could have a significant impact for the species, particularly where home-range and core areas are highly overlap by this activity. Understanding the effect of human disturbance variations from previous years may help to predict the consequences on dolphin populations, towards achieving a more ecological and economic sustainability of the activity.

  4. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  5. Screening a coastal population in Southern Italy: iodine deficiency and prevalence of goitre, nutritional aspects and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, R; Savastano, S; Tommaselli, A P; Di Biase, S; Calvanese, E; Carbone, D; Dorato, M; Orio, F; Lupoli, G; Lombardi, G

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of goitre by means of urinary iodine excretion, palpatory and ultrasonographic thyroid examinations in a heterogeneous population living by the sea. We used a special self-administered questionnaire to evaluate thyroid size, iodine intake, eating habits and cardiovascular risk factors in 600 subjects with a mean age of 45 +/- 17 years: 253 men (42.3%) and 347 women (57.7%). Urinary iodine excretion was low (72.1 +/- 15.7 microg/L; median 71.2) and associated with ultrasonographic evidence of an enlarged thyroid (16%) or structural thyroid abnormalities (30%), thus allowing us to define the Salerno Gulf as a mild-moderate area of endemic goitre. All of the subjects ate a Mediterranean diet, with a mean of two portions of fish/week. The cardiovascular risk factors considered were obesity, cigarette smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes, the prevalences of which were in line with those reported in other studies of similar age-matched populations. The moderate intake of fish and the consumption of a Mediterranean diet did not prevent goitre. Iodine deficiency and subsequent goitre endemia are also present at sea level, probably because of a diet based on local products grown on soil with a low iodine content or possible seawater, soil and air environmental pollution that may interfere with the availability of iodine. The assessment of iodine deficiency should therefore involve the entire population and not only subjects living far from the sea.

  6. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  7. Warm dense crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2016-03-01

    The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "warm dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.

  8. Dense Suspension Splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy; Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-03-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes by ejecting liquid-coated particles. We study the mechanism for splash formation using experiments and a numerical model. In the model, the dense suspension is idealized as a collection of cohesionless, rigid grains with finite surface roughness. The grains also experience lubrication drag as they approach, collide inelastically and rebound away from each other. Simulations using this model reproduce the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles. They also provide direct evidence supporting the conclusion from earlier experiments that inelastic collisions, rather than viscous drag, dominate when the suspension contains macroscopic particles immersed in a low-viscosity solvent such as water. Finally, the simulations reveal two distinct routes for splash formation: a particle can be ejected by a single high momentum-change collision. More surprisingly, a succession of small momentum-change collisions can accumulate to eject a particle outwards. Supported by NSF through its MRSEC program (DMR-0820054) and fluid dynamics program (CBET-1336489).

  9. Dense Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure.If the axion mass energy is $mc^2= 10^{-4}$ eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about $10^{-14} M_\\odot$. We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If $mc^2 = 10^{-4}$ eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mas...

  10. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10-14M⊙ if the axion mass is 10-4 eV . We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10-20M⊙ to about M⊙ . If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  11. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.

  12. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  13. The origins and significance of coastal resource use in Africa and Western Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marean, Curtis W

    2014-12-01

    The systematic exploitation of marine foods by terrestrial mammals lacking aquatic morphologies is rare. Widespread ethnographic and archaeological evidence from many areas of the world shows that modern humans living on coastlines often ratchet up the use of marine foods and develop social and technological characteristics unusual to hunter-gatherers and more consistent with small scale food producing societies. Consistent use of marine resources often is associated with reduced mobility, larger group size, population packing, smaller territories, complex technologies, increased economic and social differentiation, and more intense and wide-ranging gifting and exchange. The commitment to temporally and spatially predictable and dense coastal foods stimulates investment in boundary defense resulting in inter-group conflict as predicted by theory and documented by ethnography. Inter-group conflict provides an ideal context for the proliferation of intra-group cooperative behaviors beneficial to the group but not to the altruist (Bowles, 2009). The origins of this coastal adaptation marks a transformative point for the hominin lineage in Africa since all previous adaptive systems were likely characterized by highly mobile, low-density, egalitarian populations with large territories and little boundary defense. It is important to separate occasional uses of marine foods, present among several primate species, from systematic and committed coastal adaptations. This paper provides a critical review of where and when systematic use of coastal resources and coastal adaptations appeared in the Old World by a comparison of the records from Africa and Europe. It is found that during the Middle Stone Age in South Africa there is evidence that true coastal adaptations developed while there is, so far, a lack of evidence for even the lowest levels of systematic coastal resource use by Neanderthals in Europe. Differences in preservation, sample size, and productivity between

  14. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  15. Population parameters and the relationships between environmental factors and abundance of the Acetes americanus shrimp (Dendrobranchiata: Sergestidae near a coastal upwelling region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Freitas dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe population dynamics of Acetes americanus was investigated, focusing on the sex ratio, individual growth, longevity, recruitment and relationship between abundance and environmental factors in the region of Macaé, strongly influenced by coastal upwelling. Otter trawl net samplings were performed from July 2010 to June 2011 at two points (5 m and 15 m. Nearly 19,500 specimens, predominantly females (77.15%, were captured. Their sizes, larger than that of males, indicated sexual dimorphism. Shrimps at lower latitudes present larger sizes and longer longevity than those from higher latitudes. This difference is probably due to low temperatures and high primary productivity. Though no statistical correlation was found between abundance and environmental factors, the species was more abundant in temperatures closer to 20.0º C and in months with high chlorophyll-a levels. Due to the peculiar characteristics of this region, A. americanusshowed greater differences in size and longevity than individuals sampled in other studies undertaken in the continental shelf of Southeast Brazil.

  16. Adaptation as a potential response to sea-level rise: a genetic basis for salinity tolerance in populations of a coastal marsh fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Kevin M; Hitch, Alan T; Klerks, Paul L; Leberg, Paul L

    2008-02-01

    Relative sea-level rise is resulting in the intrusion of saline waters into marshes historically dominated by fresh water. Saltwater intrusions can potentially affect resident marsh species, especially when storm-related tidal surges cause rapid changes in salinity. We examined the role of historical salinity exposure on the survival of Gambusia affinis from two locations in coastal Louisiana. At each location, we sampled fish populations from fresh, intermediate and brackish marshes. Individuals were then exposed to a salinity of 25‰ and survival time was measured. We found that fish from brackish and intermediate marshes had an increased tolerance to salinity stress relative to fish from freshwater environments. We then tested the descendents of fish from the fresh and brackish marshes, reared for two generation in fresh water, to determine if there was a genetic basis for differential survival. We found that descendents of individuals from brackish marshes showed elevated survivals relative to the descendents of fish with no historical exposure to salinity. The most reasonable mechanism to account for the differences in survival relative to historical exposure is genetic adaptation, suggesting that natural selection may play a role in the responses of resident marsh fishes to future increases in salinity.

  17. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G

    2009-12-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.

  18. Genetic diversity of Ulva prolifera population in Qingdao coastal water during the green algal blooms revealed by microsatellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Huang, Hong-Jia; Li, Hongye; Liu, Jiesheng; Yang, Weidong

    2016-10-15

    Green tides have occurred in Qingdao coast in China for seven consecutive years from 2007 to 2013. To provide information on the genetic structure of these blooms, 210 free-floating green algae samples isolated from the green tide in Qingdao coast on June 19, 2013 were identified based on the ITS, rbcL and 5S sequence, and genetic diversity was investigated by microsatellite markers. According to ITS, rbcL and 5S sequence, all the 210 samples belonged to Ulva prolifera. Nei's genetic diversity and Shannon index estimated using eight microsatellite markers indicated that the genetic diversity of U. prolifera population within Qingdao's green bloom in 2013 was low. Taking into account previous reports about life history and physiology of U. prolifera, we proposed that the limited origin area of the free-floating biomass and asexual reproduction of U. prolifera might be responsible for the lower diversity of free floating U. prolifera.

  19. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE.

  20. Spatial and temporal assessment of the initial pattern of phytoplankton population in a newly built coastal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangyu; Yang, Kai; Che, Yue; Wang, Mingwei; Zhou, Lili; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the main threat to the water security of a metropolis, such as the city of Shanghai, has been the rapidly growing demand for water and at the same time, the decrease in water quality, including eutrophication. Therefore Shanghai shifted the preferred freshwater source to the Yangtze Estuary and constructed the Qingcaosha Reservoir, which is subject to less eutrophic water from the Yangtze River. To assess the population of phytoplankton for the first time in the newly built reservoir, this study improved an integrated method to assess the phytoplankton pattern in large-water-area reservoirs and lakes, using partial triadic analysis and Geographic Information Systems. Monthly sampling and monitoring from 10 stations in the reservoir from July 2010 to December 2011 were conducted. The study examined the common pattern of the phytoplankton population structure and determined the differences in the specific composition of the phytoplankton community during the transition period of the reservoir. The results suggest that in all but three sampling stations in the upper parts of Qingcaosha Reservoir, there was a strong common compromise in 2011. The two most important periods occurred from late summer to autumn and from winter to early spring. The former was characterized by the dominance of cyanobacteria, whereas the latter was characterized by the dominance of both chlorophyta and diatoms. Cyanobacteria ( Microcystis spp. as the main genus) were the monopolistic dominant species in the summer after reservoir operation. The statistical analysis also indicated the necessity for regular monitoring to focus on the stations in the lower parts of the reservoir and on several limited species.

  1. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  2. Predator Effects on Dense Zooplankton Aggregations in the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    blue whale distribution at the Costa Rica Dome” 2010 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Portland, OR Feb 22-18, 2010. Cowles, T.J., Benoit-Bird, K.J., Benfield...Seasonal timing of zooplankton and forage fish in the Columbia River plume and effects on marine juvenile salmon survival” 2010 Ocean Sciences...Society of America. Portland, OR. May 18-22, 2009. Kaltenberg, A.M.*, Benoit-Bird, K.J., Emmet, R. “Temporal patterns of fish and mesozooplankton near

  3. Double trouble: subsidence and CO2 respiration due to 1,000 years of Dutch coastal peatlands cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Gilles; van der Meulen, Michiel J.; Middelkoop, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Coastal plains are amongst the most densely populated areas in the world. Many coastal peatlands are drained to create arable land. This is not without consequences; physical compaction of peat and its degradation by oxidation lead to subsidence, and oxidation also leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study complements existing studies by quantifying total land subsidence and associated CO2 respiration over the past millennium in the Dutch coastal peatlands, to gain insight into the consequences of cultivating coastal peatlands over longer timescales. Results show that the peat volume loss was 19.8 km3, which lowered the Dutch coastal plain by 1.9 m on average, bringing most of it below sea level. At least 66 % of the volume reduction is the result of drainage, and 34 % was caused by the excavation and subsequent combustion of peat. The associated CO2 respiration is equivalent to a global atmospheric CO2 concentration increase of ~0.39 ppmv. Cultivation of coastal peatlands can turn a carbon sink into a carbon source. If the path taken by the Dutch would be followed worldwide, there will be double trouble: globally significant carbon emissions and increased flood risk in a globally important human habitat. The effects would be larger than the historic ones because most of the cumulative Dutch subsidence and peat loss was accomplished with much less efficient techniques than those available now.

  4. Science, society, and the coastal groundwater squeeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Holly A.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Wilson, Alicia M.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zones encompass the complex interface between land and sea. Understanding how water and solutes move within and across this interface is essential for managing resources for society. The increasingly dense human occupation of coastal zones disrupts natural groundwater flow patterns and degrades freshwater resources by both overuse and pollution. This pressure results in a "coastal groundwater squeeze," where the thin veneers of potable freshwater are threatened by contaminant sources at the land surface and saline groundwater at depth. Scientific advances in the field of coastal hydrogeology have enabled responsible management of water resources and protection of important ecosystems. To address the problems of the future, we must continue to make scientific advances, and groundwater hydrology needs to be firmly embedded in integrated coastal zone management. This will require interdisciplinary scientific collaboration, open communication between scientists and the public, and strong partnerships with policymakers.

  5. Global DEM Errors Underpredict Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Scott; Strauss, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Elevation data based on NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have been widely used to evaluate threats from global sea level rise, storm surge, and coastal floods. However, SRTM data are known to include large vertical errors in densely urban or densely vegetated areas. The errors may propagate to derived land and population exposure assessments. We compare assessments based on SRTM data against references employing high-accuracy bare-earth elevation data generated from lidar data available for coastal areas of the United States. We find that both 1-arcsecond and 3-arcsecond horizontal resolution SRTM data systemically underestimate exposure across all assessed spatial scales and up to at least 10m above the high tide line. At 3m, 1-arcsecond SRTM underestimates U.S. population exposure by more than 60%, and under-predicts population exposure in 90% of coastal states, 87% of counties, and 83% of municipalities. These fractions increase with elevation, but error medians and variability fall to lower levels, with national exposure underestimated by just 24% at 10m. Results using 3-arcsecond SRTM are extremely similar. Coastal analyses based on SRTM data thus appear to greatly underestimate sea level and flood threats, especially at lower elevations. However, SRTM-based estimates may usefully be regarded as providing lower bounds to actual threats. We additionally assess the performance of NOAA's Global Land One-km Base Elevation Project (GLOBE), another publicly-available global DEM, but do not reach any definitive conclusion because of the spatial heterogeneity in its quality.

  6. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  7. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  8. Salinity-related variation in gene expression in wild populations of the black-chinned tilapia from various West African coastal marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Mbaye; McKenzie, David J.; Bonhomme, François; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the relative expression of the genes coding for Na +, K +-ATPase 1α(NAKA), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX), and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), in gills of six wild populations of a West African tilapia species, acclimatised to a range of seasonal (rainy or dry) salinities in coastal, estuarine and freshwater sites. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated that these genes, involved in active ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and intra-cellular ATP transport, are relatively over-expressed in gill tissues of this species acclimated to high salinity. Positive correlations between relative expression and ambient salinity were found for all genes in the wild populations (Spearman rank correlation, p < 0.05), although for some genes these were only significant in either the rainy season or dry season. Most significantly, however, relative expression was positively correlated amongst the four genes, indicating that they are functionally interrelated in adaptation of Sarotherodon melanotheron to salinity variations in its natural environment. In the rainy season, when salinity was unstable and ranged between zero and 37 psu across the sites, overall mean expression of the genes was higher than in the dry season, which may have reflected more variable particularly sudden fluctuations in salinity and poorer overall water quality. In the dry season, when the salinity is more stable but ranged between zero and 100 psu across the sites, NAKA, NDH and VDAC expression revealed U-shaped relationships with lowest relative expression at salinities approaching seawater, between 25 and 45 psu. Although it is not simple to establish direct relationship between gene expression levels and energy requirement for osmoregulation, these results may indicate that costs of adaptation to salinity are lowest in seawater, the natural environment of this species. While S. melanotheron can colonise environments with extremely

  9. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Weckworth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  10. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  11. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, Byron V; Dawson, Natalie G; Talbot, Sandra L; Flamme, Melanie J; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-05-04

    Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  12. Conductive dense hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremets, M.; Troyan, I.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen at ambient pressures and low temperatures forms a molecular crystal which is expected to display metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature Tc of 200-400 K. The superconductor may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures, and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. Recent experiments performed at low temperatures T 220 GPa, new Raman modes arose, providing evidence for the transformation to a new opaque and electrically conductive phase IV. Above 260 GPa, in the next phase V, hydrogen reflected light well. Its resistance was nearly temperature-independent over a wide temperature range, down to 30 K, indicating that the hydrogen was metallic. Releasing the pressure induced the metallic phase to transform directly into molecular hydrogen with significant hysteresis at 200 GPa and 295 K. These data were published in our paper: M. I. Eremets and I. A. Troyan "Conductive dense hydrogen." Nature Materials 10: 927-931. We will present also new results on hydrogen: phase diagram with phases IV and V determined in P,T domain up to 300 GPa and 350 K. We will also discuss possible structures of phase IV based on our Raman and infrared measurements up to 300 GPa.

  13. Dense Hypervelocity Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael; van Doren, David; Elton, Raymond; Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker

    2007-11-01

    We are developing high velocity dense plasma jets for fusion and HEDP applications. Traditional coaxial plasma accelerators suffer from the blow-by instability which limits the mass accelerated to high velocity. In the current design blow-by is delayed by a combination of electrode shaping and use of a tailored plasma armature created by injection of a high density plasma at a few eV generated by arrays of capillary discharges or sparkgaps. Experimental data will be presented for a complete 32 injector gun system built for driving rotation in the Maryland MCX experiment, including data on penetration of the plasma jet through a magnetic field. We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma velocity, temperature, and density, as well as total momentum measured using a ballistic pendulum. Measurements are in agreement with each other and with time of flight data from photodiodes and a multichannel PMT. Plasma density is above 10^15 cm-3, velocities range up to about 100 km/s. Preliminary results from a quadrature heterodyne HeNe interferometer are consistent with these results.

  14. Heavy mesons in dense matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Gamermann, Daniel; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; LlanesEstrada, FJ; Pelaez,

    2011-01-01

    Charmed mesons in dense matter are studied within a unitary coupled-channel approach which takes into account Pauli-blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We obtain the open-charm meson spectral functions in this dense medium, and discuss their implications on hidden c

  15. Numerical Modelling of Arctic Coastal Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Borgersen, Benedicte T

    2016-01-01

    Coastal areas are experiencing an increase in human population and activities, both in temperate and in Arctic areas. This change in the coastal areas requires that the areas are safe and reliable in order to not put human lives and economical values in danger. To be about to protect the coastal areas it is important to know the hydrodynamics and sediment transport and their effect on coastal areas. Numerical modeling of coastal hydrodynamics and sediment transport is a normal approach to...

  16. A survey of integrated coastal zone management experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Coastal problems that stem from human activities are almost always rooted in resource use conflicts. Since the majority of the world's population lives in coastal areas, such conflicts can only be expected to increase. As population growth continues, the pressure to develop coastal areas for housing

  17. Trends in Coastal Development and Land Cover Change: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa. Keywords: Land cover change, coastal management, coastal development, ... population growth, social and economic development and climate-induced factors. The results ... changing in response to human demands and needs ...

  18. Degradation of marine habitats and coastal management framework

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    environmental degradation. Major driving forces for coastal degradation include (1) high rate of growth in population leading to reclamation of coastal areas and release of wastes, (2) over-fishing due to lack of alternative livelihoods, (3) large commercial...

  19. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De;

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  20. Densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes .1. Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Derks, R.; van der Vegt, H.A.; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    Novel densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes were obtained by using functional branched prepolymers. Two types of soluble prepolymers were prepared from di- and trifunctional alkoxysilane monomers via cohydrolysis/condensation and for both final crosslinking occurred via hydrosilylation. The prepoly

  1. How to communicate climate change ‘impact and solutions’ to vulnerable population of Indian Sundarbans? From theory to practice

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Abhiroop; Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Global consciousness on climate change problems and adaptation revolves around the disparity of information sharing and communication gap between theoretical scientific knowledge at academic end and practical implications of these at the vulnerable populations’ end. Coastal communities facing socio-economic stress, like densely populated Sundarbans, are the most affected part of the world, exposed to climate change problems and uncertainties. This article explores the successes o...

  2. How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, the coastal region is now the most densely populated zone in the country and as a result has become a significant source of tax revenue and has some of the highest property values in the country. The loss of land at the coastline from erosion and damage to property from storms has always been a source of vulnerability to coastal economies. To manage this vulnerability, humans have long engaged in the act of nourishing the coastline - placing sand, typically from offshore sources, onto the beach to widen the beach and increase the height of dunes. As humans alter natural coastal dynamics by nourishing, the altered natural dynamics then influence future beach management decisions. In this way human-occupied coastlines are a strongly coupled dynamical system and because of this coupling, the act of nourishment has become an intrinsic part of the economic value of a coastline. Predictions of increased rates of sea level rise and changing storminess suggest that coastal vulnerability is likely to increase. The evolving vulnerability of the coast has already caused changes to occur in the way humans manage the coastline. For example, the federal government has recently reduced subsidies to help coastal communities nourish their beaches. With a future of changing environmental forcing from sea level and storms, the prospect of changes in nourishment cost could have profound consequences on coastal value and sustainability. We utilize two modeling approaches to investigate how disappearing nourishment subsidies reduce coastal property value and to explore the potential for a bubble and subsequent crash in coastal property value as subsidies dwindle and vulnerability rises. The first model is an optimal control model that couples a cost benefit analysis to coastline dynamics. In the second model, we couple a numerical coastline model with an agent-based model for real estate markets. Results from both models suggest the total present value of coastal

  3. Health effects of coastal storms and flooding in urban areas: a review and vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathryn; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Wheeler, Katherine; Abid, Zaynah; Graber, Nathan; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  4. Health Effects of Coastal Storms and Flooding in Urban Areas: A Review and Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Lane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  5. Compare about meaurement and calculation on Prediction of Jiangsu Coastal Areas’ Population Development Based on the Three Kinds of Models%基于三种模型的江苏沿海人口比较测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮

    2013-01-01

      本文运用马尔萨斯人口模型、Logistic 增长模型和线性函数三种理论模型,结合江苏省第六次全国人口普查研究统计数据对江苏沿海2012—2020年的人口发展规模进行预测,研究江苏沿海人口演变特征,预测未来人口增长率及规模,结果显示:基于三种模型运行的五种结果差异较大,根据江苏沿海的实际情况和前人研究结果,确认江苏沿海到2020年的总人口为2125.47万人。研究结果以期能为江苏沿海的科学发展提供参考依据。%With applying three theoretical models: Malthus population model,Logistic growth and linear function, sixth state census data and resource and environmental indices,the paper predicts the population between 2012 and 2020 in Jiangsu coastal areas.The five results based on the three different kinds of models are different each other. Based on the current situa-tion about Jiangsu coastal areas and research results previously,the paper makes sure that the population numbers in Jiangsu coastal areas are 21254.7 thousand of the year 2020. The results hope to provide reference basis for this region’s scientific development.

  6. Causes and consequences of ecosystem service regionalization in a coastal suburban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Mark B. Green,; Pellerin, Brian A.; Morse, Nathaniel B.; Hopkinson, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ecosystem services and the ability of natural ecosystems to provide those services evolve over time as population, land use, and management practices change. Regionalization of ecosystem service activity, or the expansion of the area providing ecosystem services to a population, is a common response in densely populated coastal regions, with important consequences for watershed water and nitrogen (N) fluxes to the coastal zone. We link biophysical and historical information to explore the causes and consequences of change in ecosystem service activity—focusing on water provisioning and N regulation—from 1850 to 2010 in a coastal suburban watershed, the Ipswich River watershed in northeastern Massachusetts, USA. Net interbasin water transfers started in the late 1800s due to regionalization of water supply for use by larger populations living outside the Ipswich watershed boundaries, reaching a peak in the mid-1980s. Over much of the twentieth century, about 20 % of river runoff was diverted from reaching the estuary, with greater proportions during drought years. Ongoing regionalization of water supply has contributed to recent declines in diversions, influenced by socioecological feedbacks resulting from the river drying and fish kills. Similarly, the N budget has been greatly perturbed since the suburban era began in the 1950s due to food and lawn fertilizer imports and human waste release. However, natural ecosystems are able to remove most of this anthropogenic N, mitigating impacts on the coastal zone. We propose a conceptual model whereby the amount and type of ecosystem services provided by coastal watersheds in urban regions expand and contract over time as regional population expands and ecosystem services are regionalized. We hypothesize that suburban watersheds can be hotspots of ecosystem service sources because they retain sufficient ecosystem function to still produce services that meet increasing demand from the local population

  7. Coastal Lagoon: Present Status and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Mahapatro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper the present status of coastal lagoon and future challenges which will be faced by the coastal lagoon is discussed. Coastal lagoon provides great livelihood for a larger portion of human population through fisheries and tourism point of view thus crucial in socio economic aspect. Due to natural and anthropogenic activity, stress on coastal lagoon is increasing day by day. Thus steps should be taken for regular monitoring and planning for better management is found to be imperative in regards to present day situation.

  8. An integrated framework to assess plausible future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.; Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C.; Adams, H.; Salehin, M.; Haque, A.; Clarke, D.; Bricheno, L.; Fernandes, J. A.; Rahman, M.; Ahmed, A.; Streatfield, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas represent one of the most densely populated areas in the world. This is especially true for the coastal zone of Bangladesh where more than a thousand people live in each square kilometre of land. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in Bangladesh are strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential; thus severely affect land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish, rice), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on natural resource conservation and poverty levels. This presentation describes the model framework and aims to illustrate the cause-effect relationship in-between changes of the hydro-environment and the livelihoods and

  9. Distribution and abundance of Cymodocea nodosa meadows and Pinna nobilis populations in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (Murcia, South East of Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Belando, Maria Dolores; García, Rocio Muñoz; Ramos, Aranzazu; Franco, Ignacio; Bernardeau-Esteller, Jaime; García, Pedro; Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The Mar Menor (135 km2 ) is one of the most important hypersaline coastal lagoons in the Western Mediterranean Sea, its bottoms were originally colonized by monospecific meadows of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. However, since the 1970’s, drastic hydrographic changes caused by various human activities has seen the expansion of a number of species common in the adjacent Mediterranean waters, of which development had been limited up to now due to high salinities and temperatures. Among these s...

  10. Advancing Sentinel-1 use in Coastal Climate Impact Assessments and Adaptation – A Case Study from the Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Marinkovic, Petar; Larsen, Yngvar

    Low-lying coastal communities face increasing challenges from rise in sea level, more extreme storm surge levels and floods. In addition, changing groundwater levels and precipitation patterns may further exacerbate the water-related impacts of climate change on society. Approximately 40,000 km2...... of Europe’s North Sea region is already flood prone. Storm surges pose a real and substantial risk to this area, especially the densely populated areas. Climate and sea level research seek to provide robust regional projections of change and to address uncertainties and errors inherent in climate models....... It is a challenge for coastal communities to transform this information in order to provide for local impact assessments and to implement adaptive measures. To this end, information about potential subsidence, its magnitudes and causes is important: subsidence may adversely affect the probability, extent and depths...

  11. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  12. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  13. Coastal Analysis, Northampton, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  14. Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-19

    the entire navigation portfolio of projects , both inland and coastal. The Coastal Structures Management , Analysis, and Ranking Tool (CSMART) is a...FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coastal Navigatoin Portfolio Management 5a. CONTRACT...CIRP.aspx Coastal Inlets Research Program Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management The Coastal Navigatoin Portfolio Management work unit

  15. Evaluating Flood Resilience Strategies for Coastal Megacities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aerts, J. C. J. H; Botzen, W. J. W; Emanuel, K; Lin, N; de Moel, H; Michel-Kerjan, E. O

    2014-01-01

    ... . Population density in flood-prone coastal zones and megacities is expected to grow by 25% by 2050; projected climate change and sea level rise may further increase the frequency and/or severity of large-scale floods...

