WorldWideScience

Sample records for densely populated area

  1. Dilemmas of Warfare in Densely Populated Civilian Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Tamir

    2012-01-01

    This essay attempts to present operational perspectives on conducting warfare in densely populated areas. It also distinguishes between three types of combat within this general category, with the goal of shedding light on this complex type of warfare.

  2. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-08-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. delta(15)N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-01-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. δ 15 N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis.

  4. Air quality public policies and their implications for densely populated urban areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Moura Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and energy consumption and an increase in the population density in urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the Brazilian and Regional (São Paulo state public policies of air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9.3 million in 1980, the total carbon dioxide emissions tripled. At regional level, PM2.5 measurements have been carried out systematically since 1999 in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city, the largest Brazilian city, with 19.7 million inhabitants, and more than 7 million vehicles powered mainly by fossil fuels. Although the numbers are still above the state standard to be reached (10µg.m-3, there was a decrease on the annual average in 2008-2015 compared with 2001-2007. This was partially due to the limits established for new vehicles by federal programs. The analysis indicated that the reduction of air pollutants emission will be more easily achieved based on strategies that combine policies supported by current laws, government and private sector agreements and the community engagement.

  5. Sampling bacterial biodiversity from a highly contaminated stream flowing through a densely populated urban area in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enam, S.F.; Qureshi, H.; Qureshi, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to understand the complexity of microbial populations in Pakistan where infectious diseases are prevalent. This study was undertaken to assess bacterial biodiversity in Nehr-e-Khayyam a heavily polluted stream connected to the Arabian Gulf, which runs through a densely populated urban area in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: Employing a universal pair of oligonucleotides capable of amplifying species-specific segments of 16S rRNA gene from all Eubacteria, we generated a library of PCR products using total DNA purified from the collected sample, cloned the amplifers into pGEM-T-Easy and sequenced each recombinant clone. The obtained DNA sequences were subjected to bio-informatic analyses. Results: A total of 71 recombinant clones were obtained from the amplified 16S rDNA products and sequenced. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that 54 (out of 71) were unique sequences from which 42 shared >97% and 12 shared <97% homology to their database counterparts. One sequence originated from the plastid DNA of eukaryote Pyramimonas disomata. From the remaining 53 sequences, 45 were Proteo-bacteria and 8 Fermicute in origin. Among 71 sequences, Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria species constituted 86% of Proteo-bacteria identified in the sample while only 13% were Fermicutes. Conclusions: The microbial niche in Nehr-e-Khayyam is occupied predominantly by heterotrophic Proteo-bacterial and Firmicute strains, some of which are known human pathogens. (author)

  6. Ants in Tropical Urban Habitats: The Myrmecofauna in a Densely Populated Area of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKHMAD RIZALI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ants are the most abundant animals in tropical habitats and have been widely studied in natural and semi-natural tropical systems. However, species in urban tropical habitats remain poorly studied, despite their abundance and potentially important roles in urban ecosystems and pest dynamics. We investigated the ant fauna of Bogor and its surroundings to contribute to the characterization of the myrmecofauna of one of Southeast Asia’s most densely populated regions. Ants were collected both by hand collection and from honey baits in the most common habitats: garbage dumps, households, and home gardens. In total, 94 species were recorded, over two thirds of which occurred in home gardens, which underlines the importance of vegetated habitats for urban planning to support complex ant assemblages. Twelve sampled species are well-known as tramp species that occur primarily in human-dominated landscapes. The two tramp species Anoplolepis gracilipes and Paratrechina longicornis dominated ant assemblages in all locations and most habitat types. The assemblages of tramp species were affected by habitat type, whereas that of non tramp species were not. Forty-five species were also recorded in the Bogor Botanical Garden and five species are also known to be common in cacao agroforests. Hence, research in urban tropical habitats can increase our knowledge of the occurrence of ant species, allowing us to better assess the biodiversity and conservation potential of semi-natural habitats.

  7. Heat stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas: A study for a densely populated midlatitude maritime region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are usually warmer than their surrounding natural areas, an effect known as the urban heat island effect. As such, they are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine unprecedented long-term (35 years) urban climate model integrations at the convection-permitting scale (2.8 km resolution) with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess temperature-based heat stress for Belgium, a densely populated midlatitude maritime region. We discover that the heat stress increase toward the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heat waves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our results demonstrate the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  8. A decision support model for waste management in support of developing low carbon, eco regions. Case studies of densely populated kampung settlements in urban areas in Jakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candra Dewi, Ova

    2013-01-01

    Due to the various types of waste disposal, treatment, utilization and technologies, decision support model for waste management is needed to assist planners and decision makers in finding most suitable way to manage municipal solid waste efficiently. Many planners and decision makers in the area of municipal solid waste have a lack of thorough understanding of the complex chains of waste management system. Therefore the impact for the environment quality and the public health can only be judged at the rudimentary level. However, most existing models are primarily focusing on cost or environmental analysis. Only few consider other crucial factors such as the demographic condition, the characteristics of urban form and urban infrastructure, land transformation aspects due to urban development. Consequently, such models often meet difficulties to cope with cultural requirement. Based on those reasons, a decision support model to set up alternatives of most appropriate technology for sustainable waste management towards a low carbon eco-city on a regional basis is developed in this PhD study. The Low Carbon- and Eco-Region, in particular the contribution of waste management sector, is a vision of living in low rate of carbon generation, using fewer natural resources, and encouraging energy recovery and/or waste reduction at source by improving the used material quality (up-cycling). This decision support model is constructed mainly based on the cultural requirement and local context of a region and synergize the geographic, environmental, social capital and economics aspects in order to fulfill the needs of the respective region and its society. The method employed in this model is not solely a new developed model, but also an advanced model in material flow analysis (STAN), and life cycle assessment on solid waste system (EASEWASTE) and Geographic Information System (GIS). At the same time the model also assists the stakeholders in improving the environmental quality

  9. A decision support model for waste management in support of developing low carbon, eco regions. Case studies of densely populated kampung settlements in urban areas in Jakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candra Dewi, Ova

    2013-06-14

    Due to the various types of waste disposal, treatment, utilization and technologies, decision support model for waste management is needed to assist planners and decision makers in finding most suitable way to manage municipal solid waste efficiently. Many planners and decision makers in the area of municipal solid waste have a lack of thorough understanding of the complex chains of waste management system. Therefore the impact for the environment quality and the public health can only be judged at the rudimentary level. However, most existing models are primarily focusing on cost or environmental analysis. Only few consider other crucial factors such as the demographic condition, the characteristics of urban form and urban infrastructure, land transformation aspects due to urban development. Consequently, such models often meet difficulties to cope with cultural requirement. Based on those reasons, a decision support model to set up alternatives of most appropriate technology for sustainable waste management towards a low carbon eco-city on a regional basis is developed in this PhD study. The Low Carbon- and Eco-Region, in particular the contribution of waste management sector, is a vision of living in low rate of carbon generation, using fewer natural resources, and encouraging energy recovery and/or waste reduction at source by improving the used material quality (up-cycling). This decision support model is constructed mainly based on the cultural requirement and local context of a region and synergize the geographic, environmental, social capital and economics aspects in order to fulfill the needs of the respective region and its society. The method employed in this model is not solely a new developed model, but also an advanced model in material flow analysis (STAN), and life cycle assessment on solid waste system (EASEWASTE) and Geographic Information System (GIS). At the same time the model also assists the stakeholders in improving the environmental quality

  10. Siting of nuclear power plants in densely populated countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togo, Y.

    1981-01-01

    In evaluating the safety of reactor siting, three typical approaches can be applied; the deterministic approach, the probabilistic approach and the combined approach. In regard to a risk associated with siting, the design of a reactor has to do with both individual and societal risk, while exclusion distance mainly has to do with individual risk, and surrounding population primarily has to do with societal risk. Consequently, in a densely populated area, more attention should be paid to societal risk. There are many reactor sites in the world which can be described as concentrated siting. Although concentrated siting has a lot of merits, such as reducing the construction cost or maintenance cost of reactors, more careful consideration should be paid to safety-related matters of such concentrated reactors because the risk to the individual from accidents caused by concentrated reactors is larger than that from a single reactor. As for the recent controversial issue concerning siting criteria, it appears that the present international consensus on siting philosophy is still valid after the TMI accident. (author)

  11. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3 were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB and the other in the historical city centre (CC. Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m−3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m−3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv. This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm, gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42− daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4

  12. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R. P.; Blom, M. J.; Querol, X.

    2012-08-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC). Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m-3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv) compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m-3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv). This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm), gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases) during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42- daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4+)) revealed that the gas-to-particle phase partitioning (volatilization or ammonium salts formation) also played an important role in the evolution of NH3 concentration in summer in Barcelona.

  13. Nuclear power plants in populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.

    1973-01-01

    The article first deals with the permanently increasing demand for electical power. Considering the ever growing energy demand which can no longer be covered by conventional power plants, it has become necessary to set up nuclear power plants of larger range. The author presents in a survey the basic function of nuclear power plants as well as the resulting risks and safety measures. The author concludes that according to present knowledge there is no more need to erect nuclear power plants outside densely populated urban areas but there is now the possibility of erecting nuclear power plants in densely populated areas. (orig./LH) [de

  14. MITIGATION SCENARIOS FOR RESIDENTIAL FIRES IN DENSELY POPULATED URBAN SETTLEMENTS IN SUKAHAJI VILLAGE, BANDUNG CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saut Aritua Hasiholan Sagala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential fires are a form of disaster that often occurs in urban areas especially in densely populated settlements. This study looks at possible mitigation scenarios for this kind of disaster. A case study was conducted in Babakan Ciparay Sub-District in Bandung City, among the densely populated settlements, and was focused especially on Sukahaji Village, a sub-unit of Babakan Ciparay, which is the most densely populated village in Bandung City with up to 234.14 people/ha. There have been six structural fires recorded from 2007 until 2010 occurring in Sukahaji. This study applied stratified random sampling as the preferred sampling technique and data collection method from a total population of 3,227 buildings. The data was then examined using risk analysis. The results have led to two intervention measures suggested as mitigation scenarios for residential fires that can be applied within the Sukahaji Village. The study concludes that mitigation measures through strengthening community capacity can be the principal option in reducing risk to fires in densely populated urban settlements.

  15. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations

  16. Segmentation of Shadowed Buildings in Dense Urban Areas from Aerial Photographs

    OpenAIRE

    Susaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of buildings in urban areas, especially dense urban areas, by using remotely sensed images is highly desirable. However, segmentation results obtained by using existing algorithms are unsatisfactory because of the unclear boundaries between buildings and the shadows cast by neighboring buildings. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed that successfully segments buildings from aerial photographs, including shadowed buildings in dense urban areas. To handle roofs having rough text...

  17. Probabilistic Hazard Estimation at a Densely Urbanised Area: the Neaples Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Natale, G.; Mastrolorenzo, G.; Panizza, A.; Pappalardo, L.; Claudia, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Neaples volcanic area (Southern Italy), including Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei caldera and Ischia island, is the highest risk one in the World, where more than 2 million people live within about 10 km from an active volcanic vent. Such an extreme risk calls for accurate methodologies aimed to quantify it, in a probabilistic way, considering all the available volcanological information as well as modelling results. In fact, simple hazard maps based on the observation of deposits from past eruptions have the major problem that eruptive history generally samples a very limited number of possible outcomes, thus resulting almost meaningless to get the event probability in the area. This work describes a methodology making the best use (from a Bayesian point of view) of volcanological data and modelling results, to compute probabilistic hazard maps from multi-vent explosive eruptions. The method, which follows an approach recently developed by the same authors for pyroclastic flows hazard, has been here improved and extended to compute also fall-out hazard. The application of the method to the Neapolitan volcanic area, including the densely populated city of Naples, allows, for the first time, to get a global picture of the areal distribution for the main hazards from multi-vent explosive eruptions. From a joint consideration of the hazard contributions from all the three volcanic areas, new insight on the volcanic hazard distribution emerges, which will have strong implications for urban and emergency planning in the area.

  18. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R.P.; Blom, M.J.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC).

  19. Predictors of childhood severe malaria in a densely populated area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coma, convulsions and unconsciousness were more indicative of cerebral malaria. Hemoglobin and blood glucose levels decreased significantly in severe malaria patients compared with uncomplicated malaria patients or controls (P < 0.001). On the contrary, blood transaminases and CRP levels increased significantly in ...

  20. Railway station structures designed for densely populated urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vákár, L.I.; Snijder, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the interest in public transit increased because of its contribution in solving the problem in mobility. This resulted in a worldwide need for building new railway stations and expanding existing ones. A railway station forms no longer a building on its own, but part of a larger complex.

  1. Bistable behaviour of biexciton population in a dense exciton-biexciton system in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An.

    1986-05-01

    The steady state bistable behaviour of biexciton population in a dense exciton-biexciton semiconductor is considered. The intrinsic optical feedback is provided by the recombination mechanism. The exciton-biexciton and biexciton-biexciton interactions play the role of non-linearity responsible for biexciton bistability to occur. The conditions leading to the effect of bistability are obtained and two-parameter phase transition diagrams are drawn for both intensity and frequency bistable phenomena. (author)

  2. Segmentation of Shadowed Buildings in Dense Urban Areas from Aerial Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Susaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of buildings in urban areas, especially dense urban areas, by using remotely sensed images is highly desirable. However, segmentation results obtained by using existing algorithms are unsatisfactory because of the unclear boundaries between buildings and the shadows cast by neighboring buildings. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed that successfully segments buildings from aerial photographs, including shadowed buildings in dense urban areas. To handle roofs having rough textures, digital numbers (DNs are quantized into several quantum values. Quantization using several interval widths is applied during segmentation, and for each quantization, areas with homogeneous values are labeled in an image. Edges determined from the homogeneous areas obtained at each quantization are then merged, and frequently observed edges are extracted. By using a “rectangular index”, regions whose shapes are close to being rectangular are thus selected as buildings. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm generates more practical segmentation results than an existing algorithm does. Therefore, the main factors in successful segmentation of shadowed roofs are (1 combination of different quantization results, (2 selection of buildings according to the rectangular index, and (3 edge completion by the inclusion of non-edge pixels that have a high probability of being edges. By utilizing these factors, the proposed algorithm optimizes the spatial filtering scale with respect to the size of building roofs in a locality. The proposed algorithm is considered to be useful for conducting building segmentation for various purposes.

  3. Electron acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized two electron population dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Masood, W.

    2008-01-01

    The electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in unmagnetized two population electron quantum plasmas. The quantum hydrodynamic model is employed with the Sagdeev potential approach to describe the arbitrary amplitude electron acoustic waves in a two electron population dense Fermi plasma. It is found that hot electron density hump structures are formed in the subsonic region in such type of quantum plasmas. The wave amplitude as well as the width of the soliton are increased with the increase of percentage presence of cold (thinly populated) electrons in a multicomponent quantum plasma. It is found that an increase in quantum diffraction parameter broadens the nonlinear structure. Furthermore, the amplitude of the nonlinear electron acoustic wave is found to increase with the decrease in Mach number. The numerical results are also presented to understand the formation of solitons in two electron population Fermi plasmas.

  4. Reconstruction of Building Outlines in Dense Urban Areas Based on LIDAR Data and Address Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzabek-Rychard, M.

    2012-07-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive method for automated extraction and delineation of building outlines in densely built-up areas. A novel approach to outline reconstruction is the use of geocoded building address points. They give information about building location thus highly reduce task complexity. Reconstruction process is executed on 3D point clouds acquired by airborne laser scanner. The method consists of three steps: building detection, delineation and contours refinement. The algorithm is tested against a data set that presents the old market town and its surroundings. The results are discussed and evaluated by comparison to reference cadastral data.

  5. Pathloss Modelling of less dense urban area in Lagos State using Lee Model

    OpenAIRE

    O. Shoewu

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aim to adopt a propagation model for a less dense urban area in Lagos state by examining one of the popular empirical path loss models for mobile communication. Lee’s model was compared with measured path loss obtain from the field measurement at GSM frequency of 900 MHz . TEMS Investigation tool was used for the drive test. The measurements of the received signal strength were collected through drive test with the aid of an Ericson test mobile system (TEMS). This was conduct...

  6. Deadly heat waves projected in the densely populated agricultural regions of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Pal, Jeremy S; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2017-08-01

    The risk associated with any climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that a wet-bulb temperature of 35°C can be considered an upper limit on human survivability. On the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution climate change simulations, we project that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in South Asia are likely to approach and, in a few locations, exceed this critical threshold by the late 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions. The most intense hazard from extreme future heat waves is concentrated around densely populated agricultural regions of the Ganges and Indus river basins. Climate change, without mitigation, presents a serious and unique risk in South Asia, a region inhabited by about one-fifth of the global human population, due to an unprecedented combination of severe natural hazard and acute vulnerability.

  7. The innovative landscape design on the old dense area based on community participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemardiono, B.; Rachmawati, M.

    2018-03-01

    Kembang Jepun area on the east side of the Kali Mas extends to the edge of the river. Along with the development of the city, Kembang Jepun denser, and these districts are facing some issues with limited landscape elements such as land and water elements, lacking in vegetation element in the settlement and services area, and non-optimal streetscape arrangement in the historic town and make the old city less attractive. In the other side, this historic section of the city has the great potential to be developed in order to support the economic developments of the city. Large Scale Intervention is the method of collaboration in developing area which possesses the meaning in the sustainable urban development. So community involvement is an important key factor in the design process and implementation as well as the type of participation and the technique of the process. The expected result of this paper is how to develop the innovative landscape design in the developing old dense area of Kembang Jepun based on community participation.

  8. Fabrication of dense wavelength division multiplexing filters with large useful area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Hsu, Jin-Cherng; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexers (DWDM), a kind of narrow band-pass filter, are extremely sensitive to the optical thickness error in each composite layer. Therefore to have a large useful coating area is extreme difficult because of the uniformity problem. To enlarge the useful coating area it is necessary to improve their design and their fabrication. In this study, we discuss how the tooling factors at different positions and for different materials are related to the optical performance of the design. 100GHz DWDM filters were fabricated by E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD). To improve the coating uniformity, an analysis technique called shaping tooling factor (STF) was used to analyze the deviation of the optical thickness in different materials so as to enlarge the useful coating area. Also a technique of etching the deposited layers with oxygen ions was introduced. When the above techniques were applied in the fabrication of 100 GHz DWDM filters, the uniformity was better than +/-0.002% over an area of 72 mm in diameter and better than +/-0.0006% over 20mm in diameter.

  9. Dense wavelength division multiplexing devices for metropolitan-area datacom and telecom networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCusatis, Casimer M.; Priest, David G.

    2000-12-01

    Large data processing environments in use today can require multi-gigabyte or terabyte capacity in the data communication infrastructure; these requirements are being driven by storage area networks with access to petabyte data bases, new architecture for parallel processing which require high bandwidth optical links, and rapidly growing network applications such as electronic commerce over the Internet or virtual private networks. These datacom applications require high availability, fault tolerance, security, and the capacity to recover from any single point of failure without relying on traditional SONET-based networking. These requirements, coupled with fiber exhaust in metropolitan areas, are driving the introduction of dense optical wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) in data communication systems, particularly for large enterprise servers or mainframes. In this paper, we examine the technical requirements for emerging nextgeneration DWDM systems. Protocols for storage area networks and computer architectures such as Parallel Sysplex are presented, including their fiber bandwidth requirements. We then describe two commercially available DWDM solutions, a first generation 10 channel system and a recently announced next generation 32 channel system. Technical requirements, network management and security, fault tolerant network designs, new network topologies enabled by DWDM, and the role of time division multiplexing in the network are all discussed. Finally, we present a description of testing conducted on these networks and future directions for this technology.

  10. Mapping burned areas using dense time-series of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Takacs, Joshua; Schmidt, Gail L.; Falgout, Jeff T.; Williams, Brad; Brunner, Nicole M.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Picotte, Joshua J.; Howard, Stephen M.; Stitt, Susan; Dwyer, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Complete and accurate burned area data are needed to document patterns of fires, to quantify relationships between the patterns and drivers of fire occurrence, and to assess the impacts of fires on human and natural systems. Unfortunately, in many areas existing fire occurrence datasets are known to be incomplete. Consequently, the need to systematically collect burned area information has been recognized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which have both called for the production of essential climate variables (ECVs), including information about burned area. In this paper, we present an algorithm that identifies burned areas in dense time-series of Landsat data to produce the Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) products. The algorithm uses gradient boosted regression models to generate burn probability surfaces using band values and spectral indices from individual Landsat scenes, lagged reference conditions, and change metrics between the scene and reference predictors. Burn classifications are generated from the burn probability surfaces using pixel-level thresholding in combination with a region growing process. The algorithm can be applied anywhere Landsat and training data are available. For this study, BAECV products were generated for the conterminous United States from 1984 through 2015. These products consist of pixel-level burn probabilities for each Landsat scene, in addition to, annual composites including: the maximum burn probability and a burn classification. We compared the BAECV burn classification products to the existing Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED; 1997–2015) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS; 1984–2013) data. We found that the BAECV products mapped 36% more burned area than the GFED and 116% more burned area than MTBS. Differences between the BAECV products and the GFED were especially high in the West and East where the

  11. On population growth near protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas N Joppa

    Full Text Available Protected areas are the first, and often only, line of defense in efforts to conserve biodiversity. They might be detrimental or beneficial to rural communities depending on how they alter economic opportunities and access to natural resources. As such, protected areas may attract or repel human settlement. Disproportionate increases in population growth near protected area boundaries may threaten their ability to conserve biodiversity.Using decadal population datasets, we analyze population growth across 45 countries and 304 protected areas. We find no evidence for population growth near protected areas to be greater than growth of rural areas in the same country. Furthermore, we argue that what growth does occur near protected areas likely results from a general expansion of nearby population centers.Our results contradict those from a recent study by Wittemyer et al., who claim overwhelming evidence for increased human population growth near protected areas. To understand the disagreement, we re-analyzed the protected areas in Wittemyer et al.'s paper. Their results are simply artifacts of mixing two incompatible datasets. Protected areas may experience unusual population pressures near their edges; indeed, individual case studies provide examples. There is no evidence, however, of a general pattern of disproportionate population growth near protected areas.

  12. 3D Tomographic SAR Imaging in Densely Vegetated Mountainous Rural Areas in China and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L.; Muller, J. P., , Prof

    2017-12-01

    3D SAR Tomography (TomoSAR) and 4D SAR Differential Tomography (Diff-TomoSAR) exploit multi-baseline SAR data stacks to create an important new innovation of SAR Interferometry, to unscramble complex scenes with multiple scatterers mapped into the same SAR cell. In addition to this 3-D shape reconstruction and deformation solution in complex urban/infrastructure areas, and recent cryospheric ice investigations, emerging tomographic remote sensing applications include forest applications, e.g. tree height and biomass estimation, sub-canopy topographic mapping, and even search, rescue and surveillance. However, these scenes are characterized by temporal decorrelation of scatterers, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion and an open issue regarding possible height blurring and accuracy losses for TomoSAR applications particularly in densely vegetated mountainous rural areas. Thus, it is important to develop solutions for temporal decorrelation, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion.We report here on 3D imaging (especially in vertical layers) over densely vegetated mountainous rural areas using 3-D SAR imaging (SAR tomography) derived from data stacks of X-band COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight and L band ALOS-1 PALSAR data stacks over Dujiangyan Dam, Sichuan, China and L and P band airborne SAR data (BioSAR 2008 - ESA) in the Krycklan river catchment, Northern Sweden. The new TanDEM-X 12m DEM is used to assist co - registration of all the data stacks over China first. Then, atmospheric correction is being assessed using weather model data such as ERA-I, MERRA, MERRA-2, WRF; linear phase-topography correction and MODIS spectrometer correction will be compared and ionospheric correction methods are discussed to remove tropospheric and ionospheric delay. Then the new TomoSAR method with the TanDEM-X 12m DEM is described to obtain the number of scatterers inside each pixel, the scattering amplitude and phase of each scatterer and finally extract

  13. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  14. Natural hazards and decision-making in the most densely populated country in the American continent: a 20-year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Martínez, Celina; Cepeda, Jose

    2010-05-01

    With a population density of ~300 per km2, El Salvador is the most densely populated country in the American continent and the capital, San Salvador, is probably the city in the Americas most frequently hit by natural hazards, earthquakes in particular. As a consequence of a magnitude 5.4 earthquake in 1986, 1500 people were killed, with as many as one-third of these casualties associated to the collapse of engineered structures, a high rate compared to contemporary figures worldwide. Four years earlier, during a long precipitation period in September 1982, a debris flow was triggered from the summit of the San Salvador volcano and travelled ~4 km for about one hour before it killed up to 500 people in an area to the North-West of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (AMSS). This same area had been previously hit by a similar event 50 years earlier, but with no consequences at that time since it was uninhabited. These are only some examples of the main facts that motivated the creation of the Office for Urban Planning of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (OPAMSS) in 1990. This institution is an autonomous municipal organisation whose functions and attributes comprise the planning and control of urban development. After 20 years of the foundation of OPAMSS, this paper presents its history and evolution, the main achievements and challenges, focusing on how the institution has been shaped by some key milestones, such as the earthquake-triggered landslide at Las Colinas neighbourhood in January 2001, which killed ~600 people in the Western AMSS, and the widespread flooding in October 2005 after the urban drainage network collapsed during Hurricane Stan. The development of OPAMSS as a key organisation in land use management and decision-making is an example that illustrates how the integration of technical and legal aspects can be oriented towards the improvement of governance at the scale of metropolitan areas.

  15. Three-dimensional fabrication of thick and densely populated soft constructs with complex and actively perfused channel network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, C Rodrigo; Ko, Suk Kyu; Caviglia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental steps needed to design functional tissues and, ultimately organs is the ability to fabricate thick and densely populated tissue constructs with controlled vasculature and microenvironment. To date, bioprinting methods have been employed to manufacture tissue constructs with...

  16. Nuclear energy in a densely populated and built-up country such as the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnenberg, H.; Eschhaus, M.; Hensel, W.; Kayser, J.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear energy is absolutely necessary for the Federal Republic of Germany. By 1995, 75% of the energy used in that country for electricity production will be nuclear, which means an installed nuclear power of approximately 100 000 MW with all its nuclear infrastructure such as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste disposal and transport of a great deal of radioactive material between these services. Many sites are needed for these activities, including transport, which is, in fact, comprised of moving sites on special lines. Risk analysis is also needed for all this, the basis of which is the use of land in the western part of the country by population and industry. The Federal Republic of Germany is one of the most densely populated and built-up areas in the world. A computer program with a voluminous information system which stores all the relevant land-use data was written. A simulation program was also written to analyse the required regional capacity for transport of nuclear material in respect of different sites for power plants, reprocessing plants and waste disposal. This simulation program makes optimization with variable criteria. All the railway lines which can be used for heavy transport are stored in the computer as well as the traffic routes and rivers. The computer calculations show that, especially for selection of sites for reprocessing plants, the minimization of transport should be an important criterion in an intensely used country like the Federal Republic of Germany. The country will be forced to undertake detailed regional planning for the introduction of nuclear energy to achieve minimum risk to the population and minimum risk to the introduction itself. (author)

  17. Design and testing of the high speed signal densely populated ATLAS calorimeter trigger board dedicate to jet identification

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira De Souza, Julio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Abstract—The ATLAS experiment has planned a major upgrade in view of the enhanced luminosity of the beam delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2021. As part of this, the trigger at Level-1 based on calorimeter data will be upgraded to exploit fine-granularity readout using a new system of Feature Extractors (three in total), which each uses different physics objects for the trigger selection. The contribution focusses on the jet Feature EXtractor (jFEX) prototype. Up to a data volume of 2 TB/s has to be processed to provide jet identification (including large area jets) and measurements of global variables within few hundred nanoseconds latency budget. Such requirements translate into the use of large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with the largest number of Multi Gigabit Transceivers (MGTs) available on the market. The jFEX board prototype hosts four large FPGAs from the Xilinx Ultrascale family with 120 MGTs each, connected to 24 opto-electrical devices, resulting in a densely populated hi...

  18. Applications of Extensive Green-roof Systems in Contributing to Sustainable Development in Densely Populated Cities: a Hong Kong Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed cities such as Hong Kong are usually densely populated. Since the land is limited, high-rise buildings are constructed. When the building height becomes higher, air flow is reduced and heat is trapped among high-rise buildings. Air temperature will be greatly increased and air pollution becomes a serious problem. This creates a walled building problem. To reduce air temperature caused by the wall-effects, various methods have been developed in the previous studies. One typical method is the use of green roof systems. The application of extensive green roofs on the existing building rooftops has been recommended in Hong Kong since 2001. The advantage of this practice is that no additional floor area is required and it can also improve urban greenery. Although a green roof system has been introduced and adopted in Hong Kong since 2001, the emphasis is mainly given to the application of intensive green roofs for podium garden instead of extensive green roofs. It is considered valuable and necessary of the extensive green roofs for the buildings. This paper investigates the current practice of using extensive green roofs in Hong Kong. The constraints in applying extensive green roofs are investigated, which leads to studying the solutions for mitigating these constraints and improving the future development of the implementation.

  19. Design and testing of the high speed signal densely populated ATLAS calorimeter trigger board dedicate to jet identification

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira De Souza, Julio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has planned a major upgrade in view of the enhanced luminosity of the beam delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2021. As part of this, the trigger at Level-1 based on calorimeter data will be upgraded to exploit fine-granularity readout using a new system of Feature Extractors (three in total), which each uses different physics objects for the trigger selection. The contribution focusses on the jet Feature EXtractor (jFEX) prototype. Up to a data volume of 2 TB/s has to be processed to provide jet identification (including large area jets) and measurements of global variables within few hundred nanoseconds latency budget. Such requirements translate into the use of large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with the largest number of Multi Gigabit Transceivers (MGTs) available on the market. The jFEX board prototype hosts four large FPGAs from the Xilinx Ultrascale family with 120 MGTs each, connected to 24 opto-electrical devices, resulting in a densely populated high speed si...

  20. DESIGN PROBLEMS OF THE BUILDINGS FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES CONSTRUCTED IN DENSE URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Prokopov

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of methodical provision of planning of foundations for buildings erected next to existing ones is сonsidered. It is based on studying the causes of extension of deformations of structures in conditions of dense city building system. Some recommendations providing safety of buildings are given.

  1. DESIGN PROBLEMS OF THE BUILDINGS FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES CONSTRUCTED IN DENSE URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    O. Yu. Prokopov; M. V. Prokopova

    2007-01-01

    The urgency of methodical provision of planning of foundations for buildings erected next to existing ones is сonsidered. It is based on studying the causes of extension of deformations of structures in conditions of dense city building system. Some recommendations providing safety of buildings are given.

  2. Evaluation of the Use of Sub-Pixel Offset Tracking Techniques to Monitor Landslides in Densely Vegetated Steeply Sloped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyi Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Pixel Offset Tracking (sPOT is applied to derive high-resolution centimetre-level landslide rates in the Three Gorges Region of China using TerraSAR-X Hi-resolution Spotlight (TSX HS space-borne SAR images. These results contrast sharply with previous use of conventional differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR techniques in areas with steep slopes, dense vegetation and large variability in water vapour which indicated around 12% phase coherent coverage. By contrast, sPOT is capable of measuring two dimensional deformation of large gradient over steeply sloped areas covered in dense vegetation. Previous applications of sPOT in this region relies on corner reflectors (CRs, (high coherence features to obtain reliable measurements. However, CRs are expensive and difficult to install, especially in remote areas; and other potential high coherence features comparable with CRs are very few and outside the landslide boundary. The resultant sub-pixel level deformation field can be statistically analysed to yield multi-modal maps of deformation regions. This approach is shown to have a significant impact when compared with previous offset tracking measurements of landslide deformation, as it is demonstrated that sPOT can be applied even in densely vegetated terrain without relying on high-contrast surface features or requiring any de-noising process.

  3. Large Area, High Resolution N2H+ studies of dense gas in the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee

    2014-07-01

    Star formation in molecular clouds occurs over a wide range of spatial scales and physical densities. Understanding the origin of dense cores thus requires linking the structure and kinematics of gas and dust from cloud to core scales. The CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy) is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged five diverse regions of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds in N2H+ (J=1-0), totaling over 800 square arcminutes. The observations have 7’’ angular resolution (~0.01 pc spatial resolution) to probe dense gas down to core scales, and use combined interferometric and single-dish data to fully recover line emission up to parsec scales. CLASSy observations are complete, and this talk will focus on three science results. First, the dense gas in regions with existing star formation has complex hierarchical structure. We present a non-binary dendrogram analysis for all regions and show that dense gas hierarchy correlates with star formation activity. Second, well-resolved velocity information for each dendrogram-identified structure allows a new way of looking at linewidth-size relations in clouds. Specifically, we find that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with structure size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity increases strongly with structure size. We argue that the typical line-of-sight depth of a cloud can be estimated from these relations, and that our regions have depths that are several times less than their extent on the plane of the sky. This finding is consistent with numerical simulations of molecular cloud turbulence that show that high-density sheets are a generic result. Third, N2H+ is a good tracer of cold, dense gas in filaments; we resolve multiple beams across many filaments, some of which are narrower than 0.1 pc. The centroid velocity fields of several filaments show gradients perpendicular to their major axis, which is a common feature in filaments formed from numerical

  4. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  5. Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo; Spena, Angelo; Buttinelli, Mauro; Cantucci, Barbara; Procesi, Monia

    2013-01-01

    from the Campania Region, located in Central Italy. Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL), is calculated for each renewable energy technology (solar, wind, geothermal) highlighting the potentiality of the last. Why the Italian case history among the densely populated countries? on the Italian territory is hard to find suitable areas (mostly if greenfields) to use the own underground, with respect to other European countries, due to the presence of seismotectonic activity and many faulted areas characterized by Diffuse Degassing Structures (DDSs, which are rich in CO 2 and CH 4 ). In this cases, public acceptance must be facilitated by the concerted efforts of researchers, universities, NGOs and policy-makers.

  6. Nonlinear Absorption-Gain Response and Population Dynamics in a Laser-Driven Four-Level Dense Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Liu Jibing; Luo Jinming; Xie Xiaotao

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the response of nonlinear absorption and population dynamics in optically dense media of four-level atoms driven by a single-mode probe laser, via taking the density-dependent near dipole-dipole (NDD) interactions into consideration. The influence of the NDD effects on the absorption of the probe field and population dynamics is predicted via numerical calculations. It is shown that the NDD effects can reduce gradually to transient absorption with the increase of the strengths of the NDD interactions, and transient amplification can be achieved. In the steady-state limit, the probe field exhibits transparency for strong NDD interactions. Alternatively, the population entirely remains at the ground state due to the NDD effects.

  7. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  8. Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the

  9. A system for household enumeration and re-identification in densely populated slums to facilitate community research, education, and advocacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana R Thomson

    Full Text Available We devised and implemented an innovative Location-Based Household Coding System (LBHCS appropriate to a densely populated informal settlement in Mumbai, India.LBHCS codes were designed to double as unique household identifiers and as walking directions; when an entire community is enumerated, LBHCS codes can be used to identify the number of households located per road (or lane segment. LBHCS was used in community-wide biometric, mental health, diarrheal disease, and water poverty studies. It also facilitated targeted health interventions by a research team of youth from Mumbai, including intensive door-to-door education of residents, targeted follow-up meetings, and a full census. In addition, LBHCS permitted rapid and low-cost preparation of GIS mapping of all households in the slum, and spatial summation and spatial analysis of survey data.LBHCS was an effective, easy-to-use, affordable approach to household enumeration and re-identification in a densely populated informal settlement where alternative satellite imagery and GPS technologies could not be used.

  10. Automated Area Beam Equalization Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molloi, Sabee

    2005-01-01

    ...) because of degraded contrast from large scatter intensities and relatively high noise. Area x-ray beam equalization can improve image quality by increasing the x-ray exposure to underpenetrated regions without increasing the exposure to the breast regions...

  11. Low doses of six toxicants change plant size distribution in dense populations of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Patama, Marjo; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2018-08-01

    Toxicants are known to have negligible or stimulatory, i.e. hormetic, effects at low doses below those that decrease the mean response of a plant population. Our earlier observations indicated that at such low toxicant doses the growth of very fast- and slow-growing seedlings is selectively altered, even if the population mean remains constant. Currently, it is not known how common these selective low-dose effects are, whether they are similar among fast- and slow-growing seedlings, and whether they occur concurrently with hormetic effects. We tested the response of Lactuca sativa in complete dose-response experiments to six different toxicants at doses that did not decrease population mean and beyond. The tested toxicants were IAA, parthenin, HHCB, 4-tert-octylphenol, glyphosate, and pelargonic acid. Each experiment consisted of 14,400-16,800 seedlings, 12-14 concentrations, 24 replicates per concentration and 50 germinated seeds per replicate. We analyzed the commonness of selective low-dose effects and explored if toxic effects and hormetic stimulation among fast- and slow-growing individuals occurred at the same concentrations as they occur at the population level. Irrespective of the observed response pattern and toxicant, selective low-dose effects were found. Toxin effects among fast-growing individuals usually started at higher doses compared to the population mean, while the opposite was found among slow-growing individuals. Very low toxin exposures tended to homogenize plant populations due to selective effects, while higher, but still hormetic doses tended to heterogenize plant populations. Although the extent of observed size segregation varied with the specific toxin tested, we conclude that a dose-dependent alteration in size distribution of a plant population may generally apply for many toxin exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fully polarimetric ALOS PALSAR data to aid geological mapping in densely vegetated areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of image data from space-borne or airborne sensors has been widely used to aid geological mapping. The advantages of using remotely sensed data are numerous and include the fact that large areas can be observed in a single observation...

  13. Automated Area Beam Equalization Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molloi, Sabee

    2004-01-01

    ...) because of degraded contrast from large scatter intensities and relatively high noise. Area x-ray beam equalization can improve image quality by increasing the x-ray exposure to under-penetrated regions without increasing the exposure to other breast regions...

  14. Skin Effect Simulation for Area 11 Dense Plasma Focus Hot Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, B. Timothy [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Two arc flashover events occurred at the DPF Area 11 facility. These flashover events happened in the same location on the bank current delivery plates. The damage from one of these events can be seen on the left-hand side of Figure 1. Since the flashovers occurred in the same area of the bank, and the reliability of the bank is important for future DPF experiments, a failure analysis effort was initiated. Part of this failure analysis effort was an effort to understand the physical reasons behind why the flashover happened, and why it happened in the same place twice. This paper summarizes an effort to simulate the current flow in the bank in order to understand the reasons for the flashover.

  15. Wood mouse and box turtle populations in an area treated annually with DDT for five years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1951-01-01

    A 117-acre area of dense woodland on the Patuxent Research Refuge received an aerial application of DDT in oil at the rate of 2 pounds per acre gnnually for five years. DDT reached ground level in a much smaller amount (thousandths to hundredths of a pound per acre). Treatment was made during the first week of June of each year from 1945 through 1949. Field studies of the wood mouse population in DDT and check areas showed no significant differences in the two areas before and after the 1949 DDT treatment. There was no significant difference between trapping samples taken in DDT and check areas in 1945 and those taken in 1949. Field studies of the box turtles in DDT and check areas in 1945 and 1949 showed no significant difference in population size. Growth of the four young turtles taken in the DDT area in both 1945 and 1949 appeared to be normal in comparison with growth of check area turtles.

  16. A Dense Small-Scale Seismic Network in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Northern Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, L.; Lombardo, L.; Rodriguez-Mustafa, M.; Mai, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    A temporary deployment consisting of sixteen broadband seismic stations is conducted for the first time in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA, Northern Tanzania), located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift. A deep knowledge of the faulting systems and tectonics of the area is needed to better understand the contribution of the synsedimentary faults to the deposition of the Olduvai and surrounding basins affecting the landscapes of the Homo Habilis first settlements. Complex fault systems have been mapped in the field but their connection, especially at depth, is not well known. A first batch of ten instruments was installed in June 2016. In June 2017 two stations were dismissed and a second batch of six stations was installed in new locations. The current network of fourteen stations will record until May 2018. Stations are equipped with Nanometrics Trillium Compact Posthole 120 s sensor and Centaur digitiser recording continuously at 200 Hz. The whole network covers 1400 km2 and station interspace ranges from 8 to 15 km. We analyse probabilistic power spectra densities of the seismic noise to obtain insights of its origin and test the performances of the stations. Although factories do not exist in the area and most of the stations are far from roads, ambient noise in the range 0.01 - 1 s is relatively high (between -120 dB and -100dB at 0.1 s) probably because of the abundance of livestock living in the NCA. Ambient noise in the period range 1 - 10 s (secondary microseisms) decreases from east to west. Although the main source of the microseisms is located in the Indian Ocean (east of the study area), a contribution from the low period tremors coming from the nearby active volcano Ol Doinyo Lengai (north-east of the study area) is expected. Whereas the longer period noise (10 - 100 s) is very low in the vertical component seismograms, it is higher than the high noise model in the horizontal components for most of the stations

  17. Floristic and phytosociology in dense "terra firme" rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, D A N; Ferreira, B G A; Siqueira, J D P; Oliveira, M M; Ferreira, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41), Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50) and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28) showed the highest importance values (IV). The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%). The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  18. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bigham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association

  19. Emerging practices of wind farm planning in a dense bird migration area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present part of The Wind Atlas for Egypt project aiming at developing a firm basis for planning and utilization of the vast wind energy resources available in Egypt. The project should recommend a common planning framework for wind farm development in Egypt...... is briefly introduced. As a case study to illustrate the planning process a 60 MW wind farm located at the Gulf of El-Zayt at the Gulf of Suez in Egypt will be analysed. This area is chosen for its very high wind energy potential and the high concentration of migrating birds during spring and autumn. During...... the site selection and layout of a wind farm the balancing of interests and land use will be described....

  20. Dense reconstruction of brain-wide neuronal population close to the ground truth

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun; Zhou, Hang; Li, Shiwei; Li, Jing; Su, Lei; Li, Anan; Feng, Xiong; Li, Ning; Han, Jiacheng; Kang, Hongtao; Chen, Yijun; Fang, Wenqian; Liu, Yidong; Lin, Huimin; Jin, Sen

    2017-01-01

    Neuron is the basic structure and functional unit of the brain, its projection and connections with other neurons provide a basic physical infrastructure for neural signal storage, allocation, processing, and integration. Recent technique progresses allow for labeling and imaging specific neuronal populations at single axonal level across a whole mouse brain. However, digital reconstruction of these neuron individuals needs months of human labor or sometimes is even an impossible task. Here w...

  1. Dense populations of a giant sulfur bacterium in Namibian shelf sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Brinkhoff, T.; Ferdelman, TG

    1999-01-01

    sequence data, these bacteria are closely related to the marine filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca, abundant in the upwelling area off Chile and Peru. Similar to Thioploca, the giant bacteria oxidize sulfide with nitrate that is accumulated to less than or equal to 800 millimolar in a central vacuole....

  2. Light redirecting system using sine-wave based panels for dense urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed W. N.; Mashaly, Islam A.; Mohamed, Osama N.; El-Henawy, Sally I.; Galal, Ola; Taha, Iman; Nassar, Khaled; Safwat, Amr M. E.

