Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C P Singh
2000-04-01
Recent trends in the research of quark gluon plasma (QGP) are surveyed and the current experimental and theoretical status regarding the properties and signals of QGP is reported. We hope that the experiments commencing at relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) in 2000 will provide a glimpse of the QGP formation.
Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav
2014-01-01
At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.
Hamieh, Salah; Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann
2000-01-01
Lattice-QCD results provide an opportunity to model, and extrapolate to finite baryon density, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data, the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. We show that the physical properties of the dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERN-SPS are well described by the QGP-EoS we presented. We also estimate the...
Magnetic Phase Diagram of Dense Holographic Multiquarks in the Quark-gluon Plasma
Burikham, Piyabut
2011-01-01
We study phase diagram of the dense holographic gauge matter in the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the presence of the magnetic field above the deconfinement temperature. Even above the deconfinement, quarks could form colour bound states through the remaining strong interaction if the density is large. We demonstrate that in the presence of the magnetic field for a sufficiently large baryon density, the multiquark-pion gradient (MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$) phase is more thermodynamically preferred than the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma. The phase diagrams between the holographic multiquark and the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma phase are obtained at finite temperature and magnetic field. In the mixed MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$ phase, the pion gradient induced by the external magnetic field is found to be a linear response for small and moderate field strengths. Its population ratio decreases as the density is raised and thus the multiquarks dominate the phase. Temperature dependence of the baryon chemical potential,...
Hamieh, Salah; Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann
2000-12-01
Lattice quantum chromodynamics results provide an opportunity to model, and extrapolate to finite baryon density, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data, the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. We show that the physical properties of the dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERN-SPS are well described by the QGP-EoS we presented. We also estimate the properties of the fireball formed in early stages of nuclear collision, and argue that QGP formation must be expected down to 40A GeV in central Pb-Pb interactions.
2016-01-01
This is the fifth volume in the series on the subject of quark-gluon plasma, a unique phase created in heavy-ion collisions at high energy. It contains review articles by the world experts on various aspects of quark-gluon plasma taking into account the advances driven by the latest experimental data collected at both the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The articles are pedagogical and comprehensive which can be helpful for both new researchers entering the field as well as the experienced physicists working on the subject.
Energy Density in Quark-Gluon Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马忠彪; 苗洪; 高崇寿
2003-01-01
We study the energy density in quark-gluon plasma. At the very high temperature, the quark matter is a hot and dense matter in the colour deconfinement condition, and quarks can coalescent diquarks. Energy density of this system is worked out and compared with the energy density in the other two kinds of situations. Possible energy density is about eo ≈ 2.4 GeV/fm3 according to our estimation for quark matter including diquarks,
Equilibration in quark gluon plasma
Das, S. K.; Alam, J.; Mohanty, P.
2011-07-01
The hydrodynamic expansion rate of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is evaluated and compared with the scattering rate of quarks and gluons within the system. Partonic scattering rates evaluated within the ambit of perturbative Quantum Choromodynamics (pQCD) are found to be smaller than the expansion rate evaluated with ideal equation of state (EoS) for the QGP. This indicate that during the space-time evolution the system remains out of equilibrium. Enhancement of pQCD cross sections and a more realistic EoS keep the partons closer to the equilibrium.
Equilibration in Quark Gluon Plasma
Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e; Mohanty, Payal
2009-01-01
The hydrodynamic expansion rate of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is evaluated and compared with the scattering rate of quarks and gluons within the system. Partonic scattering rates evaluated within the ambit of perturbative Quantum Choromodynamics (pQCD) are found to be smaller than the expansion rate evaluated with ideal equation of state (EoS) for the QGP. This indicate that during the space-time evolution the system remains out of equilibrium. Enhancement of pQCD cross sections and a more real...
Equilibration in Quark Gluon Plasma
Das, Santosh K; Mohanty, Payal
2009-01-01
The hydrodynamic expansion rate of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is evaluated and compared with the scattering rate of quarks and gluons within the system. Partonic scattering rates evaluated within the ambit of perturbative Quantum Choromodynamics (pQCD) are found to be smaller than the expansion rate evaluated with ideal equation of state (EoS) for the QGP. This indicate that during the space-time evolution the system remains out of equilibrium. Enhancement of pQCD cross sections and a more realistic EoS keep the partons closer to the equilibrium.
HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.
2005-04-11
matter at extremely high density and temperature--a medium in which the predictions of QCD can be tested, and new phenomena explored, under conditions where the relevant degrees of freedom, over nuclear volumes, are expected to be those of quarks and gluons, rather than of hadrons. This is the realm of the quark gluon plasma, the predicted state of matter whose existence and properties are now being explored by the RHIC experiments.
Exploding Quark-Gluon Plasma Fireball
Hamieh, S; Rafelski, Johann; Hamieh, Salah; Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann
2000-01-01
Lattice-QCD results provide an opportunity to model and extrapolate to finite baryon density the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. An exploding dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERN-SPS is considered, and we show that its physical properties are well described by the QGP-EoS we presented. We quantitatively determine the conditions of sudden breakup of the fireball, and show that this instability point is consistent with with the hadronization condition derived from the hadronic particle production data. We further estimate the properties of the fireball as it is formed just after nuclear collision is completed and show that QGP formation must be expected down to 40$A$ GeV central Pb--Pb interactions.
Smilga, A V
1997-01-01
In this lecture, we give a brief review of what theorists now know, understand, or guess about static and kinetic properties of quark--gluon plasma. A particular attention is payed to the problem of physical observability, i.e. the physical meaningfulne ss of various characteristics of QGP discussed in the literature.
Baryon Ratios in Quark-Gluon Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Zhong-Biao; MIAO Hong; GAO Chong-Shou
2003-01-01
A way to calculate ratios of baryon produced from quark gluon plasma in relativistic heavyion collisionsis presented. It is assumed that at the beginning of the hadronization there are diquarks and anti-diquarks in the quarkmatter. The number of three-quark states is distributed between the corresponding multiplets, and hadronic decays aretaken into account. The results are shown at last.
Strongly Coupled Quark Gluon Plasma (SCQGP)
Bannur, V M
2006-01-01
We propose that the reason for the non-ideal behavior seen in lattice simulation of quark gluon plasma (QGP) and relativistic heavy ion collisions (URHICs) experiments is that the QGP near T_c and above is strongly coupled plasma (SCP), i.e., strongly coupled quark gluon plasma (SCQGP). It is remarkable that the widely used equation of state (EoS) of SCP in QED (quantum electrodynamics) very nicely fits lattice results on all QGP systems, with proper modifications to include color degrees of freedom and running coupling constant. Results on pressure in pure gauge, 2-flavors and 3-flavors QGP, are all can be explained by treating QGP as SCQGP as demonstated here.Energy density and speed of sound are also presented for all three systems.
Colliding solitary waves in quark gluon plasmas
Rafiei, Azam; Javidan, Kurosh
2016-09-01
We study the head-on collision of propagating waves due to perturbations in quark gluon plasmas. We use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology bag model, hydrodynamics equation, and suitable equation of state for describing the time evolution of such localized waves. A nonlinear differential equation is derived for the propagation of small amplitude localized waves using the reductive perturbation method. We show that these waves are unstable and amplitude of the left-moving (right-moving) wave increases (decreases) after the collision, and so they reach the borders of a quark gluon plasma fireball with different amplitudes. Indeed we show that such arrangements are created because of the geometrical symmetries of the medium.
Hadrons and Quark-Gluon Plasma
Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann
2002-06-01
Before matter as we know it emerged, the universe was filled with the primordial state of hadronic matter called quark gluon plasma. This hot soup of quarks and gluon is effectively an inescapable consequence of our current knowledge about the fundamental hadronic interactions, quantum chromodynamics. This book covers the ongoing search to verify this prediction experimentally and discusses the physical properties of this novel form of matter.
On the quark-gluon plasma search
Hamieh, S. D.
2004-01-01
We report on the effect of the quantum statistics on the two-proton spin correlation (SC) in cold and thermal nuclear matter. We have found that two nucleons SC function can be well approximated by a guassian with correlations length $\\sigma\\sim1.2$ fm. We have proposed SC measurement on low protons energy as test of the quark-gluon plasma formation in relativistic heavy ions collisions.
Collective Flow signals the Quark Gluon Plasma
Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Bleicher, M.; Greiner, C.; Muronga, A.; Paech, K.; Reiter, M.; Scherer, S.; Soff, S.; Xu, Z.; Zeeb, G.; Zschiesche, D.; Tavares, B.; Portugal, L.; Aguiar, C.; Kodama, T.; Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Osada, T.; Sokolowski, O.; Werner, K.; Gallmeister, K.; Cassing, W.; Stöcker, H.
2004-12-01
A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on charm dynamics and hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 AṡGeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v1-flow and of the v2-flow at ˜ 10 AṡGeV; at 40 AṡGeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density ρB. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially (QGP formed at RHIC — can give further information on the equation of state (EoS) and transport coefficients of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP).
Electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bikash Sinha
2000-04-01
Successive equilibration of quark degrees of freedom and its effects on electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma are discussed. The effects of the variation of vector meson masses and decay widths on photon production from hot strongly interacting matter formed after Pb + Pb and S + Au collisions at CERN SPS energies are considered. It has been shown that the present photon spectra measured by WA80 and WA98 Collaborations can not distinguish between the formation of quark matter and hadronic matter in the initial state.
Plasmons in Anisotropic Quark-Gluon Plasma
Carrington, Margaret E; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
2014-01-01
Plasmons of quark-gluon plasma - gluon collective modes - are systematically studied. The plasma is, in general, non-equilibrium but homogeneous. We consider anisotropic momentum distributions of plasma constituents which are obtained from the isotropic one by stretching or squeezing in one direction. This leads to prolate or oblate distributions, respectively. We study all possible degrees of one dimensional deformation from the extremely prolate case, when the momentum distribution is infinitely elongated in one direction, to the extremely oblate distribution, which is infinitely squeezed in the same direction. In between these extremes we discuss arbitrarily prolate, weakly prolate, isotropic, weakly oblate and arbitrarily oblate distributions. For each case, the number of modes is determined using a Nyquist analysis and the complete spectrum of plasmons is found analytically if possible, and numerically when not. Unstable modes are shown to exist in all cases except that of isotropic plasma. We derive con...
Physics of the quark - gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-09-01
This document gathers 31 contributions to the workshop on the physics of quark-gluon plasma that took place in Palaiseau in september 2001: 1) gamma production in heavy collisions, 2) BRAHMS, 3) experimental conference summary, 4) modelling relativistic nuclear collisions, 5) microscopic reaction dynamics at SPS and RHIC, 6) direct gamma and hard scattering at SPS, 7) soft physics at RHIC, 8) results from the STAR experiment, 9) quarkonia: experimental possibilities, 10) elliptic flow measurements with PHENIX, 11) charmonium production in p-A collisions, 12) anisotropic flow at the SPS and RHIC, 13) deciphering the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions with correlation measurements, 14) 2-particle correlation at RHIC, 15) particle spectra at AGS, SPS and RHIC, 16) strangeness production in STAR, 17) strangeness production in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS, 18) heavy ion physics at CERN after 2000 and before LHC, 19) NEXUS guideline and theoretical consistency, 20) introduction to high p{sub T} physics at RHIC, 21) a novel quasiparticle description of the quark-gluon plasma, 22) dissociation of excited quarkonia states, 23) high-mass dimuon and B {yields} J/{psi} production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, 24) strange hyperon production in p + p and p + Pb interactions from NA49, 25) heavy quarkonium hadron cross-section, 26) a new method of flow analysis, 27) low mass dilepton production and chiral symmetry restoration, 28) classical initial conditions for nucleus-nucleus collisions, 29) numerical calculation of quenching weights, 30) strangeness enhancement energy dependence, and 31) heavy quarkonium dissociation.
Tetraquarks Production in Quark-Gluon Plasma with Diquarks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Zhong-Biao; GAO Chong-Shou
2006-01-01
@@ We present a way to calculate tetraquarks ratios for quark-gluon plasma with diquarks. The ratios of tetraquarks over baryons produced from quark matter are high than hadronic gas model limits. It is a better way to search for four-quark states in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It may become a criterion to judge whether quark-gluon plasma has formed to search for four-quark states in relativistic heavy ion collisions.
Strangeness Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Ze-Jun; LONG Jia-Li; MA Yu-Gang; MA Guo-Liang
2004-01-01
@@ We study the strangeness of a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density based on the and will accelerate with the change of the initial system from a chemically non-equilibrated to an equilibrated system. We also find that the calculated strangeness is very different from the one in the thermodynamic equilibrium system. This study may be helpful to understand the formation of quark-gluon plasma via a chemically non-equilibrated evolution framework.
Quark Gluon Plasma: Surprises from strongly coupled QCD matter
Jacak, Barbara
2017-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics has long predicted a transition from normal hadronic matter to a phase where the quarks and gluons are no longer bound together and can move freely. Quark gluon plasma is now produced regularly in collisions of heavy nuclei at very high energy at both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the U.S. and at the LHC in Europe. Quark gluon plasma exhibits remarkable properties. Its vanishingly small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio means that it flows essentially without internal friction, making it one of the most ``perfect'' liquids known. It is also very opaque to transiting particles including heavy charm quarks, though the exact mechanism for this is not yet understood. Recent data suggest that even very small colliding systems may produce a droplet of plasma. The similarities to strongly coupled or correlated systems in ultra-cold atoms and condensed matter are striking, and have inspired novel theoretical descriptions growing out of string theory. It remains a mystery how this plasma emerges from cold, dense gluonic matter deep inside nuclei. I will discuss how a future electron-ion collider can help address this question.
Modeling Quark Gluon Plasma Using CHIMERA
Abelev, Betty
2011-09-01
We attempt to model Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) evolution from the initial Heavy Ion collision to the final hadronic gas state by combining the Glauber model initial state conditions with eccentricity fluctuations, pre-equilibrium flow, UVH2+1 viscous hydrodynamics with lattice QCD Equation of State (EoS), a modified Cooper-Frye freeze-out and the UrQMD hadronic cascade. We then evaluate the model parameters using a comprehensive analytical framework which together with the described model we call CHIMERA. Within our framework, the initial state parameters, such as the initial temperature (Tinit), presence or absence of initial flow, viscosity over entropy density (η/S) and different Equations of State (EoS), are varied and then compared simultaneously to several experimental data observables: HBT radii, particle spectra and particle flow. χ2/nds values from comparison to the experimental data for each set of initial parameters will then used to find the optimal description of the QGP with parameters that are difficult to obtain experimentally, but are crucial to understanding of the matter produced.
Modeling Quark Gluon Plasma Using CHIMERA
Abelev, Betty B I
2011-01-01
We attempt to model Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) evolution from the initial Heavy Ion collision to the final hadronic gas state by combining the Glauber model initial state conditions with eccentricity fluctuations, pre-equilibrium flow, UVH2+1 viscous hydrodynamics with lattice QCD Equation of State (EoS), a modified Cooper-Frye freeze-out and the UrQMD hadronic cascade. We then evaluate the model parameters using a comprehensive analytical framework which together with the described model we call CHIMERA. Within our framework, the initial state parameters, such as the initial temperature (T$_{\\mathrm{init}}$), presence or absence of initial flow, viscosity over entropy density ($\\eta$/s) and different Equations of State (EoS), are varied and then compared simultaneously to several experimental data observables: HBT radii, particle spectra and particle flow. $\\chi^2$/nds values from comparison to the experimental data for each set of initial parameters will then used to find the optimal description of the QGP wi...
Inflating metastable quark-gluon plasma universe.
Jenkovszky, L.
The cosmic evolution of our universe before and after the assumed confinement phase transition is studied within the homogeneous, isotropic and spatially flat model. The Friedmann equation, describing its evolution is appended by an equation of state (EOS) of the quark-gluon plasma. A specifically interesting feature of this EOS, derived both in the content of the quark model (and quantum chromodynamics) and the S-matrix formulation of statistical mechanics is the presence of a local minimum in the pressure vs. temperature dependence, that may be the origin of the exponential expansion of our universe, called inflation. The conditions necessary for the deep supercooling, accompanied by nucleation in a first-order phase transition, have been investigated. The nucleation rate (and consequently the probability of the deep supercooling indispensable for the inflation) are shown to depend essentially on the surface tension of the created bubbles. The possibility of a "nuclear inflation" - the analogue of the above scenario in heavy ion collisions - is also discussed.
Effective degrees of freedom of the quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castorina, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, and INFN Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, I-95100 Catania (Italy); Mannarelli, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: massimo@lns.mit.edu
2007-01-25
The effective degrees of freedom of the quark-gluon plasma are studied in the temperature range {approx}(1-2)T{sub c}. We show that including light bosonic states one can reproduce the pressure and energy density of the quark-gluon plasma obtained by lattice simulations. The number of the bosonic states required is at most of the order of 20, consistent with the number of light mesonic states and in disagreement with a recently proposed picture of the quark-gluon plasma as a system populated with exotic bound states. We also constrain the quark quasiparticle chiral invariant mass to be {approx}300 MeV. Some remarks regarding the role of the gluon condensation and the baryon number-strangeness correlation are also presented.
Holographic Multiquarks in the Quark-Gluon Plasma: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piyabut Burikham
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We review the holographic multiquark states in the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. Nuclear matter can become deconfined by extremely high temperature and/or density. In the deconfined nuclear medium, bound states with colour degrees of freedom are allowed to exist. Using holographic approach, the binding energy and the screening length of the multiquarks can be calculated. Using the deconfined Sakai-Sugimoto model, the phase diagram of the multiquark phase, the vacuum phase, and the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma can be obtained. Then we review the magnetic properties of the multiquarks and their phase diagrams. The multiquark phase is compared with the pure pion gradient, the magnetized vacuum, and the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma phases. For moderate temperature and sufficiently large density at a fixed magnetic field, the mixed phase of multiquark and pion gradient is the most energetically preferred phase.
Anomalous Viscosity of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Hong, Juhee
2013-01-01
The shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma is predicted to be lower than the collisional viscosity for weak coupling. The estimated ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density is rather close to the ratio calculated by N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory for strong coupling, which indicates that the quark-gluon plasma might be strongly coupled. However, in presence of momentum anisotropy, the Weibel instability can arise and affect transport properties. Shear viscosity can be lowered by enhanced collisionality due to turbulence, but the decorrelation time and its relation to underlying dynamics and color-magnetic fields have not been calculated self-consistently. In this paper, we use resonance broadening theory for strong turbulence to calculate the anomalous viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma for nonequilibrium. For saturated Weibel instability, we estimate the scalings of the decorrelation rate and viscosity and compare these with collisional transport. This calculation yields an explicit connection betw...
The refractive index in the viscous quark-gluon plasma
Jiang, Bing-feng; Li, Jia-rong; Gao, Yan-Jun
2013-01-01
Under the framework of the viscous chromohydrodynamics, the gluon self-energy is derived for the quark-gluon plasma with shear viscosity. The viscous electric permittivity and magnetic permeability are evaluated from the gluon self-energy, through which the refraction index %in the %viscous quark-gluon plasma is investigated. The numerical analysis indicates that the refractive index becomes negative in some frequency range. The start point for that frequency range is around the electric permittivity pole, and the magnetic permeability pole determines the end point. As the increase of $\\eta/s$, the frequency range for the negative refraction becomes wider.
Nonperturbative effects in a rapidly expanding quark gluon plasma
Mohanty, A K; Gleiser, Marcello; 10.1103/PhysRevC.65.034908
2002-01-01
Within first-order phase transitions, we investigate pretransitional effects due to the nonperturbative, large-amplitude thermal fluctuations which can promote phase mixing before the critical temperature is reached from above. In contrast with the cosmological quark-hadron transition, we find that the rapid cooling typical of the relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider experiments and the fact that the quark-gluon plasma is chemically unsaturated suppress the role of nonperturbative effects at current collider energies. Significant supercooling is possible in a (nearly) homogeneous state of quark gluon plasma. (24 refs).
The quark gluon plasma: Lattice computations put to experimental test
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sourendu Gupta
2003-11-01
I describe how lattice computations are being used to extract experimentally relevant features of the quark gluon plasma. I deal speciﬁcally with relaxation times, photon emissivity, strangeness yields, event-by-event ﬂuctuations of conserved quantities and hydrodynamic ﬂow. Finally I give evidence that the plasma is rather liquid-like in some ways.
Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas
Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.
1993-01-01
The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.
Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas
Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.
1993-01-01
The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.
Nonlinear Landau damping in quark-gluon plasma
Xiaofei, Zhang; Jiarong, Li
1995-08-01
The semiclassical kinetic equations for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are discussed by the multiple time-scale method. The mechanism of nonlinear Landau damping owing to non-Abelian and nonlinear wave-particle interactions in QGP is investigated, and the nonlinear Landau damping rate for the longitudinal color eigenwaves in the long-wavelength limit is calculated.
Holographic Wilson loops in anisotropic quark-gluon plasma.
Ageev, Dmitry
2016-10-01
The nonequilibrium properties of the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma are condidered from the holographic viewpoint. Lifshitz-like solution is considered as a holographic dual of anisotropic QGP. The black brane formation in such background is considered as a thermalization in dual theory. As a probe of thermalization we consider rectangular spatial Wilson loops with different orientation.
Holographic Wilson loops in anisotropic quark-gluon plasma.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ageev Dmitry
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The nonequilibrium properties of the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma are condidered from the holographic viewpoint. Lifshitz-like solution is considered as a holographic dual of anisotropic QGP. The black brane formation in such background is considered as a thermalization in dual theory. As a probe of thermalization we consider rectangular spatial Wilson loops with different orientation.