  16. Constructing dense genetic linkage maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Jong, de A.G.; Ooijen, van J.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a novel combination of techniques for the construction of dense genetic linkage maps. The construction of such maps is hampered by the occurrence of even small proportions of typing errors. Simulated annealing is used to obtain the best map according to the optimality criterion:

  17. Method for dense packing discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Elser, Veit; Gravel, Simon

    2010-11-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit-cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to previously reported improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest-known lattice sphere packings and the best-known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions, respectively, providing numerical evidence for their optimality. For nonspherical particles, we report a dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density ϕ=128/219≈0.5845 and with a similar structure to the densest-known tetrahedron packing.

  18. Unconditional Continuous Variable Dense Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which unconditional dense coding can be achieved using continuous variable entanglement. We consider the effect of entanglement impurity and detector efficiency and discuss experimental verification. We conclude that the requirements for a strong demonstration are not as stringent as previously thought and are within the reach of present technology.

  19. Introduction to coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D' Angremond, K.; Pluim-van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Lecture notes on genesis of the coastline, climatology, oceanography, coastal morphology, coastal formations, coastalzonde management, tidal inlets and estuaries, pollution and density problems, practical problems and common solutions.

  20. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-04-21

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities

  1. Comparação dos sistemas de cultivo nativo e adensado de erva mate, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., quanto à ocorrência e flutuação populacional de insetos Occurrence and population fluctuation of insects on native and dense cropping systems of maté, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa R. Borges

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in order to compare the occurrence of insects in two maté cultivation systems, native and high tree density. It was performed from August/2000 to September/2001, in a private property in São Mateus do Sul county, in Paraná State, Brazil. Visual inspections of trees and light traps were used to evaluate insect populations in both areas. For Hedypathes betulinus (Klug (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, only six adults were observed in the dense area. Based on presence of sawdust at the basis of the trunk, it was obtained that the number of attacked trees did not surpass 11% in either area. For Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Lizer y Trelles (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, the number of galls per tree was counted and it was observed that the population peak occurred from November to January. For Hylesia spp. (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae and Thelosia camina Schaus (Lepidoptera, Eupterotidae, the presence of caterpillars on the trees was noticed from September to February, with the population peak in November and December. Adults of Hylesia spp. were more numerous in February and March. Two species that were not previously recorded for Brazil on maté were identified: Hylesia paulex Dognin (83% and Hylesia remex Dyer (17%, collected with light traps. The maté caterpillar, T. camina was not collected with these traps. Nymphs and adults of Ceroplastes grandis Hempel (Hemiptera, Coccidae were observed along the year on the branches, with population peak between April and June for the nymphs and from September to November for the adults. It should be considered that despite higher insect incidence in the dense area compared to the native area, the first presents higher yield, and that with a good pest management program the insect problems can be minimized.

  2. Structural Transitions in Dense Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lambiotte, R; Bhat, U; Redner, S

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an evolving network model in which a new node attaches to a randomly selected target node and also to each of its neighbors with probability $p$. The resulting network is sparse for $p<\\frac{1}{2}$ and dense (average degree increasing with number of nodes $N$) for $p\\geq \\frac{1}{2}$. In the dense regime, individual networks realizations built by this copying mechanism are disparate and not self-averaging. Further, there is an infinite sequence of structural anomalies at $p=\\frac{2}{3}$, $\\frac{3}{4}$, $\\frac{4}{5}$, etc., where the dependences on $N$ of the number of triangles (3-cliques), 4-cliques, undergo phase transitions. When linking to second neighbors of the target can occur, the probability that the resulting graph is complete---where all nodes are connected---is non-zero as $N\\to\\infty$.

  3. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Park

    2014-01-01

    describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space.

  4. Radiative properties of dense nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Fedorov, Andrei G; Luo, Zhongyang; Ni, Mingjiang

    2012-09-01

    The radiative properties of dense nanofluids are investigated. For nanofluids, scattering and absorbing of electromagnetic waves by nanoparticles, as well as light absorption by the matrix/fluid in which the nanoparticles are suspended, should be considered. We compare five models for predicting apparent radiative properties of nanoparticulate media and evaluate their applicability. Using spectral absorption and scattering coefficients predicted by different models, we compute the apparent transmittance of a nanofluid layer, including multiple reflecting interfaces bounding the layer, and compare the model predictions with experimental results from the literature. Finally, we propose a new method to calculate the spectral radiative properties of dense nanofluids that shows quantitatively good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Dilatons for Dense Hadronic Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2009-01-01

    The idea that the explicit breaking of scale invariance by the trace anomaly of QCD can be rephrased as a spontaneous breaking has been recently exploited to capture the low-energy strong interaction dynamics of dense (and also hot) matter in terms of two dilaton fields, the "soft" (chi_s) and the "hard" (chi_h) fields, in the frame work of the hidden local gauge symmetry. In the Freund-Nambu model, the spontaneous symmetry breaking of scale symmetry is induced by an explicitly breaking term, while the spontaneous symmetry breaking is possible in the flat potential model which is scale symmetric. We discuss the interplay of the soft and hard dilatons using the spontaneously broken scale symmetry schemes and uncover a novel structure of dense matter hitherto unexplored.

  6. The Framework of a Coastal Hazards Model - A Tool for Predicting the Impact of Severe Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; O'Reilly, Bill; van Ormondt, Maarten; Elias, Edwin; Ruggiero, Peter; Erikson, Li H.; Hapke, Cheryl; Collins, Brian D.; Guza, Robert T.; Adams, Peter N.; Thomas, Julie

    2009-01-01

    the critical information they need to respond quickly and efficiently and to increase public safety and mitigate damage associated with powerful coastal storms. For instance, high resolution local models will predict detailed wave heights, breaking patterns, and current strengths for use in warning systems for harbor-mouth navigation and densely populated coastal regions where beach safety is threatened. The offline applications are intended to equip coastal managers with the information needed to manage and allocate their resources effectively to protect sections of coast that may be most vulnerable to future severe storms.

  7. Population dynamics of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its impact on the zooplankton in the coastal regions of the Black Sea of the Crimean coast in 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finenko, G. A.; Abolmasova, G. I.; Romanova, Z. A.; Datsyk, N. A.; Anninskii, B. E.

    2013-02-01

    The abundance, biomasses, and population structure of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were monitored in the coastal waters of the northern part of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Bay and the adjacent continental shelf regions) in 2004-2008. The abundance and species composition of the comb jelly's food in the sea were obtained along with experimental data on the digestion time. Based upon these data, the feeding intensity of the ctenophore in situ was estimated. This information was used to calculate the predatory impact of the comb jelly population on certain groups of forage organisms and the forage zooplankton community as a whole. The predatory impact of the M. leidyi population on the bivalve veligers was the highest (up to 90% of the abundance a day) compared to the Copepoda and Cladocera (30% and 40%, respectively). In the summers of 2004-2008, the daily consumption rates of the zooplankton by the ctenophore population in the shelf zone and in the bay were similar to each other: up to 15% and 12% of the abundance a day, respectively. The highest pressure of the ctenophore upon the zooplankton was observed in 2004 and 2008, when M. leidyi was especially abundant in the plankton for a long time.

  8. Assessment of coastal vulnerability to environmental change in Jiangsu coastal plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of coastal vulnerability to future environmental change has been emphasized in coastal nations or regions. The Jiangsu coastal plain, located to the north of the Yangtze River Delta in China, is most vulnerable to sea level rise and exacerbating coastal hazards. This paper develops the method of delimiting vulnerable scope and assessing coastal vulnerability through field observations and sampling and by applying remote sensing and GIS, which are suitable for great river delta and coastal plains with large area, relative complex micro-geomorphology and the protection of seawall. Applying this method, the coastal vulnerability of the Jiangsu coastal plain to relative sea level rise (approximately 50 cm up to the year 2050) and exacerbating storm surges have been assessed. The results show that, up to the year 2050, the Jiangsu coastal plain will probably lose 12.8 % of tidal flats (about 5.8′104 hm2) and 7.9 % of cultivated land (about 7.2′104 hm2). Meanwhile, 2.0 % of population, 3.8 % of original value of fixed assets, 3.2% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product), 40.3 % of salt industry and 5.8 % of aquiculture respectively will be affected due to coastal environmental change.

  9. A genetic overview of Atlantic coastal populations from Europe and North-West Africa based on a 17 X-STR panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Fernández, Endika; Díaz-de Usera, Ana; Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Chbel, Faiza; Nadifi, Sellama; Rouault, Karen; Férec, Claude; Hardiman, Orla; Pinheiro, Fátima; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2017-03-01

    The forensic use of X-STRs requires the creation of allele and haplotype frequency databases in the populations where they are going to be used. Recently, an updated Spanish allele and haplotype frequency database for the new 17 X-STR panel has been created, being the only database available up to now for this new multiplex. In order to broaden the forensic applicability of the 17 X-STR panel, 513 individuals from four different populations located on the Atlantic Coast of Europe and North-West Africa have been studied, i.e. Brittany (France), Ireland, northern Portugal, and Casablanca (Morocco). Allele and haplotype frequency databases, as well as parameters of forensic interest for these populations are presented. The obtained results showed that the 17 X-STR panel constitutes a highly discriminative tool for forensic identification and kinship testing in the studied populations. Furthermore, we aimed to study if these populations located on the Atlantic coast actually share alike allele and haplotype frequency distributions since they have experienced genetic exchanges throughout history. This would allow creating larger forensic databases that include several genetically similar populations for its use in forensic casework. For this purpose, pairwise FST genetic distances between the analyzed populations and others from the Atlantic Coast previously studied with the 17 X-STR panel or the ten coincident markers included in the decaplex of the GHEP-ISFG were estimated. Our results suggest that certain nearby populations located on the European Atlantic coast could have underwent episodes of genetic interchange as they have not shown statistically significant differentiation between them. However, the population of Casablanca showed significant differentiation with the majority of the European populations. Likewise, the autochthonous Basque Country and Brittany populations have shown distinctive allele frequency distributions between them. Therefore, these

  10. Evolution of Binaries in Dense Stellar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the field, the binaries in dense stellar systems are frequently not primordial, and could be either dynamically formed or significantly altered from their primordial states. Destruction and formation of binaries occur in parallel all the time. The destruction, which constantly removes soft binaries from a binary pool, works as an energy sink and could be a reason for cluster entering the binary-burning phase. The true binary fraction is greater than observed, as a result, the observable binary fraction evolves differently from the predictions. Combined measurements of binary fractions in globular clusters suggest that most of the clusters are still core-contracting. The formation, on other hand, affects most the more evolutionary advanced stars, which significantly enhances the population of X-ray sources in globular clusters. The formation of binaries with a compact objects proceeds mainly through physical collisions, binary-binary and single-binary encounters; however, it is the dynamical for...

  11. Experimental and genetic analyses reveal that inbreeding depression declines with increased self-fertilization among populations of a coastal dune plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, S; Eckert, C G

    2013-03-01

    Theory predicts that inbreeding depression (ID) should decline via purging in self-fertilizing populations. Yet, intraspecific comparisons between selfing and outcrossing populations are few and provide only mixed support for this key evolutionary process. We estimated ID for large-flowered (LF), predominantly outcrossing vs. small-flowered (SF), predominantly selfing populations of the dune endemic Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia by comparing selfed and crossed progeny in glasshouse environments differing in soil moisture, and by comparing allozyme-based estimates of the proportion of seeds selfed and inbreeding coefficient of mature plants. Based on lifetime measures of dry mass and flower production, ID was stronger in nine LF populations [mean δ = 1-(fitness of selfed seed/fitness of outcrossed seed) = 0.39] than 16 SF populations (mean δ = 0.03). However, predispersal ID during seed maturation was not stronger for LF populations, and ID was not more pronounced under simulated drought, a pervasive stress in sand dune habitat. Genetic estimates of δ were also higher for four LF (δ = 1.23) than five SF (δ = 0.66) populations; however, broad confidence intervals around these estimates overlapped. These results are consistent with purging, but selective interference among loci may be required to maintain strong ID in partially selfing LF populations, and trade-offs between selfed and outcrossed fitness are likely required to maintain outcrossing in SF populations.

  12. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense pop

  13. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  14. A Review Paper on Coastal Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the coastal population increasing, storms have been inflicting unprecedented losses on coastal communities. Coastal agencies require advance information on the predicted path, intensity and progress of a storm and associated waves and storm surges; Near-real-time information during the peak of the storm to monitor flooding and control rescue operations; And post storm reports to assess the damage and plan the recovery. The same holds true for other disasters, such as oil spills and algal blooms. Coastal communities are also facing a rising sea level, caused mainly by global warming. Airborne and satellite remote sensors, such as multispectral imagers, LIDAR and RADAR, are now able to provide Most of the information required for emergency response and coastal management.

  15. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  16. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  17. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Subedi, R; Monaghan, P; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; De Jager, C W; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Širca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Zheng, X -C; Zhu, L; 10.1126/science.1156675

    2009-01-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, where a proton is knocked-out of the nucleus with high momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in 12C the neutron-proton pairs are nearly twenty times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  18. Dilatons in Dense Baryonic Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the role of dilaton, which is supposed to be representing a special feature of scale symmetry of QCD, trace anomaly, in dense baryonic matter. The idea that the scale symmetry breaking of QCD is responsible for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is presented along the similar spirit of Freund-Nambu model. The incorporation of dilaton field in the hidden local symmetric parity doublet model is briefly sketched with the possible role of dilaton at high density baryonic matter, the emergence of linear sigma model in dilaton limit.

  19. Patch scales in coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Bernardo R.

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological processes are coupled to environmental variability is a major challenge for ecologists. Here, I assimilate patterns of oceanographic variability with ecological field studies in an attempt to quantify spatial and temporal scales of coupling. Using coastal time series of chlorophyll-a concentration from remote sensing, the first chapter examines the alongshore extent of coastal regions subject to similar temporal patterns of oceanographic variability in Western North America (WNA) and North-Central Chile (Chile). I found striking interhemispherical differences in the length of coastal sections under similar oceanographic regimes, with the Chile region showing longshore coherency over much smaller spatial scales (˜60 km) than on the coast of WNA (˜140 km). Through a spatial analysis of coastal orientation I suggest that the characteristic length scales may be traced to the geomorphologic character of the ocean margins. The second chapter examines spatial patterns of primary production through long-term means of coastal chlorophyll-a concentration and kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) cover and explores their relationship with coastal geomorphology and sea surface temperature (SST). Spatial analyses showed a striking match in length scales around 180--250 km. Strong anticorrelations at small spatial lags and positive correlations at longer distances suggest little overlap between patches of kelp and coastal chlorophyll-a. In agreement with findings from the previous chapter, I found that coastal patches could be traced back to spatial patterns of coastal geomorphology. Through SST time series and long-term datasets of larval recruitment in Santa Cruz Island, California, the third chapter examines temporal patterns of oceanographic variability as determinants of ecological patterns. SST time series from sites experiencing low larval recruitment rates were dominated by strong temporal variability. These sites

  20. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  1. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption efficiency, and N : P ratios in natural populations of Typha domingensis Pers. in a coastal tropical lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos Esteves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We studied nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P resorption patterns in Typha domingensis Pers. in a tropical coastal lagoon during different seasons of throughout one year. METHODS: Resorption of N and P is uttered as resorption efficiency (NRE and PRE, respectively, which may be used as an indicator of a nutrient limitation. Higher resorption efficiency values might indicate limitation of a certain element for the growth of aquatic macrophytes. RESULTS: N was inferred to be less limiting than P for the growth of T. domingensis in Campelo Lagoon, since N content varied less than P content and resorption efficiency of N was lower than that of P and, concomitantly, low resorption efficiency of this element. However, T. domingensis of Campelo Lagoon frequently utilized P that was already present in its tissues, contributing to the longer residence time of this element in system. Green leaves of T. domingensis showed N : P ratio, ranging 49-96, corroborating the inference of P limitation. CONCLUSIONS: N : P ratio and resorption efficiency indicate P limitation by T. domingensis in Campelo Lagoon.

  2. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND CURRENT FOCUS ON AQUATIC STRESSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially productive habitats that are experiencing significant impacts associated with accelerated population growth in coastal zones. The Clean Water Act requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the causes ...

  3. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  4. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  5. Population connectivity and phylogeography of a coastal fish, Atractoscion aequidens (Sciaenidae, across the Benguela Current region: evidence of an ancient vicariant event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Henriques

    Full Text Available Contemporary patterns of genetic diversity and population connectivity within species can be influenced by both historical and contemporary barriers to gene flow. In the marine environment, present day oceanographic features such as currents, fronts and upwelling systems can influence dispersal of eggs/larvae and/juveniles/adults, shaping population substructuring. The Benguela Current system in the southeastern Atlantic is one of the oldest upwelling systems in the world, and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relative influence of contemporary and historical mechanisms shaping the evolutionary history of warm-temperate fish species. Using the genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA Control Region and eight nuclear microsatellite DNA loci, we identified the presence of two highly divergent populations in a vagile and warm-temperate fish species, Atractoscion aequidens, across the Benguela region. The geographical distributions of the two populations, on either side of the perennial upwelling cell, suggest a strong correlation between the oceanographic features of the system and the breakdown of gene flow within this species. Genetic divergence (mtDNA φ ST = 0.902, microsatellite F ST = 0.055: probability of genetic homogeneity for either marker = p<0.001, absence of migrants (less than 1% per generation between populations and coalescent estimates of time since most recent common ancestor suggest that the establishment of the main oceanographic features of the system (2 million years ago, particularly the strengthening and position of the perennial upwelling cell, is the most likely mechanism behind the observed isolation. Concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers indicates that isolation and divergence of the northern and southern Benguela populations of A. aequidens occurred deep in the past and has continued to the present day. These findings suggest that the Benguela Current system may constitute an

  6. Decades of Urban Growth and Development on Deltas; Comparative Global Analysis of Night Lights and Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, C.; Elvidge, C.; Yetman, G.; Baugh, K.; MacManus, K.

    2016-12-01

    It is well-known that coastal zones in general, and deltas in particular, are among the most densely populated environments on Earth. Decades of satellite imagery offer spatially explicit observations of the changing land use and development of deltas worldwide. Stable night lights provide globally consistent proxies for lighted development associated with a variety of human settlement types. Gridded census enumerations provide geospatial depictions of human population density associated with residential population distributions. Recent improvements in both night light imaging and census data resolution allow us to compare stable night light and residential population density with much greater spatial correspondence than previously possible. We use night light brightness from the Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NASA/NOAA Suomi satellite and population density grids from the NASA SEDAC Gridded Population of the World v.4 (GPWv4) product to derive density/intensity transfer functions for a wide range of urban/rural gradients worldwide. These transfer functions provide the basis for spatial disaggregation of population using the higher resolution night light imagery in areas where census data lack the resolution for meaningful analysis of population and coastal hazard. Disaggregated population maps are combined with digital elevation models to estimate current population distributions with elevation and fluvial proximity for several of the world's most densely populated deltas. In addition, we use DMSP-OLS night light composites to map changes in lighted development on these deltas since 1992. Landsat imagery is then used to map the land cover changes associated with increases in night light brightness on these deltas. The result allows for spatially explicit comparisons of development patterns in different types of deltaic environments. We present a generalized methodology for mapping development and land cover with sufficient detail and

  7. Viscoelastic behavior of dense microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cametti, C.; Codastefano, P.; D'arrigo, G.; Tartaglia, P.; Rouch, J.; Chen, S. H.

    1990-09-01

    We have performed extensive measurements of shear viscosity, ultrasonic absorption, and sound velocity in a ternary system consisting of water-decane-sodium di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfo- succinate(AOT), in the one-phase region where it forms a water-in-oil microemulsion. We observe a rapid increase of the static shear viscosity in the dense microemulsion region. Correspondingly the sound absorption shows unambiguous evidence of a viscoelastic behavior. The absorption data for various volume fractions and temperatures can be reduced to a universal curve by scaling both the absorption and the frequency by the measured static shear viscosity. The sound absorption can be interpreted as coming from the high-frequency tail of the viscoelastic relaxation, describable by a Cole-Cole relaxation formula with unusually small elastic moduli.

  8. Neutrino Oscillations in Dense Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, A. E.

    2017-03-01

    A modification of the electroweak theory, where the fermions with the same electroweak quantum numbers are combined in multiplets and are treated as different quantum states of a single particle, is proposed. In this model, mixing and oscillations of particles arise as a direct consequence of the general principles of quantum field theory. The developed approach enables one to calculate the probabilities of the processes taking place in the detector at long distances from the particle source. Calculations of higher-order processes, including computation of the contributions due to radiative corrections, can be performed in the framework of the perturbation theory using the regular diagram technique. As a result, the analog to the Dirac-Schwinger equation of quantum electrodynamics describing neutrino oscillations and its spin rotation in dense matter can be obtained.

  9. DPIS for warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.

    2010-05-23

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.

  10. Modelling the impacts of coastal hazards on land-use development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J.; Vafeidis, A. T.

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 10% of the world's population live in close proximity to the coast and are potentially susceptible to tropical or extra-tropical storm-surge events. These events will be exacerbated by projected sea-level rise (SLR) in the 21st century. Accelerated SLR is one of the more certain impacts of global warming and can have major effects on humans and ecosystems. Of particular vulnerability are densely populated coastal urban centres containing globally important commercial resources, with assets in the billions USD. Moreover, the rates of growth of coastal populations, which are reported to be growing faster than the global means, are leading to increased human exposure to coastal hazards. Consequently, potential impacts of coastal hazards can be significant in the future and will depend on various factors but actual impacts can be considerably reduced by appropriate human decisions on coastal land-use management. At the regional scale, it is therefore necessary to identify which coastal areas are vulnerable to these events and explore potential long-term responses reflected in land usage. Land-use change modelling is a technique which has been extensively used in recent years for studying the processes and mechanisms that govern the evolution of land use and which can potentially provide valuable information related to the future coastal development of regions that are vulnerable to physical forcings. Although studies have utilized land-use classification maps to determine the impact of sea-level rise, few use land-use projections to make these assessments, and none have considered adaptive behaviour of coastal dwellers exposed to hazards. In this study a land-use change model, which is based on artificial neural networks (ANN), was employed for predicting coastal urban and agricultural development. The model uses as inputs a series of spatial layers, which include information on population distribution, transportation networks, existing urban centres, and

  11. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchet, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Caquet, Th. [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Franquet, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Saint Jerome, C31, Marseille F-13397 (France); Lagneau, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); Lagadic, L., E-mail: Laurent.Lagadic@rennes.inra.f [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 mug L{sup -1}) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 muL L{sup -1}) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. - Significant interaction between salinity and spinosad exposure impairs the recovery of a natural population of Daphnia magna.

  12. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally.

  13. 5G Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xiaohu; Tu, Song; Mao, Guoqiang; Wang, Cheng-xiang; Han, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Traditional ultra-dense wireless networks are recommended as a complement for cellular networks and are deployed in partial areas, such as hotspot and indoor scenarios. Based on the massive multiple-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas and the millimeter wavecommunication technologies, the 5G ultra-dense cellular network is proposed to deploy in overall cellular scenarios. Moreover, a distribution network architecture is presented for 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. Furthermore, the backhaul ...

  14. Interference Coordination for Dense Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2015-01-01

    The promise of ubiquitous and super-fast connectivity for the upcoming years will be in large part fulfilled by the addition of base stations and spectral aggregation. The resulting very dense networks (DenseNets) will face a number of technical challenges. Among others, the interference emerges ...... simply react to an identified interference problem. As an example, we propose two algorithms to apply time domain and frequency domain small cell interference coordination in a DenseNet....

  15. HOW GOOD IS A DENSE SHOP SCHEDULE?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈礴; 俞文(鱼此)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study a class of simple and easy-to-construct shop schedules, known as dense schedules. We present tight bounds on the maximum deviation in makespan of dense flow-shop and job-shop schedules from their optimal ones. For dense open-shop schedules, we do the same for the special case of four machines and thus add a stronger supporting case for proving a standing conjecture.

  16. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  17. The empirical analysis on coordination of population and economy in Liaoning coastal economic zone%辽宁沿海经济带人口与经济协调度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初铭畅

    2013-01-01

    经济带和都市圈现已成为区域经济发展的主要趋势,人口与经济能否协调发展是实现区域经济发展目标的战略性问题。采用理论与实证、定量与定性相结合的方法,在人口与经济协调发展相关理论的基础上构建区域人口与经济协调度评价指标体系,运用主成分分析法对辽宁沿海经济带人口与经济协调度进行评价和分析,认为辽宁沿海经济带的人口与经济发展并不协调,区域差异明显,除了大连是中度协调发展以外,其他地区都不协调。大连的人口与经济协调度单独聚为第一类,是整个辽宁沿海经济带中人口与经济发展较为协调的地区;丹东、锦州、营口、葫芦岛聚类为第二类,属于中度失调衰退类;盘锦聚类为第三类,属于极度失调衰退类。%Economic zone and the Metropolitan has become the main trend of regional economic devel-opment .The coordinated development between population and economy is a strategic issue to realize the objectives of the regional economic development .By using the combination of theoretical and em-pirical methods ,quantitative and qualitative methods ,we constructed an evaluation system for coordi-nation degree between regional population and economy on the basis of relevant theories of population and economic development .By evaluating and analyzing the coordination degree of population and e-conomy in Liaoning coastal economic zone in the way of principal component analysis ,we consider that the coordination degree there is not ideal .Concretely ,the degrees of coordination of almost all the regions are not very high except that Dalian’s is moderate .Cluster analysis results of coordination degree of population and economy tell us that there are three groups :only the first group -Dalian’s population and economy are relatively coordinated in the entire Liaoning coastal economic zone ,the second one including Dandong ,Jinzhou

  18. An integrated framework to assess future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Lazar, Attlia; Payo, Andres; Adams, Helen; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Haque, Anisul; Clarke, Derek; Bricheno, Lucy; Fernandes, Jose; Rahman, Mofizur; Ahmed, Ali; Streatfield, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Coastal deltas represent some of the most densely populated areas in the world. A good example is the coastal zone of Bangladesh where there are more than 1000 people/km2 in the rural areas. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in this area is strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential. This severely affects land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish catches, rice production), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This includes the development and application of a range of scenarios, including expert-derived scenarios on issues such as climate change, and stakeholder-derived scenarios on more local issues in Bangladesh. This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on

  19. Vulnerability of Population and Transportation Infrastructure at the East Bank of Delaware Bay Due to Coastal Flooding in Sea-Level Rise Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    and area of study 144 Nat Hazards (2013) 69:141–163 123 meteorological conditions: no storm, a 10-year storm, and a 50-year storm. The situation with...May and Cumberland Counties (US Census Bureau 2013) Table 2 Population 2010 in municipals for Cape May and Cumberland counties (US Census Bureau 2013...larger the region containing runoff flooding will be. The value of b depends on the rainfall intensity and topography of the study region. In this

  20. Data-Limited Population-Status Evaluation of Two Coastal Fishes in Southern Angola Using Recreational Catch Length-Frequency Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckensteiner, Jennifer; Kaplan, David M; Potts, Warren M; Santos, Carmen V; O'Farrell, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Excessive truncation of a population's size structure is often identified as an important deleterious effect of exploitation, yet the effect on population persistence of size-structure truncation caused by exploitation is often not quantified due to data limitations. In this study, we estimate changes in eggs per recruit (EPR) using annual length-frequency samples over a 9 year period to assess persistence of the two most important recreational fishes in southern Angola: west coast dusky kob (Argyrosomus coronus) and leerfish (Lichia amia). Using a length- and age-structured model, we improve on an existing method to fit this type of model to length-frequency data and estimate EPR. The objectives of the methodological changes are to add flexibility and robustness to the approach for assessing population status in data-limited situations. Results indicate that dusky kob presents very low levels of EPR (5%-10% of the per recruit reproductive capacity in the absence of fishing) in 2013, whereas large inter-annual variability in leerfish estimates suggest caution must be applied when drawing conclusions about its exploitation status. Using simulated length frequency data with known parameter values, we demonstrate that recruitment decline due to overexploitation leads to overestimation of EPR values. Considering the low levels of EPR estimated for the study species, recruitment limitation is not impossible and true EPR values may be even lower than our estimates. It is, therefore, likely that management action, such as the creation of Marine Protected Areas, is needed to reconstitute the west coast dusky kob population.