    2014-09-01

    Cities and towns around the world are becoming more condensed due to the shrinking amount of buildable areas, which significantly reduces the amount of light that occupants have access to. This lack of natural lighting results in health, safety and quality of life degradation. This paper presents a new technique of transmitting sunlight downward into narrow alleys and streets, by using a daylighting guiding acrylic panel that is capable of changing the direction and distribution of the incident light. The core of the proposed daylight guidance system is made up of light transmission panels with high quality. The corrugations have sine wave shaped cross-section so that the panel functions as an optical diffuser perpendicular to the direction of sunlight propagation. The day lighting system consists of the corrugated panels and a lattice frame, which supports the panel. The proposed system is to be mounted on the building roof facing the sun so as to redirect the incident sunlight downward into the narrow alleys or streets. Since building sizes and orientations are different the frame is arranged such that substantially deep light penetration and high luminance level can be achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed panel improves the illuminance values by more than 200% and 400% in autumn and winter, respectively, provides fan-out angle that exceeds 80° for certain solar altitudes and the transmitted power percentage varies from 40% to 90% as the solar altitude varies from 10° to 80°. Experimental results are in a good agreement with the simulations.

  3. A study of risk in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara through dense GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Azua, B.; Saldana-Hernandez, F.; Medina de La Pena, H.

    2007-05-01

    Geodesic measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) are used extensively for basic earth science research into natural hazards and seismic risk. In the private sector, GPS technology is additionally used for cadastral and photogrammetric mapping surveys, definition of political-administrative limits, space analysis with thematic cartography, GIS, and land-use planning, with a wide variety of applied social, economic, and political purposes, including conservation of the environment. The city of Guadalajara and its surrounding urban area has expanded greatly in the last three decades as a result of industrial, commercial and housing activity that have substantially changed in their urban morphology. This period of unprecedented growth has occurred primarily in an unplanned and sometimes disarticulated and unbalanced manner, incongruous with the development of the most important city in western Mexico. The Department of Geography of the University of Guadalajara and the Institute of Territorial Information of the State of Jalisco (IITJ) have initiated a study of 89 geodetic sites that are located in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara to assist in future planning and regulation of urban development, including urban and rural cadastral surveys and the establishment of diverse public services. Our work includes careful examination and evaluation of the quality and distribution of these geodetic sites with regard to anticipated growth of the metropolitan municipalities, and the vulnerability of urban zones to ground subsidence or landslides. Guadalajara is also located in a seismic zone, making precise continuous GPS measurements useful for identifying rates of strain accumulation and aseismic strain events that cannot be measured by seismographs.

  4. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF DENSE GAS IN SERPENS MAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Katherine I.; Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fernández-López, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, PO Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kwon, Woojin [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Kauffmann, Jens [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69 D-53121, Bonn Germany (Germany); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Volgenau, N. H. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tassis, Konstantinos, E-mail: ijlee9@astro.umd.edu [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present observations of N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 → 0), HCO{sup +} (J = 1 → 0), and HCN (J = 1 → 0) toward the Serpens Main molecular cloud from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). We mapped 150 arcmin{sup 2} of Serpens Main with an angular resolution of ∼7''. The gas emission is concentrated in two subclusters (the NW and SE subclusters). The SE subcluster has more prominent filamentary structures and more complicated kinematics compared to the NW subcluster. The majority of gas in the two subclusters has subsonic to sonic velocity dispersions. We applied a dendrogram technique with N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) to study the gas structures; the SE subcluster has a higher degree of hierarchy than the NW subcluster. Combining the dendrogram and line fitting analyses reveals two distinct relations: a flat relation between nonthermal velocity dispersion and size, and a positive correlation between variation in velocity centroids and size. The two relations imply a characteristic depth of 0.15 pc for the cloud. Furthermore, we have identified six filaments in the SE subcluster. These filaments have lengths of ∼0.2 pc and widths of ∼0.03 pc, which is smaller than a characteristic width of 0.1 pc suggested by Herschel observations. The filaments can be classified into two types based on their properties. The first type, located in the northeast of the SE subcluster, has larger velocity gradients, smaller masses, and nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios. The other type, located in the southwest of the SE subcluster, has the opposite properties. Several YSOs are formed along two filaments which have supercritical mass per unit length ratios, while filaments with nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios are not associated with YSOs, suggesting that stars are formed on gravitationally unstable filaments.

  5. Energy Analysis of Contention Tree-Based Access Protocols in Dense Machine-to-Machine Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Gallego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M area networks aim at connecting an M2M gateway with a large number of energy-constrained devices that must operate autonomously for years. Therefore, attaining high energy efficiency is essential in the deployment of M2M networks. In this paper, we consider a dense M2M area network composed of hundreds or thousands of devices that periodically transmit data upon request from a gateway or coordinator. We theoretically analyse the devices’ energy consumption using two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols which are based on a tree-splitting algorithm to resolve collisions among devices: the Contention Tree Algorithm (CTA and the Distributed Queuing (DQ access. We have carried out computer-based simulations to validate the accuracy of the theoretical models and to compare the energy performance using DQ, CTA, and Frame Slotted-ALOHA (FSA in M2M area networks with devices in compliance with the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer. Results show that the performance of DQ is totally independent of the number of contending devices, and it can reduce the energy consumed per device in more than 35% with respect to CTA and in more than 80% with respect to FSA.

  6. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Project Overview with Analysis of Dense Gas Structure and Kinematics in Barnard 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Lee, Katherine I.; Looney, Leslie W.; Teuben, Peter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor G.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao; Plunkett, Adele L.; Tobin, John J.; Kwon, Woojin; Isella, Andrea; Kauffmann, Jens; Tassis, Konstantinos; Crutcher, Richard M.; Gammie, Charles F.; Testi, Leonardo

    2014-10-01

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N2H+, HCO+, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s-1. We imaged ~150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N2H+ shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO+ and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N2H+ velocity dispersions ranging from ~0.05 to 0.50 km s-1 across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N2H+ position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  7. Comparison of Drive Counts and Mark-Resight As Methods of Population Size Estimation of Highly Dense Sika Deer (Cervus nippon Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Takeshita

    Full Text Available Assessing temporal changes in abundance indices is an important issue in the management of large herbivore populations. The drive counts method has been frequently used as a deer abundance index in mountainous regions. However, despite an inherent risk for observation errors in drive counts, which increase with deer density, evaluations of the utility of drive counts at a high deer density remain scarce. We compared the drive counts and mark-resight (MR methods in the evaluation of a highly dense sika deer population (MR estimates ranged between 11 and 53 individuals/km2 on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1999 and 2006. This deer population experienced two large reductions in density; approximately 200 animals in total were taken from the population through a large-scale population removal and a separate winter mass mortality event. Although the drive counts tracked temporal changes in deer abundance on the island, they overestimated the counts for all years in comparison to the MR method. Increased overestimation in drive count estimates after the winter mass mortality event may be due to a double count derived from increased deer movement and recovery of body condition secondary to the mitigation of density-dependent food limitations. Drive counts are unreliable because they are affected by unfavorable factors such as bad weather, and they are cost-prohibitive to repeat, which precludes the calculation of confidence intervals. Therefore, the use of drive counts to infer the deer abundance needs to be reconsidered.

  8. Atomic population redistribution in a dense Ga vapour proceeding via energy pooling ionization induced by resonant laser-assisted collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, S; Bicchi, P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we report on the atomic population redistribution originating from the ionization that takes place in a dense Ga vapour kept in quartz cells and resonantly excited by laser radiation, in the collisions between two excited atoms. This ionization process is known as energy-pooling ionization (EPI). The electron/ion recombination that takes place in the low density plasma produced gives rise to population in the atomic Rydberg levels and from the latter via cascade transitions to lower lying ones. We have monitored the fluorescences relative to the radiative emissions from such levels, namely those corresponding to the nP → 5S 1/2 series, with 9 ≤ n ≤ 26, and the 4D → 4P 1/2,3/2 transitions. Their characteristics testify to their origin as being due to the EPI process. Further confirmation is obtained by performing a time-resolved analysis of such fluorescences, whose appearance and time evolution is strongly influenced by the dynamics of the process. The effect of the introduction of a few Torr of buffer gas inside the quartz cell, resulting in the quenching of all the fluorescences for n ≥ 12, is also discussed

  9. [Changes in prices of taxed sugar-sweetened beverages and nonessential energy dense food in rural and semi-rural areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Zavala, J Alejandro; Batis, Carolina; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    To estimate changes in prices associated with the implementation of the tax to sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and to nonessential energy dense food in 2014. Price data were collected in rural and semi-rural areas in December 2013, and April and December 2014. Fixed effects models were used to estimate changes in prices of beverages and nonessential energy dense food, stratified by region, retailer and package size. The SSB tax did not pass completely through prices: prices increased on average 0.73 pesos per liter. For nonessential energy dense food, the tax passed completely or was overshifted for cookies, cereal bars and cereal boxes. The potential effect of the taxes on consumption could be attenuated in rural areas as the pass through prices was incomplete.

  10. Analysis of floristic composition and structure as an aid to monitoring protected areas of dense rain forest in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cardoso-Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study forest composition and structure, as well as to facilitate management plans and monitoring programs, we conducted a phytosociological survey in the PE Caverna do Diabo State Park and the Quilombos do Médio Ribeira Environmentally Protected Area, both located within the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed 20 plots of 400 m² each, including only individuals with a circumference at breast height > 15 cm. We employed cluster analysis and ordination (principal component analysis and correspondence analysis, including species data and abiotic data. We evaluated 1051 individuals, belonging to 155 species in 48 families. Of those 155, 18 were threatened species, 33 were endemic species, and 92 (59.4% were secondary species. The overall Shannon index was 4.524, one of the highest recorded for a dense rainforest in southeastern Brazil. We found that our sample plots fell into three blocks. The first was forest in which there had been human disturbance, showing low species richness, minimal density, and a small relative quantity of biomass. The second was undisturbed mature forest, showing a comparatively larger quantity of biomass. The third was mature forest in which there had been natural intermediate disturbance (dead trees, showing higher species richness and greater density. We identified various groups of species that could be used in monitoring these distinct forest conditions.

  11. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: project overview with analysis of dense gas structure and kinematics in Barnard 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Lee, Katherine I.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fernández-López, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [Owens Valley Radio Observatory, MC 105-24 OVRO, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kwon, Woojin [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Isella, Andrea, E-mail: sstorm@astro.umd.edu [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s{sup –1}. We imaged ∼150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N{sub 2}H{sup +} shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO{sup +} and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity dispersions ranging from ∼0.05 to 0.50 km s{sup –1} across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N{sub 2}H{sup +} position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc; this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  12. The role of regulation in preventing Wi-Fi over-congestion in densely populated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Nijs, J.M.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Given the ever increasing number of Wi-Fi devices in use by the public, the progressing urbanisation, and the current attempts by the industry to improve Wi-Fi system performance, we here analyse the case of apartment blocks with residents increasingly suffering from Wi-Fi over-congestion. Here,

  13. 10 CFR 100.11 - Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance. 100.11 Section 100.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR... and for Testing Reactors § 100.11 Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population...

  14. Developing Off-site Emergency Preparedness and Response Model (OEPRM) for Severe Accident of NPP in a Densely Populated Country Using System Dynamics Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossena, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Song, Jin Ho [KAERI, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main objectives of this study are to find the influencing factors of systems and sub-systems of OEPRM, to find the interdependency among the influencing factors, and to develop a conceptual qualitative OEPRM for densely populated NPP country in case of SA using system dynamics (SD). NPP accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity. Severe accident (SA) is certain low probability accident that are beyond design basis accident which may arise due to multiple failures of safety systems leading to significant core degradation and jeopardize the integrity of many or all of the barriers to the release of radioactive material. The weakness to the off-site emergency response in the time of Fukushima accident was observed. So, it is crucial to develop an off-site emergency preparedness and responses model (OEPRM) for radiological emergency in densely populated country from the Fukushima emergency response lesson. In this study, an OEPRM is developed for densely populated NPP country to mitigate radiological effects in case of SA using SD approach. Besides, this study focuses the weakness of emergency response in Fukushima accident and proposed solution approach. The development of OEPRM in case of SA of NPP is very complex because of the involvement of various organization and it requires highly specialized agencies and technical experts. Moreover, if the country is agriculture based, it will make completely sophisticated.

  15. Developing Off-site Emergency Preparedness and Response Model (OEPRM) for Severe Accident of NPP in a Densely Populated Country Using System Dynamics Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossena, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Song, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are to find the influencing factors of systems and sub-systems of OEPRM, to find the interdependency among the influencing factors, and to develop a conceptual qualitative OEPRM for densely populated NPP country in case of SA using system dynamics (SD). NPP accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity. Severe accident (SA) is certain low probability accident that are beyond design basis accident which may arise due to multiple failures of safety systems leading to significant core degradation and jeopardize the integrity of many or all of the barriers to the release of radioactive material. The weakness to the off-site emergency response in the time of Fukushima accident was observed. So, it is crucial to develop an off-site emergency preparedness and responses model (OEPRM) for radiological emergency in densely populated country from the Fukushima emergency response lesson. In this study, an OEPRM is developed for densely populated NPP country to mitigate radiological effects in case of SA using SD approach. Besides, this study focuses the weakness of emergency response in Fukushima accident and proposed solution approach. The development of OEPRM in case of SA of NPP is very complex because of the involvement of various organization and it requires highly specialized agencies and technical experts. Moreover, if the country is agriculture based, it will make completely sophisticated

  16. Engineering with nuclear explosives near populated areas - A survey from the technological and economic viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, K [AWRE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    Current experience with underground firings of nuclear explosives and of large charges of conventional explosives is largely confined to sparsely populated areas such as the Nevada and Sahara deserts and parts of Siberia. On the other hand many of the commercial applications proposed for nuclear explosives are directly relevant to industrialized areas, where consumptions of energy and natural resources are high, as are population densities. In many of these areas there is a need to increase the efficiency with which natural gas, oil and electrical power are supplied and to make safe disposal of fluid wastes; completely contained nuclear explosions could be a useful tool in achieving some or all of these aims. Whilst radioactivity and air blast hazards are likely to rule out nuclear cratering operations near densely populated areas, the prospects for carrying out completely contained explosions are much better, providing seismic damage is kept within reasonable bounds. In large areas of Western Europe and on the eastern, southern and western seaboards of the United States this might be achieved by using nuclear explosions beneath the seabed at a reasonable distance from the nearest coastline, always provided the relevant political issues can be resolved. Stimulation and storage of North Sea natural gas, construction of off-shore oil storage and storage of electrical energy are areas where engineering with nuclear explosives merits more detailed investigation and some of the relevant technical problems are discussed. (author)

  17. Engineering with nuclear explosives near populated areas - A survey from the technological and economic viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.

    1970-01-01

    Current experience with underground firings of nuclear explosives and of large charges of conventional explosives is largely confined to sparsely populated areas such as the Nevada and Sahara deserts and parts of Siberia. On the other hand many of the commercial applications proposed for nuclear explosives are directly relevant to industrialized areas, where consumptions of energy and natural resources are high, as are population densities. In many of these areas there is a need to increase the efficiency with which natural gas, oil and electrical power are supplied and to make safe disposal of fluid wastes; completely contained nuclear explosions could be a useful tool in achieving some or all of these aims. Whilst radioactivity and air blast hazards are likely to rule out nuclear cratering operations near densely populated areas, the prospects for carrying out completely contained explosions are much better, providing seismic damage is kept within reasonable bounds. In large areas of Western Europe and on the eastern, southern and western seaboards of the United States this might be achieved by using nuclear explosions beneath the seabed at a reasonable distance from the nearest coastline, always provided the relevant political issues can be resolved. Stimulation and storage of North Sea natural gas, construction of off-shore oil storage and storage of electrical energy are areas where engineering with nuclear explosives merits more detailed investigation and some of the relevant technical problems are discussed. (author)

  18. Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, T I

    1991-01-01

    Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the

  19. Assessment of fish populations and habitat on Oculina Bank, a deep-sea coral marine protected area off eastern Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Harter , Stacey L.; Ribera, Marta M.; Shepard, Andrew N.; Reed, John K.

    2009-01-01

    A portion of the Oculina Bank located off eastern Florida is a marine protected area (MPA) preserved for its dense populations of the ivory tree coral (Oculina varicosa), which provides important habitat for fish. Surveys of fish assemblages and benthic habitat were conducted inside and outside the MPA in 2003 and 2005 by using remotely operated vehicle video transects and digital still imagery. Fish species composition, biodiversity, and grouper densities were used to determine w...

  20. Evaluating perspectives for PRRS virus elimination from pig dense areas with a risk factor based herd index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrion, A S; Beilage, E grosse; Nathues, H; Dürr, S; Doherr, M G

    2014-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is wide-spread in pig populations globally. In many regions of Europe with intensive pig production and high herd densities, the virus is endemic and can cause disease and production losses. This fuels discussion about the feasibility and sustainability of virus elimination from larger geographic regions. The implementation of a program aiming at virus elimination for areas with high pig density is unprecedented and its potential success is unknown. The objective of this work was to approach pig population data with a simple method that could support assessing the feasibility of a sustainable regional PRRSV elimination. Based on known risk factors such as pig herd structure and neighborhood conditions, an index characterizing individual herds' potential for endemic virus circulation and reinfection was designed. This index was subsequently used to compare data of all pig herds in two regions with different pig- and herd-densities in Lower Saxony (North-West Germany) where PRRSV is endemic. Distribution of the indexed herds was displayed using GIS. Clusters of high herd index densities forming potential risk hot spots were identified which could represent key target areas for surveillance and biosecurity measures under a control program aimed at virus elimination. In an additional step, for the study region with the higher pig density (2463 pigs/km(2) farmland), the potential distribution of PRRSV-free and non-free herds during the implementation of a national control program aiming at national virus elimination was modeled. Complex herd and trade network structures suggest that PRRSV elimination in regions with intensive pig farming like that of middle Europe would have to involve legal regulation and be accompanied by important trade and animal movement restrictions. The proposed methodology of risk index mapping could be adapted to areas varying in size, herd structure and density. Interpreted in the

  1. Adaptation of natural drosophila populations from radiocontaminated areas of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.; Glushkova, I.V.; Anoshenko, I.P.; Aksyutik, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic monitoring of natural drosophila populations from the area radiation contaminated due to Chernobyl accident (Vetka district of Gomel region) and from the control area (Byarehzinski National Reserve) had been conducted. Flies from radiation contaminated area were shown to be much more adapted to irradiation than insects from the control region. Then the population samples were kept under laboratory condition without irradiation for 8 generations. Adaptation of Vetka population to irradiation remained.. Besides the control population became also more resistant to ionizing radiation. Keeping of natural populations under laboratory or vivarium conditions is a strong stress (limited space, overpopulation, other than in nature temperature and light conditions), which increases mutation process and induces unspecific adaptation. These facts should be taken into account in studying dynamics of the mutation level during radionuclide removal in animals caught in radiation contaminated regions and placed in vivarium conditions. (authors)

  2. Dendrogram Analysis of Large-Area CARMA Images in Perseus: the Dense Gas in NGC 1333, Barnard 1, and L1451

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, L. G.; Teuben, P. J.; Lee, K.; Looney, L.; Fernandez Lopez, M.; Rosolowsky, E.; Arce, H. G.; Shirley, Y. L.; Segura-Cox, D.; Isella, A.; CLASSy Team

    2014-01-01

    We present spectral line maps of the dense gas across 400 square arcminutes of the Perseus Molecular Cloud, focused on NGC 1333, Barnard 1, and L1451. We constructed these maps as part of the CARMA Large Area Star-formation Survey (CLASSy), which is a CARMA key project that connects star forming cores to their natal cloud environment. This is achieved by leveraging CARMA's high angular resolution, imaging capability, and high efficiency at mosaicing large areas of the sky. CLASSy maps capture the structure and kinematics of N2H+, HCN, and HCO+ J=1-0 emission from thousand AU to parsec scales in three evolutionarily distinct regions of Perseus (in addition to two regions in Serpens). We show results from a non-binary dendrogram analysis of the Perseus N2H+ emission, which answers questions about the turbulent properties of the dense gas across evolutionary stages and across the range of size scales probed by CLASSy. There is a flat relation between mean internal turbulence and structure size for the dense gas in NGC 1333 and Barnard 1, but the magnitude of internal turbulence increases with nearby protostellar activity; the dense gas in the B1 main core and NGC 1333, which have active young stars, are characterized by mostly transonic to supersonic turbulence, while the filaments and clumps southwest of the B1 main core, which have no active young stars, have mostly subsonic turbulence. We have recently completed the observations of L1451, and results for that region will be revealed at the meeting. Released CLASSy data products can be found on our project website.

  3. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F Morrison

    Full Text Available The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  4. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S; Keogh, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  5. Spatial Ecology of the Critically Endangered Fijian Crested Iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an Extremely Dense Population: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F.; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs. PMID:24019902

  6. Cultural Ecosystem Services of Urban Green Spaces-Supply and Demand in The Densely Built-Up Areas. Poznan Old Town Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizy, Lidia; Majchrzak, Weronika; Zwierzchowska, Iwona

    2017-12-01

    The quality of life of big city dwellers depends on the use of green infrastructure. The idea of a compact city, opposed to urban sprawl, can lead to reduced access to green areas and increased demand for cultural services provided through urban green infrastructure. Considering the above, the aim of the paper was to identify the supply of and demand for cultural ecosystem services related to the urban green spaces in densely built-up urban areas. To find out how important the ability to use green areas for dwellers of the densely built-up areas is, the questionnaire interviews with the residents of the area of the Old Town of Poznan were conducted. Questions in the survey concerned the amount of green spaces and their availability, the way of use, types of activity, factors limiting the use and factors encouraging to visit green spaces and the motives for using green areas away from inhabitants’ place of residence. Respondents claim that there is not enough greenery, especially associated with housing and street side greenery; the amount of parks (which they use most) is slightly higher, in their opinion. Limitations that influence utilising green spaces concern both greenery itself (e.g. insufficient recreational infrastructure, neglected green areas) as well as respondent’s issues (e.g. lack of free time). Improvements to recreational infrastructure and more well-kept green spaces would encourage respondents to utilise it more often. Active participation of inhabitants in developing and maintaining their closest neighbourhood would allow to enlarge green spaces in housing areas and make them more customized to the residents’ needs and requirements in terms of functionality and aesthetic.

  7. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Cesaretti

    Full Text Available Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations, our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured

  8. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  9. Trends of forest area and population and the impact of population on forest area per hectare in Serbia without APS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic changes throughout history have shaped the attitude towards the forest and most significant ones are changes in terms of population. Over the centuries population and population density have had a significant impact on deforestation and the reduction of forest areas. Therefore, it is important to check what kind of trends are concerned and how population growth affects forest areas, forest cover and forest area per capita. These elements are important for assessing the direction, intensity of activity and the degree of success in the implementation of all forest policy measures in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat, br. 43007/16-III: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  10. High-Resolution Imaging of Dense Gas Structure and Kinematics in Nearby Molecular Clouds with the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye

    This thesis utilizes new observations of dense gas in molecular clouds to develop an empirical framework for how clouds form structures which evolve into young cores and stars. Previous observations show the general turbulent and hierarchical nature of clouds. However, current understanding of the star formation pathway is limited by existing data that do not combine angular resolution needed to resolve individual cores with area coverage required to capture entire star-forming regions and with tracers that can resolve gas motions. The original contributions of this thesis to astrophysical research are the creation and analysis of the largest-area high-angular-resolution maps of dense gas in molecular clouds to-date, and the development of a non-binary dendrogram algorithm to quantify the hierarchical nature and three-dimensional morphology of cloud structure. I first describe the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey, which provides spectrally imaged N2H+, HCO+, and HCN (J = 1→0) emission across diverse regions of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. I then present a detailed analysis of the Barnard 1 and L1451 regions in Perseus. A non-binary dendrogram analysis of Barnard 1 N2H emission and all L1451 emission shows that the most hierarchically complex gas corresponds with sub-regions actively forming young stars. I estimate the typical depth of molecular emission in each region using the spatial and kinematic properties of dendrogram-identified structures. Barnard 1 appears to be a sheet-like region at the largest scales with filamentary substructure, while the L1451 region is composed of more spatially distinct ellipsoidal structures. I then do a uniform comparison of the hierarchical structure and young stellar content of all five regions. The more evolved regions with the most young stellar objects (YSOs) and strongest emission have formed the most hierarchical levels. However, all regions show similar mean branching properties at each level

  11. Analysis of rainfall intensities using very dense network measurements and radar information for the Brno area during the period 2003-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salek, Milan; Stepanek, Petr; Zahradnicek, Pavel [Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-02-15

    This study presents a data quality control and spatial analysis of maximum precipitation sums of various durations for the area of the city of Brno, using a dense network of automatic gauge stations and radar information. The measurements of 18 stations in the area of Brno, Czech Republic were established for the purposes of better management of the city sewerage system. Before evaluation of the measurements, quality control was executed on the daily, hourly and 15-minute precipitation sums. All suspicious data were compared with radar measurements and erroneous input data were removed. From this quality controlled data, the maxima of precipitation sums for durations of 5, 10, 15 and 60 minutes were calculated for the given time frames (months, seasons and years) and were spatially analyzed. The role of spatial precipitation estimates using weather radar data for hourly rainfall accumulations has been investigated as well. It is revealed that radar measurements show rather little improvement of the areal precipitation estimates when such a dense gauge network is available in real time, but it would be hard to replace radar measurements by any other source of data for successful quality control of the rain-gauge data, especially in summer months. (orig.)

  12. Hanford Area 1990 population and 50-year projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.M.; Scott, M.J.; Shindle, S.F.; Napier, B.A.; Thurman, A.G.; Batishko, N.C.; Davis, M.D.; Pittenger, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    The complex and comprehensive safety analysis activities carried out at Hanford for nonreactor nuclear facilities require data from a number of scientific and engineering disciplines. The types of data that are required include data pertaining to current population and population projections. The types of data found in this document include 1990 census totals for residential population within a 50-mile radius of the 100-N, 200, 300, and 400 Area meteorological towers. This document also contains 50-year projections for residential populations within a 50-mile radius of these four meteorological towers. The analysis of population projections indicates that residential population within a 50-mile radius of the four meteorological towers in question will continue to grow through 2040, although at a slower rate each decade. In all cases, the highest growth is projected for the decade ending in the year 2000. The annual growth rate for this period is projected to be 0.646, 0.633, 0.543, and 0.570 in the 100-N, 200, 300, and 400 Areas, respectively. By 2040, these growth rates are projected to drop to 0.082, 0.068, 0.078, 0.078, respectively. 4 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  14. Floristic and phytosociology in dense “terra firme” rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN. Lemos

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense “Terra Firme” rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1, distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94, Araceae (65 and Arecaceae (43, comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41, Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50 and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28 showed the highest importance values (IV. The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%. The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  15. [Research on blood distribution of Tibetan population in Ali area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Li, D D; Li, H L; Hou, L A; Liu, Z J; Yang, H Y; Qiu, L

    2017-12-12

    Objective: To explore the distribution of ABO blood group in the healthy population in the Ali area of Tibet, and to analyze the difference of blood group distribution between the Tibetan population in Ali and the Tibet Tibetan population. Methods: The blood distribution of 509 apparent healthy volunteers of Tueti County and Gal County, Tibet, which were randomly selected from September to November in 2016; 137 Tibetan blood donors, from 2016 September to2017 July and 84 Tibetan blood donors from 2015 August to 2017 July was analyzed retrospectively. The blood type was tested by the slide method. By reviewing the Chinese and foreign language database, seven articles on Tibetan blood group distribution were obtained. And the data of the blood distribution of the Ali area population and the Tibet Tibetan population were compared. Results: The ABO phenotype frequencies of 507 apparent healthy people, 137 blood donors and 84 recipients were B>O>A>AB. The composition ratio were 36.1%, 34.5%, 21.5 %, 7.9%; 40.1%, 35.0%, 17.5%, 7.3%; 39.3%, 34.5%, 20.2%, 6.0%.There was no statistically significant difference in blood group distribution between the donors and the recipients ( P >0.05). And there was no significant difference in the blood group distribution between Ali and Shigatse, Nagqu, Lhasa, Shannan. However, the differences between Ali and Qamdo, Nyingchi areas were statistically significant. Conclusion: The geographical position of the blood from the west to east, B type shows a downward trend, O type blood composition ratio shows an upward trend.

  16. 2D PWV monitoring of a wide and orographically complex area with a low dense GNSS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Ilaria; Federici, Bianca; Sguerso, Domenico

    2018-04-01

    This study presents an innovative procedure to monitor the precipitable water vapor (PWV) content of a wide and orographically complex area with low-density networks. The procedure, termed G4M (global navigation satellite system, GNSS, for Meteorology), has been developed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment using the free and open source GRASS GIS software (https://grass.osgeo.org). The G4M input data are zenith total delay estimates obtained from GNSS permanent stations network adjustment and pressure ( P) and temperature ( T) observations using existing infrastructure networks with different geographic distributions in the study area. In spite of the wide sensor distribution, the procedure produces 2D maps with high spatiotemporal resolution (up to 250 m and 6 min) based on a simplified mathematical model including data interpolation, which was conceived by the authors to describe the atmosphere's physics. In addition to PWV maps, the procedure provides ΔPWV and heterogeneity index maps: the former represents PWV variations with respect to a "calm" moment, which are useful for monitoring the PWV evolution; and the latter are promising indicators to localize severe meteorological events in time and space. This innovative procedure is compared with meteorological simulations in this paper; in addition, an application to a severe event that occurred in Genoa (Italy) is presented.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Satellite NO2 data improve national land use regression models for ambient NO2 in a small densely populated country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.; Eeftens, M.; Beelen, R.; Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Boersma, K.F.; Veefkind, P.

    2015-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling has increasingly been applied to model fine scale spatial variation of outdoor air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 improved LUR model in very large study areas, including Canada, United States and Australia.

  18. Satellite NO2 data improve national land use regression models for ambient NO2 in a small densely populated country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Gerard; Eeftens, Marloes; Beelen, Rob; Fischer, Paul; Brunekreef, Bert; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, Pepijn

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling has increasingly been applied to model fine scale spatial variation of outdoor air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 improved LUR model in very large study areas, including Canada, United States and Australia.

  19. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.O.; Knight, A.L.; Richardson, G.; Bloem, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  20. Ocean-bottom pressure changes above a fault area for tsunami excitation and propagation observed by a submarine dense network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, K.; Saito, T.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional tsunami excitation and propagation have been formulated by incompressible fluid with velocity components. This approach is valid in most cases because we usually analyze tunamis as "long gravity waves" excited by submarine earthquakes. Newly developed ocean-bottom tsunami networks such as S-net and DONET have dramatically changed the above situation for the following two reasons: (1) tsunami propagations are now directly observed in a 2-D array manner without being suffered by complex "site effects" of sea shore, and (2) initial tsunami features can be directly detected just above a fault area. Removing the incompressibility assumption of sea water, we have formulated a new representation of tsunami excitation based on not velocity but displacement components. As a result, not only dynamics but static term (i.e., the component of zero frequency) can be naturally introduced, which is important for the pressure observed on the ocean floor, which ocean-bottom tsunami stations are going to record. The acceleration on the ocean floor should be combined with the conventional tsunami height (that is, the deformation of the sea level above a given station) in the measurement of ocean-bottom pressure although the acceleration exists only during fault motions in time. The M7.2 Off Fukushima earthquake on 22 November 2016 was the first event that excited large tsunamis within the territory of S-net stations. The propagation of tsunamis is found to be highly non-uniform, because of the strong velocity (i.e., sea depth) gradient perpendicular to the axis of Japan Trench. The earthquake was located in a shallow sea close to the coast, so that all the tsunami energy is reflected by the trench region of high velocity. Tsunami records (pressure gauges) within its fault area recorded clear slow motions of tsunamis (i.e., sea level changes) but also large high-frequency signals, as predicted by our theoretical result. That is, it may be difficult to extract tsunami

  1. Sustained high incidence of injuries from burns in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya: an emerging public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Nyachieo, Dhillon O; Benzekri, Noelle A; Cosmas, Leonard; Ondari, Daniel; Yekta, Shahla; Montgomery, Joel M; Williamson, John M; Breiman, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Ninety-five percent of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, longitudinal household-level studies have not been done in urban slum settings, where overcrowding and unsafe cook stoves may increase likelihood of injury. Using a prospective, population-based disease surveillance system in the urban slum of Kibera in Kenya, we examined the incidence of household-level burns of all severities from 2006-2011. Of approximately 28,500 enrolled individuals (6000 households), we identified 3072 burns. The overall incidence was 27.9/1000 person-years-of-observation. Children slums rapidly increases in many African countries, characterizing and addressing the rising burden of burns is likely to become a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Relating normalization to neuronal populations across cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Douglas A; Alberts, Joshua J; Cohen, Marlene R

    2016-09-01

    Normalization, which divisively scales neuronal responses to multiple stimuli, is thought to underlie many sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. In every study where it has been investigated, neurons measured in the same brain area under identical conditions exhibit a range of normalization, ranging from suppression by nonpreferred stimuli (strong normalization) to additive responses to combinations of stimuli (no normalization). Normalization has been hypothesized to arise from interactions between neuronal populations, either in the same or different brain areas, but current models of normalization are not mechanistic and focus on trial-averaged responses. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying normalization, we examined interactions between neurons that exhibit different degrees of normalization. We recorded from multiple neurons in three cortical areas while rhesus monkeys viewed superimposed drifting gratings. We found that neurons showing strong normalization shared less trial-to-trial variability with other neurons in the same cortical area and more variability with neurons in other cortical areas than did units with weak normalization. Furthermore, the cortical organization of normalization was not random: neurons recorded on nearby electrodes tended to exhibit similar amounts of normalization. Together, our results suggest that normalization reflects a neuron's role in its local network and that modulatory factors like normalization share the topographic organization typical of sensory tuning properties. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Burned areas for the conterminous U.S. from 1984 through 2015, an automated approach using dense time-series of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, T. J.; Vanderhoof, M.; Beal, Y. J. G.; Takacs, J. D.; Schmidt, G.; Falgout, J.; Brunner, N. M.; Caldwell, M. K.; Picotte, J. J.; Howard, S. M.; Stitt, S.; Dwyer, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Complete and accurate burned area data are needed to document patterns of fires, to quantify relationships between the patterns and drivers of fire occurrence, and to assess the impacts of fires on human and natural systems. Unfortunately, many existing fire datasets in the United States are known to be incomplete and that complicates efforts to understand burned area patterns and introduces a large amount of uncertainty in efforts to identify their driving processes and impacts. Because of this, the need to systematically collect burned area information has been recognized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which have both called for the production of essential climate variables. To help meet this need, we developed a novel algorithm that automatically identifies burned areas in temporally-dense time series of Landsat image stacks to produce Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) products. The algorithm makes use of predictors derived from individual Landsat scenes, lagged reference conditions, and change metrics between the scene and reference predictors. Outputs of the BAECV algorithm, generated for the conterminous United States for 1984 through 2015, consist of burn probabilities for each Landsat scene, in addition to, annual composites including: the maximum burn probability, burn classification, and the Julian date of the first Landsat scene a burn was observed. The BAECV products document patterns of fire occurrence that are not well characterized by existing fire datasets in the United States. We anticipate that these data could help to better understand past patterns of fire occurrence, the drivers that created them, and the impacts fires had on natural and human systems.

  4. Types of population dynamics in settlements of Zaplanje area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the main directions of changes in the spatial-demographic settlements organization of Zaplanje, which, due to rapid demographic recession since the 60s of the 20th century, is the strongest depopulation area with the oldest population in Serbia. This research aims is to determine the main types of changes in demographic development of the settlements and indirectly reveals key issues of the sustainable development of Zaplanje settlements and revitalization of villages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  5. Ensuring the population living safety in the contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Voronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state policy of the Russian Federation to ensure population, living in the contaminated areas, life safety is implemented by means of federal programs.12 programs for overcoming the Chernobyl accident consequences, children’s population protection and housing provision for the Chernobyl accident liquidators are adopted and realized during this time. Total financing amount from the federal budget is more than 9,2 billion rubles. The main efforts are directed to create necessary infrastructure in settlements, development and deployment rehabilitation measures for agricultural lands and forests, creation of radiation situation monitoring systems, increase housekeeping safety culture in the contaminated territories, informational support and social and psychological rehabilitation of the population. Within the state programs are developing complex systems of a radiation situation monitoring in 12 subjects of the Russian Federation. Experts training for the outreach work with population, concerning radiation safety, increasing population knowledge level about radiation in a format of seminars, conferences, with use of online technologies is provided. The project on creation the uniform interdepartmental information system on overcoming radiation accidents aftermath, integrating the operating information systems of The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters, Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing and the Russian Academy of Sciences is realized.However, the problem of overcoming the radiation accidents aftermath remains relevant up to date.In 14 subjects of the Russian Federation there are territories contaminated by radioactive materials as a result of the Chernobyl accident where more than 1,5 million people live.

  6. Multidetector computed tomography of the head in acute stroke: predictive value of different patterns of the dense artery sign revealed by maximum intensity projection reformations for location and extent of the infarcted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadda, Davide; Vannucchi, Letizia; Niccolai, Franco; Neri, Anna T.; Carmignani, Luca; Pacini, Patrizio [Ospedale del Ceppo, U.O. Radiodiagnostica, Pistoia (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    Maximum intensity projections reconstructions from 2.5 mm unenhanced multidetector computed tomography axial slices were obtained from 49 patients within the first 6 h of anterior-circulation cerebral strokes to identify different patterns of the dense artery sign and their prognostic implications for location and extent of the infarcted areas. The dense artery sign was found in 67.3% of cases. Increased density of the whole M1 segment with extension to M2 of the middle cerebral artery was associated with a wider extension of cerebral infarcts in comparison to M1 segment alone or distal M1 and M2. A dense sylvian branch of the middle cerebral artery pattern was associated with a more restricted extension of infarct territory. We found 62.5% of patients without a demonstrable dense artery to have a limited peripheral cortical or capsulonuclear lesion. In patients with a 7-10 points on the Alberta Stroke Early Programme Computed Tomography Score and a dense proximal MCA in the first hours of ictus the mean decrease in the score between baseline and follow-up was 5.09{+-}1.92 points. In conclusion, maximum intensity projections from thin-slice images can be quickly obtained from standard computed tomography datasets using a multidetector scanner and are useful in identifying and correctly localizing the dense artery sign, with prognostic implications for the entity of cerebral damage. (orig.)

  7. Raja asterias population assessment in FAO GFCM GSA17 area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. FERRÀ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and distribution of the starry ray, Raja asterias, were described based on data collected during yearly rapido trawl surveys (SoleMon, between 2005 and 2014 in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea. A total of 306 individuals were caught, sex ratio was 1.04:1 in favor of males and length-weight relationships were obtained for the whole sample. Following the MEDITS scale, maturity was estimated, observing a higher number of immature individuals. Relative abundance significantly increased during the recent period with the highest values recorded at 5-30 m depths. Such increase could be related to the response of R. asterias to climatic change or to the decrease  in fishing pressure in the area. Clear spatial segregation of individuals depending on their life stage was observed, with immature individuals inhabiting the coastal areas and adults more abundant at depths greater than 40 m. The comparison of the result of the present study with MEDITS survey outcomes in terms of  distribution patterns, persistence areas of adults and juveniles and abundances indices, evidences that SoleMon survey seems to be more suitable in defining such features of the stock, likely due to the greater catchability of the rapido trawl in respect to the MEDITS trawl net. However, further investigations are needed to identify factors affecting the increasing abundance of this species, and develop an action plan for spatial management of fishing activities.

  8. ASPECTS OF THE INFLUENCE ASSESSMENT OF THE NEW CONSTRUCTION DURING THE RECONSTRUCTION OF URBAN TERRITORY AREAS IN THE DENSE BUILDING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Prusov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The scientific substantiation concept has been considered for the urban development and territorial planning reconstruction principles of the urban area sections with dense building and difficult engineering-geological conditions for scientific and technical support of all reconstruction processes and recommendations elaboration for a safe and balanced development of built-up territories and more efficient use of housing estates in the present social and economic conditions. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Обычная таблица"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  9. Overestimation of on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory caused by exhaust plumes of a vehicle ahead in dense traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang-Hee; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Chang Hyeok; Yook, Se-Jin; Jeon, Sangzin; Kwon, Sangil; Kim, Jeongsoo; Lee, Seung-Bok

    2016-11-01

    The unintended influence of exhaust plumes emitted from a vehicle ahead to on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory (ML) at 20-40 km h -1 in dense traffic areas was investigated by experiment and life-sized computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) simulation. The ML equipped with variable sampling inlets of five columns by four rows was used to measure the spatial distribution of CO 2 and NO x concentrations when following 5-20 m behind a sport utility vehicle (SUV) as an emitter vehicle equipped with a portable emission monitoring system (PEMS). The PEMS measured exhaust gases at the tailpipe for input data of the CFD simulations. After the CFD method was verified with experimental results of the SUV, dispersion of exhaust plumes emitted from a bus and a sedan was numerically analyzed. More dilution of the exhaust plume was observed at higher vehicle speeds, probably because of eddy diffusion that was proportional to turbulent kinetic energy and vehicle speed. The CO 2 and NO x concentrations behind the emitter vehicle showed less overestimation as both the distance between the two vehicles and their background concentrations increased. If the height of the ML inlet is lower than 2 m and the ML travels within 20 m behind a SUV and a sedan ahead at 20 km h -1 , the overestimation should be considered by as much as 200 ppb in NO x and 80 ppm in CO 2 . Following a bus should be avoided if possible, because effect of exhaust plumes from a bus ahead could not be negligible even when the distance between the bus and the ML with the inlet height of 2 m, was more than 40 m. Recommendations are provided to avoid the unintended influence of exhaust plumes from vehicles ahead of the ML during on-road measurement in urban dense traffic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Chlorine Gas Incident Simulation and Dispersion Within a Complex and Populated Urban Area Via Computation Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Kashi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In some instances, it is inevitable that large amounts of potentially hazardous chemicals like chlorine gas are stored and used in facilities in densely populated areas. In such cases, all safety issues must be carefully considered. To reach this goal, it is important to have accurate information concerning chlorine gas behaviors and how it is dispersed in dense urban areas. Furthermore, maintaining adequate air movement and the ability to purge ambient from potential toxic and dangerous chemicals like chlorine gas could be helpful. These are among the most important actions to be taken toward the improvement of safety in a big metropolis like Tehran. This paper investigates and analyzes chlorine gas leakage scenarios, including its dispersion and natural air ventilation  effects on how it might be geographically spread in a city, using computational  fluid dynamic (CFD. Simulations of possible hazardous events and solutions for preventing or reducing their probability are presented to gain a better insight into the incidents. These investigations are done by considering hypothetical scenarios which consist of chlorine gas leakages from pipelines or storage tanks under different conditions. These CFD simulation results are used to investigate and analyze chlorine gas behaviors, dispersion, distribution, accumulation, and other possible hazards by means of a simplified CAD model of an urban area near a water-treatment facility. Possible hazards as well as some prevention and post incident solutions are also suggested.

  11. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-12-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (subsequent sampling days) dynamics. We compared the drones' genotypes at ten microsatellite DNA markers with those of the queen genotypes of six drone-producing colonies located close to the DCAs (Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia). None of 430 sampled drones originated from any of these nearby colonies. Moreover, we estimated that 141 unidentified colonies were contributing to the three DCAs. Most of these colonies were participating multiple times in the different locations and/or during the consecutive days of sampling. The drones sampled in the DCAs could be attributed to six subpopulations. These were all admixed in all DCA samples, increasing the effective population size an order of magnitude and preventing matings between potentially related queens and drones.