Origin of Temperature of Quark-Gluon Plasma in Heavy Ion Collisions
Xu, Xiao-Ming
2015-01-01
Initially produced quark-gluon matter at RHIC and LHC does not have a temperature. A quark-gluon plasma has a high temperature. From this quark-gluon matter to the quark-gluon plasma is the early thermalization or the rapid creation of temperature. Elastic three-parton scattering plays a key role in the process. The temperature originates from the two-parton scattering, the three-parton scattering, the four-parton scattering and so forth in quark-gluon matter.
Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-04-15
One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.
Holographic quark-gluon plasmas at finite quark density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bigazzi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Cotrone, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino (Italy); Mas, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tarrio, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Universiteit Utrecht, 3584 CE, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mayerson, D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2012-07-15
Gravity solutions holographically dual to strongly coupled quark-gluon plasmas with non-zero quark density are reviewed. They are motivated by the urgency of finding novel tools to explore the phase diagram of QCD-like theories at finite chemical potential. After presenting the solutions and their regime of validity, some of their physical properties are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
The extent of strangeness equilibration in quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Dipali Pal; Abhijit Sen; Munshi Golam Mustafa; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava
2003-05-01
The evolution and production of strangeness from chemically equilibrating and transversely expanding quark gluon plasma which may be formed in the wake of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied with initial conditions obtained from the self screened parton cascade (SSPC) model. The extent of partonic equilibration increases almost linearly with the square of the initial energy density, which can then be scaled with the number of participants.
Quark-gluon plasma phase transition using cluster expansion method
Syam Kumar, A. M.; Prasanth, J. P.; Bannur, Vishnu M.
2015-08-01
This study investigates the phase transitions in QCD using Mayer's cluster expansion method. The inter quark potential is modified Cornell potential. The equation of state (EoS) is evaluated for a homogeneous system. The behaviour is studied by varying the temperature as well as the number of Charm Quarks. The results clearly show signs of phase transition from Hadrons to Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).
RHIC AND THE PURSUIT OF THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MITCHELL,J.T.
2001-07-25
There is a fugitive on the loose. Its name is Quark-Gluon Plasma, alias the QGP. The QGP is a known informant with knowledge about the fundamental building blocks of nature that we wish to extract. This briefing will outline the status of the pursuit of the elusive QGP. We will cover what makes the QGP tick, its modus operandi, details on how we plan to hunt the fugitive down, and our level of success thus far.
Creating the Primordial Quark-Gluon Plasma at the LHC
Harris, John W.
2013-04-01
Ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) create an extremely hot system at temperatures (T) expected only within the first microseconds after the Big Bang. At these temperatures (T ˜ 2 x 10^12 K), a few hundred thousand times hotter than the sun's core, the known ``elementary'' particles cannot exist and matter ``melts'' to form a ``soup'' of quarks and gluons, called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This ``soup'' flows easily, with extremely low viscosity, suggesting a nearly perfect hot liquid of quarks and gluons. Furthermore, the liquid is dense, highly interacting and opaque to energetic probes (fast quarks or gluons). RHIC has been in operation for twelve years and has established an impressive set of findings. Recent results from heavy ion collisions at the LHC extend the study of the QGP to higher temperatures and harder probes, such as jets (energetic clusters of particles), particles with extremely large transverse momenta and those containing heavy quarks. I will present a motivation for physics in the field and an overview of the new LHC heavy ion results in relation to results from RHIC.
Intermediate mass dilepton production during the chemical equilibration of quark gluon plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The production of dileptons from the chemically equilibrating quark gluon plasma in the intermediate mass region has been studied. Comparing with the calculated results based on the thermodynamic equilibrium system of quark gluon plasma, it has been found that the quark phase of the chemically equilibrating system gives rise to an even larger enhancement of the dileptons production. Therefore, such an enhancement of dilepton production may signal the formation of quark gluon plasma.
Turbulent thermalization of the Quark Gluon Plasma
Berges, J; Schlichting, S; Venugopalan, R
2013-01-01
Classical-statistical lattice gauge theory simulations are employed to demonstrate the existence of a nonthermal fixed point in the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. After an initial transient regime dominated by plasma instabilities and free streaming, the ensuing overpopulated non-Abelian plasma exhibits the universal self-similar dynamics characteristic of wave turbulence observed in a large variety of physical systems across different energy scales.
Collective flow signals the quark-gluon plasma
Stöcker, H.
2005-03-01
A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on charm dynamics and hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the v-flow and of the v-flow at ˜10 A GeV; at 40 A GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 Collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density ρ. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Here, hadronic rescattering models can explain 2 GeV/c. This is interpreted as evidence for the production of superdense matter at RHIC with initial pressure far above hadronic pressure, p>1 GeV/fm. We suggest that the fluctuations in the flow, v and v, should be measured in future since ideal hydrodynamics predicts that they are larger than 50% due to initial state fluctuations. Furthermore, the QGP coefficient of viscosity may be determined experimentally from the fluctuations observed. The connection of v to jet suppression is examined. It is proven experimentally that the collective flow is not faked by minijet fragmentation. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially (QGP formed at RHIC—can give further information on the equation of state (EoS) and transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP).
Supercooling of rapidly expanding quark-gluon plasma
Zabrodin, E E; Csernai, László P; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W
1998-01-01
We reexamine the scenario of homogeneous nucleation of the quark-gluon plasma produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. A generalization of the standard nucleation theory to rapidly expanding system is proposed. The nucleation rate is derived via the new scaling parameter $\\lambda_Z$. It is shown that the size distribution of hadronic clusters plays an important role in the dynamics of the phase transition. The longitudinally expanding system is supercooled to about 3-6%, then it is reheated, and the hadronization is completed within 6-10 fm/c, i.e. 5-10 times faster than it was estimated earlier, in a strongly nonequilibrium way.
Quark-gluon plasma and topological quantum field theory
Luo, M. J.
2017-03-01
Based on an analogy with topologically ordered new state of matter in condensed matter systems, we propose a low energy effective field theory for a parity conserving liquid-like quark-gluon plasma (QGP) around critical temperature in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) system. It shows that below a QCD gap which is expected several times of the critical temperature, the QGP behaves like topological fluid. Many exotic phenomena of QGP near the critical temperature discovered at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision (RHIC) are more readily understood by the suggestion that QGP is a topologically ordered state.
Baryon inhomogeneities in a charged quark gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ray, Avijeet [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 247667 (India); Sanyal, Soma, E-mail: sossp@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, 500046 (India)
2013-10-07
We study the generation of baryon inhomogeneities in regions of the quark gluon plasma which have a charge imbalance. We find that the overdensity in the baryon lumps for positively charged particles is different from the overdensity due to the negatively charged particles. Since quarks are charged particles, the probability of forming neutrons or protons in the lumps would thus be changed. The probability of forming hadrons having quarks of the same charges would be enhanced. This might have interesting consequences for the inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis calculations.
Linear Landau damping in strongly relativistic quark gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murtaza, G.; Khattak, N.A.D.; Shah, H.A. [Salam Chair in Physics, G C Univ., Lahore (Pakistan)]|[Dept. of Physics, G C Univ., Lahore (Pakistan)
2004-07-01
On the basis of semi classical kinetic Vlasov equation for Quark-Gluon plasma (QGP) and Yang-Mills equation in covariant gauge, linear Landau damping for electrostatic perturbations like Langmuir waves is investigated. For the extreme relativistic case, wherein the thermal speed of the particles exceeds the phase velocity of the perturbations, the linear Landau damping is absent. However, a departure from extreme relativistic case generates an imaginary component of the frequency giving rise to linear Landau damping effect. The relevant integral for the conductivity tensor has been evaluated and the dispersion relation for the longitudinal part of the oscillation obtained. (orig.)
Surface Emission of Quark Gluon Plasma at RHIC and LHC
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIANG Wen-Chang; WAN Ren-Zhuo; ZHOU Dai-Cui
2008-01-01
Within the framework of a factorization model, we study the behaviour of nuclear modification factor in Au-Au collisions at RHIC and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC. We find that the nuclear modification factor is inversely proportional to the radius of the quark-gluon plasma and is dominated by the surface emission of hard jets. We predict the nuclear modification factor RLHCAA～0.15 in central Pb-Pb collisions at LHC. The study shows that the factorization model can be used to describe the centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor of the high transverse momentum particles produced in heavy ion collisions at both RHIC and LHC.
Quark-Gluon Plasma: from accelerator experiments to early Universe
Rosnet, P
2015-01-01
In the Big Bang scenario, the early Universe is characterized by the {\\it particle era}, i.e. a Universe made of particles. This period connects both scales of fundamental physics: infinitesimally small and infinitely large. So, particle physics and in particular experimental programs at accelerators can bring valuable inputs for the understanding of the early Universe and its evolution. These proceedings discuss the impact of the Quantum ChromoDynamics phase transition experienced by the {\\it particle era} in the expanding Universe, which is connected to the study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in heavy-ion physics experiments.
From Color Fields to Quark Gluon Plasma
Fries, R J; Li, Y; Fries, Rainer J.; Kapusta, Joseph I.; Li, Yang
2006-01-01
We discuss a model for the energy distribution and the early space-time evolution of a heavy ion collision. We estimate the gluon field generated in the wake of hard processes and through primordial fluctuations of the color charges in the nuclei. Without specifying the dynamical mechanism of thermalization we calculate the energy momentum tensor of the following plasma phase. The results of this model can be used as initial conditions for a further hydrodynamic evolution.
Collective Flow signals the Quark Gluon Plasma
Stöcker, H
2005-01-01
A critical discussion of the present status of the CERN experiments on charm dynamics and hadron collective flow is given. We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50 A$\\cdot$GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the $v_1$-flow and of the $v_2$-flow at $\\sim 10$ A$\\cdot$GeV; at 40 A$\\cdot$GeV it has been recently observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density $\\rho_B$. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Additionally, detailed transport studies show that the away-side jet suppression can only partially ($<$ 50%) be due to hadronic rescattering. We, finally, propose upgrades and second generation experiments at RHIC which inspect the first order phase transition in the fragmenta...
Evolution to the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Fukushima, Kenji
2016-01-01
Theoretical studies on the early-time dynamics in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed including pedagogical introductions on the initial condition with small-x gluons treated as a color glass condensate, the bottom-up thermalization scenario, plasma/glasma instabilities, basics of some formulations such as the kinetic equations and the classical statistical simulation. More detailed discussions follow to make an overview of recent developments on the fast isotropization, the onset of hydrodynamics, and the transient behavior of momentum spectral cascades.
Working group report: Heavy-ion physics and quark-gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Munshi G Mustafa; Sudhir Raniwala; T Awes; B Rai; R S Bhalerao; J G Contreras; R V Gavai; S K Ghosh; P Jaikumar; G C Mishra; A P Mishra; H Mishra; B Mohanty; J Nayak; J-Y Ollitrault; S C Phatak; L Ramello; R Ray; P K Sahu; A M Srivastava; D K Srivastava; V K Tiwari
2006-11-01
This is the report of Heavy Ion Physics and Quark-Gluon Plasma at WHEPP-09 which was part of Working Group-4. Discussion and work on some aspects of quark-gluon plasma believed to have created in heavy-ion collisions and in early Universe are reported.
Chemical Evolution of Strongly Interacting Quark-Gluon Plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying-Hua Pan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available At very initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions a wave of quark-gluon matter is produced from the break-up of the strong color electric field and then thermalizes at a short time scale (~1 fm/c. However, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP system is far out of chemical equilibrium, especially for the heavy quarks which are supposed to reach chemical equilibrium much late. In this paper a continuing quark production picture for strongly interacting QGP system is derived, using the quark number susceptibilities and the equation of state; both of them are from the results calculated by the Wuppertal-Budapest lattice QCD collaboration. We find that the densities of light quarks increase by 75% from the temperature T=400 MeV to T=150 MeV, while the density of strange quark annihilates by 18% in the temperature region. We also offer a discussion on how this late production of quarks affects the final charge-charge correlations.
Color Instabilities in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Mrowczynski, Stanislaw; Strickland, Michael
2016-01-01
When the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) - a system of deconfined quarks and gluons - is in a nonequilibrium state, it is usually unstable with respect to color collective modes. The instabilities, which are expected to strongly influence dynamics of the QGP produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, are extensively discussed under the assumption that the plasma is weakly coupled. We begin by presenting the theoretical approaches to study the QGP, which include: field theory methods based on the Keldysh-Schwinger formalism, classical and kinetic theories, and fluid techniques. The dispersion equations, which give the spectrum of plasma collective excitations, are analyzed in detail. Particular attention is paid to a momentum distribution of plasma constituents which is obtained by deforming an isotropic momentum distribution. Mechanisms of chromoelectric and chromomagnetic instabilities are explained in terms of elementary physics. The Nyquist analysis, which allows one to determine the number of solutions of a ...
Phenomenological review on Quark-Gluon Plasma: concepts vs observations
Pasechnik, Roman
2016-01-01
In this review, we present an up-to-date phenomenological summary of research developments in physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). A short historical perspective and theoretical motivation for this rapidly developing field of contemporary Particle Physics is provided. In addition, we introduce and discuss the role of the QCD ground state, non-perturbative and lattice QCD results on the QGP properties as well as the transport models used to make a connection between theory and experiment. The experimental part presents the selected results on bulk observables, hard and penetrating probes obtained in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion experiments carried out at BNL RHIC, CERN SPS and LHC accelerators. We also give a brief overview of new developments related to the ongoing searches of the QCD critical point and to the collectivity in small ($p+p$ and $p+A$) systems.
Quark-gluon plasma connected to finite heat bath
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biro, Tamas S.; Gabor Barnafoeldi, Gergely; Van, Peter [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the HAS, P.O.Box 49, Budapest (Hungary)
2013-09-15
We derive entropy formulas for finite reservoir systems, S{sub q}, from universal thermostat independence and obtain the functional form of the corresponding generalized entropy-probability relation. Our result interprets thermodynamically the subsystem temperature, T{sub 1}, and the index q in terms of the temperature, T, entropy, S, and heat capacity, C of the reservoir as T{sub 1}=T exp (-S/C) and q=1-1/C. In the infinite C limit, irrespective of the value of S, the Boltzmann-Gibbs approach is fully recovered. We apply this framework for the experimental determination of the original temperature of a finite thermostat, T, from the analysis of hadron spectra produced in high-energy collisions, by analyzing frequently considered simple models of the quark-gluon plasma. (orig.)
Chiral superfluidity of the quark-gluon plasma
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-01-01
In this paper we argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The "normal" component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the "superfluid" part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use several nonperturbative techniques to demonstrate that. First, we analyze the fermionic spectrum in the deconfinement phase (Tc < T < 2 Tc) using lattice (overlap) fermions and observe a gap between near-zero modes and the bulk of the spectrum. Second, we use the bosonization procedure with a finite cut-off and obtain a dynamical axion-like field out of the chiral fermionic modes. Third, we use relativistic hydrodynamics for macroscopic description of the effective theory obtained after the bosonization. Finally, solving the hydrodynamic equations in gradient expansion, we find that in the presence of external electromagnetic fields the motion of the "superfluid" component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, c...
Quantum Gravity effect on the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Elmashad, I; Abou-Salem, L I; Nabi, Jameel-Un; Tawfik, A
2012-01-01
The Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), which has been predicted by various theories of quantum gravity near the Planck scale is implemented on deriving the thermodynamics of ideal Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) consisting of two massless quark flavors at the hadron-QGP phase equilibrium and at a vanishing chemical potential. The effective degrees of freedom and MIT bag pressure are utilized to distinguish between the hadronic and partonic phases. We find that GUP makes a non-negligible contribution to all thermodynamic quantities, especially at high temperatures. The asymptotic behavior of corresponding QGP thermodynamic quantities characterized by the Stephan-Boltzmann limit would be approached, when the GUP approach is taken into consideration.
Quark-gluon plasma: Status of heavy ion physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R V Gavai
2000-07-01
Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD), deﬁned on a discrete space–time lattice, leads to a spectacular non-perturbative prediction of a new state of matter, called quark-gluon plasma (QGP), at sufﬁciently high temperatures or equivalently large energy densities. The experimental programs of CERN, Geneva and BNL, New York of relativistic heavy ion collisions are expected to produce such energy densities, thereby providing us a chance to test the above prediction. After a brief introduction of the necessary theoretical concepts, I will present a critical review of the experimental results already obtained by the various experiments in order to examine whether QGP has already been observed by them.
Photons from quark gluon plasma and hot hadronic matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jan-E Alam
2003-04-01
The productions of real photons from quark gluon plasma and hot hadronic matter formed after the nucleus–nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies are discussed. The effects of the spectral shift of the hadrons at ﬁnite temperature on the production of photons are investigated. On the basis of the present analysis it is shown that the photon spectra measured by WA98 collaboration in Pb + Pb collisions at CERN SPS energies can be explained by both QGP as well as hadronic initial states if the spectral shift of hadrons at ﬁnite temperature is taken into account. Several other works on the analysis of WA98 photon data have also been brieﬂy discussed.
Astrophysical aspects of neutrino dynamics in ultra-degenerate quark gluon plasma
Adhya, Souvik Priyam
2016-01-01
The cardinal focus of the present review is to explore the role of neutrinos originating from the ultra-dense core of neutron stars composed of quark gluon plasma in the astrophysical scenario. The collective excitations of the quarks involving the neutrinos through the different kinematical processes have been studied. The cooling of the neutron stars as well as pulsar kicks due to asymmetric neutrino emission have been discussed in detail. Results involving calculation of relevant physical quantities like neutrino mean free path and emissivity have been presented in the framework of non-Fermi liquid behavior as applicable to ultra-degenerate plasma.
Quark Gluon Plasma an Color Glass Condensate at RHIC? The perspective from the BRAHMS experiment
Arsene, I; Beavis, D; Besliu, C; Budick, B; Bøggild, H; Chasman, C; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Cibor, J; Debbe, R; Enger, E; Gaardhøje, J J; Germinario, M; Hansen, O; Holm, A; Holme, A K; Hagel, K; Ito, H; Jakobsen, E; Jipa, A; Jundt, F; Jordre, J I; Jorgensen, C E; Karabowicz, R; Kim, E J; Kozik, T; Larsen, T M; Lee, J H; Lee, Y K; Lindahl, S; Løvhøiden, G; Majka, Z; Makeev, A; Mikelsen, M; Murray, M J; Natowitz, J B; Neumann, B; Nielsen, B S; Ouerdane, D; Planeta, R; Rami, F; Ristea, C; Ristea, O; Röhrich, D; Samset, B H; Sandberg, D; Sanders, S J; Scheetz, R A; Staszel, P; Tveter, T S; Videbaek, F; Wada, R; Yin, Z; Zgura, I S
2004-01-01
We review the main results obtained by the BRAHMS collaboration on the properties of hot and dense hadronic and partonic matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC. A particular focus of this paper is to discuss to what extent the results collected so far by BRAHMS, and by the other three experiments at RHIC, can be taken as evidence for the formation of a state of deconfined partonic matter, the so called quark-gluon-plasma (QGP). We also discuss evidence for a possible precursor state to the QGP, i.e. the proposed Color Glass Condensate.
Some applications of thermal field theory to quark-gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Munshi G Mustafa
2006-04-01
We briefly introduce the thermal field theory within imaginary time formalism, the hard thermal loop perturbation theory and some of its applications to the physics of the quark-gluon plasma, possibly created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
Momentum broadening in unstable quark-gluon plasma
Carrington, M E; Schenke, B
2016-01-01
Quark-gluon plasma produced at the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is unstable, if weakly coupled, due to the anisotropy of its momentum distribution. Chromomagnetic fields are spontaneously generated and can reach magnitudes much exceeding typical values of the fields in equilibrated plasma. We consider a high energy test parton traversing an unstable plasma that is populated with strong fields. We study the momentum broadening parameter $\\hat q$ which determines the radiative energy loss of the test parton. We develop a formalism which gives $\\hat q$ as the solution of an initial value problem, and we focus on extremely oblate plasmas which are physically relevant for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The parameter $\\hat q$ is found to be strongly dependent on time. For short times it is of the order of the equilibrium value, but at later times $\\hat q$ grows exponentially due to the interaction of the test parton with unstable modes and becomes much bigger than the value in equilibri...
Phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez Guerrero, Mauricio
2010-04-30
In this work we investigate phenomenological aspects of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma. In the first part of this thesis, we formulate phenomenologicalmodels that take into account the momentumspace anisotropy of the system developed during the expansion of the fireball at early-times. By including the proper-time dependence of the parton hard momentum scale, p{sub hard}({tau}), and the plasma anisotropy parameter, {xi}({tau}), the proposed models allow us to interpolate from 0+1 pre-equilibrated expansion at early-times to 0+1 ideal hydrodynamics at late times. We study dilepton production as a valuable observable to experimentally determine the isotropization time of the system as well as the degree of anisotropy developed at early-times. We generalize our interpolating models to include the rapidity dependence of p{sub hard} and consider its impact on forward dileptons. Next, we discuss how to constrain the onset of hydrodynamics by demanding two requirements of the solutions to the equations of motion of viscous hydrodynamics. We show this explicitly for 0+1 dimensional 2nd-order conformal viscous hydrodynamics and find that the initial conditions are non-trivially constrained. Finally, we demonstrate how to match the initial conditions for 0+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamics from pre-equilibrated expansion. We analyze the dependence of the entropy production on the pre-equilibrium phase and discuss limitations of the standard definitions of the non-equilibrium entropy in kinetic theory. (orig.)