  1. Data-Limited Population-Status Evaluation of Two Coastal Fishes in Southern Angola Using Recreational Catch Length-Frequency Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Beckensteiner

    Full Text Available Excessive truncation of a population's size structure is often identified as an important deleterious effect of exploitation, yet the effect on population persistence of size-structure truncation caused by exploitation is often not quantified due to data limitations. In this study, we estimate changes in eggs per recruit (EPR using annual length-frequency samples over a 9 year period to assess persistence of the two most important recreational fishes in southern Angola: west coast dusky kob (Argyrosomus coronus and leerfish (Lichia amia. Using a length- and age-structured model, we improve on an existing method to fit this type of model to length-frequency data and estimate EPR. The objectives of the methodological changes are to add flexibility and robustness to the approach for assessing population status in data-limited situations. Results indicate that dusky kob presents very low levels of EPR (5%-10% of the per recruit reproductive capacity in the absence of fishing in 2013, whereas large inter-annual variability in leerfish estimates suggest caution must be applied when drawing conclusions about its exploitation status. Using simulated length frequency data with known parameter values, we demonstrate that recruitment decline due to overexploitation leads to overestimation of EPR values. Considering the low levels of EPR estimated for the study species, recruitment limitation is not impossible and true EPR values may be even lower than our estimates. It is, therefore, likely that management action, such as the creation of Marine Protected Areas, is needed to reconstitute the west coast dusky kob population.

  2. Co-existence of zebra mussels and freshwater unionids: Population dynamics of Leptodea fragilis in a coastal wetland infested with zebra mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Amberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, thousands of live Leptodea fragilis were collected from a marsh located in the western basin of Lake Erie that was infested with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Despite the presence of zebra mussels at this site for a number of years, this L. fragilis population showed no signs of competition-induced changes in population dynamics. Biofouling was limited: fewer than 1% of the L. fragilis showed evidence of recent or past zebra mussel colonization. Successful recruitment occurred yearly, with multiple year classes collected that ranged in age from 1 to 12 years. However, age and shell length were not well correlated. Seventy-one percent of the individuals collected were 51-80 mm long, but ranged in age from 2 to 4.5 years. Three different patterns of growth or shell deposition were found. Some individuals grew rapidly, reaching 105 mm in 3.5 years, while others grew only 4.5 mm over the same time period. A few grew poorly during some years but very rapidly in others. Individuals with a shell length of 41 mm or more were sexually mature and females were more common than males. The strong recruitment and steady growth of this population showed no change between the years before and after the zebra mussel invasion, indicating that this marsh is functioning as a natural refugium from potential problems caused by zebra mussels.

  3. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  4. Novel Indicators of Anthropogenic Influence on Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Feist, Blake E.; Phillip S. Levin

    2016-01-01

    Human populations are concentrated along coastal regions worldwide, placing a disproportionate stress on coastal marine ecosystems. Ironically, biogenic habitats may be adversely affected by human activities though they serve to attenuate the impacts of global change on coastal cities. Surprisingly, simple, coastwide indicators of anthropogenic influences in relation to the spatial distribution of biogenic habitats are relatively underdeveloped. In this paper, we introduce a spatially explici...

  5. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  6. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D; Bruno, John F; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-08

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  8. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  9. Optimal probabilistic dense coding schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Roger A.; Neves, Leonardo

    2017-04-01

    Dense coding with non-maximally entangled states has been investigated in many different scenarios. We revisit this problem for protocols adopting the standard encoding scheme. In this case, the set of possible classical messages cannot be perfectly distinguished due to the non-orthogonality of the quantum states carrying them. So far, the decoding process has been approached in two ways: (i) The message is always inferred, but with an associated (minimum) error; (ii) the message is inferred without error, but only sometimes; in case of failure, nothing else is done. Here, we generalize on these approaches and propose novel optimal probabilistic decoding schemes. The first uses quantum-state separation to increase the distinguishability of the messages with an optimal success probability. This scheme is shown to include (i) and (ii) as special cases and continuously interpolate between them, which enables the decoder to trade-off between the level of confidence desired to identify the received messages and the success probability for doing so. The second scheme, called multistage decoding, applies only for qudits ( d-level quantum systems with d>2) and consists of further attempts in the state identification process in case of failure in the first one. We show that this scheme is advantageous over (ii) as it increases the mutual information between the sender and receiver.

  10. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically {approx}1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of {approx}2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  11. Star formation in dense clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion, and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star IMF from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosi...

  12. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Azevedo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1 the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2 measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3 challenges related to implementing adaptation measures.

  13. Thermophysical properties of warm dense hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Holst, Bastian; Desjarlais, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    We study the thermophysical properties of warm dense hydrogen using quantum molecular dynamics simulations. New results are presented for the pair distribution functions, the equation of state, the Hugoniot curve, and the reflectivity. We compare with available experimental data and predictions of the chemical picture. Especially, we discuss the nonmetal-to-metal transition which occurs at about 40 GPa in the dense fluid.

  14. Heavy meson production in hot dense matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Gamermann, Daniel; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Nieves, JM; Oset, E; Vacas, MJV

    2010-01-01

    The properties of charmed mesons in dense matter are studied using a unitary coupled-channel approach in the nuclear medium which takes into account Pauli-blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We obtain the open-charm meson spectral functions in this dense nuclear env

  15. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based mode...

  16. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  17. Remote sensing and GIS analysis for demarcation of coastal hazard line along the highly eroding Krishna-Godavari delta front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepalli, Akhil; Kakani, Nageswara Rao; James, David B.

    2016-10-01

    Coastal regions, especially river deltas are highly resourceful and hence densely populated; but these extremely low-lying lands are vulnerable to rising sea levels due to global warming threatening the life and property in these regions. Recent IPCC (2013) predictions of 26-82cm global sea level rise are now considered conservative as subsequent investigations such as by Met Office, UK indicated a vertical rise of about 190cm, which would displace 10% of the world's population living within 10 meters above the sea level. Therefore, predictive models showing the hazard line are necessary for efficient coastal zone management. Remote sensing and GIS technologies form the mainstay of such predictive models on coastal retreat and inundation to future sea-level rise. This study is an attempt to estimate the varying trends along the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) delta region. Detailed maps showing various coastal landforms in the K-G delta region were prepared using the IRS-P6 LISS 3 images. The rate of shoreline shift during a 31-year period along different sectors of the 330km long K-G delta coast was estimated using Landsat-2 and IRS-P6 LISS 3 images between 1977 and 2008. With reference to a selected baseline from along an inland position, End Point Rate (EPR), Shoreline Change Envelope (SCE) and Net Shoreline Movement (NSM) were calculated, using a GIS-based Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). The results showed that the shoreline migrated landward up to a maximum distance of 3.13km resulting in a net loss of about 42.10km2 area during this 31-year period. Further, considering the nature of landforms and EPR, the future hazard line is predicted for the area, which also indicated a net erosion of about 57.68km2 along the K-G delta coast by 2050 AD.

  18. Genetic structure and effective population size through time: a tale on two coastal marine species with contrasting life-history patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martins Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species with dispersal mediated by planktonic larvae are expected to be more likely to show temporal genetic variation, due to differences in larval mortality and dispersal ability. The shanny Lipophrys pholis is a typical benthic rocky intertidal fish and its dispersion is limited to its long larval stage. In contrast, the sand-smelt Atherina presbyter has a very short planktonic life, small size and weak swimming capabilities, which translates into reduced dispersion potential. A total of 226 specimens of L. pholis (collected in 2003, 2013 and 2014 and 281 of A. presbyter (collected in 2005, 2012, 2013 and 2014 were screened for genetic variation using the mitochondrial control region. Only 12 (out of 171 and 25 (out of 155 haplotypes found were shared between sampling periods for the shanny and the sand smelt, respectively. For both species, haplotype networks showed a deep genealogy with multiple levels of diversification and no temporal structure. Interestingly, some of the previously inferred missing haplotypes were sampled in more recent years. The genetic diversity indices showed little variation among sampling periods and were generally high. For L. pholis significant genetic differentiation was detected between 2013 and 2014, while no significant differences were detected between sampling periods in A. presbyter. The shanny showed lower effective population size per generation when compared to the sand-smelt (which yielded lack of evidence for genetic drift for the first and second period of the study. These results highlight the fact that temporal changes in the gene pool composition need to be considered when evaluating population structure, especially for species with long pelagic larval dispersion, more vulnerable to fluctuations in the recruitment.

  19. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  20. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  1. 670 investigating changes in coastal environment using internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    change, population pressure, urbanization and disasters are getting worse, ... give more attention to means of sustaining the human environment, especially the coastal areas. ... presents the result of investigation carried out in Okrika coastal areas of ..... Table 3 Trends in changes investigated in Okrika Land Use distribution ...

  2. A risk-informed approach to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejan, R.B.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Economic and population growth have led to an unprecedented increase in the value at risk in coastal zones over the last century. To avoid excessive future losses, particularly in the light of projected climate change impacts, coastal zone managers have various instruments at their disposal. These

  3. Advances in coastal ecology : people, processes and ecosystems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.; Muthiga, N.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal population of Sub-Sahara Africa is increasing rapidly but coastal zones are fragile environments that are easily disturbed and easily damaged when overexploited. There is need for carefully thought out management of resources to realize both environmental sustainability and potential

  4. Advances in coastal ecology : people, processes and ecosystems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.; Muthiga, N.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal population of Sub-Sahara Africa is increasing rapidly but coastal zones are fragile environments that are easily disturbed and easily damaged when overexploited. There is need for carefully thought out management of resources to realize both environmental sustainability and potential soc

  5. Low prevalence of atrial fibrillation in Amerindians: a population-based study in frequent fish consumers living in rural coastal Ecuador (The Atahualpa Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Costa, Aldo F; Cano, José A; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Plaza, Karin J; Ledesma, Ernesto A; Tettamanti, Daniel; Zambrano, Mauricio

    2017-07-31

    Information on the burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) in rural areas of developing countries is limited. Here, we aimed to assess AF prevalence in community-dwelling older adults living in rural Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years (mean age 70.5 ± 8.1 years) underwent 24-h Holter monitoring. Participants belong to the Amerindian ethnic group. The mean height in the study population was 147.9 ± 8.9 cm. Oily fish was a major source of food (mean intake: 8 ± 4 servings/week). Seven of 298 participants (2.3%) had AF. Persons with AF were older than those without (p = 0.051), but there were no differences in cardiovascular risk factors across groups. None of the seven AF cases had been detected in routine 12-lead ECGs taken at enrollment. Prevalence of AF in older Amerindians living in rural Ecuador is low. Both, racially-determined short stature and frequent dietary oily fish intake might explain the low prevalence of AF in this rural setting.

  6. Human induced coastal changes and their impact on the coastal urban landscape. The case of Heraklion, Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempis, Nikolaos; Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a vital part of human society due to sea activities. Α variety of activities and uses are present and are further developing in the coastal and marine are. Coastal ecosystems and landscape are under severe pressure due to population growth and continuous expansion of human activities and supplemented from the effects of climate change (e.g. coastal flooding, erosion). Heraklion is the largest urban center in Crete. Its suburban and coastal area receives intensive urban sprawl pressures, changing the urban landscape and resulting negative impacts on the human and natural environment. The saturation of coastal area of Heraklion creates the need for new development interventions (e.g. new marina, coastal protection, urban regeneration). This study examine the impacts of the new programmed coastal development intervention in the coastal landscape of Heraklion. A decision analytic approach was implemented, based on the need of stakeholders for the protection and further development of coastal area of Heraklion. In this direction, local authorities have proposed the realization of several development interventions which include a new marina, expansion of bathing beaches and coastal regeneration project in a large beach. The results indicate that the realization of any coastal development projects, also increases the negative effects that are related to land-sea interaction. The negative effects are a result of the interaction between different human activities but also between human activities and the environment. The development of the marina in the selected location, increases the pressure on the sea area as the navigation will increase, but also increases the pressure on land space, as traffic flows will change, creating new pressures in urban areas. The extension of bathing beaches implies larger number of bathers, thus creating greater needs for infrastructures in land area for their service. Coastal protection projects, as planned, will upgrade the

  7. Decision-making in Coastal Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over half of the US population lives in coastal watersheds, creating a regional pressure for coastal ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy communities and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and Coastal and Marin...

  8. In the Eye of the Storm: A Participatory Course on Coastal Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Storm disasters are amplified in the coastal environment due to population pressures and the power of the sea. The upper-division/graduate university course "Coastal Storms" was designed to equip future practitioners with the skills necessary to understand, respond to, and mitigate for these natural disasters. To accomplish this, "Coastal Storms"…

  9. Decision-making in Coastal Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over half of the US population lives in coastal watersheds, creating a regional pressure for coastal ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy communities and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and Coastal and Marin...

  10. Response of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) populations and domoic acid to environmental conditions in a eutrophied, SW Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Inès; Grami, Boutheina; Bates, Stephen S.; Bouchouicha, Donia; Chikhaoui, Mohamed Ali; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Hlaili, Asma Sakka

    2012-05-01

    The population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia species from Bizerte Lagoon, northern Tunisia, were examined at six stations sampled monthly from March 2006 to February 2007. These are potential producers of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), cause of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Six morphospecies were counted: Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana, Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima complex species, Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima and 'Nitzschia seriata' group species. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to correlate species with the physical and chemical properties of the seawater, and the statistical significance of species-variable associations was tested using the Van Dobben method. The P. delicatissima complex species abundance was significantly positively correlated to turbidity, and negatively associated with temperature, nitrate, silicate and DA. P. brasiliana was more abundant in samples with higher salinity, nitrate, silicate and DA, and with lower nitrite, phosphate and turbidity. P. multistriata was negatively linked to salinity and nitrate, and positively correlated to temperature and turbidity. Abundances of the P. calliantha, P. pseudodelicatissima and 'N. seriata' group species were not statistically related to any of the variables examined. We document, for the first time, the incidence of DA in the Bizerte Lagoon (at four stations) and at one offshore station in Bizerte Bay (Mediterranean Sea). Total DA ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 μg DA l-1 and was detected only in October 2006, when lagoon waters were rich in nitrate and silicate and the salinity was elevated. The beginning of autumn was the highest potential risk period for ASP events, linked to elevated salinity and P. brasiliana growth. These findings allow local jurisdictions to prepare for Pseudo-nitzschia bloom events, and provide data for eventual predictive models of Pseudo-nitzschia bloom formation and toxin production in Bizerte

  11. Coastal Conditions 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Dataset developed by California Coastal Commission's Melanie Coyne by attaching names to a dynamically segmented coastline using the Department of Navigation and...

  12. Coastal Innovation Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Glavovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe and underpin business and technology with coherent governance innovations that lead to social transformation for coastal sustainability. How might coastal management help to facilitate this transition? It is argued that coastal management needs to be reconceptualised as a transformative practice of deliberative coastal governance. A foundation comprising four deliberative or process outcomes is posited. The point of departure is to build human and social capital through issue learning and improved democratic attitudes and skills. Attention then shifts to facilitating community-oriented action and improving institutional capacity and decision-making. Together, these endeavours enable improved community problem-solving. The ultimate process goal is to build more collaborative communities. Instituting transformative deliberative coastal governance will help to stimulate innovations that chart new sustainability pathways and help to resolve the coastal problems. This framework could be adapted and applied in other geographical settings.

  13. Coastal Analysis, Surry County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  14. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  15. Coastal Analysis, Virginia Beach, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  16. Coastal Analysis, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  17. Coastal Analysis, Charles County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  18. Coastal Analysis, Dorchester County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  19. Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J P G L; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2014-04-01

    Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study. A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m⁻³) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm³ m⁻³), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries. Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC).

  20. Living resources provide diverse opportunities to coastal human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    4 Marine and Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, South Africa ..... and distribution of subsistence fishers. ..... by a sector of the population that has been politically.

  1. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the coastal marine environment of Dar es Salaam and the remote Ras Dege. Creek. ... Creek and the Ocean Road sewer outfall was unfit for human consumption. ... has an estimated population of about ... annual growth rate of about 8%.

  2. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    In Ghana, sand mining, forest degradation and other human activities are fast ... populations today, including climate change, biodiversity loss and the pollution ... are very vibrant and as a result the rate of growth of these coastal communities.

  3. Taxonomic Report on Small Mammals from Two Coastal Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Surveys of the small mammal populations of two coastal wetlands in Ghana, ... abundance and diversity, attributable to human settlement and economic activity. ... supplemented with notes on distribution and taxonomy of the mammals ...

  4. 滨海不同生境下盐地碱蓬生物量分配特征研究%Biomass allocation in Suaeda salsa population in different habitats of coastal zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛培利; 成文连; 刘玉虹; 王光美; 陈景春; 韩广轩; 张志东; 于君宝; 刘福德

    2011-01-01

    盐地碱蓬是黄河三角洲重要的先锋植物,抗盐能力强,分布范围广,对维持该地区生态系统稳定和演替发挥着重要作用.通过野外取样测定,研究了潮间带和潮上带盐地碱蓬种群的形态及生物量分配特征.在个体大小上,潮间带盐地碱蓬在株高和地径上显著低于潮上带盐地碱蓬;潮上带盐地碱蓬密集分布的株高高于散生分布,而生物量低于散生分布.在生物量分配特征上,潮间带盐地碱蓬Ⅰ以发展花、叶为主,潮上带盐地碱蓬Ⅱ的密集分布以优先发展茎为主,潮上带盐地碱蓬Ⅲ的散生分布以发展枝为主,属于种群发展的稳定阶段.因此,盐地碱蓬通过形态特征及生物量分配特征的调节,以适应潮间带和潮上带的不同生境特征,从而达到种群维持和土壤改良的目的.%Suaeda salsa with a strong salt tolerance and wide distribution is one of the most important pioneer species and plays an important role in the stability and succession of ecosystem in the Yellow River Delta. Biomass allocation of 5. Salsa population in the intertidal and supratidal zone was studied. On the individual size, plant height and basal diameter of S. Salsa in the intertidal zone were higher than that in the supratidal zone. Comparing with the scattered distribution, S. Salsa in the intertidal zone had higher plant height and lower biomass in the dense distribution. On the biomass allocation, S. Salsa in the intertidal zone devoted more biomass into growth of flowers and leaves, while in the supratidal zone, S. Salsa in the dense distribution tended to accelerate growth of stem, and S. Salsa with a scattered distribution focus on growth of branch. Moreover, S. Salsa of habitat III was stable phase of 5. Salsa of habitat I and II. Therefore, S. Salsa of different habitats may adapt to different habitats of the intertidal and supratidal zone by changing their biomass allocation characteristics in order to maintain their

  5. Exceptional dense water formation on the Adriatic shelf in the winter of 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mihanović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We document dense water formation (DWF throughout the Adriatic shelf and coastal area in January/February 2012, resulting in record-breaking densities observed during and after the event. The unprecedented dense water generation was preconditioned by a dry and warm year which resulted in a significant reduction of coastal freshwaters, superimposed on a long-term basin-wide salinity increase. The final event that triggered the DWF was an extended period of cold weather with strong and severe winds. Record-breaking potential density anomalies (above 30 kg m−3 were measured at several DWF sites. Accumulated surface net heat and water losses in some coastal regions exceeded 1.5 GJ m−2 and 250 kg m−2 over 21 days, respectively. Excessiveness, importance of shelf-type DWF, effects on the thermohaline circulation and deep aquatic systems, and connection with climate change are discussed.

  6. Confidence in Coastal Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, F.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis answers the question "How can we show and improve our confidence in coastal forecasts?", by providing four examples of common coastal forecasts. The first example shows how to improve the estimate of the one in ten thousand year storm-surge level. The three dimensional reconstruction,

  7. Kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graedel, T.E.; Langer, W.D.; Frerking, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    A detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds has been developed to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature, and other topics of interest. The full computation involves 328 individual reactions (expanded to 1067 to study carbon and oxygen isotope chemistry); photodegradation processes are unimportant in these dense clouds and are excluded.

  8. Exotic x-ray emission from dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmej, F. B.; Dachicourt, R.; Deschaud, B.; Khaghani, D.; Dozières, M.; Šmíd, M.; Renner, O.

    2015-11-01

    Exotic x-ray emission from dense matter is identified as the complex high intensity satellite emission from autoionizing states of highly charged ions. Among a vast amount of possible transitions, double K-hole hollow ion (HI) x-ray emission K0L X → K1L X-1 + hν hollow is of exceptional interest due to its advanced diagnostic potential for matter under extreme conditions where opacity and radiation fields play important roles. Transient ab initio simulations identify intense short pulse radiation fields (e.g., those emitted by x-ray free electron lasers) as possible driving mechanisms of HI x-ray emission via two distinct channels: first, successive photoionization of K-shell electrons, second, photoionization followed by resonant photoexciation among various ionic charge states that are simultaneously present in high density matter. We demonstrated that charge exchange of intermixing inhomogenous plasmas as well as collisions driven by suprathermal electrons are possible mechanisms to populate HIs to observable levels in dense plasmas, particularly in high current Z-pinch plasmas and high intensity field-ionized laser produced plasmas. Although the HI x-ray transitions were repeatedly identified in many other cases of dense optical laser produced plasmas on the basis of atomic structure calculations, their origin is far from being understood and remains one of the last holy grails of high intensity laser-matter interaction.

  9. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater mathematical models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. However, most integrated surface water-groundwater models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D shallow water equations to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection

  10. Using radiosilver and plutonium isotopes to trace the dispersion of contaminated sediment in Fukushima coastal catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, O.; Ayrault, S.; Pointurier, F.; Onda, Y.; Laceby, J. P.; Lepage, H.; Chartin, C.; Cirella, M.; Pottin, A. C.; Hubert, A.; Lefèvre, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 resulted in a 3000-km² radioactive pollution plume consisting predominantly of radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs). This plume is drained by several rivers to the Pacific Ocean after flowing through less contaminated, but densely inhabited coastal plains. As the redistribution of radionuclide contaminated sediment could expose the local population to higher radiation rates, novel fingerprinting methods were developed to trace the downstream dispersion of contaminated sediment. First, the heterogeneous deposition of metastable silver-110 (110mAg) across these coastal catchments was used to investigate sediment migration. In particular, the 110mAg/137Cs activity ratio was measured in soils and river sediment demonstrating the occurrence of a seasonal cycle of soil erosion during typhoons and spring snowmelt in 2011 and 2012. However, due to the rapid decay of 110mAg (half-life of 250 days), alternative methods were required to continue tracking sediment from 2013 onwards. One promising method includes the analyses of plutonium isotopes to further understand sediment migration in the Fukushima region. For example, 241Pu/239Pu atom ratios measured in sediment collected in Fukushima coastal rivers shortly after the accident were shown to be significantly higher (0.0017 - 0.0884) than corresponding values attributed to the global fallout (0.00113 ± 0.00008). Additional analyses were conducted on sediment sampled in 2013 and 2014 after the start of decontamination works. These analyses show that the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratios decreased towards the global fallout values in rivers draining decontaminated paddy fields, demonstrating the effectiveness of remediation works.

  11. Temporal trends of coastal environment along Japan as revealed by mussel watch and specimen bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Y.; Yoshinaga, J.; Horiguchi, T.; Uehiro, T.; Morita, M. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Mussel watch program coupled with a pilot specimen bank at NIES was conducted from 1983 to 1987, and also from 1993 to 1994, and their results were compared to reveal temporal trends of coastal environment along Japan. Special emphasis was paid to reveal the change of ``background`` level of pollutants by collecting bivalves in remote islands. Several species of mussels (Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis, M. coruscus, Septifer virgatus, Pema viridis), oysters (Saxostrea mordax, Crassostrea gigas) and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum, Tridacna crocea) were collected to cover subfrigid to subtropical zones along Japan islands. The level of TBT decreased considerably between the above two intervals, i.e., from 0.12--0.01 {micro}g/g in mid 80`s to 0.03-n.d. (less than 0.01) {micro}g/g in 1993. This decrease may reflect the start of the regulation in 1990. The clam samples collected at Tokyo bay and stored in specimen bank were found to contain considerable levels (near 0.3 {micro}g/g) of TBT and TPT in 1980, and their levels were almost constant through mid and late 1980`s. Several heavy metals, including Cd, showed interesting spatial distribution patterns; their concentrations tend to be higher in less populated remote islands in western part of Japan than in densely populated areas. Cd concentrations, however, also show apparent correlation with Zn status of each organism (especially evident in Septifer sp.), and the interpretation of the results is not straightforward at this stage. Interestingly, a tropical green mussel, P. viridis, was found to be spreading in some densely populated area including Tokyo and Osaka bays.