  12. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Cidón B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bárbara Fernández-Cidón,1–3 Ariadna Padró-Miquel,1 Pedro Alía-Ramos,1 María José Castro-Castro,1 Marta Fanlo-Maresma,4 Dolors Dot-Bach,1 José Valero-Politi,1 Xavier Pintó-Sala,4 Beatriz Candás-Estébanez1 1Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 2Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacogenetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 4Cardiovascular Risk Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Background: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation. Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results: The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73 + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13, demonstrating no significant statistical differences

  13. Engineered barrier durability: An issue for disposal near populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Under the current national policy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States of America, each State is required to provide disposal capacity for the LLW generated within its borders. The formation of ''Compacts'' of several States is allowed if approved by Congress. Such forced regionalization of disposal facilities based on State boundaries results in some disposal facilities being sited near populated areas at locations with less than optimum site characteristics from a disposal standpoint. To compensate for this engineered barriers are included in the proposed designs. Portland cement based concrete (PCC), which is the dominant material for disposal vault designs, is degraded via many mechanisms, most of which are related to its permeability. The numerous uncertainties associated with the long-term performance of PCC has lead to many unsuccessful attempts to obtain public acceptance of proposed disposal facilities. These unsuccessful efforts have delayed establishing disposal capacity to the point that a crisis is looming on the horizon. This paper investigates the results of on-going research into the viability of commercially available, impermeable, mass-poured construction materials as an alternative to PCC in LLW disposal vaults. The results from testing and research on two such materials, concrete made from sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and ICOM (an epoxy based concrete) are reported. Material properties and test results include strength parameters, chemical resistance, porosity, permeability, deconability, radiation damage resistance, and biodegradation. The data indicates that with these alternative materials the uncertainties in predicting service life of an engineered barrier can be reduced

  14. Biological effects of low-dose radiation on human population living in high-background radiation areas of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    High-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast is densely populated and known for its wide variation in background radiation dose levels due to uneven distribution of monazite in the beach sand. The background radiation dose varies from 1 to 45 mGv/y. The areas with >1.5mGy/y is considered as HLNRA. Human population inhabiting in this area are exposed to low-dose chronic radiation since generations. Hence, this population provides an ideal situation to study dose response and adaptive response, if any, due to natural chronic low-dose exposure. It has been investigated extensively to study the biological and health effects of long-term low-dose/low-dose radiation exposure. So far over 150, 000 newborns monitored from hospital-based study did not reveal any significant difference in the incidence of any of the malformations and stillbirth between HLNRA and adjacent control areas. A case-control study on cleft lip/palate and mental retardation did not show any association with background radiation dose. Cytogenetic investigation of over 27,000 newborns did not show any significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations and karyotype anomalies. DNA damage endpoints, such as micronuclei, telomere length and DNA strand breaks, did not reveal any significant difference between control and exposed population. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed efficient repair of DNA strand breaks in HLNRA individuals. Molecular studies using high throughput microarray analysis indicated a large number of genes involved in various molecular and cellular pathways. Indications of in vivo radioadaptive response due to natural chronic low-dose exposure in this population have important implications to human health. (author)

  15. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography in comparison to conventional full-field digital mammography in a population of women with dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miki; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Suzuki, Satoko; Daniels, Murasaki Ikeda; Watanabe, Chie; Hirose, Masanori; Nakamura, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography to compare clinical efficacy of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) and conventional digital mammography (MMG) with histopathology as gold standard in dense breasts. A total of 143 breasts of 72 women who underwent CESM and MMG between 2011 and 2014 at Showa University Hospital were analyzed. 129 (90.2 %) of 143 breasts revealed dense breasts on MMG. 58 (40.6 %) of 143 breasts were diagnosed with breast cancer at histopathology. The remaining 85 breasts were diagnosed with benign findings after image assessments and/or core needle biopsy. CESM revealed 8 false-negative cases among 58 breast cancer cases (sensitivity 86.2 %) and 5 false-positive cases (specificity 94.1 %). Accuracy was 90.9 %. Conventional MMG was assessed true positive in 31 of 58 breast cancer cases (sensitivity 53.4 %) and false positive in 12 cases (specificity 85.9 %). Accuracy was 72.7 %. Sensitivity (p < 0.001), specificity (p = 0.016) and accuracy (p < 0.001) were significantly higher on CESM compared to MMG. MMG missed malignancy in 27 breasts. Of these, 25 were dense breasts. Of these 25, 20 (80.0 %) breasts were positive on CESM. These findings suggest that CESM offers superior clinical performance compared to MMG. Use of CESM may decrease false negatives especially for women with dense breasts.

  17. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  18. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould

    2017-01-01

    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  19. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  20. APPLYING THIESSEN POLYGON CATCHMENT AREAS AND GRIDDED POPULATION WEIGHTS TO ESTIMATE CONFLICT-DRIVEN POPULATION CHANGES IN SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jordan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent violence in South Sudan produced significant levels of conflict-driven migration undermining the accuracy and utility of both national and local level population forecasts commonly used in demographic estimates, public health metrics and food security proxies. This article explores the use of Thiessen Polygons and population grids (Gridded Population of the World, WorldPop and LandScan as weights for estimating the catchment areas for settlement locations that serve large populations of internally displaced persons (IDP, in order to estimate the county-level in- and out-migration attributable to conflict-driven displacement between 2014-2015. Acknowledging IDP totals improves internal population estimates presented by global population databases. Unlike other forecasts, which produce spatially uniform increases in population, accounting for displaced population reveals that 15 percent of counties (n = 12 increased in population over 20 percent, and 30 percent of counties (n = 24 experienced zero or declining population growth, due to internal displacement and refugee out-migration. Adopting Thiessen Polygon catchment zones for internal migration estimation can be applied to other areas with United Nations IDP settlement data, such as Yemen, Somalia, and Nigeria.

  1. Applying Thiessen Polygon Catchment Areas and Gridded Population Weights to Estimate Conflict-Driven Population Changes in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent violence in South Sudan produced significant levels of conflict-driven migration undermining the accuracy and utility of both national and local level population forecasts commonly used in demographic estimates, public health metrics and food security proxies. This article explores the use of Thiessen Polygons and population grids (Gridded Population of the World, WorldPop and LandScan) as weights for estimating the catchment areas for settlement locations that serve large populations of internally displaced persons (IDP), in order to estimate the county-level in- and out-migration attributable to conflict-driven displacement between 2014-2015. Acknowledging IDP totals improves internal population estimates presented by global population databases. Unlike other forecasts, which produce spatially uniform increases in population, accounting for displaced population reveals that 15 percent of counties (n = 12) increased in population over 20 percent, and 30 percent of counties (n = 24) experienced zero or declining population growth, due to internal displacement and refugee out-migration. Adopting Thiessen Polygon catchment zones for internal migration estimation can be applied to other areas with United Nations IDP settlement data, such as Yemen, Somalia, and Nigeria.

  2. Population genetics of Manihot esculenta ssp. flabellifolia gives insight into past distribution of xeric vegetation in a postulated forest refugium area in northern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duputié, Anne; Delêtre, Marc; De Granville, Jean-Jacques; McKey, Doyle

    2009-07-01

    The Guianas have often been proposed as a forest refugium; however, this view has received little testing. Studies of population genetics of forest taxa suggest that the central part of French Guiana remained forested, while the southern part (currently forested) may have harboured more open vegetation. Insights into the population structure of species restricted to non-forested habitats can help test this hypothesis. Using six microsatellite loci, we investigated the population genetics of French Guianan accessions of Manihot esculenta ssp. flabellifolia, a taxon restricted to coastal savannas and to rocky outcrops in the densely forested inland. Coastal populations were highly differentiated from one another, and our data suggest a recent colonization of these savannas by M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia in a west-to-east process. Coastal populations were strongly differentiated from inselberg populations, consistent with an ancient separation of these two groups, with no or low subsequent gene flow. This supports the hypothesis that the central part of the region may have remained forested since the Last Glacial Maximum, impeding the establishment of Manihot. Contrary to coastal populations, inselberg Manihot populations were strikingly homogeneous at a broad spatial scale. This suggests they were connected until recently, either by a large continuous savanna area or by smaller, temporary disturbed areas shifting in space.

  3. Problems of growing forests in estrangement and population relocation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudolij, V.N.; Podkur, P.N.; Davydov, N.N.; Mikhalkov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    It has been concluded that the process of growth and normal development of single-stratum pine tress at the age from 20 to 40 depends on their density. Under conditions of thick forest interspecific competition and fight for space sharpen. Within the estrangement area unfavorable trends in growth and evolution have been disclosed at the age above 30. Growing of pines without care results in suppression of growth; some morphological changes in the trunk form have been observed. Such an uncontrolled mode of growing can lead to physiological weakening of the tress. 8 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. The Dynamics of Population, Built-up Areas and their Evolving Associations in Gridded Population across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, F. R.; Gaughan, A. E.; Tatem, A. J.; Linard, C.; Sorichetta, A.; Nieves, J. J.; Reed, P.

    2017-12-01

    Gridded population data is commonly used to understand the `now' of hazard risk and mitigation management, health and disease modelling, and global change-, economic-, environmental-, and sustainability-related research. But to understand how human population change at local to global scales influences and is influenced by environmental changes requires novel ways of treating data and statistically describing associations of measured population counts with associated covariates. One of the most critical components in such gridded estimates is the relationship between built-up areas and population located in these areas. This relationship is rarely static and accurately estimating changes in built-areas through time and the changing human population around them is critical when applying gridded population datasets in studies of other environmental change. The research presented here discusses these issues in the context of multitemporal, gridded population data, using new technologies and sources of remotely-sensed and modeled built-up areas. We discuss applications of these data in environmental analyses and intercomparisons with other such data across scales.

  5. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs

  6. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  7. Social deprivation and population density are not associated with small area risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, James P K; Tobin, Katy; Crampsie, Arlene; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; McLaughlin, Russell; Staines, Anthony; Hardiman, Orla

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of an association between areal ALS risk and population density has been previously reported. We aim to examine ALS spatial incidence in Ireland using small areas, to compare this analysis with our previous analysis of larger areas and to examine the associations between population density, social deprivation and ALS incidence. Residential area social deprivation has not been previously investigated as a risk factor for ALS. Using the Irish ALS register, we included all cases of ALS diagnosed in Ireland from 1995-2013. 2006 census data was used to calculate age and sex standardised expected cases per small area. Social deprivation was assessed using the pobalHP deprivation index. Bayesian smoothing was used to calculate small area relative risk for ALS, whilst cluster analysis was performed using SaTScan. The effects of population density and social deprivation were tested in two ways: (1) as covariates in the Bayesian spatial model; (2) via post-Bayesian regression. 1701 cases were included. Bayesian smoothed maps of relative risk at small area resolution matched closely to our previous analysis at a larger area resolution. Cluster analysis identified two areas of significant low risk. These areas did not correlate with population density or social deprivation indices. Two areas showing low frequency of ALS have been identified in the Republic of Ireland. These areas do not correlate with population density or residential area social deprivation, indicating that other reasons, such as genetic admixture may account for the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conservation where people work: A role for business districts and industrial areas in enhancing endangered butterfly populations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, R.P.H.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Opdam, P.

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization is often identified as a primary cause of species decline. Yet little is known about biodiversity conservation in human settlements, the ‘places where people live and work’. In this study, conducted in the densely populated Netherlands, our main objective was to explore new conservation

  9. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  10. Composite systems of dilute and dense couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J R; Saad, D

    2008-01-01

    Composite systems, where couplings are of two types, a combination of strong dilute and weak dense couplings of Ising spins, are examined through the replica method. The dilute and dense parts are considered to have independent canonical disordered or uniform bond distributions; mixing the models by variation of a parameter γ alongside inverse temperature β we analyse the respective thermodynamic solutions. We describe the variation in high temperature transitions as mixing occurs; in the vicinity of these transitions we exactly analyse the competing effects of the dense and sparse models. By using the replica symmetric ansatz and population dynamics we described the low temperature behaviour of mixed systems

  11. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  12. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B Hawkins

    Full Text Available Germinal centers (GCs are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  13. Chemotaxis in densely populated tissue determines germinal center anatomy and cell motility: a new paradigm for the development of complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jared B; Jones, Mark T; Plassmann, Paul E; Thorley-Lawson, David A

    2011-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are complex dynamic structures that form within lymph nodes as an essential process in the humoral immune response. They represent a paradigm for studying the regulation of cell movement in the development of complex anatomical structures. We have developed a simulation of a modified cyclic re-entry model of GC dynamics which successfully employs chemotaxis to recapitulate the anatomy of the primary follicle and the development of a mature GC, including correctly structured mantle, dark and light zones. We then show that correct single cell movement dynamics (including persistent random walk and inter-zonal crossing) arise from this simulation as purely emergent properties. The major insight of our study is that chemotaxis can only achieve this when constrained by the known biological properties that cells are incompressible, exist in a densely packed environment, and must therefore compete for space. It is this interplay of chemotaxis and competition for limited space that generates all the complex and biologically accurate behaviors described here. Thus, from a single simple mechanism that is well documented in the biological literature, we can explain both higher level structure and single cell movement behaviors. To our knowledge this is the first GC model that is able to recapitulate both correctly detailed anatomy and single cell movement. This mechanism may have wide application for modeling other biological systems where cells undergo complex patterns of movement to produce defined anatomical structures with sharp tissue boundaries.

  14. Comparison of daytime and night-time populations adjacent to interstate highways in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Daytime and night-time population densities bordering Interstate highway routes in metropolitan areas are compared at the traffic analysis zone level. In three of the metropolitan areas studied, histograms of daytime to night-time population density ratios are peaked at 1.0. In a smaller metropolitan area, the peak of the histogram moves to values greater than 1.0 but less than 2.0. In view of the typical uncertainties in calculating radiological transport effects (∼2), this study indicates that a distinction between daytime and night-time transport is not warranted, especially since a typical route includes extensive transport outside metropolitan areas. (author)

  15. Evaluation Of The Exclusion And Low Population Areas Around A Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.

    2011-01-01

    Being adjacent to the nuclear power plant (NPP) the exclusion area (EA) is the area of greatest importance. It essentially defines a buffer zone where the public has no access. It helps to define the fenced plant area, the site area and the public area. Also, the low population area is the area immediately surrounding the exclusion area near a licensed reactor in terms of public safety and the ability of residents to get away from the plant in an emergency. This study clarifies their significance and reviews the international approach on them. Assuming the nuclear power plant site at the north coast of Egypt, the exclusion area and low population area are determined according to CFR (2002). In this method, a maximum possible amount of radioactivity release (called a source term) should be assumed. The boiling water reactor (BWR) with a power 1000 MW was used to carry the calculation and assuming a severe loss of coolant accident with meltdown of reactor. The site specific data have been collected, investigated and processed. The effect of the degree of atmospheric stability and building width of the plant were examined. The proceeding factors that control the determination of exclusion area and low population area should be taken into consideration in the site evaluation stage and design basis of NPP to set a minimum distances for them

  16. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  17. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  18. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  19. Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andrew Martín

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and Chinese Muslims. The article argues that migration to Tibet from other regions in China has been concentrated in urban areas and has been counterbalanced by more rapid rates of natural increase in the...

  20. Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and

  1. Dense populations of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in feces of Penaeus vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome and pathways of their transmission to healthy shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kathy F J; Han, Jee Eun; Aranguren, Luis Fernando; White-Noble, Brenda; Schmidt, Margeaux M; Piamsomboon, Patharapol; Risdiana, Eris; Hanggono, Bambang

    2016-10-01

    White feces syndrome (WFS) is an emerging problem for penaeid shrimp farming industries in SE Asia countries, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, China, and in India. This occurrence of this syndrome is usually first evidenced by the appearance of white fecal strings floating on surface of the shrimp ponds. The gross signs of affected shrimp include the appearance of a whitish hindgut and loose carapace, and it is associated with reduced feeding and growth retardation. To investigate the nature of the white feces syndrome, samples of white feces and shrimp hepatopancreas tissue were collected from Penaeus vannamei in affected farms in Indonesia, and these were examined histologically. Within the white feces, we found densely packed spores of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (abbreviated as EHP) and relatively fewer numbers of rod-shaped bacteria. From WFS ponds, hepatopancreas samples form 30 individual shrimp were analyzed by histology and in situ hybridization. The results showed that all of the shrimp examined were infected with EHP accompanied by septic hepatopancreatic necrosis (SHPN). Midgut epithelial cells were also infected and this increased the number of tissue types being affected by EHP. By PCR, EHP was detected in all the samples analyzed from WFS-affected ponds, but not in those sampled from healthy shrimp ponds. To determine the modes of transmission for this parasite, we performed feeding and cohabitation bioassays, the results showed that EHP can be transmitted through per os feeding of EHP-infected hepatopancreas tissue to healthy shrimp and through cohabitation ofinfected and healthy shrimp. In addition, we found the use of Fumagillin-B, an antimicrobial agent, was ineffective in either reducing or eliminating EHP in infected shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  3. Natural areas and urban populations: communication and environmental education challenges and actions in outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    2005-01-01

    Challenges, opportunities, and actions exist in areas where large urban populations interface with natural areas, such as outdoor recreation sites in southern California. Challenges in the interface include intense recreation use, public safety issues, and complex information strategies. Research results on communications and environmental education offer opportunities...

  4. THE POPULATION IN THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS AREA: PAST, PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES (1900–2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN PLĂIAŞ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the phenomena that drew attention to the Apuseni Mountains area, the population dynamics recorded over time has a prominent place. The present article carries out research regarding the evolution of this phenomenon over the last 110 years. The information the article relies upon was gathered from the censuses that were started in 1900 and continued in the years 1910, 1930, 1941, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 and 2011. The problem that requires attention nowadays concerning the population of the Apuseni Mountains is the constant and gradual population decline, which registered different intensities in all villages of the area included in the perimeter. The period we analyze witnessed different types of intervals: some of them were characterized by significant increases in population, others by relative stagnations and the last ones (since the 1966 census by a dramatic reduction in the number of inhabitants. The demographic decline which has taken place in the Apuseni Mountains area over the last 60 year has, among other consequences, that of modifying the age structure of the population in an unfavorable direction with regards to the population stability in the area on the medium and long term. The changes in the population structure have led, and will continue to do so, to acceleration in the demographic decline over time. As it stands, the prognosis for the year 2030 underlines an increasingly worrisome situation

  5. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughton, Christian G., E-mail: daughton.christian@epa.gov

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to

  6. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughton, Christian G.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to account for

  7. Long-Term Bird Assemblage Trends in Areas of High and Low Human Population Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, K.; Romagosa, C.M.; Williams, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding globally, and the impact of high human population density (HHPD) on bird species richness remains unresolved. Studies primarily focus on species richness along an urban-to-rural gradient; however, some studies have analyzed larger-scale patterns and found results that contrast with those obtained at smaller scales. To move the discussion beyond static species richness patterns, we analyzed the effect of HHPD on bird assemblage dynamics (year-to-year extinction probability, turnover, changes in species richness) across the United States over a 25-year period. We found that bird assemblages in both high and low human population density areas changed significantly over the period of record. Specifically, bird assemblages increased in species richness on average. Assemblage change in areas of HHPD was not significantly different from assemblage change in areas with LHPD. These results suggest that human population density alone does not alter the persistence of avian assemblage patterns.

  8. The development of a dense SNP-based consensus map and QTL detection for black spot resistance in five diploid rose populations [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black spot (BS) disease (Diplocarpon rosae (Lib.) Wolf) of rose is the most important leaf disease of garden roses in warm humid areas. Although the partial (horizontal) resistance to black spot has been shown to be moderately heritable, the responsible quantitative trait loci (QTL) remain unidentif...

  9. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  10. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.

    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  11. Simulation of dense colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, H.J.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hecht, M.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2008-01-01

    We present in this proceeding recent large scale simulations of dense colloids. On one hand we simulate model clay consisting of nanometric aluminum oxide spheres in water using realistic DLVO potentials and a combination of MD and SRD. We find pronounced cluster formation and retrieve the shear

  12. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of small area populations using remote sensing and other approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honea, R.B.; Shumpert, B.L.; Edwards, R.G.; Margle, S.M.; Coleman, P.R.; Smyre, J.L.; Rush, R.M.; Durfee, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper documents the results of an assessment of a variety of techniques for estimating residential population for a five-mile radial grid around a nuclear power plant. The study area surrounded the proposed Limerick Nuclear Power Plant located near Philadelphia, PA. Techniques evaluated ranged from the use of air photos to infer population from housing distributions to the use of Landsat data to characterize probable residential population around the plant site. Although the techniques involving the use of Landsat data provided good results, a simple proportional area allocation method and the current procedure used by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were among the best techniques. Further research using other sites and better resolution satellite data is recommended to investigate the possible refinement of population estimates using remote sensing media. 34 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  14. Spatio Temporal Detection and Virtual Mapping of Landslide Using High-Resolution Airborne Laser Altimetry (lidar) in Densely Vegetated Areas of Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, T.; Azahari Razak, K.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Latif, A.

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are an inescapable natural disaster, resulting in massive social, environmental and economic impacts all over the world. The tropical, mountainous landscape in generally all over Malaysia especially in eastern peninsula (Borneo) is highly susceptible to landslides because of heavy rainfall and tectonic disturbances. The purpose of the Landslide hazard mapping is to identify the hazardous regions for the execution of mitigation plans which can reduce the loss of life and property from future landslide incidences. Currently, the Malaysian research bodies e.g. academic institutions and government agencies are trying to develop a landslide hazard and risk database for susceptible areas to backing the prevention, mitigation, and evacuation plan. However, there is a lack of devotion towards landslide inventory mapping as an elementary input of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk mapping. The developing techniques based on remote sensing technologies (satellite, terrestrial and airborne) are promising techniques to accelerate the production of landslide maps, shrinking the time and resources essential for their compilation and orderly updates. The aim of the study is to provide a better perception regarding the use of virtual mapping of landslides with the help of LiDAR technology. The focus of the study is spatio temporal detection and virtual mapping of landslide inventory via visualization and interpretation of very high-resolution data (VHR) in forested terrain of Mesilau river, Kundasang. However, to cope with the challenges of virtual inventory mapping on in forested terrain high resolution LiDAR derivatives are used. This study specifies that the airborne LiDAR technology can be an effective tool for mapping landslide inventories in a complex climatic and geological conditions, and a quick way of mapping regional hazards in the tropics.

  15. Biodiversity Areas under Threat: Overlap of Climate Change and Population Pressures on the World's Biodiversity Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukema, Juliann E; Pricope, Narcisa G; Husak, Gregory J; Lopez-Carr, David

    2017-01-01

    Humans and the ecosystem services they depend on are threatened by climate change. Places with high or growing human population as well as increasing climate variability, have a reduced ability to provide ecosystem services just as the need for these services is most critical. A spiral of vulnerability and ecosystem degradation often ensues in such places. We apply different global conservation schemes as proxies to examine the spatial relation between wet season precipitation, population change over three decades, and natural resource conservation. We pose two research questions: 1) Where are biodiversity and ecosystem services vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and population growth? 2) Where are human populations vulnerable to degraded ecosystem services? Results suggest that globally only about 20% of the area between 50 degrees latitude North and South has experienced significant change-largely wetting-in wet season precipitation. Approximately 40% of rangelands and 30% of rainfed agriculture lands have experienced significant precipitation changes, with important implications for food security. Over recent decades a number of critical conservation areas experienced high population growth concurrent with significant wetting or drying (e.g. the Horn of Africa, Himalaya, Western Ghats, and Sri Lanka), posing challenges not only for human adaptation but also to the protection and sustenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying areas of climate and population risk and their overlap with conservation priorities can help to target activities and resources that promote biodiversity and ecosystem services while improving human well-being.

  16. Biodiversity Areas under Threat: Overlap of Climate Change and Population Pressures on the World's Biodiversity Priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann E Aukema

    Full Text Available Humans and the ecosystem services they depend on are threatened by climate change. Places with high or growing human population as well as increasing climate variability, have a reduced ability to provide ecosystem services just as the need for these services is most critical. A spiral of vulnerability and ecosystem degradation often ensues in such places. We apply different global conservation schemes as proxies to examine the spatial relation between wet season precipitation, population change over three decades, and natural resource conservation. We pose two research questions: 1 Where are biodiversity and ecosystem services vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and population growth? 2 Where are human populations vulnerable to degraded ecosystem services? Results suggest that globally only about 20% of the area between 50 degrees latitude North and South has experienced significant change-largely wetting-in wet season precipitation. Approximately 40% of rangelands and 30% of rainfed agriculture lands have experienced significant precipitation changes, with important implications for food security. Over recent decades a number of critical conservation areas experienced high population growth concurrent with significant wetting or drying (e.g. the Horn of Africa, Himalaya, Western Ghats, and Sri Lanka, posing challenges not only for human adaptation but also to the protection and sustenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying areas of climate and population risk and their overlap with conservation priorities can help to target activities and resources that promote biodiversity and ecosystem services while improving human well-being.

  17. Ground-based LiDAR application to characterize sea cliff instability processes along a densely populated coastline in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Semaan, Fouad; Salvini, Riccardo; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Sea cliff retreatment along the coastline of the Campi Flegrei volcanic area (Southern Italy) is becoming a threat for public and private structures due to the massive urbanization occurred in the last few decades. In this area, geological features of the outcropping rocks represent one of the most important factors conditioning the sea cliff retreatment. In fact, pyroclastic deposits formed by pumices, scoria, ashes and lapilli are arranged in weakly to moderately welded layers of variable thicknesses, resulting very erodible and prone to landslide processes. Available methods to evaluate topographic changes and retreat rates of sea cliffs include a variety of geomatic techniques, like terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). By means of such techniques, it is in fact possible to obtain high resolution topography of sea cliffs and perform multi-temporal change detection analysis. In this contribution, we present an application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS or ground-based LiDAR) aimed to identify and quantify instability processes acting along the Torrefumo coastal cliff, in the Campi Flegrei area. Specifically, we acquired a series of 3D point clouds on the years 2013 and 2016, and compared them through a cloud-to-cloud distance computation. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was applied to the change detection results. In this way, an inventory of the cliff failures occurred along the Torrefumo cliff in the 2013-2016 time span was created, as well as the spatial and volumetric distribution of these failures was evaluated. The volumetric analysis shows that large collapses occurred rarely, whereas the spatial analysis shows that the majority of failures occurred in the middle and upper parts of the cliff face. Results also show that both rock fall and surficial erosion processes contribute to the cliff retreatment, acting in turn according to the geological properties of the involved pyroclastic deposits. The presented

  18. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers some aspects of the theory of atomic processes in dense plasmas. Because the topic is very broad, a few general rules which give useful guidance about the typical behavior of dense plasmas have been selected. These rules are illustrated by semiclassical estimates, scaling laws and appeals to more elaborate calculations. Included in the paper are several previously unpublished results including a new mechanism for electron-ion heat exchange (section II), and an approximate expression for oscillator-strengths of highly charged ions (section V). However the main emphasis is not upon practical formulas but rather on questions of fundamental theory, the structural ingredients which must be used in building a model for plasma events. What are the density effects and how does one represent them? Which are most important? How does one identify an incorrect theory? The general rules help to answer these questions. 106 references, 23 figures, 2 tables

  19. Relations between species rarity, vulnerability, and range contraction for a beetle group in a densely populated region in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone

    2014-02-01

    Rarity is often considered an indication of species extinction risk, and it is frequently used to obtain measures of species vulnerability. However, there is no strong evidence of a correlation between species vulnerability and threat. Moreover, there is no consensus about how rarity should be measured. I used a multidimensional characterization of species rarity to calculate a vulnerability index for tenebrionid beetles inhabiting an Italian region in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. I used different metrics to examine 3 dimensions of rarity: species range, ecology, and population. Species with rarity values below the median were scored as rare for each dimension. I combined rarity scores into a vulnerability index. I then correlated species vulnerability with range trends (expanded vs. contracted). Different measures of the same rarity dimension were strongly correlated and produced similar vulnerability scores. This result indicates rarity-based vulnerability estimates are slightly affected by the way a certain rarity dimension is measured. Vulnerability was correlated with range trends; species with the highest vulnerability had the strongest range contraction. However, a large number of common species also underwent range contraction in the last 50 years, and there was no clear relation between range contraction and their ecology. This indicates that in general human-induced environmental changes affected species irrespective of their assumed vulnerability and that focusing only on rare species may severely bias perceptions of the extent of species decline. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Increased Rates of Respiratory and Diarrheal Illnesses in HIV-Negative Persons Living With HIV-Infected Individuals in a Densely Populated Urban Slum in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Cosmas, Leonard; Nyachieo, Dhillon; Williamson, John M; Olack, Beatrice; Okoth, George; Njuguna, Henry; Feikin, Daniel R; Burke, Heather; Montgomery, Joel M; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Prolonged pathogen shedding and increased duration of illness associated with infections in immunosuppressed individuals put close human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative contacts of HIV-infected persons at increased risk of exposure to infectious pathogens. We calculated incidence and longitudinal prevalence (number of days per year) of influenzalike illness (ILI), diarrhea, and nonspecific febrile illness during 2008 from a population-based surveillance program in the urban slum of Kibera (Kenya) that included 1830 HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals and 13 677 individuals living in exclusively HIV-negative households. For individuals ≥5 years old, incidence was significantly increased for ILI (risk ratio [RR], 1.47; P 5 years old. Targeted interventions are needed, including ensuring that HIV-infected persons are receiving appropriate care and treatment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Increase of Elderly Population in the Rainstorm Hazard Areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pujun; Xu, Wei; Ma, Yunjia; Zhao, Xiujuan; Qin, Lianjie

    2017-08-26

    In light of global warming, increased extreme precipitation events have enlarged the population exposed to floods to some extent. Extreme precipitation risk assessments are of great significance in China and allow for the response to climate change and mitigation of risks to the population. China is one of the countries most influenced by climate change and has unique national population conditions. The influence of extreme precipitation depends on the degree of exposure and vulnerability of the population. Accurate assessments of the population exposed to rising rainstorm trends are crucial to mapping extreme precipitation risks. Studying the population exposed to rainstorm hazard areas (RSHA) at the microscale is extremely urgent, due to the local characteristics of extreme precipitation events and regional diversity of the population. The spatial distribution of population density was mapped based on the national population census data from China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. RSHA were also identified using precipitation data from 1975-2015 in China, and the rainstorm tendency values were mapped using GIS in this paper. The spatial characteristics of the rainstorm tendencies were then analyzed. Finally, changes in the population in the RSHA are discussed. The results show that the extreme precipitation trends are increasing in southeastern China. From 1990 to 2010, the population in RSHA increased by 110 million, at a rate of 14.6%. The elderly in the region increased by 38 million at a rate of 86.4%. Studying the size of the population exposed to rainstorm hazards at the county scale can provide scientific evidence for developing disaster prevention and mitigation strategies from the bottom up.

  2. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  3. Creating high-resolution bare-earth digital elevation models (DEMs) from stereo imagery in an area of densely vegetated deciduous forest using combinations of procedures designed for lidar point cloud filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jessica D.; Warner, Timothy A.; Chirico, Peter G.; Bergstresser, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    For areas of the world that do not have access to lidar, fine-scale digital elevation models (DEMs) can be photogrammetrically created using globally available high-spatial resolution stereo satellite imagery. The resultant DEM is best termed a digital surface model (DSM) because it includes heights of surface features. In densely vegetated conditions, this inclusion can limit its usefulness in applications requiring a bare-earth DEM. This study explores the use of techniques designed for filtering lidar point clouds to mitigate the elevation artifacts caused by above ground features, within the context of a case study of Prince William Forest Park, Virginia, USA. The influences of land cover and leaf-on vs. leaf-off conditions are investigated, and the accuracy of the raw photogrammetric DSM extracted from leaf-on imagery was between that of a lidar bare-earth DEM and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM. Although the filtered leaf-on photogrammetric DEM retains some artifacts of the vegetation canopy and may not be useful for some applications, filtering procedures significantly improved the accuracy of the modeled terrain. The accuracy of the DSM extracted in leaf-off conditions was comparable in most areas to the lidar bare-earth DEM and filtering procedures resulted in accuracy comparable of that to the lidar DEM.

  4. Potential defoliation of trees by outbreak populations of gypsy moth in the Chicago area

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Onstad; David J. Nowak; Michael R. Jeffords

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, will soon become established in much of the Midwest. If an outbreak with extremely high population levels of this serious defoliator is allowed to occur in the Chicago area, what kind of damage can be expected? A model for defoliation, refoliation and mortality was developed based on the number of trees and...

  5. Specific surface area behavior of a dissolving population of particles. Augmenting Mercer Dissolution Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Rothenberg, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Specific surface area (Sp) measurements were made on two uranium oxide aerosol materials before and after in vitro dissolution studies were performed on the materials. The results of these Sp measurements were evaluated relative to predictions made from extending Mercer dissolution theory to describe the Sp behavior of a dissolving population of particles

  6. The annual terrestrial gamma radiation dose to the population of the urban Christchurch area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured with a high pressure ionization chamber at 70 indoor (195 site measurements) and 58 outdoor locations in the metropolitan Christchurch area. Based on these site measurements, the average gonad dose rate to the population from natural terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 273+-56 microgray per annum. (auth)

  7. THE REFORMING EFFECT ON ARDENNES TYPE HEAVY STEEDS, ON LOCAL HORSES POPULATION FROM TIMISOARA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TĂPĂLAGĂ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The study “the reforming effect of the Ardennes type heavy steeds, on local horse population from Timisoara area”, presents importance from two points of view: is a precise radiography on the number of horses raised in Timisoara area, and in the second place, this study, shows the requests and the option of the animal breeders from the respective area both the reforming level of this ones. The research made in this study shows horse breeders from Timisoara area what they have to do in the future from the horse reforming point of view.

  8. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predatory Bird Research Group Long Marine Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial re-occupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of sub-adults as members of breeding pairs

  9. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. G.; Jackman, R. E.; Hunt, T. L.; Driscoll, D. E.; Culp, L.

    1999-07-20

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial reoccupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of subadults as members of breeding pairs.

  10. Model of external exposure of population living in the areas subjected to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.Yu.; Balonov, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, we formulated the general approach to assessment of external doses to population living in contaminated areas (the model equation and the set of parameters). The model parameters were assessed on the basis of results of monitoring in the environment, phantom experiments, and social and demographic information obtained on the contaminated areas. Verification of model assessments performed by comparison with measurement results of individual external doses in inhabitants within the thermoluminescent dosimetry method have shown that differences in dose assessments within both methods does not exceed 1.5 times at a confidence level of 95%. In the paper, we present the results illustrating specific features of external dose formation in population living in the areas of Russia subjected to radioactive contamination due to nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, radioactive releases from the Mayak enterprise, and the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  11. Self-help countermeasure strategies for populations living within contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Voigt, G.; Wright, S.M.; Howard, B.J.; Barnett, C.L.; Prister, B.; Balonov, M.; Ratnikov, A.; Travnikova, I.; Gillett, A.G.; Mehli, H.; Skuterud, L.; Lepicard, S.; Semiochkina, N.; Perepeliantnikova, L.; Goncharova, N.; Arkhipov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures have been effectively employed within intensive agricultural systems in areas of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) affected by the Chernobyl accident. However, ingestion doses continue to be elevated in some areas as a result of few foodstuffs which are collected from the wild or produced by the household. Forest fungi and berries, and milk from privately owned cattle are the most notable contributors to 137 Cs intakes amongst these foodstuffs. In this paper we consider advice which would help affected populations to both understand the importance of these exposure routes and to reduce their exposure. In addition to the potential radiological benefits, self-help schemes are highly cost-effective and likely to have a positive psychological influence on populations living within contaminated areas of the FSU. Evidence to suggest that the transfer of radiocaesium to cow milk is considerably higher in the FSU than within western Europe and North America is discussed

  12. Relationship between premature mortality and socioeconomic factors in black and white populations of US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R S; Kennelly, J F; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Oh, H J; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J

    2001-01-01

    examined the association of mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators of inequality and segregation among blacks and whites younger than age 65 in 267 US metropolitan areas. The primary aim of the analysis was to operationalize the concept of institutional racism in public health. Socioeconomic indicators were drawn from Census and vital statistics data for 1989-1991 and included median household income; two measures of income inequality; percentage of the population that was black; and a measure of residential segregation. Age-adjusted premature mortality was 81% higher in blacks than in whites, and median household income was 40% lower. Income inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient, was greater within the black population (0.45) than within the white population (0.40; p inequality for the total population was significantly correlated with premature mortality (r = 0.33). Black (r = 0.26) and white (r = 0.20) population-specific correlations between income inequality and premature mortality, while still significant, were smaller. Residential segregation was significantly related to premature mortality and income inequality for blacks (r = 0.38 for both); among whites, however, segregation was modestly correlated with premature mortality (r = 0.19) and uncorrelated with income inequality. Regional analyses demonstrated that the association of segregation with premature mortality was much more pronounced in the South and in areas with larger black populations. Social factors such as income inequality and segregation strongly influence premature mortality in the US. Ecologic studies of the relationships among social factors and population health can measure attributes of the social context that may be relevant for population health, providing the basis for imputing macro-level relationships.

  13. Demographic monitoring of wild muriqui populations: Criteria for defining priority areas and monitoring intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Karen B; Possamai, Carla B; Tabacow, Fernanda P; Pissinatti, Alcides; Lanna, Andre M; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Moreira, Leandro; Talebi, Maurício; Breves, Paula; Mendes, Sérgio L; Jerusalinsky, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Demographic data are essential to assessments of the status of endangered species. However, establishing an integrated monitoring program to obtain useful data on contemporary and future population trends requires both the identification of priority areas and populations and realistic evaluations of the kinds of data that can be obtained under different monitoring regimes. We analyzed all known populations of a critically endangered primate, the muriqui (genus: Brachyteles) using population size, genetic uniqueness, geographic importance (including potential importance in corridor programs) and implementability scores to define monitoring priorities. Our analyses revealed nine priority populations for the northern muriqui (B. hypoxanthus) and nine for the southern muriqui (B. arachnoides). In addition, we employed knowledge of muriqui developmental and life history characteristics to define the minimum monitoring intensity needed to evaluate demographic trends along a continuum ranging from simple descriptive changes in population size to predictions of population changes derived from individual based life histories. Our study, stimulated by the Brazilian government's National Action Plan for the Conservation of Muriquis, is fundamental to meeting the conservation goals for this genus, and also provides a model for defining priorities and methods for the implementation of integrated demographic monitoring programs for other endangered and critically endangered species of primates.

  14. Demographic monitoring of wild muriqui populations: Criteria for defining priority areas and monitoring intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B Strier

    Full Text Available Demographic data are essential to assessments of the status of endangered species. However, establishing an integrated monitoring program to obtain useful data on contemporary and future population trends requires both the identification of priority areas and populations and realistic evaluations of the kinds of data that can be obtained under different monitoring regimes. We analyzed all known populations of a critically endangered primate, the muriqui (genus: Brachyteles using population size, genetic uniqueness, geographic importance (including potential importance in corridor programs and implementability scores to define monitoring priorities. Our analyses revealed nine priority populations for the northern muriqui (B. hypoxanthus and nine for the southern muriqui (B. arachnoides. In addition, we employed knowledge of muriqui developmental and life history characteristics to define the minimum monitoring intensity needed to evaluate demographic trends along a continuum ranging from simple descriptive changes in population size to predictions of population changes derived from individual based life histories. Our study, stimulated by the Brazilian government's National Action Plan for the Conservation of Muriquis, is fundamental to meeting the conservation goals for this genus, and also provides a model for defining priorities and methods for the implementation of integrated demographic monitoring programs for other endangered and critically endangered species of primates.

  15. Radioresistance of populations of bank voles Clethrionomys glareolus in radionuclide-contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'enko, A.I.; Krapivko, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of extended territories with radionuclides renders the monitoring of natural populations in their habitats an important work to be done in order to determine the directions of evolution caused by long-term exposure to ionizing radiation. In view of this, many years of field and experimental radioecological studies were devoted to animal populations that inhabit the territories contaminated with 137 Cs after the Chernobyl Power Plant disaster. Special emphasis was placed on the investigation of the time course of radiosensitivity of mammalian populations over several generations as a general index of adaptive processes developing in an area with an elevated radiation background. The authors monitored the population of the European bank vole, a species known for its high spontaneous resistance to radiation. In optimal environmental conditions, it has LD 50/30 = 9.7 Gy. The reaction of bank vole populations to radioactive contamination of their environment primarily increases the rate of variation of sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This results in a continuous increase in the radioresistance of the populations to a certains table level. The findings suggest that adaptive processes occur in natural mammalian populations subjected to chronic ionizing irradiation

  16. Estimating small area health-related characteristics of populations: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of health-related characteristics at a fine local geographic level is vital for effective health promotion programmes, provision of better health services and population-specific health planning and management. Lack of a micro-dataset readily available for attributes of individuals at small areas negatively impacts the ability of local and national agencies to manage serious health issues and related risks in the community. A solution to this challenge would be to develop a method that simulates reliable small-area statistics. This paper provides a significant appraisal of the methodologies for estimating health-related characteristics of populations at geographical limited areas. Findings reveal that a range of methodologies are in use, which can be classified as three distinct set of approaches: i indirect standardisation and individual level modelling; ii multilevel statistical modelling; and iii micro-simulation modelling. Although each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses, it appears that microsimulation- based spatial models have significant robustness over the other methods and also represent a more precise means of estimating health-related population characteristics over small areas.

  17. Emerging ecosystems change the spatial distribution of top carnivores even in poorly populated areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Barbar

    Full Text Available Humans affect biological diversity and species distribution patterns by modifying resource availability and generating novel environments where generalist species benefit and specialist species are rare. In particular, cities create local homogenization while roads fragment habitat, although both processes can increase food availability for some species that may be able to take advantage of this new source. We studied space use by birds of prey in relation to human construction, hypothesizing that these birds would be affected even in poorly populated areas. We worked in Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which is experiencing a high population growth, but still having very large unpopulated areas. We related the presence of raptors with different sources of human disturbance and found that both the abundance and richness of these birds were positively associated with anthropogenic environments. These results are driven mostly by a strong association between the medium-sized generalist species and these novel environments (mainly roads and cities. This may create an imbalance in intra-guild competitive abilities, modifying the normal structures of top carnivore hierarchies. Indeed, the structure of raptor communities seems to be changing, even in poorly populated areas, with anthropogenic constructions seemingly producing changes in wild areas more promptly than thought, a cause for concern in ecosystems conservation issues.

  18. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  19. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  20. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectan...