KdV solitons in a cold quark gluon plasma
Fogaça, D A; Filho, L G Ferreira
2011-01-01
The relativistic heavy ion program developed at RHIC and now at LHC motivated a deeper study of the properties of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and, in particular, the study of perturbations in this kind of plasma. We are interested on the time evolution of perturbations in the baryon and energy densities. If a localized pulse in baryon density could propagate throughout the QGP for long distances preserving its shape and without loosing localization, this could have interesting consequences for relativistic heavy ion physics and for astrophysics. A mathematical way to proove that this can happen is to derive (under certain conditions) from the hydrodynamical equations of the QGP a Korteveg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The solution of this equation describes the propagation of a KdV soliton. The derivation of the KdV equation depends crucially on the equation of state (EOS) of the QGP. The use of the simple MIT bag model EOS does not lead to KdV solitons. Recently we have developed an EOS for the QGP which include...
Strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
Shuryak, Edward
2017-07-01
A decade ago, a brief summary of the field of the relativistic heavy ion physics could be formulated as the discovery of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, sQGP for short, a near-perfect fluid with surprisingly large entropy-density-to-viscosity ratio. Since 2010, the LHC heavy ion program added excellent new data and discoveries. Significant theoretical efforts have been made to understand these phenomena. Now there is a need to consolidate what we have learned and formulate a list of issues to be studied next. Studies of angular correlations of two and more secondaries reveal higher harmonics of flow, identified as the sound waves induced by the initial state perturbations. As in cosmology, detailed measurements and calculations of these correlations helped to make our knowledge of the explosion much more quantitative. In particular, their damping had quantified the viscosity. Other kinetic coefficients—the heavy-quark diffusion constants and the jet quenching parameters—also show enhancements near the critical point T ≈Tc. Since densities of QGP quarks and gluons strongly decrease at this point, these facts indicate large role of nonperturbative mechanisms, e.g., scattering on monopoles. New studies of the p p and p A collisions at high multiplicities reveal collective explosions similar to those in heavy ion A A collisions. These "smallest drops of the sQGP" revived debates about the initial out-of-equilibrium stage of the collisions and mechanisms of subsequent equilibration.
Electromagnetic Radiation From An Equilibrium Quark -Gluon Plasma System
Singh, S S; Jha, Agam K.
2006-01-01
We study the electromagnetic radiation from a hot and slightly strong interacting fireball system of quark-gluon plasma using the Boltzmann distribution function for the incoming particles and Bose-Einstein distribution for gluon in first calculation of electromagnetic radiation and Fermi-Dirac distribution for quark, antiquark and Boltzmann distribution for gluon in our second calculation. The thermal photon emission rate is found that it is infrared divergent for massless quarks which are discussed by many authors and regulate this divergence using different cut-off in the qurak mass. However we remove this divergence using the same technique of Braaten and Pisarski in the thermal mass of the system by using our model calculation in the coupling parameter. Thus the production rate of the thermal photon is found to be smoothly worked by this cut-off technique of our model. The result is found to be matched with the most of the theoretical calculations and it is in the conformity with the experimental results...
Quarkonium states in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo Yun
2009-09-10
In this work we study the properties of quarkonium states in a quark-gluon plasma which, due to expansion and non-zero viscosity, exhibits a local anisotropy in momentum space. We determine the hard-loop resummed gluon propagator in an anisotropic QCD plasma in general linear gauges and define a potential between heavy quarks from the Fourier transform of its static limit. This potential which arises due to one-gluon exchange describes the force between a quark and anti-quark at short distances. It is closer to the vacuum potential as compared to the isotropic Debye screened potential which indicates the reduced screening in an anisotropic QCD plasma. In addition, angular dependence appears in the potential; we find that there is stronger attraction on distance scales on the order of the inverse Debye mass for quark pairs aligned along the direction of anisotropy than for transverse alignment. The potential at long distances, however, is non-perturbative and modeled as a QCD string which is screened at the same scale as the Coulomb field. At asymptotic separation the potential energy is non-zero and inversely proportional to the temperature. With a phenomenological potential model which incorporates the different behaviors at short and long distances, we solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. Our numerical results show that quarkonium binding is stronger at non-vanishing viscosity and expansion rate, and that the anisotropy leads to polarization of the P-wave states. Furthermore, we determine viscosity corrections to the imaginary part of the heavy-quark potential in the weak-coupling hard-loop approximation. The imaginary part is found to be smaller (in magnitude) than at vanishing viscosity. This implies a smaller decay width of quarkonium bound states in an anisotropic plasma. (orig.)
Properties of the quark gluon plasma from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mages, Simon Wolfgang
2015-03-02
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, the theory of the interaction between the constituents of composite elementary particles (hadrons). In the low energy regime of the theory, standard methods of theoretical physics like perturbative approaches break down due to a large value of the coupling constant. However, this is the region of most interest, where the degrees of freedom of QCD, the color charges, form color-neutral composite elementary particles, like protons and neutrons. Also the transition to more energetic states of matter like the quark gluon plasma (QGP), is difficult to investigate with perturbative approaches. A QGP is a state of strongly interacting matter, which existed shortly after the Big Bang and can be created with heavy ion collisions for example at the LHC at CERN. In a QGP the color charges of QCD are deconfined. This thesis explores ways how to use the non-perturbative approach of lattice QCD to determine properties of the QGP. It focuses mostly on observables which are derived from the energy momentum tensor, like two point correlation functions. In principle these contain information on low energy properties of the QGP like the shear and bulk viscosity and other transport coefficients. The thesis describes the lattice QCD simulations which are necessary to measure the correlation functions and proposes new methods to extract these low energy properties. The thesis also tries to make contact to another non-perturbative approach which is Improved Holographic QCD. The aim of this approach is to use the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence to make statements about QCD with calculations of a five dimensional theory of gravity. This thesis contributes to that work by constraining the parameters of the model action by comparing the predictions with those of measurements with lattice QCD.
Search and study of Quark Gluon Plasma at the CERN-LHC
Nayak, Tapan
2009-01-01
The major aim of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC is to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark gluon plasma (QGP), formed in extreme conditions of temperature and energy density. We give a brief overview of the experimental program and discuss the signatures and observables for a detailed study of QGP matter.
Introduction to the Quark-Gluon Plasma session in RJC 2014
Maire, Antonin
2015-01-01
This contribution is a brief introduction to the physics of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP); the intention is to set the stage for the corresponding session proceedings of the "Rencontre Jeunes Chercheurs 2014". The text consists in a description of the Bjorken scenario of a heavy-ion collision followed by the introduction of the notion of hard probe for QGP studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redlich, K.
1985-04-01
Strangeness production in hot nuclear matter in the non-interacting gas approximation with an Usub(B)(1)xUsub(S)(1) internal symmetry group is discussed. It is argued that the stangeness abundancy ratio in the quark-gluon plasma as compared to the hadron gas strongly depends on under which thermodynamical circumstances it has been computed.
QCD equations of state and the quark-gluon plasma liquid model
Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann
2003-03-01
Recent advances in the study of equations of state of thermal lattice quantum chromodynamics obtained at nonzero baryon density allow validation of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) liquid model equations of state (EOS). We study here the properties of the QGP-EOS near to the phase transformation boundary at finite baryon density and show a close agreement with the lattice results.
Equation of state of a quark-gluon plasma using the Cornell potential
Udayanandan, K. M.; Sethumadhavan, P.; Bannur, V. M.
2007-10-01
The equation of state (EOS) of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) using the Cornell potential based on Mayer's cluster expansion is presented. The string constant and the strong coupling constant for QGP are calculated. The EOS developed could describe the lattice EOS for pure gauge, two-flavor and three-flavor QGP qualitatively.
Photons from a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma at Finite Baryon Density
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Ze-Jun; LONG Jia-Li; MA Yu-Gang; MA Guo-Liang
2005-01-01
@@ We study hard photon production in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density based on the Jüttner distribution of partons of the system. We find that the photon yield is a strongly increasing function of the initial quark chemical potential.
Non-perturbative effects for the Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Begun, V. V., E-mail: viktor.begun@gmail.com; Gorenstein, M. I., E-mail: goren@bitp.kiev.ua; Mogilevsky, O. A. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine)
2012-07-15
The non-perturbative effects for the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) equation of state (EoS) are considered. The modifications of the bag model EoS are constructed to satisfy the main qualitative features observed for the QGP EoS in the lattice QCD calculations. A quantitative comparison with the lattice results is done for the SU(3) gluon plasma and for the QGP with dynamical quarks. Our analysis advocates a negative value of the bag constant B.
Non-perturbative effects for the Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state
Begun, V. V.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Mogilevsky, O. A.
2012-07-01
The non-perturbative effects for the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) equation of state (EoS) are considered. The modifications of the bag model EoS are constructed to satisfy the main qualitative features observed for the QGP EoS in the lattice QCD calculations. A quantitative comparison with the lattice results is done for the SU(3) gluon plasma and for the QGP with dynamical quarks. Our analysis advocates a negative value of the bag constant B.
Energy loss, equilibration, and thermodynamics of a baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma
Rougemont, Romulo; Finazzo, Stefano; Noronha, Jorge
2015-01-01
Lattice data for the QCD equation of state and the baryon susceptibility near the crossover phase transition (at zero baryon density) are used to determine the input parameters of a 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model that provides a consistent holographic framework to study both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium properties of a hot and {\\it baryon rich} strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We compare our holographic equation of state computed at nonzero baryon chemical potential, $\\mu_B$, with recent lattice calculations and find quantitative agreement for the pressure and the speed of sound for $\\mu_B \\leq 400$ MeV. This holographic model is used to obtain holographic predictions for the temperature and $\\mu_B$ dependence of the drag force and the Langevin diffusion coefficients associated with heavy quark jet propagation as well as the jet quenching parameter $\\hat{q}$ and the shooting string energy loss of light quarks in the dense plasma. We find that the energy loss of heavy ...
Probing the Quark Gluon Plasma with Heavy Flavours: recent results from ALICE
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
The study of open heavy-flavour physics allows us to investigate the key properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) and the microscopic processes ongoing in the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies. Heavy quarks are produced in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions and their further production and annihilation rates in the medium are expected to be very small throughout the evolution of the system. Therefore, they serve as penetrating probes that traverse the hot and dense medium, interact with the partonic constituents of the plasma and lose energy. Understanding the interactions of heavy quarks with the medium requires precise measurements over a wide momentum range in heavy-ion collisions, but also in smaller systems like pp collisions, which also test next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations, and proton-nucleus collisions, which are sensitive to Cold Nuclear Matter effects (CNM), such as the modification of the parton distribution functions of nuclei, and parton ...
Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Kasmaei, Babak S; Strickland, Michael
2016-01-01
We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.
Velocity statistics in holographic fluids: magnetized quark-gluon plasma and superfluid flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Areán, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany); Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Patiño, Leonardo; Villasante, Mario [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)
2016-10-28
We study the velocity statistics distribution of an external heavy particle in holographic fluids. We argue that when the dual supergravity background has a finite temperature horizon the velocity statistics goes generically as 1/v, compatible with the jet-quenching intuition from the quark-gluon plasma. A careful analysis of the behavior of the classical string whose apparent world sheet horizon deviates from the background horizon reveals that other regimes are possible. We numerically discuss two cases: the magnetized quark-gluon plasma and a model of superfluid flow. We explore a range of parameters in these top-down supergravity solutions including, respectively, the magnetic field and the superfluid velocity. We determine that the velocity statistics goes largely as 1/v, however, as we leave the non-relativistic regime we observe some deviations.
Meiling, Yu; Lianshou, Liu
2008-01-01
Pair distribution function for delocalized quarks in the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma (sQGP) as well as in the states at intermediate stages of crossover from hadronic matter to sQGP are calculated using a molecule-like aggregation model. The shapes of the obtained pair distribution functions exhibit the character of liquid. The increasing correlation length in the process of crossover indicates a diminishing viscosity of the fluid system.
Finite Temperature Lattice QCD - Baryons in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Aarts, Gert; De Boni, Davide; Hands, Simon; Jäger, Benjamin; Praki, Chrisanthi; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2016-01-01
Baryonic correlation functions provide an ideal tool to study parity doubling and chiral symmetry using lattice simulations. We present a study using $2+1$ flavors of anisotropic Wilson clover fermions on the FASTSUM ensembles and find clear evidence that parity doubling emerges in the quark-gluon plasma. This result is confirmed on the level of spectral functions, which are obtained using a MEM reconstruction. We further highlight the importance of Gaussian smearing in this study.
Describing the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma through the Friedberg-Lee model
Shu, Song; Li, Jia-Rong
2010-10-01
The Friedberg-Lee (FL) model is studied at finite temperature and density. The soliton solutions of the FL model in the deconfinement phase transition are solved and thoroughly discussed for certain boundary conditions. We indicate that the solitons before and after the deconfinement have different physical meanings: the soliton before deconfinement represents hadrons, while the soliton after the deconfinement represents the bound state of quarks which leads to a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma phase. The corresponding phase diagram is given.
Equation of State of the Quark Gluon Plasma within the Quasi-particle Approach
Begun, Viktor V; Mogilevsky, Oleg A
2010-01-01
We propose simple analytical form of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) equation of state (EoS) based on a quasi-particle approach. This new EoS satisfies all qualitative features observed in the lattice QCD calculations and gives a good quantitative description of the lattice results in SU(3) gluodynamics. The suggested EoS opens up new possibilities for hydrodynamic and kinetic phenomenological applications in the studies of the QGP.
Quark-gluon plasma freeze-out from a supercooled state?
Csörgö, T
1994-01-01
The quark-gluon plasma, formed in the first 3 fm/c of the heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC, supercooles due to nucleation and develops soon a negative pressure in the bag model. The negative pressure yields mechanical instability which may lead to a sudden timelike deflagration to a (super)heated hadron gas. The resulting freeze-out times are shorter than those of the standard nucleation scenario.
A mean field theory for the cold quark gluon plasma applied to stellar structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Franzon, B. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Horvath, J. E. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 1226, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-03-25
An equation of state based on a mean-field approximation of QCD is used to describe the cold quark gluon plasma and also to study the structure of compact stars. We obtain stellar masses compatible with the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 that was determined to have a mass of (1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }), and the corresponding radius around 10-11 km.
Suppression of Baryon Diffusion and Transport in a Baryon Rich Strongly Coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma.
Rougemont, Romulo; Noronha, Jorge; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn
2015-11-13
Five dimensional black hole solutions that describe the QCD crossover transition seen in (2+1)-flavor lattice QCD calculations at zero and nonzero baryon densities are used to obtain predictions for the baryon susceptibility, baryon conductivity, baryon diffusion constant, and thermal conductivity of the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma in the range of temperatures 130 MeV≤T≤300 MeV and baryon chemical potentials 0≤μ(B)≤400 MeV. Diffusive transport is predicted to be suppressed in this region of the QCD phase diagram, which is consistent with the existence of a critical end point at larger baryon densities. We also calculate the fourth-order baryon susceptibility at zero baryon chemical potential and find quantitative agreement with recent lattice results. The baryon transport coefficients computed in this Letter can be readily implemented in state-of-the-art hydrodynamic codes used to investigate the dense QGP currently produced at RHIC's low energy beam scan.
Quark-gluon plasma effects on hadrons in AdS/QCD
Bartz, Sean; Jacobson, Theodore
2016-09-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence has succeeded in describing qualitatively many features of non-perturbative QCD. An approach known as bottom-up AdS/QCD uses a dilaton field to break conformal symmetry, introducing confinement and describing well the features of hadronic spectra at zero temperature. Introducing a black hole into the AdS metric allows for the study of thermodynamic properties of QCD, mimicking the behavior of hadrons interacting with a hot, dense medium such as the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions. We present an improved AdS/QCD model for meson and glueball spectra at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential. The spectra match the experimental and lattice data qualitatively well at low temperature, but we also find some subtleties in connecting to the best zero-temperature models. We find a melting temperature for light mesons that is below the current estimates for the deconfinement temperature. Finally, we examine the melting and jet-quenching of heavy quarkonia, which more commonly act as probes of the QGP in heavy ion collisions.
Surdutovich, Y
1998-01-01
We study the dynamics of quantum fluctuations which take place during the earliest stage of high-energy collision processes and the conditions under which the data from e– p deep- inelastic scattering(DIS) may serve as a guide for computing the initial data for heavy- ion collisions at high energies. Our method is essentially based on the space-time picture of these seemingly different phenomena. We analyze the inclusive quantum-mechanical measurements, in both cases, and derive the main results relying on causality. The main result is that the transition from the initial- state composite nuclei to the final-state dense system of quark-gluon fields, i.e. quark-gluon plasma, is possible only as a single quantum transition. We prove that the ultra-violet renormalization of virtual loops does not bring any scale into the problem. The scale appears only in connection with real processes of emission of quark and gluon fields and reveals itself through the collinear cut-off in the evolution equations. Thi...
Yoctosecond metrology through Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations from a quark-gluon plasma.
Ipp, Andreas; Somkuti, Peter
2012-11-09
Expansion dynamics at the yoctosecond time scale affect the evolution of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) created in heavy ion collisions. We show how these dynamics are accessible through Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) intensity interferometry of direct photons emitted from the interior of the QGP. A detector placed close to the beam axis is particularly sensitive to early polar momentum anisotropies of the QGP. Observing a modification of the HBT signal at the proposed FoCal detector of the LHC ALICE experiment would allow us to measure the isotropization time of the plasma and could provide first experimental evidence for photon double pulses at the yoctosecond time scale.
The thermalization of soft modes in non-expanding isotropic quark gluon plasmas
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine
2016-01-01
We discuss the role of elastic and inelastic collisions and their interplay in the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma. We consider a simplified situation of a static plasma, spatially uniform and isotropic in momentum space. We focus on the small momentum region, which equilibrates first, and on a short time scale. We obtain a simple kinetic equation that allows for an analytic description of the most important regimes. The present analysis suggests that the formation of a Bose condensate, expected when only elastic collisions are present, is strongly hindered by the inelastic, radiative, processes.
Photon production from quark gluon plasma at ﬁnite baryon density
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D Dutta; S V S Sastry; A K Mohanty; K Kumar; R K Choudhury
2003-05-01
The photon yield from a baryon-rich quark gluon plasma (QGP) at SPS energy has been estimated. In the QGP phase, rate of photon production is evaluated up to two-loop level. In the hadron phase, dominant contribution from , , mesons has been considered. The evolution of the plasma has been studied with appropriate equation of state in both QGP and hadron phase for a baryon-rich system. At SPS energy, the total photon yield is found to increase marginally in the presence of baryon density.
Heavy Ions at LHC: A Quest for Quark-Gluon Plasma
Bhalerao, Rajeev S
2008-01-01
Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, predicts a transition of the usual matter to a new phase of matter, called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), at sufficiently high temperatures. The non-perturbative technique of defining a theory on a space-time lattice has been used to obtain this and other predictions about the nature of QGP. Heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN can potentially test these predictions and thereby test our theoretical understanding of confinement. This brief review aims at providing a glimpse of both these aspects of QGP.
Nucleation rate of the quark-gluon plasma droplet at ﬁnite quark chemical potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D S Gosain; S Somorendro Singh; Agam K Jha
2012-05-01
The nucleation rate of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) droplet is computed at ﬁnite quark chemical potential. In the course of computing the nucleation rate, the ﬁnite size effects of the QGP droplet are taken into account. We consider the phenomenological ﬂow parameter of quarks and gluons, which is dependent on quark chemical potential and we calculate the nucleation rate of the QGP droplet with this parameter. While calculating the nucleation rate, we ﬁnd that for low values of quark phenomenological parameter $ q$, nucleation rate is negligible and when increases, nucleation rate increases signiﬁcantly.
Estimation of electric conductivity of the quark gluon plasma via asymmetric heavy-ion collisions
Hirono, Yuji; Hirano, Tetsufumi
2012-01-01
We show that in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions, especially off-central Cu+Au collisions, a sizable strength of electric field directed from Au nucleus to Cu nucleus is generated in the overlapping region, because of the difference in the number of electric charges between the two nuclei. This electric field would induce an electric current in the matter created after the collision, which result in a dipole deformation of the charge distribution. The directed flow parameters $v_1^{\\pm}$ of charged particles turn out to be sensitive to the charge dipole and provide us with information about electric conductivity of the quark gluon plasma.
Shear viscosity $\\eta$ to electric conductivity $\\sigma_{el}$ ratio for the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Puglisi, A.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.
2014-01-01
The transport coefficients of strongly interacting matter are currently subject of intense theoretical and phenomenological studies due to their relevance for the characterization of the quark-gluon plasma produced in ultra relativistic heavy-ion collisions (uRHIC). We discuss the connection between the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\eta/s$, and the electric conductivity, $\\sigma_{el}$. Once the relaxation time is tuned to have a minimum value of $\\eta/s=1/4\\pi$ near the critical...
Dilepton production rate in a hot and magnetized quark-gluon plasma
Sadooghi, N
2016-01-01
The differential multiplicity of dileptons in a hot and magnetized quark-gluon plasma, $\\Delta_{B}\\equiv dN_{B}/d^{4}xd^{4}q$, is derived from first principles. The constant magnetic field $B$ is assumed to be aligned in a fixed spatial direction. It is shown that the anisotropy induced by the $B$ field is mainly reflected in the general structure of photon spectral density function. This is related to the imaginary part of the vacuum polarization tensor, $\\mbox{Im}[\\Pi^{\\mu\
Scattering of Quark-Quasiparticles in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mannarelli, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rapp, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3366 (United States)
2006-08-07
Employing a Brueckner-type many-body approach, based on a driving potential extracted from lattice QCD, we study light quark properties in a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) at moderate temperatures, T{approx}1-2T{sub c}. The quark-antiquark T-matrix is calculated self-consistently with pertinent quark self-energies. While the repulsive octet channel induces quasiparticle masses of up to 150 MeV, the attractive color-singlet part exhibits resonance structures which lead to quasiparticle widths of {approx}200MeV.