  12. TSHR基因多态性与山东沿海地区汉族人Graves病的相关性%Association of TSHR gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves' disease in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海丽; 杨丽华; 贾兆通; 王宝苹; 孙玉萍; 潘春明; 宋怀东; 王雪峰; 任伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究促甲状腺素受体(TSHR)基因与山东沿海地区汉族人群Graves病(GD)易感性之间的关系.方法 选取山东沿海地区471例汉族GD患者和472例健康体检者为研究对象,应用TaqMan探针技术,在Fluidigm EP1平台上对TSHR基因第一内含子区6个标签SNP位点进行分型检测,并构建单体型.结果 rs179247、rs12101261、rs4903964和rs17111394等位基因频率在GD组和对照组中有显著性差异(P=0.004、P=0.001 、P=0.005 、P=0.012).rs179247-A、rs4903964-A和rs17111394-C等位基因携带者发生GD的风险分别增加34%(OR=1.34,95% CI 1.10 ~ 1.63)、30%(OR=1.30,95% CI 1.08 ~1.57)和31%(OR=1.31,95% CI 1.06~1.62).与对照组相比,GD组rs12101261-C等位基因频率显著降低(36.0%对28.9%,P=0.001),rs12101261-C等位基因携带者发生GD的风险降低28%(OR=0.72,95% CI 0.60~0.88).Logistic回归分析显示,rs12101261是GD发病的一个独立的易感位点(P=0.033).单体型分析发现,G-G-C-G-T-T单体型频率在对照组明显高于GD组,差异有统计学意义(P=0.017,OR=0.762,95% CI 0.609 ~0.953),而A-G-T-A-C-C单体型频率在GD组明显高于对照组(P=0.033),该单体型发生GD的风险增加63%(OR=1.630,95% CI 1.035 ~2.567).结论 TSHR基因多态性及单体型与山东沿海地区汉族人GD的发生相关,rs12101261是独立易感位点.%Objective To investigate the association of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves' disease (GD) in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province.Methods Four hundred and seventy-one GD patients and 472 controls from coastal areas in Shandong province were enrolled for genotyping 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TSHR gene by TaqMan probe technique on Fluidigm EPl platform.Haplotypes and their frequencies were established and analyzed by SHEsis online software.Results A significant difference in allele frequencies of rs179247,rs12101261,rs

  13. Coastal resources of Brunei Darussalam: Status, utilization and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, G.; Jaafar, H.M.H.; Yusof, P.S.P.H.; De Silva, M.W.R.N.; Chua, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    In light of the environmental dangers accompanying its recent program of economic diversification, the Government of Brunei Darussalam has signalled the need for improved management of its coastal areas, where 85 percent of the population lives and the country's social and economic activities are concentrated. The report contains the proceedings of a conference held in 1991 to review recent studies of Brunei Darussalam's coastal resources and draft an initial coastal area management plan. Individual papers cover: capture fisheries; mangrove and mangrove forest resources; fish communities in natural reef and artificial habitats; coastal area water quality; the populations and diversity of benthic fauna that inhabit coastal waters and are threatened by oil spills; a simulation of oil slick movement in Brunei Darussalam; a composite sensitivity index ranking the susceptibility of Brunei's five zones (as identified by resource prevalence) to oil spills; a management strategy for Brunei's 33 islands, most of which are uninhabited; zoning of industrial activities to minimize adverse effects on coastal water quality and the environment; the socioeconomic importance of Brunei's coastal resources; and the legal and institutional environment for coastal resource management.

  14. Relationship between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and high-risk human papillomavirus in areas with dense floating population%流动人口密集地区宫颈上皮内瘤变与高危型人乳头瘤病毒关系调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉梅; 李柳翠; 梁翠霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relevant factors and relationship between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and high-risk human papillomavirus happened in the areas with dense floating population.Methods The basic data of the patients infected by HPV16,HPV18,and HPV31 subgroups from the gynecological clinic were collected,and the relevant data were completed reviewing their electronic medical records or through telephone follow-up.Results The HPV infection frequency was 217 in the 198 patients.Among them,61.75% were infected by HPV16,25.35% by HPV18,and 12.90% by HPV31.In the 198 patients,16.16% had sex life in too young age or had more than one sex mate,32.83% had been pregnant,delivered,or aborted more than once,90.40% got vaginal infection,81.82% had chronic cervicitis,and 26 patients (13.13%),including 22 cases infected by HPV16 and having higher malignancy degree,had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma.Conclusions Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia closely relates to high-risk HPV16 infection in the areas with dense floating population.Low immunity caused by chronic cervicitis and cervical and vaginal infections,was the main factors for high risk HPV infection.%目的 了解流动人口密集地区宫颈上皮内瘤变与高危型人乳头瘤病毒间的关系及相关因素.方法 对妇科门诊所有感染HPV16、HPV18、HPV31亚型患者的基本资料进行初步登记,再通过查阅电子病历或电话回访逐一完善相关资料.结果 从198例高危HPV感染患者中检出的217频次的阳性结果中发现:HPV16感染比率最多,占61.75%,HPV18其次,占25.35%,HPV31位居第三,占12.90%.198例患者中过早或多伴侣性生活的占16.16%,多孕、多产和多次人流占32.83%、感染性阴道炎占90.40%、慢性宫颈炎占81.82%;在198例高危HPV感染者中共发现了宫颈上皮内瘤变及宫颈浸润癌26例,26例宫颈上皮内瘤变及宫颈浸润癌患者中22例感染HPV16,

  15. Drivers, trends, and potential impacts of long-term coastal reclamation in China from 1985 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bo; Wu, Wenting; Yang, Zhaoqing; Zhou, Yunxuan

    2016-03-01

    The reclamation of coastal land for agricultural, industrial, and urban land use-a common worldwide practice-has occurred extensively in the coastal region of China. In recent decades, all coastal provinces and metropolises in China have experienced severe coastal reclamation related to land scarcity caused by rapid economic growth and urbanization. However, the value of coastal wetlands and ecosystems has not been well understood and appreciated until recent development of advantageous methods of restoring reclaimed land to coastal wetlands in many developed countries. The overall objective of this study is to provide detailed spatial and temporal distributions of coastal reclamation; analyze drivers such as coastal economy, population growth, and urbanization; and understand the relationships among the drivers and land reclamation. We used long-term Landsat image time series from 1985 to 2010 in 5-year intervals, in combination with remotely sensed image interpretation and spatial analysis, to map the reclamation status and changes across the coastal region of China. The Landsat images time-series analysis was also conducted to evaluate the effects of the economy, population, and urbanization drivers on coastal reclamation. The analysis results indicated that 754,697 ha of coastal wetlands have been reclaimed across all coastal provinces and metropolises from 1985 to 2010, and the trend increased sharply after 2005. High-intensity coastal reclamation was mainly driven by the booming economy, especially after 2000, associated with urbanization and industrial development in China's coastal region; this was closely correlated with the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The continuous large-scale coastal reclamation of its coastal region now means China is facing a great challenge, including the enormous loss of vegetated coastal wetlands, negative environmental effects, and potential disaster risks related to coastal flooding under future change climate

  16. Injection of photoelectrons into dense argon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Borghesani, A F

    2010-01-01

    The injection of photoelectrons in a gaseous or liquid sample is a widespread technique to produce a cold plasma in a weakly--ionized system in order to study the transport properties of electrons in a dense gas or liquid. We report here the experimental results of photoelectron injection into dense argon gas at the temperatureT=142.6 K as a function of the externally applied electric field and gas density. We show that the experimental data can be interpreted in terms of the so called Young-Bradbury model only if multiple scattering effects due to the dense environment are taken into account when computing the scattering properties and the energetics of the electrons.

  17. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  18. Topics in coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.

    1972-01-01

    Harbors, development of longshore current formulas, radiation stress, determination of currents along a coast, longshore sand transportation, local coastal accretion, beaches with groins, wave forces on piles, offshore constructions, offshore moorings, submarine pipelines.

  19. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  20. Coastal Temperate Rainforest Symposium

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific LCC is helping sponsor the April 2012 science symposium - Coastal Temperate Rainforests: Integrating Communities, Climate Science, and Resource...

  1. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, Salt and Nutrients Budgets of Two Estuaries in the. Coastal Zone of ... in destabilization of plankton communities, resulting in high ...... The water exchange time (1) was. 315 and 48 days in ..... account. Know your Milieu Series. Limbe,.

  2. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  3. Individual-based ecology of coastal birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Richard A; Goss-Custard, John D

    2010-08-01

    Conservation objectives for non-breeding coastal birds (shorebirds and wildfowl) are determined from their population size at coastal sites. To advise coastal managers, models must predict quantitatively the effects of environmental change on population size or the demographic rates (mortality and reproduction) that determine it. As habitat association models and depletion models are not able to do this, we developed an approach that has produced such predictions thereby enabling policy makers to make evidence-based decisions. Our conceptual framework is individual-based ecology, in which populations are viewed as having properties (e.g. size) that arise from the traits (e.g. behaviour, physiology) and interactions of their constituent individuals. The link between individuals and populations is made through individual-based models (IBMs) that follow the fitness-maximising decisions of individuals and predict population-level consequences (e.g. mortality rate) from the fates of these individuals. Our first IBM was for oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus and accurately predicted their density-dependent mortality. Subsequently, IBMs were developed for several shorebird and wildfowl species at several European sites, and were shown to predict accurately overwinter mortality, and the foraging behaviour from which predictions are derived. They have been used to predict the effect on survival in coastal birds of sea level rise, habitat loss, wind farm development, shellfishing and human disturbance. This review emphasises the wider applicability of the approach, and identifies other systems to which it could be applied. We view the IBM approach as a very useful contribution to the general problem of how to advance ecology to the point where we can routinely make meaningful predictions of how populations respond to environmental change.

  4. Comparing radiation dose rates in soils and riverine sediment to track the dispersion of radioactive contamination in Fukushima coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Chartin, Caroline; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred in March 2011 led to the formation of a 3000-km² radioactive pollution plume on soils located up to 70 km to the northwest of the damaged site. Forests and paddy fields are the dominant land uses in this mountainous region drained to the Pacific Ocean by several rivers that flow across densely inhabited coastal plains. It is then crucial to track the dispersion of radioactive material conveyed by those rivers to estimate the continental supply of radionuclides to the Ocean and to assess redistribution of radioactive sediment in those catchments. Radiations emitted by this contaminated material may indeed lead to an external exposure threat for local populations. As river discharge and sediment concentration data were not available during the first two years that followed the accident, alternative methods had to be developed to track this dispersion. We therefore organized field campaigns every six months and conducted local ground dose rate measurements to estimate whether fresh sediment drape deposits were more or less contaminated compared to local soils. Overall, our results showed that, in those regions exposed to violent typhoons and spring snowmelt, transfers of sediment are massive and episodic, and that they followed a seasonal cycle in 2011-2012. Then, in May 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. This could have indicated a drying-up of the upstream sources of contamination. However, after the violent typhoons that occurred during summer in 2013, dose rates measured in fresh sediment deposits in November 2013 increased again systematically across the region. We thereby suggest that remobilization of contaminated sediment by typhoons and their storage in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the

  5. HNCO in massive galactic dense cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, I.; Henkel, C.; Mao, R. Q.

    2000-09-01

    We surveyed 81 dense molecular cores associated with regions of massive star formation and Sgr A in the JK-1K-1 = 505-404 and 10010-909 lines of HNCO. Line emission was detected towards 57 objects. Selected subsamples were also observed in the 101-000, 404-303, 707-606, 15015-14014, 16016-15015 and 21021-20020 lines, covering a frequency range from 22 to 461 GHz. HNCO lines from the K-1 = 2,3 ladders were detected in several sources. Towards Orion-KL, K-1 = 5 transitions with upper state energies Eu/k ~ 1100 and 1300 K could be observed. Five HNCO cores were mapped. The sources remain spatially unresolved at 220 and 461 GHz (10010-909 and 21010-20020 transitions) with beam sizes of 24'' and 18\\arcsec, respectively. The detection of hyperfine structure in the 101-000 transition is consistent with optically thin emission under conditions of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). This is corroborated by a rotational diagram analysis of Orion-KL that indicates optically thin line emission also for transitions between higher excited states. At the same time a tentative detection of interstellar HN13CO (the 100,10-90,9 line at 220 GHz toward G 310.12-0.20) suggests optically thick emission from some rotational transitions. Typical HNCO abundances relative to H2 as derived from a population diagram analysis are ~ 10-9. The rotational temperatures reach ~ 500 K. The gas densities in regions of HNCO K-1=0 emission should be n>~ 106 cm-3 and in regions of K-1>0 emission about an order of magnitude higher even for radiative excitation. HNCO abundances are found to be enhanced in high-velocity gas. HNCO integrated line intensities correlate well with those of thermal SiO emission. This indicates a spatial coexistence of the two species and may hint at a common production mechanism, presumably based on shock chemistry. Based on the observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile and on observations with the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope (HHT). The HHT

  6. Multidsciplinary Approaches to Coastal Adaptation - Aplying Machine Learning Techniques to assess coastal risk in Latin America and The Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, J.

    2016-12-01

    The global population, currently at 7.3 billion, is increasing by nearly 230,000 people every day. As the world's population grows to an estimated 11.2 billion by 2100, the number of people living in low elevation areas, exposed to coastal hazards, is continuing to increase. In 2013, 22 million people were displaced by extreme weather events, with 37 events displacing at least 100,000 people each. Losses from natural disasters and disaster risk are determined by a complex interaction between physical hazards and the vulnerability of a society or social-ecological system, and its exposure to such hazards. Impacts from coastal hazards depend on the number of people, value of assets, and presence of critical resources in harm's way. Moreover, coastal risks are amplified by challenging socioeconomic dynamics, including ill-advised urban development, income inequality, and poverty level. Our results demonstrate that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), more than half a million people live in areas where coastal hazards, exposure (of people, assets and ecosystems), and poverty converge, creating the ideal conditions for a perfect storm. In order to identify the population at greatest risk to coastal hazards in LAC, and in response to a growing demand for multidisciplinary coastal adaptation approaches, this study employs a combination of machine learning clustering techniques (K-Means and Self Organizing Maps), and a spatial index, to assess coastal risks on a comparative scale. Data for more than 13,000 coastal locations in LAC were collected and allocated into three categories: (1) Coastal Hazards (including storm surge, wave energy and El Niño); (2) Geographic Exposure (including population, agriculture, and ecosystems); and (3) Vulnerability (including income inequality, infant mortality rate and malnutrition). This study identified hotspots of coastal vulnerability, the key drivers of coastal risk at each geographic location. Our results provide important

  7. DNS of turbulent flows of dense gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacovelli, L.; Cinnella, P.; Gloerfelt, X.; Grasso, F.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of dense gas effects on compressible turbulence is investigated by means of numerical simulations of the decay of compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence (CHIT) and of supersonic turbulent flows through a plane channel (TCF). For both configurations, a parametric study on the Mach and Reynolds numbers is carried out. The dense gas considered in these parametric studies is PP11, a heavy fluorocarbon. The results are systematically compared to those obtained for a diatomic perfect gas (air). In our computations, the thermodynamic behaviour of the dense gases is modelled by means of the Martin-Hou equation of state. For CHIT cases, initial turbulent Mach numbers up to 1 are analyzed using mesh resolutions up to 5123. For TCF, bulk Mach numbers up to 3 and bulk Reynolds numbers up to 12000 are investigated. Average profiles of the thermodynamic quantities exhibit significant differences with respect to perfect-gas solutions for both of the configurations. For high-Mach CHIT, compressible structures are modified with respect to air, with weaker eddy shocklets and stronger expansions. In TCF, the velocity profiles of dense gas flows are much less sensitive to the Mach number and collapse reasonably well in the logarithmic region without any special need for compressible scalings, unlike the case of air, and the overall flow behaviour is midway between that of a variable-property liquid and that of a gas.

  8. Dense matter at RAON: Challenges and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujeong; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Gaitanos, T.; Kim, Youngman

    2016-11-01

    Dense nuclear matter is ubiquitous in modern nuclear physics because it is related to many interesting microscopic and macroscopic phenomena such as heavy ion collisions, nuclear structure, and neutron stars. The on-going rare isotope science project in Korea will build up a rare isotope accelerator complex called RAON. One of the main goals of RAON is to investigate rare isotope physics including dense nuclear matter. Using the relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (RBUU) transport code, we estimate the properties of nuclear matter that can be created from low-energy heavyion collisions at RAON.We give predictions for the maximum baryon density, the isospin asymmetry and the temperature of nuclear matter that would be formed during 197Au+197Au and 132Sn+64Ni reactions. With a large isospin asymmetry, various theoretical studies indicate that the critical densities or temperatures of phase transitions to exotic states decrease. Because a large isospin asymmetry is expected in the dense matter created at RAON, we discuss possibilities of observing exotic states of dense nuclear matter at RAON for large isospin asymmetry.

  9. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  10. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HanJu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of is dense in .

  11. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ju Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space X is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of A(BX:X is dense in A(BX:X.

  12. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  13. APT: Action localization Proposals from dense Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Jain, M.; Gati, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is on action localization in video with the aid of spatio-temporal proposals. To alleviate the computational expensive video segmentation step of existing proposals, we propose bypassing the segmentations completely by generating proposals directly from the dense trajectories used to repr

  14. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Dense ceramic membranes made from mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting perovskite-related oxides allow separation of oxygen from an air supply at elevated temperatures (>700 °C). By combining air separation and catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas into a ceramic membrane reactor,

  15. Improvements in accuracy of dense OPC models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallingal, Chidam; Oberschmidt, James; Viswanathan, Ramya; Abdo, Amr; Park, OSeo

    2008-10-01

    Performing model-based optical proximity correction (MBOPC) on layouts has become an integral part of patterning advanced integrated circuits. Earlier technologies used sparse OPC, the run times of which explode when the density of layouts increases. With the move to 45 nm technology node, this increase in run time has resulted in a shift to dense simulation OPC, which is pixel-based. The dense approach becomes more efficient at 45nm technology node and beyond. New OPC model forms can be used with the dense simulation OPC engine, providing the greater accuracy required by smaller technology nodes. Parameters in the optical model have to be optimized to achieve the required accuracy. Dense OPC uses a resist model with a different set of parameters than sparse OPC. The default search ranges used in the optimization of these resist parameters do not always result in the best accuracy. However, it is possible to improve the accuracy of the resist models by understanding the restrictions placed on the search ranges of the physical parameters during optimization. This paper will present results showing the correlation between accuracy of the models and some of these optical and resist parameters. The results will show that better optimization can improve the model fitness of features in both the calibration and verification set.

  16. Building a dense surface map incrementally from semi-dense point cloud and RGB images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-shan LI; Rong XIONG; Shoudong HUANG; Yi-ming HUANG

    2015-01-01

    Building and using maps is a fundamental issue for bionic robots in fi eld applications. A dense surface map, which offers rich visual and geometric information, is an ideal representation of the environment for indoor/outdoor localization, navigation, and recognition tasks of these robots. Since most bionic robots can use only small light-weight laser scanners and cameras to acquire semi-dense point cloud and RGB images, we propose a method to generate a consistent and dense surface map from this kind of semi-dense point cloud and RGB images. The method contains two main steps: (1) generate a dense surface for every single scan of point cloud and its corresponding image(s) and (2) incrementally fuse the dense surface of a new scan into the whole map. In step (1) edge-aware resampling is realized by segmenting the scan of a point cloud in advance and resampling each sub-cloud separately. Noise within the scan is reduced and a dense surface is generated. In step (2) the average surface is estimated probabilistically and the non-coincidence of different scans is eliminated. Experiments demonstrate that our method works well in both indoor and outdoor semi-structured environments where there are regularly shaped ob jects.

  17. Intensified coastal development in beach-nourishment zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.; Armstrong, S.; Limber, P. W.; Goldstein, E. B.; Ballinger, R.

    2016-12-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. To quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing zones, we examine the parcel-scale housing stock of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida. We find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. Florida represents both an advanced case of coastal risk and an exemplar of ubiquitous, fundamental challenges in coastal management. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones indicates a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability. We offer that this phenomenon represents a variant of Jevons' paradox, a theoretical argument from environmental economics in which more efficient use of a resource spurs an increase in its consumption. Here, we suggest reductions in coastal risk through hazard protection are ultimately offset or reversed by increased coastal development.

  18. Coastal Upwelling Drives Intertidal Assemblage Structure and Trophic Ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Reddin

    Full Text Available Similar environmental driving forces can produce similarity among geographically distant ecosystems. Coastal oceanic upwelling, for example, has been associated with elevated biomass and abundance patterns of certain functional groups, e.g., corticated macroalgae. In the upwelling system of Northern Chile, we examined measures of intertidal macrobenthic composition, structure and trophic ecology across eighteen shores varying in their proximity to two coastal upwelling centres, in a hierarchical sampling design (spatial scales of >1 and >10 km. The influence of coastal upwelling on intertidal communities was confirmed by the stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N of consumers, including a dominant suspension feeder, grazers, and their putative resources of POM, epilithic biofilm, and macroalgae. We highlight the utility of muscle δ15N from the suspension feeding mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, as a proxy for upwelling, supported by satellite data and previous studies. Where possible, we used corrections for broader-scale trends, spatial autocorrelation, ontogenetic dietary shifts and spatial baseline isotopic variation prior to analysis. Our results showed macroalgal assemblage composition, and benthic consumer assemblage structure, varied significantly with the intertidal influence of coastal upwelling, especially contrasting bays and coastal headlands. Coastal topography also separated differences in consumer resource use. This suggested that coastal upwelling, itself driven by coastline topography, influences intertidal communities by advecting nearshore phytoplankton populations offshore and cooling coastal water temperatures. We recommend the isotopic values of benthic organisms, specifically long-lived suspension feeders, as in situ alternatives to offshore measurements of upwelling influence.

  19. Neutrophils drive accelerated tumor progression in the collagen-dense mammary tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mendoza, María G; Inman, David R; Ponik, Suzanne M; Jeffery, Justin J; Sheerar, Dagna S; Van Doorn, Rachel R; Keely, Patricia J

    2016-05-11

    High mammographic density has been correlated with a 4-fold to 6-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer, and is associated with increased stromal deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen I. The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for high breast tissue density are not completely understood. We previously described accelerated tumor formation and metastases in a transgenic mouse model of collagen-dense mammary tumors (type I collagen-α1 (Col1α1)(tm1Jae) and mouse mammary tumor virus - polyoma virus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT)) compared to wild-type mice. Using ELISA cytokine arrays and multi-color flow cytometry analysis, we studied cytokine signals and the non-malignant, immune cells in the collagen-dense tumor microenvironment that may promote accelerated tumor progression and metastasis. Collagen-dense tumors did not show any alteration in immune cell populations at late stages. The cytokine signals in the mammary tumor microenvironment were clearly different between wild-type and collagen-dense tumors. Cytokines associated with neutrophil signaling, such as granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulated factor (GM-CSF), were increased in collagen-dense tumors. Depleting neutrophils with anti-Ly6G (1A8) significantly reduced the number of tumors, and blocked metastasis in over 80 % of mice with collagen-dense tumors, but did not impact tumor growth or metastasis in wild-type mice. Our study suggests that tumor progression in a collagen-dense microenvironment is mechanistically different, with pro-tumor neutrophils, compared to a non-dense microenvironment.

  20. Ultramassive dense early-type galaxies: velocity dispersions and number density evolution since z=1.6

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, A; Tamburri, S; Lonoce, I; Ciocca, F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the mass assembly history of ultramassive (Mstar > 10^11Msun) dense (Sigma = Mstar/(2*pi*Re^2) > 2500 Msun/pc^2) early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the last 9 Gyr. We have traced the evolution of the number density rho of ultramassive dense ETGs and have compared their structural (effective radius Re and stellar mass Mstar) and dynamical (velocity dispersion sigma_e) parameters over the redshift range 0 = 1.4, or that, if a significant fraction of them evolves in size, new ultramassive dense ETGs must form at z < 1.5 to maintain their number density almost constant. The difficulty into identify good progenitors for these new dense ETGs at z < 1.5, and the stellar populations properties of local ultramassive dense ETGs point toward the first hypothesis.

  1. Policies for Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Johnson, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane- and coastal storm-related economic losses have increased substantially over the past century, largely due to expanding population and development in susceptible coastal areas. Concurrent with this growth, the federal government has assumed an increasing proportion of the financial responsibility associated with U.S. coastal storms, which may discourage state and local governments from taking appropriate actions to reduce risk and enhance resilience. Strategies to manage coastal storm risks fall into two categories: reducing the probability of flooding or wave impact (such as seawalls, storm surge barriers, beach nourishment, dune building, restoration/expansion of oyster reefs, salt marshes, and mangroves) and reducing the number or vulnerability of people or structures (such as relocation, land-use planning, and elevating or floodproofing buildings). Over the past century, most coastal risk management programs have emphasized coastal armoring, while doing little to decrease development in harm's way. This National Research Council report calls for the development of a national vision for managing coastal risks that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of all benefits. A national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify high priority areas. Benefit-cost analysis provides a reasonable framework to evaluate national investments in coastal risk reduction, if constrained by other important environmental, social, and life-safety factors. Extensive collaboration and additional policy changes will be necessary to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.

  2. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  3. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  4. [Vietnam and its population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, J

    1993-01-01

    Viet Nam's 1993 population of 72 million makes it the second largest country of Southeast Asia after Indonesia. Viet Nam's demographic transition is underway, but growth is still a rapid 2% annually, a sufficiently high rate to hinder socioeconomic development. The 1979 and 1989 censuses and the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey are the major recent sources of data on Viet Nam's population. Marriage is universal in Viet Nam. Men marry at 24.5 and women at 23.2 years on average. Fertility estimates based on nonadjusted census data indicate a total fertility rate for 1988-89 of 3.8 overall, 2.2 in urban areas, and 4.3 in rural areas. Regional differences resulting from contraceptive usage, educational differentials, and tabus regarding spacing are strong. The average household size is 5. Viet Nam's first fertility reduction policy was announced in 1963 and sought to improve the welfare of women to increase their productivity for the war effort. More recent family planning policies are based on the view that rapid demographic growth is one of the great obstacles to development. The objectives of the current policy are to reduce the growth rate to 1% by the end of the century, increase contraceptive prevalence, delay arrival of the first child, limit family size to 2 children or 3 for ethnic minorities, and increase birth intervals from 3 to 5 years. The program is voluntarist in nature but includes incentives and disincentives. Life expectancy at birth in 1989 was 67.5 years for women and 63 for men. Infant mortality was 37/1000, with regional differentials. The principal causes of hospital deaths are tuberculosis, malaria, and diarrhea. Objectives of the current health policy are to prevent infectious diseases, reinforce primary health care services, promote traditional medicine, achieve self-sufficiency in basic medicines, and improve environmental health and access to clean water. Viet Nam is one of the most densely populated Southeast Asian countries and is still

  5. Land Use, Livelihoods, Vulnerabilities, and Resilience in Coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    The densely populated, low-lying coast of Bangladesh is famously associated with vulnerability to sea-level rise, storms, and flooding. Simultaneously, land-use change has significantly altered local sediment transport, causing elevation loss and degradation of drainage. The rapid growth of shrimp aquaculture has also affected soil chemistry in former agricultural areas and the stock of riverine fisheries through intense larval harvesting. To understand the net impact of these environmental changes on the region's communities, it is necessary to examine interactions across scale - from externally driven large scale environmental change to smaller scale, but often more intense, local change - and also between the physical environment and social, political, and economic conditions. We report on a study of interactions between changing communities and changing environment in coastal Bangladesh, exploring the role of societal and physical factors in shaping the different outcomes and their effects on people's lives. Land reclamation projects in the 1960s surrounded intertidal islands with embankments. This allowed rice farming to expand, but also produced significant elevation loss, which rendered many islands vulnerable to waterlogging and flooding from storm surges. The advent of large-scale shrimp aquaculture added environmental, economic, social, and political stresses, but also brought much export revenue to a developing nation. Locally, attempts to remedy environmental stresses have produced mixed results, with similar measures succeeding in some communities and failing in others. In this context, we find that people are continually adapting to changing opportunities and constraints for food, housing, and income. Niches that support different livelihood activities emerge and dwindle, and their occupants' desires affect the political context. Understanding and successfully responding to the impacts of environmental change requires understanding not only the

  6. Preface to special issue: Monitoring and modelling to guide coastal adaptation to extreme storm events in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J.; Ciavola, P.; Masselink, G.; McCall, R; Plater, A.