  1. Dense ceramic articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockbain, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the manufacture of articles of substantially pure dense ceramic materials, for use in severe environments. Si N is very suitable for use in such environments, but suffers from the disadvantage that it is not amenable to sintering. Some disadvantages of the methods normally used for making articles of Si N are mentioned. The method described comprises mixing a powder of the substantially pure ceramic material with an additive that promotes densification, and which is capable of nuclear transmutation into a gas when exposed to radiation, and hot pressing the mixture to form a billet. The billet is then irradiated to convert the additive into a gas which is held captive in the billet, and it is then subjected to a hot forging operation, during which the captive gas escapes and an article of substantially pure dense ceramic material is forged. The method is intended primarily for use for Si N, but may be applied to other ceramic materials. The additive may be Li or Be or their compounds, to the extent of at least 5 ppm and not more than 5% by weight. Irradiation is effected by proton or neutron bombardment. (UK)

  2. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  3. Annual individual hygienic assessment of natural exposure doses of the Altai territory model areas population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Potseluev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to determine ionizing radiation natural sources exposure regularities of Altai Territory model areas population. The materials and methods. 11376 radon measurements, 1247 gamma radiation meas-urements in an open area and in residential and office buildings were performed, selection of 189 drinking water tests was carried out. Results. Complex radiation and hygienic examination of the region with the most large municipalities number with model areas allocation was conducted. The assessment of the Altai Territory population’s individual annual radiation doses from natural radionuclides has revealed a number of the regularities depending on the terrain’s ecological and geographical type. Following the research results, ranging the region territories taking into account of annual effective doses of the population from natural sources for 2009-2015 was carried out. The annual individual effective dose of the Altai Territory upland areas population presented by the highest values and ranges from 7.36 mSv / year to 8.19 mSv / year. Foothill regions of Altai and in Salair ridge are characterized by increased population exposure from natural sources. Here the dose ranges from 5.09 mSv / year to 6.22 mSv / year. Steppe and forest-steppe territories are characterized by the lowest level of the natural radiation which is ranging from 3.23 mSv / year to 4.11 mSv / year, that doesn’t exceed the all-Russian levels. Most of the hygienic radon equivalent equilibrium volume activity standards exceedances were registered in mountain and foothill areas buildings. A number of radon anomalies is revealed also in steppe areas. Med exceedances ranged from 203 ± 17.8 Bq / m3 to 480 ± 37.9 Bq / m3. Given the fact that most of these buildings belong to the administrative or educational institutions with an eight-hour working day, the dose of radiation for people there can be up to 10 mSv / year. Conclusion. Spreading of individual annual effective

  4. Estimates of population distributions and tailings areas around licensed uranium mill sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M.; Hall, J.B.; Moore, W.E.

    1986-08-01

    Population distributions and tailings areas were estimated from aerial photography for each of 21 licensed uranium millsites. Approximately 11,600 persons live within 5 kilometers of the tailings impoundments at the millsites. About 82% of these persons live near five of the millsites. No persons were found living within 5 kilometers of six of the millsites. Tailings area measurements include the surface area of tailings in impoundments, heap-leached ore, and carryover tailings in evaporation ponds. Approximately 4,000 acres of tailings surfaces were measured for the 21 millsites. About 55% of the tailings surfaces were dry, 11% wet, and the remainder ponded. The average tailings surface area for the millsites is about 200 acres and ranges from 7 to 813 acres

  5. Decoding target distance and saccade amplitude from population activity in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bremmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades towards moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP. Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction towards either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a, b. Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.

  6. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface. PMID:27630547

  7. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  8. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  9. Area program in population genetics. Final report, November 1, 1975-August 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, E.H.Y.; Gershowitz, H.; Meisler, M.H.; Mohrenweiser, H.W.; Neel, J.V.; Rothman, E.D.; Sing, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Research results are summarized for the following task areas: (1) Amerindian mutation rates; (2) pilot study of monitoring populations for the frequency of mutation; (3) interdigitation with the biochemical genetics study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (Hiroshima, Japan); (4) intraindividual variation in erythrocyte blood group antigens as indicators of somatic mutation; (5) in vitro studies of somatic cell mutation rates; (6) development of approaches to the study of mutation rates; and (7) statistical problems associated with the study of mutation and selection

  10. Root surface area measurement of permanent dentition in Indian population – CBCT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the root surface of human teeth has been investigated extensively in the dental literature. All previous attempts mainly rely on the use of physical methods to calculate surface area on extracted teeth or use virtual 3D Models for the same. The aim is to develop an algorithm using MATLAB software that estimates the dimensions of 3-D image produced with the help of CBCT so that the same can be utilized to calculate the root surface area of teeth among Indian population. Present research utilizes CBCT images of samples of extracted teeth mounted on a customized jpg. A descriptive chart for statistical analysis has been prepared to obtain average root surface area of each tooth type. The currently developed algorithm has been successfully applied to the CBCT images of complete sample of teeth to obtain their root surface area. The algorithm developed to calculate root surface area of the teeth holds wide spread application in the field of dentistry pursuing its high expediency in even various specializations of dentistry including orthodontics, prosthodontics, periodontology and implantalogy. It is concluded that it has now become a reality to accurately determine the surface area of the root of human teeth without extracting them using the CBCT radiographs of the patients.

  11. The permissibility of power plants and other large-scale projects outside densely populated areas from the point of view of planning legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, W.

    1978-01-01

    For the licensing of power plants, nuclear power plants and other industrial large projects, the question of the building law admissibility gains more and more importance in the licensing procedure. According to paragraph 6 of the Fed. Immission Protection, it is not only necessary that immission protection duties of the operator of plants which are subject to licensing are fulfilled, but other public law regulations must be in correspondance with the construction and operation of the plant. In this connection, the planning law admissibility of the project must also be examined. This is also valid for nuclear power plants. In the practical application of licensing such plants are treated in different ways, as far as terms of building planning are concerned. Some licensing authorities regard them as priviledged outskirts projects, others demand a zoning plan of the community. The author pleads for such large projects to be licensed only on the basis of a zoning plan set up by the community. (orig.) [de

  12. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  13. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F González-Maya

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26% of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5% in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection.

  14. Differences of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards epilepsy between populations in municipal and nonmunicipal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiamkao S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Somsak Tiamkao,1 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth,1,3 Karnchanasri Singhpoo,2 Sukanda Ariyanuchitkul,2 Ratchada Ngamroop4On behalf of the Integrated Epilepsy Research Group1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Community Medicine Service Section, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3The Research and Training Center for Enhancing Quality of Life of Working-Age People, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 4Health Promoting Hospital Tumbon Banladchang, Nakhon Nayok Provincial Health Office, Nakhon Nayok, ThailandBackground: Information on the knowledge of, and attitudes and practices towards epilepsy of the general population in Thailand is still limited, particularly with respect to the differences between populations in municipal and nonmunicipal areas.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample population of 1,000, with 500 participants each from municipal and nonmunicipal areas, in the Khon Kaen district.Results: The participants in the municipal area had higher incomes and higher education than did the participants in the nonmunicipal area. Both groups had low knowledge regarding epilepsy definition, causes, and treatment, but participants in the municipal area were more knowledgeable on the causes, types, and treatment of epilepsy. With respect to attitude, there were a significantly higher number of nonmunicipal participants than municipal participants who thought epilepsy was a disgusting disorder or that persons with epilepsy were sinful, had brain damage, and could not attend school. The municipal participants showed greater knowledge of correct practice than did nonmunicipal participants with regard to the following: not driving a car; avoiding acrobatic sports, fighting, or water sport; able to eat pork, not having to resign from work; not having to quit school; and able to have sexual relations.Conclusion: The

  15. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  16. Hyperons in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-01

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V low k ) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V low k can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V low k one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V low k potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three-body force with a density-dependent interaction. This

  17. Geometrical optics of dense aerosols: forming dense plasma slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael J; Valeo, Ernest J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2013-11-01

    Assembling a freestanding, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rarefied than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed field, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the finite particle density reduces the effective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing.

  18. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; Chapron, Guillaume; Nowell, Kristin; Henschel, Philipp; Funston, Paul; Hunter, Luke T B; Macdonald, David W; Packer, Craig

    2015-12-01

    We compiled all credible repeated lion surveys and present time series data for 47 lion (Panthera leo) populations. We used a Bayesian state space model to estimate growth rate-λ for each population and summed these into three regional sets to provide conservation-relevant estimates of trends since 1990. We found a striking geographical pattern: African lion populations are declining everywhere, except in four southern countries (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe). Population models indicate a 67% chance that lions in West and Central Africa decline by one-half, while estimating a 37% chance that lions in East Africa also decline by one-half over two decades. We recommend separate regional assessments of the lion in the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species: already recognized as critically endangered in West Africa, our analysis supports listing as regionally endangered in Central and East Africa and least concern in southern Africa. Almost all lion populations that historically exceeded ∼ 500 individuals are declining, but lion conservation is successful in southern Africa, in part because of the proliferation of reintroduced lions in small, fenced, intensively managed, and funded reserves. If management budgets for wild lands cannot keep pace with mounting levels of threat, the species may rely increasingly on these southern African areas and may no longer be a flagship species of the once vast natural ecosystems across the rest of the continent.

  19. Mitochondrial genetic characterization of Gujar population living in the Northwest areas of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inam Ullah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diversity of communities with specific cultural, ethnic, lingual and geographical backgrounds makes Pakistani society a suitable study subject to unravel the early human migrations, evolutionary history of population having about 18 ethnic groups. Gujars are mostly Indic-speaking nomadic herders with the claims of multiple origins in the sub-continent. Present study was aimed at the determination of maternal lineage of Gujars by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Methods: Total DNA from the human buccal cells was isolated using modified phenol chloroform method. Purified DNA was used for the PCR amplification of mitochondrial Hyper Variable Region 1 and 2 (HVR1 & 2. The nucleotide sequences of amplified PCR products were used to explore the maternal lineage of the Gujar population residing in Northern Pakistan. Results: Haplotypes, allele frequencies and population data of the mitochondrial control region was determined in 73 unrelated individuals belonging to Gujar ethnic group of Northwest areas of Pakistan. Total 46 diverse haplotypes were identified out of which 29 were found unique with (0.9223 genetic diversity and (0.9097 power of discrimination. Haplogroup R was the most frequent (48% followed by haplogroup M (45% and N (7%. Conclusion: We found that the Gujar population has multiple maternal gene pool comprising of South Asian, West Eurasian, East Eurasian, Southeast Asian and fractions of Eastern Asian, Eastern Europe and Northern Asian lineages. This study will contribute for the development of mitochondrial DNA database for Pakistani population.

  20. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  1. Chronic morbidity and health care seeking behaviour amongst elderly population in rural areas of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ageing is a natural process, always associated with physiological and biological decline. Global population is ageing; the proportion of older persons has been rising steadily, from 7% in 1950 to 11% in 2007, with an expected rise to reach 22 % in 2050. With improving knowledge and awareness the health care seeking behavior has shown an increasingly positive trend. With increasing age, morbidity,   especially those arising from chronic diseases also increases. On the contrary, health care delivered at household level has definitely   gone down due to financial constraints and increasing cost of living, thus posing a problem for the elderly.  Aims & Objective: To find out the prevalence of chronic morbidity and health care seeking behaviour amongst the elderly in rural areas of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in rural areas of Uttarakhand to assess the chronic morbidity amongst elderly population. All the persons above the age group of 60 years of the eight villages were interviewed using a pre-defined, pre-tested, semi-structured and indigenously developed questionnaire. Results: The study group suffered from various chronic morbidities like hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases. Men were greater in number (158, 62.2%. Participants belonging mostly to nuclear families (156, 61.9%. Below the poverty line were (98, 38.9%. Half of the study population had one or the other chronic morbid condition. Majority of the elderly men contacted the health care facility whereas majority of the elderly women chose to use remedies. Conclusion: There is definitely a need of   provision of health care services for poor geriatric population. In addition to this government should take up some program for social security of this population along with creating an awareness about the same.

  2. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented.

  3. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented.

  4. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented

  5. Unequal socioeconomic distribution of the primary care workforce: whole-population small area longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Fleetcroft, Robert; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-01-19

    To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Whole-population small area longitudinal data linkage study. England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. 32,482 lower layer super output areas (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average). Slope index of inequality (SII) between the most and least deprived small areas in annual full-time equivalent GPs (FTE GPs) per 100,000 need adjusted population. In 2004/2005, inequality in primary care supply as measured by the SII in FTE GPs was 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.3) GPs per 100,000. By 2013/2014, this SII had fallen to -0.7 (95% CI -2.5 to 1.1) GPs per 100,000. The number of FTE GPs per 100,000 serving the most deprived fifth of small areas increased over this period from 54.0 to 60.5, while increasing from 57.2 to 59.9 in the least deprived fifth, so that by the end of the study period there were more GPs per 100,000 need adjusted population in the most deprived areas than in the least deprived. The increase in GP supply in the most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods was larger in areas that received targeted investment for establishing new practices under the 'Equitable Access to Primary Medical Care'. There was a substantial reduction in socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply associated with national policy. This policy may not have completely eliminated socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply since existing need adjustment formulae do not fully capture the additional burden of multimorbidity in deprived neighbourhoods. The small area approach introduced in this study can be used routinely to monitor socioeconomic inequality of access to primary care and to indicate workforce shortages in particular neighbourhoods. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  6. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  7. Prevalence and correlates of fear of falling among elderly population in urban area of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Abhay B; Sanjana, T; Patil, Prabhakar R; Sriniwas, T

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. Fear of falling (FOF) among elderly persons can compromise quality of life by limiting mobility, diminished sense of well-being and reduced social interactions. India is undergoing a demographic transitional phase with urban elderly population of 6.72% in 2001. The major challenge would be on the prevention of falls among them. Hence there is a need to highlight the problems related to fall faced by the elderly in India. To study the prevalence of FOF and its correlates among the elderly population in urban area. 250 elderly subjects above 60 years were randomly selected from urban area and interviewed for FOF using Short Fall Efficacy Scale-I (FES-I), history of falls and risk factors. The prevalence of FOF among the elderly was 33.2%. The significant correlates of FOF were educational status, family type, associated health problems, history of fall in past 6 months, worried of fall again among fallers, fearfulness of fall again among fallers, restriction of daily activities and depression among them. The insignificant correlates were gender and socio-economic status. FOF is a health problem among the elderly living in urban India needs urgent attention. It represents a significant threat to socialization, independence and morbidity or mortality. Knowledge of correlates of FOF may be useful in developing multidimensional strategies to reduce it among elderly.

  8. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  9. Improved method for calculation of population doses from nuclear complexes over large geographical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, J.P.; Baker, D.A.; Hill, E.R.; Wendell, L.L.

    1977-09-01

    To simplify the calculation of potential long-distance environmental impacts, an overall average population exposure coefficient (P.E.C.) for the entire contiguous United States was calculated for releases to the atmosphere from Hanford facilities. The method, requiring machine computation, combines Bureau of Census population data by census enumeration district and an annual average atmospheric dilution factor (anti chi/Q') derived from 12-hourly gridded wind analyses provided by the NOAA's National Meteorological Center. A variable-trajectory puff-advection model was used to calculate an hourly anti chi/Q' for each grid square, assuming uniform hourly releases; seasonal and annual averages were then calculated. For Hanford, using 1970 census data, a P.E.C. of 2 x 10 -3 man-seconds per cubic meter was calculated. The P.E.C. is useful for both radioactive and nonradioactive releases. To calculate population doses for the entire contiguous United States, the P.E.C. is multiplied by the annual average release rate and then by the dose factor (rem/yr per Ci/m 3 ) for each radionuclide, and the dose contribution in man-rem is summed for all radionuclides. For multiple pathways, the P.E.C. is still useful, provided that doses from a unit release can be obtained from a set of atmospheric dose factors. The methodology is applicable to any point source, any set of population data by map grid coordinates, and any geographical area covered by equivalent meteorological data

  10. Bayesian modeling to assess populated areas impacted by radiation from Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.

    2017-12-01

    Citizen-led movements producing spatio-temporal big data are increasingly important sources of information about populations that are impacted by natural disasters. Citizen science can be used to fill gaps in disaster monitoring data, in addition to inferring human exposure and vulnerability to extreme environmental impacts. As a response to the 2011 release of radiation from Fukushima, Japan, the Safecast project began collecting open radiation data which grew to be a global dataset of over 70 million measurements to date. This dataset is spatially distributed primarily where humans are located and demonstrates abnormal patterns of population movements as a result of the disaster. Previous work has demonstrated that Safecast is highly correlated in comparison to government radiation observations. However, there is still a scientific need to understand the geostatistical variability of Safecast data and to assess how reliable the data are over space and time. The Bayesian hierarchical approach can be used to model the spatial distribution of datasets and flexibly integrate new flows of data without losing previous information. This enables an understanding of uncertainty in the spatio-temporal data to inform decision makers on areas of high levels of radiation where populations are located. Citizen science data can be scientifically evaluated and used as a critical source of information about populations that are impacted by a disaster.

  11. Characterization of Health Status of Diabetic Population in the Area 2, Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister Garriga González

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: the most common site of infection among individuals hospitalized for diabetes is the foot; it is also a frequent cause of morbidity, mortality and disability. Objective: to characterize foot health of the diabetic population attending the podiatry consultation at the Health Area # 2 in Cienfuegos, from February to June 2013. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study on the diabetic foot was conducted from February to June 2013. The study population consisted of 243 diabetic patients treated at the podiatry consultation and the sample matched the study population. The main variables used of the study were: age, sex, at-risk diabetic foot and complicated diabetic foot, level of risk and podiatric disorders diagnosed. Results: female patients attend consultation more frequently than males, accounting for 68.32 % and the ≥ 51 age group is most affected, with 138 patients. Among the 243 patients treated, 10 have a complicated diabetic foot, representing the 4.11 %. The rest of the patients (233 were identified as having at-risk foot (95.89 %; most of the patients are grouped in the third level of risk that includes lack of sensation or neuropathy. Conclusions: the most frequent podiatric disorders in the study population are: uncomplicated hyperkeratosis (195 cases, onychomycosis (159 cases, complicated hyperkeratosis (69 cases, onychogryphosis (34 cases, onicocriptosis and subungual hematoma, with a lower frequency, accounting for 9 and 7 cases respectively.

  12. Connecting Palau's marine protected areas: a population genetic approach to conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Annick; Toonen, Robert J.; Donahue, Megan J.; Karl, Stephen A.

    2017-09-01

    Bleaching events are becoming more frequent and are projected to become annual in Micronesia by 2040. To prepare for this threat, the Government of Palau is reviewing its marine protected area network to increase the resilience of the reefs by integrating connectivity into the network design. To support their effort, we used high-throughput sequencing of microsatellites to create genotypes of colonies of the coral Acropora hyacinthus to characterize population genetic structure and dispersal patterns that led to the recovery of Palau's reefs from a 1998 bleaching event. We found no evidence of a founder effect or refugium where colonies may have survived to recolonize the reef. Instead, we found significant pairwise F' st values, indicating population structure and low connectivity among most of the 25 sites around Palau. We used kinship to measure genetic differences at the individual level among sites and found that differences were best explained by the degree of exposure to the ocean [ F 1,20 = 3.015, Pr(> F) = 0.01], but with little of the total variation explained. A permutation test of the pairwise kinship coefficients revealed that there was self-seeding within sites. Overall, the data point to the population of A. hyacinthus in Palau recovering from a handful of surviving colonies with population growth primarily from self-seeding and little exchange among sites. This finding has significant implications for the management strategies for the reefs of Palau, and we recommend increasing the number and distribution of management areas around Palau to capture the genetic architecture and increase the chances of protecting potential refuges in the future.

  13. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  14. Transportation noise and exposed population of an urban area in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Joon Hee; Chang, Seo Il; Kim, Minho; Holt, James B; Seong, Jeong C

    2011-02-01

    Using noise prediction models, we explored the transportation noise levels of Youngdeungpo-gu, an urbanized area of Seoul Metropolitan City in the Republic of Korea. In addition, we estimated the population exposed to transportation noise levels and determined how many people are vulnerable to noise levels that would cause serious annoyance and sleep disturbance. Compared with the World Health Organization [WHO] recommended levels, the daytime and nighttime transportation noise levels were still high enough to have the two psychosocial effects on people when considering the recommended levels of the World Health Organization (WHO; 55 decibels [dB[A

  15. [Object-oriented remote sensing image classification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the use of object-oriented classification of remote sensing imagery in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. To obtain temperature and environmental information, an object-oriented classification approach was applied to Landsat 5 TM scenes from the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. For 1993-1996, VL incidence rates correlated positively with census tracts covered by dense vegetation, grass/pasture, and bare soil and negatively with areas covered by water and densely populated areas. In 2001-2006, positive correlations were found with dense vegetation, grass/pasture, bare soil, and densely populated areas and negative correlations with occupied urban areas with some vegetation. Land surface temperature correlated negatively with VL incidence in both periods. Object-oriented classification can be useful to characterize landscape features associated with VL in urban areas and to help identify risk areas in order to prioritize interventions.

  16. POPULATION AGGLOMERATIONS AND ITS IMPLICATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:A SURVEY OF GREEN AREAS IN THE TURKISH MEGACITY ISTANBUL*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet SAMSUNLU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries experience high population growth and pronounced agglomerations with extreme population increases in metropolitan centers which lack relevant infrastructure. Frequently, urban development in developing countries can not proceed in an environmentally friendly fashion, urban plans are not implemented correctly, and green areas are lost due to constructions. Occupying 1% of the Turkish land area and accommodating over one sixth of the Turkish population, Istanbul is one of such cities and its population has increased from one million to 13 million in the last 60 years. Urban area including settlements has been increasing continuously throughout those years at the expense of losing the green areas. The amount of green areas had diminished from 27325 to 8908 hectares in the last 60 years with a reduction of 67% as opposed to settlement areas increasing by more than five fold from 3417 to 22178 hectares in the study area. The most significant reason behind that is that Istanbul has to live through a vast population increase. Although green areas kept increasing constantly in the 30 years between 1975 and 2004 from 1695 hectares to 5435, the amount of urban green per capita had dropped from 6.7 m2/person in 1975 to 5.5 m2/person in 2004 even though the total amount of green areas had increased, to show that the enhancement of the green areas could not keep up with the pace of incoming population.

  17. Provision of 3G Mobile Services in Sparsely Populated Areas Using High Altitude Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of High Altitude Platforms for the provision of third generation mobile services in sparsely-populated areas or in developing countries. It focuses on the behavior of large cells provided via a multiple HAP deployment and shows the possibilities of using small cells located inside these large cells to serve hot-spot areas. The impact of the different types of HAP antenna masks and their adjustment on cell capacity and the quality of coverage is presented. The main parameter of the antenna radiation pattern under investigation is the power roll-off at the cell edge. Optimal values of this parameter are presented for different scenarios. Simulations of system level parameters were based on an iteration loops approach.

  18. Hadrons in dense matter. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buballa, M.; Noerenberg, W.; Schaefer, B.J.; Wambach, J.

    2000-03-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Elementary hadronic reactions, Delta dynamics in nuclei, in-medium s-wave ππ-correlations, strangeness in hot and dense matter, medium modifications of vector mesons and dilepton production, medium modifications of charmonium, thermal properties of hot and dense hadronic matter, nuclear matter, spectral functions and QCD sum rules

  19. Physical analysis of groundwater at thickly populated area of Faisalabad by using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, A.; Arslan, C.; Sattar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is the major source of drinking and soil pollution deteriorates its quality. The study was conducted in the area of Ghulam Muhammad Abad, the most thickly populated area of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. Primary information was collected by conducting the general survey of the area. Sampling was done by dividing the entire area into six zones. A total of 159 groundwater samples were collected from newly installed pumps at the depth of 90 ft. The samples were then tested for physical parameters as EC (electrical conductivity), pH, TDS (total dissolved solids), TS (total solids) and TSS (total suspended solids). Test results were compared with the guidelines given by WHO (World Health Organization), and standards drafted by PSI (Pakistan Standard Institution). GIS analysis was done by using ArcGIS v 9.2. These parameters were analyzed in drinking water with respect to drinking purpose. EC of samples ranged from 0.074 S/m to 6.044 S/m. Only 8 samples were found within the permissible limit given by WHO, i.e. 2.504 S/m. GIS analysis showed that most of the area have EC greater than permissible limit. pH value ranged from 2.19 to 6.20. All the samples were found below the permissible limit given by WHO, i.e. 6.5 to 8.5. GIS map for pH indicated that almost 80% area has the pH value ranging from 4.90 to 5.21. TDS in groundwater samples ranged from 309 mg/L to 3530 mg/L. Only 2 samples were found within the permissible limit given by PSI, i.e. 1500 mg/L. GIS analysis revealed that almost 50% area lies under high concentration of TDS. TSS in samples varied from 3 mg/L to 2222 mg/L. There were no guidelines for TSS in drinking water but are supposed to be near to 0 mg/L in groundwater. TS in groundwater samples varied from 400 mg/L to 5200 mg/L. High value of TS effect the value of EC and TDS. Hence, all the values of physical parameters revealed that the groundwater of the area is not suitable for drinking purpose and needs to improve the groundwater quality of

  20. Bacterial populations associated with the dirty area of a South African poultry abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geornaras, I; de Jesus, A E; von Holy, A

    1998-06-01

    Bacterial populations associated with three sample types from the neck region of poultry carcasses in the dirty area of an abattoir were characterized. Sample types before and after scalding were skin only, feathers only, and a skin and feather combination. The neck skin of carcasses after the defeathering processing stage was also sampled. Bacterial populations associated with water from the scald tank, rubber fingers at the exit of the defeathering machine, and air in the dirty area were also characterized. Bacterial colonies (751) were randomly isolated from yeast extract-supplemented tryptone soya agar plates exhibiting 30 to 300 colonies. Micrococcus spp. were isolated in the highest proportion from pre-and postscalded carcass samples (63.5 to 86.1% of isolates), regardless of the sample type. Conversely, Enterobacteriaceae (40.3%), Acinetobacter (19.4%), and Aeromonas/Vibrio (12.5%) species predominated on neck skin samples taken from mechanically defeathered carcasses. Isolates from the rubber fingers were, however, predominantly Micrococcus spp. (94.4%). Bacterial groups isolated in the highest proportion from scald tank water samples were Micrococcus spp. (38.3%), species of Enterobacteriaceae (29.1%), and lactic acid bacteria (17.0%). Corynebacterium spp., species of Enterobacteriaceae, and Micrococcus spp. were dominant on air settle plates.

  1. Incidence of multiple sclerosis among European Economic Area populations, 1985-2009: the framework for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the European Economic Area. Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature from 1965 onwards and integrated elements of original research, including requested or completed data by surveys authors and specific analyses. Results The review of 5323 documents yielded ten studies for age- and sex-specific analyses, and 21 studies for time-trend analysis of single data sets. After 1985, the incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged from 1.12 to 6.96 per 100,000 population, was higher in females, tripled with latitude, and doubled with study midpoint year. The north registered increasing trends from the 1960s and 1970s, with a historic drop in the Faroe Islands, and fairly stable data in the period 1980-2000; incidence rose in Italian and French populations in the period 1970-2000, in Evros (Greece) in the 1980s, and in the French West Indies in around 2000. Conclusions We conclude that the increase in multiple sclerosis incidence is only apparent, and that it is not specific to women. Monitoring of multiple sclerosis incidence might be appropriate for the European Economic Area. PMID:23758972

  2. Molecular diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in a population of an endemic area through nested-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Keyhani, Amir; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Beigom Kia, Eshrat

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed to diagnose and analyze strongyloidiasis in a population of an endemic area of Iran using nested-PCR, coupled with parasitological methods. Screening of strongyloidiasis infected people using reliable diagnostic techniques are essential to decrease the mortality and morbidity associated with this infection. Molecular methods have been proved to be highly sensitive and specific for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in stool samples. A total of 155 fresh single stool samples were randomly collected from residents of north and northwest of Khouzestan Province, Iran. All samples were examined by parasitological methods including formalin-ether concentration and nutrient agar plate culture, and molecular method of nested-PCR. Infections with S. stercoralis were analyzed according to demographic criteria. Based on the results of nested-PCR method 15 cases (9.7%) were strongyloidiasis positive. Nested-PCR was more sensitive than parasitological techniques on single stool sampling. Elderly was the most important population index for higher infectivity with S. stercoralis . In endemic areas of S. stercoralis , old age should be considered as one of the most important risk factors of infection, especially among the immunosuppressed individuals.

  3. Cardiovascular Morbidity Profile Of Population Aged 60 Years And Above In Rural And Urban Areas Of Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major contributor towards old age health problems which requires specialized care and if left unattended can deteriorate the quality of life and also lead to mortality. Therefore a study was planned to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity among geriatric population living in rural and urban areas ofKanpur.Objective: To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity in geriatric population in rural and urban area of Kanpur and also to study the pattern of cardiovascular morbidity in two areas.Material and methods: a cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected rural and urban area of Kanpur. 443 geriatrics in rural and 401 in urban area were interviewed and physically examined.Results: Geriatrics constituted 8.2% and 7.7% of total population in rural and urban area respectively. Majority ofpopulation in both areas belonged to 60-70years age group i.e. 78.8% and 75.8% respectively. 12.2% of rural geriatric and 12.5% of urban geriatric were suffering from some or other kind of cardiovascular morbidity. In rural area 39.1%>of geriatric population is hypertensive while in urban area hypertension is prevalent in 41.6%> of geriatric population. 98. l%>of morbid in rural and 86.0% in urban area were not doing any kind of exercise. A majority of population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity were not smoking currently. Majority i.e. 72.2% of geriatric population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity in rural area were having BMJ between 18.5-24.99 while in urban area 57.4% of them were having BMl>-25. Hypertensives consitiuted 57.4% in rural and 66.0% in urban area towards those who are suffering from cardiovascular morbidity.

  4. Cardiovascular Morbidity Profile Of Population Aged 60 Years And Above In Rural And Urban Areas Of Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major contributor towards old age health problems which requires specialized care and if left unattended can deteriorate the quality of life and also lead to mortality. Therefore a study was planned to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity among geriatric population living in rural and urban areas ofKanpur. Objective: To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity in geriatric population in rural and urban area of Kanpur and also to study the pattern of cardiovascular morbidity in two areas. Material and methods: a cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected rural and urban area of Kanpur. 443 geriatrics in rural and 401 in urban area were interviewed and physically examined. Results: Geriatrics constituted 8.2% and 7.7% of total population in rural and urban area respectively. Majority ofpopulation in both areas belonged to 60-70years age group i.e. 78.8% and 75.8% respectively. 12.2% of rural geriatric and 12.5% of urban geriatric were suffering from some or other kind of cardiovascular morbidity. In rural area 39.1%>of geriatric population is hypertensive while in urban area hypertension is prevalent in 41.6%> of geriatric population. 98. l%>of morbid in rural and 86.0% in urban area were not doing any kind of exercise. A majority of population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity were not smoking currently. Majority i.e. 72.2% of geriatric population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity in rural area were having BMJ between 18.5-24.99 while in urban area 57.4% of them were having BMl>-25. Hypertensives consitiuted 57.4% in rural and 66.0% in urban area towards those who are suffering from cardiovascular morbidity.

  5. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muglia Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990. Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty was the reference group. Results PTB th quartile (4.9%, p adjOR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35, with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52. Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  6. Population-based incidence of typhoid fever in an urban informal settlement and a rural area in Kenya: implications for typhoid vaccine use in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Breiman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing higher rates in the urban area, given crowding and suboptimal access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. METHODS: During 2007-9, we conducted population-based surveillance in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, and in Lwak, a rural area in western Kenya. Participants had free access to study clinics; field workers visited their homes biweekly to collect information about acute illnesses. In clinic, blood cultures were processed from patients with fever or pneumonia. Crude and adjusted incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: In the urban site, the overall crude incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi bacteremia was 247 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation (pyo with highest rates in children 5-9 years old (596 per 100,000 pyo and 2-4 years old (521 per 100,000 pyo. Crude overall incidence in Lwak was 29 cases per 100,000 pyo with low rates in children 2-4 and 5-9 years old (28 and 18 cases per 100,000 pyo, respectively. Adjusted incidence rates were highest in 2-4 year old urban children (2,243 per 100,000 pyo which were >15-fold higher than rates in the rural site for the same age group. Nearly 75% of S. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic urban slum and rural comparison showed dramatically higher typhoid incidence among urban children <10 years old with rates similar to those from Asian urban slums. The findings have potential policy implications for use of typhoid vaccines in increasingly urban Africa.

  7. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  8. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-12-02

    To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance.

  9. Unified approach to dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N c limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons

  10. Malaria epidemiology in an area of stable transmission in tribal population of Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manoj K; Prajapati, Brijesh K; Tiendrebeogo, Régis W; Ranjan, Kumud; Adu, Bright; Srivastava, Amit; Khera, Harvinder K; Chauhan, Narendra; Tevatiya, Sanjay; Kana, Ikhlaq H; Sharma, Surya Kant; Singh, Subhash; Theisen, Michael

    2017-05-02

    Malaria remains an important health problem in India with approximately 1 million cases in 2014. Of these, 7% occurred in the Jharkhand state mainly in the tribal population. This study was conducted in Dumargarhi, a tribal village about 42 km east of Ranchi city, Jharkhand, from May 2014 to September 2016. Four point prevalence surveys were carried out during consecutive high (October-December) and low (June-August) transmission seasons. Malaria cases were recorded from April 2015 to April 2016 through fortnightly visits to the village. Adult mosquito densities were monitored fortnightly by manual catching using suction tube method. The study area consists of five hamlets inhabited by 945 individuals living in 164 households as recorded through a house-to-house census survey performed at enrollment. The study population consisted predominantly of the Munda (n = 425, 45%) and Oraon (n = 217, 23%) ethnic groups. Study participants were categorized as per their age 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and >15 years. There were 99 cases of clinical malaria from April 2015 to April 2016 and all malaria cases confirmed by microscopy were attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (94 cases) and Plasmodium vivax (5 cases), respectively. During the high transmission season the mean density of P. falciparum parasitaemia per age group increased to a peak level of 23,601 parasites/μl in the 6-10 years age group and gradually declined in the adult population. Malaria attack rates, parasite prevalence and density levels in the study population showed a gradual decrease with increasing age. This finding is consistent with the phenomenon of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. Three vector species were detected: Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles culicifacies. The incoherence or complete out of phase pattern of the vector density peaks together with a high prevalence of parasite positive individuals in the study population explains the year-round malaria

  11. The Application Modular Floating Pontoon to Support Floods Disaster Evacuation System in Heavy Populated Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzan Zakki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During floods disaster in the heavy populated residential area, the lack of existing life saving appliances system such as rubber boat and wooden boat were not able to evacuate the disaster victims spontaneously in mass. The condition might be explained since the rubber boat and wooden boat have limited occupant capacity. Based on the conditions, the main objectives of the research are focused on the evaluation of the application of modular floating pontoon as multipurpose floating equipment to support floods disaster evacuation process. The investigation of the modular floating pontoon performance such as hydrostatics characteristics, the equilibrium condition and the intact stability was studied using strip theory and Krylov’s method. Furthermore, the strength analysis of the modular floating pontoon structure was calculated using finite element method. The results show that the modular floating pontoon is reliable to support the evacuation process.

  12. FttC-Based Fronthaul for 5G Dense/Ultra-Dense Access Network: Performance and Costs in Realistic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mazzenga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to terminals. However, the deployment of dense/ultra-dense networks is slowed down by the cost of the fiber-based infrastructure required to connect radio nodes to the central processing units and then to the core network. In this paper, we investigate the possibility for existing FttC access networks to provide fronthaul capabilities for dense/ultra-dense 5G wireless networks. The analysis is realistic in that it is carried out considering an actual access network scenario, i.e., the Italian FttC deployment. It is assumed that access nodes are connected to the Cabinets and to the corresponding distributors by a number of copper pairs. Different types of cities grouped in terms of population have been considered. Results focus on fronthaul transport capacity provided by the FttC network and have been expressed in terms of the available fronthaul bit rate per node and of the achievable coverage.

  13. Selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Na [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Gao Zhidong [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo Degang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Tang Xun [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Dafang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu Yonghua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yhhu@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, and to discuss the influence of various factors on serum selenium level. The soil, drinking water, and foodstuff samples and venous blood samples of 401 individuals were obtained to determine the selenium level by gas chromatograph equipped with a {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (ECD). The selenium level was 0.210 {+-} 0.013 {mu}g/g in soil, 0.017 {mu}g/L {+-} 0.002 in drinking water, 0.034 {+-} 0.002 {mu}g/g in rice, and 0.034 {+-} 0.012 {mu}g/g in wheat flour. This index showed that the Zhoukoudian area of Beijing was a moderate or marginal level selenium ecological landscape. The mean serum selenium level of the population was 75.01 {+-} 28.35 {mu}g/L, ranging between 35.2 and 160.4 {mu}g/L. A total of 279 (69.6%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 80 {mu}g/L, which is the lowest threshold for the activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in vivo. A total of 35 (8.5%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 45 {mu}g/L. It is widely recommended that below this value (45 {mu}g/L) there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum selenium level was positively associated with body mass index ({beta} = 0.137; P = 0.011), serum total cholesterol TC ({beta} = 0.785; P = 0.000), however, negatively associated with systolic blood pressure ({beta} = - 0.172; P = 0.023), serum triglyceride ({beta} = - 0.170; P = 0.007), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.121; P = 0.027), and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.568; P = 0.027)

  14. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. Results PTB rate of PTB poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies. PMID:18793437

  15. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. Differences in attitudes towards medication between population groups in the Durban Metropolitan Area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Fatima; Ally, Shabnam; Bayat, Samirah; Essack, Razia; Moodley, Renalda; Mtembu, Thobekile; Ramalingham, Emily

    2009-08-01

    Personal factors, especially attitude, have been implicated in the utilization of health care services, and in access to medical treatment. There is little information on the attitudes of the general public in South Africa towards medications and whether attitudes differ across population groups or among the different users of the health care system. This study aimed to determine the general attitude of a local population to medications, self-care orientation and health professional contact, and whether differences existed between age groups, gender and race groups. METHODS We carried out a randomized, cross-sectional quantitative study via telephonic questionnaire survey (adapted from a previous study) of a sample of 1132 telephone numbers. The setting was the Durban Metropolitan Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. KEY FINDINGS A total of 500 (44.2%) people responded. The majority had a positive attitude towards medication. An increase in age resulted in increased medication use. Females were more likely than males to use medication and seek professional health care (P = 0.0406). Most of the respondents (86.0%) were self-care-orientated and displayed moderate medication knowledge (46.2%). Some 295 (59.0%) of the 500 respondents had visited a pharmacy within the last 6 months. Conclusions Health care professionals can adopt an informed approach to address the needs of the population with regard to medication, by targeting groups more likely to use medication (females and the older age group). In addition, gaps in medication knowledge were identified which could be used for health-promotion interventions by health care workers.

  17. Quality of life among the geriatric population in a rural area of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahul Hameed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is an inevitable developmental phenomenon bringing along a number of changes in the physical, psychological, hormonal and the social conditions. These changes are expected to affect the quality of life of the elderly. Methods: In the rural area, cross‐sectional community‐based study was conducted among elderly population aged 60 years and above. WHO Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL BREF questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Results: Among the study population, the mean perceived overall quality of life scores were 62.1}16.4 and the mean perceived overall health status scores were 59.8}17.4. Males were found to have better social relations compared to females. Among <70 years better physical domain scores were seen compared to ≥70 years. Among the literates and currently married elderly, all the domain scores were higher compared to illiterates and those without partners respectively. Conclusion: All the domains of quality of life were significantly affected for those who were illiterate or were single. Males were found to have better social relations compared to females. Such perceived quality of life study helps to highlight the inequalities among the elderly, which can be targeted to improve the quality of life.

  18. Census 2012 Core Based Statistical Area (CBSAs) Polygons with Population Estimates, US EPA Region 9, 2014, USCB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) from the US Census Bureau's TIGER files download website, joined with 2014 population estimate data downloaded from the US...

  19. Transport properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Naoki; Mitake, Shinichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ichimaru, Setsuo

    1983-01-01

    Transport coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities in particular, are essential physical quantities for the theories of stellar structure. Since the discoveries of pulsars and X-ray stars, an accurate evaluation of the transport coefficients in the dense matter has become indispensable to the quantitative understanding of the observed neutron stars. The authors present improved calculations of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the dense matter in the liquid metal phase, appropriate to white dwarfs and neutron stars. (Auth.)

  20. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, S.; Tajima, T.

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas

  1. Alcohol use in a military population deployed in combat areas: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwella Raveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy

  2. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Malaria Declining Areas of Sabah, East Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ridzuan Mohd Abd Razak

    Full Text Available Malaysia has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2020. Understanding the genetic diversity of malaria parasites in residual transmission foci can provide invaluable information which may inform the intervention strategies used to reach elimination targets. This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity level of P. falciparum isolates in malaria residual foci areas of Sabah. Malaria active case detection was conducted in Kalabakan and Kota Marudu. All individuals in the study sites were screened for malaria infection by rapid diagnostic test. Blood from P. falciparum-infected individuals were collected on filter paper prior to DNA extraction. Genotyping was performed using merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1, merozoite surface protein-2 (MSP-2, glutamate rich protein (GLURP and 10 neutral microsatellite loci markers. The size of alleles, multiplicity of infection (MOI, mean number of alleles (Na, expected heterozygosity (He, linkage disequilibrium (LD and genetic differentiation (FST were determined. In Kalabakan, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly K1 and FC27 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype VI (751-800 bp was predominant. The MOI for MSP-1 and MSP-2 were 1.65 and 1.20, respectively. The Na per microsatellite locus was 1.70. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.17, 0.37, 0.70 and 0.33, respectively. In Kota Marudu, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly MAD20 and 3D7 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype IV (651-700 bp was predominant. The MOI for both MSP-1 and MSP-2 was 1.05. The Na per microsatellite locus was 3.60. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.24, 0.25, 0.69 and 0.30, respectively. A significant LD was observed in Kalabakan (0.495, p<0.01 and Kota Marudu P. falciparum populations (0.601, p<0.01. High genetic differentiation between Kalabakan and Kota Marudu P. falciparum populations was observed (FST = 0

  3. Morbidity Pattern Among Elderly Population In A Rural Area Of Dehradun In Uttaranchal

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    K S Negi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : What is the morbidity pattern among elderly people in rural area of Dehradun?Objectives :(1     To assess the morbidity pattern among elderly population.(2     To assess the psycho-social problems among elderly people.(3     To assess the relationship between addiction and hypertension among them.Study design : Cross-Sectional.Setting : Atturwala - a rural area of district Dehradun in Uttaranchal.Participants : 332 elderly people aged 60 years and above.Statistical Analysis : Proportions, Chi-Square test.Results ; It was observed that 78.3% elderly had ophthalmic problem, 69.3% elderly had psycho-social problems followed by hypertension (49.1%, Chronic bronchitis (22% and asthma (12%. A significant relation was found between hypertention and addiction i. e. smoking and / or alcohol (p<.001. Respiratory diseases were found in 47.3% elderly persons. Depression was highly dominating problem among elderly (59.6%.

  4. Drinking and drinking patterns and health status in the general population of five areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Binglun; Zhang, Kui; Yang, Hanqing; Chen, Shaozhong; Biao, Meizi; Cui, Chun

    2004-01-01

    To understand drinking patterns, health status related to drinking and the level of unrecorded alcoholic beverage consumption for the general population living in five areas of China in 2001. By cluster sampling, 24992 community residents aged 15 years or older were interviewed by trained psychiatrists using structured questionnaires provided by WHO. The 1-year drinking rate was 59.0%, and the point prevalence rate of dependence was 3.8%. The average annual consumption of pure alcohol was 4.47 l. The 1-year morbidity from gastritis/ulcer in the whole sample was 7.9%, which associated nonlinearly to alcohol intake, and heart disease and cerebral infarction/cerebral haemorrhage showed V-shaped curve relationships. The rate of alcohol use was higher in men than in women, and the annual alcohol consumption per capita was higher than that in the 1990s in the selected areas. Alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of alcohol-related physical diseases.

  5. The determination of ground water quality based on the presence of Escherichia coli on populated area (a case study: Pasar Minggu, South Jakarta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmah, Y.; Rinanti, A.; Hendrawan, D. I.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine the quality of groundwater in densely populated areas in the Pasar Minggu district, which focuses on examination of Escherichia coli bacteria as biological parameters. E.coli analysis was conducted in 3 sub-districtin the Pasar Minggu district, South Jakarta (106° 45‧0″E - 6° 15‧40″S), which included Pejaten Barat, Jati Padang and Kebagusan sub-district based on topography. The method used is Most Probable Number (MPN), referring to SNI 01-2332.1-2006. The results showed that the presence of E. coli in the highest groundwater ranged from 1100 MPN/100 ml to > 1100 MPN/100 ml, present in Pejaten Barat sub-district (06° 16‧39 "S-106° 49‧48" E) whereas the lowest number ranged from 11.5 MPN/100 ml to 23 MPN/100 ml occurred in Jati Padang sub-district (06° 17‧6 "S - 106° 49‧48" E).The correlation test results show that the amount of E.coli in ground water is affected by the distance of the septic tank to the groundwater well. The amount of E.coli contained in groundwater is also increasing, 1100 MPN/100 ml in groundwater samples at 15 m depth. This study provides information that topography and water flow affect the amount of E. coli.