Flow at the SPS and RHIC as a Quark Gluon Plasma Signature
Teaney, D.; LAURET, J.; Shuryak, E. V.
2000-01-01
Radial and elliptic flow in non-central heavy ion collisions can constrain the effective Equation of State(EoS) of the excited nuclear matter. To this end, a model combining relativistic hydrodynamics and a hadronic transport code(RQMD [17]) is developed. For an EoS with a first order phase transition, the model reproduces both the radial and elliptic flow data at the SPS. With the EoS fixed from SPS data, we quantify predictions at RHIC where the Quark Gluon Plasma(QGP) pressure is expected ...
What RHIC experiments and theory tell us about properties of quark-gluon plasma?
Shuryak, Edward
2005-03-01
This brief review summarizes the main experimental discoveries made at RHIC and then discusses their implications. The robust collective flow phenomena are well described by ideal hydrodynamics, with the equation of state (EoS) predicted by lattice simulations. However the transport properties turned out to be unexpected, with rescattering cross section one-to-two orders of magnitude larger than expected from perturbative QCD. These and other theoretical developments indicate that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region TEoS, viscosity and jet quenching.
Jet flavor tomography of quark gluon plasmas at RHIC and LHC.
Buzzatti, Alessandro; Gyulassy, Miklos
2012-01-13
A new Monte Carlo model of jet quenching in nuclear collisions, CUJET1.0, is applied to predict the jet flavor dependence of the nuclear modification factor for fragments f=π,D,B,e(-) from quenched jet flavors g,u,c,b in central collisions at RHIC and LHC. The nuclear modification factors for different flavors are predicted to exhibit a novel level crossing pattern over a transverse momentum range 5
quark gluon plasmas.
Chemical Equilibration and Dilepton Production of Quark-Gluon Plasma at RHIC Energies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龙家丽; 贺泽君; 马国亮; 马余刚; 刘波
2004-01-01
An evolution model of the chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma system has been established based on the Jiittner distribution function of partons. By studying the dilepton production of the system, we find that due to high initial temperature, large gluon density of the system as well as large gluon fusion gg → c(c-) cross section in the intermediate mass region, a dominant contribution to dileptons with intermediate masses is provided by quark-antiquark annihilation qq → l(l-) and, especially, thermal charmed quarks from the gluon fusion gg → c(c-) and quark-antiquark annihilation qq → c(c-).
Heavy-Quark Diffusion Dynamics in Quark-Gluon Plasma under Strong Magnetic Fields
Hattori, Koichi; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yin, Yi
2016-01-01
We discuss heavy-quark dynamics in the quark-gluon plasma under a strong magnetic field induced by colliding nuclei. By the use of the diagrammatic resummation techniques for Hard Thermal Loop and the external magnetic field, we show analytic results of heavy-quark diffusion coefficient and drag force which become anisotropic due to the preferred spatial orientation in the magnetic field. We argue that the anisotropic diffusion coefficient gives rise to an enhancement/suppression of the heavy-quark elliptic flow depending on the transverse momentum.
Dynamics of quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruggieri M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this talk, we report on our results about the computation of isotropization and thermalization times of the quark-gluon plasma produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, as well as of the elliptic flow. Simulation of the evolving fireball is achieved by solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation for the parton distribution function tuned at a fixed shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s. Our results show that the saturation in the initial spectrum reduces the efficiency in building-up the elliptic flow. Moreover both thermalization and isotropization times are quite small, approximately of 1 fm/c, if the system is in a strong coupling regime.
Flavour equilibration studies of quark-gluon plasma with non-zero baryon density
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abhijit Sen
2009-12-01
Flavour equilibration for a thermally equilibrated but chemically non-equilibrated quark-gluon plasma is presented. Flavour equilibration is studied enforcing baryon number conservation. In addition to the usual processes like single additional gluon production $gg \\rightleftharpoons ggg$ and its reverse and quark–antiquark pair production by gluon pair fusion $gg \\rightleftharpoons q_{i}q_{i}^{-}$ and reverse thereof, processes like quark-flavour interchanging $q_{i}q_{i}^{-} \\rightleftharpoons q_{j}q_{j}^{-}$ is also considered. The degree of equilibration is studied comparatively for various reactions/constraints that are being considered.
Gravitational collisions and the quark-gluon plasma
van der Schee, Wilke
2014-01-01
This thesis addresses the thermalisation of heavy-ion collisions within the context of the AdS/CFT duality. The first part clarifies the numerical set-up and studies the relaxation of far-from-equilibrium modes in homogeneous systems. Less trivially we then study colliding shock waves and uncover a transparent regime where the strongly coupled shocks initially pass right through each other. Furthermore, in this regime the later plasma relaxation is insensitive to the longitudinal profile of the shock, implying in particular a universal rapidity shape at strong coupling and high collision energies. Lastly, we study radial expansion in a boost-invariant set-up, allowing us to find good agreement with head-on collisions performed at the LHC accelerator. As a secondary goal of this thesis, a special effort is made to clearly expose numerical computations by providing commented Mathematica notebooks for most calculations presented. Furthermore, we provide interpolating functions of the geometries computed, which c...
Exciting gauge unstable modes of the quark-gluon plasma by relativistic jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5 E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)], E-mail: massimo@ieec.uab.es
2008-05-15
We present a study of the properties of the collective modes of a system composed by a thermalized quark-gluon plasma traversed by a relativistic jet of partons. We find that when the jet traverses the system unstable gauge field modes are excited and grow on very short time scales. The aim is to provide a novel mechanism for the description of the jet quenching phenomenon, where the jet crossing the plasma loses energy exciting colored unstable modes. In order to simplify the analysis we employ a linear response approximation, valid for short time scales. We assume that the partons in the jet can be described with a tsunami-like distribution function, whereas we treat the quark-gluon plasma employing two different approaches. In the first approach we adopt a Vlasov approximation for the kinetic equations, in the second approach we solve a set of fluid equations. In both cases we derive the expressions of the dispersion law of the collective unstable modes and compare the results obtained.
Bag model of hadrons, dual QCD thermodynamics and Quark-Gluon Plasma
Chandola, H C; Dehnen, H
2015-01-01
Using the grand canonical ensemble formulation of a multi-particle statistical system, the thermodynamical description of the dual QCD has been presented in terms of the bag model of hadrons and analyzed for the quark-gluon plasma phase of hadronic matter. The dual QCD bag construction has been shown to lead to the radial pressure on the bag surface in terms of the vector glueball masses of the magnetically condensed QCD vacuum. Constructing the grand canonical partition function to deal with the quark-gluon plasma phase of the non-strange hadrons, the energy density and the plasma pressure have been derived and used to understand the dynamics of the associated phase transition. The critical temperature for QGP-hadron phase transition has been derived and numerically estimated by using various thermodynamic considerations. A comparison of the values of the critical temperatures for QGP-hadron phase transition with those obtained for the deconfinement-phase transition, has been shown to lead to the relaxation ...
Primordial Magnetic Field Via Weibel Instability In The Quark Gluon Plasma Phase
Atreya, Abhishek
2016-01-01
The origin of the observed large scale magnetic fields in the Universe is a mystery. The seed of these magnetic fields has been attributed to physical process in the early universe. In this work we provide a mechanism for the generation of a primordial magnetic field in the early universe via the Weibel instability in the quark gluon plasma. The Weibel instability occurs in the plasma if there is an anisotropy in the particle distribution function of the particles. In early universe, the velocity anisotropy required for Weibel instability to operate is generated in the quark gluon plasma by the collapse of closed $Z(3)$ domain walls that arise in the deconfined phase of the QCD (above $T\\sim 200$ MeV). Such large domains can arise in the context of certain low energy scale inflationary models. The closed domains undergo supersonic collapse and the velocity anisotropy is generated in the shocks produced in the wake of the collapsing domain walls. This results in a two stream Weibel instability in the ultra-rel...
Effect of magnetic field on the photon radiation from quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
Zakharov, B G
2016-01-01
We develop a formalism for the photon emission from the quark-gluon plasma with an external electromagnetic field. We then use it to investigate the effect of magnetic field on the photon emission from the quark-gluon plasma created in $AA$ collisions. We find that even for very optimistic assumption on the magnitude of the magnetic field generated in $AA$ collisions its effect on the photon emission rate is practically negligible. For this reason the magnetic field cannot generate a significant azimuthal asymmetry in the photon spectrum.
Effect of the magnetic field on the photon radiation from quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakharov, B.G. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
We develop a formalism for the photon emission from the quark-gluon plasma with an external electromagnetic field. We then use it to investigate the effect of the magnetic field on the photon emission from the quark-gluon plasma created in AA collisions. We find that even for a very optimistic assumption on the magnitude of the magnetic field generated in AA collisions its effect on the photon emission rate is practically negligible. For this reason the magnetic field cannot generate a significant azimuthal asymmetry in the photon spectrum. (orig.)
Long wavelength perfect fluidity from short distance jet transport in quark-gluon plasmas
Xu, Jiechen; Gyulassy, Miklos
2015-01-01
We build a new phenomenological framework that bridges the long wavelength bulk viscous transport properties of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) and short distance hard jet transport properties in the QGP. The full nonperturbative chromo-electric (E) and chromo-magnetic (M) structure of the near "perfect fluid" like sQGP in the critical transition region are integrated into a semi-Quark-Gluon-Monopole Plasma (sQGMP) model lattice-compatibly and implemented into the new CUJET3.0 jet quenching framework. All observables computed from CUJET3.0 are found to be consistent with available data at RHIC and LHC simultaneously. A quantitative connection between the shear viscosity and jet transport parameter is rigorously established within this framework. We deduce the $T=160-600$ MeV dependence of the QGP's $\\eta/s$: its near vanishing value in the near $T_c$ regime is determined by the composition of E and M charges, it increases as $T$ rises, and its high $T$ limit is fixed by color screening scales.
Long wavelength perfect fluidity from short distance jet transport in quark-gluon plasmas
Xu, Jiechen; Liao, Jinfeng; Gyulassy, Miklos
2016-12-01
We build a new phenomenological framework that bridges the long wavelength bulk viscous transport properties of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) and short distance hard jet transport properties in the QGP. The full nonperturbative chromo-electric (E) and chromo-magnetic (M) structure of the near "perfect fluid" like sQGP in the critical transition region are integrated into a semi-Quark-Gluon-Monopole Plasma (sQGMP) model lattice-compatibly and implemented into the new CUJET3.0 jet quenching framework. All observables computed from CUJET3.0 are found to be consistent with available data at RHIC and LHC simultaneously. A quantitative connection between the shear viscosity and jet transport parameter is rigorously established within this framework. We deduce the T = 160 - 600 MeV dependence of the QGP's η / s: its near vanishing value in the near Tc regime is determined by the composition of E and M charges, it increases as T rises, and its high T limit is fixed by color screening scales.
Hard photon production from unsaturated quark-gluon plasma at two-loop level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta, D. E-mail: ddutta@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Sastry, S.V.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Kumar, K
2002-11-18
The hard photon production from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two-loop level are estimated for a chemically non-equilibrated quark-gluon plasma in the framework of Hard Thermal Loop (HTL) resummed effective field theory. The rate of photon production is found to be suppressed due to unsaturated phase space compared to equilibrated plasma. For an unsaturated plasma, unlike the effective one-loop case, the reduction in the effective two-loop processes is found to be independent of gluon fugacity, due to an additional collinear enhancement arising from the decrease in thermal quark mass but strongly depends on quark and antiquark fugacities. It is also found that the photon production is dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism, since the phase space suppression is higher for annihilation with scattering, in contrast to the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production.
In-medium effects in the holographic quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rust, Felix Christian
2009-08-05
In this dissertation we use the gauge/gravity duality to investigate various properties of strongly coupled gauge theories, which we interpret as models for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). In particular, we use variants of the D3/D7 setup as an implementation of the top-down approach of connecting string theory with phenomenologically relevant gauge theories. We focus on the effects of finite temperature and finite density on fundamental matter in the holographic quark-gluon plasma, which we model as the N = 2 hypermultiplet in addition to the N=4 gauge multiplet of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As a key ingredient we develop a setup in which we can describe vector meson spectra in the holographic plasma at finite temperature and either baryon or isospin density. The description of vector meson excitations allows for a demonstration of the splitting of their spectrum at finite isospin chemical potential. In the effort to better understand transport processes in the QGP, we then study various diffusion coefficients in the quark-gluon plasma, including their dependence on temperature and particle density. In particular, we perform a simple calculation to obtain the diffusion coefficient of baryon charge and we derive expressions to obtain the isospin diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we make use of an effective model to study the diffusion behavior of mesons in the plasma by setting up a kinetic model. Finally, we observe the implications of finite temperature and finite baryon or isospin density on the phase structure of fundamental matter in the holographic plasma. As one consequence we find a phase transition in the baryon diffusion coefficient which vanishes at a critical value of the particle density. The critical density we quantify matches the values of the according critical densities previously found in the phase transitions of other quantities. More important, we observe a new phase transition occurring when the isospin chemical potential excesses a
Jet-dilepton conversion from an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Mukherjee, Arghya; Roy, Pradip
2016-01-01
We calculate the yield of lepton pair production from jet-plasma interaction where the plasma is anisotropic in momentum space. We compare both the $M$ and $p_T$ distributions from such process with the Drell-Yan contribution. It is observed that the invariant mass distribution of lepton pair from such process dominate over the Drell-Yan up to $3$ GeV at RHIC and up to $10$ GeV at LHC. Moreover, it is found that the contribution from anistropic quark gluon plasma (AQGP) increases marginally compared to the isotropic QGP. In case of $p_T$-distribution we observe an increase by a factor of $3-4$ in the entire $p_T$-range at RHIC for AQGP. However, at LHC the change in the $p_T$-distribution is marginal as compared to the isotropic case.
Hadronic and Quark-Gluon Excitations of Dense and Hot Matter
Renk, T; Weise, W
2002-01-01
We summarize recent developments in our understanding of low-mass quark-antiquark excitations in hadronic matter under various different conditions. This includes the thermodynamics of the chiral condensate, pions as Goldstone bosons in normal nuclear matter, and excursions into extreme territory of the QCD phase diagram: lepton pair production from a fireball expanding through the transition boundary between the quark-gluon and hadron pha ses of QCD.
Equilibration Rates in a Strongly Coupled Nonconformal Quark-Gluon Plasma.
Buchel, Alex; Heller, Michal P; Myers, Robert C
2015-06-26
We initiate the study of equilibration rates of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasmas in the absence of conformal symmetry. We primarily consider a supersymmetric mass deformation within N=2^{*} gauge theory and use holography to compute quasinormal modes of a variety of scalar operators, as well as the energy-momentum tensor. In each case, the lowest quasinormal frequency, which provides an approximate upper bound on the thermalization time, is proportional to temperature, up to a prefactor with only a mild temperature dependence. We find similar behavior in other holographic plasmas, where the model contains an additional scale beyond the temperature. Hence, our study suggests that the thermalization time is generically set by the temperature, irrespective of any other scales, in strongly coupled gauge theories.
Thermalization of mini-jets in a quark-gluon plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iancu Edmond
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present the complete physical picture for the evolution of a high-energy jet propagating through a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP by analytical and numerical investigation of thermalization of the soft components of the jet. Our results support the following physical picture: the leading particle emits a significant number of mini-jets which promptly evolve via multiple branching and thus degrade into a myriad of soft gluons, with energies of the order of the medium temperature T. Via elastic collisions with the medium constituents, these soft gluons relax to local thermal equilibrium with the plasma over a time scale which is considerably shorter than the typical lifetime of the mini-jet. The thermalized gluons form a tail which lags behind the hard components of the jet. Together with the background QGP, they behave hydrodynamically.
Hard Photon production from unsaturated quark gluon plasma at two loop level
Dutta, D; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, K; Choudhury, R K
2002-01-01
The hard photon productions from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two loop level are estimated from a chemically non-equilibrated quark gluon plasma using the frame work of thermal field theory. Although, the rate of photon production is suppressed due to unsaturated phase space, the above suppression is relatively smaller than expected due to an additional collinear enhancement (arise due to decrease in thermal quark mass) as compared to it's equilibrium counterpart. Interestingly, unlike the one loop case, the reduction in the two loop processes are found to be independent of gluon chemical poential, but strongly depends on quark fugacity. It is also found that, since the phase space suppression is highest for annihilation with scattering, the photon production is entirely dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism at all energies. This is to be contrasted with the case of the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production particularly at highe...
Thermalization of mini-jets in a quark-gluon plasma
Iancu, Edmond; Wu, Bin
2016-12-01
We present the complete physical picture for the evolution of a high-energy jet propagating through a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP) by analytical and numerical investigation of thermalization of the soft components of the jet. Our results support the following physical picture: the leading particle emits a significant number of mini-jets which promptly evolve via multiple branching and thus degrade into a myriad of soft gluons, with energies of the order of the medium temperature T. Via elastic collisions with the medium constituents, these soft gluons relax to local thermal equilibrium with the plasma over a time scale which is considerably shorter than the typical lifetime of the mini-jet. The thermalized gluons form a tail which lags behind the hard components of the jet. Together with the background QGP, they behave hydrodynamically.
Degrees of Freedom of the Quark Gluon Plasma, tested by Heavy Mesons
Berrehrah, H; Song, T; Ozvenchuck, V; Gossiaux, P B; Werner, K; Bratkovskaya, E; Aichelin, J
2016-01-01
Heavy quarks (charm and bottoms) are one of the few probes which are sensitive to the degrees of freedom of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), which cannot be revealed by lattice gauge calculations in equilibrium. Due to the rapid expansion of the QGP energetic heavy quarks do not come to an equilibrium with the QGP. Their energy loss during the propagation through the QGP medium depends strongly on the modelling of the interaction of the heavy quarks with the QGP quarks and gluons, i.e. on the assuption of the degrees of freedom of the plasma. Here we compare the results of different models, the pQCD based Monte-Carlo (MC@sHQ), the Dynamical Quasi Particle Model (DQPM) and the effective mass approach, for the drag force in a thermalized QGP and discuss the sensitivity of heavy quark energy loss on the properties of the QGP as well as on non-equilibrium dynamics
From gluon topology to chiral anomaly: Emergent phenomena in quark-gluon plasma
Liao, Jinfeng
2016-01-01
Heavy-ion collision experiments at RHIC and the LHC have found a new emergent phase of QCD, a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) that is distinctively different from either the low temperature hadron phase or the very high temperature weakly coupled plasma phase. Highly nontrivial emergent phenomena occur in such sQGP and two examples will be discussed in this contribution: the magnetic component of sQGP that stems from topologically nontrivial configurations in the gluon sector; and the anomalous chiral transport that arises as macroscopic manifestation of microscopic chiral anomaly in the quark sector. For both examples, their important roles in explaining pertinent heavy-ion data will be emphasized.
Collisional Energy Loss of a Heavy Quark in an Anisotropic Quark-Gluon Plasma
Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael
2004-01-01
We compute the leading-order collisional energy loss of a heavy quark propagating through a quark-gluon plasma in which the quark and gluon distributions are anisotropic in momentum space. Following the calculation outlined for QED in an earlier work we indicate the differences encountered in QCD and their effect on the collisional energy loss results. For a 20 GeV bottom quark we show that momentum space anisotropies can result in the collisional heavy quark energy loss varying with the angle of propagation by up to 50%. For low velocity quarks we show that anisotropies result in energy gain instead of energy loss with the energy gain focused in such a way as to accelerate particles along the anisotropy direction thereby reducing the momentum-space anisotropy. The origin of this negative energy loss is explicitly identified as being related to the presence of plasma instabilities in the system.
From gluon topology to chiral anomaly: Emergent phenomena in quark-gluon plasma
Liao, Jinfeng
2017-01-01
Heavy-ion collision experiments at RHIC and the LHC have found a new emergent phase of QCD, a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) that is distinctively different from either the low temperature hadron phase or the very high temperature weakly coupled plasma phase. Highly nontrivial emergent phenomena occur in such sQGP and two examples will be discussed in this contribution: the magnetic component of sQGP that stems from topologically nontrivial configurations in the gluon sector; and the anomalous chiral transport that arises as macroscopic manifestation of microscopic chiral anomaly in the quark sector. For both examples, their important roles in explaining pertinent heavy-ion data will be emphasized.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pari Sharareh Mehrabi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The “Laplace Transform Method” is used to solve the Fokker-Plank equation for finding the time evolution of the heavy quarks distribution functions such as charm and bottom in quark gluon plasma. These solutions will lead us to calculation of nuclear suppression factor RAA. The results have good agreement with available experiment data from the PHENIX collaboration.
Properties of Non-Conformal Quark Gluon Plasma of Holographic QCD Models from Compactified D4 Branes
Naji, J.
2016-08-01
In this article, we obtain some thermodynamics quantities of non-conformal gluonic matter. We extract specific heat, enthalpy and equation of state in terms of the temperature. Using transport properties we find important quantities of corresponding quark gluon plasma like drag force and jet-quenching.