    2016-01-01

    Storms across the globe and their associated consequences in coastal zones (flooding and erosion), combined with the long-term geomorphic evolution of our coastlines, are a threat to life and assets, both socioeconomic and environmental. In a changing climate, with a rising global sea level, potentially changing patterns in storm tracks and storminess, and rising population density and pressures on the coastal zone, the future risk of coastal storm impacts is likely to increase. Coastal manag...

  7. Appraising sustainable flood risk management in the Pearl River Delta's coastal megacities: A case study of Hong Kong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, F. K. S.; Adekola, O. A.; Mitchell, G.; McDonald, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region has experienced rapid economic and population growth in the last three decades. The delta includes coastal megacities, such as Hong Kong. These low-lying urbanised coastal regions in the PRD are vulnerable to flood risks from unpredictable climatic conditions. These can result in increasing storm surges, rising sea level and intensified rainstorms causing coastal and inland flooding, all of which impact the delta. This paper has taken the coastal megacity of...

  8. An approach of habitat degradation assessment for characterization on coastal habitat conservation tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi-Yin; Lei, Kun; Meng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Coastal zones are population and economy highly intensity regions all over the world, and coastal habitat supports the sustainable development of human society. The accurate assessment of coastal habitat degradation is the essential prerequisite for coastal zone protection. In this study, an integrated framework of coastal habitat degradation assessment including landuse classification, habitat classifying and zoning, evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation and coastal habitat degradation index has been established for better regional coastal habitat assessment. Through establishment of detailed three-class landuse classification, the fine landscape change is revealed, the evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation through internal comparison based on the results of habitat classifying and zoning could indicate the levels of habitat degradation and distinguish the intensity of human disturbances in different habitat subareas under the same habitat classification. Finally, the results of coastal habitat degradation assessment could be achieved through coastal habitat degradation index (CHI). A case study of the framework is carried out in the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, China, and the main results show the following: (1) The accuracy of all land use classes are above 90%, which indicates a satisfactory accuracy for the classification map. (2) The Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast is divided into 3 kinds of habitats and 5 subareas. (3) In the five subareas of the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, the levels of coastal habitat degradation own significant difference. The whole Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast generally is in a worse state according to area weighting of each habitat subarea. This assessment framework of coastal habitat degradation would characterize the landuse change trend, realize better coastal habitat degradation assessment, reveal the habitat conservation tendency and distinguish intensity of human disturbances. Furthermore, it would support for accurate coastal

  9. COASTAL STUDY, SOLANO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  10. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert G.; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    The world's coastlines, dividing land from sea, are geological environments that are unique in their composition and the physical processes affecting them. At the dynamically active intersection of land and the oceans, humans have been building structures throughout history. Initially used for naval and commercial purposes, more recently recreation and tourism have increased activity in the coastal zone dramatically. Shoreline development is now causing a significant conflict with natural coastal processes. This text on coastal engineering will help the reader understand these coastal processes and develop strategies to cope effectively with shoreline erosion. The book is organized in four parts: (1) an overview of coastal engineering, using case studies to illustrate problems; (2) hydrodynamics of the coastal zone, reviewing storm surges, water waves, and low frequency motions within the nearshore and surf zone; (3) coastal responses including equilibrium beach profiles and sediment transport; (4) applications such as erosion mitigation, beach nourishment, coastal armoring, tidal inlets, and shoreline management.

  11. COASTAL STUDY, LINCOLN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  12. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  13. Holocene palaeoDEMs for lowland coastal and delta plain landscape reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kim M.; Koster, Kay; Pierik, Harm-Jan; Van der Meulen, Bas; Hijma, Marc; Schokker, Jeroen; Stafleu, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Geological mapping of Holocene deposits of coastal plains, such as that of The Netherlands can reach high resolution (dense population, diverse applied usage) and good time control (14C dating, archaeology). The next step is then to create time sliced reconstructions for stages in the Holocene, peeling of the subrecent and exposing past relief situation. This includes winding back the history of sea-level rise and delta progradation etc. etc. So far, this has mainly be done as 2D series of landscape maps, or as sea-level curve age-depth plots. In the last decade, academic and applied projects at Utrecht University, TNO Geological Survey of The Netherlands and Deltares have developed palaeoDEMs for the Dutch low lands, that are a third main way of showing coastal plain evolution. Importantly, we produce two types of palaeoDEMs: (1) geological surface mapping using deposit contacts from borehole descriptions (and scripted 3D processing techniques - e.g. Van der Meulen et al. 2013) and (2) palaeogroundwater surfaces, using sea-level and inland water-level index-points (and 3D kriging interpolations - e.g. Koster et al. 2016). The applications for the combined palaeoDEMs range from relative sea-level rise mapping and assessment of variation in rate of GIA across the coastal plain, to quantification of soft soil deformation, to analysis of pre-embankment extreme flood levels. Koster, K., Stafleu, J., & Cohen, K.M. (2016). Generic 3D interpolation of Holocene base-level rise and provision of accommodation space, developed for the Netherlands coastal plain and infilled palaeovalleys. Basin Research. DOI 10.1111/bre.12202 Van der Meulen, M.J., Doornenbal, J.C., Gunnink, J.L., Stafleu, J., Schokker, J., Vernes, R.W., Van Geer, F.C., Van Gessel, S.F., Van Heteren, S., Van Leeuwen, R.J.W. & Bakker, M.A.J. (2013). 3D geology in a 2D country: perspectives for geological surveying in the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 92, 217-241. DOI 10.1017/S0016774600000184

  14. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  15. Scour around coastal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Whiteouse, J. S.; Tørum, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the European Union Marine Science and Technology (EU MAST) III project "Scour Around Coastal Structures" (SCARCOST). The summary is presented under three headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Flow and scour processes with the subheadings: flow and scour processes...... pressures and effective stresses around a bottom seated cylinder; non-linear soil modelling with respect to wave-induced pore pressures and gradients; wave-induced pressures on the bottom for non-linear coastal waves, including also wave kinematics; development of a numerical model (linear soil modelling...

  16. Geomorphometry in coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphometry is a cross-cutting discipline that has interwoven itself into multiple research themes due to its ability to encompass topographic quantification on many fronts. Its operational focus is largely defined as the extraction of land-surface parameters and earth surface characterisation. In particular, the coastal sciences have been enriched by the use of digital terrain production techniques both on land and in the nearshore/marine area. Numerous examples exist in which the utilisation of field instrumentation (e.g. LIDAR, GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, multi-beam echo-sounders) are used for surface sampling and development of Digital Terrain Models, monitoring topographic change and creation of nearshore bathymetry, and have become central elements in modern investigations of coastal morphodynamics. The coastal zone is a highly dynamic system that embraces variable and at times, inter-related environments (sand dunes, sandy beaches, shoreline and nearshore) all of which require accurate and integrated monitoring. Although coastal studies can be widely diverse (with interconnected links to other related disciplines such as geology or biology), the characterisation of the landforms (coastal geomorphology) and associated processes (morphodynamics, hydrodynamics, aeolian processes) is perhaps where geomorphometry (topo-bathymetry quantification) is best highlighted. In this respect, many tools have been developed (or improved upon) for the acquisition of topographic data that now commands a high degree of accuracy, simplicity, and ultimately acquisition cost reduction. We present a series of field data acquisitions examples that have produced land surface characterisation using a range of techniques including traditional GPS surveys to more recent Terrestrial Laser Scanning and airborne LIDAR. These have been conducted within beach and dune environments and have helped describe erosion and depositional processes driven by wind and wave energy (high

  17. Farmers flock to coastal cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Mulley, S

    1994-01-01

    China's rural-urban migration flows, particularly into Shanghai, Guangdong province, Beijing, and coastal areas, present challenges for urban development. The impact on rural and urban areas and suggestions for minimizing undesirable consequences were discussed. Professor Zhang Qingwu, deputy director of the Population Research Institute of Xiamen University in Fujian province, believes that the large migrating populations and those without residence cards pose problems for heavily populated cities: they strain resources (housing, water and electricity supplies, transportation, telecommunication, environmental hygiene, food supplies, and educational facilities). Crime increases. Municipal departments must increase their administrative load in service sectors. The general idea is that rural-to-urban migration reflects social progress and adds to a productive work force. Flexible policies are recommended. In Guangdong province, where migrants arrived from Sichuan and Hunan provinces, counties from the latter two provinces have established offices for supervising their former residents. Employment adjustment can be anticipated when the major flock of migrants arrive after the Lantern Festival. Professor Gui Shixun of the Population Research Institute of East China Normal University and advisor to the State Family Planning Commission recommends that development strategies incorporate planning for imbalances between local population and migrant urban workers. In some areas, women represent the bulk of migrants, while in other areas men do. Cultural development should be stressed, with investments also improved in telecommunications, traffic and transportation, education, and hygiene. Professor Jiang Zhixue recommends shifting from labor-intensive enterprises to technology-intensive enterprises and a better trained work force. Other schemes, such as the purchase by migrants of residence cards in Xiamen, would entitle migrants to the same rights and obligations as

  18. Colloquium: Nonlinear Collective Interactions in Dense Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K

    2010-01-01

    The current understanding of some important collective processes in dense quantum plasmas is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons, we present model equations (e.g. the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations) that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in a nonlinear quantum electron pressure and tunneling/diffusion of electrons through a nonlinear quantum Bohm potential. Since degenerate electrons have $1/2-$spin due to their Fermionic nature, there also appear a spin electron current and a spin force acting on the electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The present nonlinear equations do not include strong electron correlations and electron-exchange interactions. The quantum effects caused by the electron degeneracy produce n...

  19. Active fluidization in dense glassy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rituparno; Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Rao, Madan; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-07-20

    Dense soft glasses show strong collective caging behavior at sufficiently low temperatures. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a model glass former, we show that the incorporation of activity or self-propulsion, f0, can induce cage breaking and fluidization, resulting in the disappearance of the glassy phase beyond a critical f0. The diffusion coefficient crosses over from being strongly to weakly temperature dependent as f0 is increased. In addition, we demonstrate that activity induces a crossover from a fragile to a strong glass and a tendency of active particles to cluster. Our results are of direct relevance to the collective dynamics of dense active colloidal glasses and to recent experiments on tagged particle diffusion in living cells.

  20. Strategies for Dense Optical CDMA Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-bao; LIN Jin-tong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,we have formulated a strategy that the limited available code sequences in pure Direct-Sequence(DS)or Frequency-Hopping(FH)system can be reused to realize dense optical CDMA:the strategy of novel hybrid DS/FH system.In which,the case that there are n users employing the same FH pattern but different DS code patterns is considered.On the condition that the impact of channel noises is neglected,the upper bound probability of error is evaluated based on the stationary random process theory.The results show that the hybrid system is suitable for Dense Optical CDMA(DOCDMA)communication.Moreover,the problems such as the link-impairment,dispersion of group velocity,etc.in the pure(DS or FH)system can be solved effectively.

  1. The kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T. E.; Langer, W. D.; Frerking, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds is formulated to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, the formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, and the evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature. The abundances of the dominant isotopes of the carbon- and oxygen-bearing molecules are calculated. The chemical abundances are found to be quite sensitive to electron concentration since the electron concentration determines the ratio of H3(+) to He(+), and the electron density is strongly influenced by the metals abundance. For typical metal abundances and for H2 cloud density not less than 10,000 molecules/cu cm, nearly all carbon exists as CO at late cloud ages. At high cloud density, many aspects of the chemistry are strongly time dependent. Finally, model calculations agree well with abundances deduced from observations of molecular line emission in cold dense clouds.

  2. Topological Surface States in Dense Solid Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I; Hemley, Russell J

    2016-11-11

    Metallization of dense hydrogen and associated possible high-temperature superconductivity represents one of the key problems of physics. Recent theoretical studies indicate that before becoming a good metal, compressed solid hydrogen passes through a semimetallic stage. We show that such semimetallic phases predicted to be the most stable at multimegabar (∼300  GPa) pressures are not conventional semimetals: they exhibit topological metallic surface states inside the bulk "direct" gap in the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone; that is, metallic surfaces may appear even when the bulk of the material remains insulating. Examples include hydrogen in the Cmca-12 and Cmca-4 structures; Pbcn hydrogen also has metallic surface states but they are of a nontopological nature. The results provide predictions for future measurements, including probes of possible surface superconductivity in dense hydrogen.

  3. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X......-ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation...

  4. Accelerating Dense Linear Algebra on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg

    and matrix-vector operations on GPUs. Such operations form the backbone of level 1 and level 2 routines in the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) library and are therefore of great importance in many scientific applications. The target hardware is the most recent NVIDIA Tesla 20-series (Fermi...... architecture). Most of the techniques I discuss for accelerating dense linear algebra are applicable to memory-bound GPU algorithms in general....

  5. Observations of Plasmons in Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Lee, R W; Widmann, K; Pollaine, S W; Wallace, R J; Gregori, G; Holl, A; Bornath, T; Thiele, R; Schwarz, V; Kraeft, W; Redmer, R

    2006-09-05

    We present the first collective x-ray scattering measurements of plasmons in solid-density plasmas. The forward scattering spectra of a laser-produced narrow-band x-ray line from isochorically heated beryllium show that the plasmon frequency is a sensitive measure of the electron density. Dynamic structure calculations that include collisions and detailed balance match the measured plasmon spectrum indicating that this technique will enable new applications to determine the equation of state and compressibility of dense matter.

  6. Splashing onset in dense suspension droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Ivo; Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of droplets of dense suspensions onto a solid substrate. We show that a global hydrodynamic balance is unable to predict the splash onset and propose to replace it by an energy balance at the level of the particles in the suspension. We experimentally verify that the resulting, particle-based Weber number gives a reliable, particle size and density dependent splash onset criterion. We further show that the same argument also explains why, in bimodal systems, smaller ...

  7. Defining and Measuring Coastal Vulnerability and Resilience to Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M. K.; Hoagland, P.

    2014-12-01

    Accounting for an estimated 23 percent of the world's population, coastal communities face many types of natural hazards. In particular, they may be vulnerable to the effects of tropical cyclones, flooding due to tsunamis or storm surges, erosion, saltwater intrusion, and subsidence. These coastal hazards are further exacerbated by population growth and climate change. There is a lack of consensus in the literature about what constitutes vulnerability (negative impacts) and resilience (recovery from negative impacts) and how to measure these phenomena. While some important work has focused on the long-term effects of coastal hazards on economic growth, little has been done to understand, in quantitative terms, the extent to which coastal communities may be vulnerable to such hazards and, if so, whether they can be resilient. We surveyed nine indicators of human well-being in order to determine their potential suitability as measures of coastal vulnerability or resilience. Some measures, such as the Gross Domestic Product, the Human Development Index, and the Gini coefficient, comprise economic or distributional indicators of human welfare; others, such as the Social Vulnerability Index, are more complex and difficult to interpret. We selected per capita personal income as the most viable indicator, due largely to its simplicity and its availability over several decades. We used it to examine human community vulnerability and resilience to a specific coastal hazard—significant storm surges from major coastal hurricanes—in several US coastal metropolitan areas. We compiled data on per capita personal income from the US Bureau of Economic Analysis for 15 to 20 years prior and subsequent to four major hurricanes: Hugo, which hit the Charleston, South Carolina, metropolitan area in 1989; Bob, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in 1991; Andrew, Miami, Florida, in 1992; and Opal, Pensacola, Florida, in 1995. Intervention analysis using linear regression suggests that these

  8. Dense, Parsec-Scale Clumps near the Great Annihilator

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges-Kluck, E J; Harris, A I; Lamb, J W; Hodges, M W

    2009-01-01

    We report on Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy (CARMA) and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) observations toward the Einstein source 1E 1740.7-2942, a LMXB commonly known as the "Great Annihilator." The Great Annihilator is known to be near a small, bright molecular cloud on the sky in a region largely devoid of emission in 12-CO surveys of the Galactic Center. The region is of interest because it is interior to the dust lanes which may be the shock zones where atomic gas from HI nuclear disk is converted into molecular gas. We find that the region is populated with a number of dense (n ~ 10^5 cm^-3) regions of excited gas with small filling factors, and estimate that up to 1-3 x 10^5 solar masses of gas can be seen in our maps. The detection suggests that a significant amount of mass is transported from the shock zones to the GC star-forming regions in the form of small, dense bundles.

  9. MODIS Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over Turbid Coastal Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS over the turbid coastal water. This approach supplements the operational Dark Target (DT aerosol retrieval algorithm that currently does not conduct AOD retrieval in shallow waters that have visible sediments or sea-floor (i.e., Class 2 waters. Over the global coastal water regions in cloud-free conditions, coastal screening leads to ~20% unavailability of AOD retrievals. Here, we refine the MODIS DT algorithm by considering that water-leaving radiance at 2.1 μm to be negligible regardless of water turbidity, and therefore the 2.1 μm reflectance at the top of the atmosphere is sensitive to both change of fine-mode and coarse-mode AODs. By assuming that the aerosol single scattering properties over coastal turbid water are similar to those over the adjacent open-ocean pixels, the new algorithm can derive AOD over these shallow waters. The test algorithm yields ~18% more MODIS-AERONET collocated pairs for six AERONET stations in the coastal water regions. Furthermore, comparison of the new retrieval with these AERONET observations show that the new AOD retrievals have equivalent or better accuracy than those retrieved by the MODIS operational algorithm’s over coastal land and non-turbid coastal water product. Combining the new retrievals with the existing MODIS operational retrievals yields an overall improvement of AOD over those coastal water regions. Most importantly, this refinement extends the spatial and temporal coverage of MODIS AOD retrievals over the coastal regions where 60% of human population resides. This expanded coverage is crucial for better understanding of impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on coastal air quality and climate.

  10. A method for dense packing discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Kallus, Yoav; Gravel, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing which are reported in [arXiv:0910.5226]. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest known lattice sphere packings and the best known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and ...

  11. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  12. Dense Visual SLAM with Probabilistic Surfel Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixin; Ye, Mao; Ren, Liu

    2017-11-01

    Visual SLAM is one of the key technologies to align the virtual and real world together in Augmented Reality applications. RGBD dense Visual SLAM approaches have shown their advantages in robustness and accuracy in recent years. However, there are still several challenges such as the inconsistencies in RGBD measurements across multiple frames that could jeopardize the accuracy of both camera trajectory and scene reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a novel map representation called Probabilistic Surfel Map (PSM) for dense visual SLAM. The main idea is to maintain a globally consistent map with both photometric and geometric uncertainties encoded in order to address the inconsistency issue. The key of our PSM is proper modeling and updating of sensor measurement uncertainties, as well as the strategies to apply them for improving both the front-end pose estimation and the back-end optimization. Experimental results on publicly available datasets demonstrate major improvements with our approach over the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, comparing with σ-DVO, we achieve a 40% reduction in absolute trajectory error and an 18% reduction in relative pose error in visual odometry, as well as an 8.5% reduction in absolute trajectory error in complete SLAM. Moreover, our PSM enables generation of a high quality dense point cloud with comparable accuracy as the state-of-the-art approach.

  13. Dense Correspondences across Scenes and Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Moria; Hassner, Tal

    2016-05-01

    We seek a practical method for establishing dense correspondences between two images with similar content, but possibly different 3D scenes. One of the challenges in designing such a system is the local scale differences of objects appearing in the two images. Previous methods often considered only few image pixels; matching only pixels for which stable scales may be reliably estimated. Recently, others have considered dense correspondences, but with substantial costs associated with generating, storing and matching scale invariant descriptors. Our work is motivated by the observation that pixels in the image have contexts-the pixels around them-which may be exploited in order to reliably estimate local scales. We make the following contributions. (i) We show that scales estimated in sparse interest points may be propagated to neighboring pixels where this information cannot be reliably determined. Doing so allows scale invariant descriptors to be extracted anywhere in the image. (ii) We explore three means for propagating this information: using the scales at detected interest points, using the underlying image information to guide scale propagation in each image separately, and using both images together. Finally, (iii), we provide extensive qualitative and quantitative results, demonstrating that scale propagation allows for accurate dense correspondences to be obtained even between very different images, with little computational costs beyond those required by existing methods.

  14. Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.

  15. Mesoscale Simulations of Coastal Circulations Evaluated Using Measurements from a Dense MESO Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    surface (Xian and Pielke 1991; Savijarvi and Matthews 2004). Recent findings conclude that as the spatial extent of heating increases, sea breezes tend...geostrophic flow over the Florida peninsula and also deflects any cyclone track northward. The synoptic scale anticyclonic circulation over the region...Review, 128, 3437–3458. Reed, J. W., 1979: Cape Canaveral sea breezes. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 18, 231–235. Savijarvi, H., and S. Matthews , 2004

  16. A multi-dimensional integrated approach to assess flood risks on a coastal city, induced by sea-level rise and storm tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilai, Xu; Yuanrong, He; Wei, Huang; shenghui, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to increasing flood risks caused by the combination of sea-level rise (SLR) and storm tides (STs), due to their low-lying topography and densely distributed assets. Faced with this challenge, comprehensive and integrated flood risk information is vital and fundamental for the planning, implementation and optimization of coastal risk adaptation and management. The goal of this study is to propose an integrated assessment approach to sea-level rise- and storm tide-induced flood risks on a coastal urban system by employing a wide range of indicators across ecological, physical and socio-economic dimensions. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. The results show that this approach is applicable for assessing the specific flood risks on urban ecological, physical and socio-economic system, respectively. Under 4.75 ∼ 5.86 m extreme sea-level, 11 600 ∼ 17 100 ha land and 440 000 ∼ 720 000 population will be flooded in Xiamen City, with flood risks—measured by monetary—of 858 ∼ 1134 million, 4744 ∼ 10 590 million and 2537 ∼ 4175 million RMB of ecological, physical and economic systems, respectively. Coastal ecosystem will suffer flood risks on ecological services, mainly regulation service; and wetland is the dominant ecosystem that will be affected, which imply urgent needs to wetland conservation. Indirect risk on economy accounts for a large proportion of total risks, and should be given adequate weight in the decision-making process.

  17. Safe Shores and Resilient Transit Corridors: Using Science, Design, and Stakeholder Partnerships to Address Connecticut's Coastal Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Felson, A. J.; Kirmmse, E.; Hagemann, K.

    2015-12-01

    Connecticut's densely developed coastline is highly vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal storms. 95% of the state's entire population lives within 50 miles of the shore. Connecticut has more than $542 billion in insured assets in harms way, only Florida has a greater exposure. As part of the state of Connecticut Phase 1 application for the HUD National Disaster Resilience Competition, the Connecticut Institute for Resilience and Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) at the University of Connecticut undertook an assessment of coastal vulnerabilities, including the impacts of sea level rise on the frequency of flooding, socioeconomic factors, critical infrastructure, and housing using data collected from federal, state, and municipal sources. Connecticut's unique geology, characterized by a glaciated coastline with highly erodible former deltas and elevated ridgelines extending out to rocky headlands, became the basis of the climate adaptation approach. Together with a nine state agency workgroup, municipal and regional government, and non-profit and industry representatives, CIRCA and the Yale UED lab developed a long-term urban redevelopment solution of resilient access and egress corridors layered over ridgelines and resilient zones of transit oriented economic development linked to shoreline communities. This concept can be applied in both Connecticut's coastal cities like New Haven and its smaller towns. The process demonstrated the effective partnership between the universities and state agencies in bringing the science of flood modeling and mapping together with innovative design to create solutions for climate adaptation. However, it also revealed significant gaps in data availability to analyze the economic and social drivers for adopting different adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the accuracy of current flood mapping tools needs to be improved to predict future flooding at the municipal project scale. As Connecticut and other states move forward with resilience

  18. Environmental Impacts - Coastal Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.P.; Baas, Andreas C.W.; Bartholdy, Jesper; Jones, Laurence; Ruessink, B.G.; Temmerman, Stijn; van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the impacts of climate change on the natural coastal ecosystems in the North Sea region. These comprise sandy shores and dunes and salt marshes in estuaries and along the coast. The chapter starts by describing the characteristic geomorphological features of these systems and t

  19. Recife: Coastal protection plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kibrit, B.; Imambaks, R.; Anijs, M.; Tarigheh, A.S.; Mungar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades the north-eastern coast of Brazil has been degrading due to erosion. This degradation has both natural- and men-made causes. Brazil has no specific laws and acts which relate to coastal protection and management up to this date. Beaches in the metropolitan area of Recife show v

  20. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  1. Retrieving Aerosol Optical Depth over Turbid Coastal Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Xu, X.; Levy, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    We present an approach to retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over turbid coastal water where operational MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Dark Target (DT) aerosol retrieval algorithm is not applied due to high water leaving radiance. Filling the coastal water AOD gap is significant because 60% of human population lives in the coastal zone. In this study, the Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at 2.1 μm observed from MODIS is used to retrieve AOD over turbid coastal water through look up table method as water leaving radiance is negligible at the band. During the retrieval process, aerosol model is substituted by the counterpart of the closest pixel retrieved through MODIS ocean DT algorithm. AOD retrievals over turbid coastal water are validated against observations from six AERONET sites at coastal region in one month. The monthly mean AERONET 440-870 nm Ångström exponent ranges from 0.597 to 1.842 for the six sites, thus they can represent from coarse-mode dominated to fine-mode dominated scenes. AOD retrievals in this study are more in agreement with AERONET observations than operational MODIS AOD (over land or clean coastal water) in terms of bias, and root-mean-square error.