  6. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkova, E.; Bodnar, I.; Zainullin, V. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  7. [Food habits of the school population from La Mancha-Centro Health Area (Ciudad Real)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-González, A; Falero-Gallego, M P; Redondo-González, O; Muñoz-Serrano, A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the dietary pattern of the school population from La Mancha-Centro Health Area (Ciudad Real). A cross-sectional study conducted on a representative sample of schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years, using a questionnaire to determine their general dietary habits and a record of their 24-hour intake. A total of 1142 schoolchildren were included, with 612 boys (53.6%) and 530 girls (46.4%), and a mean age of 9.3 ± 1.7 years of age. The frequency of food intake was 4.62 ± 0.6 times a day, which decreased with the age of the schoolchildren (P=.044), and increased with the educational level of parents (P=.004). Food preference influenced the choice in the meals consumed. The level of appetite was related directly with weight and body mass index (BMI) (P<.001), age (P=.02), and number of daily food intakes by the children (P=.038). The food groups most frequently consumed were cereals and their derivatives (92.8%), milk and dairy products (90.45%), while vegetables were the least consumed (35.46%). Over 70% of the sample usually consumed olive oil. The dietary pattern of the school population maintains some of the features of traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern, such as the habit of daily breakfast, the greater consumption of olive oil and cereals. On the other hand, other characteristics are remarkable, such as the low consumption of fruit and vegetables and the high consumption of meat. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  9. EU protected area network did not prevent a country wide population decline in a threatened grassland bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of the Protected Area networks on the conservation status of target species. Here, we assess the effectiveness of the Portuguese Natura 2000 (the European Union network of protected areas in maintaining a species included in the Annex I of the Bird Directive, namely the population of a priority farmland bird, the little bustard Tetrax tetrax. Methods We measured the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 by comparing population trends across time (2003–2006 and 2016 in 51 areas, 21 of which within 12 Special Protection Areas (SPA that were mostly designated for farmland bird conservation and another 30 areas without EU protection. Results Overall, the national population is estimated to have declined 49% over the last 10–14 years. This loss was found to be proportionally larger outside SPA (64% decline compared to losses within SPA (25% decline. However, the absolute male density decline was significantly larger within SPA . Discussion In spite of holding higher population densities and having prevented habitat loss, we conclude that Natura 2000 was not effective in buffering against the overall bustard population decline. Results show that the mere designation of SPA in farmland is not enough to secure species populations and has to be combined with agricultural policies and investment to maintain not only habitat availability but also habitat quality.

  10. EU protected area network did not prevent a country wide population decline in a threatened grassland bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João P; Correia, Ricardo; Alonso, Hany; Martins, Ricardo C; D'Amico, Marcello; Delgado, Ana; Sampaio, Hugo; Godinho, Carlos; Moreira, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of the Protected Area networks on the conservation status of target species. Here, we assess the effectiveness of the Portuguese Natura 2000 (the European Union network of protected areas) in maintaining a species included in the Annex I of the Bird Directive, namely the population of a priority farmland bird, the little bustard Tetrax tetrax . We measured the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 by comparing population trends across time (2003-2006 and 2016) in 51 areas, 21 of which within 12 Special Protection Areas (SPA) that were mostly designated for farmland bird conservation and another 30 areas without EU protection. Overall, the national population is estimated to have declined 49% over the last 10-14 years. This loss was found to be proportionally larger outside SPA (64% decline) compared to losses within SPA (25% decline). However, the absolute male density decline was significantly larger within SPA . In spite of holding higher population densities and having prevented habitat loss, we conclude that Natura 2000 was not effective in buffering against the overall bustard population decline. Results show that the mere designation of SPA in farmland is not enough to secure species populations and has to be combined with agricultural policies and investment to maintain not only habitat availability but also habitat quality.

  11. Selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Na; Gao Zhidong; Luo Degang; Tang Xun; Chen Dafang; Hu Yonghua

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, and to discuss the influence of various factors on serum selenium level. The soil, drinking water, and foodstuff samples and venous blood samples of 401 individuals were obtained to determine the selenium level by gas chromatograph equipped with a 63 Ni electron capture detector (ECD). The selenium level was 0.210 ± 0.013 μg/g in soil, 0.017 μg/L ± 0.002 in drinking water, 0.034 ± 0.002 μg/g in rice, and 0.034 ± 0.012 μg/g in wheat flour. This index showed that the Zhoukoudian area of Beijing was a moderate or marginal level selenium ecological landscape. The mean serum selenium level of the population was 75.01 ± 28.35 μg/L, ranging between 35.2 and 160.4 μg/L. A total of 279 (69.6%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 80 μg/L, which is the lowest threshold for the activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in vivo. A total of 35 (8.5%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 45 μg/L. It is widely recommended that below this value (45 μg/L) there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum selenium level was positively associated with body mass index (β = 0.137; P = 0.011), serum total cholesterol TC (β = 0.785; P = 0.000), however, negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = - 0.172; P = 0.023), serum triglyceride (β = - 0.170; P = 0.007), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (β = - 0.121; P = 0.027), and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (β = - 0.568; P = 0.027)

  12. A cave population of Isbrueckerichthys alipionis (Gosline, 1947 in the Upper Ribeira karst area, southeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Trajano

    Full Text Available A cave population of the armored catfish Isbrueckerichthys alipionis is reported from the Santana Cave, in the rio Betari watershed, Upper Ribeira karst area, Iporanga, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. The cave population was compared to an epigean population of I. alipionis and no significant differences where found in morphology or degree of pigmentation. As the cave population is known for at least 30 years and is apparently isolated from epigean streams, it is classified as troglophilic. The discovery of this troglophilic species in the Santana Cave is an additional strong argument for the conservation of that cave.

  13. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  14. Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishnan, S. [Health Physics Unit, Indian Rare Earths Limited, Udyogamandal, 683 501 Kerala (India); Krishnamony, S. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1998-09-01

    High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1 m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000 nGy h{sup -1}. Soil samples showed {sup 232}Th specific activity varying from 0{center_dot}1 to 1{center_dot}5 Bq g{sup -1} with surface alpha activity in the range of1{center_dot}0-12{center_dot}5 Bq cm{sup -2}. Suspended particulates in the samples ranged from 60-140 {mu}g m{sup -3} with {sup 232}Th showing a wider variation of <0{center_dot}03-0{center_dot}3 mBq m{sup -3}. There was poor correlation between suspended particulates and long-lived alpha airborne activity (r=-0{center_dot}3). The resuspension factors for {sup 232}Th were in the range of 1{center_dot}5x10{sup -8}-7{center_dot}9x10{sup -7} cm{sup -1}. Higher resuspension was correlated with dry sand dunes. The upper limits for Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to inhalation of airborne {sup 232}Th at the respective high natural radiation areas were estimated to range from 50{+-}30 to 300{+-}130 {mu}Sv (5-30 mrem) per year per adult member of public assuming an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1 {mu}m for the airborne particulates. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Perceptions of Medicinal Plant Use Amongst the Hispanic Population in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M. Grafford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plant use in the United States has increased as reported by the National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health and U.S. Census Bureau.However, little is known about how many minority groups in the United States use medicinal plants.There is a rise in the Hispanic population; a community with a steep tradition of medicinal plant use, in the U.S., so understanding the perceptions of medicinal plant use is useful to healthcare providers. Methods: A survey was designed to gauge a better understanding of the perceptions of medicinal plant use amongst Latino patients with varying education levels who reside in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area. Survey questions highlighted the perceptions of medicinal plants use, patient communication regarding medicinal plant use with healthcare providers (pharmacists and doctors, and the impact the education level has on medicinal plant use. Results: Surveys were distributed to six different investigational sites around the St. Louis Metropolitan Area from August 2015 to December 2015. Survey respondents identified 45 different plants/herbs that they currently use or had used at some point in their life. Those with higher levels of education had varying opinions on medicinal plant use with their current practices. Conclusion: The participants’ high interest in the use of medicinal plants exemplifies the need for enhanced communication between patients and healthcare professionals about medicinal plant use. However, it was hard to determine whether the participants’ level of education had any direct relationship to this use. Conflict of Interest None   Type: Original Research

  16. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murari L Das

    Full Text Available Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar, a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs. In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05, mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus, inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly.The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention--light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.

  17. Profiles of doses to the population living in the high background radiation areas in Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chougaonkar, M.P. E-mail: mpckar@hotmail.com; Eappen, K.P.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Shetty, P.G.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sadasivan, S.; Venkat Raj, V

    2004-07-01

    A sample study of the profiles of radiation exposures to the populations living in the high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of the monazite-bearing region in Kerala, India, has been conducted by monitoring 200 dwellings selected from two villages in this region. Each of these dwellings was monitored for 1 year and the study lasted for a period of 2 years. The indoor gamma ray dose measurements were carried out using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and the inhalation doses due to radon, thoron and their progenies were monitored using solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) based twin-cup dosimeters. Outdoor gamma ray dose measurements were carried out using Geiger Muller (GM) tube based survey meters. Annual effective doses were computed, using occupancy factors of 0.8 and 0.2, respectively, for indoor and outdoor, by adding the three components. Occupants of 41.6% of the houses surveyed were observed to receive the annual effective doses ranging between 0.5 and 5 mSv/a, 41.6% between 5 and 10 mSv/a, 10.2% between 10 and 15 mSv/a and 6.6% greater than 15 mSv/a. The inhalation component was generally smaller than the external gamma ray component and on an average it was found to constitute about 30% of the total dose. The paper presents the details of the methodology adopted and the analysis of the results.

  18. Family planning management for the migrant population in sending areas. Urban family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This brief article was adapted from a report by the Longchang County Government, Sichuan Province, China, at the National Conference on Urban Family Planning Programs. The Longchang County family planning program has shifted emphasis since 1990 toward management of out-migrant workers. Overpopulation in the family planning region resulted in each person having about one-sixth of an acre (0.6 mu) of land. There were about 200,000 surplus rural workers. 75,000 migrants left the region in 1995, of which 70,300 had signed birth control contracts and had received family planning certificates. Family planning township agencies in Longchang County increased their IEC and counseling services for migrants and their families. The Longchang County family planning program maintained family planning contacts in receiving areas in order to obtain pregnancy and birth information on the migrant population. During 1991-95 the number of unplanned births declined from 1394 to 71, and 97% of the births were planned.

  19. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambarene, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500

  20. Radiation dozes reconstruction of Semipalatinsk region Beskaragai area's population by the method of biological measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.; Kundakbaeva, G.; Bigalieva, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The study of radiation situation (on the position of May 1989) in Beskaragai area of Semipalatinsk region showed that the level of γ-radiation on it's territory reached 13-20 μR/hour, which was determined by the traces of long living radionuclides. In the inhabited regions of Dolon, Kanonerka, Buras, Ramadan villages the effect of deepening was noticed, α-particle's density level has reached maximum on the depth of approximately 10 cm, and further it decreases up to the 30 cm depth, This circumstance witnesses about the fact that we are talking about radioactive traces of many years ago happening with a time going to the depth from the upper coverage of soil. We've made the evaluation of radiation influence's genetic effects on the man's population. Cytogenetic analysis (with the use of G-method of chromosome's coloring) at whole in Beskaragai region shows that the frequency of aberrations for the cell among the inhabitants of the region is obviously higher 3.3 times at average in the region than among the population of the controlled area. During the study of the cytogenetic effects of increased radiation level's influence it is important first of all to determine the frequency of chromosome type aberrations - dicentric chromosomes, centric circles, acentric pair fragments. As it is known, the level of chromosome type aberrations is sufficiently well correlated with the doze, We have determined accumulative doze of radiation using the formula (D.C. Lloyd at all. 1992) for the calculation of dicentrics under the chronical influence of the small dozes of ionized radiation. According to the made calculations the oriented reconstruction of radiation dozes in Beskaragai region made 11 ber = 0.11 Sv, for the Dolon village - 14 ber, Kanonerka village - 13 ber, Buras village - 6 ber, Ramadan - 9.5 ber. Presented data allows to ask the question about the more spread use of cytogenetic method of research among the different population's categories living at

  1. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  2. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Hans; Chapron, Guillaume; Nowell, Kristin; Henschel, Philipp; Funston, Paul; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Macdonald, David W.; Packer, Craig

    2015-01-01

    At a regional scale, lion populations in West, Central, and East Africa are likely to suffer a projected 50% decline over the next two decades, whereas lion populations are only increasing in southern Africa. Many lion populations are either now gone or expected to disappear within the next few decades to the extent that the intensively managed populations in southern Africa may soon supersede the iconic savannah landscapes in East Africa as the most successful sites for lion conservation. Th...

  3. Dynamics of dense particle disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, S.; Tremaine, S.; Toronto Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation of mechanical equilibrium and collisional transport processes in dense, differentially rotating particle disks is based on the Enskog (1922) theory of dense, hard sphere gases, with the single exception that the spheres are inelastic. The viscous instability suggested as a source of Saturn B ring structure does not arise in the models presented, although the ring may be subject to a phase transition analogous to the liquid-solid transition observed in molecular dynamics simulations of elastic hard spheres. In such a case, the ring would alternately exhibit zero-shear, or solid, and high shear, or liquid, zones. 29 references

  4. High levels of fluctuating asymmetry in populations of Apodemus flavicollis from the most contaminated areas in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleksyk, Taras K.; Novak, James M.; Purdue, James R.; Gashchak, Sergiy P.; Smith, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Random deviations from the perfect symmetry of normally bilaterally symmetrical characters for an individual with a given genotype occur during individual development due to the influence of multiple environmental factors. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is often used as a measure of developmental instability, and can be estimated as the variance of the distribution of differences between the left and right sides. We addressed the question of whether levels of FA were elevated in radioactively contaminated populations living around Chernobyl compared to those in reference populations of the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). In addition, we studied amounts of directional asymmetry (DA) when one side is larger than the other on average. There was a significant difference among populations, including reference populations, in the amount of both FA and DA. A higher level of FA was documented for the contaminated populations in close proximity to the failed Chernobyl reactor for both the asymmetry of size and shape. The FAs of size and shape were highest in populations from the most contaminated locations in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Although the directional asymmetry of shape was also highest in the contaminated populations, it was not significantly different from those in most of the reference populations. Populations from less contaminated areas inside the Chernobyl exclusion zone did not express FA values different from those of the reference populations outside the affected area. FA of skulls of A. flavicollis may indicate the degree to which the level of radioactive contamination affects the development of animals at Chernobyl. However, the mechanisms leading to these effects are not clear and probably vary from population to population. There were significant correlations between the overall right to left differences for the Procrustes aligned shape configurations, centroid sizes, and intramuscular 137 Cs. Detectable effects of radiation on developmental

  5. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854

  6. Awareness and perceptions regarding common cancers among adult population in a rural area of Puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Arumugam Mariappan; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2017-01-01

    Awareness regarding cancer signs and symptoms and their screening and treatment method was low in India. To assess the awareness level of common cancers, perception regarding prevention and treatment of common cancers, association between sociodemographic variables with the awareness level of common cancers in the adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 299 adults from the field practice areas of Our Rural Health Centre, Puducherry, during April-May 2014. Using systematic random sampling, 299 adults were interviewed through a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Chi-square test was used. Nearly, 64% were in the age group of ≥40 years, the majorities were females (56.2%) and 64% were in lower socioeconomic class. Symptoms reported majorities were unusual bleeding (41.6%), followed by nagging cough (34.1%). Risk factors reported majorities were smoking (65%), chewing tobacco (59%) followed by alcohol use (46.5%). Only 10% reported cancer could be diagnosed early and 27% perceived cancer could be preventable. Only 6% perceived cancer could be cured fully. The adequate awareness level regarding lung and oral cancer were 14%, but breast and cervical cancer were <5%. The younger age group (<40 years) had more adequate awareness level compared to age group ≥40 years ( P < 0.05). The awareness level of common cancers was very poor. Vigorous health education program should improve the status of early diagnosis and proper treatment for common cancers such as oral, breast, and cervical cancer.

  7. The estimation of the dose from cosmic radiation received by the population living at mainland areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua; Yue Qingyu

    1989-01-01

    According to the distribution of cosmic ray ionization with altitude and latitude as well as the census information in all of our country (the end of the year 1986), the population-weighted mean annual effective dose equivalent received by the population living at mainland areas of China is estimated to be about 278 μSv, in which the ionizing component and the neutron component are 252 μSv and 26 μSv, respectively

  8. Dense Crowds of Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stüvel, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel crowd simulation method `Torso Crowds', aimed at the simulation of dense crowds. The method is based on the results of user studies and a motion capture experiment, which are also described in this thesis. Torso Crowds introduces a capsule shape to represent people in

  9. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carvelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7–7.5; 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8% and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%, and were fed with commercial food (54.8% and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%. The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  10. Biodiversity Areas under Threat: Overlap of Climate Change and Population Pressures on the World’s Biodiversity Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, Narcisa G.; Husak, Gregory J.; Lopez-Carr, David

    2017-01-01

    Humans and the ecosystem services they depend on are threatened by climate change. Places with high or growing human population as well as increasing climate variability, have a reduced ability to provide ecosystem services just as the need for these services is most critical. A spiral of vulnerability and ecosystem degradation often ensues in such places. We apply different global conservation schemes as proxies to examine the spatial relation between wet season precipitation, population change over three decades, and natural resource conservation. We pose two research questions: 1) Where are biodiversity and ecosystem services vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and population growth? 2) Where are human populations vulnerable to degraded ecosystem services? Results suggest that globally only about 20% of the area between 50 degrees latitude North and South has experienced significant change–largely wetting–in wet season precipitation. Approximately 40% of rangelands and 30% of rainfed agriculture lands have experienced significant precipitation changes, with important implications for food security. Over recent decades a number of critical conservation areas experienced high population growth concurrent with significant wetting or drying (e.g. the Horn of Africa, Himalaya, Western Ghats, and Sri Lanka), posing challenges not only for human adaptation but also to the protection and sustenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying areas of climate and population risk and their overlap with conservation priorities can help to target activities and resources that promote biodiversity and ecosystem services while improving human well-being. PMID:28125659

  11. Phylogeography of var gene repertoires reveals fine-scale geospatial clustering of Plasmodium falciparum populations in a highly endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Sofonias K; Monk, Stephanie L; Schultz, Mark B; Tavul, Livingstone; Reeder, John C; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major global health problem that is being targeted for progressive elimination. Knowledge of local disease transmission patterns in endemic countries is critical to these elimination efforts. To investigate fine-scale patterns of malaria transmission, we have compared repertoires of rapidly evolving var genes in a highly endemic area. A total of 3680 high-quality DBLα-sequences were obtained from 68 P. falciparum isolates from ten villages spread over two distinct catchment areas on the north coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Modelling of the extent of var gene diversity in the two parasite populations predicts more than twice as many var gene alleles circulating within each catchment (Mugil = 906; Wosera = 1094) than previously recognized in PNG (Amele = 369). In addition, there were limited levels of var gene sharing between populations, consistent with local parasite population structure. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrate that while neutrally evolving microsatellite markers identified population structure only at the catchment level, var gene repertoires reveal further fine-scale geospatial clustering of parasite isolates. The clustering of parasite isolates by village in Mugil, but not in Wosera was consistent with the physical and cultural isolation of the human populations in the two catchments. The study highlights the microheterogeneity of P. falciparum transmission in highly endemic areas and demonstrates the potential of var genes as markers of local patterns of parasite population structure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Finding dense locations in symbolic indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    presents two graph-based models for constrained and semi-constrained indoor movement, respectively, and then uses the models to map raw tracking records into mapping records that represent object entry and exit times in particular locations. Subsequently, an efficient indexing structure called Hierarchical...... Dense Location Time Index (HDLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals of the mapping table, along with index construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The HDLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point, interval, and duration queries as well as dense location queries......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for many applications such as overloaded area detection, security control, crowd management, indoor navigation, and so on. Indoor tracking data can be enormous and are not immediately ready for finding dense locations. This paper...

  13. [The dose estimation to the population as a result of radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk Test area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonova, S I; Mukusheva, M K; Shubina, O A; Solomatin, V M; Epifanova, I E

    2008-01-01

    The results are presented from estimation of spatial distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr contamination densities in the areas of horses and sheep grazing within the Semipalatinsk Test Site. Dose burdens to various cohorts of the population living within the STS and consuming contaminated animal products are predicted. Doses of shepherds in the most contaminated pasture areas have been found to exceed the accepted limit (1 mSv/y). The conclusion is made about the need for further studies on the risk assessment of the STS population exposure above the accepted limits.

  14. Food-chain analysis (lead and cadmium) in free-living animal populations in the Saar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, P.

    1983-02-01

    The populations and substrates involved in food webs are integrators of the burdening of areas and ecosystems. After several years of experiences my study group started continuous populations and residue analyses in Saarland (Aromatics, Heavy metals). It was shown that with the knowledge of the ecological variables, the analyses of soil types, of earth-worms (Lumbricidae), ground beetles (Carabidae), blackbirds (Turdus meruala), honey-bees (Apis mellifica), goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes) carried out at the same site yielded expecially useful area-related results. Heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd) in leaves of Populus nigra, Physa acuta, Erprobdella octoculata, Asellus aquaticus, earthworms, Carabids, goshawks and foxes are presented.

  15. Terrestrial gamma tracking: estimation of population exposition to radioactivity in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Elder Magalhães de

    2017-01-01

    In this work, measurements of Ambient Dose Equivalent, H⁎(10) in urban and rural areas is proposed to assess and estimate the dose and external dose in cases of radiological or nuclear accidents. These measurements will enable the calculation and estimation of population exposure to environmental and urban radioactivity to be performed within the parameters proposed by the IAEA and UNSCEAR. To take into account the influence of background gamma radiation on radiometric measurements, all the detectors used, AT6101C, SPARCS A1 and SPARCS M1 systems, were calibrated using IRD's extensive set of planar sources. Also, a methodology for the gamma radiation terrestrial survey is proposed to use the gamma in situ spectrometry systems in H⁎(10) measurements. Shielding effects due to the use of detection systems inside vehicles were evaluated and the corresponding corrections factors calculated are 1.45 for the AT6101C detector, 1.77 for SPARCS A1 and 1.82 for SPARCS M1. The terrestrial survey to determine the value of Ambient Dose Equivalent was performed in areas not subject to intense radioactive anomalies. Among these areas are included the cities: Angra dos Reis and Paraty (State of Rio de Janeiro), Abadia de Goiás, Goiânia, Cristalina and Itumbiara (State of Goiás), Ribeirão Preto and Campinas (State of São Paulo), Brasília-DF (Federal District), Belo Horizonte, Ubá and cities of Zona da Mata (State of Minas Gerais) and Manaus (State of Amazonas). The average altitude of the cities ranged from the sea level in the cities of Angra dos Reis and Paraty to 1100 meters in Brasilia. The number of inhabitants ranged from 3,000 in Divinésia to 3 million in Brasília-DF. The mean values of H⁎(10) ranged from 63 nSv/h in Itumbiara to 170 nSv/h in Ubá. The minimum and maximum values found ranged from 25 nSv/h in Manaus to 347 nSv/h in Belo Horizonte. The average altitude of the cities ranged from the sea level in the cities of Angra dos Reis and Paraty to 1100

  16. [Investigation of urinary cadmium characteristics of the general population in three non-cadmium-polluted rural areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Hu, Ji; Sun, Hong; Jing, Qiqing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of urinary cadmium of the non-occupational-cadmium-exposed population in non-cadmium contaminated rural area in China. Randomly selected non-occupational cadmium exposed population 2548 people (male 1290, female 1258) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P95) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Urinary cadmium increased with age and showed an upward trend. The urinary cadmium of the population of ≥ 30 years old was significantly higher than that of populations (China (GB Z17-2002). The urinary cadmium reference value of non-occupational-cadmium-exposed populations is China, but for smoking women over 30 year-old it needs more research to explore.

  17. The population in China’s earthquake-prone areas has increased by over 32 million along with rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Huang, Qingxu; Dou, Yinyin; Tu, Wei; Liu, Jifu

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessments of the population exposed to seismic hazard are crucial in seismic risk mapping. Recent rapid urbanization in China has resulted in substantial changes in the size and structure of the population exposed to seismic hazard. Using the latest population census data and seismic maps, this work investigated spatiotemporal changes in the exposure of the population in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China from 1990 to 2010. In the context of rapid urbanization and massive rural-to-urban migration, nearly one-tenth of the Chinese population in 2010 lived in MSHAs. From 1990 to 2010, the MSHA population increased by 32.53 million at a significantly higher rate of change (33.6%) than the national average rate (17.7%). The elderly population in MSHAs increased by 81.4%, which is much higher than the group’s national growth rate of 58.9%. Greater attention should be paid to the demographic changes in earthquake-prone areas in China.

  18. Comparison of small-area deprivation measures as predictors of chronic disease burden in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lòpez-De Fede, Ana; Stewart, John E; Hardin, James W; Mayfield-Smith, Kathy

    2016-06-10

    Measures of small-area deprivation may be valuable in geographically targeting limited resources to prevent, diagnose, and effectively manage chronic conditions in vulnerable populations. We developed a census-based small-area socioeconomic deprivation index specifically to predict chronic disease burden among publically insured Medicaid recipients in South Carolina, a relatively poor state in the southern United States. We compared the predictive ability of the new index with that of four other small-area deprivation indicators. To derive the ZIP Code Tabulation Area-Level Palmetto Small-Area Deprivation Index (Palmetto SADI), we evaluated ten census variables across five socioeconomic deprivation domains, identifying the combination of census indicators most highly correlated with a set of five chronic disease conditions among South Carolina Medicaid enrollees. In separate validation studies, we used both logistic and spatial regression methods to assess the ability of Palmetto SADI to predict chronic disease burden among state Medicaid recipients relative to four alternative small-area socioeconomic deprivation measures: the Townsend index of material deprivation; a single-variable poverty indicator; and two small-area designations of health care resource deprivation, Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Area and Medically Underserved Area/Medically Underserved Population. Palmetto SADI was the best predictor of chronic disease burden (presence of at least one condition and presence of two or more conditions) among state Medicaid recipients compared to all alternative deprivation measures tested. A low-cost, regionally optimized socioeconomic deprivation index, Palmetto SADI can be used to identify areas in South Carolina at high risk for chronic disease burden among Medicaid recipients and other low-income Medicaid-eligible populations for targeted prevention, screening, diagnosis, disease self-management, and care coordination activities.

  19. The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: A case study on human population growth and landscape level change in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Congalton, Russell G.; Palace, Michael W.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2016-04-01

    Protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are sanctuaries for rich biodiversity and are important economic engines for African nations, but they are becoming increasingly threatened by discoveries of mineral deposits within and nearby their boundaries. In 2006, viable oil reserves were discovered in Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) in northern Uganda. Exploratory and appraisal activities concluded in 2014, and production is expected to begin in 2016. The oil development is associated with a substantial increase in human population outside MFCA, with people seeking jobs, land, and economic opportunity. Concomitant with this change is increased truck traffic, a sprawling and denser road network, and infrastructure within the park, which could have large impacts on both the flora and fauna. We examined the broader protected area landscape and the potential feedbacks from resource development on the ecosystem and local livelihoods. Our analysis combines a land cover analysis using Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat data (2002 and 2014), migration patterns and population change (1959-2014), and qualitative interview data. Our results suggest that most of the larger-scale impacts on the landscape and people are occurring in the western and northern sections, both inside and outside of the park. Additionally, oil development is not the only factor in the region influencing population growth and landscape change. Post conflict regrowth in the north, sugarcane production in the south, and migration to this region from conflict-ridden neighboring countries are also playing a vital role in human migration shaping the MFCA Landscape. Understanding the social and environmental changes and impacts in the MFCA and its surrounding areas will add to limited literature on the impacts of resource extraction on local, subsistence communities and landscape level change, which will be important as access and pressure for oil and minerals within protected areas continues to rise.

  20. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and Rural areas of kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on three thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Participants : High risk age group population i.e. 45 years and above.Study variables : Age, Sex. impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index, Education, Working status. Social class, family history of diabetes.Statistical analysis : Chi-square lest, percentagesResults From a total of 676 persons of high risk age group i.e. 45 years and above, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the study areas was observed lobe 7. l%with 9.94% in urban and 3.61% in rural areas, the maximum percetage of diabetes cases (41.66% was in the age group of 56-60 years. Higher prevalence of diabetes was observed in the obese (56.25% and sedentary (87.5% persons. The family history' of diabetes mellitus was present in (35.41% of diabetes mellitus cases.

  1. Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Areas: Potential Co-Benefits of Alternative Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Forkel, R.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Even though much progress has been achieved through dedicated approaches to improving air quality in many European cities, there are various threats which still remain unchanged. According to the World Health Organization, outdoor air pollution was linked to 3.7 million deaths in year 2012. As climate changes, the frequency of days with harmful levels of air pollutants may significantly increase causing exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of alternative emission strategies on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem; Grell et al., 2005) to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The investigation area included the city of Munich (1.5 million inhabitants). The model performance has been evaluated against available air quality observations from the monitoring database "AirBase". The chemical species including O3, NO, NO2 and PM10 simulated by WRF/Chem compare favorably with the observations. The model performs especially well in resolving the observed O3 concentrations. In the ongoing study, different emission reduction scenarios are compared to a baseline 2009 scenario based on Germany's National Emissions Inventory. To investigate health effects associated with air pollution concentrations a local-scale health impact assessment (HIA) will be conducted. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) link the change in mortality rates to the change in concentrations of air pollutants. CRFs are applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence estimate numbers of attributable deaths and associated

  2. [TRENDS IN HEALTH OF THE POPULATION IN THE AREA OF THE TENGIZ FIELD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenessaryiev, U I; Yerzhanova, A E; Kenessary, D U; Amrin, M K; Dosmukhametov, A T; Baimukhamedov, A A

    2015-01-01

    At the present the Caspian oil and gas field became extremely important for the economy of Kazakhstan and it has entered a qualitatively new stage of its development. In connection with the intensive development of these fields the attention of both scientists and health practitioners is attracted by problems of populations' health. In the article there are presented data of a study of the quality of main objects of environment, health condition, demographic indices of and morbidity rate of the population of the Zhylyoi district of the Atyrau region. The population resides in the region of influence of the Tengiz oil and gas field. The level of mortality in Zhylyoi for the periodfrom 2006 to 2013 was establishe to decline, as birth rate rather increased. Indices of the population's structure retain the tendency to the progressive type, possibly in relation with urbanization and industrial migration of population, that increased in last years. The district mortality rates are below national, regional and urban values. Natural population growth in Zhylyoi has increased by 27.6%. The analysis of primary morbidity of the population of the Zhylyoi district in dynamics from 2006 to 2013 shows a some decrease. In the structure of the morbidity there was noted a decrease in the proportion of diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, respiratory diseases, digestive organs. However, the proportion of blood diseases, diseases of the hematopoietic system and blood flow has increased. Alongside this in the region there is clearly discernible the scarcity of doctors, qualified nurses and beds.

  3. Siting of Nuclear Power Plants in Metropolitan Areas. Estimation of Population Doses due to Accidental Release of Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresser, H. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland E.V., Cologne (Germany); Schwarzer, W. [Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit der Technischen Ueberwachungs-Vereine E.V., Cologne (Germany)

    1967-09-15

    The safety of large nuclear power plants in heavily populated areas depends entirely on engineered safeguards. An assessment of their reliability and effectiveness will have to play a major role in any safety analysis of such a plant, and this assessment will have to be made on the basis of the radiological burden to the environment - in terms of individual dose and a population dose - which can be accepted as tolerable in case of a severe accident. The calculation of the dispersion of fission products in the atmosphere, which links the radiological burden to the release of radioactivity, should be modified. The fact that distance factors, aside from a comparably small exclusion area, can no longer be taken into account suggests the introduction of the parameter ''population density'' and an extensive use of the man-rem concept. In this connection the time history of the release and the influence of variations of wind directions lose their importance. The authors have carried out calculations of the population dose, which could be received in a metropolitan area as a consequence of a severe reactor accident, using population densities, height of release above ground and generalized meteorological data as the main parameters. The results of these calculations are used as a basis for an assessment of the performance requirements of the engineered safeguards system, and the relative importance of different components of this system is discussed. (author)

  4. An Evaluation of Population Density Mapping and Built up Area Estimates in Sri Lanka Using Multiple Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, R.; Soundararajan, V.; Newhouse, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this study we examine how well multiple population density and built up estimates that utilize satellite data compare in Sri Lanka. The population relationship is examined at the Gram Niladhari (GN) level, the lowest administrative unit in Sri Lanka from the 2011 census. For this study we have two spatial domains, the whole country and a 3,500km2 sub-sample, for which we have complete high spatial resolution imagery coverage. For both the entire country and the sub-sample we examine how consistent are the existing publicly available measures of population constructed from satellite imagery at predicting population density? For just the sub-sample we examine how well do a suite of values derived from high spatial resolution satellite imagery predict population density and how does our built up area estimate compare to other publicly available estimates. Population measures were obtained from the Sri Lankan census, and were downloaded from Facebook, WorldPoP, GPW, and Landscan. Percentage built-up area at the GN level was calculated from three sources: Facebook, Global Urban Footprint (GUF), and the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL). For the sub-sample we have derived a variety of indicators from the high spatial resolution imagery. Using deep learning convolutional neural networks, an object oriented, and a non-overlapping block, spatial feature approach. Variables calculated include: cars, shadows (a proxy for building height), built up area, and buildings, roof types, roads, type of agriculture, NDVI, Pantex, and Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and others. Results indicate that population estimates are accurate at the higher, DS Division level but not necessarily at the GN level. Estimates from Facebook correlated well with census population (GN correlation of 0.91) but measures from GPW and WorldPop are more weakly correlated (0.64 and 0.34). Estimates of built-up area appear to be reliable. In the 32 DSD-subsample, Facebook's built- up area measure

  5. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanyong

    2014-01-01

    The holographic renormalization of a charged black brane with or without a dilaton field, whose dual field theory describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space

  6. Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.

  7. Dilute and dense axion stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visinelli, Luca; Baum, Sebastian; Redondo, Javier; Freese, Katherine; Wilczek, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Axion stars are hypothetical objects formed of axions, obtained as localized and coherently oscillating solutions to their classical equation of motion. Depending on the value of the field amplitude at the core |θ0 | ≡ | θ (r = 0) |, the equilibrium of the system arises from the balance of the kinetic pressure and either self-gravity or axion self-interactions. Starting from a general relativistic framework, we obtain the set of equations describing the configuration of the axion star, which we solve as a function of |θ0 |. For small |θ0 | ≲ 1, we reproduce results previously obtained in the literature, and we provide arguments for the stability of such configurations in terms of first principles. We compare qualitative analytical results with a numerical calculation. For large amplitudes |θ0 | ≳ 1, the axion field probes the full non-harmonic QCD chiral potential and the axion star enters the dense branch. Our numerical solutions show that in this latter regime the axions are relativistic, and that one should not use a single frequency approximation, as previously applied in the literature. We employ a multi-harmonic expansion to solve the relativistic equation for the axion field in the star, and demonstrate that higher modes cannot be neglected in the dense regime. We interpret the solutions in the dense regime as pseudo-breathers, and show that the life-time of such configurations is much smaller than any cosmological time scale.

  8. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future

  9. Estimating population size in wastewater-based epidemiology. Valencia metropolitan area as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, María; Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-02-05

    Wastewater can provide a wealth of epidemiologic data on common drugs consumed and on health and nutritional problems based on the biomarkers excreted into community sewage systems. One of the biggest uncertainties of these studies is the estimation of the number of inhabitants served by the treatment plants. Twelve human urine biomarkers -5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), acesulfame, atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, creatinine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), naproxen, salicylic acid (SA) and hydroxycotinine (OHCOT)- were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to estimate population size. The results reveal that populations calculated from cotinine, 5-HIAA and caffeine are commonly in agreement with those calculated by the hydrochemical parameters. Creatinine is too unstable to be applicable. HCTZ, naproxen, codeine, OHCOT and carbamazepine, under or overestimate the population compared to the hydrochemical population estimates but showed constant results through the weekdays. The consumption of cannabis, cocaine, heroin and bufotenine in Valencia was estimated for a week using different population calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  11. Health indices of the rural population living in the area affected by the Krasnoyarsk mining and chemical combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazharov, V.F.; Tikhonova, I.V.; Babyonyshev, S.V.; Koenenkov, V.I.; Protopopov, B.V.; Miretsky, G.I.; Kashin, V.N.; Theodorovich, O.A.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the floodplain of the Yenisei River with the wastes dumped by the Krasnoyarsk Mining, and Chemical Combine (MCC) might cause external and internal irradiation of a large part of rural population inhabiting the banks of the Yenisei. Due the lack of comprehensive data on the dose status and doses received by the population, the health parameters of the population were studied by comparing the recorded incidences of diseases and mortality in the areas located at different distances from the MCC, in the periods before and after the MCC was put into operation, and in different age groups. Also studied were territorial differences in the immunologic and immunogenetic statuses of some groups of population. It has been found out that in the district subjected to radioactive contamination (RAC-districts) there are characteristic shifts in the pathologies that are the main markers of the radiation factor. With possible accumulation of radiation doses the shifts become more distinct, and with the distance from the MCC less distinct. Time and space gradients of the cancer morbidity and mortality rate in the RAC-area have been found. In the riverside settlements of the RAC-area the mortality from malignant neoplasms (MN) of blood, blood-forming organs, and lymphatic system is higher than in the settlements located farther from the Yenisei. As the distance from the MCC down the Yenisei gets longer, the mortality of children due to congenital developmental defects and leukaemia decreases. The space gradient has been also found for most somatic disorders originating from stressogenic (psycho-emotional strain) and immunodeficient states. Besides increased incidence of cancer, in the RAC-area there is a higher incidence of pathological states determined to a large extent genetically - complicated pregnancies and their outcome, mortinatality, and congenital developmental defects. Investigations of immunologic and immunogenetic statuses of the RAC

  12. The prevalence of ALK rearrangement in pulmonary adenocarcinomas in an unselected Caucasian population from a defined catchment area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit G; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus R

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients diagnosed in the population of the greater Copenhagen area were included, irrespective of gender, age, smoking habits, stage or type of available diagnostic material. Tumours were stained with immunohistochemistry (clone 5A4). Immunohistochemistry-positive tumours were......AIMS: To assess the prevalence of EML4-ALK rearrangement gene measured by immunohistochemistry in an unselected population-based consecutive cohort of patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung (ACL), and the correlation with smoking history, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), gender and age...

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis in Perilla frutescens from Northern areas of China based on simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S J; Sa, K J; Hong, T K; Lee, J K

    2017-09-21

    In this study, 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure among 77 Perilla accessions from high-latitude and middle-latitude areas of China. Ninety-five alleles were identified with an average of 4.52 alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) and genetic diversity values were 0.346 and 0.372, respectively. The level of genetic diversity and PIC value for cultivated accessions of Perilla frutescens var. frutescens from middle-latitude areas were higher than accessions from high-latitude areas. Based on the dendrogram of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), all accessions were classified into four major groups with a genetic similarity of 46%. All accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens were discriminated from the cultivated P. frutescens var. crispa. Furthermore, most accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens collected in high-latitude and middle-latitude areas were distinguished depending on their geographical location. However, the geographical locations of several accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens have no relation with their positions in the UPGMA dendrogram and population structure. This result implies that the diffusion of accessions of the cultivated Perilla crop in the northern areas of China might be through multiple routes. On the population structure analysis, 77 Perilla accessions were divided into Group I, Group II, and an admixed group based on a membership probability threshold of 0.8. Finally, the findings in this study can provide useful theoretical knowledge for further study on the population structure and genetic diversity of Perilla and benefit for Perilla crop breeding and germplasm conservation.

  14. Haplotype and genetic relationship of 27 Y-STR loci in Han population of Chaoshan area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-hua TIAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STR loci included in Yfiler® Plus kit in Han population of Chaoshan area, and explore the population genetic relationships and evaluate its application value on forensic medicine. Methods  By detecting 795 unrelated Chaoshan Han males with Yfiler® Plus kit, haplotype frequencies and population genetics parameters of the 27 Y-STR loci were statistically analyzed and compared with available data of other populations from different races and regions for analyzing the genetic distance and clustering relation of Chaoshan Han population. Results  Seven hundred and eighty-seven different haplotypes were observed in 795 unrelated male individuals, of which 779 haplotypes were unique, and 8 haplotypes occurred twice. The haplotype diversity (HD was 0.999975 with discriminative capacity (DC of 98.99%. The gene diversity (GD at the 27 Y-STR loci ranged from 0.3637(DYS391 to 0.9559(DYS385a/b. Comparing with Asian reference populations, the genetic distance (Rst between Chaoshan Han and Guangdong Han was the smallest (0.0036, while it was relatively larger between Chaoshan Han and Gansu Tibetan population (0.0935. The multi-dimensional scaling (MDS plot based on Rst values was similar to the results of clustering analysis. Conclusion  Multiplex detection of the 27 Y-STR loci reveals a highly polymorphic genetic distribution in Chaoshan Han population, which demonstrates the important significance of Yfiler® Plus kit for establishing a Y-STR database, studying population genetics, and for good practice in forensic medicine. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.08

  15. 75 FR 26167 - Designation of Medically Underserved Populations and Health Professions Shortage Areas; Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...) representing a range of States in terms of size, rural/urban, and different regions of the country, including... unusually high needs, as indicated by high poverty, infant mortality or fertility rates, overutilization, or... being: percent of the population with incomes below the poverty level; primary care physician-to...

  16. Malaria epidemiology in an area of stable transmission in tribal population of Jharkhand, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Manoj K; Prajapati, Brijesh K; Tiendrebeogo, Régis W

    2017-01-01

    and density levels in the study population showed a gradual decrease with increasing age. This finding is consistent with the phenomenon of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. Three vector species were detected: Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles culicifacies. The incoherence...

  17. Surface Area of Patellar Facets: Inferential Statistics in the Iraqi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Imam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body; its three-dimensional complexity necessitates biomechanical perfection. Numerous pathologies occur at the patellofemoral unit which may end in degenerative changes. This study aims to test the presence of statistical correlation between the surface areas of patellar facets and other patellar morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods. Forty dry human patellae were studied. The morphometry of each patella was measured using a digital Vernier Caliper, electronic balance, and image analyses software known as ImageJ. The patellar facetal surface area was correlated with patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. Results. Inferential statistics proved the existence of linear correlation of total facetal surface area and patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. The correlation was strongest for surface area versus patellar weight. The lateral facetal area was found persistently larger than the medial facetal area, the p value was found to be <0.001 (one-tailed t-test for right patellae, and another significant p value of < 0.001 (one-tailed t-test was found for left patellae. Conclusion. These data are vital for the restoration of the normal biomechanics of the patellofemoral unit; these are to be consulted during knee surgeries and implant designs and can be of an indispensable anthropometric, interethnic, and biometric value.