Collective phenomena in the non-equilibrium quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schenke, Bjoern Peter
2008-07-03
In this work we study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quark-gluon plasma, as created in heavy-ion collisions. We investigate how big of a role plasma instabilities can play in the isotropization and equilibration of a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we determine, among other things, how much collisions between the particles can reduce the growth rate of unstable modes. This is done both in a model calculation using the hard-loop approximation, as well as in a real-time lattice simulation combining both classical Yang-Mills-fields as well as inter-particle collisions. The new extended version of the simulation is also used to investigate jet transport in isotropic media, leading to a cutoff-independent result for the transport coefficient q. The precise determination of such transport coefficients is essential, since they can provide important information about the medium created in heavy ion collisions. In anisotropic media, the effect of instabilities on jet transport is studied, leading to a possible explanation for the experimental observation that high-energy jets traversing the plasma perpendicular to the beam axis experience much stronger broadening in rapidity than in azimuth. The investigation of collective modes in the hard-loop limit is extended to fermionic modes, which are shown to be all stable. Finally, we study the possibility of using high energy photon production as a tool to experimentally determine the anisotropy of the created system. Knowledge of the degree of local momentum-space anisotropy reached in a heavy-ion collision is essential for the study of instabilities and their role for isotropization and thermalization, because their growth rate depends strongly on the anisotropy. (orig.)
Dileptons from a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma at Finite Baryon Density
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUAN Na-Na; HE Ze-Jun; LONG Jia-Li; CAI Xiang-Zhou
2008-01-01
We perform a complete calculation for the delepton production from the processes q(q-) →l(l-), Compton-like (qg→ql(l-),(q-)g→ql(l-)), q(q-)→gl(l-), gluon fusion g(g-)→c(c-), annihilation q(q-)→c(c-) as well as multiple scattering of quarks in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma system at finite baryon density. It is found that quark-antiquark annihilation,Compton-like, gluon fusion and multiple scattering of quarks give important contribution. Moreover, the increase of the quark phase life-time with increasing initial quark chemical potential makes the dilepton yield as an increasing function of the initial quark chemical potential.
Jet-Medium Interactions at NLO in a Weakly-Coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma
Ghiglieri, Jacopo; Teaney, Derek
2015-01-01
We present an extension to next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant $g$ of the AMY effective kinetic approach to the energy loss of high momentum particles in the quark-gluon plasma. At leading order, the transport of jet-like particles is determined by elastic scattering with the thermal constituents, and by inelastic collinear splittings induced by the medium. We reorganize this description into collinear splittings, high-momentum-transfer scatterings, drag and diffusion, and particle conversions (momentum-preserving identity-changing processes). We show that this reorganized description remains valid to NLO in $g$, and compute the appropriate modifications of the drag, diffusion, particle conversion, and inelastic splitting coefficients. In addition, a new kinematic regime opens at NLO for wider-angle collinear bremsstrahlung. These semi-collinear emissions smoothly interpolate between the leading order high-momentum-transfer scatterings and collinear splittings. To organize the calculation, w...
On the Variational method for LPM Suppression of Photon Emission from Quark-Gluon Plasma
Sastry, S
2002-01-01
The photon emission rates from the quark gluon plasma have been studied considering LPM suppression effects. The integral equation for the transverse vector function (f(p)) that consists of multiple scattering effects has been solved using self-consistent iterations method. Empirical fits to the peak positions of the distributions from iteration method have been obtained for bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering (AWS) processes. The variational approach for f(p) calculation has been simplified considerably making some assumptions. Using this method, the photon emission rates at finite baryon density have been estimated. The LPM suppression factors for bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering (AWS) processes have been obtained as a function of photon energy and baryon density. The effect of baryon density has been shown to be rather weak and the suppression factors are similar to the zero density case. The suppression factors for AWS processes can be taken at zero density, whereas the bremsstr...
The quark gluon plasma equation of state and the expansion of the early Universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanches, S.M.; Navarra, F.S.; Fogaça, D.A., E-mail: david@if.usp.br
2015-05-15
Our knowledge of the equation of state of the quark gluon plasma has been continuously growing due to the experimental results from heavy ion collisions, due to recent astrophysical measurements and also due to the advances in lattice QCD calculations. The new findings about this state may have consequences on the time evolution of the early Universe, which can be estimated by solving the Friedmann equations. The solutions of these equations give the time evolution of the energy density and also of the temperature in the beginning of the Universe. In this work we compute the time evolution of the QGP in the early Universe, comparing several equations of state, some of them based on the MIT bag model (and on its variants) and some of them based on lattice QCD calculations. Among other things, we investigate the effects of a finite baryon chemical potential in the evolution of the early Universe.
The Quark-Gluon Plasma Equation of State and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. I. Abou-Salem
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The quark-gluon plasma (QGP equation of state within a minimal length scenario or Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP is studied. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle is implemented on deriving the thermodynamics of ideal QGP at a vanishing chemical potential. We find a significant effect for the GUP term. The main features of QCD lattice results were quantitatively achieved in case of nf=0, nf=2, and nf=2+1 flavors for the energy density, the pressure, and the interaction measure. The exciting point is the large value of bag pressure especially in case of nf=2+1 flavor which reflects the strong correlation between quarks in this bag which is already expected. One can notice that the asymptotic behavior which is characterized by Stephan-Boltzmann limit would be satisfied.
Deconfining Phase Transition to a Quark-Gluon Plasma in Different SU(3) Color Representations
Mezouar, K.; Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L.
2016-10-01
For a statistical description of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) considering its internal symmetry, we calculate its partition function using the group theoretical projection method. We project out the partition function of a QGP consisting of gluons, massless up and down quarks, and massive strange quarks onto the singlet representation of the SU(3) color group, as well as onto the color octet and the color 27-plet representations. A comparison of these color representations is done, by studying their effects on the behavior of some thermodynamical quantities characterizing the mixed hadronic gas-QGP system undergoing a thermal deconfining phase transition on one side, and on the free energy during the formation of a QGP droplet from the hot hadronic gas on another side.
Pion interferometry at RHIC: porobing a thermalized quark-gluon plasma?
Soff, S; Bass, S A; Dumitru, A
2001-04-30
We calculate the Gaussian radius parameters of the pion-emitting source in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, assuming a first-order phase transition from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma (QGP) to a gas of hadrons. Such a model leads to a very long-lived dissipative hadronic rescattering phase which dominates the properties of the two-pion correlation functions. The radii are found to depend only weakly on the thermalization time tau(i), the critical temperature Tc (and thus the latent heat), and the specific entropy of the QGP. The model calculations suggest a rapid increase of R(out)/R(side) as a function of KT if a thermalized QGP were formed.
Nonperturbative heavy-quark diffusion in the quark-gluon plasma.
van Hees, H; Mannarelli, M; Greco, V; Rapp, R
2008-05-16
We evaluate heavy-quark (HQ) transport properties in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) within a Brueckner many-body scheme employing interaction potentials extracted from thermal lattice QCD. The in-medium T matrices for elastic charm- and bottom-quark scattering off light quarks in the QGP are dominated by attractive meson and diquark channels which support resonance states up to temperatures of ~1.5T(c). The resulting drag coefficient increases with decreasing temperature, contrary to expectations based on perturbative QCD scattering. Employing relativistic Langevin simulations we compute HQ spectra and elliptic flow in sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. A good agreement with electron decay data supports our nonperturbative computation of HQ diffusion, indicative for a strongly coupled QGP.
Heavy-quark transport coefficients in a hot viscous quark-gluon plasma medium
Das, Santosh K; Alam, Jan-e
2012-01-01
The heavy-quark (HQ) transport coefficients have been estimated for a viscous quark-gluon plasma medium, utilizing a recently proposed quasi-particle description based on realistic QGP equation of state (EoS). Interactions entering through the equation of state significantly suppress the temperature dependence of the drag coefficient of QGP as compared to that of an ideal system of quarks and gluons. Inclusion of shear and bulk viscosities through the corrections to the thermal phase space factors of the bath particles alters the magnitude of the drag coefficient and the enhancement is significant at lower temperatures. The competition between the effects of realistic EoS and dissipative corrections through phase space factor the former eventually dictate how the drag coefficient would behave as a function of temperature, and how much quantitatively digress from the ideal case. The observations suggest significant impact of both the realistic equation of state, and the viscosities, on the HQs transport at RHI...
Flow at the SPS and RHIC as a Quark Gluon Plasma Signature
Teaney, D; Shuryak, E V
2001-01-01
Radial and elliptic flow in non-central heavy ion collisions can constrain the effective Equation of State(EoS) of the excited nuclear matter. To this end, a model combining relativistic hydrodynamics and a hadronic transport code(RQMD [17]) is developed. For an EoS with a first order phase transition, the model reproduces both the radial and elliptic flow data at the SPS. With the EoS fixed from SPS data, we quantify predictions at RHIC where the Quark Gluon Plasma(QGP) pressure is expected to drive additional radial and elliptic flow. Currently, the strong elliptic flow observed in the first RHIC measurements does not conclusively signal this nascent QGP pressure. Additional measurements are suggested to pin down the EoS.
Flow at the SPS and RHIC as a Quark-Gluon Plasma Signature
Teaney, D.; Lauret, J.; Shuryak, E. V.
2001-05-01
Radial and elliptic flow in noncentral heavy-ion collisions can constrain the effective equation of state (EOS) of the excited nuclear matter. To this end, a model combining relativistic hydrodynamics and a hadronic transport code [Sorge, Phys. Rev. C 52, 3291 (1995)] is developed. For an EOS with a first-order phase transition, the model reproduces both the radial and elliptic flow data at the SPS. With the EOS fixed from SPS data, we quantify predictions at RHIC where the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) pressure is expected to drive additional radial and elliptic flows. Currently, the strong elliptic flow observed in the first RHIC measurements does not conclusively signal this nascent QGP pressure.
Thermodynamics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma within a T-matrix approach
Lacroix, Gwendolyn; Buisseret, Fabien
2015-01-01
The strongly-coupled phase of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is studied here by resorting to a $T$-matrix formulation in which the medium is seen as a non-ideal gas of quasiparticles (quarks, antiquarks and gluons) interacting nonpertubatively. In the temperature range under study, (1-5) $T_c$, where $T_c$ is the temperature of deconfinement, the interactions are expected to be strong enough to generate bound states. The dissociation temperature of such binary bound states is thus computed here. The more the quasiparticles involved in the binary system are heavy, the more the bound state is likely to survive significantly above $T_c$. Then, the QGP equations of state at zero and small baryonic potential are computed for $N_f = 2$ and $N_f = 2 + 1$ by resorting to the Dashen, Ma and Bernstein formulation of statistical mechanics. Comparisons with current lattice QCD data are presented.
Criterion for reducible hydrodynamic equations of baryon-rich quark-gluon plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Besides the state equation there exists another cubic algebraic equation about μf in the form of μ3f + Pμf + q = 0, which relates parameters, temperature T, chemical potential μf, and net quark number nff (flavor f) for a baryon-rich quark-gluon plasma (QGP). A criterion may be acquired simply according to Cardan formula of the solution of the above equation, which gives naturally a condition: if n 《 27rT3/3/ , one may approximately use the conservation of specific entropy, and then the set of hydrodynamic equation of baryon-rich QGP may be reduced to the sct of hydrodynamic equation for baryon-free QGP.
Thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma and dynamical formation of Bose-Einstein Condensate
Liao, Jinfeng
2012-01-01
We report recent progress on understanding the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma during the early stage in a heavy ion collision. The initially high overpopulation in the pre-equilibrium gluonic matter (``glasma'') is shown to play a crucial role. The strongly interacting nature (and thus fast evolution) naturally arises as an {\\em emergent property} of this pre-equilibrium matter where the intrinsic coupling is weak but the highly occupied gluon states coherently amplify the scattering. A possible transient Bose-Einstein Condensate is argued to form dynamically on a rather general ground. We develop the kinetic approach for describing this highly overpopulated system and find approximate scaling solutions as well as numerically study the onset of condensation. Finally we discuss possible phenomenological implications.
Collective modes of an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma induced by relativistic jets
Mandal, Mahatsab
2012-01-01
We discuss the characteristics of collective modes induced by relativistic jets in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma(AQGP). Assuming a tsunami-like initial jet distribution, it is found that the dispersion relations for both the stable and unstable modes are modified substantially due to the passage of jet compared to the case when there is no jet. It has also been shown that the growth rate of instability first increases compared to the no jet case and then completely turned into damping except the case when the jet velocity is perpendicular to the wave vector in which case the instability always grows. Thus, the introduction of the jet in the AQGP, in general, might to faster isotropization for the special case when the wave vector is parallel to the anisotropy axis.
Dijet induced collective modes in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Mandal, Mahatsab
2012-01-01
We discuss the collective modes due to the propagation of two oppositely moving relativistic jets (dijet) in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma(AQGP) and compare the results with the case of single jet propagation. Assuming a tsunami-like initial jet distribution, it is found that the dispersion relations for both the stable and unstable modes are altered significantly due to the passage of dijet compared to the case of single jet propagation. It has also been shown that the growth rate of instability, due to introduction of dijet in the system, increases compared to the case of single jet case. As in the case of single jet propagation, the instability always grows when the jet velocity is perpendicular to the wave vector. We, thus, argue that the introduction of dijet in the AQGP, in general, leads to faster isotropization (than single jet propagation) for the special case when the wave vector is parallel to the anisotropy axis.
Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark-Gluon Plasma
Djordjevic, Magdalena
2015-01-01
Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark-Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, whic...
The sound produced by a fast parton in the quark-gluon plasma is a "crescendo"
Neufeld, R B
2009-01-01
We calculate the total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by fast partons traversing a quark-gluon plasma. The medium excitation due to collisions is taken to be given by the well known expression for the collisional drag force. The radiative energy loss of the parton contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. We derive a differential equation which governs how the spectrum of radiated gluons is modified when this energy loss is taken into account. This modified spectrum is then used to calculate the additional energy deposition due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. Numerical results are presented for the medium response for the case of two energetic back-to-back partons created in a hard interaction.
The sound generated by a fast parton in the quark-gluon plasma is a crescendo
Neufeld, R B
2009-01-01
The total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by a fast parton traversing a quark-gluon plasma is calculated. We take the medium excitation due to collisions to be given by the well known expression for the collisional drag force. The parton's radiative energy loss contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. In our model, this leads to a length dependence on the differential energy loss due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. The final result, which is a sum of the primary and the secondary contributions, is then treated as the coefficient of a local hydrodynamic source term. Results are presented for energy density wave induced by two fast, back-to-back partons created in an initial hard interaction.
Sound Produced by a Fast Parton in the Quark-Gluon Plasma is a ``Crescendo''
Neufeld, R. B.; Müller, B.
2009-07-01
We calculate the total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by fast partons traversing a quark-gluon plasma. The medium excitation due to collisions is taken to be given by the well-known expression for the collisional drag force. The radiative energy loss of the parton contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. We derive a differential equation which governs how the spectrum of radiated gluons is modified when this energy loss is taken into account. This modified spectrum is then used to calculate the additional energy deposition due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. Numerical results are presented for the medium response for the case of two energetic back-to-back partons created in a hard interaction.
Sound produced by a fast parton in the quark-gluon plasma is a "crescendo".
Neufeld, R B; Müller, B
2009-07-24
We calculate the total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by fast partons traversing a quark-gluon plasma. The medium excitation due to collisions is taken to be given by the well-known expression for the collisional drag force. The radiative energy loss of the parton contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. We derive a differential equation which governs how the spectrum of radiated gluons is modified when this energy loss is taken into account. This modified spectrum is then used to calculate the additional energy deposition due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. Numerical results are presented for the medium response for the case of two energetic back-to-back partons created in a hard interaction.
Turbulent chromo-fields and thermal particle production in quark-gluon plasma medium
Chandra, Vinod
2016-01-01
The Weibel type instabilities appear in the expanding quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, due to the presence of momentum-space anisotropy, are responsible for the generation of the turbulent color fields. The ensemble averaged (ensemble of the turbulent fields) effective diffusive Vlasov equation, for the modified momentum distribution functions of the quarks and gluons encodes the physics of such instability and leads to the anomalous transport process in the QGP medium. In the present case, the solution of the linearized transport equation for the modified momentum distribution functions has been served as the modeling for the non-equilibrium momentum distribution functions for the QGP degrees of freedom. The strength of anisotropy has been related to a phenomenologically obtained jet-quenching parameter, $\\hat{q}$. We have computed the contribution of these anisotropic terms to the thermal dilepton production rates. The production rate has been seen to be appreciably sensitive t...
Initial energy density of quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, C.Y.
1984-01-01
Recently, there has been considerable interest in the central rapidity region of highly relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Such an interest stems from the possibility of creating hadron matter of high energy density which may exceed the critical energy density for a phase transition between ordinary confined matter and the unconfined quark-gluon plasma. The experimental searches and identification of the quark-gluon plasma may provide a new insight into the question of quark confinement. The estimate of the initial energy density is quite uncertain. The initial energy density is nonetheless an important physical quantity. It is one of the factors which determines whether the produced matter can undergo phase transition or not. The energy density has been estimated previously by using the color neutralization model of Brodsky et al. However, the color neutralization model gives a central rapidity multiplicity in heavy-ion collision too low by a factor of two. For this reason, we wish to obtain a better estimate of the energy density (in the central rapidity region). As is well known, a simple Glauber-type multiple collision model can reproduce the total multiplicity and multiplicity plateau near the central rapidity region to within 30%. The simple multiple collision model has an approximate validity as a gross description of the reaction process. We shall adopt a semiempirical approach. Using the multiple collision model and the thickness function of Glauber, we obtain analytical functional form for all the quantities in question. A single parameter, r/sub rms/, is adjusted to fit the experimental central rapidity multiplicity data. The semi-empirical results provide a useful tool to extrapolate to the unknown central rapidity region of heavy-ion collisions.
Real time observables for the quark-gluon plasma from the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Christian
2014-07-01
In this thesis we studied real time quantities and processes of the quark-gluon plasma. We employed the fundamental theory of QCD allowing for predictions from first principles. Treating QCD on the lattice enabled us to access non-perturbative regimes and for the very first time we computed a hydrodynamic transport coefficient without having to resort to maximum entropy methods or functional input. Furthermore we established a semi-classical formulation of QCD that we applied to investigate the effects of dynamic fermions as well as of using the correct colour group of QCD, SU(3), on the isotropization process of the quark-gluon plasma. In this work we have calculated the second order hydrodynamic transport coefficient κ for the Yang-Mills plasma using lattice perturbation theory and Monte Carlo simulations. From calculations both in strong and weak coupling limits, we expect a temperature dependence of κ∝T{sup 2}. In the investigated temperature range 2T{sub c}
On The Existence of a Holographic Description of the LHC Quark-Gluon Plasmas
McInnes, Brett
2016-01-01
Peripheral collisions of heavy ions can give rise to extremely intense magnetic fields. It has been suggested that these fields might invalidate the holographic description of the corresponding quark-gluon plasmas, assuming that these can be modelled by strongly coupled field theories. In the case of the plasmas produced in collisions at the RHIC facility (including in the beam energy scans), it is known how to deal with this problem: one has to take into account the large angular momenta generated in these plasmas, and the effects of the baryonic chemical potential. But this does not work for the plasmas produced in peripheral collisions at the LHC. However, these results neglect some (less significant) aspects of bulk physics; could it be that the problem is resolved by taking into account these lower-order effects? Here we use a bulk dilatonic field (fully compatible with boundary data, as well as with the asymptotically AdS character of the bulk geometry) as a model of these effects, and show that this is...
"Chemical" composition of the Quark-Gluon Plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Scardina, F; Plumari, S; Greco, V
2012-01-01
We study the evolution of the quark-gluon composition of the plasma created in ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (uRHIC's) employing a partonic transport theory that includes both elastic and inelastic collisions plus a mean fields dynamics associated to the widely used quasi-particle model. The latter, able to describe lattice QCD thermodynamics, implies a "chemical" equilibrium ratio between quarks and gluons strongly increasing as $T\\rightarrow T_c$, the phase transition temperature. Accordingly we see in realistic simulations of uRHIC's a rapid evolution from a gluon dominated initial state to a quark dominated plasma close to $T_c$. The quark to gluon ratio can be modified by about a factor of $\\sim 20$ in the bulk of the system and appears to be large also in the high $p_T$ region. We discuss how this aspect, often overflown, can be essential for a quantitative study of several key issues in the QGP physics: shear viscosity, jet quenching, quarkonia suppression. Furthemore a bulk plasma made by mo...
Evolution of Baryon Rich Quark-Gluon Plasma and radiation of Single Photons
Sastry, S; Mohanty, A K; Srivastava, D K
2002-01-01
The (3+1) dimensional expansion of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) produced at finite baryon density has been studied using relativistic hydrodynamical approach. The pressure functional of the equation of state (EoS) has been determined for the interacting nuclear matter with mesons exchange. The EoS has been used to solve hydrodynamical equations using RHLLE algorithm. The space time expansion of the plasma has been studied for the cases of SPS energy and RHIC energy both at finite baryon density and for a hypothetical case of SPS energy at zero baryon density. The space-time evolution is slowed and the life times of QGP and mixed phases are shortened in the presence of finite baryon density. The space time integrated total photon yields have been estimated by convoluting the static emission rates with the space time expansion of the plasma. It has been shown that the total photon yield at zero rapidity is not significantly affected by the baryon density for SPS energy. The total photon yield is unaffected by t...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LONG Jia-Li; HE Ze-Jun; MA Yu-Gang
2006-01-01
@@ We investigate hard photon production of the near-collinear bremsstrahlung and a new process called the inelastic pair annihilation, fully including the LPM effect, in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density, and find that the effect of the system evolution on the photon production and large contribution of the bremsstrahlung make the total photon yield of the two processes as a strongly increasing function of the initial quark chemical potential.