  2. The socio-economic significance of the Turkish coastal environment for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleli, Tuncay

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy for sustainable development. There was no separate data base for the coastal zone so that the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy was not evaluated. In estimating the significance of Turkish coastal cities, indirect methods and the geographical information system were used. In conclusion, it was found that 61.09% of the total national gross domestic product and 50.75% of the national agricultural, 90.98% of the national fisheries, 68.19% of the national tourism and 71.82% of the national industrial gross domestic product came from the coastal zone. It was determined that while coastal cities of Turkey had 28.23% of the national surface area, the coastal district had 12.96%; in other words, 21.5 million (28.04%) of the national population lived in 101.5 thousand km(2) (12.96%) of the national surface area. Approximately 44% of the national gross domestic product comes from the top ten coastal cities. According to the contribution ratio to the national economy of each coastal city, these low-lying coastal cities have about $16 billion risk value. An analysis showed that the coastal zone is very important for the national economy of Turkey and also the pressure on the coastal zone is very high. At a time of increasing pressures on coastal resources of Turkey, the decision-makers need the most up-to-date information on the full range of values these resources provide in order to make decisions that best reflect the public interest.

  3. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical hydrodynamic coastal processes: a case study in the north Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiver, W. J.; Sannino, G.; Braga, F.; Bellafiore, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM (shallow water hydrodynamic finite element model) and MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model), to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the north Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal processes, like upwelling and downwelling, and how they interact with estuarine dynamics. Using the models we examine the impact of setup, surface and lateral boundary treatment, resolution and mixing schemes, as well as assessing the importance of nonhydrostatic dynamics in coastal processes. Both models are able to capture the dense water event, though each displays biases in different regions. The models show large differences in the reproduction of surface patterns, identifying the choice of suitable bulk formulas as a central point for the correct simulation of the thermohaline structure of the coastal zone. Moreover, the different approaches in treating lateral freshwater sources affect the vertical coastal stratification. The results indicate the importance of having high horizontal resolution in the coastal zone, specifically in close proximity to river inputs, in order to reproduce the effect of the complex coastal morphology on the hydrodynamics. A lower resolution offshore is acceptable for the reproduction of the dense water event, even if specific vortical structures are missed. Finally, it is found that nonhydrostatic processes are of little importance for the reproduction of dense water formation in the shelf of the north Adriatic Sea.

  4. Characterizing fishing effort and spatial extent of coastal fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Stewart

    Full Text Available Biodiverse coastal zones are often areas of intense fishing pressure due to the high relative density of fishing capacity in these nearshore regions. Although overcapacity is one of the central challenges to fisheries sustainability in coastal zones, accurate estimates of fishing pressure in coastal zones are limited, hampering the assessment of the direct and collateral impacts (e.g., habitat degradation, bycatch of fishing. We compiled a comprehensive database of fishing effort metrics and the corresponding spatial limits of fisheries and used a spatial analysis program (FEET to map fishing effort density (measured as boat-meters per km² in the coastal zones of six ocean regions. We also considered the utility of a number of socioeconomic variables as indicators of fishing pressure at the national level; fishing density increased as a function of population size and decreased as a function of coastline length. Our mapping exercise points to intra and interregional 'hotspots' of coastal fishing pressure. The significant and intuitive relationships we found between fishing density and population size and coastline length may help with coarse regional characterizations of fishing pressure. However, spatially-delimited fishing effort data are needed to accurately map fishing hotspots, i.e., areas of intense fishing activity. We suggest that estimates of fishing effort, not just target catch or yield, serve as a necessary measure of fishing activity, which is a key link to evaluating sustainability and environmental impacts of coastal fisheries.

  5. Characterizing fishing effort and spatial extent of coastal fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelly R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Dunn, Daniel C; Bjorkland, Rhema H; Kelez, Shaleyla; Halpin, Patrick N; Crowder, Larry B

    2010-12-29

    Biodiverse coastal zones are often areas of intense fishing pressure due to the high relative density of fishing capacity in these nearshore regions. Although overcapacity is one of the central challenges to fisheries sustainability in coastal zones, accurate estimates of fishing pressure in coastal zones are limited, hampering the assessment of the direct and collateral impacts (e.g., habitat degradation, bycatch) of fishing. We compiled a comprehensive database of fishing effort metrics and the corresponding spatial limits of fisheries and used a spatial analysis program (FEET) to map fishing effort density (measured as boat-meters per km²) in the coastal zones of six ocean regions. We also considered the utility of a number of socioeconomic variables as indicators of fishing pressure at the national level; fishing density increased as a function of population size and decreased as a function of coastline length. Our mapping exercise points to intra and interregional 'hotspots' of coastal fishing pressure. The significant and intuitive relationships we found between fishing density and population size and coastline length may help with coarse regional characterizations of fishing pressure. However, spatially-delimited fishing effort data are needed to accurately map fishing hotspots, i.e., areas of intense fishing activity. We suggest that estimates of fishing effort, not just target catch or yield, serve as a necessary measure of fishing activity, which is a key link to evaluating sustainability and environmental impacts of coastal fisheries.

  6. Five critical questions of scale for the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, D. P.; Humborg, C.; Emeis, K.; Kannen, A.; Silvert, W.; Tett, P.; Pastres, R.; Solidoro, C.; Yamamuro, M.; Hénocque, Y.; Nicholls, R.

    2012-01-01

    Social and ecological systems around the world are becoming increasingly globalized. From the standpoint of understanding coastal ecosystem behavior, system boundaries are not sufficient to define causes of change. A flutter in the stock market in Tokyo or Hong Kong can affect salmon producers in Norway or farmers in Togo. The globalization of opportunistic species and the disempowerment of people trying to manage their own affairs on a local scale seem to coincide with the globalization of trade. Human-accelerated environmental change, including climate change, can exacerbate this sense of disenfranchisement. The structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems have been developed over thousands of years subject to environmental forces and constraints imposed mainly on local scales. However, phenomena that transcend these conventional scales have emerged with the explosion of human population, and especially with the rise of modern global culture. Here, we examine five broad questions of scale in the coastal zone: How big are coastal ecosystems and why should we care? Temporal scales of change in coastal waters and watersheds: Can we detect shifting baselines due to economic development and other drivers? Are footprints more important than boundaries? What makes a decision big? The tyranny of small decisions in coastal regions. Scales of complexity in coastal waters: the simple, the complicated or the complex? These questions do not have straightforward answers. There is no single "scale" for coastal ecosystems; their multiscale nature complicates our understanding and management of them. Coastal ecosystems depend on their watersheds as well as spatially-diffuse "footprints" associated with modern trade and material flows. Change occurs both rapidly and slowly on human time scales, and observing and responding to changes in coastal environments is a fundamental challenge. Apparently small human decisions collectively have potentially enormous consequences for

  7. Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.

  8. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available availability to treat the higher grade coal (the bottom layer of coal) from the no. 2 Seam for a local and export metallurgical market. Following the path of evolution, in 2007, Leeuwpan commissioned the first double stage ultra-fines dense medium cyclone... plant in the coal industry, to form part of its overall DMS plant. It replaced the spirals to treat the -1 mm material. Spirals are still the most commonly and accepted method used by the industry, but it seems as if the pioneering cyclone process...

  9. Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrau, U.; Sperling, P.; Harmand, M.; Becker, A.; Bornath, T.; Bredow, R.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fennel, T.; Fletcher, L. B.; Förster, E.; Göde, S.; Gregori, G.; Hilbert, V.; Hochhaus, D.; Holst, B.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Mithen, J. P.; Mitzner, R.; Murphy, C. D.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Neumayer, P.; Przystawik, A.; Roling, S.; Schulz, M.; Siemer, B.; Skruszewicz, S.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; White, T.; Wöstmann, M.; Zacharias, H.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ≲300 fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ˜0.9 ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.

  10. Oscillating propagators in heavy-dense QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar; Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2016-10-11

    Using Monte Carlo simulations and extended mean field theory calculations we show that the $3$-dimensional $\\mathbb{Z}_3$ spin model with complex external fields has non-monotonic correlators in some regions of its parameter space. This model serves as a proxy for heavy-dense QCD in $(3+1)$ dimensions. Non-monotonic correlators are intrinsically related to a complex mass spectrum and a liquid-like (or crystalline) behavior. A liquid phase could have implications for heavy-ion experiments, where it could leave detectable signals in the spatial correlations of baryons.

  11. Interference Alignment in Dense Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs

    2009-01-01

    We consider arbitrary dense wireless networks, in which $n$ nodes are placed in an arbitrary (deterministic) manner on a square region of unit area and communicate with each other over Gaussian fading channels. We provide inner and outer bounds for the $n\\times n$-dimensional unicast and the $n\\times 2^n$-dimensional multicast capacity regions of such a wireless network. These inner and outer bounds differ only by a factor $O(\\log(n))$, yielding a fairly tight scaling characterization of the entire regions. The communication schemes achieving the inner bounds use interference alignment as a central technique and are surprisingly simple.

  12. Phase transitions in dense 2-colour QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Boz, Tamer; Fister, Leonard; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate 2-colour QCD with 2 flavours of Wilson fermion at nonzero temperature T and quark chemical potential mu, with a pion mass of 700 MeV (m_pi/m_rho=0.8). From temperature scans at fixed mu we find that the critical temperature for the superfluid to normal transition depends only very weakly on mu above the onset chemical potential, while the deconfinement crossover temperature is clearly decreasing with mu. We also present results for the Landau-gauge gluon propagator in the hot and dense medium.

  13. Flavour Oscillations in Dense Baryonic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We suggest that fast neutral meson oscillations may occur in a dense baryonic matter, which can influence the balance of s/¯s quarks in the nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus interactions, if primordial multiplicities of neutral K 0, mesons are sufficiently asymmetrical. The phenomenon can occur even if CP symmetry is fully conserved, and it may be responsible for the enhanced sub-threshold production of multi-strange hyperons observed in the low-energy A+A and p+A interactions.

  14. Gravity-driven dense granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERTAS,DENIZ; GREST,GARY S.; HALSEY,THOMAS C.; DEVINE,DOV; SILBERT,LEONARDO E.

    2000-03-29

    The authors report and analyze the results of numerical studies of dense granular flows in two and three dimensions, using both linear damped springs and Hertzian force laws between particles. Chute flow generically produces a constant density profile that satisfies scaling relations suggestive of a Bagnold grain inertia regime. The type for force law has little impact on the behavior of the system. Failure is not initiated at the surface, consistent with the absence of surface flows and different principal stress directions at vs. below the surface.

  15. Tracing dense and diffuse neutral hydrogen in the halo of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Vanessa A; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M

    2016-01-01

    We have combined observations of Galactic high-velocity HI from two surveys: a very sensitive survey from the Green Bank 140ft Telescope with limited sky coverage, and the less sensitive but complete Galactic All Sky Survey from the 64m Parkes Radio Telescope. The two surveys preferentially detect different forms of neutral gas due to their sensitivity. We adopt a machine learning approach to divide our data into two populations that separate across a range in column density: 1) a narrow line-width population typical of the majority of bright high velocity cloud components, and 2) a fainter, broad line-width population that aligns well with that of the population found in the Green Bank survey. We refer to these populations as dense and diffuse gas respectively, and find that diffuse gas is typically located at the edges and in the tails of high velocity clouds, surrounding dense components in the core. A fit to the average spectrum of each type of gas in the Galactic All Sky Survey data reveals the dense pop...

  16. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S

    2016-02-19

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters.

  17. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  18. Dense spermatozoa in stallion ejaculates contain lower concentrations of mRNAs encoding the sperm specific calcium channel 1, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3, aromatase, and estrogen receptor alpha than less dense spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, N H; Forrest, D W; Love, C C; Varner, D D

    2014-07-15

    Stallions are unique among livestock in that, like men, they commonly receive medical treatment for subfertility. In both species, about 15% of individuals have normal semen parameters but are subfertile, indicating a need for novel analyses of spermatozoa function. One procedure for improving fertilizing capability of stallions and men is isolation of dense spermatozoa from an ejaculate for use in artificial insemination. In the current study, dense and less dense spermatozoa were purified by density gradient centrifugation from individual ejaculates from seven reproductively normal adult stallions. The RNA isolated from the spermatozoa seemed to be naturally fragmented to an average length of 250 bases, consistent with reports of spermatozoa RNA from other species. The DNAse treatment of RNA prepared from spermatozoa removed any genomic DNA contamination, as assessed by PCR with intron spanning primers for the protamine 1 (PRM1) gene. Concentrations of seven mRNAs in spermatozoa, correlated with the fertility of men and bulls, were quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in dense and less dense spermatozoa. Concentrations of four mRNAs were two- to four-fold lower in dense spermatozoa compared with less dense spermatozoa: Encoding the spermatozoa-specific calcium channel (P 0.1). These results identify new differences in mRNA concentrations in populations of spermatozoa with dissimilar densities.

  19. Enhancing hydrologic mapping using LIDAR and high resolution aerial photos on the Frances Marion National Forest in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Maceyka; William F. Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating hydrology within coastal marine terrace features has always been problematic as watershed boundaries and stream detail are difficult to determine in low gradient terrain with dense bottomland forests. Various studies have improved hydrologic detail using USGS Topographic Contour Maps (Hansen 2001, Eidson and others 2005) or Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR...

  20. 3-Dimentional Mapping Coastal Zone using High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhonghua; Liu, Fengling; Zhang, Yun

    2014-03-01

    The metropolitan coastal zone mapping is critical for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and coastal sustainable development and planning. The results of geometric processing of a Shanghai coastal zone from 0.7-m-resolution QuickBird Geo stereo images are presented firstly. The geo-positioning accuracy of ground point determination with vendor-provided rigorous physical model (RPM) parameters is evaluated and systematic errors are found when compared with ground control points surveyed by GPS real-time kinematic (GPS-RTK) with 5cm accuracy. A bias-compensation process in image space that applies a RPM bundle adjustment to the RPM-calculated 3D ground points to correct the systematic errors is used to improve the geo-positioning accuracy. And then, a area-based matching (ABM) method is used to generated the densely corresponding points of left and right QuickBird images. With the densely matching points, the 3-dimentinal coordinates of ground points can be calculated by using the refined geometric relationship between image and ground points. At last step, digital surface model (DSM) can be achieved automatically using interpolation method. Accuracies of the DSM as assessed from independent checkpoints (ICPs) are approximately 1.2 m in height.

  1. Coastal pollution limits pelagic larval dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The ecological impact of large coastal human populations on marine ecosystems remains relatively unknown. Here, we examine the population structure of Patiria miniata, the bat star, and correlate genetic distances with a model based on flow rates and proximity to P. miniata populations for the four major stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent sources of the Southern California Bight. We show that overall genetic connectivity is high (F(ST)~0.005); however, multivariate analyses show that genetic structure is highly correlated with anthropogenic inputs. The best models included both stormwater and wastewater variables and explained between 26.55 and 93.69% of the observed structure. Additionally, regressions between allelic richness and distance to sources show that populations near anthropogenic pollution have reduced genetic diversity. Our results indicate that anthropogenic runoff and effluent are acting as barriers to larval dispersal, effectively isolating a high gene flow species that is virtually free of direct human impact.

  2. Predicting diffusivities in dense fluid mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DARIVA

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the Enskog solution of the Boltzmann equation, as corrected by Speedy, together with the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA perturbation theory of liquids is employed in correlating and predicting self-diffusivities of dense fluids. Afterwards this theory is used to estimate mutual diffusion coefficients of solutes at infinite dilution in sub and supercritical solvents. We have also investigated the behavior of Fick diffusion coefficients in the proximity of a binary vapor-liquid critical point since this subject is of great interest for extraction purposes. The approach presented here, which makes use of a density and temperature dependent hard-sphere diameter, is shown to be excellent for predicting diffusivities in dense pure fluids and fluid mixtures. The calculations involved highly nonideal mixtures as well as systems with high molecular asymmetry. The predicted diffusivities are in good agreement with the experimental data for the pure and binary systems. The methodology proposed here makes only use of pure component information and density of mixtures. The simple algebraic relations are proposed without any binary adjustable parameters and can be readily used for estimating diffusivities in multicomponent mixtures.

  3. The symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Kie Sang

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case ...

  4. Symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kie Sang, E-mail: k.s.jeong@yonsei.ac.kr; Lee, Su Houng, E-mail: suhoung@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction on the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case in the normal phase, we expect that the contribution of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy in the 2SC phase will be minimal. The different value of symmetry energy in each phase will lead to different prediction for the particle yields in heavy ion collision experiment.

  5. Ion Beam Driven Warm Dense Matter Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; More, R. M.; Ni, P. A.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Barnard, J. J.

    2008-11-01

    We report plans and experimental results in ion beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) experiments. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam from the NDCX-I accelerator. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression to provide a hot spot on the target with a 1-mm beam spot size, and 2-ns pulse length. As a technique for heating matter to high energy density, intense ion beams can deliver precise and uniform beam energy deposition, in a relatively large sample size, and can heat any solid-phase target material. The range of the beams in solid targets is less than 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using reduced density porous targets. We have developed a WDM target chamber and target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial experiments will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  6. Redesigning Triangular Dense Matrix Computations on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2016-08-09

    A new implementation of the triangular matrix-matrix multiplication (TRMM) and the triangular solve (TRSM) kernels are described on GPU hardware accelerators. Although part of the Level 3 BLAS family, these highly computationally intensive kernels fail to achieve the percentage of the theoretical peak performance on GPUs that one would expect when running kernels with similar surface-to-volume ratio on hardware accelerators, i.e., the standard matrix-matrix multiplication (GEMM). The authors propose adopting a recursive formulation, which enriches the TRMM and TRSM inner structures with GEMM calls and, therefore, reduces memory traffic while increasing the level of concurrency. The new implementation enables efficient use of the GPU memory hierarchy and mitigates the latency overhead, to run at the speed of the higher cache levels. Performance comparisons show up to eightfold and twofold speedups for large dense matrix sizes, against the existing state-of-the-art TRMM and TRSM implementations from NVIDIA cuBLAS, respectively, across various GPU generations. Once integrated into high-level Cholesky-based dense linear algebra algorithms, the performance impact on the overall applications demonstrates up to fourfold and twofold speedups, against the equivalent native implementations, linked with cuBLAS TRMM and TRSM kernels, respectively. The new TRMM/TRSM kernel implementations are part of the open-source KBLAS software library (http://ecrc.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Res-kblas.aspx) and are lined up for integration into the NVIDIA cuBLAS library in the upcoming v8.0 release.

  7. Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Media

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2014-01-01

    We study the finite temperature and density effects on beta decay rates to compute their contributions to nucleosynthesis. QED type corrections to beta decay from the hot and dense background are estimated in terms of the statistical corrections to the self-mass of an electron. For this purpose, we re-examine the hot and dense background contributions to the electron mass and compute its effect to the beta decay rate, helium yield, energy density of the universe as well as the change in neutrino temperature from the first order contribution to the self-mass of electrons during these processes. We explicitly show that the thermal contribution to the helium abundance at T = m of a cooling universe 0.045 % is higher than the corresponding contribution to helium abundance of a heating universe 0.031% due to the existence of hot fermions before the beginning of nucleosynthesis and their absence after the nucleosynthesis, in the early universe. Thermal contribution to helium abundance was a simple quadratic functio...

  8. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R; Weber, S; Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D; Gregori, G; Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R

    2007-10-02

    Compton scattering has been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  9. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, O L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R J; Weber, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94709 (United States); Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)], E-mail: glenzer1@llnl.gov

    2008-05-15

    Compton scattering techniques have been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  10. Probing the Physical Structures of Dense Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di

    2015-08-01

    Filament is a common feature in cosmological structures of various scales, ranging from dark matter cosmic web, galaxy clusters, inter-galactic gas flows, to Galactic ISM clouds. Even within cold dense molecular cores, filaments have been detected. Theories and simulations with (or without) different combination of physical principles, including gravity, thermal balance, turbulence, and magnetic field, can reproduce intriguing images of filaments. The ubiquity of filaments and the similarity in simulated ones make physical parameters, beyond dust column density, a necessity for understanding filament evolution. I report three projects attempting to measure physical parameters of filaments. We derive the volume density of a dense Taurus filament based on several cyanoacetylene transitions observed by GBT and ART. We measure the gas temperature of the OMC 2-3 filament based on combined GBT+VLA ammonia images. We also measured the sub-millimeter polarization vectors along OMC3. These filaments were found to be likely a cylinder-type structure, without dynamic heating, and likely accreting mass along the magnetic field lines.

  11. Wireless Fractal Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yixue; Chen, Min; Hu, Long; Song, Jeungeun; Volk, Mojca; Humar, Iztok

    2017-04-12

    With the ever-growing number of mobile devices, there is an explosive expansion in mobile data services. This represents a challenge for the traditional cellular network architecture to cope with the massive wireless traffic generated by mobile media applications. To meet this challenge, research is currently focused on the introduction of a small cell base station (BS) due to its low transmit power consumption and flexibility of deployment. However, due to a complex deployment environment and low transmit power of small cell BSs, the coverage boundary of small cell BSs will not have a traditional regular shape. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the coverage boundary of an ultra-dense small cell network and give its main features: aeolotropy of path loss fading and fractal coverage boundary. Simple performance analysis is given, including coverage probability and transmission rate, etc., based on stochastic geometry theory and fractal theory. Finally, we present an application scene and discuss challenges in the ultra-dense small cell network.

  12. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, L.; Kress, J.; Troullier, N.; Lenosky, T.; Kwon, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors have developed a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulation method for investigating the properties of dense matter in a variety of environments. The technique treats a periodically-replicated reference cell containing N atoms in which the nuclei move according to the classical equations-of-motion. The interatomic forces are generated from the quantum mechanical interactions of the (between?) electrons and nuclei. To generate these forces, the authors employ several methods of varying sophistication from the tight-binding (TB) to elaborate density functional (DF) schemes. In the latter case, lengthy simulations on the order of 200 atoms are routinely performed, while for the TB, which requires no self-consistency, upwards to 1000 atoms are systematically treated. The QMD method has been applied to a variety cases: (1) fluid/plasma Hydrogen from liquid density to 20 times volume-compressed for temperatures of a thousand to a million degrees Kelvin; (2) isotopic hydrogenic mixtures, (3) liquid metals (Li, Na, K); (4) impurities such as Argon in dense hydrogen plasmas; and (5) metal/insulator transitions in rare gas systems (Ar,Kr) under high compressions. The advent of parallel versions of the methods, especially for fast eigensolvers, presage LDA simulations in the range of 500--1000 atoms and TB runs for tens of thousands of particles. This leap should allow treatment of shock chemistry as well as large-scale mixtures of species in highly transient environments.

  13. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  14. Coastal research: Observational challenge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    research. Modeling has also benefited from new tech nologies and is playing an increasingly important tole as well. Problems such as global climate change as affected by and affecting the oceans, variability in biomass and fish abun dance and regime... are expensive, but vital for effective stewardship, preservation, and utilization of the coastal atmosphere. Fortunately, many innovative technolo gies involving computing, robotics, communications, space ex ploration, and physical, chemical, bimolecular...

  15. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  16. Process-based and Surrogate Modelling of Fine Sediment Transport in the Dutch Coastal Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kai, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal zones which are known as the interface between continents and oceans are vital and important to human beings because a majority of the world's population live in such zones (Nelson, 2007). Coastal systems are among the most dynamic and energetic environments on earth and they are

  17. Coastal upwelling ecosystems are known to be parts of the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    able to sustain extremely large populations of pelagic fish such as sardine ... This major characteristic of coastal upwelling ... Because a coastal upwelling ecosystem is a disper- ..... clupéidés des zones d'upwelling d'Afrique de L'Ouest. Aquat ...

  18. Disturbance and coastal forests: a strategic approach to forest management in hurricane impact zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2007-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami focused world attention on societal responses to environmental hazards and the potential of natural systems to moderate disturbance effects. Coastal areas are critical to the welfare of up to 50% of the world's population. Coastal systems in the southern United States are adapted to specific disturbance regimes of tropical cyclones (...

  19. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  20. Process-based and Surrogate Modelling of Fine Sediment Transport in the Dutch Coastal Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kai, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal zones which are known as the interface between continents and oceans are vital and important to human beings because a majority of the world's population live in such zones (Nelson, 2007). Coastal systems are among the most dynamic and energetic environments on earth and they are continuousl

  1. Process-based and Surrogate Modelling of Fine Sediment Transport in the Dutch Coastal Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kai, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal zones which are known as the interface between continents and oceans are vital and important to human beings because a majority of the world's population live in such zones (Nelson, 2007). Coastal systems are among the most dynamic and energetic environments on earth and they are continuousl

  2. Comparison of bacterial communities on limnic versus coastal marine particles reveals profound differences in colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Zeder, Michael; Ionescu, Danny; Orlić, Sandi; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Amann, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    Marine and limnic particles are hotspots of organic matter mineralization significantly affecting biogeochemical element cycling. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes were combined to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition on limnic and coastal marine particles > 5 and > 10 μm respectively. Limnic particles were more abundant (average: 1 × 10(7) l(-1)), smaller in size (average areas: 471 versus 2050 μm(2)) and more densely colonized (average densities: 7.3 versus 3.6 cells 100 μm(-2)) than marine ones. Limnic particle-associated (PA) bacteria harboured Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and unlike previously suggested sizeable populations of Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Marine particles were colonized by Planctomycetes and Betaproteobacteria additionally to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Large differences in individual particle colonization could be detected. High-throughput sequencing revealed a significant overlap of PA and free-living (FL) bacteria highlighting an underestimated connectivity between both fractions. PA bacteria were in 14/21 cases more diverse than FL bacteria, reflecting a high heterogeneity in the particle microenvironment. We propose that a ratio of Chao 1 indices of PA/FL marine particles demonstrates that, despite the seemingly similar ecological niches, PA communities of both environments differ substantially. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impact of coastal management practice on long-term foredune behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; Bochev-van der Burgh, Lisette M.

    2010-05-01

    Coastal dunes located in densely populated areas provide various services to man, such as protection against flooding during storm surges, recreation, and nature conservation. As a result, man will interfere with the natural dynamics of coastal dunes if these negatively affect these functions. For example, local storm erosion of the foredune will reduce the safety level of dunes as flooding defence, or the resulting steep dune front can be perceived as a public safety issue (collapse). Usually, the applied management interventions aim at restoring the pre-storm situation. As such they result in an increased recovery rate from an erosional event as compared to post-storm recovery rates occurring without human intervention. The above raises the question whether the usually localized and intermittent human interventions will actually interfere with the long term evolution of the foredune area. And if so, whether these short term management interventions can turn out to be detrimental to the persistence of these functions in the long run. Especially for the flooding defence functionality this is of importance, as we can expect natural drivers of coastal behaviour, such as storm climatology and mean sea level stand, to change over the next century. To increase insight in the above issues we performed a case study on the behaviour of managed foredunes along the Holland coast (The Netherlands). Information on the morphologic behaviour was extracted by EOF-analysis from a 40 year data set (1965-2004) of annual, high-resolution elevation surveys of the subaerial part of coastal profile along about 90 km of coastline. Information on the applied dune management during this period was retrieved from documents as well as from interviews with coastal managers with long-term involvement in the actual dune maintenance practice in the studied area. It appeared that during the studied period the coastal management policy changed from being essentially reactive in nature to being pro

  4. Decay of Langmuir wave in dense plasmas and warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Son, S; Moon, Sung Joon

    2010-01-01

    The decays of the Langmuir waves in dense plasmas are computed using the dielectric function theory widely used in the solid state physics. Four cases are considered: a classical plasma, a Maxwellian plasma, a degenerate quantum plasma, and a partially degenerate plasma. The result is considerably different from the conventional Landau damping theory.