  18. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  19. A retrospective population-based cohort study identifying target areas for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richmond Peter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a major cause of hospitalisation in young children. Many factors can lead to increased risk of ALRI in children and predispose a child to hospitalisation, but population attributable fractions for different risk factors and how these fractions differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children is unknown. This study investigates population attributable fractions of known infant and maternal risk factors for ALRI to inform prevention strategies that target high-risk groups or particular risk factors. Methods A retrospective population-based data linkage study of 245,249 singleton births in Western Australia. Population attributable fractions of known maternal and infant risk factors for hospitalisation with ALRI between 1996 and 2005 were calculated using multiple logistic regression. Results The overall ALRI hospitalisation rate was 16.1/1,000 person-years for non-Aboriginal children and 93.0/1,000 for Aboriginal children. Male gender, being born in autumn, gestational age Conclusions The population attributable fractions estimated in this study should help in guiding public health interventions to prevent ALRI. A key risk factor for all children is maternal smoking during pregnancy, and multiple previous pregnancies and autumnal births are important high-risk groups. Specific key target areas are reducing elective caesareans in non-Aboriginal women and reducing teenage pregnancies and improving access to services and living conditions for the Aboriginal population.

  20. Estimating micro area behavioural risk factor prevalence from large population-based surveys: a full Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seliske

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important public health goal is to decrease the prevalence of key behavioural risk factors, such as tobacco use and obesity. Survey information is often available at the regional level, but heterogeneity within large geographic regions cannot be assessed. Advanced spatial analysis techniques are demonstrated to produce sensible micro area estimates of behavioural risk factors that enable identification of areas with high prevalence. Methods A spatial Bayesian hierarchical model was used to estimate the micro area prevalence of current smoking and excess bodyweight for the Erie-St. Clair region in southwestern Ontario. Estimates were mapped for male and female respondents of five cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS. The micro areas were 2006 Census Dissemination Areas, with an average population of 400–700 people. Two individual-level models were specified: one controlled for survey cycle and age group (model 1, and one controlled for survey cycle, age group and micro area median household income (model 2. Post-stratification was used to derive micro area behavioural risk factor estimates weighted to the population structure. SaTScan analyses were conducted on the granular, postal-code level CCHS data to corroborate findings of elevated prevalence. Results Current smoking was elevated in two urban areas for both sexes (Sarnia and Windsor, and an additional small community (Chatham for males only. Areas of excess bodyweight were prevalent in an urban core (Windsor among males, but not females. Precision of the posterior post-stratified current smoking estimates was improved in model 2, as indicated by narrower credible intervals and a lower coefficient of variation. For excess bodyweight, both models had similar precision. Aggregation of the micro area estimates to CCHS design-based estimates validated the findings. Conclusions This is among the first studies to apply a full Bayesian model to complex

  1. Screening in dense ionic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    There has been great progress in recent years in determining and understanding the structure of molten salts. I focus on molten alkali halides and discuss two main points concerning their liquid structure and its relationship with static electrical response in these dense ionic conductors. These are (i) the nature of screening and the related definitions and properties of the screening length and of the dielectric function, and (ii) developments in integral equations techniques for the evaluation of molten salt structure and static screening from given pair potentials. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Heavy metal tolerance in Agropyron repens (L. P. Bauv. populations from the Legnica copper smelter area, Lower Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Brej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper smelter "Legnica" is one of the oldest plants in Lower Silesia. Among the few weed species spontaneously migrating to the area around the emitter there is couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Bauv.. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether the local couch grass populations, growing at various distances from the smelter, differ in tolerance to heavy metals occurring in this area. The populations were tested for tolerance to five metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni using the root elongation method. The highest tolerance to Pb developed in two populations localized nearest the smelter. Similarly, all populations of couch grass from the vicinity of the smelter show a high tolerance to copper, particularly the plants from the most contaminated site. The IT for the latter population is almost 1509r, even at the highest dose of Cu. For Zn a nearing IT as for Cu was obtained. Comparing the shape of IT curves for Cd, special emphasis is put on the fact that a fixed tolerance to cadmium occurs only in the population localized closest to the emitter. The analysis of Ni-tolerance curves, of which the content in local soil is minimal, does not confirm the thesis on possibility of development of co-tolerance in the surveyed populations. It appeared that stress conditions existing near the smelter do not inhibit seed production in couch grass, but prevent a successful course of their germination on polluted soil. The improvement of soil even by 50% (addition of unpolluted soil does not improve the poor process of germination in couch grass growing nearest to the smelter. Of importance is the fact that the highest number of seeds germinated on their own, polluted soil. The need of metals' content for plant germination in populations most distant from the smelter is evidenced by an almost 30% reduction of germination ability of local seeds after addition of unpolluted soil. Another significant observation was the fact that, in spite of a poor

  3. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation.V. regional and populational characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    The region with high level of background radiation studied in our project is described. In the total, 8.572 couples and 43.930 pregnancy terminations were analyzed. The populational distribution of the 'relaive time of exposure to radiation' (coefficient R) is presented. The distributions of ethnic groups, alien ancestrals, mortality, morbidity, sex ratio, conditions of the household, instruction of the mother, and mean coefficients of inbreeding are also given, all the distributions are given comparatively for control and irradiated groups [pt

  4. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation. V. regional and populational characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-12-01

    The region with high level of background radiation studied in our project is described. In the total, 8.572 couples and 43.930 pregnancy terminations were analyzed. The populational distribution of the 'relaive time of exposure to radiation' (coefficient R) is presented. The distributions of ethnic groups, alien ancestrals, mortality, morbidity, sex ratio, conditions of the household, instruction of the mother, and mean coefficients of inbreeding are also given, all the distributions are given comparatively for control and irradiated groups.

  5. Exposure of critical group of population to water radionuclides in area affected by uranium ore mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladka, E; Zavadsky, M; Solnicka, H; Heroldova, J

    1985-08-01

    Waste waters from the uranium industry are decontaminated and then discharged into water courses. Inhabitants of the nearest village on the river form the critical group with regard to radiation burden. The critical radionuclides are Usub(nat), Ra 226, Pb 210 and Po 210 whose concentrations were determined in drinking water, in the water course and in plants watered with water from the river. From obtained data on the consumption of foods of own production and of water for drinking and cooking, a weighted sum was made of the intake of critical radionuclides per year on the conservative assumption that ingestion is the sole form of intake (permissible ingestion under Notice 59/72, Coll. of Laws). Under the said criteria the intake of radionuclides from water and foods of own production is for the critical population group 27 times less than the permissible intake for the population. Decontaminated waste waters from the operation of uranium industries contribute to the radiation burden of the population only negligibly. Radionuclides from the investigated sources represent a minute fraction of permissible intake.

  6. Late effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies of the resident population in the Semipalatinsk area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenson, R.I.; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Gusev, B.I.; Katoh, O.; Kimura, A.; Hoshi, M.; Kamada, N.; Satow, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The early and late radiation effects on residents of the nuclear test site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, were studied. In Semipalatinsk area hundreds of on-the-ground and underground nuclear tests had been conducted between 1949 and 1989. The collected biological data was investigated in terms of the following points, i.e., cancer incidence, mortality rates from malignant tumors, infant mortality and congenital anomalies, overall mortality, hemopoiesis, chromosomal aberrations in the somatic cells, immune system parameters, cardiovascular system findings, and thyroid gland disorders. The individual points were investigated according to the exposure level, resident areas, years after exposure, age, and sex. The significant findings are given and discussed. (S.Y.)

  7. Q fever and pneumonia in an area with a high livestock density: a large population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwien A M Smit

    Full Text Available Concerns about public health risks of intensive animal production in The Netherlands continue to rise, in particular related to outbreaks of infectious diseases. The aim was to investigate associations between the presence of farm animals around the home address and Q fever and pneumonia.Electronic medical record data for the year 2009 of all patients of 27 general practitioners (GPs in a region with a high density of animal farms were used. Density of farm animals around the home address was calculated using a Geographic Information System. During the study period, a large Q fever outbreak occurred in this region. Associations between farm exposure variables and pneumonia or 'other infectious disease', the diagnosis code used by GPs for registration of Q fever, were analyzed in 22,406 children (0-17 y and 70,142 adults (18-70 y, and adjusted for age and sex. In adults, clear exposure-response relationships between the number of goats within 5 km of the home address and pneumonia and 'other infectious disease' were observed. The association with 'other infectious disease' was particularly strong, with an OR [95%CI] of 12.03 [8.79-16.46] for the fourth quartile (>17,190 goats compared with the first quartile (<2,251 goats. The presence of poultry within 1 km was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia among adults (OR [95%CI] 1.25 [1.06-1.47].A high density of goats in a densely populated region was associated with human Q fever. The use of GP records combined with individual exposure estimates using a Geographic Information System is a powerful approach to assess environmental health risks.

  8. A population study of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource area. Second-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Since January 1994, the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz, has been conducting a field investigation of the ecology of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The 190 km{sup 2} facility lies just east of San Francisco Bay in California and contains about 6,500 wind turbines. Grassland and oak savanna habitats surrounding the WRA support a substantial resident population of golden eagles. Each year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service receivers reports from the wind industry of about 30 golden eagle casualties occurring at the WRA, and it is probable that many more carcasses go unnoticed. Over 90 percent of the casualties are attributed to collisions with wind turbines. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of turbine-related mortality on the golden eagle population of the area. Assessing the impact of the WRA kills on the population requires quantification of both survival and reproduction. To estimate survival rates of both territorial and non-territorial golden eagles, we tagged 179 individuals with radio-telemetry transmitters expected to function for about four years and equipped with mortality sensors. Population segments represented in the tagged sample include 79 juveniles, 45 subadults, 17n floaters (non-territorial adults), and 38 breeders. Effective sample sizes in the older segments increase as younger eagles mature or become territorial. Since the beginning of the study, we have conducted weekly roll-call surveys by airplane to locate the tagged eagles in relation to the WRA and to monitor their survival. The surveyed area extends from the Oakland Hills southeast through the Diablo Mountain Range to San Luis Reservoir about 75 km southeast of the WRA. The surveys show that breeding eagles rarely enter the WRA while the non-territorial eagles tend to move about freely throughout the study area and often visit the WRA.

  9. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Prasannavenkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10 and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013–January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  10. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Kumar, Divya Subash; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013-January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  11. Differences in atherosclerosis according to area level socioeconomic deprivation: cross sectional, population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deans, Kevin A.; Bezlyak, Vladimir; Ford, Ian; Batty, G. David; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; de Groot, Eric; McGinty, Agnes; Millar, Keith; Shiels, Paul G.; Tannahill, Carol; Velupillai, Yoga N.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the relation between area level social deprivation and ultrasound markers of atherosclerosis (common carotid intima-media thickness and plaque score), and to determine whether any differences can be explained by "classic" (currently recognised) or "emerging" (novel) cardiovascular risk

  12. Change in Population Characteristics and Teen Birth Rates in 77 Community Areas: Chicago, Illinois, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Shauna; Masinter, Lisa; Kolak, Marynia; Feinglass, Joe

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed community area differences in teen births in Chicago, Illinois, from 1999 to 2009. We analyzed the association between changes in teen birth rates and concurrent measures of community area socioeconomic and demographic change. Mean annual changes in teen birth rates in 77 Chicago community areas were correlated with concurrent census-based population changes during the decade. Census measures included changes in race/ethnicity, adult high school dropouts, poverty or higher-income households, crowded housing, unemployment, English proficiency, foreign-born residents, or residents who moved in the last five years. We included non-collinear census measures with a pbirths in a stepwise multiple linear regression model. Teen birth rates in Chicago fell faster than the overall birth rates, from 85 births per 1,000 teens in 1999 to 57 births per 1,000 teens in 2009. There were strong positive associations between increases in the percentage of residents who were black and Hispanic, poor, without a high school diploma, and living in crowded housing, and a negative association with an increase in higher-income households. Population changes in poverty, Hispanic population, and high school dropouts were the only significant measures in the final model, explaining almost half of the variance in teen birth rate changes. The study provides a model of census-based measures that can be used to evaluate predicted vs. observed rates of change in teen births across communities, offering the potential to more appropriately prioritize public health resources for preventing unintended teen pregnancy.

  13. Connectivity, persistence, and loss of high abundance areas of a recovering marine fish population in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Stephanie A; Shackell, Nancy L; Carson, Stuart; den Heyer, Cornelia E

    2017-11-01

    In the early 1990s, the Northwest Atlantic Ocean underwent a fisheries-driven ecosystem shift. Today, the iconic cod ( Gadus morhua ) remains at low levels, while Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus ) has been increasing since the mid-2000s, concomitant with increasing interest from the fishing industry. Currently, our knowledge about halibut ecology is limited, and the lack of recovery in other collapsed groundfish populations has highlighted the danger of overfishing local concentrations. Here, we apply a Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal approach to model the spatial structure of juvenile Atlantic halibut over 36 years and three fisheries management regimes using three model parameters to characterize the resulting spatiotemporal abundance structure: persistence (similarity of spatial structure over time), connectivity (coherence of temporal pattern over space), and spatial variance (variation across the seascape). Two areas of high juvenile abundance persisted through three decades whereas two in the northeast are now diminished, despite the increased abundance and landings throughout the management units. The persistent areas overlap with full and seasonal area closures, which may act as refuges from fishing. Connectivity was estimated to be 250 km, an order of magnitude less than the distance assumed by the definition of the Canadian management units (~2,000 km). The underlying question of whether there are distinct populations within the southern stock unit cannot be answered with this model, but the smaller ~250 km scale of coherent temporal patterns suggests more complex population structure than previously thought, which should be taken into consideration by fishery management.

  14. Health inequalities in hypertension and diabetes management among the poor in urban areas: a population survey analysis in south Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jee Jeon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes differed by residential areas. In addition, the rate of good hypertension or diabetes control was examined separately in men and women, and in urban and rural areas. Methods This study used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination V (2010–2012 data, a nationwide cross-sectional survey of general South Korean population. Residential areas were categorized into urban and rural areas. To examine differences between the residential areas in terms of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes we performed a multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol use, smoking, marital status, monthly income, and educational level. To investigate control of hypertension or diabetes within each residential area, we performed a subgroup analysis in both urban and rural areas. Results The prevalence of hypertension is higher among men in urban areas than among those in rural areas (OR = 0.80; 95 % CI = 0.67–0.96, reference group = urban areas. However, the subgroups did not differ in terms of diabetes prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Regardless of both sex and residential area, participants in good control of their hypertension and diabetes were younger. Inequality in good control of hypertension was observed in men who lived in urban (≤Elementary school, OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.60–0.92 and rural areas (≤Elementary school, OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.46–0.99. Inequality in health status was found in women who resided in urban areas (≤Elementary school, OR 0.53, 95 % CI 0.37–0.75. Good control of diabetes also showed inequalities in health status for both men (≤Elementary school, OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40–0.94; Middle/High school, OR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.49–0.96 and women in urban areas (≤1 million won, OR 0.56, 95

  15. Soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment for some populated areas, Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zeid, H.M; Abd-ElMaksoud, T.M; Nada, A; Awad, S; El-Nagar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by means of gamma ray spectrometry system ,on sixty two surface soil samples collected from different localities in Nasr City and Heliopolis for measuring the activity concentrations for 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K. The evaluation of environmental radioactivity and estimating the current radiation hazards to the population make this study an interesting issue. The output results referred to all these localities indicated that these regions are not hazardous from the environmental point of view.The results of the present study were discussed and compared with internationally recommended values.

  16. The Gordian knot: managing herring (Clupea harengus) bridging across populations, fishery units, management areas, and politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Mosegaard, Henrik; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2012-01-01

    –24) and the North Sea (Division IIIa) by various EU—and in the latter case also non‐EU—fishing fleets. For the two separate management areas, TACs are set at different times in the yearly TACsetting process by the EU and negotiating counties, which often result in conflicts over quota allocations among different......The management of western Baltic spring spawning (WBSS) herring is challenged by the highly complex stock structure with a temporal and geographical distribution leading to conflicting interests among different stakeholder groups. The stock is exploited in the Baltic Sea (Subdivisions 22...... management units. The WBSS herring stock spawns in the western Baltic Sea and migrates into the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas, where it mixes with North Sea autumn spawning (NSAS) herring. Recent development of otolith shape analysis has enabled a high‐resolution separation of herring stocks in these waters...

  17. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Proposed Hampton Roads Area Sites for a Possible Small Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R. J. [ORNL; Omitaomu, O. A. [ORNL

    2014-08-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to use the OR-SAGE tool to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in evaluating future electrical generation deployment options for small modular reactors (SMRs) in areas with significant energy demand from the federal sector. Deployment of SMRs in zones with high federal energy use can provide a means of meeting federal clean energy goals.

  18. Relationship between stress factor and periodontal disease in a rural area population in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Rahena; Hannan, MA; Okhubo, R; Morita, M

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Several studies conducted in Western countries have shown significant associations between stress factors and periodontal disease. However, there have been only a few studies conducted in Asian countries. The present study was designed to identify possible relationship between stress and periodontal disease in residents of a rural area in Japan. Material and Methods: Data were collected from 1,089 adults with at least six natural teeth in a typical farming district of Japan. S...

  19. Survival of density subpopulations of rabbit platelets: use of 51Cr-or 111In-labeled platelets to measure survival of least dense and most dense platelets concurrently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.L.; Packham, M.A.; Mustard, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The origin of the density heterogeneity of platelets was studied by measuring the survival of density subpopulations of rabbit platelets separated by discontinuous Stractan density gradient centrifugation. When a total population of 51 Cr-labelled platelets was injected into recipient rabbits, the relative specific radioactivity of the most dense platelets decreased rapidly. In contrast, that of the least dense platelets had not changed 24 hr after injection, and then decreased slowly. To distinguish between the possibilities that most dense platelets are cleared from the circulation more quickly than least dense platelets or that platelets decrease in density as they age in the circulation, the concurrent survival of least dense and most dense platelets, labelled with either 51 Cr or 111 In-labelled total platelet populations, determined concurrently in the same rabbits, are identical, calculated from 1 hr values as 100%. However, the 1-hr recovery of 111 In-labelled platelets was slightly but significantly less than that of 51 Cr-labelled platelets. Therefore, researchers studied the survival of 51 Cr-labelled least dense and 111 In-labelled most dense platelets as well as that of 111 In-labelled least dense and 51 Cr-labelled most dense platelets. Mean 1-hr recovery of least dense platelets, labelled with either isotope (78% +/- 7%, SD) was similar to that of most dense platelets, labelled with either isotope (77% +/- 8%; SD). Mean survival of least dense platelets was 47.3 +/- 18.7 hr (SD), which was significantly less than that of most dense platelets (76.1 +/- 21.6 hr; SD) (p less than 0.0025). These results indicate that platelets decrease in buoyant density as they age in the circulation and that most dense platelets are enriched in young platelets, and least dense in old

  20. Cytogenetic investigation in a population living in the high background radiation area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deqing, C.

    1980-04-01

    On the basis of the previous investigation, 24,000 metaphases of the lymphocytes of 120 inhabitants from Tongyou region, where the highest individual cummulative exposure per year of 372 mR in weighted average was recorded in the high background radiation area selected, have been analysed with the method recommended by WHO in 1973, in order to determine the extent of human chromosome aberrations induced by the high background radiation of various levels. The results show that the difference between the total number of chromosome breakages in the individuals living in the high background radiation area and that in the control area (0.32x10/sup -2/ and 0.27x10/sup -2/ per cell respectively) is not significant whereas that between the numbers of two-hite aberrations (mainly dicentric) in the same two groups (0.042x10/sup -2/ and 0.0048x10/sup -2/ per cell) is significant (X/sup 2/ = 6.1475, P<0.05). In addition, the normal value of the chromosome aberrations of human lymphocytes was analyzed.

  1. Magnitude of depression and its correlates among elderly population in a rural area of Maharashtra: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Goswami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among elderly population in India, yet, it is commonly misdiagnosed and undertreated. The exact burden of depression among the elderly population in rural India was not known. Objectives: To study the magnitude of depression among the elderly masses in rural Maharashtra and to find its correlates. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study, carried out among the elderly (≥60 years population of both sexes residing in the field practice area of the department of community medicine. Geriatric depression scale was used for screening depression among the study population. Data collection was completed within 2 months using convenience sampling. Ethical approval was taken before beginning the study. Magnitude was expressed in percentage along with its 95% confidence interval (CI. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was carried out to study associated correlates. Odds ratio and 95% CI was used to express association. Results: The magnitude of depression among the elderly population was found to be 41.7% (95% CI 36.1–47.4. We got the significant positive association of female sex, living without spouse, lacking in decision making capability, a victim of abuse or neglect, or suffering from chronic illnesses with depression among elderly population in univariate analysis that did not hold good in the multivariate logistic regression. Our study showed the prevalence of mild depression among elderly to be 26.72% and that of severe depression to be 15.17%. Conclusion: To deal with this huge social problem of depression among the elderly population, more enthusiastic steps should be undertaken.

  2. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood levels and related factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, E. [Pediatrics Service, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (Spain); Ballabriga, A.; Dominguez, C. [Centre d`Investigacions en Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Vall d`Hebron Hospitals, School of Medicine, Pediatrics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals` age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22{+-}0.011 {mu}mol/l (mean{+-}S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals` age (BPb=0.08+0.05xage; r=0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb>0.48 {mu}mol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve=0.5052, IC 95%=0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries

  3. Monitoring of East Channel dredge areas benthic fish population and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabble, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Regional annual sampling of commercial fish stocks formed a high priority for monitoring studies attendant with the granting of aggregate dredging licenses in the Eastern Channel Region (ECR) which had previously not been dredged. An assessment of 4 m beam trawl sampling between 2005 and 2008 following the granting of licences in 2006 is provided. The majority of fish species have shown marked reductions in abundance since commencement of dredging. Draghead entrainment has been identified as a possible contributory cause based upon the known vulnerability of selected species (). Other environmental factors considered offer no explanation for the changes in abundance. Comparative analyses with ICES data for plaice and sole over the study period demonstrate that changes in the ECR do not result from seasonal flux in the wider populations. An alternative impact model and potential mitigation measures are suggested.

  4. Prevalence of anxiety disorders: a population-based epidemiological study in metropolitan area of Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrada Soumia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Morocco, no epidemiological study has been conducted to show the current prevalence of mental disorders in the general population. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in Moroccan subjects. Methods We used cross-sectional study, with a representative sample of Casablanca city. Direct interviews used the Mini International Neurpsychiatric Interview in its validated Moroccan Arabic version Results Among 800 subjects, 25.5% met criteria of at least one current anxiety disorder: Panic Disorder (2%, Agoraphobia (7.6% Social phobia (3.4, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (6.1%, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (3.4%, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (4.3% Conclusion The results are generally similar to those of Western countries. Future studies need to replicate these results and to concentrate on their impact on the quality of life and the cost of such conditions in the community.

  5. Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  6. Social living environment of population in the surveillance area of Rivne nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prilipko, V.A.; Ozerova, Yu.Yu.; Morozova, M.M.; Shevchenko, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    The list of benefits and compensations associated with living near the functioning NPP needs improvement and coordination with opinion of local communities. Their implementation at that needs a permanent information support. Some links are established between areas that are important in shaping of social feelings and assessment of environmental situation, perception of radiation situation, possibility of socio-political, man-made and natural emergencies. The more confident respondents in welfare of ecological state of residence, the higher level is in their social comfort

  7. Hip fractures and area level socioeconomic conditions: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Kilian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a limited number of studies have analyzed the association between hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions. Most, but not all found an association, and results are in part conflicting. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between hip fractures and socioeconomic conditions in Germany, from 1995 to 2004, on a census tract area level. Methods We used data from the national hospital discharge diagnosis register and data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of 131 census tracts from official statistics. Associations between the hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions were analyzed by multiple Poisson regression models, taking overdispersion into account. Results The risk of hip fracture decreased by 4% with a 7% increase (about one interquartile range of non-German nationals. It decreased by 10% with a 6% increased rate of unemployment, increased by 7% with a 2% increase of the proportion of welfare recipients, and also increased by 3% with an increase of the proportion of single parent families of 1.9%. Conclusion Our results showed weak associations between indicators of socioeconomic conditions at area level and hip fracture risk; the varied by type of indicator. We conclude that hip fracture incidence might be influenced by the socioeconomic context of a region, but further analysis using more specific markers for deprivation on a smaller scale and individual-level data are needed.

  8. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  9. Deterministic and unambiguous dense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengjun; Cohen, Scott M.; Sun Yuqing; Griffiths, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal dense coding using a partially-entangled pure state of Schmidt rank D and a noiseless quantum channel of dimension D is studied both in the deterministic case where at most L d messages can be transmitted with perfect fidelity, and in the unambiguous case where when the protocol succeeds (probability τ x ) Bob knows for sure that Alice sent message x, and when it fails (probability 1-τ x ) he knows it has failed. Alice is allowed any single-shot (one use) encoding procedure, and Bob any single-shot measurement. For D≤D a bound is obtained for L d in terms of the largest Schmidt coefficient of the entangled state, and is compared with published results by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A71, 012311 (2005)]. For D>D it is shown that L d is strictly less than D 2 unless D is an integer multiple of D, in which case uniform (maximal) entanglement is not needed to achieve the optimal protocol. The unambiguous case is studied for D≤D, assuming τ x >0 for a set of DD messages, and a bound is obtained for the average . A bound on the average requires an additional assumption of encoding by isometries (unitaries when D=D) that are orthogonal for different messages. Both bounds are saturated when τ x is a constant independent of x, by a protocol based on one-shot entanglement concentration. For D>D it is shown that (at least) D 2 messages can be sent unambiguously. Whether unitary (isometric) encoding suffices for optimal protocols remains a major unanswered question, both for our work and for previous studies of dense coding using partially-entangled states, including noisy (mixed) states

  10. Quantum Control of Open Systems and Dense Atomic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Christopher

    Controlling the dynamics of open quantum systems; i.e. quantum systems that decohere because of interactions with the environment, is an active area of research with many applications in quantum optics and quantum computation. My thesis expands the scope of this inquiry by seeking to control open systems in proximity to an additional system. The latter could be a classical system such as metal nanoparticles, or a quantum system such as a cluster of similar atoms. By modelling the interactions between the systems, we are able to expand the accessible state space of the quantum system in question. For a single, three-level quantum system, I examine isolated systems that have only normal spontaneous emission. I then show that intensity-intensity correlation spectra, which depend directly on the density matrix of the system, can be used detect whether transitions share a common energy level. This detection is possible due to the presence of quantum interference effects between two transitions if they are connected. This effect allows one to asses energy level structure diagrams in complex atoms/molecules. By placing an open quantum system near a nanoparticle dimer, I show that the spontaneous emission rate of the system can be changed "on demand" by changing the polarization of an incident, driving field. In a three-level, Lambda system, this allows a qubit to both retain high qubit fidelity when it is operating, and to be rapidly initialized to a pure state once it is rendered unusable by decoherence. This type of behaviour is not possible in a single open quantum system; therefore adding a classical system nearby extends the overall control space of the quantum system. An open quantum system near identical neighbours in a dense ensemble is another example of how the accessible state space can be expanded. I show that a dense ensemble of atoms rapidly becomes disordered with states that are not directly excited by an incident field becoming significantly populated

  11. Geographical and Geodemographic Connections between Different Types of Small Area as the Origins and Destinations of Migrants to Mid-Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Exchanges of population between supposedly "urban" and "rural" spaces have occurred throughout history as people migrate between areas with relatively, densely and sparsely settled populations. However, comparatively little is known about whether the same small areas persistently contribute to the flow and what types of…

  12. DNA Fingerprinting to monitor grizzly bear populations in the Greater Glacier Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine; Dave, Schirokauer; Peterson, Kris; Waits, Lisette P.

    2001-01-01

    A study area of 8,100 km² (2 million acres) was established where 126 8 x 8 km (64 km²) grid cells were identified for placement of traps. Trapping was carried out during five 2- week trap sessions. Some 620 hair traps were placed in the field; samples were retrieved between May 19th and August 12th, 1998. Approximately 7,200 hair samples were collected that year. Hair was found at 80% of the traps where the average number of hair samples per trap site was 14. Forty percent of the samples had 5 or more hair follicles. Preliminary results of sampling indicate that DNA was extracted from 90-100% of the hair samples (N=300). Eight hundred miles of trail were surveyed between June 1 and October 9. Thirteen hundred hair samples were collected from rub trees along trails. Seven hundred scat samples were collected from trails.

  13. Imported leishmaniasis in a dog in a sandfly-populated area in northeastern Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Geta; Timofte, Dorina; Mocanu, Diana; Malancus, Razvan; Solcan, Carmen

    2017-09-01

    We report the importation of a clinical case of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Romania, a country where several types of sandflies are present with the potential to develop a new focus of CanL. The Staffordshire Bull Terrier dog was imported into Romania from Spain 1.5 y before he developed clinical symptomatology that included proliferative dermatitis, lymphadenomegaly, and bilateral uveitis. Hematologic analyses showed regenerative anemia and subacute inflammation. Cytologic examination of lymph node fine-needle aspirates revealed Leishmania spp. amastigotes that were confirmed as L. infantum by PCR. The importation of canine leishmania cases into nonendemic areas in which the vector exists could potentially lead to the silent spread of a disease posing a significant public health threat.

  14. A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumora, D.; Grondin, M.H.; Guillemot, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lovellette, M.N.; Parent, D.; Smith, D.A.; Abdo, A.A.; Chekhtman, A.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Johnson, W.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wood, K.S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Focke, W.B.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J.H.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Atwood, W.B.; Dormody, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Porter, T.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Schalk, T.L.; Thorsett, S.E.; Ziegler, M.; Axelsson, M.; Carlson, P.; Conrad, J.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Starck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsars are born with sub-second spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface. (authors)

  15. Abundance, distribution and population structure of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus in a springtime right whale feeding area in the southwestern Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishner, Karen F.; Schoenherr, Jill R.; Beardsley, Robert; Chen, Changsheng

    Springtime aggregations of the planktivorous right whale ( Eubalaena glacialis) occur in the northern Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, where they feed upon dense concentrations of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. This association was studied during the multidisciplinary South Channel Ocean Productivity Experiment (SCOPEX) in 1988 and 1989. The spatial and temporal variability of the abundance, geographic distribution, and population structure of these copepods were analyzed using data from 99 vertically-stratified or horizontally-sequenced MOCNESS plankton tows. Higher water column abundances and higher relative proportion of older copepod lifestages occurred near feeding whales compared to sites without whales, but total water column copepod biomass and Calanus abundance did not always differ between these types of locations. This suggests that the whales seek out aggregations of older copepod lifestages rather than simply the most dense aggregations. Other factors (and perhaps an element of chance) may influence which specific patches, among all patches potentially suitable in terms of copepod abundance and age composition, the whales utilize at a particular time. The times and locations of the highest Calansus water column abundances varied between years, as did the presence of feeding whales, probably because of year-to-year differences in the springtime temperature cycle and current strength. A temporal progression of lifestages occurred within the region in both years during the roughly 3-week duration of each survey, indicative of a growing rather than a diapausing population, at least up to the copepodite 4 (C4) stage. Due in part to a delay in the springtime warming in 1989 compared to 1988, the copepod development cycle, which is largely driven by in situ temperature, was delayed about 1-2 weeks in 1989. Peak abundances of younger Calanus were found in the northwestern part of the region each year, whereas peak abundances of

  16. Reclamation of environmental liabilities at populated area, an environmental legacy with social responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo V, Jairo; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry in Ecuador has had its own history since the first oil well was drilled in the country's Amazon region on February 16th /1967 and the environmental control of the activity has been evolving over the years. But at the same time it has been leaving traces behind at each one of the locations where a road has been opened, a platform has been build or a pipeline has been laid. Consequently the old practice of covering up spillages with a layer of clay or sand are being discovered today and providing evidence of the foot-print that has been caused to the environment. In the heart of the Ecuadorian Amazon region, where settlements were established on top of old crude spillages, such as Aguas Negras and Paraiso in Canton Cuyabeno, EnCanEcuador, in line with its philosophy of social responsibility and commitment to the environment, took on the restoration of these areas. For that purpose it had to reach an agreement with the communities affected and then temporarily dismantle the houses built in these areas and remove all the contaminated soil until they were sure it was free of hydrocarbons, thus ensuring the public health of these villages and the conservation of the environment. The sites, from which contaminated soil was removed, were then filled with clean soil and their houses rebuilt. During this operation it was possible to recover approximately 3,500 cubic meters of contaminated soil at a cost of $175,000. Land removed from the site was transported to our land farming remediation center, where, through a process of degradation with native bacteria from the zone, the bioremediation of the soil was achieved until it reached TPH limits below the levels regulated by government entities from our country. (author)

  17. Inbreeding and population structure of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) in its native area (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, D; Plantard, O; Scurrah, M; Mugniery, D

    2004-10-01

    The dispersal abilities and the population genetic structure of nematodes living in the soil are poorly known. In the present study, we have pursued these issues in the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida, which parasitizes potato roots and is indigenous to South America. A hierarchical sampling regime was conducted in Peru to investigate gene flow on regional, field and plant scales. Multilocus genotypes of single individuals were obtained using eight polymorphic microsatellites markers. Large heterozygote deficiencies were observed at most loci. The limited active dispersal of larvae from their cyst, which favours mating between (half) siblings, could be responsible for this pattern. Within fields, as well as among fields within regions (even 35 km apart), low F(ST) values suggest extensive gene flow. Among fields within regions, only 1.5-4.4% genetic variability was observed. Passive dispersal of cysts by natural means (wind, running water, or wild animals) or by anthropogenic means (tillage, movement of infected seed tubers) is probably responsible for the results observed. Among regions, high F(ST) values were observed. Thus long-range dispersal (more than 320 km apart) is probably limited by major biogeographical barriers such as the mountains found in the Andean Cordillera. These results provide useful information for the management of resistant varieties, to slow down the emergence and spread of resistance-breaking pathotypes.

  18. Physiological age in Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae populations from an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorza José V.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Batches of sylvatic females of Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae captured in a Shannon trap on twelve occasions over one year in a locality where subcutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic, near the city of Trujillo, Venezuela, were used to study: 1 the percentages of parous females according to previously established criteria and 2 the average number of eggs laid spontaneously by isolated females during 7 days after feeding on hamsters. The data on the batches of females captured on nights previous to the rainy period (prepluvial were compared with those on females captured after the rains (postpluvial . Significant differences were detected by variation analysis for two variables and different number of N, as also were consistent groupings by Duncan's Test for pre-and postpluvial lots of females. The females captured on nights prior to the rainy periods (January-March and August-September presented higher rates of nulliparity (86-72% and contained or laid a greater number of eggs (71-67 than those captured after the rains (March-June and November-December which presented lower rates of nulliparity (60-24% and a smaller number of eggs (50-30. The rainfall peaks occurred in April and September-October, respectively. It is considered that these differences can be used by epidemiological studies as a means of estimating the physiological age of female populations of L. youngy.

  19. Industrially contaminated areas in Serbia as a potential public health threat to the exposed population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Branislava I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining and mineral processing is still a vital source of income in Serbia, due to mineral abundance in copper, lead, zinc, antimony. Copper mining and metal-processing are located in the east: Bor, Veliki Krivelj, Cerovo, Majdanpek. Abandoned sites from antimony mining and processing and secondary lead smelter are at the western border: Zajača, Krupanj, Stolice. Coal mining and power plants are surrounding Belgrade: Obrenovac (2 power plants, Grabovac (plant ash landfill, Kolubara and Kostolac. Main objective is to focus on potential public health hazards from industrial contamination in Serbia. Key public health issue is presence of As and Cd in ambient air PM10 close to industrially contaminated sites due to the fact that ores have high naturally occurring contents of heavy metals and metalloids. Data originate from Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor, Belgrade Institute of Public Health, as part of continuous measurement of air quality within State network of automatic stations. Concentration of As in PM10 are extremely above the limit value in Bor and Lazarevac, with Cd values slightly increased in Bor. Serbia lacks the legal framework for continuous and institutionalized follow-up of population groups vulnerable to hazardous environmental exposure, although measured concentration indicate urgent need for such activities.

  20. Food frequency consumption and lipoproteins serum levels in the population of an urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornés Nélida Schmid

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between food group consumption frequency and serum lipoprotein levels among adults. METHODS: The observations were made during a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of men and women over 20 years old living in Cotia county, S. Paulo, Brazil. Data on food frequency consumption, serum lipids, and other covariates were available for 1,045 adults. Multivariate analyses adjusted by age, gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, educational level, family income, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs and dairy foods were each positively and significantly correlated with LDL-C, whereas the intake of vegetables and fruits showed an inverse correlation. Daily consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs, and dairy foods were associated with 16.6 mg/dl, 14.5 mg/dl, 11.1 mg/dl, 5.8 mg/dl, and 4.6 mg/dl increase in blood LDL-C, respectively. Increases of daily consumption of fruit and vegetables were associated with 5.2 mg/dl and 5.5 mg/dl decreases in LDL-C, respectively. Alcohol beverage consumption showed a significant positive correlation with HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary habits in the study population seem to contribute substantially to the variation in blood LDL and HDL concentrations. Substantially CHD risk reduction could be achieved with dietary changes.

  1. Population studies of Lowe’s Monkey (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae: Cercopithecus lowei Thomas, 1923 in Kakum Conservation Area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Debrah Wiafe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The status of Lowe’s Monkey Cercopithecus lowei was assessed during a survey in Kakum Conservation Area, Ghana.  Within the reserve logging and hunting was banned 20 years ago, and the forest underwent two decades of natural regeneration.  The main objectives of the study were to evaluate the impact of conservation measures on the local population of Lowe’s Monkey and assess its relationships with other primates and non-primate mammals.  Data on population status were collected during line transect surveys.  Comparing the present mean encounter rate of 1.03 (±0.03 groups/km to that recorded in 1993 (0.31±0.16 groups/km suggests an average population growth rate of 13.6% per annum.  Conservation measures such as banning illegal logging and hunting have likely contributed to the population increase.  Lowe’s monkeys were often observed in close proximity to other primates (e.g., Black and White Colobus and non-primate mammals (e.g., Maxwell’s Duiker, but neither socio-positive nor antagonistic interactions were observed.  Recommendations are made for further improvement and studies of the species elsewhere. 

  2. A combined strategy for screening a clustered mobile population returning from highly endemic areas for Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Li, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Xiao, Ning; Jiang, Weikang; Wen, Yongkang

    2017-04-30

    Early and accurate diagnosis of imported malaria cases in clusters is crucial for protecting the health of patients and local populations, especially confirmed parasitic persons who are asymptomatic. A total of 226 gold miners who had stayed in highly endemic areas of Ghana for more than six months and returned in clusters were selected randomly. Blood samples from them were tested with microscopy, nest polymerase chain reaction, and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, agreement rate, and Youden's index of each of three diagnostic methods were calculated and compared with the defined gold standard. A quick and efficient way to respond to screening such a clustered mobile population was predicted and analyzed by evaluating two assumed results of combining microscopy and RDT with or without symptoms of illness. The rate of the carriers of malaria parasites in the populations of gold miners was 19.47%, including 39 P. falciparum. Among the three diagnostic methods, the microscopy method showed the highest specificity, while the RDT method showed the highest sensitivity but the lowest specificity in detecting P. falciparum. The assumed results of combining RDT and microscopy with symptoms showed the best results among all the test results in screening P. falciparum. It was too complex and difficult to catch all parasite carriers in a short period of time among populations with such a complicated situation as that in Shanglin County. A strategy of combing microscopy and RDT for diagnosis is highly recommended.

  3. Waveform through the subducted plate under the Tokyo region in Japan observed by a ultra-dense seismic network (MeSO-net) and seismic activity around mega-thrust earthquakes area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nanjo, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Morita, Y.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Hirata, N.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Sekine, S.; Kurashimo, E.

    2009-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. We had started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area (2007-2012). Under this project, the construction of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) that consists of about 400 observation sites was started [Kasahara et al., 2008; Nakagawa et al., 2008]. Now, we had 178 observation sites. The correlation of the wave is high because the observation point is deployed at about 2 km intervals, and the identification of the later phase is recognized easily thought artificial noise is very large. We also discuss the relation between a deformation of PSP and intra-plate M7+ earthquakes: the PSP is subducting beneath the Honshu arc and also colliding with the Pacific plate. The subduction and collision both contribute active seismicity in the Kanto region. We are going to present a high resolution tomographic image to show low velocity zone which suggests a possible internal failure of the plate; a source region of the M7+ intra-plate earthquake. Our study will contribute a new assessment of the seismic hazard at the Metropolitan area in Japan. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  4. [Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  5. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  6. Epidemiological study of the prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera in a rural population in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J; Blanca, M; Soriano, V; Sanchez, J; Juarez, C

    1999-08-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a percentage that varies from 0.4 to 3.3%. Epidemiological studies indicate that from 15 to 25% of the general population can be sensitized to different Hymenoptera venom as well as the fact that the degree of exposure may be related to the prevalence found in those studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of insect sting allergy and the venom sensitization in a rural population to three Hymenoptera previously found in the area: Polistes dominulus (Pd), Vespula germanica (Vg) and honey bee (Hb). A rural community located in the south-east of Spain, close to the Mediterranean Sea, was selected since the stinging Hymenoptera having been previously identified. A random sample of 310 subjects from the village census was studied. A questionnaire and a serum sample were obtained from every patient. The evaluation was conducted by a family doctor, who focused on the reactions to Hymenoptera sting, age, sex, occupation, atopia, previous Hymenoptera sting, stinging insect, interval to last sting and average stings per year. RAST to Hymenoptera venoms were also determined. The prevalence of systemic reactions was 2.3% (57.6% of them had a positive RAST). Large local reactions were found in 26.4% (only 28.5% of them had a positive RAST). Asymptomatic sensitization (positive RAST) was observed in 16.4% of subjects without reaction. Only a weak correlation between subjects with less than 3 years' interval to last sting exposure and positive RAST results was noted, whether they presented with a clinical reaction or not (P < 0.05). The prevalence of systemic sting reactions in our rural community is higher than other general populations in the same Mediterranean area, and similar to other rural populations studied. The degree of exposure influences not only the prevalence found but also the detection of specific serum IgE.

  7. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  8. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  9. Aerial photos for obtaining information on vegetation in areas of high population densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneweg, H

    1975-01-01

    An air pollution survey was conducted which includes a description of an inventory of Freiburg's roadside trees with the aid of infrared aerial photos, supported by a register of trees by species. Results were mapped by street averages of injury and analyses by species susceptibility and stress factors. Building and traffic density were used as stress indicators presumed to be correlated with others such as road salting or other disturbances. In a ranking based on these factors Tilia sp. was the most and Robinia pseudoacacia the least susceptible, with Aesculus, Acer, Platanus and Crataegus spp. intermediate in descending order of susceptibility. A second survey a year later showed deterioration in most parts of the town, but some improvement was observed in the central Rathausplatz, where traffic had been excluded, salting had been stopped, and certain tree amelioration measures were being tried. Other topics discussed include surveys of total green vegetation in cities and the mapping of air pollution risks near heavily industrialized areas. In a study of 1600 spruce stands near the Ruhr region, no simple correlations with topographic factors were found, though the worst damage was frequently noticed in narrow valleys and near reservoirs.