Empirical Emission Functions for LPM Suppression of Photon Emission from Quark-Gluon Plasma
Sastry, S
2003-01-01
The LPM suppression of photon emission rates from the quark gluon plasma have been studied at different physical conditions of the plasma given by temperature and chemical potentials.The integral equation for the transverse vector function (f(p_t)) consisting of multiple scattering effects is solved for the parameter set {p,k,kappa,T}, for bremsstrahlung and AWS processes. The peak positions of these distributions depend only on the dynamical variable x=(T/kappa)|1/p-1/(p+k)|. Integration over these distributions multiplied by x^2 factor also depends on this variable x,leading to a unique global emission function g(x) for all parameters. Empirical fits to this dimensionless emission function, g(x), are obtained. The photon emission rate calculations with LPM suppression effects reduce to one dimensional integrals involving folding over the empirical g(x) function with appropriate distribution functions and the kinematic factors. Using this approach, the suppression factors for both bremsstrahlung and AWS have...
Korteveg-de Vries solitons in a cold quark-gluon plasma
Fogaça, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.
2011-09-01
The relativistic heavy ion program developed at RHIC and now at LHC motivated a deeper study of the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and, in particular, the study of perturbations in this kind of plasma. We are interested on the time evolution of perturbations in the baryon and energy densities. If a localized pulse in baryon density could propagate throughout the QGP for long distances preserving its shape and without loosing localization, this could have interesting consequences for relativistic heavy ion physics and for astrophysics. A mathematical way to prove that this can happen is to derive (under certain conditions) from the hydrodynamical equations of the QGP a Korteveg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The solution of this equation describes the propagation of a KdV soliton. The derivation of the KdV equation depends crucially on the equation of state (EOS) of the QGP. The use of the simple MIT bag model EOS does not lead to KdV solitons. Recently we have developed an EOS for the QGP which includes both perturbative and nonperturbative corrections to the MIT one and is still simple enough to allow for analytical manipulations. With this EOS we were able to derive a KdV equation for the cold QGP.
Dilepton production by dynamical quasiparticles in the strongly interacting quark gluon plasma
Linnyk, O
2010-01-01
The dilepton production by the constituents of the strongly interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP) is addressed. In order to make quantitative predictions at realistically low plasma temperatures (O(T_c)), experimentally relevant low dilepton mass (O(1 GeV)) and strong coupling (alphaS=0.5-1), we take into account not only the higher order pQCD reaction mechanisms, but also the non-perturbative spectral functions (off-shellness) and self-energies of the quarks, anti-quarks and gluons thus going beyond the leading twist. For this purpose, our calculations utilize parametrizations of the non-perturbative propagators for quarks and gluons provided by the dynamical quasi-particle model (DQPM) matched to reproduce lattice data. The DQPM describes QCD properties in terms of single-particle Green's functions (in the sense of a two-particle irreducible approach) and leads to the notion of the constituents of the sQGP being effective quasiparticles, which are massive and have broad spectral functions (due to large inte...
Recent Results on Soft Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma from the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC
Przybycien, M; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
Measurements of low-pT (< 5 GeV) particle production have provided valuable insight on the production and evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. In particular, measurements of elliptic and higher order collective flow imprinted on the azimuthal angle distributions of low-pT particles directly probe the strongly-coupled dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma and test hydrodynamic model descriptions of its evolution. The large acceptance of detectors like ATLAS has made it possible to measure flow event-by-event and to determine the correlations between different harmonics. Recent measurements of low-pT particle production and multi-particle correlations in proton-lead collisions have shown features similar to the collective flow observed in Pb+Pb collisions. Results will be presented from a variety of single and multi-particle measurements in Pb+Pb and proton-Pb collisions that probe the collective dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma and possibly provide evidence for collectivity in ...
Soft Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with ALICE at LHC
Vernet, Renaud
2009-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) should start its activity of data taking by the end of summer 2009, and will provide beams of p-p and Pb-Pb at colliding energies up to 14 TeV and 5.5 ATeV respectively. The Pb-Pb heavy-ion program aims at reaching the necessary conditions to create a deconfined state of partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), whose study is one of the most exciting physics topics to be explored thanks to the possibilites offered by this new-generation accelerator. In particular, the "soft" observables related to low and intermediate pT processes, will shed light on many fundamental properties of the system, such as thermodynamic parameters, chemical composition, expansion velocity etc. The p-p collisions will be of great interest as well, since they will serve as an essential reference for heavy ions. ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of the QGP. Its large acceptance and low magnetic field make it particularly suited for the study of soft pheno...
Are direct photons a clean signal of a thermalized quark gluon plasma?
Boyanovsky, D
2003-01-01
Direct photon production from a quark gluon plasma (QGP) in thermal equilibrium is studied directly in real time. In contrast to the usual S-matrix calculations, the real time approach is valid for a QGP that formed and reached LTE a short time after a collision and of finite lifetime ($\\sim 10-20 \\mathrm{fm}/c$ as expected at RHIC or LHC). We point out that during such finite QGP lifetime the spectrum of emitted photons carries information on the initial state. There is an inherent ambiguity in separating the virtual from the observable photons during the transient evolution of the QGP. We propose a real time formulation to extract the photon yield which includes the initial stage of formation of the QGP parametrized by an effective time scale of formation $\\Gamma^{-1}$. This formulation coincides with the S-matrix approach in the infinite lifetime limit. It allows to separate the virtual cloud as well as the observable photons emitted during the pre- equilibrium stage from the yield during the QGP lifetime....
Hadron production in relativistic heavy ion interactions and the search for the quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tannenbaum, M.J.
1989-12-01
The course starts with an introduction, from the experimentalist's point of view, of the challenge of measuring Relativistic Heavy Ion interactions. A review of some theoretical predictions for the expected signatures of the quark gluon plasma will be made, with a purpose to understand how they relate to quantities which may be experimentally measured. A short exposition of experimental techniques and details is given including charged particles in matter, momentum resolution, kinematics and Lorentz Transformations, calorimetry. Principles of particle identification including magnetic spectrometers, time of flight measurement. Illustrations using the E802 spectrometer and other measured results. Resolution smearing of spectra, and binning effects. Parent to daughter effects in decay, with {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma} {gamma} as an example. The experimental situation from the known data in p -- p collisions and proton-nucleus reactions is reviewed and used as a basis for further discussions. The Cronin Effect'' and the Seagull Effect'' being two arcana worth noting. Then, selected experiments from the BNL and CERN heavy ion programs are discussed in detail. 118 refs., 45 figs.
On magnetization of quark-gluon plasma at the LHC experiment energies
Skalozub, V
2016-01-01
Large scale chromomagnetic, B_3, B_8, and usual magnetic,H, fields have to be generated in QCD after the deconfinement phase transition (DPT) at temperatures T larger than deconfinement temperature T_d. The two former fields are created spontaneously due to asymptotic freedom of gluon intaractions. Whereas H is produced due to either the feature of quarks to possess both electric and color charges or a vacuum polarization in this case. At the polarization, the vacuum quark loops mix the external fields. As a result, B_3, B_8 become the sources generating H. The latter field appears at $T$ much lower than the electroweak phase transition temperature T_ew. This mechanism should exhibit itself at the LHC experiments on heavy ion collisions. It operates at the one-loop diagram level for an effective potential. The created fields are temperature dependent and occupying the macroscopic volume of quark-gluon plasma. The magnetization influences different processes and may serve as a signal for the DPT.
A rotation/magnetism analogy for the quark-gluon plasma
McInnes, Brett
2016-10-01
In peripheral heavy ion collisions, the Quark-Gluon Plasma that may be formed often has a large angular momentum per unit energy. This angular momentum may take the form of (local) rotation. In many physical systems, rotation can have effects analogous to those produced by a magnetic field; thus, there is a risk that the effects of local rotation in the QGP might be mistaken for those of the large genuine magnetic fields which are also known to arise in these systems. Here we use the gauge-gravity duality to investigate this, and we find indeed that, with realistic parameter values, local rotation has effects on the QGP (at high values of the baryonic chemical potential) which are not only of the same kind as those produced by magnetic fields, but which can in fact be substantially larger. Furthermore, the combined effect of rotation and magnetism is to change the shape of the main quark matter phase transition line in an interesting way, reducing the magnitude of its curvature; again, local rotation contributes to this phenomenon at least as strongly as magnetism.
Monte Carlo study of Quark Gluon Plasma using photon jet observables
Xing, Tian
2016-09-01
Relativistic heavy ion collisions create an exotic state of deconfined, nuclear matter called quark gluon plasma (QGP), providing an opportunity to study the strong interaction. In some particularly hard scattered events, a parton with high transverse momentum (pT) interacts with this medium before fragmenting into a spray of particles, called a jet. Jet properties of heavy ion collisions can be modified relative to expectations from pp collisions; this effect is called jet quenching. Measurement of the jet internal structure can provide information about this effect and about the medium itself. On the other hand, studying systems whose jets are recoiled against photons coming from an initial scattering offers a way to calibrate the momentum of the modified jet. Since photons do not carry color charge, they escape the QGP with their initial momentum intact. On this poster, results using the Monte Carlo event generators Pythia and JEWEL will be presented for fragmentation functions and jet suppression from photon-jet events, alongside experimental data from CMS and ATLAS at a center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV. Predictions are also presented for lead-lead collisions at a center of mass energy of 5.02 TeV.
Probing Quark-Gluon-Plasma properties with a Bayesian model-to-data comparison
Cai, Tianji; Bernhard, Jonah; Ke, Weiyao; Bass, Steffen; Duke QCD Group Team
2016-09-01
Experiments at RHIC and LHC study a special state of matter called the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), where quarks and gluons roam freely, by colliding relativistic heavy-ions. Given the transitory nature of the QGP, its properties can only be explored by comparing computational models of its formation and evolution to experimental data. The models fall, roughly speaking, under two categories-those solely using relativistic viscous hydrodynamics (pure hydro model) and those that in addition couple to a microscopic Boltzmann transport for the later evolution of the hadronic decay products (hybrid model). Each of these models has multiple parameters that encode the physical properties we want to probe and that need to be calibrated to experimental data, a task which is computationally expensive, but necessary for the knowledge extraction and determination of the models' quality. Our group has developed an analysis technique based on Bayesian Statistics to perform the model calibration and to extract probability distributions for each model parameter. Following the previous work that applies the technique to the hybrid model, we now perform a similar analysis on a pure-hydro model and display the posterior distributions for the same set of model parameters. We also develop a set of criteria to assess the quality of the two models with respect to their ability to describe current experimental data. Funded by Duke University Goldman Sachs Research Fellowship.
What RHIC Experiments and Theory tell us about Properties of Quark-Gluon Plasma ?
Shuryak, E V
2004-01-01
This brief review summarizes the main experimental discoveries made at RHIC and then discusses their implications. The robust collective flow phenomena are well described by ideal hydrodynamics, with the Equation of State (EoS) predicted by lattice simulations. However the transport properties turned out to be unexpected, with rescattering cross section one-to-two orders of magnitude larger than expected from perturbative QCD. These and other theoretical developments indicate that Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region $T_c
Equation of state for hot quark-gluon plasma transitions to hadrons with full QCD potential
Sheikholeslami-Sabzevari, Bijan
2002-05-01
A practical method based on Mayer's cluster expansion to calculate critical values for a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase transition to hadrons is represented. It can be applied to a high-temperature QGP for clustering of quarks to mesons and baryons. The potential used is the Cornell potential, i.e., a potential containing both confining and gluon exchange terms. Debye screening effects are included. An equation of state (EOS) for hadron production is found by analytical methods, which is valid near the critical point. The example of the formation of J/ψ and Υ is recalculated. It is shown that in the range of temperatures available by today's accelerators, the latter particles are suppressed. This is further confirmation for heavy quarkonia suppression and, hence, for a signature of a QGP. The EOS presented here also shows that in future colliders there will be no heavy quarkonia production by the mechanism of phase transition. Hence, if there will be heavy quarkonia production, it must be based on some other mechanisms, perhaps on the basis of some recently suggested possibilities.
Heavy-quark transport coefficients in a hot viscous quark-gluon plasma medium
Das, Santosh K.; Chandra, Vinod; Alam, Jan-e.
2014-01-01
Heavy-quark (HQ) transport coefficients have been estimated for a viscous quark-gluon plasma (QGP) medium, utilizing a recently proposed quasi-particle description based on a realistic QGP equation of state (EoS). Interactions entering through the EoS significantly suppress the temperature dependence of the drag coefficient of QGP, compared to those of an ideal relativistic system of quarks and gluons. The inclusion of shear and bulk viscosities through the corrections to the thermal phase space factors of the bath particles alters the magnitude of the drag coefficient; the enhancement is significant at lower temperatures. In the competition between the effects of the EoS and dissipative corrections through phase space factors, the former eventually dictate how the drag coefficient would behave as a function of temperature and how much it quantitatively digresses from the ideal case. The observations suggest a significant impact of both the realistic EoS and the viscosities on the HQs transport at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider collision energies.
Spinodal Instabilities of Baryon-Rich Quark-gluon Plasma in the PNJL Model
Li, Feng
2016-01-01
Using the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinia (PNJL) model, we study the spinodal instability of a baryon-rich quark-gluon plasma in the linear response theory. We find that the spinodal unstable region in the temperature and density plane shrinks with increasing wave number of the unstable mode and is also reduced if the effect of Polyakov loop is not included. In the small wave number or long wavelength limit, the spinodal boundaries in both cases of with and without the Polyakov loop coincide with those determined from the isothermal spinodal instability in the thermodynamic approach. Also, the vector interactions among quarks is found to suppress unstable modes of all wave numbers. Moreover, the growth rate of unstable modes initially increases with the wave number but is reduced when the wave number becomes large. Including the collisional effect from quark scattering via the linearized Boltzmann equation, we further find that it decreases the growth rate of unstable modes of all wave numbers. Relevance of these...
Perfect Fluidity of the Quark Gluon Plasma Core as Seen through its Dissipative Hadronic Corona
Hirano, T; Hirano, Tetsufumi; Gyulassy, Miklos
2006-01-01
The agreement of hydrodynamic predictions of differential elliptic flow and radial flow patterns with Au+Au data is one of the main lines of evidence suggesting the nearly perfect fluid properties of the strongly coupled Quark Gluon Plasma, sQGP, produced at RHIC. We study the sensitivity of this conclusion to different hydrodynamic assumptions on chemical and thermal freezeout after the sQGP hadronizes. We show that if chemical freezeout occurs at the hadronization time, the differential elliptic flow for pions increase with proper time in the late hadronic phase until thermal freezeout and leads to a discrepancy with the data. In contrast, if both chemical and thermal equilibrium are maintained past the hadronization, then the mean pT per pion increases in a way that accidentally preserves v2(pT) from the sQGP phase in agreement with the data, but at the cost of the agreement with the hadronic yields. In order that all the data on hadronic ratios, radial flow, and differential elliptic flow be reproduced, t...
Resummation of Jet Shapes and Extracting Properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Chien, Yang-Ting
2014-01-01
Understanding the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that is produced in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions has been one of the top priorities of the heavy ion program at the LHC. Energetic jets are produced and subsequently quenched in the collisions. Such jet quenching phenomena provide promising tools to probe the medium properties by studying the modification of jets due to the medium interactions. Significant modifications of jet shapes have been measured. In this talk we focus on the calculation of jet shapes in both proton-proton and lead-lead collisions using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), with Glauber gluon interactions in the medium. Large logarithms in jet shapes are resummed at next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy by the renormalization-group evolution between hierarchical jet scales. The medium interactions contribute as power corrections, and we calculate the modification of jet shapes at leading order in opacity with the static QGP model. Preliminary results ar...
Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark-Gluon Plasma
Djordjevic, Magdalena
2016-12-01
Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark-Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive) dataset.
Electrical Conductivity of Quark-Gluon Plasma in Strong Magnetic Fields
Hattori, Koichi
2016-01-01
We compute the electrical conductivity of quark-gluon plasma in a strong magnetic field $B$ with quantum field theory at finite temperature using the lowest Landau level approximation. We provide the one-loop result arising from 1-to-2 scattering processes whose kinematics are satisfied by the (1+1) dimensional fermion dispersion relation. Due to the chirality conservation, the conductivity diverges in the massless limit, and is sensitive to the value of the current quark mass. As a result, we find that the conductivity along the direction of the magnetic field is quite large compared with the value at $B=0$, mainly because of the small value of the current quark mass. We show that the resummation of the ladder diagrams for the current-current correlator gives rise to only sub-leading contributions beyond the leading-log order, and thus verify our one-loop result at the leading-log accuracy. We also discuss possible implications for the relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
Perturbative and nonperturbative aspects of jet quenching in near-critical quark-gluon plasmas
Xu, Jiechen
In this thesis, we construct two QCD based energy loss models to perform quantitative analysis of jet quenching observables in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and the LHC. We first build up a perturbative QCD based CUJET2.0 jet flavor tomography model that couples the dynamical running coupling DGLV opacity series to bulk data constrained relativistic viscous hydrodynamic backgrounds. It solves the strong heavy quark energy loss puzzle at RHIC and explains the surprising transparency of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the LHC. The observed azimuthal anisotropy of hard leading hadrons requires a path dependent jet-medium coupling in CUJET2.0 that implies physics of nonperturbative origin. To explore the nonperturbative chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic structure of the strongly-coupled QGP through jet probes, we build up a new CUJET3.0 framework that includes in CUJET2.0 both Polyakov loop suppressed semi-QGP chromo-electric charges and emergent chromo-magnetic monopoles in the critical transition regime. CUJET3.0 quantitatively describes the anisotropic hadron suppression at RHIC and the LHC. More significantly, it provides a robust connection between the long wavelength ``perfect fluidity'' of the QGP and the short distance jet transport in the QGP. This framework paves the way for ``measuring'' both perturbative and nonperturbative properties of the QGP, and more importantly for probing color confinement through jet quenching.
Quark production, Bose-Einstein condensates and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Yan, Li
2014-01-01
In this paper, we study the thermalization of gluons and N_f flavors of massless quarks and antiquarks in a spatially homogeneous system. First, two coupled transport equations for gluons and quarks (and antiquarks) are derived within the diffusion approximation of the Boltzmann equation, with only 2 2 processes included in the collision term. Then, these transport equations are solved numerically in order to study the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma. At initial time, we assume that no quarks or antiquarks are present and we choose the gluon distribution in the form f = f_0 theta (1-p/Q_s) with Q_s the saturation momentum and f_0 a constant. The subsequent evolution of systems may, or may not, lead to the formation of a (transient) Bose condensate, depending on the value of f_0. In fact, we observe, depending on the value of f_0, three different patterns: (a) thermalization without gluon Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) for f_0 1 > f_{0c}, the onset of BEC occurs at a finite time t_c ~ 1/((alpha_s f_0...
Applied string theory, hot and cold. A holographic view on quark-gluon plasma and superfluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samberg, Andreas Wilhelm
2015-12-21
This thesis deals with applications of gauge/gravity duality to strong-coupling phenomena in the quark-gluon plasma and far-from-equilibrium superfluids. In a first part we search for model-independent (universal) behavior in various non-Abelian gauge-theory plasmas at finite temperature and chemical potential. We employ the holographic duals of strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and three one-parameter families of non-conformal deformations thereof, two of which solve the equations of motion of a five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-scalar action. We study the free energy and associated thermodynamic quantities of heavy quarks and bound quark-anti-quark (Q anti Q) pairs as well as the Q anti Q binding energy and the running coupling. We find qualitative agreement with available lattice QCD data. Moreover, we show that several observables exhibit universal behavior for all values of the chemical potential. In a second part we investigate the real-time dynamics of a bosonic superfluid in two spatial dimensions after initial quenches that take the system to far-from-equilibrium states characterized by many topological vortex defects in association with quantum turbulence. To this end we numerically solve the full equations of motion of the holographically dual Abelian Higgs model on four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We observe a universal non-equilibrium late-time regime characterized by power-law behavior in a two-point correlation function and in characteristic length scales, which we interpret as a non-thermal fixed point.
Relating q ̂, η /s , and Δ E in an expanding quark-gluon plasma
Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, Isabel; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena
2016-08-01
We use linear viscous hydrodynamics to describe the energy and momentum deposited by a fast moving parton in a quark gluon plasma. This energy-momentum is in turn used to compute the probability density for the production of soft partons by means of the Cooper-Frye formula. We use this probability density to render manifest a relation between the average transverse momentum given to the fast moving parton from the medium q ̂, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η /s , and the energy lost by the fast moving parton Δ E in an expanding medium under similar conditions to those generated in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We find that q ̂ increases linearly with Δ E for both trigger and away side partons that have been produced throughout the medium. On the other hand, η /s is more stable with Δ E . We also study how these transport coefficients vary with the geometrical location of the hard scattering that produces the fast moving partons. The behavior of q ̂, with Δ E , is understood as arising from the length of medium the parton traverses from the point where it is produced. However, since η /s is proportional to the ratio of the length of medium traversed by the fast parton and the average number of scatterings it experiences, it has a milder dependence on the energy it loses. This study represents a tool to obtain a direct connection between transport coefficients and the description of in-medium energy loss within a linear viscous hydrodynamical evolution of the bulk.
What RHIC Experiments and Theory tell us about Properties of Quark-Gluon Plasma ?
Shuryak, E. V.
2004-01-01
This brief review summarizes the main experimental discoveries made at RHIC and then discusses their implications. The robust collective flow phenomena are well described by ideal hydrodynamics, with the Equation of State (EoS) predicted by lattice simulations. However the transport properties turned out to be unexpected, with rescattering cross section one-to-two orders of magnitude larger than expected from perturbative QCD. These and other theoretical developments indicate that Quark-Gluon...
Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, S. Somorendro
2016-07-01
We extend the previous study of dilepton production using [S. Somorendro Singh and Y. Kumar, Can. J. Phys. 92 (2014) 31] based on a simple quasiparticle model of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). In this model, finite value of quark mass uses temperature dependent chemical potential the so-called Temperature Dependent Chemical Potential Quark Mass (TDCPQM). We calculate dilepton production in the relevant range of mass region. It is observed that the production rate is marginally enhanced from the earlier work. This is due to the effect of TDCPQM and its effect is highly significant in the production of dilepton.
Niemi, H; Denicol, G S; Huovinen, P; Molnár, E; Rischke, D H
2011-05-27
We investigate the influence of a temperature-dependent shear viscosity over entropy density ratio η/s on the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow of hadrons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We find that the elliptic flow in √S(NN)=200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC is dominated by the viscosity in the hadronic phase and in the phase transition region, but largely insensitive to the viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). At the highest LHC energy, the elliptic flow becomes sensitive to the QGP viscosity and insensitive to the hadronic viscosity.
Berdnikov, Yu A; Ivanov, A N; Ivanova, V A; Kosmach, V F; Samsonov, V M; Troitskaya, N I; Berdnikov, Ya. A.
2000-01-01
We describe the quark gluon plasma (QGP) as a thermalized quark-gluon system, the thermalized QGP phase of QCD. The hadronization of the thermalized QGP phase is given in a way resembling a simple coalescence model. The input parameters of the approach are the spatial volumes of the hadronization. We introduce three dimensionless parameters C_M, C_B and C_\\bar{B} related to the spatial volumes of the production of low-lying mesons (M), baryons (B) and antibaryons (\\bar{B}). We show that at the temperature T= 175 MeV our predictions for the ratios of multiplicities agree good with the presently available set of hadron ratios measured for various experiments given by NA44, NA49, NA50 and WA97 Collaborations on Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon, NA35 Collaboration on S+S collisions and NA38 Collaboration on O+U and S+U collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon.
Bridging soft-hard transport properties of quark-gluon plasmas with CUJET3.0
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Jiechen [Department of Physics, Columbia University,538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University,2401 North Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory,Building 510A, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gyulassy, Miklos [Department of Physics, Columbia University,538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)
2016-02-25
A new model (CUJET3.0) of jet quenching in nuclear collisions coupled to bulk data constrained (VISH2+1D) viscous hydrodynamic backgrounds is constructed by generalizing the perturbative QCD based (CUJET2.0) model to include two complementary non-perturbative chromodynamical features of the QCD confinement cross-over phase transition near T{sub c}≈160 MeV: (1) the suppression of quark and gluon chromo-electric-charged (cec) degrees of freedom and (2) the emergence of chromo-magnetic-monopole (cmm) degrees of freedom. Such a semi Quark Gluon Monopole Plasma (sQGMP) microscopic scenario is tested by comparing predictions of the leading hadron nuclear modification factors, R{sub AA}{sup h}(p{sub T}>10GeV/c,√s), and their azimuthal elliptic asymmetry v{sub 2}{sup h}(p{sub T}>10GeV/c,√s) with available data on h=π,D,B jet fragments from nuclear collisions at RHIC(√s=0.2 ATeV) and LHC(√s=2.76 ATeV). The cmm degrees of freedom in the sQGMP model near T{sub c} are shown to solve robustly the long standing R{sub AA} vs v{sub 2} puzzle by predicting a maximum of the jet quenching parameter field q̂(E,T)/T{sup 3} near T{sub c}. The robustness of CUJET3.0 model to a number of theoretical uncertainties is critically tested. Moreover the consistency of jet quenching with observed bulk perfect fluidity is demonstrated by extrapolating the sQGMP q̂ down to thermal energy E∼3T scales and showing that the sQGMP shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s≈T{sup 3}/q̂ falls close to the unitarity bound, 1/4π, in the range (1−2)T{sub c}. Detailed comparisons of the CUJET2.0 and CUJET3.0 models reveal the fact that remarkably different q̂(T) dependence could be consistent with the same R{sub AA} data and could only be distinguished by anisotropy observables. These findings demonstrate clearly the inadequacy of focusing on the jet path averaged quantity 〈q̂〉 as the only relevant medium property to characterize jet quenching, and point to the crucial roles of
Towards the quark--gluon plasma Equation of State with dynamical strange and charm quarks
Burger, F; Lombardo, M P; Muller-Preussker, M; Trunin, A
2015-01-01
We present an ongoing project aimed at determining the thermodynamic Equation of State (EoS) of quark--gluon matter from lattice QCD with two generations of dynamical quarks. We employ the Wilson twisted mass implementation for the fermionic fields and the improved Iwasaki gauge action. Relying on $T=0$ data obtained by the ETM Collaboration the strange and charm quark masses are fixed at their physical values, while the pion mass takes four values in the range from 470 MeV down to 210 MeV. The temperature is varied within a fixed--lattice scale approach. The values for the pseudocritical temperature are obtained from various observables. For the EoS we show preliminary results for the pure gluonic contribution obtained at the pion mass value 370 MeV, where we can compare with previously obtained results with $N_f=2$ degenerate light flavours.
Jiang, Bing-feng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong
2016-10-01
We derive the electric permittivity ɛ and magnetic permeability μM of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with the kinetic theory associated with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collisional kernel. Based on them, we study the effect of collisions on the refractive index of QGP. Compared to the collisionless case, collisions change the ω -behavior of ɛ and μM dramatically, which is responsible for the fact that the real and imaginary parts of n2 and the Depine-Lakhtakia index nDL are smooth functions of ω . For a small collision rate ν , the Depine-Lakhtakia index nDL is negative in some frequency range. When the collision rate increases, the frequency range for nDLindex nDL is positive for all frequency regions, which indicates a normal refractive index. In contrast to the collisionless case, there exists some frequency range in which nDLnegative refractive index.
Effect of curvature on a statistical model of quark-gluon-plasma fireball in the hadronic medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Somorendro Singh; D S Gosain; Yogesh Kumar; Agam K Jha
2010-01-01
The free energy of a quark-gluon plasma fireball in the hadronic medium is calculated in the Ramanathan et al statistical model after incorporating the effect of curvature. The result with the inclusion of curvature is found to produce significant improvements in all the parameters we calculated with respect to the earlier results. The surface tension with this curvature effect is found to be $0.17 T_{c}^{3}$ , which is two times the earlier value of surface tension which is $0.078 T_{c}^{3}$ , and this new result is nearly close to the lattice value $0.24 T_{c}^{3}$. As far as transition is concerned, a thermodynamic variable like entropy shows weakly first-order phase transition and it shows continuity in the behaviour of specific heat.
Production and elliptic flow of dileptons and photons in a matrix model of the quark-gluon plasma.
Gale, Charles; Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Jeon, Sangyong; Lin, Shu; Paquet, Jean-François; Pisarski, Robert D; Satow, Daisuke; Skokov, Vladimir V; Vujanovic, Gojko
2015-02-20
We consider a nonperturbative approach to the thermal production of dileptons and photons at temperatures near the critical temperature in QCD. The suppression of colored excitations at low temperature is modeled by including a small value of the Polyakov loop, in a "semi"-quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Comparing the semi-QGP to the perturbative QGP, we find a mild enhancement of thermal dileptons. In contrast, to leading logarithmic order in weak coupling there are far fewer hard photons from the semi-QGP than the usual QGP. To illustrate the possible effects on photon and dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions, we integrate the rate with a simulation using ideal hydrodynamics. Dileptons uniformly exhibit a small flow, but the strong suppression of photons in the semi-QGP tends to weight the elliptical flow of photons to that generated in the hadronic phase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filinov, V.S.; Fortov, V.E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13, bd. 2, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 15, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Ivanov, Y.B. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow, Russia, National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Reseach, Joliot-Curie str. 6, Dubna, 141980, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
2015-02-01
Based on the constituent quasiparticle model of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), color quantum path-integral Monte-Carlo (PIMC) calculations of the thermodynamic properties of the QGP are performed. We extend our previous zero chemical potential simulations to the QGP at finite baryon chemical potential. The results indicate that color PIMC can be applied not only above the QCD critical temperature T{sub c} but also below T{sub c}. Besides reproducing the lattice equation of state our approach yields also valuable additional insight into the internal structure of the QGP, via the pair distribution functions of the various quasiparticles. In particular, the pair distribution function of gluons reflects the existence of gluon-gluon bound states at low temperatures and μ = 175 MeV, i.e. glueballs, while meson-like bound states are not found. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Akamatsu, Yukinao; Nonaka, Chiho; Takamoto, Makoto
2013-01-01
In this article, we present a state-of-the-art algorithm for solving the relativistic viscous hydrodynamic equation with QCD equation of state. The numerical method is based on the second-order Godunov method and has less numerical dissipation, which are crucial in describing of quark-gluon plasma in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We apply the algorithm to several numerical test problems such as sound wave propagation, shock tube and blast wave problems. In the sound wave propagation, the intrinsic {\\em numerical} viscosity is measured and its explicit expression is shown, which is the second-order of spatial resolution both in the presence and absence of {\\em physical} viscosity. The expression of the numerical viscosity can be used to determine the maximum cell size in order to accurately measure the effect of physical viscosity in the numerical simulation.
Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Wang, Xin-Nian
2016-01-01
A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model coupled with hydrodynamical background is established to describe the evolution of jet shower partons and medium excitations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We extend the LBT model to include both elastic and inelastic processes for light and heavy partons in the quark-gluon plasma. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is developed for the hadronization of heavy quarks. Within this framework, we investigate how heavy flavor observables depend on various ingredients, such as different energy loss and hadronization mechanisms, the momentum and temperature dependences of the transport coefficients, and the radial flow of the expanding fireball. Our model calculations show good descriptions of $D$ meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at the LHC and RHIC. The prediction for the Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$=5.02 TeV is provided.
Quark-Gluon Plasma in a Bag Model with a Soft Surface
Jacobsen, Rafael B.; Marranghello, Guilherme F.; Vasconcellos, César A. Z.; Mesquita, Alexandre
We analyze the implications of quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to model, respectively, two distinct phases of nuclear matter, a baryon-meson phase and a quark-gluon phase. We develop an equation of state (EoS) in the framework of a quark-meson coupling model for the hadron-meson phase using a new version of the fuzzy bag model with scalar-isoscalar, vector-isoscalar and vector-isovector meson-quark couplings and leptonic degrees of freedom as well as the constrains from chemical equilibrium, baryon number and electric charge conservation. We model the EoS for the QGP phase for asymptotically free massless quarks and gluons using the MIT approach and a temperature and baryon chemical potential dependent bag constant, B(T,μ), which allows an isentropic equilibrium phase transition from a QGP to a hadron gas as determined by thermodynamics. Our predictions yield the EoS and static global properties of neutron stars and protoneutron stars at low and moderate values of temperature. Our results are slightly modified in comparison to predictions based on the standard MIT bag model with a constant bag pressure B.
Equation of State for a Quark Gluon Plasma in the Fuzzy Bag Model
Jacobsen, R. B.; Vasconcellos, C. A. Z.; Bodmann, Bardo E. J.; Dillig, Manfred
2004-12-01
We study two distinct phases of nuclear matter, a baryon-meson phase and a quark-gluon phase (QGP). For the baryon-meson phase we develop an equation of state (EoS) using a quark-meson formulation based on a new version of the fuzzy bag model with scalar-isoscalar, vector-isoscalar and vector-isovector meson-quark couplings and leptonic degrees of freedom as well as the constraints of chemical equilibrium, baryon number and electric charge conservation. For the QGP phase we model an EoS for asymptotically free massless quarks and gluons using the MIT approach and a temperature and baryon chemical potential dependent bag constant, B(T,μ), which allows an isentropic equilibrium phase transition from a QGP to a hadron gas. Our main results indicate the EoS and static global properties of neutron stars and protoneutron stars at low and moderate values of temperature are slightly modified in comparison to the predictions based on the MIT bag model with a constant B.
Dynamical evolution of the chiral magnetic effect: applications to the quark-gluon plasma
Manuel, Cristina
2015-01-01
We study the dynamical evolution of the so-called chiral magnetic effect in an electromagnetic conductor. To this end, we consider the coupled set of corresponding Maxwell and chiral anomaly equations, and we prove that these can be derived from chiral kinetic theory. After integrating the chiral anomaly equation over space in a closed volume, it leads to a quantum conservation law of the total helicity of the system. A change in the magnetic helicity density comes together with a modification of the chiral fermion density. We study in Fourier space the coupled set of anomalous equations and we obtain the dynamical evolution of the magnetic fields, magnetic helicity density, and chiral fermion imbalance. Depending on the initial conditions we observe how the helicity might be transferred from the fermions to the magnetic fields, or vice versa, and find that the rate of this transfer also depends on the scale of wavelengths of the gauge fields in consideration. We then focus our attention on the quark-gluon pl...
Bernhard, Jonah E; Bass, Steffen A; Liu, Jia; Heinz, Ulrich
2016-01-01
We quantitatively estimate properties of the quark-gluon plasma created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions utilizing Bayesian statistics and a multi-parameter model-to-data comparison. The study is performed using a recently developed parametric initial condition model, TRENTO, which interpolates among a general class of particle production schemes, and a modern hybrid model which couples viscous hydrodynamics to a hadronic cascade. We calibrate the model to multiplicity, transverse momentum, and flow data and report constraints on the parametrized initial conditions and the temperature-dependent transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We show that initial entropy deposition is consistent with a saturation-based picture, extract a relation between the minimum value and slope of the temperature-dependent specific shear viscosity, and find a clear signal for a nonzero bulk viscosity.
Probing the Quark-Gluon Plasma from bottomonium production at forward rapidity with ALICE at the LHC
Marchisone, Massimiliano
The main goal of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is the study of the properties of the matter at very high temperatures and energy densities. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) predicts in these conditions the existence of a new phase of the matter whose components are deconfined in a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Heavy quarks (charm e bottom) are produced in the first stages of the collisions, before to interact with the medium. Therefore, the measurement of the quarkonia (cc and bb mesons) is of particular interest for the study of the QGP: their dissociation mainly due to the colour screening is sensible to the initial temperature of the medium. Previous measurements at the SPS and RHIC allowed to understand some characteristics of the system produced, but they also opened many questions. With an energy 14 times higher than RHIC, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN opened a new era for the study of the QGP properties. ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC experiment fully dedicated to the stu...
Relating $\\hat{q}$, $\\eta/s$ and $\\Delta E$ in an expanding Quark-Gluon Plasma
Ayala, Alejandro; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena
2016-01-01
We use linear viscous hydrodynamics to describe the energy and momentum deposited by a fast moving parton in a quark gluon plasma. This energy-momentum is in turn used to compute the probability density for the production of soft partons by means of the Cooper-Frye formula. We use this probability density to render manifest a relation between the average transverse momentum given to the fast moving parton from the medium $\\hat{q}$, the entropy density to shear viscosity ratio $\\eta/s$ and the energy lost by the fast moving parton $\\Delta E$ in an expanding medium under similar conditions to those generated in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. We find that $\\hat{q}$ increases linearly with $\\Delta E$ for both trigger and away side partons that have been produced throughout the medium. On the other hand, $\\eta/s$ is more stable with $\\Delta E$. We also study how these transport coefficients vary with the geometrical location of the hard scattering that produces the fast moving partons. The behavior of $\\ha...
Some Applications of Hard Thermal Loop Perturbation Theory in Quark Gluon Plasma
Haque, Najmul
2014-01-01
This thesis is mainly devoted to the study of thermodynamics for quantum Chromodynamics. In this thesis I apply hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory, which is a gauge-invariant reorganization of the conventional perturbative expansion for quantum gauge theories to study the thermodynamics of QCD in leading-order, next-to-leading-order and next-to-next-to-leading order at finite temperature and finite chemical potential. I also discuss about various order diagonal and off-diagonale quark number susceptibilities in leading order as well as beyond leading order. For all the observables, I compare our results with available lattice QCD data and we find good agreement. Along-with the computation of thermodynamic quantities of hot and dense matter, I also discuss about low mass dilepton rate from hot and dense medium using both perturbative and non-perturbative models and compare them with those from lattice gauge theory and in-medium hadron gas.
Comparison of Jet Quenching Formalisms for a Quark-Gluon Plasma "Brick"
Armesto, Nestor; Gale, Charles; Horowitz, William A.; Jacobs, Peter; Jeon, Sangyong; van Leeuwen, Marco; Majumder, Abhijit; Muller, Berndt; Qin, Guang-You; Salgado, Carlos A.; Schenke, Bjorn; Verweij, Marta; Wang, Xin-Nian; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2012-01-01
We review the currently available formalisms for radiative energy loss of a high-momentum parton in a dense strongly interacting medium. The underlying theoretical framework of the four commonly used formalisms is discussed and the differences and commonalities between the formalisms are highlighted. A quantitative comparison of the single gluon emission spectra as well as the energy loss distributions is given for a model system consisting of a uniform medium with a fixed length of L=2 fm and L=5 fm (the `Brick'). Sizable quantitative differences are found. The largest differences can be attributed to specific approximations that are made in the calculation of the radiation spectrum.
The thermalization of soft modes in non-expanding isotropic quark gluon plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.blaizot@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS/UMR 3681, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mehtar-Tani, Yacine [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States)
2017-05-15
We discuss the role of elastic and inelastic collisions and their interplay in the thermalization of the quark–gluon plasma. We consider a simplified situation of a static plasma, spatially uniform and isotropic in momentum space. We focus on the small momentum region, which equilibrates first, and on a short time scale. We obtain a simple kinetic equation that allows for an analytic description of the most important regimes. The present analysis suggests that the formation of a Bose condensate, expected when only elastic collisions are present, is strongly hindered by the inelastic, radiative, processes.
Bleicher, M; Bleicher, Marcus
2005-01-01
The excitation function of the in-plane directed flow of nucleons is studied within a non-equilibrium transport approach. It is demonstrated that a local minimum in the excitation function of the directed flow develops, which is not related to a transition into a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase. It is a consequence of the dynamical softening of the underlying equation of state, due to the onset of resonance matter and particle production. Thus, the interpretation of this minimum as a 'smoking gun' signature for the creation of a QGP is premature.
How big are the smallest drops of quark-gluon plasma?
Chesler, Paul M
2016-01-01
Using holographic duality, we present results for both head-on and off-center collisions of Gaussian shock waves in strongly coupled $\\mathcal N = 4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The shock waves superficially resemble Lorentz contracted colliding protons. The collisions results in the formation of a plasma whose evolution is well described by viscous hydrodynamics. The size of the produced droplet is $R \\sim 1/T_{\\rm eff}$ where $T_{\\rm eff}$ is the effective temperature, which is the characteristic microscopic scale in strongly coupled plasma. These results demonstrate the applicability of hydrodynamics to microscopically small systems and bolster the notion that hydrodynamics can be applied to heavy-light ion collisions as well as some proton-proton collisions.
Baryon stopping and quark-gluon plasma production at RHIC and LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyakhov, K.
2008-08-15
Strong chromofields developed at early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions give rise to the collective deceleration of net baryons from colliding nuclei. We have solved classical equations of motion for baryonic slabs under the action of time-dependent chromofield. We have studied sensitivity of the slab trajectories and their final rapidities to the initial strength and decay pattern of the chromofield as well as to the back reaction of produced plasma. This mechanism can naturally explain significant baryon stopping observed at RHIC, an average rapidity loss left angle {delta}y right angle {approx} 2. Using a Bjorken hydrodynamical model with particle producing source we also study the evolution of partonic plasma produced as the result of chromofield decay. Due to the delayed formation and expansion of plasma its maximum energy density is much lower than the initial energy density of the chromofield. It is shown that the net-baryon and produced parton distributions are strongly correlated in the rapidity space. The shape of net-baryon spectra in midrapidity region found in the BRAHMS experiment cannot be reproduced by only one value of chromofield energy density parameter {epsilon}{sub 0}, even if one takes into account novel mechanisms as fluctuations of color charges generated on the slab surface, and weak interaction of baryon-rich matter with produced plasma. The further step to improve our results is to take into account rapidity dependence of saturation momentum as explained in thesis. Different values of parameter {epsilon}{sub 0} has been tried for different variants of chromofield decay to fit BRAHMS data for net-baryon rapidity distribution. In accordance with our analysis, data for fragmentation region correspond to the lower chromofield energy densities than mid-rapidity region. {chi}{sup 2} analysis favors power-law of chromofield decay with corresponding initial chromofield energy density of order {epsilon}{sub f}=30 GeV/fm{sup 3}. (orig.)
Hydrodynamic transport coefficients for the non-conformal quark-gluon plasma from holography
Finazzo, Stefano I; Marrochio, Hugo; Noronha, Jorge
2014-01-01
In this paper we obtain holographic formulas for the transport coefficients $\\kappa$ and $\\tau_\\pi$ present in the second-order derivative expansion of relativistic hydrodynamics in curved spacetime associated with a non-conformal strongly coupled plasma described holographically by an Einstein+Scalar action in the bulk. We compute these coefficients as functions of the temperature in a bottom-up non-conformal model that is tuned to reproduce lattice QCD thermodynamics at zero baryon chemical potential. We directly compute, besides the speed of sound, 6 other transport coefficients that appear at second-order in the derivative expansion. We also give an estimate for the temperature dependence of 11 other transport coefficients taking into account the simplest contribution from non-conformal effects that appear near the QCD crossover phase transition. Using these results, we construct an Israel-Stewart-like theory in flat spacetime containing 13 of these 17 transport coefficients that should be suitable for ph...