  5. Impact of Land Reclamation on the Coastal Areas in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Selmin; Kucukakca, Emrah

    2015-04-01

    Istanbul lies on both sides of the Bosphorus, the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea which is an inland sea. The city is a large metropolis having more than 15 million of population that has been subjected to heavy and unplanned urbanization due to natural growth and immigration from the Eastern regions of Turkey, in particular. This resulted in loss of green areas and gave rise to land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea in order to provide ring roads along the seaside and substitute the lost green areas by newly generated recreational areas. Therefore heavy land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea has been the major environmental concern related to the damage caused to the coastal ecosystems during the last decade. The reclaimed land on the Northern shoreline of the Marmara Sea has reached 80% as of 2014. As widely known, coastal areas are the main housbandary and spawning areas for coastal ecosystems and pelagic species. Due to inappropriate reclamation processes, significant decrease in coastal ecosystems and species has been reported in several studies, Istanbul is no exception. Coastal zones are complex systems exhibiting specific environmental and socio-economic particularities. In recent years, many organizations, governments and policy-makers have pointed out the urgent need to develop global, regional, national and local strategies to ensure the protection and sustainable use of coastal zones. A long-term sustainable development of coastal areas cannot be achieved without the preservation of natural resources on which the development relies. The dilemma is to ensure the sustainable development of natural resources which is not the case as reported in several studies. Continuous exposure of the Istanbul coastal areas to uncontrolled, unplanned and inappropriate reclamation methods from past to present and recently experienced enhanced reclamation has been a major concern that is expressed by the scientific society. However

  6. Stellar interactions in dense and sparse star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, C.; Pfalzner, S.; Eckart, A.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Stellar encounters potentially affect the evolution of the protoplanetary discs in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). However, the role of encounters in other cluster environments is less known. Aims: We investigate the effect of the encounter-induced disc-mass loss in different cluster environments. Methods: Starting from an ONC-like cluster we vary the cluster size and density to determine the correlation of the collision time scale and disc-mass loss. We use the nbody6++ code to model the dynamics of these clusters and analyse the disc-mass loss due to encounters. Results: We find that the encounter rate strongly depends on the cluster density but remains rather unaffected by the size of the stellar population. This dependency translates directly into the effect on the encounter-induced disc-mass loss. The essential outcome of the simulations are: i) even in clusters of four times lower density than the ONC, the effect of encounters is still apparent; ii) the density of the ONC itself marks a threshold: in less dense and less massive clusters it is the massive stars that dominate the encounter-induced disc-mass loss, whereas in denser and more massive clusters the low-mass stars play the major role for the disc-mass removal. Conclusions: It seems that in the central regions of young dense star clusters - the common sites of star formation - stellar encounters do affect the evolution of the protoplanetary discs. With higher cluster density low-mass stars become more heavily involved in this process. These results can also be applied to extreme stellar systems: in the case of the Arches cluster one would expect stellar encounters to destroy the discs of most of the low- and high-mass stars in several hundred thousand years, whereas intermediate mass stars are able to retain their discs to some extent even under these harsh environmental conditions.

  7. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  8. Assessing Coastal Composite Vulnerability Indices on Seasonal Change in Phetchaburi, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oraon Sarajit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to apply the Geo-information technology for coastal vulnerability assessment of Phetchaburi coast, which depended on seasonal changed (by influence of Southwest monsoon and Northeast monsoon. The assessment uses a coastal vulnerability index (CVI, consists of a physical environment vulnerability index (PVI and the socio-economic vulnerability index (SVI with 9 variables; coastal slope, mean tidal ranges, average wave height, rates of coastal erosion, population density, land use, built-up, transportation and coastal protection measures. The results showed, the different during monsoon had an indecisive difference effect on mean tidal ranges, average wave height, and changes in the coastline. However, the monsoon had effected to sand sediment of the beach. That increased in the Southwest monsoon and decreased in the Northeast monsoon. The level of vulnerability of the coastal area was shown by a map of CVI, with high coastal vulnerability areas having a size of 4.6 square kilometers (10.89% of the coastal surveillance area, mainly in Pak-Thale, Bang-Keaw and Chao-Samran. The moderate and the low coastal vulnerability areas have size of 31.29 square kilometers and 6.97 square kilometers, respectively. The variables that influence the vulnerability are land use, slope, erosion rate and population density.

  9. Sound scattering in dense granular media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA XiaoPing; LAURENT J; KHIDAS Y; LANGLOIS V

    2009-01-01

    The sound propagation in a dense granular medium is basically characterized by the ratio of wave-length to the grain size. Two types of wave transport are distinguished: one corresponds to coherent waves in the long wavelength limit, the other to short-wavelength scattered waves by the inhomoge-neous contact force networks. These multiply scattered elastic waves are shown to exhibit a diffusive characteristics of transport over long distances of propagation. Determination of the transport mean free path l* and the inelastic absorption (Q~(-1)) allows the inference of the structural properties of the material such as the heterogeneity and internal dissipation. The relevance of our experiments for seismological applications is discussed. Moreover, we apply the correlation technique of the configu-ration-specific sound scattering to monitoring the dynamic behaviour of the granular medium (irre-versible rearrangements) under strong vibration, shearing and thermal cycling, respectively.

  10. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  11. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ravindra Kumar

    2009-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the physics and applications of the interaction of high intensity laser light with matter. It traces the crucial advances that have occurred over the past few decades in laser technology and nonlinear optics and then discusses physical phenomena that occur in intense laser fields and their modeling. After a description of the basic phenomena like multiphoton and tunneling ionization, the physics of plasma formed in dense matter is presented. Specific phenomena are chosen for illustration of the scientific and technological possibilities – simulation of astrophysical phenomena, relativistic nonlinear optics, laser wakefield acceleration, laser fusion, ultrafast real time X-ray diffraction, application of the particle beams produced from the plasma for medical therapies etc. A survey of the Indian activities in this research area appears at the end.

  12. Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Desjarlais, Michael; Redmer, Ronald; Trickey, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent...

  13. Carbon nitride frameworks and dense crystalline polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Chris J.; Salamat, Ashkan; Bojdys, Michael J.; Needs, Richard J.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2016-09-01

    We used ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to investigate polymorphism in C3N4 carbon nitride as a function of pressure. Our calculations reveal new framework structures, including a particularly stable chiral polymorph of space group P 43212 containing mixed s p2 and s p3 bonding, that we have produced experimentally and recovered to ambient conditions. As pressure is increased a sequence of structures with fully s p3 -bonded C atoms and three-fold-coordinated N atoms is predicted, culminating in a dense P n m a phase above 250 GPa. Beyond 650 GPa we find that C3N4 becomes unstable to decomposition into diamond and pyrite-structured CN2.

  14. Plasmon resonance in warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, R; Bornath, T; Fortmann, C; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Wierling, A; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G

    2008-02-21

    Collective Thomson scattering with extreme ultraviolet light or x-rays is shown to allow for a robust measurement of the free electron density in dense plasmas. Collective excitations like plasmons appear as maxima in the scattering signal. Their frequency position can directly be related to the free electron density. The range of applicability of the standard Gross-Bohm dispersion relation and of an improved dispersion relation in comparison to calculations based on the dielectric function in random phase approximation is investigated. More important, this well-established treatment of Thomson scattering on free electrons is generalized in the Born-Mermin approximation by including collisions. We show that, in the transition region from collective to non-collective scattering, the consideration of collisions is important.

  15. Properties of industrial dense gas plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, E. M.; Forney, L. J.

    Hazardous gases and vapors are often discharged into the atmosphere from industrial plants during catastrophic events (e.g. Union Carbide incident in Bhopal, India). In many cases the discharged components are more dense than air and settle to the ground surface downstream from the stack exit. In the present paper, the buoyant plume model of Hoult, Fay and Forney (1969, J. Air Pollut. Control Ass. 19, 585-590.) has been altered to predict the properties of hazardous discharges. In particular, the plume impingement point, radius and concentration are predicted for typical stack exit conditions, wind speeds and temperature profiles. Asymptotic expressions for plume properties at the impingement point are also derived for a constant crosswind and neutral temperature profile. These formulae are shown to be useful for all conditions.

  16. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non

  17. Dense QCD: a Holographic Dyonic Salt

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque; Zahed, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Dense QCD at zero temperature with a large number of colors is a crystal. We show that in the holographic dual description, the crystal is made out of pairs of dyons with $e=g=\\pm 1$ charges in a salt-like arrangement. We argue that with increasing density the dyon masses and topological charges equalize, turning the salt-like configuration to a bcc of half-instantons. The latter is dual to a cubic crystal of half-skyrmions. We estimate the transition from an fcc crystal of instantons to a bcc crystal of dyons to about 3 times nuclear matter density with a dyon binding energy of about 180 MeV.

  18. Dynamic structure of dense krypton gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelstaff, P. A.; Salacuse, J. J.; Schommers, W.; Ram, J.

    1984-07-01

    We have made molecular-dynamics computer simulations of dense krypton gas (10.6×1027 atoms/m3 and 296 K) using reasonably realistic pair potentials. Comparisons are made with the recent experimental data[P. A. Egelstaff et al., Phys. Rev. A 27, 1106 (1983)] for the dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) over the range 0.4

  19. Drivers of Coastal Shoreline Change: Case Study of Hon Dat Coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  20. Drivers of coastal shoreline change: case study of hon dat coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  1. Increased SST and Frequent Occurrence of Rough Sea Events in the Bay of Bengal: Implications for livelihoods of Coastal Populace in Bangladesh (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. U.

    2010-12-01

    Bangladesh is a densely populated low-lying deltaic country, widely known to be highly vulnerable to climate change. High vulnerability is caused mainly by geophysical factors, compounded by a number of social and economic factors such as large population, high incidence of poverty and malnutrition, glaring social inequity, and poor governance. The coastal zone facing the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to hazards such as sea level rise, salinity intrusion, high wave interaction and erosion, saline water-logging, and cyclonic storm surges. The sea surface temperature (SST) in the northern Indian Ocean has recently been exhibiting a general increasing trend, with a net rise of about 0.45°C over the past four decades. This has been attributed to climate change. The warming, identified by marked increase in SST, has been causing a significant increase in the formation of ‘low pressures’ to ‘deep depressions’ in the bay. Consequently, the tidal activities on the surface have become rough and turbulent, triggering a number of problems for the livelihoods of coastal population of Bangladesh. The coastal fisherfolk communities represent poorest of the poor, who can hardly earn a livelihood from traditional fishing practices. Their prime fishing period coincides with Monsoon and post-monsoon seasons combined, when the bay becomes rough, turbulent, and unsuitable for artisanal fishing. With increasing frequency of occurrence of ‘rough sea events’, the coastal fishermen are forced to stay out of action in anticipation of complete loss of investment made for fishing trips or forced to abandon incomplete fishing trips - the latter causing heavy financial losses. As a consequence of too many incomplete fishing trips and scanty return from subsequent investments, livelihoods of coastal fisherfolk have been devastated. Coastal farmers have been maintaining their livelihoods, where the state invested for building surge protecting embankments to offer

  2. Rejuvenating Poldered Landscapes: A Numerical Model of Elevation Equilibrium in Coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasich, C. M.; Gilligan, J. M.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Hale, R. P.; Wallace Auerbach, L.

    2015-12-01

    The low-lying, coastal region of Bangladesh has relied on poldering (surrounding islands and flood-prone areas with embankments) since the 1960s to mitigate flooding and tidal inundation. The result has been an increase in total arable land and the ability to sustain food production for one of the most densely populated countries in the world. However, poldering has had the unintended consequences of starving embanked landscapes of sediment. To mitigate the effects of subsiding interiors, some poldered communities have used tidal river management (TRM) to allow water and sediment exchange between the polders and the tidal network. Anecdotal reports claim great success in some locations, but not in others. To date, there has been very little quantitative analysis. Here, we use a simple numerical model of tidal inundation and subsequent sediment accretion to examine the potential impacts of TRM at a poldered island, Polder 32 (P32), and the adjacent mangrove forest in southwest Bangladesh. Our model employs mass balance with variable incoming suspended sediment concentration (SSC). We use tidal gauge and SSC data as inputs and test the model against measured accretion values at P32. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters narrows the range of realistic parameter inputs. Preliminary results suggest that it would take ~10-20 years for P32 to re-equilibrate to the natural surrounding land elevations with a restored direct tidal channel connection. Since a direct tidal channel connection is unfeasible and would displace the local population, future work will attempt to constrain time frames for inundation to more closely model TRM efforts. We also plan to add a bedload component and multidimensionality. The present model provides a simple framework for understanding sediment accretion in southwest Bangladesh and helps generate more complex questions about making the delta more sustainable in the face of sea level rise and population growth.

  3. X-ray scattering from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSherry, D.J

    2000-09-01

    Dense plasmas were studied by probing them with kilovolt x-rays and measuring those scattered at various angles. The Laser-Produced x-ray source emitted Ti He alpha 4.75 keV x-rays. Two different plasma types were explored. The first was created by laser driven shocks on either side of a sample foil consisting of 2 micron Al layer, sandwiched between two 1 micron CH layers. We have observed a peak in the x-ray scattering cross section, indicating diffraction from the plasma. However, the experimentally inferred plasma density, broadly speaking, did not always agree with the hydrodynamic simulation MEDX (A modified version of MEDUSA). The second plasma type that we studied was created by soft x-ray heating on either side of a sample foil, this time consisting of 1 micron layer of Al, sandwiched between two 0.2 micron CH layers. Two foil targets, each consisting of a 0.1 micron thick Au foil mounted on 1 micron of CH, where placed 4 mm from the sample foil. The soft x-rays where produced by laser irradiating these two foil targets. We found that, 0.5 ns after the peak of the laser heating pulses, the measured cross sections more closely matched those simulated using the Thomas Fermi model than the Inferno model. Later in time, at 2 ns, the plasma is approaching a weakly coupled state. This is the first time x-ray scattering cross sections have been measured from dense plasmas generated by radiatively heating both sides of the sample. Moreover, these are absolute values typically within a factor of two of expectation for early x-ray probe times. (author)

  4. X-ray scattering from dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Declan Joseph

    Dense plasmas were studied by probing them with kilovolt x-rays and measuring those scattered at various angles. The laser produced x-ray source emitted Ti He alpha 4.75 keV x-rays. Two different plasma types were explored. The first was created by laser driven shocks on either side of a sample foil consisting of 2 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 1 micron CH layers. We have observed a peak in the x-ray scattering cross section, indicating diffraction from the plasma. However, the experimentally inferred plasma density, did not always agree broadly with the hydrodynamic simulation MEDX (A modified version of MEDUSA). The second plasma type that we studied was created by soft x-ray heating on either side of a sample foil, this time consisting of 1 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 0.2 micron CH layers. Two foil targets, each consisting of a 0.1 micron thick Au foil mounted on 1 micron of CH, were placed 4 mm from the sample foil. The soft x-rays were produced by laser irradiating these two foil targets. We found that, 0.5 ns after the peak of the laser heating pulses, that the measured cross sections more closely matched those simulated using the Thomas Fermi model than the Inferno model. Later in time, at 2 ns, the plasma is approaching a weakly coupled state. This is the first time x-ray scattering cross sections have been measured from dense plasmas generated by radiatively heating both sides of the sample. Moreover, these are absolute values typically within a factor of two of expectation for early x-ray probe times.

  5. Dense gas dispersion in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-09-01

    Dense gas dispersion is characterized by buoyancy induced gravity currents and reduction of the vertical mixing. Liquefied gas releases from industrial accidents are cold because of the heat of evaporation which determines the density for a given concentration and physical properties. The temperature deficit is moderated by the heat flux from the ground, and this convection is an additional source of turbulence which affects the mixing. A simple model as the soil heat flux is used to estimate the ability of the ground to sustain the heat flux during release. The initial enthalpy, release rate, initial entrainment and momentum are discussed for generic source types and the interaction with obstacles is considered. In the MTH project BA experiments source with and without momentum were applied. The continuously released propane gas passed a two-dimensional removable obstacle perpendicular to the wind direction. Ground-level gas concentrations and vertical profiles of concentration, temperature, wind speed and turbulence were measured in front of and behind the obstacle. Ultrasonic anemometers providing fast velocity and concentration signals were mounted at three levels on the masts. The observed turbulence was influenced by the stability and the initial momentum of the jet releases. Additional information were taken from the `Dessert tortoise` ammonia jet releases, from the `Fladis` experiment with transition from dense to passive dispersion, and from the `Thorney Island` continuous releases of isothermal freon mixtures. The heat flux was found to moderate the negative buoyancy in both the propane and ammonia experiments. The heat flux measurements are compared to an estimate by analogy with surface layer theory. (au) 41 tabs., 146 ills., 189 refs.

  6. Coastal vulnerability assessment: a case study of Samut Sakhon coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Duriyapong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Samut Sakhon coastal zone (~41.8 km, which was selected as a study area due to its low-lying topography, hasbeen increasingly impacted by climate change and erosion processes affecting the local community. This study examined thevulnerability area in this region by combining a physical process vulnerability index (PVI and a socio-economic vulnerabilityindex (SVI. Four physical variables (coastal slope, coastal erosion rate, mean tidal range, and mean wave height and foursocio-economic variables (land use, population density, cultural heritage, and roads/railways were employed. The result wasa single vulnerability indicator of a coastal vulnerability index (CVI showing that the high vulnerability area, covering anarea of 1.3 km2 (0.45% of total study area, was located in Ban Bo, Ka Long, Bangyaprak, Bangkrajao, Khok Kham, Na Kok,and Puntainorasing. The moderate vulnerability area covered an area of 28 km2 (9.5% of total study area, the low vulnerabilityarea 180 km2 (60.56% of total study area, and the very low vulnerability area 88 km2 (29.52% of total study area.The CVI map indicated that it was highly differentiated and influenced by socio-economic indicators, rather than physicalindicators. However, comparison between the different results of the PVI and SVI can contribute to understanding the variabilityand constraints of vulnerability. The results of this investigation showed that the study area was more correlated withaspects related to socio-economic characteristics than physical parameters.

  7. Mercúrio total em cabelo de crianças de uma população costeira, Cananéia, São Paulo, Brasil Total hair mercury in children from a coastal population in Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Farias

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis de mercúrio (Hg total em cabelos estão diretamente relacionados à alimentação, particularmente ao consumo de peixes por populações costeiras com grande representação caiçara. No presente estudo foram avaliados os níveis de mercúrio total em cabelos de crianças com idade entre 4 e 12 anos, pertencente a três escolas públicas da cidade de Cananéia, São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos (mediana e intervalo para mercúrio total foram de: 0,04mg.kg-1 (0,01-0,77mg.kg-1, 0,39mg.kg-1 (Mercury (Hg levels in hair are directly related to eating habits, especially fish consumption by coastal populations with a large contingent of traditional fishing families. This study assessed total Hg levels in children's hair. The study group was selected from three public elementary schools in Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil (ages 4 to 12 years. The results (median and range for total Hg levels in children's hair were: 0.04mg.kg-1 (0.01-0.77mg.kg-1, 0.39mg.kg-1 (< 0.01-3.33mg.kg-1, and 0.39mg.kg-1 (< 0.01-2.81mg.kg-1 for schools ES1, ES2, and ES3, respectively. The values were well below the level set by World Health Organization for an adult population unexposed to Hg (2.0mg.kg-1. However, since there are no existing reference values for total Hg in children's hair, these results can be used as a contribution to establishing reference values for total hair Hg in Brazilian children living in coastal areas.

  8. Portable coastal observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  9. Shoreline changes and Coastal Flooding impacts: South Gujarat coast (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    South Gujarat coast (India) is experiencing increased coastal inundation and erosion caused by sea-level rise affecting the population, infrastructure, and environment. The area falls under low elevation coastal zone (LEZ) and its topography of the area is also making coast highly susceptible to flooding, especially at high tides and during the rainy season. As part of studies on shoreline changes field trip carried on the coastal taluka's of South Gujarat coast i.e. Surat, Navsari and Valsad shows various temporal changes is taking place at coastal belt. There are ample of studies on coastal dynamics and impacts. The study focus on spatial temporal analysis shows the vulnerable zones covering various physical elements at risk. These coastal areas are attractive in nature for all kind of economic development and growth because of availability of the water & fertile land for house hold use, fishing and transportation. On the contrary, South Gujarat coast being tectonically active; makes this region high vulnerable for any kind of infrastructure development. The region had also witnessed loss of life and property, disruptions to transport & power and incidences of epidemics during the floods of 2006 in Surat. Coastal flooding would, under these scenarios, threaten region that are home of 370,000 approx (Census, 2011) people in seven coastal taluka's of Surat, Navsari and Valsad district. Among the people residing in the region, the most vulnerable communities are fishermen, farmer and industrial labours. The wide range of infrastructure such as roads, hospitals, schools, power plants, industries and port will also be at risk. Shoreline changes are inevitably changing the characteristics of south Gujarat coast; practices and policies should be put in place to mitigate the potentially adverse impacts on environment and human settlements. Key words: sea level rise, LEZ, vulnerable, erosion, inundation, spatial temporal analysis, landuse changes.

  10. A system dynamics mode-based exploratory analysis of salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Slinger, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal communities dependent upon groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation are vulnerable to salinization of the groundwater reserve. The increasing uncertainty associated with changing climatic conditions, population and economic development, and technological advances poses signifi

  11. Preliminary progress report on coastal zone for the July Pacific Flyway Study Committee meetings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum reporting on a project to provide population information for management of Arctic geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta.

  12. Aerial Breeding Pair Surveys of the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska : Distribution and Abundance 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial breeding pair survey was conducted on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska for the 10th consecutive year in 1995. The population estimate for the northern...

  13. Socioeconomic significance of mangroves for coastal people of India: A changing scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Jagtap, T.G.

    The importance of mangrove ecosystems with particular reference to the coastal population of India has been realised recently. Natural calamities like cyclones, floods, famine, siltation and erosion are directly related to the mangrove formations...

  14. Health status of the coastal waters of Mumbai and regions around

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Govindan, K.

    marginally. The degraded water quality of coastal waters is also reflected in very high counts of pathogenic bacteria with their populations markedly decrease as the flood tide progresses. Adsorption and tranfer of pollutants to bed sediments by suspended...

  15. Plankton composition in the coastal waters between Jaigarh and Rajapur along west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, V.R.; Devassy, V.P.

    Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton population in the Konkan coastal waters. Rhizosolenia spp., Ceratulinia sp., Ditylum spp., Navicula sp. and Thalassiothrix spp. were the dominant diatoms observed in this area. Blue-green algae and flagellates...

  16. some perspectives of hosts and guests on coastal tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    asse11ion (World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO). 2006). Globally. ... economic dcvdopmcnt strategy of Ghana. with the coastal zone playing a ... resident population who lend lO bear the brunt ol' any adverse impacts of ...... Figure 3: Age Distribution of Respondents in Ada and Elmina ...... altitude towards tourism in Ghana.

  17. Quantum Control of Open Systems and Dense Atomic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Christopher

    Controlling the dynamics of open quantum systems; i.e. quantum systems that decohere because of interactions with the environment, is an active area of research with many applications in quantum optics and quantum computation. My thesis expands the scope of this inquiry by seeking to control open systems in proximity to an additional system. The latter could be a classical system such as metal nanoparticles, or a quantum system such as a cluster of similar atoms. By modelling the interactions between the systems, we are able to expand the accessible state space of the quantum system in question. For a single, three-level quantum system, I examine isolated systems that have only normal spontaneous emission. I then show that intensity-intensity correlation spectra, which depend directly on the density matrix of the system, can be used detect whether transitions share a common energy level. This detection is possible due to the presence of quantum interference effects between two transitions if they are connected. This effect allows one to asses energy level structure diagrams in complex atoms/molecules. By placing an open quantum system near a nanoparticle dimer, I show that the spontaneous emission rate of the system can be changed "on demand" by changing the polarization of an incident, driving field. In a three-level, Lambda system, this allows a qubit to both retain high qubit fidelity when it is operating, and to be rapidly initialized to a pure state once it is rendered unusable by decoherence. This type of behaviour is not possible in a single open quantum system; therefore adding a classical system nearby extends the overall control space of the quantum system. An open quantum system near identical neighbours in a dense ensemble is another example of how the accessible state space can be expanded. I show that a dense ensemble of atoms rapidly becomes disordered with states that are not directly excited by an incident field becoming significantly populated

  18. Concepts and theoretical specifications of a Coastal Vulnerability Dynamic Simulator (COVUDS): A multi-agent system for simulating coastal vulnerability towards management of coastal ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orencio, P. M.; Endo, A.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster-causing natural hazards such as floods, erosions, earthquakes or slope failures were particularly observed to be concentrated in certain geographical regions. In the Asia-pacific region, coastal ecosystems were suffering because of perennial threats driven by chronic fluctuations in climate variability (e.g., typhoons, ENSO), or by dynamically occurring events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis). Among the many people that were found prone to such a risky condition were the ones inhabiting near the coastal areas. Characteristically, aside from being located at the forefront of these events, the coastal communities have impacted the resource by the kind of behavioral patterns they exhibited, such as overdependence and overexploitation to achieve their wellbeing. In this paper, we introduce the development of an approach to an assessment of the coupled human- environment using a multi- agent simulation (MAS) model known as Coastal Vulnerability Dynamic Simulator (COVUDS). The COVUDS comprised a human- environmental platform consisting multi- agents with corresponding spatial- based dynamic and static variables. These variables were used to present multiple hypothetical future situations that contribute to the purpose of supporting a more rational management of the coastal ecosystem and their environmental equities. Initially, we present the theoretical and conceptual components that would lead to the development of the COVUDS. These consisted of the human population engaged in behavioral patterns affecting the conditions of coastal ecosystem services; the system of the biophysical environment and changes in patches brought by global environment and local behavioral variations; the policy factors that were important for choosing area- specific interventions; and the decision- making mechanism that integrates the first three components. To guide a future scenario-based application that will be undertaken in a coastal area in the Philippines, the components of the

  19. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  20. meta-DENSE complex acquisition for reduced intravoxel dephasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Arai, Andrew E.