  10. Chernobyl dose for population of areas radiocontaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The parameters and consequences of the Chernobyl accident that took place on 26 April 1986 are of special interest, because it was an extremely serious accident of an operating power nuclear reactor, one of over four hundred in the world. The basic specific feature of this accident determining the complex character of radiation impact on man was the explosive destruction and subsequent high-temperature burning of the reactor, which caused not only the release of inert radioactive gases and radioisotopes of volatile elements (iodine, cesium, tellurium, etc.), but also the evaporation of refractory fission products (barium, strontium, etc.), and the dispersion of fuel particles. Another important feature of the radioactive contamination of the area as compared with that of the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing is a single or short-term deposition which nevertheless leads to long-term exposure of man by long-lived radionuclides. The third specific feature is the combined and strong influence of natural soil and climate factors, on the one hand, and of anthropogenic factors, basically, of wide-scale countermeasures. on the other hand, on the level of exposure of man. 20 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Long-term monitoring of Pyrenean chamois in a protected area reveals a fluctuating population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Pañella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoraggio a lungo termine del camoscio dei Pirenei in una zona protetta: fluttuazione della popolazione.
    Tra il 1993 ed il 2009, la popolazione di camoscio pirenaico Rupicapra p. pyrenaica del Parco Nazionale d’Aigüestortes e Estany de Sant Maurici (14119 ha, Catalogna, Spagna è stata monitorata periodicamente. Nel periodo post-riproduttivo (luglio, i censimenti sono stati condotti lungo 20 percorsi supraforestali fissi, con l’obiettivo di stimare le variazioni nelle dimensioni, rapporto sessi, struttura e produttività della popolazione nell’area protetta. La densità media è risultata pari a 6,7 camosci km-2, il rapporto sessi circa 1:3 in favore delle femmine, mentre la produttività è stata pari a 0,6 juvenes per femmina adulta. La proporzione di animali indeterminati durante i conteggi è diminuita significativamente nel tempo, probabilmente in seguito al progressivo training degli operatori. Nel periodo di studio, le dimensioni della popolazione sono fluttuate significativamente. Sebbene le cause di tali variazioni siano ancora da approfondire, le successive epidemie di cheratocongiuntivite infettiva e Pestivirus che hanno colpito la popolazione hanno probabilmente svolto un ruolo determinante. Si raccomanda di sviluppare un piano di gestione dell’intero massiccio montuoso, che includa regolari monitoraggi sanitari e conteggi autunnali.

  12. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  13. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  14. Health effects of environmental pollution in population living near industrial complex areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Choi, Jonghyuk; Bae, Sanghyuk; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Yangho; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Son, Bu-Soon; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2018-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between environmental pollution and various health conditions in individuals residing in industrial complexes. To evaluate the effects of pollution from industrial complex on human health, we performed a pooled analysis of environmental epidemiologic monitoring data for residents living near national industrial complexes in Korea. The respiratory and allergic symptoms and the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases, including cancer, were used as the outcome variables for health effects. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exposure to pollution from industrial complexes and health conditions. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, occupational exposure, level of education, and body mass index, the residents near the industrial complexes were found to have more respiratory symptoms, such as cough (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.31) and sputum production (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.24), and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). Among residents of the industrial complexes, the prevalence of acute eye disorders was approximately 40% higher (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.84) and the prevalence of lung and uterine cancer was 3.45 times and 1.88 times higher, respectively, than those among residents of the control area. This study showed that residents living in the vicinity of industrial complexes have a high risk of acute and chronic diseases including respiratory and allergic conditions. These results can be used as basic objective data for developing health management measures for individuals residing near industrial complexes.

  15. Health effects of environmental pollution in population living near industrial complex areas in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yong Eom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between environmental pollution and various health conditions in individuals residing in industrial complexes. To evaluate the effects of pollution from industrial complex on human health, we performed a pooled analysis of environmental epidemiologic monitoring data for residents living near national industrial complexes in Korea. The respiratory and allergic symptoms and the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases, including cancer, were used as the outcome variables for health effects. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exposure to pollution from industrial complexes and health conditions. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, occupational exposure, level of education, and body mass index, the residents near the industrial complexes were found to have more respiratory symptoms, such as cough (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.31 and sputum production (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.24, and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20. Among residents of the industrial complexes, the prevalence of acute eye disorders was approximately 40% higher (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.84 and the prevalence of lung and uterine cancer was 3.45 times and 1.88 times higher, respectively, than those among residents of the control area. This study showed that residents living in the vicinity of industrial complexes have a high risk of acute and chronic diseases including respiratory and allergic conditions. These results can be used as basic objective data for developing health management measures for individuals residing near industrial complexes.

  16. Cancer incidence in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, 2000-2004. First five years report from population based cancer registry of Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Eliana Meza Durán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most common chronic diseases that cause high morbidity and mortality. In the evaluation of all illnessand its impact on the community, a surveillance system becomes necessary to allows us to know its incidence. Cancersurveillance is achieved by the population-based cancer registry. Methodology: The Population Based Cancer Registry ofMetropolitan Area of Bucaramanga (RPC-AMB collected information from the years 2000 to 2004, in patients with anymalignant cancer the which include both invasive and in situ behavior in addition to reside within this geographical area . TheCancer Registry also collects data on brain and nervous system tumors classified as benign or those that have uncertainbehavior. Basal cell cancers of the skin were included during the two first years as well as all the intraepithelial neoplasm ofthe cervix. Active collections of information at all sources by registry staff were made (Hospitals, Health care institutions,especially oncology centers and Pathology and Hematology Laboratories and some specialist in oncology attention. Theinclusion approaches are verified and collects data on specific sociodemographic information (age, gender, residence, placeof birth, etc. and on the anatomic site of the tumor, the cell type of the cancer, behavior and extension on each individualdiagnosed with cancer. Each case was coded using the International Classification of Diseases Oncology Third Edition (ICDO-3, for topographical and morphological code. The data was entered into a computer with CanReg-4 software that is aconfigurable computer program designed for cancer registration in population-based registries and was provided as aservice by the Descriptive Epidemiology Unit to members of the International Association of Cancer Registries. This softwareprovides the number of cancer cases (frequency and the incidence rates. The quality control included exhaustiveness of thecases and information, verification of the

  17. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  18. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically ∼1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of ∼2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  19. Training teachers to teach mental health skills to staff in primary care settings in a vast, under-populated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D P; Gask, L; Zakroyeva, A; Proselkova, E; Ryzhkova, N; Williams, P

    2012-12-01

    Background The Arkhangelsk Oblast is an area the size of France with a sparsely distributed population. The existing primary care staff have had very little training in the management of mental health disorders, despite the frequency of these disorders in the population. They requested special teaching on depression, suicide, somatisation and alcohol problems. Methods An educational intervention was developed in partnership with mental health and primary care staff in Russia, to develop mental health skills using established, evidence-based methods. After a preliminary demonstration of teaching methods to be employed, a 5-day full-time teaching course was offered to trainers of general practitioners and feldshers. Results The findings are presented by providing details of improvements that occurred over a 3-month period in four areas, namely depression in primary care, somatic presentations of distress, dealing with suicidal patients, and alcohol problems. We present preliminary data on how the training has generalised since our visits to Archangelsk. Conclusions Teachers who are used to teaching by didactic lectures can be taught the value of short introductory talks that invite discussion, and mental health skills can be taught using role play. The content of such training should be driven by perceived local needs, and developed in conjunction with local leaders and teachers within primary care services. Further research will be needed to establish the impact on clinical outcomes.

  20. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, Christian D

    2011-01-01

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  1. Prevalence of osteoarthritis of knee joint among adult population in a rural area of Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Jayaseelan; Natesan, Murugan; Eswaran, Muthurajesh; Johnson, Abel K Samuel; Bharath, V; Singh, Zile

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common degenerative disorders among the elderly population; although aging is the most important cause, research has shown that it is a complex disease with many etiologies. It is not an inevitable part of aging but rather the result of a combination of factors, many of which can be modified or prevented. The objective of this study was to assess the burden and determinants of OA knee among the adult population. A community-based, cross-sectional study among 1986 adult persons living in a rural area in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, South India, was interviewed and examined from January 2014 to December 2014. Data collection was done by the postgraduates, trained health workers under the supervision of principal investigator. Written and informed consent was obtained before data collection. OA was diagnosed using the criteria laid down by the American College of Rheumatology, and it was validated and tested in the study area. A total of 1986 adult respondents were interviewed out of which 27.1% had OA of knee. Age more than 50 years, female gender, tobacco usage, illiteracy, lower socioeconomic class, positive family history of OA, diabetes, and hypertension were found to be associated with OA knee (P < 0.05). The burden of osteoarthritis knee was high in this region. Hence, effective preventive strategy has to be taken to minimize this burden.

  2. Food insecurity, a determinant of obesity? - an analysis from a population-based survey in the Paris metropolitan area, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Caillavet, France; Lhuissier, Anne; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between food insecurity and obesity is discussed in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine whether food insecurity and obesity were associated in the Paris metropolitan area. We used data from third wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures (SIRS) cohort study, a longitudinal population-based, representative health and socioepidemiological survey of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area. The participants' BMI (calculated using self-reported height and weight) was analyzed as a continuous variable, and a dichotomous variable (BMI Food insecurity was estimated using the Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) and was treated as a trichotomous variable (food security / low food security / very low food security). Multilevel models were estimated for men and women separately. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) prevalence was 10.2%. The determinant of obesity differs according to gender. After adjustment for age, income and the sociooccupational group, very low food security was associated with obesity in women (OR = 2.01, 95%CI 1.05-3.82), and women with very low food security had a higher BMI (Coef. = 1.78, 95% CI 0.24-3.31). This association, however, was not significant for men (OR = 1.84, 95%CI 0.64-5.30). In times of economic crisis, it is increasingly essential to explore and understand the pathway through which very low food security is linked to obesity.

  3. Derivation of travel demand forecasting models for low population areas: the case of Port Said Governorate, North East Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Semeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, there has been substantial development in modeling techniques of travel demand estimation. For low population areas the external trip estimation is important but usually neglected in travel demand modeling process. In Egypt, the researches in this field are scarce due to lack of data. Accordingly, this paper aims to identify and estimate the main variables that affect the travel demand in low population areas, and to develop models to predict them. The study focused on the Port Said Governorate in North East Egypt. A special questionnaire had been prepared in 2010 depending on interviews of passengers at basic taxi terminals in Port Said. And 2211 filled questionnaires were offering for research. To analyze the data, two modeling procedures were used. One is the multiple linear regression and the other is the generalized linear modeling (GLM applying normal distributions. It is found that GLM procedure offers more suitable and accurate approach than the linear regression for developing number of trips. The final demand models have statistics within the acceptable regions and, also, they are conceptually reasonable. These results are so important for Egyptian highway authorities to improve the efficiency of highway transportation system in Egypt.

  4. Genetic effects of radiation and prediction of hereditary pathology of population of areas around the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological analysis of diseases and mortality of the population living in areas around Semipalatinsk test site is not only theoretically interesting in terms of the human being genetics, but is important for the health-care in practice, since it allows correct planning the score of medical social aid to the sick people and their families, including measures. Assessment of posterior consequences of low dose radiation effect on health of the population of the areas around the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is of special interest. Many underground, atmospheric and above-ground tests of nuclear weapon resulted in a significant increase of the oncologic and blood diseases rate among several generations of the effected people. Moreover, consequences of the above-ground and atmospheric tests of nuclear and hydrogen weapon will show up in the next century, taking into account the fact that the 'open' tests were ceased only at the middle of 60-th. The birth rate of children with the inherent intelligence defects was determined according to the accounting records of the new-born children within 1986-1992 years. Analysis of perinatal mortality was carried out based on the records on autopsy within 1985-1992 years. The two-fold increase of the onco diseases rate was revealed among children. The rate of spontaneous aborts in the Eginbulak district was 9.99% and exceeded the average rate in the region and indexes of other regions

  5. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. COPPA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  6. Water is a poor solvent for densely grafted poly(ethylene oxide) chains: a conclusion drawn from a self-consistent field theory-based analysis of neutron reflectivity and surface pressure-area isotherm data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Dae Hwan; Witte, Kevin N; Ohn, Kimberly; Choi, Je; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil; Won, You-Yeon

    2012-06-21

    By use of a combined experimental and theoretical approach, a model poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush system, prepared by spreading a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PnBA) amphiphilic diblock copolymer onto an air-water interface, was investigated. The polymer segment density profiles of the PEO brush in the direction normal to the air-water interface under various grafting density conditions were determined by using the neutron reflectivity (NR) measurement technique. To achieve a theoretically sound analysis of the reflectivity data, we used a data analysis method that utilizes the self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical modeling as a tool for predicting expected reflectivity results for comparison with the experimental data. Using this data analysis technique, we discovered that the effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of the PEO brush chains is significantly greater than that corresponding to the θ condition in Flory-Huggins solutions (i.e., χ(PEO-water)(brush chains)/χ(PEO-water)(θ condition) ≈ 1.2), suggesting that contrary to what is more commonly observed for PEO in normal situations (χ(PEO-water)(free chains)/χ(PEO-water)(θ condition) ≈ 0.92), the PEO chains are actually not "hydrophilic" when they exist as polymer brush chains, because of the many body interactions that are forced to be effective in the brush situation. This result is further supported by the fact that the surface pressures of the PEO brush calculated on the basis of the measured χ(PEO-water) value are in close agreement with the experimental surface pressure-area isotherm data. The SCF theoretical analysis of the surface pressure behavior of the PEO brush also suggests that even though the grafted PEO chains experience a poor solvent environment, the PEO brush layer exhibits positive surface pressures, because the hydrophobicity of the PEO brush chains (which favors compression) is insufficient to overcome the opposing effect of the chain

  7. Population Structure and Growth of the Threatened Pen Shell, Pinna rudis (Linnaeus, 1758 in a Western Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. NEBOT COLOMER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are being extensively degraded by human activities. Benthic, slow-growing and long-lived species are highly vulnerable to these impacts. Marine protected areas might avoid biodiversity losses through habitat protection. The pen shell Pinna rudis is a protected species, but scarce data are available on its ecology and biology. The present study is a comprehensive ecological study encompassing several unknown aspects of the growth and inner record in relation to habitat types, density and size distribution. A total of 418 strip transects were conducted by scuba diving in the Marine Protected Area of Cabrera National Park (39.14° N, 2.96° E, during the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Sampling was conducted across different habitats and depths exploring 152,146.35 m2 in total. Densities varied spatially within the park (from 0 to 6.89 ind./100 m2 corresponding to a wide range of sizes and ages. Most pen shells were patchily distributed and mainly concentrated in caves. Two hotspots with high densities represent the highest densities ever recorded worldwide, showing a possible link to high larval accumulation and settlement. The population size structure showed a unimodal distribution with shell width ranging from 6.2 to 25.0 cm, with an average shell width of 16.0 ± 3.4 cm. The absolute growth was asymptotic, with a maximum age and length of 28-31 years and 45 cm, respectively. This study on the biology and ecology of a well-established population of Pinna rudis in the Western Mediterranean could set a baseline for the conservation of this species in other areas.

  8. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  9. Surveys of mammal populations in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Tierp. A pilot study 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Hammarstroem, Angelica; Wallin, Kjell [Svensk Viltfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. To get relevant data on the dynamics of the mammal populations it is important to estimate the abundance and variations over time. Data achieved can be used to specifically monitor endangered species (like wolf, Canis lupus, and otter, Lutra lutra), detect effects from e.g. drilling activities on populations (important to hunters) and be used for assessment programs (MKB). One of the major goals is to monitor populations over several years and to obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclide. From late 2001 to late spring 2002 a pilot study was accomplished in the areas surrounding the suggested areas in the Tierp region and in Forsmark (Oskarshamn was not included in this pilot study). A reference area was chosen near the coast some 20 km north of Forsmark. The aim was to initiate surveys of most of the larger mammal species that were expected to be found in the region. Selected species were wolf, lynx, otter, marten, mink, red fox, beaver, wild boar, red deer, roe deer, moose, European hare and mountain hare. Several methods were used and adapted to expected habitat use and expected local density of the species. Line transects were used on snow to index (frequency of tracks crossing the transects) or calculate actual number (for example the Buffon method). Pellet counts were used in spring to calculate hare and cervid (moose and deer species) density. In mid winter an aerial (helicopter) survey was conducted along the coast to count moose. The aquatic mammals were tracked on snow along selected parts of the streams and

  10. Surveys of mammal populations in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Tierp. A pilot study 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Hammarstroem, Angelica; Wallin, Kjell

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. To get relevant data on the dynamics of the mammal populations it is important to estimate the abundance and variations over time. Data achieved can be used to specifically monitor endangered species (like wolf, Canis lupus, and otter, Lutra lutra), detect effects from e.g. drilling activities on populations (important to hunters) and be used for assessment programs (MKB). One of the major goals is to monitor populations over several years and to obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclide. From late 2001 to late spring 2002 a pilot study was accomplished in the areas surrounding the suggested areas in the Tierp region and in Forsmark (Oskarshamn was not included in this pilot study). A reference area was chosen near the coast some 20 km north of Forsmark. The aim was to initiate surveys of most of the larger mammal species that were expected to be found in the region. Selected species were wolf, lynx, otter, marten, mink, red fox, beaver, wild boar, red deer, roe deer, moose, European hare and mountain hare. Several methods were used and adapted to expected habitat use and expected local density of the species. Line transects were used on snow to index (frequency of tracks crossing the transects) or calculate actual number (for example the Buffon method). Pellet counts were used in spring to calculate hare and cervid (moose and deer species) density. In mid winter an aerial (helicopter) survey was conducted along the coast to count moose. The aquatic mammals were tracked on snow along selected parts of the streams and

  11. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

    2012-03-27

    This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection

  12. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambaréné, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500 subjects were screened for S. aureus colonization of the nares, axillae and inguinal region. Overall, 146 (29%) were positive. We found 46 different spa types. The most frequent spa types were t084 (35%) and the agr II was the most prevalent subtype of the accessory gene regulator (56%, n=82). Five isolates (3%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Carriage rates of S. aureus in Gabon are comparable to developed countries. MRSA is for the first time described and could pose a significant health threat in this region with limited access to microbiological laboratory facilities and to adequate antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTION OF COPAIBA OLEORESIN BETWEEN VALLEYS AND HILLSIDES OF THE MINING AREA OFTROMBETAS RIVER - PARÁ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gebara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed in this work to study natural populations of copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne on the Monte Branco mountain at Porto Trombetas-PA, in order to support sustainable management and the exploitation of oleoresin from copaiba. We studied the population structure of copaiba on hillsides and valleys of the south face of Monte Branco, within Saracá Taquera National Forest, where bauxite ore was extracted in the biennium 2013-2014 by Mineração Rio do Norte (MRN. We produced a 100% forest inventory of the specie and of oleoresin extraction in order to quantify the potential production of the remaining area. The density of copaiba individuals with DBH > 30 cm was 0.33 individuals per hectare in the hillside and 0.25 individuals per hectare in the valley. Both environments presented a density of 0.28 individuals per hectare. The average copaiba oleoresin yield was 0.661±0.334 liters in the hillside and 0.765±0.280 liters in the valley. The average value of both environments together (hillside and valley was 0.714±0.218 liters. From all individuals with DBH over 30 cm, 38 (58% produced some amount of oleoresin, averaging 1.113±0.562 liters in the hillside, 1.329±0.448 liters in the valley and 1.190±0.355 liters in both environments together. The results show the need for planning the use of the surroundings of the study area in order to reach the required volume of copaiba to make feasible the sustainable management of oleoresin extraction in the region.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Census H Appendix H to Part 122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of...

  15. Population growth and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  16. Elk responses to humans in a densely roaded area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A . Rumble; Lakhdar Benkobi; R. Scott Gamo

    2005-01-01

    Despite several studies that demonstrate general responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to roads and people, land management agencies continue to struggle with management of offhighway vehicles, recreation, and roads. The Black Hills National Forest has a greater road density (3.2 km/km2) than any other national forest. We used Global Positioning System (...

  17. Salmonella infections in Antarctic fauna and island populations of wildlife exposed to human activities in coastal areas of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Shellam, G R; Bradshaw, S D; Smith, D W; Mackenzie, J S; Mofflin, R G

    2009-06-01

    Salmonella infections in Antarctic wildlife were first reported in 1970 and in a search for evidence linking isolations with exposure to human activities, a comparison was made of serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region from 1982-2004 with those from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. This revealed that 10 (83%) Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from Antarctic penguins and seals were classifiable in high-frequency (HF) quotients for serovars prevalent in humans and domesticated animals. In Australia, 16 (90%) HF serovars were isolated from marine birds and mammals compared with 12 (86%) HF serovars reported from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. In Western Australia, HF serovars from marine species were also recorded in humans, livestock, mussels, effluents and island populations of wildlife in urban coastal areas. Low-frequency S. enterica serovars were rarely detected in humans and not detected in seagulls or marine species. The isolation of S. Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4), PT8 and PT23 strains from Adélie penguins and a diversity of HF serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region and coastal areas of Australia, signal the possibility of transient serovars and endemic Salmonella strains recycling back to humans from southern latitudes in marine foodstuffs and feed ingredients.

  18. MULTIREGION: a simulation-forecasting model of BEA economic area population and employment. [Bureau of Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R.J.; Westley, G.W.; Herzog, H.W. Jr.; Kerley, C.R.; Bjornstad, D.J.; Vogt, D.P.; Bray, L.G.; Grady, S.T.; Nakosteen, R.A.

    1977-10-01

    This report documents the development of MULTIREGION, a computer model of regional and interregional socio-economic development. The MULTIREGION model interprets the economy of each BEA economic area as a labor market, measures all activity in terms of people as members of the population (labor supply) or as employees (labor demand), and simultaneously simulates or forecasts the demands and supplies of labor in all BEA economic areas at five-year intervals. In general the outputs of MULTIREGION are intended to resemble those of the Water Resource Council's OBERS projections and to be put to similar planning and analysis purposes. This report has been written at two levels to serve the needs of multiple audiences. The body of the report serves as a fairly nontechnical overview of the entire MULTIREGION project; a series of technical appendixes provide detailed descriptions of the background empirical studies of births, deaths, migration, labor force participation, natural resource employment, manufacturing employment location, and local service employment used to construct the model.

  19. [Medication use among community-dwelling older Icelanders. Population-based study in urban and rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Arnadottir, Solveig Asa; Gunnarsdottir, Elín Díanna

    2011-12-01

    To describe medication use among older community-dwelling Icelanders by collecting information on number of medicine, polypharmacy (>5 medications), and medications by ATC categories. Moreover, to explore the relationship between medication use and various influential factors emphasizing residency in urban and rural areas. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants were randomly selected from the National registry in one urban (n=118) and two rural (n=68) areas. 1) ≥ 65 years old, 2) community-dwelling, 3) able to communicate verbally. Information on medication use was obtained from each person's medication list and interviews. A questionnaire and five standardized instruments were used to assess the potential influencing factors. On average, participants used 3.9 medications and prevalence of polypharmacy was 41%. Men used 3.5 medications on average and women 4.4 (p=0.018). Compared to rural residents, urban residents had fewer medical diagnoses, better mobility, less pain, and fewer depressive symptoms. By controlling for the effects of these variables, more medications were associated with urban living (pbetter scores on health assessments.

  20. Possible over-wintering of bluetongue virus in Culicoides populations in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumari Steyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the ability of certain viruses to overwinter in arthropod vectors. The over-wintering mechanism of bluetongue virus (BTV is unknown. One hypothesis is over-wintering within adult Culicoides midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae that survive mild winters where temperatures seldom drop below 10 °C. The reduced activity of midges and the absence of outbreaks during winter may create the impression that the virus has disappeared from an area. Light traps were used in close association with horses to collect Culicoides midges from July 2010 to September 2011 in the Onderstepoort area, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. More than 500 000 Culicoides midges were collected from 88 collections and sorted to species level, revealing 26 different Culicoides species. Culicoides midges were present throughout the 15 month study. Nine Culicoides species potentially capable of transmitting BTV were present during the winter months. Midges were screened for the presence of BTV ribonucleic acid (RNA with the aid of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay. In total 91.2% of midge pools tested positive for BTV RNA. PCR results were compared with previous virus isolation results (VI that demonstrated the presence of viruses in summer and autumn months. The results indicate that BTV-infected Culicoides vectors are present throughout the year in the study area. Viral RNA-positive midges were also found throughout the year with VI positive midge pools only in summer and early autumn. Midges that survive mild winter temperatures could therefore harbour BTV but with a decreased vector capacity. When the population size, biting rate and viral replication decrease, it could stop BTV transmission. Over-wintering of BTV in the Onderstepoort region could therefore result in re-emergence because of increased vector activity rather than reintroduction from outside the region.

  1. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tiphoton and tunneling ionization, the physics of plasma formed in dense matter is .... A typical Gaussian laser pulse of 100 fs dura- .... J range) – and finally it is compressed back to its .... bond-hardening, molecular orientation and reori-.

  2. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for semi-constrained indoor movement, and then uses this to map raw tracking records into mapping records representing object entry and exit times in particular locations. Then, an efficient indexing structure, the Dense Location Time Index (DLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals...... of the mapping table, along with associated construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The DLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point queries, interval queries, and dense location queries. A comprehensive experimental study with real data shows that the proposed techniques can efficiently......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based model...

  3. Interference Coordination for Dense Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2015-01-01

    and dense deployment in Tokyo are compared. Evolution to DenseNets offers new opportunities for further development of downlink interference cooperation techniques. Various mechanisms in LTE and LTE-Advanced are revisited. Some techniques try to anticipate the future in a proactive way, whereas others......The promise of ubiquitous and super-fast connectivity for the upcoming years will be in large part fulfilled by the addition of base stations and spectral aggregation. The resulting very dense networks (DenseNets) will face a number of technical challenges. Among others, the interference emerges...... as an old acquaintance with new significance. As a matter of fact, the interference conditions and the role of aggressor and victim depend to a large extent on the density and the scenario. To illustrate this, downlink interference statistics for different 3GPP simulation scenarios and a more irregular...

  4. Skyrmions, dense matter and nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethick, C.J.

    1984-12-01

    A simple introduction to a number of properties of Skyrme's chiral soliton model of baryons is given. Some implications of the model for dense matter and for nuclear interactions are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  6. Kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graedel, T.E.; Langer, W.D.; Frerking, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds has been developed to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature, and other topics of interest. The full computation involves 328 individual reactions (expanded to 1067 to study carbon and oxygen isotope chemistry); photodegradation processes are unimportant in these dense clouds and are excluded

  7. Modeling the Hourly Distribution of Population at a High Spatiotemporal Resolution Using Subway Smart Card Data: A Case Study in the Central Area of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjia Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of the dynamic changes in population is a key component in effective urban planning and emergency management. We developed a model to estimate hourly dynamic changes in population at the community level based on subway smart card data. The hourly population of each community in six central districts of Beijing was calculated, followed by a study of the spatiotemporal patterns and diurnal dynamic changes of population and an exploration of the main sources and sinks of the observed human mobility. The maximum daytime population of the six central districts of Beijing was approximately 0.7 million larger than the night-time population. The administrative and commercial districts of Dongcheng and Xicheng had high values of population ratio of day to night of 1.35 and 1.22, respectively, whereas Shijingshan, a residential district, had the lowest value of 0.84. Areas with a high population ratio were mainly concentrated in Dongcheng, Xicheng, West Chaoyang, and Southeast Haidian. The daytime population distribution showed a hierarchical spatial pattern of planar centers and second scattered centers as opposed to multiple scattered centers during the night-time. This was because most people moved inward from the areas with a low–high to high–low population ratio of day to night from night-time to daytime, which can be explained by the process of commuting between residential areas and workplaces. Several distinctive phenomena (e.g., the distribution of new industrial parks, the so-called old residential areas, and colleges and universities in the development of China are reflected by the spatiotemporal pattern of the distribution of population. The general consistency of the population ratios of day to night, population distribution, population variation of typical communities, and population mobility pattern with previous research suggests that the subway smart card data has potential in analyzing dynamic diurnal

  8. Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and Economic Foundations of Inter-Ethnic Conflict in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that contemporary experiences of social exclusion and interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China are interrelated and revolve around three processes – population, growth and employment – all of which centre on the urban areas. In this setting, the

  9. Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and economic foundations of interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that contemporary experiences of social exclusion and interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China are interrelated and revolve around three processes – population, growth and employment – all of which centre on the urban areas. In this setting, the

  10. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: funk@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: joshualande@gmail.com, E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr, E-mail: rousseau@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-08-10

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV {gamma}-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV {gamma}-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5 Degree-Sign of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their {gamma}-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.

  11. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV γ-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV γ-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5° of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their γ-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented

  12. Carboxyhemoglobin levels of selected population segments in variously structured and polluted areas of North Rhine-Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscovanu, A.; Kraemer, U.B.; Baginski, B.; Dolgner, R.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)-content from about 13,000 inhabitants of various sites in western North Rhine-Westphalia are presented. Analyses were part of surveys on the effects of air pollution conducted between 1975 and 1980 in five designated, polluted areas. Determinations were executed in the Medical Institute for Environmental Hygiene, Duesseldorf, on behalf of the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Administration. Analysis of blood samples for CO-content was performed by gas chromatography. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were calculated by reference to the individual hemoglobin levels. These surveys have been conducted during several years and included different seasons. Before 1977, fifty years old men were investigated. Until 1978, sixty years old men were studied. In 1979 and 1980, sixty years old women and ten years old children were additionally incorporated into the survey. Statistical analysis of data included variables which influence personal CO-burden such as smoking, and in the case of non-smokers indoor air exposure through passive smoking, use of gas facilities and heating in the flat, as well as occupational exposure. Besides, the influence of age, sex and location was considered. The average COHb-level of the populations under study was expressed as the median of the distribution. The distribution-free Mann-Whitney U-test served for assessment of differences between groups. As a further parameter, the percentage of the measurements greater than 2,5% COHb was chosen, because it was thought to be more relevant to risk populations, i.e. people suffering from Angina pectoris. As expected, tobacco smoking exerted the greatest influence on COHb-level. In non-smokers a trend, indicating a relationship between indoor air pollution and COHb-content could be observed.

  13. Distributions of soil phosphorus in China's densely populated village landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaguo Jiao; Erle C. Ellis; Ian Yesilonis; Junxi Wu; Hongqing Wang; Huixin Li; Linzhang. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Village landscapes, which integrate small-scale agriculture with housing, forestry and a host of other land use practices, cover more than 2x106 km2 across China. Village lands tend to be managed at very fine spatial scales (≤30 m), with managers altering soil fertility and even terrain by terracing,...

  14. going children in a densely populated township in Lilongwe, Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetened beverages among children in a Lilongwe township 55 ... help in guiding interventions and public health nutrition policies. Aim ... of the key factors associated with overweight and obesity. ... caregivers had given verbal consent to participate in the study ..... Impaired parent-reported health-related quality of life of.

  15. 16. Hot dense plasma atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Dappen; Totsuji, H.; Nishii, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers 13 articles whose common feature is to deal with atomic processes in hot plasmas. Density functional molecular dynamics method is applied to the hydrogen plasma in the domain of liquid metallic hydrogen. The effects of the density gradient are taken into account in both the electronic kinetic energy and the exchange energy and it is shown that they almost cancel with each other, extending the applicability of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximation to the cases where the density gradient is not negligible. Another article reports about space and time resolved M-shell X-ray measurements of a laser-produced gas jet xenon plasma. Plasma parameters have been measured by ion acoustic and electron plasma waves Thomson scattering. Photo-ionization becomes a dominant atomic process when the density and the temperature of plasmas are relatively low and when the plasma is submitted to intense external radiation. It is shown that 2 plasmas which have a very different density but have the same ionization parameters, are found in a similar ionization state. Most radiation hydrodynamics codes use radiative opacity data from available libraries of atomic data. Several articles are focused on the determination of one group Rosseland and Planck mean analytical formulas for several single elements used in inertial fusion targets. In another paper the plasma density effect on population densities, effective ionization, recombination rate coefficients and on emission lines from carbon and Al ions in hot dense plasma, is studied. The last article is devoted to a new atomic model in plasmas that considers the occupation probability of the bound state and free state density in the presence of the plasma micro-field. (A.C.)

  16. All-cause mortality increased by environmental cadmium exposure in the Japanese general population in cadmium non-polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Morikawa, Yuko; Nishijo, Muneko; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure indicated by urinary Cd on all-cause mortality in the Japanese general population. A 19-year cohort study was conducted in 1067 men and 1590 women aged 50 years or older who lived in three cadmium non-polluted areas in Japan. The subjects were divided into four quartiles based on creatinine adjusted U-Cd (µg g(-1) cre). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous U-Cd or the quartiles of U-Cd were estimated for all-cause mortality using a proportional hazards regression.The all-cause mortality rates per 1000 person years were 31.2 and 15.1 in men and women, respectively. Continuous U-Cd (+1 µg g(-1) cre) was significantly related to the all-cause mortality in men (HR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and women (HR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07). Furthermore in men, the third (1.96-3.22 µg g(-1) cre) and fourth quartile (≥3.23 µg g(-1) cre) of U-Cd showed a significant, positive HR (third: HR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.03-1.77, fourth: HR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.26-2.14) for all-cause mortality compared with the first quartile (women, the fourth quartile of U-Cd (≥4.66 µg g(-1) cre) also showed a significant HR (1.49, 95% CI 1.11-2.00) for all-cause mortality compared with the first quartile (<1.46 µg g(-1) cre).In the present study, U-Cd was significantly associated with increased mortality in the Japanese general population, indicating that environmental Cd exposure adversely affects the life prognosis in Cd non-polluted areas in Japan. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Population based outcomes of cataract surgery in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India: risk factors for poor outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit C Khanna

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes of cataract surgery in three Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB methodology, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted in three ITDA areas. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 7281 participants aged 50 years and above. Vision assessment using a tumbling E chart and standard ocular examinations were completed. Visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes were assessed among subjects undergoing cataract surgery (1548 eyes of 1124 subjects. Mean age at surgery was 67±8 years; Among the operated eyes, presenting visual acuity (PVA and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA worse than 6/18 was seen in 492 (31.8%; 95% CI, 29.5-34.2% and 298 eyes (19.3%; 95% CI, 17.3-21.3%, respectively. Similarly, PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 219 (14.1%; 95% CI, 12.4-16% and 147 eyes (9.5%; 95% CI, 8.1-11.1%, respectively. When either eye was taken into consideration, the PVA and BCVA worse than 6/18 was seen in 323 (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.9-23% and 144 subjects (9.3%; 95% CI, 7.9-10.9%, respectively. PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 74 (4.8%; 95% CI, 3.8-6% and 49 subjects (3.2%; 95% CI, 2.4-4.2%, respectively. Posterior capsular opacification was seen in 51 of 1316 pseudophakic eyes (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.9-5.1%. In multivariable analysis among pseudophakic subjects with PVA worse than 6/18, increasing age (p = 0.002 and undergoing free surgery (p = 0.05 were independent risk factors. Undergoing surgery before 2005 (p = 0.05 and being illiterate (p = 0.05 were independent risk factors for BCVA worse than 6/18. CONCLUSIONS: There are changing trends with improved outcomes in cataract surgery among these tribal populations of India. However, post-operative refractive error correction remains an issue, especially for those

  18. Use of psychotropic medications in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil: pattern of healthcare provision to general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanha, Angela Maria; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Milhorança, Igor André; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the proportion of psychotropic medication use (PMU) among adults in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. We investigated whether socio-demographic factors, comorbidity, and disease severity influence PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Data are from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional, population-based study, the Brazilian branch of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Trained lay interviewers face-to-face assessed psychiatric disorders and PMU through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Respondents were asked about use of healthcare service and prescribed medications for mental disorders in the previous year. Information on PMU was collected for 2935 adult residents in the area and among those with disorders who received treatment. Around 6% of respondents reported PMU in the past year: hypnotics or sedatives were used by 3.7% and antidepressants by 3.5%. Among individuals with 12-month disorders, only 14% reported past year PMU. Gender, age, education, income, occupational status, comorbidity, and severity were significant predictors for PMU. Among those with 12-month DSM-IV disorders who obtained treatment in healthcare settings, almost 40% received medication only. Among those treated in specialty mental health service, around 23% received combination of medication and psychotherapy. Our study has pointed out that the recent trend of access to mental healthcare in Brazil depicts unmet needs, characterized by a low prevalence of PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Policies that improve appropriate access to prescribed drugs for those most in need are urgent public health priority. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, in a recently re-colonized area of the Senegal River basin and human-induced environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Badara; Dia, Ibrahima; Konate, Lassana; Ayala, Diego; Fontenille, Didier; Cohuet, Anna

    2012-09-05

    Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa. Because of several cycles of drought events that occurred during the 1970s, this species had disappeared from many parts of sahelian Africa, including the Senegal River basin. However, this zone has been re-colonized during the last decade by An. funestus, following the implementation of two dams on the Senegal River. Previous studies in that area revealed heterogeneity at the biological and chromosomal level among these recent populations. Here, we studied the genetic structure of the newly established mosquito populations using eleven microsatellite markers in four villages of the Senegal River basin and compared it to another An. funestus population located in the sudanian domain. Our results presume Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in each An. funestus population, suggesting a situation of panmixia. Moreover, no signal from bottleneck or population expansion was detected across populations. The tests of genetic differentiation between sites revealed a slight but significant division into three distinct genetic entities. Genetic distance between populations from the Senegal River basin and sudanian domain was correlated to geographical distance. In contrast, sub-division into the Senegal River basin was not correlated to geographic distance, rather to local adaptation. The high genetic diversity among populations from Senegal River basin coupled with no evidence of bottleneck and with a gene flow with southern population suggests that the re-colonization was likely carried out by a massive and repeated stepping-stone dispersion starting from the neighboring areas where An. funestus endured.

  20. Circulation of a multiresistant, conjugative, IncA/C plasmid within the nosocomial Providencia stuartii population in the Athens area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakkoupi, Panagiota; Tryfinopoulou, Kyriaki; Polemis, Michalis; Pappa, Olga; Miriagou, Vivi; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study is to report a multidrug-resistant outbreak of Providencia stuartii that occurred in inpatients in the Athens area in 2012 resulting from a very successful transmissible A/C multidrug-resistant plasmid. Thirteen multidrug-resistant P. stuartii clinical isolates from 5 hospitals were studied. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Antibiotic resistance genes and their genetic surround were detected by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid analysis included conjugation experiments using liquid cultures, sizing by S1 digestion, and incompatibility replicon typing by PCR. Isolates were grouped into 2 distinct clonal types A and B, exhibiting similarity less than 70%. Isolates of type A were recovered from patients hospitalized in 4 different hospitals with no obvious epidemiological linkage, while isolates of type B were recovered from patients treated in a single hospital. Both clonal types harbored a conjugative plasmid of 130 bp and IncA/C replicon type carrying 5 β-lactamase genes bla(SHV-5), bla(VEB-1), bla(VIM-1), bla(OXA-10), and bla(TEM-1) and aminoglycosides resistant determinants. All β-lactamase genes were included in stable structures as IS26, IS1999, and In-e541. The current plasmid seemed to have many common determinants with previously reported plasmids derived from P. stuartii and Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates and exhibited the ability to circulate in nosocomial bacterial populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Flores-Saiffe, María E; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31-4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  2. Carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese adults living in a rural area: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; Liang, Y; Shi, J; Cai, C; Jiang, H; Song, A; Qiu, C

    2016-01-01

    The possible association between carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment in the Chinese population has been rarely investigated. The association between the severity of carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese people living in a rural area was assessed. This cross-sectional study included 1375 participants (age ≥60 years) from the Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong. In 2010-2011, data were collected through interviews and clinical examinations. Carotid stenosis was assessed using ultrasonography. Cognitive impairment was defined according to the education-specific cutoff scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic models. The overall prevalence was 7.0% for moderate carotid stenosis, 2.0% for severe stenosis and 6.0% for cognitive impairment. The multi-adjusted odds ratio of cognitive impairment was 1.43 (95% confidence interval 0.63-3.22) for moderate carotid stenosis and 3.75 (1.24-11.40) for severe carotid stenosis (P(trend) = 0.023). Similar results were obtained in people without a history of cerebrovascular disease. Severe carotid stenosis, even asymptomatic, is associated with cognitive impairment independent of atherosclerotic risk factors and disorders amongst older Chinese people. © 2015 EAN.

  3. Social inequalities in oral cancer literacy in an adult population in a multicultural deprived area of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaabi, Rasha; Gamboa, Ana B O; Williams, David; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-09-01

    To report the level and correlates of oral cancer literacy in a deprived area of the UK. This study is part of the East London Oral Health Inequality Study, which included a representative sample of adults 16-65 (n = 2343) years old living in Waltham Forest, Redbridge and Barking and Dagenham in 2009-10. This cross-sectional study adopted a multi-stage, stratified, random sampling approach. Data were collected through home visits by trained examiners and interviewers. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling was adopted. Only 26.7% participants were aware that a small lesion in the mouth can develop into oral cancer, and 39.5% were aware that early treatment could prevent a lesion from developing into oral cancer. Adjusted odds ratios confirmed the social gradient in awareness that a small lesion in the mouth can develop into oral cancer, even after adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Inequalities in awareness that a small lesion in the mouth can develop into oral cancer were significantly attenuated after forcing education level into the equation. Interestingly, adjusting for education cancelled the difference previously observed between manual/routine and professional/managerial occupations. Oral cancer literacy is poor among adults in Outer North East London, and we have identified particularly vulnerable sub-populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Incidence of Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers in Betel Quid-Chewing Populations in South Myanmar Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Nobuyoshi; Swe Swe Win; Zaw Moe Thein; Moe Thida Htwe; Yoshioka, Yohsuke; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Iida, Seiji; Myo Khin; Okada, Shigeru; Than Sein

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is a very common disease in South and Southeast Asia. Betel quid (BQ)- chewing and tobaccosmoking habits are etiological factors for oral cancer patients in these regions. We conducted an oral cancer screening in BQ-chewing endemic rural areas in South Myanmar for the early detection of oral cancer in BQ-chewing and smoking individuals. We examined 105 subjects who were at high risk of oral cancer due to their oral habits (BQ users and/or smokers). Three carcinoma cases were detected, and there were 8 dysplasia cases. The carcinoma detection rate was 2.9%, and the carcinoma and precancerous lesion detection rate was 10.5%. In Myanmar, oral cancer screening has been conducted sporadically on a voluntary basis, and nationwide surveys have never been performed. There are also few reports of oral cancer screening for high-risk groups among the general population in Myanmar. Our present findings highlight the need for further screening and surveys. Education on betel quid chewing- and tobacco- related oral diseases and screening for the early detection of oral cancer are of the utmost importance in the control and prevention of oral cancer.

  5. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  6. Synergistic Use of Nighttime Satellite Data, Electric Utility Infrastructure, and Ambient Population to Improve Power Outage Detections in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony A. Cole

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic hazards are frequently responsible for disaster events, leading to damaged physical infrastructure, which can result in loss of electrical power for affected locations. Remotely-sensed, nighttime satellite imagery from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB can monitor power outages in disaster-affected areas through the identification of missing city lights. When combined with locally-relevant geospatial information, these observations can be used to estimate power outages, defined as geographic locations requiring manual intervention to restore power. In this study, we produced a power outage product based on Suomi-NPP VIIRS DNB observations to estimate power outages following Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This product, combined with known power outage data and ambient population estimates, was then used to predict power outages in a layered, feedforward neural network model. We believe this is the first attempt to synergistically combine such data sources to quantitatively estimate power outages. The VIIRS DNB power outage product was able to identify initial loss of light following Hurricane Sandy, as well as the gradual restoration of electrical power. The neural network model predicted power outages with reasonable spatial accuracy, achieving Pearson coefficients (r between 0.48 and 0.58 across all folds. Our results show promise for producing a continental United States (CONUS- or global-scale power outage monitoring network using satellite imagery and locally-relevant geospatial data.

  7. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro G. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA, Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men; no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men; no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60. Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  8. Field-based landslide susceptibility assessment in a data-scarce environment: the populated areas of the Rwenzori Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Poesen, Jean; Sekajugo, John; Nobile, Adriano; Rossi, Mauro; Thiery, Wim; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-01-01

    The inhabited zone of the Ugandan Rwenzori Mountains is affected by landslides, frequently causing loss of life, damage to infrastructure and loss of livelihood. This area of ca. 1230 km2 is characterized by contrasting geomorphologic, climatic and lithological patterns, resulting in different landslide types. In this study, the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility is investigated based on an extensive field inventory constructed for five representative areas within the region (153 km2) and containing over 450 landslides. To achieve a reliable susceptibility assessment, the effects of (1) using different topographic data sources and spatial resolutions and (2) changing the scale of assessment by comparing local and regional susceptibility models on the susceptibility model performances are investigated using a pixel-based logistic regression approach. Topographic data are extracted from different digital elevation models (DEMs) based on radar interferometry (SRTM and TanDEM-X) and optical stereophotogrammetry (ASTER DEM). Susceptibility models using the radar-based DEMs tend to outperform the ones using the ASTER DEM. The model spatial resolution is varied between 10, 20, 30 and 90 m. The optimal resolution depends on the location of the investigated area within the region but the lowest model resolution (90 m) rarely yields the best model performances while the highest model resolution (10 m) never results in significant increases in performance compared to the 20 m resolution. Models built for the local case studies generally have similar or better performances than the regional model and better reflect site-specific controlling factors. At the regional level the effect of distinguishing landslide types between shallow and deep-seated landslides is investigated. The separation of landslide types allows us to improve model performances for the prediction of deep-seated landslides and to better understand factors influencing the occurrence of shallow

  9. Field-based landslide susceptibility assessment in a data-scarce environment: the populated areas of the Rwenzori Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jacobs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhabited zone of the Ugandan Rwenzori Mountains is affected by landslides, frequently causing loss of life, damage to infrastructure and loss of livelihood. This area of ca. 1230 km2 is characterized by contrasting geomorphologic, climatic and lithological patterns, resulting in different landslide types. In this study, the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility is investigated based on an extensive field inventory constructed for five representative areas within the region (153 km2 and containing over 450 landslides. To achieve a reliable susceptibility assessment, the effects of (1 using different topographic data sources and spatial resolutions and (2 changing the scale of assessment by comparing local and regional susceptibility models on the susceptibility model performances are investigated using a pixel-based logistic regression approach. Topographic data are extracted from different digital elevation models (DEMs based on radar interferometry (SRTM and TanDEM-X and optical stereophotogrammetry (ASTER DEM. Susceptibility models using the radar-based DEMs tend to outperform the ones using the ASTER DEM. The model spatial resolution is varied between 10, 20, 30 and 90 m. The optimal resolution depends on the location of the investigated area within the region but the lowest model resolution (90 m rarely yields the best model performances while the highest model resolution (10 m never results in significant increases in performance compared to the 20 m resolution. Models built for the local case studies generally have similar or better performances than the regional model and better reflect site-specific controlling factors. At the regional level the effect of distinguishing landslide types between shallow and deep-seated landslides is investigated. The separation of landslide types allows us to improve model performances for the prediction of deep-seated landslides and to better understand factors influencing the

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MAN-BITING POPULATION OF FILARIAL VECTOR Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae BETWEEN TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL AREAS OF BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available West Bengal, India is endemic for filariasis and the number of patients infected with bancroftian filariasis is increasing. There are no observation on the potential vector of filariasis from the tribal areas that make up considerable part in this state. This study investigate population of Cx. quinquefasciatus in tribal and non-tribal areas of Bankura district. Species composition of mosquitoes, per man-hour density, hourly densities of night biting Cx. quinquefasciatus, number of Cx. quinquefasciatus biting per man per day and per man per night. Preferential biting site and peak period of filarial transmission were recorded from both the study areas. Infection rate, infectivity rate of man-landing vector population and annual transmission potential were observed to be 0.31%, 0.00% and 0.00 in tribal areas and 0.73%, 0.23% and 359.71 in non-tribal areas respectively.

  11. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1993-01-01

    Progress in the areas of pQCD radiative processes in dense matter, QCD transport theories to describe the evolution of nonequilibrium phenomena in dense matter, and the development and testing of phenomenological models of high-energy nuclear collisions is summarized. The evolution of the total energy density of quarks and gluons with minijet initial conditions at RHIC energy is shown for Au+Au

  12. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O' Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  13. Planning priority conservation areas under climate change for six plant species with extremely small populations in China

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    Hong Qu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP has been employed to guide conservation of threatened plant species in China. Climate change has a high potential to threaten PSESP. As a result, it is necessary to integrate climate change effects on PSESP into conservation planning in China. Here, ecological niche modelling is used to project current and future habitat distributions of six PSESP in China under climate change scenarios and conservation planning software is applied to identify priority conservation areas (PCAs for these PSESP based on habitat distributions. These results were used to provide proposals for in-situ and ex-situ conservation measures directed at PSESP. It was found that annual precipitation was important for habitat distributions for all six PSESP (with the percentage contribution to habitat distributions ranging from 18.1 % to 74.9 % and non-climatic variables including soil and altitude have a large effect on habitat suitability of PSESP. Large quantities of PCAs occurred within some provincial regions for these six PSESP (e.g. Sichuan and Jilin for the PSESP Cathaya argyrophylla, Taxus cuspidata, Annamocarya sinensis and Madhuca pasquieri, indicating that these are likely to be appropriate areas for in-situ and ex-situ conservation measures directed at these PSESP. Those nature reserves with large quantities of PCAs were identified as promising sites for in-situ conservation measures of PSESP; such reserves include Yangzie and Dongdongtinghu for C. argyrophylla, Songhuajiangsanhu and Changbaishan for T. cuspidata and Shiwandashanshuiyuanlian for Tsoongiodendron odorum. These results suggest that existing seed banks and botanical gardens occurring within identified PCAs should allocate more resources and space to ex-situ conservation of PSESP. In addition, there should be additional botanical gardens established for ex-situ conservation of PSESP in PCAs outside existing nature reserves. To

  14. Constitutive law of dense granular matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of dense granular matter under steady shear flow are investigated using numerical simulation. Shear flow tends to localize near the driving boundary unless the coefficient of restitution is close to zero and the driving velocity is small. The bulk friction coefficient is independent of shear rate in dense and slow flow, whereas it is an increasing function of shear rate in rapid flow. The coefficient of restitution affects the friction coefficient only in such rapid flow. Contrastingly, in dense and slow regime, the friction coefficient is independent of the coefficient of restitution and mainly determined by the elementary friction coefficient and the rotation of grains. It is found that the mismatch between the vorticity of flow and the angular frequency of grains plays a key role to the frictional properties of sheared granular matter.

  15. ISSR-PCR: tool for discrimination and genetic structure analysis of Plutella xylostella populations native to different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, O; Gevrey, M; Arvanitakis, L; Gers, C; Bordat, D; Legal, L

    2007-04-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is considered as the most destructive pest of Brassicaceae crops world-wide. Its migratory capacities and development of insecticide resistance in many populations leads to more difficulties for population management. To control movement of populations and apparitions of resistance carried by resistant migrant individuals, populations must be identified using genetic markers. Here, seven different ISSR markers have been tested as a tool for population discrimination and genetic variations among 19 DBM populations from Canada, USA, Brazil, Martinique Island, France, Romania, Austria, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Benin, South Africa, Réunion Island, Hong Kong, Laos, Japan and four localities in Australia were assessed. Two classification methods were tested and compared: a common method of genetic distance analyses and a novel method based on an advanced statistical method of the Artificial Neural Networks' family, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The 188 loci selected revealed a very high variability between populations with a total polymorphism of 100% and a global coefficient of gene differentiation estimated by the Nei's index (Gst) of 0.238. Nevertheless, the largest part of variability was expressed among individuals within populations (AMOVA: 73.71% and mean polymorphism of 94% within populations). Genetic differentiation among the DBM populations did not reflect geographical distances between them. The two classification methods have given excellent results with less than 1.3% of misclassified individuals. The origin of the high genetic differentiation and efficiency of the two classification methods are discussed.

  16. Nucleon structure and properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Pethick, C.J.; Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL

    1988-01-01

    We consider the properties of dense matter in a framework of the Skyrme soliton model and the chiral bag model. The influence of the nucleon structure on the equation of state of dense matter is emphasized. We find that in both models the energy per unit volume is proportional to n 4/3 , n being the baryon number density. We discuss the properties of neutron stars with a derived equation of state. The role of many-body effects is investigated. The effect of including higher order terms in the chiral lagrangian is examined. The phase transition to quark matter is studied. 29 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  17. Fast Solvers for Dense Linear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauers, Manuel [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Altenbergerstrasse 69, A4040 Linz (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    It appears that large scale calculations in particle physics often require to solve systems of linear equations with rational number coefficients exactly. If classical Gaussian elimination is applied to a dense system, the time needed to solve such a system grows exponentially in the size of the system. In this tutorial paper, we present a standard technique from computer algebra that avoids this exponential growth: homomorphic images. Using this technique, big dense linear systems can be solved in a much more reasonable time than using Gaussian elimination over the rationals.

  18. Demographic and health characteristics of the population residing within the 30-km area around the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, P.; Bliznakov, V.

    1993-01-01

    Based on detailed analysis of data on demographic and health state of the population residing within the 30-km zone around the Kozloduj NPP, an attempt was made to detect any impact of the power plant on population health under normal NPP operational conditions. The health characteristics of the population revealed no unfavorable trends. Particular attention was given to diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, malignant new growths, complications of pregnancy, and congenital anomalies. (author)

  19. Residue levels of molinate in rice field soil: their effects on populations of aquatic flora and fauna under recycling and non-recycling practices in the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie

    2002-01-01

    A study to evaluate the effects of Molinate residue levels in rice field soil on populations of weed and aquatic fauna in the recycling and the non-recycling areas of Muda was carried out. Molinate residue levels in soil, Simpson Index of Diversity and Importance Value (IV) of weeds, and Sequential Comparison Index of aquatic fauna were measured. No marked variation between the recycled (B 111) and non-recycled (D 111) area was observed for the population parameters and residue levels measured. (Author)

  20. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  1. Habitat characteristics of nesting areas and of predated nests in a Mediterranean population of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis galloitalica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A.L. Zuffi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available one of the largest population of Emys orbicularis galloitalica of central Italy inhabits the canal system wet areas within a natural protected park. Features of nesting habitats, nest structure, and predation patterns of 209 nests of a large population of the European pond turtle are here presented and analysed. Nest sites were characterised by sunny bushy areas in strip habitat, digged along north-south oriented canals, on average with about 26% of the area covered by vegetation, less than one meter distant from 30 cm height bushes, at about 11 m from water and at about 13 m distance from wooded areas, 28 m away from a road. Principal Component and discriminant analyses were used on 20 selected variables in order to reduce the number of physical variables, and indicate that canal border, strip habitat, and canal orientation are grouping variables, that correctly classified 41.6%, 66.5%, and 100 % respectively of nest presence.

  2. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  3. Development of the policy indicator checklist: a tool to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages across multiple settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Hallett, Allen M; Parker, Nathan; Kudia, Ousswa; Kao, Dennis; Modelska, Maria; Rifai, Hanadi; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    We developed the policy indicator checklist (PIC) to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages to determine how policies are clustered across multiple settings. In 2012 and 2013 we used existing literature, policy documents, government recommendations, and instruments to identify key policies. We then developed the PIC to examine the policy environments across 3 settings (communities, schools, and early care and education centers) in 8 communities participating in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project. Principal components analysis revealed 5 components related to calorie-dense food policies and 4 components related to sugar-sweetened beverage policies. Communities with higher youth and racial/ethnic minority populations tended to have fewer and weaker policy environments concerning calorie-dense foods and healthy foods and beverages. The PIC was a helpful tool to identify policies that promote healthy food environments across multiple settings and to measure and compare the overall policy environments across communities. There is need for improved coordination across settings, particularly in areas with greater concentration of youths and racial/ethnic minority populations. Policies to support healthy eating are not equally distributed across communities, and disparities continue to exist in nutrition policies.

  4. On the spatial distributions of dense cores in Orion B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    We quantify the spatial distributions of dense cores in three spatially distinct areas of the Orion B star-forming region. For L1622, NGC 2068/NGC 2071, and NGC 2023/NGC 2024, we measure the amount of spatial substructure using the Q-parameter and find all three regions to be spatially substructured (Q Orion B, the mass segregation cannot be dynamical. Our results are also inconsistent with simulations in which the most massive stars form via competitive accretion, and instead hint that magnetic fields may be important in influencing the primordial spatial distributions of gas and stars in star-forming regions.

  5. Morphological operation based dense houses extraction from DSM

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; Zhu, L.; Tachibana, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method of reshaping and extraction of markers and masks of the dense houses from the DSM based on mathematical morphology (MM). Houses in a digital surface model (DSM) are almost joined together in high-density housing areas, and most segmentation methods cannot completely separate them. We propose to label the markers of the buildings firstly and segment them into masks by watershed then. To avoid detecting more than one marker for a house or no marker at all d...

  6. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  7. Dense high-temperature plasma transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giniyatova, Sh.G.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the transport processes in dense high-temperature semiclassical plasma are studied on the base of the kinetic equation, where the semiclassical potential was used, in its collision integral. The coefficient of plasma electrical conductivity, viscosity and thermal conductivity were received. There were compared with the other authors' results. The Grad's method was used obtaining of viscosity and thermal coefficients. (author)

  8. The electronic pressure in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozwolski, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermodynamic calculation of the electronic pressure in a dense plasma is given. Approximations involved by the use of the Debye length are avoided, so the above theory remains valid even if the Debye length is smaller than the interionic distance. (author)

  9. APT: Action localization Proposals from dense Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Jain, M.; Gati, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is on action localization in video with the aid of spatio-temporal proposals. To alleviate the computational expensive video segmentation step of existing proposals, we propose bypassing the segmentations completely by generating proposals directly from the dense trajectories used to

  10. Dense Alternating Sign Matrices and Extensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.; Stroev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 444, 1 March (2014), s. 219-226 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : alternating sign matrix * dense matrix * totally unimodular matrix * combined matrix * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  11. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  12. Probing dense matter with strange hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann; Rafelski, Johann; Letessier, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of hadron production experimental data allows to understand the properties of the dense matter fireball produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We interpret the analysis results and argue that color deconfined state has been formed at highest CERN-SPS energies and at BNL-RHIC.

  13. Cross-sectional study of physical activity of adult population in South-Moravian area of the Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Nykodým

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA was defined in a worldwide scientific community as one of the most important factors in dealing with issues of prevention and public health. Regular PA has the undeniable positive effects on health, quality of life and renewal of an active old age. Improved conditions for active leisure time activities and active transport at the regional level can lead to the improvement of the regular participation in the PA AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze physical activity of adult population of the Southern Moravia area of the Czech Republic (Jihomoravský and Zlínský region and to observe differences in selected demographic aspects of active transport depending on environmental conditions. METHODS: To estimate the weekly level of PA we used randomized data in 1110 respondents in Southtern Moravia region (487 men and 623 women aged 41.67 ± 8.87 years. All respondents were asked face to face by trained distributors (university students to participate in a research study using the Czech administrative version of the ANEWS questionnaire. Data collection was carried out regularly in Spring (March-May and Fall (September-November from 2005 to 2009. Health enhancing PA is characterized in accordance with the general recommendations. Adults should do at least 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and preferably it should be spread throughout the week (USDHHS, 2008. RESULTS: The total weekly PA did not affect either participation in organized PA or body mass index. Respondents who met the recommendations for PA reported significantly higher total PA and transport PA. People who have easy walking distances to many sites directly from home indicate higher transport PA. The most commonly performed

  14. Benthic and fish population monitoring associated with a marine protected area in the nearshore waters of Grenada, Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Anderson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual benthic and fish population surveys were completed at five locations in the nearshore waters along Grenada´s southwest coast during 2008-2010. Two survey sites are located in a newly launched Marine Protected Area (MPA. Photo Quadrat (PQ and Point Line Intercept (PLI surveys were used to determine substrate cover. Algae was the primary live cover increasing significantly from 45.9% in 2008 to 52.7% in 2010 (PLI. Algae was also predominant (61.0%-59.3% in the PQ surveys although annual variation was not significant. Hard coral cover ranged from 16.5% to 15.4% (PLI and 11.4% to12.0% (PQ with no significant differences between years. Branching and encrusting corals occurred more frequently than massive corals. In the three annual surveys neither algal cover nor hard coral varied significantly between MPA and non-protected areas (PLI. Relative abundance of fishes along 30x2m belt transects did not vary significantly among years however density of fishes decreased significantly across years for most major groups. Chromis spp. dominated the survey sites at 65.2% in 2008 and 49.8% in 2010, followed by territorial damselfish,11.1% and 15.5%, wrasse increased from 7.3% to 15.5%. Both the substrate cover and fish survey data analyses indicated a stable but degraded community. Annual surveys are planned at these sites for the foreseeable future. Existing and future data from this project will be valuable in determining the efficacy of MPA management, guiding resource management decisions and monitoring the health status of Grenada’s valuable reef systemsUn estudio sobre poblaciones bentónicas y de peces fue realizado en cinco localidades en la zona costera en el suroeste de Grenada entre 2008 y 2010. Dos sitios se ubicaron en una Área Marina Portegida (AMP recientemente creada. Para determinar la cobertura se utilizaron foto-cuadrantes (FQ y transectos de intersección de puntos (TIP. Las algas fueron el principal componente del bentos

  15. Estimating population density for disease risk assessment: The importance of understanding the area of influence of traps using wild pigs as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J; Leland, Bruce; Bodenchuk, Michael; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Pepin, Kim M

    2017-06-01

    Population density is a key driver of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. Accurate disease risk assessment and determination of management impacts on wildlife populations requires an ability to estimate population density alongside management actions. A common management technique for controlling wildlife populations to monitor and mitigate disease transmission risk is trapping (e.g., box traps, corral traps, drop nets). Although abundance can be estimated from trapping actions using a variety of analytical approaches, inference is limited by the spatial extent to which a trap attracts animals on the landscape. If the "area of influence" were known, abundance estimates could be converted to densities. In addition to being an important predictor of contact rate and thus disease spread, density is more informative because it is comparable across sites of different sizes. The goal of our study is to demonstrate the importance of determining the area sampled by traps (area of influence) so that density can be estimated from management-based trapping designs which do not employ a trapping grid. To provide one example of how area of influence could be calculated alongside management, we conducted a small pilot study on wild pigs (Sus scrofa) using two removal methods 1) trapping followed by 2) aerial gunning, at three sites in northeast Texas in 2015. We estimated abundance from trapping data with a removal model. We calculated empirical densities as aerial counts divided by the area searched by air (based on aerial flight tracks). We inferred the area of influence of traps by assuming consistent densities across the larger spatial scale and then solving for area impacted by the traps. Based on our pilot study we estimated the area of influence for corral traps in late summer in Texas to be ∼8.6km 2 . Future work showing the effects of behavioral and environmental factors on area of influence will help mangers obtain estimates of density from management data, and

  16. ‘Small Area Social Indicators for the Indigenous Population: Synthetic data methodology for creating small area estimates of Indigenous disadvantage’

    OpenAIRE

    Yogi Vidyattama; Robert Tanton; Nicholas Biddle

    2013-01-01

    The lack of data on how the social condition of Indigenous people varies throughout Australia has created difficulties in allocating government and community programs across Indigenous communities. In the past, spatial microsimulation has been used to derive small area estimates to overcome such difficulties. However, for previous applications, a record unit file from a survey dataset has always been available on which to conduct the spatial microsimulation. For the case of indigenous disadva...

  17. Population genetic diversity and genetic structure of Spodoptera exigua around the Bohai Gulf area of China based on mitochondrial DNA signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L-H; Wang, X-Y; Lei, J-J

    2016-09-30

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest that causes major losses in some main crop-producing areas of China. To control this pest effectively, it is necessary to investigate its population genetic diversity and genetic structure around the Bohai Gulf area of China. In this study, we used two mitochondrial genes, COI (578 bp) and Cytb (724 bp), to investigate its genetic diversity. We obtained 622 COI sequences and 462 Cytb sequences from 23 populations, and 28 and 73 haplotypes, respectively, were identified. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity (COI: Hd = 0.267 ± 0.023, Pi = 0.00082 ± 0.00010; Cytb: Hd = 0.689 ± 0.018, Pi = 0.00255 ± 0.00029) for the total populations were observed. Phylogenetic and median-joining network analyses indicated no distinct geographical distribution pattern among the haplotypes. Overall, this study revealed that there was significant differentiation among the populations (COI: F ST = 0.158, P neutrality test results, showed a recent population expansion of the beet armyworm around the Bohai Gulf area of China.

  18. Forest fires are associated with elevated mortality in a dense urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analitis, Antonis; Georgiadis, Ioannis; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2012-03-01

    The climate and vegetation of the greater Athens area (population over three million) make forest fires a real threat to the environment during the summer. A few studies have reported the adverse health effects of forest fires, mainly using morbidity outcomes. The authors investigated the short-term effects of forest fires on non-accidental mortality in the population of Athens, Greece, during 1998-2004. The authors used generalised additive models to investigate the effect of forest fires on daily mortality, adjusting for time trend and meteorological variables, taking into account air pollution as measured from fixed monitors. Forest fires were classified by size according to the area burnt. Small fires do not have an effect on mortality. Medium sized fires are associated with an increase of 4.9% (95% CI 0.3% to 9.6%) in the daily total number of deaths, 6.0% (95% CI -0.3% to 12.6%) in the number of cardiovascular deaths and 16.2% (95% CI 1.3% to 33.4%) in the number of respiratory deaths. Cardiovascular effects are larger in those aged fire are: 49.7% (95% CI 37.2% to 63.4%), 60.6% (95% CI 43.1% to 80.3%) and 92.0% (95% CI 47.5% to 150.0%). These effects cannot be completely explained by an increase in ambient particle concentrations. Forest fires have an immediate effect on mortality, not associated with accidental deaths, which is a significant public health problem, especially if the fire occurs near a densely populated area.

  19. Harmonic analysis of dense time series of landsat imagery for modeling change in forest conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry Tyler. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of dense time series of Landsat imagery for small area estimation and mapping of change in forest conditions over time. The study area was a region in north central Wisconsin for which Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery and field measurements from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program are available for the decade of 2003 to 2012. For the periods...

  20. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Steenweg- de Graaff, J.; Peeters, R.P.; Ross, H.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; White, T.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that

  1. A Limousin specific myostatin allele affects longissimus muscle area and fatty acid profiles in a Wagyu-Limousin F*2* population

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microsatellite-based genome scan of a Wagyu x Limousin F2 cross population previously demonstrated QTL affecting longissimus muscle area (LMA) and fatty acid composition were present in regions near the centromere of BTA 2. In this study we used 70 SNP markers to examine the centromeric 20 megabas...

  2. Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2013-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (≤ 6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ≤ 6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils.

  3. Susceptibility of Different Populations of Nilaparvata lugens from Major Rice Growing Areas of Karnataka, India to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. BASANTH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to insecticides was investigated by collecting field populations of brown planthopper from different locations of southern Karnataka, India (Gangavati, Kathalagere, Kollegala, Soraba and Mandya. All the field populations differed in their susceptibility to insecticides. In general, Soraba and Mandya populations were more susceptible to insecticides compared to Gangavati and Kathalagere populations. The resistance ratios varied greatly among the populations viz., chlorpyriphos (1.13- to 16.82-fold, imidacloprid (0.53- to 13.50-fold, acephate (1.34- to 5.32-fold, fipronil (1.13- to 4.06-fold, thiamethoxam (1.01- to 2.19-fold, clothianidin (1.92- to 4.86-fold, dinotefuran (0.82- to 2.22-fold, buprofezin (1.06- to 5.43-fold and carbofuran (0.41- to 2.17-fold. The populations from Gangavati, Kathalagere and Kollegala exhibited higher resistance to some of the old insecticides and low resistance to new molecules.

  4. Differences in the distribution of risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population in urban and rural areas of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Te; Sun, Shangwen; Du, Yifeng; Guo, Shougang; Cong, Lin; Cao, Mingfeng; Sun, Qinjian; Sun, Yi; Qu, Chuanqiang

    2016-05-01

    Considering the program of screening for risk factors of stroke in Eastern China, the aim of this study was to compare the distribution differences in risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population living in urban and rural areas. A total of 231,289 residents were screened and basic information collected. Risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population were compared between the urban and rural groups. A total of 117,776 high-risk residents from urban areas and 113,513 from rural areas were included in the analysis. The prevalence of hypertension was much higher in rural areas (73.3%) than that in urban areas (64.1%). Dyslipidemia (48.9% vs. 26.9%), sport lack (46.6% vs. 31.6%), diabetes mellitus (21.3% vs. 16.5%), and atrial fibrillation (18.7% vs. 9.8%) were more prevalent in the urban group, while smoking (26.5% vs. 28.8%), previous stroke (10.1% vs. 16.9%), and transient ischemic attack (20.9% vs. 24.6%) were less prevalent. Among the population at high risk of stroke, there were significant differences in the distribution of the following risk factors between the urban and rural groups: hypertension, atrial fibrillation, dyslipidemia, lack of physical exercise, and a previous stroke.

  5. Assessment of main medico-demographic health indices and analysis of life span of children in different generations born among rural population of contaminated areas of Kaluga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedeva, A.I.; Matveenko, E.G.; Omel'chenko, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of study, analysis and forecast of the demographic effects of the Chernobyl accident in the most contaminated areas in the Kaluga region. A uniform technique was used for the study. The rural settlements with 1-15 Cu/m 2 radioactive contamination density were examined. The rural population of the Borovsk area free from the radioactive contamination was used as a control area. The period of examination - from 1981 up to 1990. The following indices were studied: birth rate and child mortality, stillbirth, ratio of born sexes, survival of children. It was determined that irradiation of the population resulted from the Chernobyl accident at the given moment does not affect the demographic situation in the region

  6. Effects of combined sewer overflow and stormwater on indicator bacteria concentrations in the Tama River due to the high population density of Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Takasago, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The indicator bacteria (standard plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform bacteria) concentrations have been investigated using six ambient habitats (population density, percent sewer penetration, stream flow rate (m(3)/sec), percent residential area, percent forest area and percent agricultural area) in the Tama River basin in Tokyo, Japan during June 2003 to January 2005. The downstream and tributary Tama River showed higher concentrations of TC and FC bacteria than the upstream waters, which exceeded an environmental quality standard for rivers and a bathing water quality criterion. It was estimated that combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater effluents contributed -4-23% to the indicator bacteria concentrations of the Tama River. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the indicator bacteria concentrations of Tama River basin are significantly affected by population density. It is concluded that the Tama River received a significant bacterial contamination load originating from the anthropogenic source.

  7. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  8. Anthropogenic disturbances affect population size and biomass allocation of two alpine species from the headwater area of the Urumqi River, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, R.; Zhang, H.; An, L.

    2018-01-01

    The survival of alpine plants are seriously threatened by increasing anthropogenic activity. Saussurea involucrata and Rhodiola quadrifida are particularly affected because of their high medicinal value. To assess the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on the two species, their population size and biomass allocation were examined at three levels of disturbance at low and high altitudes. Anthropogenic disturbance was the most serious threat to the populations and changed the population density, biomass, and biomass allocation of both species significantly (p<0.05). The changes differed with the species and the altitude, and were also affected by the interaction between these two factors. Population density and biomass of the two species decreased with an increase in the level of anthropogenic disturbance. These results imply that the decrease in population size and in biomass allocation to reproductive organs due to anthropogenic disturbances may make the plant populations even smaller and scarce. Meanwhile, change of making their survival dependent on the extent of anthropogenic disturbance: unless such disturbance is checked and the species are protected, they will probably disappear from the headwater area of the Urumqi River. This influence of anthropogenic disturbances may be potential threats to population ability of survival and reproduction. (author)

  9. [Consolidation of international guidelines for the management of canine populations in urban areas and proposal of performance indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community.

  10. POPULATION SIZE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS AND LOCALLY ADAPTED HEN’S BREEDS ON AREA OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. WEIS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available On basic certificates about acceptation of Oravka Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, White Leghorn, Brown Leghorn and Sussex, controlled flocks of Slovak Union of Breeders, we analyzed total number of birds, number of breeding males, number of breeding females and effective population size by Simon and Buchenauer (1993 and we evaluated the populations of observed hen’s breeds to categorisations by Scherf (2000. The highest number of birds we recorded at breed New Hampshire from observed hen’s breeds. Average total number of animals in period of year 2003 - 2008 was 1373 birds with average effective population size 445.103. However, the population of New Hampshire poultry in Slovakia was evaluating by massive decrease in last years as a endangered - maintained breed for which an active conservation programme is in place. By contrast, the smallest number of animals was detected at breed White Leghorn with average total number 18.83 birds in period of year 2003 - 2008 and average effective population size 6.605. The breed White Leghorn in Slovakia we categorized to critical breed. National legislation on Slovakia has been created, the fist experience is being gathered and the European legislation is coming in practice. The conditions for the development and preservation of endangered breeds of poultry in Slovak Republic in the long term are being put in place by means of creative and well aimed utilisation of European and national legislation.

  11. TEXTURE-AWARE DENSE IMAGE MATCHING USING TERNARY CENSUS TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Textureless and geometric discontinuities are major problems in state-of-the-art dense image matching methods, as they can cause visually significant noise and the loss of sharp features. Binary census transform is one of the best matching cost methods but in textureless areas, where the intensity values are similar, it suffers from small random noises. Global optimization for disparity computation is inherently sensitive to parameter tuning in complex urban scenes, and must compromise between smoothness and discontinuities. The aim of this study is to provide a method to overcome these issues in dense image matching, by extending the industry proven Semi-Global Matching through 1 developing a ternary census transform, which takes three outputs in a single order comparison and encodes the results in two bits rather than one, and also 2 by using texture-information to self-tune the parameters, which both preserves sharp edges and enforces smoothness when necessary. Experimental results using various datasets from different platforms have shown that the visual qualities of the triangulated point clouds in urban areas can be largely improved by these proposed methods.

  12. WARM EXTENDED DENSE GAS AT THE HEART OF A COLD COLLAPSING DENSE CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Phillips, Thomas G.; Furuya, Ray S.; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate when and how the birth of a protostellar core occurs, we made survey observations of four well-studied dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud using CO transitions in submillimeter bands. We report here the detection of unexpectedly warm (∼30-70 K), extended (radius of ∼2400 AU), dense (a few times 10 5 cm -3 ) gas at the heart of one of the dense cores, L1521F (MC27), within the cold dynamically collapsing components. We argue that the detected warm, extended, dense gas may originate from shock regions caused by collisions between the dynamically collapsing components and outflowing/rotating components within the dense core. We propose a new stage of star formation, 'warm-in-cold core stage (WICCS)', i.e., the cold collapsing envelope encases the warm extended dense gas at the center due to the formation of a protostellar core. WICCS would constitute a missing link in evolution between a cold quiescent starless core and a young protostar in class 0 stage that has a large-scale bipolar outflow.

  13. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  14. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  15. Social-psychological well-being of rural population in the White Sea coastal area as a risk factor for the Russian Arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey O. Podoplekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a generalized data from sociological survey of social-psychological well-being of the rural population of the coastal areas in Arkhangelsk region (included into the Russian Arctic zone held in 2015. The data shows a critical level of social pessimism, assurance of residents in continuation of negative social-economic dynamics, deficiency of motivation and readiness for active participation and inclusion into the development of territories. Such a status is based on a deep degradation of local industries, infrastructures and social sphere, which has been confirmed by statistic data. The revealed indicators explain high migration preparedness, especially in groups of working ages, proceeding, in the middle-term prospective, to the risk of depopulation and disintegration of social carcass in the coastal areas which, in their turn, possess a significant resource potential. At that, residential population on these areas considered as strategic factor from the perspective of Russian geopolitical interests in the Arctic. A positive trend may be provided through implementation of spatial approach to the social-economic development, which has been already applied in activities held by the Russian State Commission on the Arctic Development. With that there is obvious relevance of correction of the Russian legislation toward transformation of residential population into the beneficiary party of the macro-regional development, which may be provided by establishing of special regimes and preferences in spheres of natural resource use, tax assessment, entrepreneurship and crediting for all groups indigenous (resident population, including aboriginal people of the North.

  16. Dense plasma focus - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendys, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)

  17. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    -ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation......Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X...

  18. Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A

    2005-01-01

    A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil

  19. Deterministic dense coding with partially entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozes, Shay; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of a d -level partially entangled state, shared by two parties wishing to communicate classical information without errors over a noiseless quantum channel, is discussed. We analytically construct deterministic dense coding schemes for certain classes of nonmaximally entangled states, and numerically obtain schemes in the general case. We study the dependency of the maximal alphabet size of such schemes on the partially entangled state shared by the two parties. Surprisingly, for d>2 it is possible to have deterministic dense coding with less than one ebit. In this case the number of alphabet letters that can be communicated by a single particle is between d and 2d . In general, we numerically find that the maximal alphabet size is any integer in the range [d,d2] with the possible exception of d2-1 . We also find that states with less entanglement can have a greater deterministic communication capacity than other more entangled states.

  20. PHOTOCHEMICAL HEATING OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassgold, A. E. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Najita, J. R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    Photochemical heating is analyzed with an emphasis on the heating generated by chemical reactions initiated by the products of photodissociation and photoionization. The immediate products are slowed down by collisions with the ambient gas and then heat the gas. In addition to this direct process, heating is also produced by the subsequent chemical reactions initiated by these products. Some of this chemical heating comes from the kinetic energy of the reaction products and the rest from collisional de-excitation of the product atoms and molecules. In considering dense gas dominated by molecular hydrogen, we find that the chemical heating is sometimes as large, if not much larger than, the direct heating. In very dense gas, the total photochemical heating approaches 10 eV per photodissociation (or photoionization), competitive with other ways of heating molecular gas.

  1. Revealing the distinct habitat ranges and hybrid zone of genetic sub-populations within Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) in the West Pacific area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Wang, Pengbin; Park, Bum Soo; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Han, Myung-Soo

    2018-03-01

    Genetic sub-populations (clades) of cosmopolitan marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens might have distinct habitats, and their hybrid zone is suspected in higher latitude area of the West Pacific area, however, it is still unrevealed because of technical difficulties and lack of evidences in natural environments. The aim of this study is to investigate the habitat characteristics of each clade of P. pungens on geographical distribution with the habitat temperature ranges of each clade and to reveal their hybrid zone in the West Pacific area. We employed the 137 number of nucleotide sequences of P. pungens and its sampling data (spatial and temporal scale) originated from the West Pacific area, and used field application of qPCR assay for intra-specific level of P. pungens. Only two genotypes, clade I and III, were identified in the West Pacific area. Clade I was distributed from 39 to 32.3°N, and clade III were from 1.4 to 34.4°N. The estimated habitat temperature for the clade I and clade III ranges were 8.1-26.9 °C and 24.2-31.2 °C, respectively. The latitudinal distributions and temperature ranges of each clade were significantly different. The qPCR assay employed, and results suggested that the hybrid zone for clade I and III has been observed in the southern Korean coasts, and clade III might be introduced from the Southern Pacific area. The cell abundances of clade III were strongly related with the higher seawater temperature and warm current force. This study has defined distinct habitat characteristics of genetically different sub-populations of P. pungens, and revealed its hybrid zone in natural environment for the first time. We also provided strong evidences about dispersion of the population of clade III to higher latitude in the West Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults-A population-based multilevel study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh

    Full Text Available A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (<21 teeth and poor self-rated oral health among Australian adults. Variations in the association between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared.For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income.LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87 after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality.Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income

  3. Dense-plasma research using ballistic compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, H.

    1986-01-01

    An introduction is given to research on dense (or nonideal) plasmas which can be generated to advantage by ballistic compressors. Some properties of ballistic compressors are discussed especially in comparison with shock tubes. A short review is given on the history of these devices for high-pressure plasma generation. The present state of the art is reported including research on the two ZIE (Central Institute for Electron Physics) ballistic compressors. (author)

  4. Studying dense plasmas with coherent XUV pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabile, H.

    2006-12-01

    The investigation of dense plasma dynamic requires the development of diagnostics able to ensure the measurement of electronic density with micro-metric space resolution and sub-nanosecond, or even subpicosecond, time resolution (indeed this must be at least comparable with the characteristic tune scale of plasma evolution). In contrast with low-density plasmas, dense plasmas cannot be studied using optical probes in the visible domain, the density range accessible being limited to the critical density (N c equals 1.1*10 21 λ -2 (μm) ∼ 10 21 cm -3 for infrared). In addition, light is reflected even at smaller densities if the medium exhibits sharp density gradients. Hence probing of dense plasmas, for instance those produced by laser irradiation of solids, requires using shorter wavelength radiation. Thanks to their physical properties, high order harmonics generated in rare gases are particularly adapted to the study of dense plasmas. Indeed, they can naturally be synchronized with the generating laser and their pulse duration is very short, which makes it possible to use them in pump-probe experiments. Moreover, they exhibit good spatial and temporal coherencies. Two types of diagnostics were developed during this thesis. The first one was used to study the instantaneous creation of hot-solid-density plasma generated by focusing a femtosecond high-contrast laser on an ultra-thin foil (100 nm) in the 10 18 W/cm 2 intensity regime. The use of high order harmonics, providing a probe beam of sufficiently short wavelengths to penetrate such a medium, enables the study of its dynamics on the 100 fs time scale. The second one uses the harmonics beam as probe beam (λ equals 32 nm) within an interferometric device. This diagnostic was designed to ensure a micro-metric spatial resolution and a temporal resolution in the femtosecond range. The first results in presence of plasma created by irradiation of an aluminum target underline the potentialities of this new

  5. Particle identification system based on dense aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Beloborodov, K.I., E-mail: K.I.Beloborodov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, 5, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Golubev, V.B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Martin, K.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Serednyakov, S.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-12-21

    A threshold Cherenkov counter based on dense aerogel with refraction index n=1.13 is described. This counter is used for kaon identification at momenta below 1 GeV/c in the SND detector, which takes data at the VEPP-2000 e{sup +}e{sup −} collider. The results of measurements of the counter efficiency using electrons, muons, pions, and kaons produced in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation are presented.

  6. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficiation 2010, 4–6 May 2010. 671The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 110 NOVEMBER 2010 L Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant mixed with magnetite in the launder and enters... with production. Plant equipment operational changes Cyclone spigot changes In an attempt to lower the cut-point density, the spigot on the L 672 NOVEMBER 2010 VOLUME 110 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Figure 1...

  7. Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmacharya Dibesh B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA in the east. Nineteen (27% scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53% of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females and five (2 males and 3 females in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.

  8. Collective dynamics in dense fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short wavelength collective dynamics of dense binary fluid mixtures. The analysis shows that at the level of linearized generalized hydrodynamics, the longitudinal modes of the system separates essentially into two parts - one involves the coupling of partial density fluctuations of the two species and the other involves coupling of longitudinal momentum and temperature fluctuations. The authors have shown that the coupling of longitudinal momentum and temperature fluctuations leads to an adequate description of sound propagation in such systems. In particular, they show that structural disorder controls the trapping of sound waves in dense mixtures. The coupling of the partial density fluctuations of the two species leads to a simple description of the partial dynamic structure factors. The results are in agreement with the molecular dynamics simulations of soft sphere mixtures. The partial density fluctuations are the slowest decaying fluctuations on molecular length scales and it turns out that nonlinear coupling of these slow modes leads to important corrections to the long time behavior of the time correlation functions determining the shear viscosity in dense mixtures

  9. Formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Anaelle

    2009-01-01

    Stars form in molecular clouds, when they collapse and fragment to produce protostellar dense cores. These dense cores are then likely to contract under their own gravity, and form young protostars, that further evolve while accreting their circumstellar mass, until they reach the main sequence. The main goal of this thesis was to study the formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores. To do so, two main studies, described in this manuscript, were carried out. First, we studied the formation of protostellar cores by quantifying the impact of protostellar outflows on clustered star formation. We carried out a study of the protostellar outflows powered by the young stellar objects currently formed in the NGc 2264-C proto-cluster, and we show that protostellar outflows seem to play a crucial role as turbulence progenitors in clustered star forming regions, although they seem unlikely to significantly modify the global infall processes at work on clump scales. Second, we investigated the formation of multiple systems by core fragmentation, by using high - resolution observations that allow to probe the multiplicity of young protostars on small scales. Our results suggest that the multiplicity rate of protostars on small scales increase while they evolve, and thus favor dynamical scenarios for the formation of multiple systems. Moreover, our results favor magnetized scenarios of core collapse to explain the small-scale properties of protostars at the earliest stages. (author) [fr

  10. Intake of 238U and 232Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Gothankar, S.; Iongwai, P.S.; Kharbuli, B.; War, S.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 232 Th, 238 U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6–15.5 and 2.0–5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of 238 U and 232 Th were 2.0 μg d −1 (25 mBq d −1 ) and 3.4 μg d −1 (14 mBq d −1 ) is comparable with reported range 0.5–5.0 μg d −1 and 0.15–3.5 μg d −1 respectively for the Asian population. - Highlights: ► 232 Th, 238 U were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). ► Study area located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition. ► Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. ► The estimated daily intake of 232 Th and 238 U in high rainfall area was found to be 3.4 and 2.0 μg respectively.

  11. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  12. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of high-Z ions in a cool dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnyakov, L.P.; Shevelko, A.P.; Uskov, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Spectra of multiply-charged ions with one and two electrons are investigated when a laser-produced plasma interacts with a solid obstacle. The level population densities of the Mg ions, recombining in the region of dense cool plasma near the obstacle, are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Values of the gain coefficient are calculated for the case of carbon ions. (orig.)

  13. The Development of National Beef-Cattle Population in Relation to Beef-Cattle Population at the Centre and Non Centre Area, and the Policy of National Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sodiq

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were (1 to find out the development of beef-cattle population at national level, at the Centre Area of Population (CAP and Non Centre Area of Population (NCAP, (2 to assess the relation between population of national beef-cattle and beef-cattle population at CAP and NCAP, (3 to study the policy of beef-cattle development program in Indonesia. The target of this study addressed to the Directorate General of Livestock Services, Republic of Indonesia. A literature review and communication methods were applied in this study. Descriptive and regression analysis were used for data analysis.  The study revealed that: (1 During 1995-2005, beef-cattle population at national level, CAP and NCAP were unstable.  Due to financial crises (1997, the population at national and CAP tended to decrease, but the population at NCAP was relatively constant.  During 2003-2005, national population tended to increase (0.83% per year, and that figure was less than national target (1.05%,  (2 Population of national beef-cattle (Y was highly related (r2: 0,95; MSE: 108508 to the population of beef-cattle at NCAP (X;  Y = 4764492 + 0.896 X;  (3 An increase in beef-cattle population during 2000-2005 was due to an increase in calving and cattle importation. Slaughtering of cows should be controlled to increase calving. The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program revealed that there were failures in achieving main goals of the program. It is recommended that to improve the contribution of CAP to national needs, the development of cattle population should be focused in those areas.  The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program could be considered in the future policy in term of the development cattle population. Some causes of the policy failures: (1 the formulated policy was not equipped with detailed operation plans. The program formulation was limited to title and goal without elaborating the way to achieve the

  14. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults-A population-based multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Harford, Jane; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Peres, Marco A

    2018-01-01

    A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income. LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87) after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality. Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition is likely due to the contextual differences between Australia and other high-income countries.

  15. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults—A population-based multilevel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. Methods For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-incom