    2004-08-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) with a meta-DENSE readout and RF phase cycling to suppress the STEAM anti-echo is described for reducing intravoxel dephasing signal loss. This RF phase cycling scheme, when combined with existing meta-DENSE suppression of the T1 recovering signal, yields higher quality DENSE myocardial strain maps. Phantom and human images are provided to demonstrate the technique, which is capable of acquiring phase contrast displacement encoded images at low encoding gradient strengths providing better spatial resolution and less signal loss due to intravoxel dephasing than prior methods.

  1. Coastal Modeling System Advanced Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    Mexico Tidal Constituent Database Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory CIRP Websites 15 The next CIRP workshop will be in San Diego, CA, Aug 19-21...2011. For more information, see http://cirp.usace.army.mil http://cirp.usace.army.mil 60 CIRP documents published as eBooks Coastal and

  2. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain surficial aquifer system, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, and Virginia, 1988-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Harned, Douglas C.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The surficial aquifer system of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain is made up of unconfined aquifers that underlie most of the area. This aquifer system is a critical renewable source of drinking water and is the source of most flow to streams and of recharge to underlying confined aquifers. Millions of people rely on the surficial aquifer system for public and domestic water supply, in particular in the densely populated areas of Long Island, New York, and in southern New Jersey, but also in more rural areas. Because the aquifer sediments are permeable and the water table is shallow, the surficial aquifer system is vulnerable to contamination from chemicals that are applied to the land surface and carried into groundwater with infiltrating rainfall and snowfall.

  3. Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2011-01-01

    Widawati S (2011) Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem. Biodiversitas 12: 17-21. Soil, water, sand, and plant rhizosphere samples collected from coastal ecosystem of Laki Island-Jakarta were screened for phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). While the population was dependent on the cultivation media and the sample type, the highest bacterial population was observed in the rhizosphere of Ipomea aquatica. The PSB strains isolated from ...

  4. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions; La cooperation internationale pour une gestion integree de la zone cotiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F. [Agence internationale de l' energie atomique - AIEA, Vienna (Austria); Scholten, J.; Betti, M. [Agence internationale de l' energie atomique (AIEA) Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-06-15

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  5. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  6. Population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  7. A sensitivity study of the dense shelf water formation in the Okhotsk Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasajima, Y.; Hasumi, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-11-01

    Sensitivity of Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation to tidal mixing around the Kuril Straits, wind stress, and river runoff in the Okhotsk Sea is examined by an ice-ocean coupled model. Horizontal resolution of the model is set to 3-8 km in the northern Okhotsk Sea for well resolving the coastal polynyas which is believed to be the principal region of DSW formation. The model shows a good performance in terms of sea ice production and the consequent DSW formation. DSW is also found to be formed in the offshore region apart from the coastal polynya. DSW is defined independently for each experiment such that it identifies the water influenced by brine. By introducing such definition the sensitivity of the DSW formation is assessed separately for change of density and that of formation rate. The density of DSW exhibits high sensitivity to all the elements considered herein, while its formation rate is sensitive only to winds. Winds affect the DSW formation rate mainly by influencing that occurs in the offshore region.

  8. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    be ASP free. However, further studies are required to ascertain DA production in coastal waters of Tanzania. ... in the region poses a threat to human health and to the developing ..... relationship with the population density of. Pseudo-nitzschia.

  9. Dense Molecular Cores Being Externally Heated

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Gwanjeong; Gopinathan, Maheswar; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kim, Mi-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our study on eight dense cores, previously classified as starless, using infrared (3-160 {\\micron}) imaging observations with \\textit{AKARI} telescope and molecular line (HCN and N$_2$H$^+$) mapping observations with \\textit{KVN} telescope. Combining our results with the archival IR to mm continuum data, we examined the starless nature of these eight cores. Two of the eight cores are found to harbor faint protostars having luminosity of $\\sim0.3-4.4$ L$_{\\odot}$. The other six cores are found to remain as starless and probably are in a dynamically transitional state. The temperature maps produced using multi-wavelength images show an enhancement of about 3-6 K towards the outer boundary of these cores, suggesting that they are most likely being heated externally by nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields. Large virial parameters and an over-dominance of red asymmetric line profiles over the cores may indicate that the cores are set into either an expansion or an oscillatory mot...

  10. The ionization fraction in dense clouds

    CERN Document Server

    De Boisanger, C B; Van Dishoeck, E F

    1995-01-01

    We present submillimeter observations of various molecular ions toward two dense clouds, NGC 2264 IRS1 and W 3 IRS5, in order to investigate their ionization fraction. Analysis of the line intensity ratios by the way of statistical equilibrium calculations allows determination of the physical parameters: n(H2)~(1-2)e6 cm-3 and T(kin)~50-100 K. Column densities and abundances are also derived. Together, the abundances of the observed ions provide a lower limit to the ionization fraction, which is (2-3)e-9 in both clouds. In order to better constrain the electron abundance, a simple chemical model is built which calculates the steady state abundances of the major positive ions, using the observed abundances wherever available. With reasonable assumptions, good agreement within a factor of two with the observations can be achieved. The calculated electron fraction is x(e)= (1.0-3.3)e-8 in the case of NGC 2264 and x(e)=(0.5-1.1)e-8 for W 3 IRS5. In the first case, the high abundance of N2H+ requires a rather high...

  11. Elemental nitrogen partitioning in dense interstellar clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Daranlot, Julien; Bergeat, Astrid; Costes, Michel; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N2, with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N2 is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimetre-wavelength transitions so its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N2H+. Two main formation mechanisms each involving two radical-radical reactions are the source of N2 in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction down to 56 K. The effect of the measured rate constants for this reaction and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N2 formation are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N2 depends on the competition between its gas-phase format...

  12. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimring, Lev

    2012-02-01

    The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

  14. Ultramassive dense early-type galaxies: Velocity dispersions and number density evolution since z = 1.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, A.; Saracco, P.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.; Ciocca, F.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We investigate the stellar mass assembly history of ultramassive (M⋆ ≳ 1011M⊙) dense (Σ = M⋆/2πRe2> 2500M⊙ pc-2) early-type galaxies (ETGs, elliptical and spheroidal galaxies) selected on basis of visual classification over the last 9 Gyr. Methods: We traced the evolution of the comoving number density ρ of ultramassive dense ETGs and compared their structural (effective radius Re and stellar mass M⋆) and dynamical (velocity dispersion σe) parameters over the redshift range 0 advantage of the COSMOS spectroscopic survey to probe the intermediate redshift range [0.2-1.0]. We derived the number density of ultramassive dense local ETGs from the SDSS sample taking all of the selection bias affecting the spectroscopic sample into account. To compare the dynamical and structural parameters, we collected a sample of 11 ultramassive dense ETGs at 1.2 measurements are available. For four of these ETGs (plus one at z = 1.91), we present previously unpublished estimates of velocity dispersion, based on optical VLT-FORS2 spectra. We probe the intermediate redshift range (0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.9) and the local Universe with different ETGs samples. Results: We find that the comoving number density of ultramassive dense ETGs evolves with z as ρ(z) ∝ (1 + z)0.3 ± 0.8 implying a decrease of ~25% of the population of ultramassive dense ETGs since z = 1.6. By comparing the structural and dynamical properties of high-z ultramassive dense ETGs over the range 0 ≲ z < 1.6 in the [Re, M⋆, σe] plane, we find that all of the ETGs of the high-z sample have counterparts with similar properties in the local Universe. This implies either that the majority (~70%) of ultramassive dense ETGs already completed the assembly and shaping at ⟨ z ⟩ = 1.4, or that, if a significant portion of dense ETGs evolves in size, new ultramassive dense ETGs must form at z < 1.5 to maintain their number density at almost constant. The difficulty in identify good progenitors for these

  15. Sinking Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  16. The impact of Acacia saligna invasion on Italian coastal dune EC habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Acosta, Alicia; Stanisci, Angela

    2013-07-01

    Alien species can represent a threat to several ecosystems because they can alter species relationships and ecosystem function. In Italy, Acacia saligna is a major invader and it forms dense stands in coastal environments. We analyze the impact of A. saligna in Italian Mediterranean dune systems. We randomly sampled coastal dune vegetation and investigated its floristic composition with ordination techniques. We compared species richness in invaded and non-invaded plots with rarefaction curves and analyzed the frequency of focal and ruderal species. A. saligna invaded Mediterranean scrub (habitats 2250* and 2260) and coastal Pinus dune wood (habitat 2270*) and it is particularly prevalent in sunny areas of habitat 2270*. We observed an increase in ruderal species and a decrease in focal species in the invaded plots of habitat 2270*. We suggest that more open and disturbed areas are more prone to A. saligna invasion.

  17. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  18. Genetic diversity of Ghanaian local chicken populations based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity of Ghanaian local chicken populations based on ... raised across distinct agro-ecological zones and constitute unique populations with variable ... (GHFO) in the southwest and the Coastal Savannah (GHCS) along the coast in ...

  19. Permutation Matrix Method for Dense Coding Using GHZ States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Rui-Bo; CHEN Li-Bing; WANG Fa-Qiang; SU Zhi-Kun

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method called the permutation matrix method to perform dense coding using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We show that this method makes the study of dense coding systematically and regularly. It also has high potential to be realized physically.

  20. Mining connected global and local dense subgraphs for bigdata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Shen, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The problem of discovering connected dense subgraphs of natural graphs is important in data analysis. Discovering dense subgraphs that do not contain denser subgraphs or are not contained in denser subgraphs (called significant dense subgraphs) is also critical for wide-ranging applications. In spite of many works on discovering dense subgraphs, there are no algorithms that can guarantee the connectivity of the returned subgraphs or discover significant dense subgraphs. Hence, in this paper, we define two subgraph discovery problems to discover connected and significant dense subgraphs, propose polynomial-time algorithms and theoretically prove their validity. We also propose an algorithm to further improve the time and space efficiency of our basic algorithm for discovering significant dense subgraphs in big data by taking advantage of the unique features of large natural graphs. In the experiments, we use massive natural graphs to evaluate our algorithms in comparison with previous algorithms. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our algorithms for the two problems and their efficiency. This work is also the first that reveals the physical significance of significant dense subgraphs in natural graphs from different domains.

  1. Phase Structure and Transport Properties of Dense Quark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We provide a summary of our current knowledge of the phase structure of very dense quark matter. We concentrate on the question how the ground state at asymptotically high density -- color-flavor-locked (CFL) matter -- is modified as the density is lowered. We discuss the nature of the quasi-particle excitations, and present work on the transport properties of dense QCD matter.

  2. Finding dense locations in symbolic indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for many applications such as overloaded area detection, security control, crowd management, indoor navigation, and so on. Indoor tracking data can be enormous and are not immediately ready for finding dense locations. This paper...

  3. Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Dylan E; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Smith, Martin D; Murray, A Brad

    2015-01-01

    Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.

  4. Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan E McNamara

    Full Text Available Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.

  5. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  6. LCA of selective waste collection systems in dense urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and the door-to-door. Impact assessment method based on CML 2 baseline 2000 is applied to the different systems. The study separates and analyzes the collection systems in substages: two urban substages and one inter-city substage. At the urban level, the multi-container system has the least environmental impact of all systems. The mobile pneumatic system has greater environmental impacts in terms of global warming, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. In this system, the pipes and the pneumatic transport have the greatest impacts. The door-to-door system has a greatest environmental impact in terms of abiotic depletion, ozone layer depletion and human toxicity. An overall evaluation of the three substages, with a sensitivity analysis, indicates that the mobile pneumatic system at an inter-city distance of 20 km shows the greatest environmental impacts and the greatest energy demand. Inter-city transport is key; the results show that from an inter-city distance of 11 km onwards, this becomes the substage which most contributes to global warming impact and energy demand, in all the systems.

  7. Stellar interactions in dense and sparse star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Olczak, C; Eckart, A

    2009-01-01

    Stellar encounters potentially affect the evolution of the protoplanetary discs in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). However, the role of encounters in other cluster environments is less known. We investigate the effect of the encounter-induced disc-mass loss in different cluster environments. Starting from an ONC-like cluster we vary the cluster size and density to determine the correlation of collision time scale and disc-mass loss. We use the NBODY6++ code to model the dynamics of these clusters and analyze the effect of star-disc encounters. We find that the disc-mass loss depends strongly on the cluster density but remains rather unaffected by the size of the stellar population. The essential outcome of the simulations are: i) Even in clusters four times sparser than the ONC the effect of encounters is still apparent. ii) The density of the ONC itself marks a threshold: in less dense and less massive clusters it is the massive stars that dominate the encounter-induced disc-mass loss whereas in denser and m...

  8. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  9. Occurrence and concentration of caffeine in Oregon coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez del Rey, Zoe; Granek, Elise F; Sylvester, Steve

    2012-07-01

    Caffeine, a biologically active drug, is recognized as a contaminant of freshwater and marine systems. We quantified caffeine concentrations in Oregon's coastal ocean to determine whether levels correlated with proximity to caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine was analyzed at 14 coastal locations, stratified between populated areas with sources of caffeine pollution and sparsely populated areas with no major caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine concentrations were measured in major water bodies discharging near sampling locations. Caffeine in seawater ranged from below the reporting limit (8.5 ng/L) to 44.7 ng/L. Caffeine occurrence and concentrations in seawater did not correspond with pollution threats from population density and point and non-point sources, but did correspond with storm event occurrence. Caffeine concentrations in rivers and estuaries draining to the coast ranged from below the reporting limit to 152.2 ng/L. This study establishes the occurrence of caffeine in Oregon's coastal waters, yet relative importance of sources, seasonal variability, and processes affecting caffeine transport into the coastal ocean require further research.

  10. The potential consequences of climate variability and change on coastal areas and marine resources: report of the Coastal Areas and Marine Resources Sector Team, U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, U.S. Global Change Research Program

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Coastal and marine ecosystems support diverse and important fisheries throughout the nation’s waters, hold vast storehouses of biological diversity, and provide unparalleled recreational opportunities. Some 53% of the total U.S. population live on the 17% of land in the coastal zone, and these areas become more crowded every year. Demands on coastal and marine resources are rapidly increasing, and as coastal areas become more developed, the vulnerability of human settlements to hurricanes,...

  11. The Status and Interconnections of Selected Environmental Issues in the Global Coastal Zones: Problem of Increasing Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, H.; Singh, A.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on assessing the state of population distribution, land cover distribution, biodiversity hotspots and protected areas in global coastal zones. The coastal zone is defined as land within 100 km of the coastline. This study attempts to answer such questions as: how crowded are the coastal zones, what is the pattern of land cover distribution in these areas, how many of these areas are designated as protected areas, and what is the state of the biodiversity hotspots. Thi...

  12. The Santa Barbara Channel - Santa Maria Basin Study: Wind Measurements and Modeling Resolving Coastal Mesoscale Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, C. E.; Koracin, D.

    2002-12-01

    The importance of winds in driving the coastal ocean has long been recognized. Pre-World War II literature links wind stress and wind stress curl to coastal ocean responses. Nevertheless, direct measurements plausibly representative of a coastal area are few. Multiple observations on the scale of the simplest mesoscale atmospheric structure, such as the cross-coast variation along a linear coast, are even less frequent. The only wind measurements that we are aware of in a complicated coastal area backed by higher topography are in the MMS sponsored, Santa Barbara Channel/Santa Marina basin study. Taking place from 1994 to present, this study had an unheard of dense surface automated meteorological station array of up to 5 meteorological buoys, 4 oil platforms, 2 island stations, and 11 coastal stations within 1 km of the beach. Most of the land stations are maintained by other projects. Only a large, a well funded project with backed by an agency with the long-view could dedicate the resources and effort into filling the mesoscale "holes" and maintaining long-term, remotely located stations. The result of the MMS funded project is a sufficiently dense surface station array to resolve the along-coast and cross-coast atmospheric mesoscale wind structure. Great temporal and spatial variation is found in the wind, wind stress and the wind stress curl, during the extended summer season. The MM5 atmospheric mesoscale model with appropriate boundary layer physics and high-resolution horizontal and vertical grid structure successfully simulates the measured wind field from large scale down to the lower end of the mesoscale. Atmospheric models without appropriate resolution and boundary layer physics fail to capture significant mesoscale wind features. Satellite microwave wind measurements generally capture the offshore synoptic scale temporal and spatial scale in twice-a-day snap shots but fail in the crucial, innermost coastal waters and the diurnal scale.

  13. The challenges of coastal oceanography. Prediction limits and new applications based on Sentinel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Carniel, Sandro; Badger, Merete; Bidlot, Jean; Boye Hansen, Lars; Bolaños-Sanchez, Rodolfo; Cipollini, Paolo; Espino, Manuel; Marcello Miglietta, Mario; Saulter, Andy; Staneva, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    The increasing quality and quantity (resolution in space, coverage in time, combinations of sensors in the Sentinel family) of information provided by Copernicus offer the possibility to analyse and predict coastal meteo-oceanography at an unprecedented level. This is a unique opportunity to develop the Copernicus coastal dimension to tackle the pressures of increasing population and activities. The combination of ocean/atmosphere/land observations from the Sentinel (S) 1/2/3, aligned with the availability of an increasing number of high-resolution numerical simulations (e.g. wave and current fields) in the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) catalogue, should allow users to access proven representations of the coastal environment at a new level of understanding (e.g. wave diffraction at coastal "obstacles"), coupling (e.g. incorporating the land discharge into the coastal sea) and reliability for applications (e.g. hazards for coastal navigation). By adding periodic bathymetric up-dating and incorporating new assimilation routines it will be possible to achieve a new level of analysis for coastal seas. In the paper we shall present the CEASELESS project that addresses the multiple scales coexisting in littoral areas by developing new shallow water parameterizations, introducing them into coupled model suites (wind-wave-surge-current-land discharge) and producing new standards for coastal simulations and analyses. This will demonstrate the technical feasibility of an operational coastal service. The set of derived products will be ingested into the users' work routines, proving the economic feasibility of such a coastal extension. The level of conflicts in squeezed coastal zones, expected to grow in the face of climate change, will, thus, benefit directly from CEASELESS, establishing tangible contributions for a wide range of economic sectors. The mutual validation of satellite data, numerical results and in-situ observations will generate

  14. Estrutura populacional, aspectos da reprodução e alimentação dos Cyprinodontiformes (Osteichthyes de um riacho do sudeste do Brasil Population structure, reproductive aspects and feeding of Cyprinodontiformes fishes (Osteichthyes from a coastal stream in southeastcrn Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Rocha Aranha

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The population structure, reproductive aspects and feeding of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868, Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider (1801, Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel, 1868 e Jenynsia lineata (Jenyns, 1842 were studied in five sampling stations in the Ubatiba stream, municipality of Maricá (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In relation to the population structure, P. caudimaculatus was more representative upstream; P. vivipara mid-stream and downstream; P. januarius and J. lineata downstream. The species presented preponderance of females, except in the intermediate length classes. The occurence of imatures and females with young pointed out a long reproductive period and favoured areas for reproduction of the four species. The young forms of P. caudimaculatus were more abundant in station 1 (upstream, P. vivipara in station 4 (downstream and P. januarius and J. lineata in station 5 (Maricá coastal lagoon. The higher occurences of females with young belong to P. caudimaculatus, in station 1 (upstream and P. vivipara and P. januarius in station 5 (Maricá lagoon. The four studied species presented herbivorous diet and the differences found in the feeding may reflect the differences in the food availability in the microhabitats used by the species. So, we concluded that the studied species presented evident segregation in several levels of the different available resources in the environment.

  15. Graphle: Interactive exploration of large, dense graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huttenhower Curtis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide variety of biological data can be modeled as network structures, including experimental results (e.g. protein-protein interactions, computational predictions (e.g. functional interaction networks, or curated structures (e.g. the Gene Ontology. While several tools exist for visualizing large graphs at a global level or small graphs in detail, previous systems have generally not allowed interactive analysis of dense networks containing thousands of vertices at a level of detail useful for biologists. Investigators often wish to explore specific portions of such networks from a detailed, gene-specific perspective, and balancing this requirement with the networks' large size, complex structure, and rich metadata is a substantial computational challenge. Results Graphle is an online interface to large collections of arbitrary undirected, weighted graphs, each possibly containing tens of thousands of vertices (e.g. genes and hundreds of millions of edges (e.g. interactions. These are stored on a centralized server and accessed efficiently through an interactive Java applet. The Graphle applet allows a user to examine specific portions of a graph, retrieving the relevant neighborhood around a set of query vertices (genes. This neighborhood can then be refined and modified interactively, and the results can be saved either as publication-quality images or as raw data for further analysis. The Graphle web site currently includes several hundred biological networks representing predicted functional relationships from three heterogeneous data integration systems: S. cerevisiae data from bioPIXIE, E. coli data using MEFIT, and H. sapiens data from HEFalMp. Conclusions Graphle serves as a search and visualization engine for biological networks, which can be managed locally (simplifying collaborative data sharing and investigated remotely. The Graphle framework is freely downloadable and easily installed on new servers, allowing any

  16. Dense surface reconstruction with shadows in MIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of internal organ surfaces provides useful information for better control and guidance of the operations of surgical tools for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The current reconstruction techniques using stereo cameras are still challenging due to the difficulties in correspondence matching in MIS, since there is very limited texture but significant specular reflection on organ surfaces. This paper proposes a new approach to overcome the problem by introducing weakly structured light actively casting surgical tool shadows on organ surfaces. The contribution of this paper is twofold: first, we propose a robust approach to extract shadow edges from a sequence of shadowed images; second, we develop a novel field surface interpolation (FSI) approach to obtain an accurate and dense disparity map. Our approach does not rely on texture information and is able to reconstruct accurate 3-D information by exploiting shadows from surgical tools. One advantage is that the point correspondences are directly calculated and no explicit stereo matching is required, which ensures the efficiency of the method. Another advantage is the minimum hardware requirement because only stereo cameras and a separated single-point light source are required. We evaluated the proposed approach using both phantom models and ex vivo images. Based on the experimental results, we achieved the precision of the recovered 3-D surfaces within 0.7 mm for phantom models and 1.2 mm for ex vivo images. The comparison of disparity maps indicates that with the addition of shadows, the proposed method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art stereo algorithms for MIS.

  17. Coastal adaptation with ecological engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, So-Min; Silliman, Brian; Wong, Poh Poh; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Kim, Choong-Ki; Guannel, Greg

    2013-09-01

    The use of combined approaches to coastal adaptation in lieu of a single strategy, such as sea-wall construction, allows for better preparation for a highly uncertain and dynamic coastal environment. Although general principles such as mainstreaming and no- or low-regret options exist to guide coastal adaptation and provide the framework in which combined approaches operate, few have examined the interactions, synergistic effects and benefits of combined approaches to adaptation. This Perspective provides three examples of ecological engineering -- marshes, mangroves and oyster reefs -- and illustrates how the combination of ecology and engineering works.

  18. Integrated Assessment of Risk Reduction for Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBean, G.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal cities are among the world's most vulnerable communities and as their populations grow and the sea level rise, their vulnerability is increasing. Recent examples include the Japanese earthquake, the Indian Ocean tsunami, the typhoons in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Taiwan and hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper will discuss the exposure, vulnerability and hazards affecting large coastal cities and the role of a changing climate in their modification. A key question is what lessons have been learned and where future research should lay its emphasis. Through START and the new Canadian-funded project for Bangkok, Manila, Lagos and Vancouver, Coastal Cities at Risk research is advancing and an integrated assessment approach is being proposed to analyse options for risk reduction and will be described in this paper.

  19. Chemical and Isotopic Variations with Depth: a Detailed Saturated Zone Profile of a 140m Thick Coastal Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raanan, H.; Ronen, D.; Weisbrod, N.; Dahan, O.; Seiler, K.; Vengosh, A.

    2005-12-01

    A percussion borehole was constructed through the saturated zone of the Mediterranean coastal aquifer in Tel Aviv, Israel, penetrating its three subaquifers and the upper part of the underlying Saqiye aquitard. The research site was previously subjected to direct industrial contamination and is currently exposed to the industrial contaminants in the outskirts of the densely populated Tel Aviv metropolis. Here we report the results of a large variety of analysis conducted on the 140m saturated profile that included field measurements (e.g. dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, conductivity), major elements (e.g. Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, Ca2+, K+, Na+), trace elements (e.g. Pb, Fe, Cu) and radium isotopic measurements (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra). A clear distinction between the units becomes evident along the vertical profile; the upper phreatic unit (A) appears to be more saline relative to the central unit (B) (TDS of 734 and 670 mg/L, respectively). The deep unit (C) is significantly more saline in its lower part (up to 860 mg/L). We observed two nitrate peaks in the central zones of subaquifers B and C. The high nitrate peaks are associated with low Na/Cl and high Ca/Cl ratios. The 224Ra/223Ra ratio also changes with depth; in the upper and the lower subaquifers the relatively low 224Ra/223Ra ratios (50) indicates a larger fraction of a uranium source whereas in the central zone of the aquifer high 224Ra/223Ra ratios reflect rather a predominant thorium source for the dissolved radium. The data obtained through this borehole allows a rare investigation of the heterogeneity of water quality and composition in a coastal aquifer. The data provides characterization of different end-members along the saturated zone and also indicates the different proportions of lateral versus vertical flows of groundwater in a porous media.

  20. Dense gas in high-latitude molecular clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reach, W.R.; Pound, M.W.; Wilner, D.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Lee, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have surveyed high-latitude molecular clouds (MBM 12, 7, 55, 40) in spectral lines that are believed to be dense-gas' tracers due to the high H[sub 2] volume density required for collisional excitation. An extensive CS (2-1) line map of MBM 12 revealed emission that is not confined to clumps. Less than 20% of the integrated line emission from the cloud originates in clearly identified clumps with size between 0.2 pc and 0.02 pc in the integrated line map. The bulk of the emission originates from a relatively smooth horseshoe' structure about 0.1 pc wide and 1 pc long. The CS (2-1) map correlates with the published Bell Labs [sup 13] CO map, with significant [sup 13] CO emission even where the CS emission is undetectable. Within the central core, the C[sup 18]O(1-0) and CS(2-1) lines are positively correlated with significant scatter. There is some indication of higher CS/[sup 13]CO in the cores than the horseshoe'. The observed correlations suggest that both the diffuse CS and [sup 13]CO originate from either numerous, unresolved clumps, or the diffuse parts of the cloud. High-spatial-resolution observations of HCO[sup +] from MBM 12 obtained with the BIMA Hat Creek array demonstrated that the main core emission is primarily on spatial scales greater than 0.004 pc. It appears that the authors have resolved most of the spatial structure of the dense-gas' tracers and have found that the emission is primarily diffuse. To understand the excitation mechanism of the CS rotational levels, a multitransitional study of the 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 lines is being performed. The CS excitation may be governed by electron collisions in regions with H[sub 2] column densities an order of magnitude lower than the critical density' of [approx gt] 2 [times] 10[sup 4] cm[sup -3]. If electron collisions are populating the CS levels, then the CS and [sup 13]CO lines can both be produced in the outer parts of the cloud, explaining their positive correlation