Viewing the Chemical Evolution of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with Charge Balance Functions
Pratt, Scott
2013-01-01
Correlations from charge conservation are affected by when charge/anticharge pairs are created during the course of a relativistic heavy ion collision. For charges created early, balancing charges are typically separated by the order of one unit of spatial rapidity by the end of the collision, whereas those charges produced later in the collision are far more correlated. By analyzing correlations from STAR for different species, I show that one can distinguish the two separate waves of charge creation expected in a high-energy collision, one at early times when the QGP is formed and a second at hadronization. Further, I extract the density of up, down and strange quarks at in the QGP and find agreement at the 20% level with expectations for a chemically thermalized plasma.
Searching for Quark-Gluon Plasma(QGP) Bubble effects at RHIC/LHC
Lindenbaum, S J; Longacre, R S; 10.1140/epjc/s2003-01268-3
2003-01-01
Since the early eighties, we have shared with Leon Van Hove the following view. That if a QGP were produced in high energy heavy ion colliders, that its hadronization products would likely come from small localized in phase space bubbles of plasma. We develop a model based on HIJING, to which we added a ring of adjoining multiple bubbles in the central rapidity region. Our simulations were designed to be tested by the forthcoming RHIC STAR detector data for 65 GeV/n Au colliding with 65 GeV/n Au. We took into account background and resonance effects to allow a direct comparison with the data. Later 100 GeV/n Au colliding with 100 GeV/n Au and LHC data could also test these ideas. We used two charged particle correlation's as a sensitive method to test for bubbles.
The sound generated by a fast parton in the quark-gluon plasma is a crescendo
Neufeld, R. B.; Müller, B.
2009-11-01
The total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by a fast parton traversing a quarkgluon plasma is calculated. We take the medium excitation due to collisions to be given by the well known expression for the collisional drag force. The parton's radiative energy loss contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. In our model, this leads to a length dependence on the differential energy loss due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. The final result, which is a sum of the primary and the secondary contributions, is then treated as the coefficient of a local hydrodynamic source term. Results are presented for energy density wave induced by two fast, back-to-back partons created in an initial hard interaction.
The sound generated by a fast parton in the quark-gluon plasma is a crescendo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neufeld, R.B.; Mueller, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)
2009-11-01
The total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by a fast parton traversing a quarkgluon plasma is calculated. We take the medium excitation due to collisions to be given by the well known expression for the collisional drag force. The parton's radiative energy loss contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. In our model, this leads to a length dependence on the differential energy loss due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. The final result, which is a sum of the primary and the secondary contributions, is then treated as the coefficient of a local hydrodynamic source term. Results are presented for energy density wave induced by two fast, back-to-back partons created in an initial hard interaction.
The errant life of a heavy quark in the quark-gluon plasma
Meyer, Harvey B
2010-01-01
In the high-temperature phase of QCD, the heavy quark momentum diffusion constant determines, via a fluctuation-dissipation relation, how fast a heavy quark kinetically equilibrates. This transport coefficient can be extracted from thermal correlators via a Kubo formula. We present a lattice calculation of the relevant Euclidean correlators in the gluon plasma, based on a recent formulation of the problem in heavy-quark effective field theory (HQET). We find a $\\approx20%$ enhancement of the Euclidean correlator at maximal time separation as the temperature is lowered from $6T_c$ to $2T_c$, pointing to stronger interactions at lower temperatures. At the same time, the correlator becomes flatter from $6T_c$ down to $2T_c$, indicating a relative shift of the spectral weight to lower frequencies. A recent next-to-leading order perturbative calculation of the correlator agrees with the time dependence of the lattice data at the few-percent level. We estimate how much additional contribution from the $\\omega\\lesss...
Lacey, Roy A.; Reynolds, D.; Taranenko, A.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alexander, J. M.; Liu, Fu-Hu; Gu, Yi; Mwai, A.
2016-10-01
It is shown that the acoustic scaling patterns of anisotropic flow for different event shapes at a fixed collision centrality (shape-engineered events), provide robust constraints for the event-by-event fluctuations in the initial-state density distribution from ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The empirical scaling parameters also provide a dual-path method for extracting the specific shear viscosity {(η /s)}{QGP} of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in these collisions. A calibration of these scaling parameters via detailed viscous hydrodynamical model calculations, gives {(η /s)}{QGP} estimates for the plasma produced in collisions of Au + Au (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=0.2 {TeV}) and Pb + Pb (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=2.76 {TeV}). The estimates are insensitive to the initial-state geometry models considered.
Test of Quark-Gluon Plasma of Cylindrical Shape by Two-Pion Interferometry%柱形夸克胶子等离子体的2π干涉学检测
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈小凡; 杨学栋; 韩玲
2006-01-01
在2π干涉学中,对不同的π源,2π关联函数可以是不同的.如果在相对论重离子碰撞中出现柱形夸克胶子等离子体,π介子将从柱形夸克胶子等离子体表面发射,此时2π关联函数将出现一种特殊的振荡行为.这种振荡行为可以用来探明夸克胶子等离子体的存在性,同时也是相对论重离子碰撞中出现夸克胶子等离子体的一个信号.%The two-pion correlation functions are different for some pion source distributions in two-pion interferometry. If quark-gluon plasma of cylindrical shape is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions,the pion mesons will emit from the surface of quark-gluon plasma of cylindrical shape and the corresponding correlation function will have a special oscillation behavior. The oscillation behavior can be used to verify the existence of quark-gluon plasma and is also a signature of the appearance of quark-gluon plasma.
Berges, Jürgen; Reygers, Klaus; Tanji, Naoto; Venugopalan, Raju
2017-05-01
Recent classical-statistical numerical simulations have established the "bottom-up" thermalization scenario of Baier et al. [Phys. Lett. B 502, 51 (2001), 10.1016/S0370-2693(01)00191-5] as the correct weak coupling effective theory for thermalization in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We perform a parametric study of photon production in the various stages of this bottom-up framework to ascertain the relative contribution of the off-equilibrium "glasma" relative to that of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma. Taking into account the constraints imposed by the measured charged hadron multiplicities at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we find that glasma contributions are important especially for large values of the saturation scale at both energies. These nonequilibrium effects should therefore be taken into account in studies where weak coupling methods are employed to compute photon yields.
Chang, Ning-Bo; Qin, Guang-You
2016-08-01
We study the evolution of the full jet shower in quark-gluon plasma by solving a set of coupled differential transport equations for the three-dimensional momentum distributions of quarks and gluons contained in full jets. In our jet evolution equations, we include all partonic splitting processes as well as the collisional energy loss and transverse momentum broadening for both the leading and radiated partons of the full jets. Combining with a realistic (2 +1 )-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic simulation for the spacetime profiles of the hot and dense nuclear medium produced in heavy-ion collisions, we apply our formalism to calculate the nuclear modification of single inclusive full jet spectra, the momentum imbalance of photon-jet and dijet pairs, and the jet shape function (at partonic level) in Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 A TeV. The roles of various jet-medium interaction mechanisms on the full jet modification are studied. We find that the nuclear modification of jet shape is sensitive to the interplay of different interaction mechanisms as well as the energies of the full jets.
Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Song, Yu-Kun; Wang, Qun
2012-01-01
We calculate the shear (eta) and bulk (zeta) viscosities of a weakly coupled quark gluon plasma at the leading-log order with finite temperature T and quark chemical potential mu. We find that the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s increases monotonically with mu and eventually scales as (mu/T)^2 at large mu. In contrary, zeta/s is insensitive to mu. Both eta/s and zeta/s are monotonically decreasing functions of the quark flavor number N_f when N_f \\geq 2. This property is also observed in pion gas systems. Our perturbative calculation suggests that QCD becomes the most perfect (i.e. with the smallest eta/s) at mu=0 and N_f = 16 (the maximum N_f with asymptotic freedom). It would be interesting to test whether the currently smallest eta/s computed close to the phase transition with mu=0 and N_f = 0 can be further reduced by increasing N_f.
Mamo, Kiminad A
2016-01-01
We show that a massless quark moving at the speed of light $v=1$, in arbitrary direction, in a strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills (SYM) vacuum in the presence of strong magnetic field $\\mathcal{B}$, losses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on $\\mathcal{B}$, i.e., $\\frac{dE}{dt}=-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}$. In addition, we show that a heavy quark of mass $M$ moving at near the speed of light $v^2=v_{*}^2=1-\\frac{4\\pi^2 T^2}{\\mathcal{B}}\\simeq1$, in arbitrary direction, in a strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature $T$, in the presence of strong magnetic field $\\mathcal{B}\\gg T^2$, losses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on $\\mathcal{B}$, i.e., $\\frac{dE}{dt}=-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}v_{*}^2\\simeq-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}$.
利用不确定性关系计算夸克-胶子等离子体的寿命%To Calculate the Lifetime of Quark-gluon Plasma with Uncertainty Relation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王栋; 傅永平
2013-01-01
In this paper, the Uncertainty Relation is used to calculate the lifetime of quark-gluon plasma, this method avoids the complicated theoretical derivation, and the physical meaning and physical process is very clear.%利用不确定性关系可以计算出夸克-胶子等离子体的寿命，这种方法既避免了复杂的理论推导，又明确了物理过程和物理意义。
Quasi-Particle Degrees of Freedom versus the Perfect Fluid as Descriptors of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Levy, L A Linden; Rosen, C; Steinberg, P
2007-01-01
Approaches for understanding the hydrodynamic flow of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions of relativistic heavy ions are discussed, focusing on their implications for scenarios where quasi-particles are assumed to carry the thermodynamic degrees of freedom. Well-defined quasi-particle degrees of freedom are in principle inconsistent with inviscid hydrodynamics, which implies a vanishing mean free path. However, quasi-particles may play a role as the density of the medium decreases. It is thus an open question whether the freeze-out of the fluid stage proceeds directly into hadrons, or via a fleeting intermediate state with effectively-free constituent quarks, which may well be identified with QCD quasi-particle degrees of freedom. The empirical observation of the ``$n_q$'' scaling of elliptic flow \\cite{Adare:2006ti} (the universality of $v_2/n_q$ as a function of $(m_{T}-m)/n_q$, where $n_q$ is the number of constituent quarks in the hadron) is scrutinized in detail. It is found that, at all t...
Li, Shiyong; Yee, Ho-Ung
2016-01-01
We compute the jet quenching parameter $\\hat q$ of QCD plasma in the presence of strong magnetic field in both weakly and strongly coupled regimes. In weakly coupled regime, we compute $\\hat q$ in perturbative QCD at complete leading order (that is, leading log as well as the constant under the log) in QCD coupling constant $\\alpha_s$, assuming the hierarchy of scales $\\alpha_s eB\\ll T^2\\ll eB$. We consider two cases of jet orientations with respect to the magnetic field: 1) the case of jet moving parallel to the magnetic field, 2) the case jet moving perpendicular to the magnetic field. In the former case, we find $\\hat q\\sim \\alpha_s^2 (eB)T\\log(1/\\alpha_s)$, while in the latter we have $\\hat q\\sim \\alpha_s^2 (eB)T\\log(T^2/\\alpha_seB)$. In both cases, this leading order result arises from the scatterings with thermally populated lowest Landau level quarks. In strongly coupled regime described by AdS/CFT correspondence, we find $\\hat q\\sim \\sqrt{\\lambda}(eB)T$ or $\\hat q\\sim\\sqrt{\\lambda}\\sqrt{eB}T^2$ in the...
The Perfect Quark-Gluon Vertex Function
Orginos, K; Brower, Richard C; Chandrasekharan, S; Wiese, U J
1998-01-01
We evaluate a perfect quark-gluon vertex function for QCD in coordinate space and truncate it to a short range. We present preliminary results for the charmonium spectrum using this quasi-perfect action.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espagnon, B
2007-10-15
The Alice experiment is one of the four main LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments. It is dedicated to the study of a new state of matter: the quark gluon plasma, where quarks and gluons are no longer confined within hadrons. In this document, the physics issues that led to the construction of Alice dimuon spectrometer, are described. Then, the research and development on the dimuon spectrometer is presented. The different absorbers are described and experimental tests used to determine their dimensions are presented. The dimuon trigger built using the RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) streamer mode is then described along with the associated beam and cosmic tests and results. Finally, the tracking system is described in detail and more particularly all its electronics and the first station. The physics constraints on the expected performances of all these systems are clearly defined. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈勋; 冯笙琴
2016-01-01
首先利用Woods‐Saxon分布，计算相对论重离子碰撞磁场空间分布；并在此基础上考虑夸克胶子等离子体（QGP）的响应，假定QGP为理想导体情况下，研究磁场在QGP环境下的分布特征。%Spatial distributions of magnetic field are calculated in relativistic heavy ion collision based on Woods‐Saxon dis‐tribution .We further study the characteristics of magnetic field distribution while considering Quark gluon plasma (QGP) as an ideal conductor response in a QGP environment .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerin, Fabien [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Universite Blaise Pascal, U.F.R de Recherches Scientifiques et Techniques, 34, avenue Carnot - BP 185, 63006 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France)
2006-11-15
ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC detector dedicated to the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The main goal of ALICE is the study of a new phase of the nuclear matter predicted by the Quantum Chromodynamics theory (QCD): the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). One of the possible signatures is a suppression of quarkonia yields by color screening in the heavy ion collisions, in which the formation of the QGP is expected. The muon spectrometer will allow measuring of the quarkonia yields (J/{psi}, {upsilon}) in heavy ion collisions via their dimuon decay. A fast trigger, associated to muon spectrometer, has to select events with at least one muon or one dimuon by using a track search algorithm. The study of muon trigger performance will be presented with emphasis on the trigger efficiency and rates in Ar-Ar and Pb-Pb collisions. We will also present the reconstruction of unlike-sign dimuon mass spectrum with the ALICE muon spectrometer. The expected yields of Upsilon states will be extracted from a simulation based on a fit of this spectrum for one month running for Pb-Pb collisions and for different collision centralities. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaraket, H
2000-06-01
This work is devoted to photon and dilepton production in a quark gluon plasma. The theoretical framework in which the study is carried out is Thermal Field Theory, more precisely the hard thermal loop effective theory. Several features of the observables preclude a straightforward application of the effective theory and new tools had to be developed such as the counter term method to avoid double counting. The first part of my study concerns static virtual photon production where I show that important physical contributions are missing in the effective theory at one loop level and hence a two loop calculation is indispensable. Furthermore I give an analytic leading logarithmic estimate of this two loop result showing clearly the insufficiency of the effective theory. The second part of the work focuses on real and quasi real photon production. Again, important contributions arise at two loop level due to collinear divergences. For high mass dilepton the two loop calculation is sufficient. On the other hand, near the light cone photon production rate is non perturbative. Getting closer to the light cone coherent scattering effects (Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect) arise, which imply the resummation of an infinite series of diagrams. Still nearer the light cone we found a dependence on the non perturbative magnetic mass due to infrared singularities. (author)
Systematics of quark/gluon tagging
Gras, Philippe; Höche, Stefan; Kar, Deepak; Larkoski, Andrew; Lönnblad, Leif; Plätzer, Simon; Siódmok, Andrzej; Skands, Peter; Soyez, Gregory; Thaler, Jesse
2017-07-01
By measuring the substructure of a jet, one can assign it a "quark" or "gluon" tag. In the eikonal (double-logarithmic) limit, quark/gluon discrimination is determined solely by the color factor of the initiating parton ( C F versus C A ). In this paper, we confront the challenges faced when going beyond this leading-order understanding, using both parton-shower generators and first-principles calculations to assess the impact of higher-order perturbative and nonperturbative physics. Working in the idealized context of electron-positron collisions, where one can define a proxy for quark and gluon jets based on the Lorentz structure of the production vertex, we find a fascinating interplay between perturbative shower effects and nonperturbative hadronization effects. Turning to proton-proton collisions, we highlight a core set of measurements that would constrain current uncertainties in quark/gluon tagging and improve the overall modeling of jets at the Large Hadron Collider.
New signals of quark-gluon-hadron mixed phase formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bugaev, K.A.; Sagun, V.V.; Ivanytskyi, A.I.; Zinovjev, G.M. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Oliinychenko, D.R. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Goethe University, FIAS, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Nikonov, E.G. [JINR, Laboratory for Information Technologies, Dubna (Russian Federation); Taranenko, A.V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-08-15
Here we present several remarkable irregularities at chemical freeze-out which are found using an advanced version of the hadron resonance gas model. The most prominent of them are the sharp peak of the trace anomaly existing at chemical freeze-out at the center-of-mass energy 4.9 GeV and two sets of highly correlated quasi-plateaus in the collision energy dependence of the entropy per baryon, total pion number per baryon, and thermal pion number per baryon which we found at the center-of-mass energies 3.8-4.9 GeV and 7.6-10 GeV. The low-energy set of quasi-plateaus was predicted a long time ago. On the basis of the generalized shock-adiabat model we demonstrate that the low-energy correlated quasi-plateaus give evidence for the anomalous thermodynamic properties inside the quark-gluon-hadron mixed phase. It is also shown that the trace anomaly sharp peak at chemical freeze-out corresponds to the trace anomaly peak at the boundary between the mixed phase and quark gluon plasma. We argue that the high-energy correlated quasi-plateaus may correspond to a second phase transition and discuss its possible origin and location. Besides we suggest two new observables which may serve as clear signals of these phase transformations. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gelis, Francois [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France)
1998-12-01
The general framework of this work is thermal field theory, and more precisely the perturbative calculation of thermal Green`s functions. In a first part, I consider the problems closely related to the formalism itself. After two introductory chapters devoted to set up the framework and the notations used afterwards, a chapter is dedicated to a clarification of certain aspects of the justification of the Feynman rules of the real time formalism. Then, I consider in the chapter 4 the problem of cutting rules in the real time formalisms. In particular, after solving a controversy on this subject, I generalize these cutting rules to the `retarded-advanced` version of this formalism. Finally, the last problem considered in this part is that of the pion decay into two photons in a thermal bath. I show that the discrepancies found in the literature are due to peculiarities of the analytical properties of the thermal Green`s functions. The second part deals with the calculations of the photons or dilepton (virtual photon) production rate by a quark gluon plasma. The framework of this study is the effective theory based on the resummation of hard thermal loops. The first aspects of this study is related to the production of virtual photons, where we show that important contributions arise at two loops, completing the result already known at one loop. In the case of real photon production, we show that extremely strong collinear singularities make two loop contributions dominant compared to one loop ones. In both cases, the importance of two loop contributions can be interpreted as weaknesses of the hard thermal loop approximation. (author) 366 refs., 109 figs.
Test of Nonstatic Spherical Quark-Gluon Plasma by Two-Pion Interferometry%非静态球形夸克-胶子等离子体的2π干涉学的检测
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈小凡
2007-01-01
A model of expanding pion sources in relativistic heavy ion collisions, when only hadronic matter is generated, is proposed. The two-pion correlation function at small relative momentum for such a model is obtained with two-pion interferometry at small relative momentum, and the relation between the real spatial parameter Re and the apparent spatial parameter Ra of the pion sources is given. The relation is different from the one when QGP is created. The difference can be used to test nonstatic, spherical quark-gluon plasma produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The relation also showes a scaling behavior.%提出了一种相对论重离子碰撞中强子物质生成时的π膨胀源模型.得到了该模型中的小相对论动量区域的2π关联函数及表观π源参数Ra与实际π源参数Re的关系.这一关系与QGP生成时的关系有所区别.这一区别可以用来检测相对论重离子碰撞中产生的非静态球形夸克-胶子等离子体的存在性.两个关系也显示了一种标度行为.
Dilepton Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贺泽君; 蒋维洲; 张家驹; 张伟; 刘波
2002-01-01
We have studied dilepton production in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon matter produced at RHIC energies.We find that the dilepton yield is no longer a monotonically decreasing function of the initial quark chemicalpotential. Therefore, the dilepton suppression may not be useful as a signature for quark-gluon matter formation.
球形夸克-胶子等离子体演化源的π干涉学分析%Pion Interferometry for Spherical Quark-Gluon Plasma Evolution Sources
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Efaaf M.J.; 张卫宁; Khaliliasr M.; 金恩培; 刘亦铭
2005-01-01
We examine the two-pion interferometry for the expanding sources of spherical quark-gluon plasma evolution. The quarkgluon plasma evolution is described by relativistic hydrodynamics with the equation of state of entropy density. The two-pion HanburyBrown-Twiss (HBT) correlation functions are calculated using quantum probability amplitudes in a path-integral formalism. We find the spatial parameter extracted by the two-pion interferometry is sensitive to the phase-space distribution of the pion-emitting source.The expanding velocity of the source leads to a smaller HBT radius and changes the relationship between the HBT radius and the freeze-ont temperature.%本文对球形演化的夸克-胶子等离子体膨胀源进行了2π干涉学分析.夸克-胶子等离子体的演化由相对论流体力学和熵密度的物态方程描述,而2πHanbury-Brown-Twiss(HBT)关联函数由量子几率振幅的路径积分公式计算.研究结果表明,由2π干涉学得到的源的空间参量敏感地依赖于π介子发射源的相空间分布,源的膨胀速度导致HBT半径变小,并会改变HBT半径与冻结温度之间的关系.
Pion Interferometry for Cylindrical Quark-Gluon Plasma Evolution Sources%柱形夸克-胶子等离子体演化源的π干涉学分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Efaaf M.J.; 张卫宁; Khaliliasr M.; 霍雷; 金恩培; 张景波
2005-01-01
本文对Bjorken柱形夸克-胶子等离子体演化膨胀源进行了2π Hanbury-Brown-Twiss(HBT)干涉学分析.利用量子几率振幅的路径积分公式计算2π HBT关联函数并得到对膨胀和静态源的HBT半径.研究发现,在冻结发射情况下的HBT半径要明显大于没有考虑多重散射吸收情况下的结果,源的膨胀速度导致HBT半径变小.对相变温度宽度为零的Bjorken柱形源,膨胀速度的影响要小于对应的球形源的结果.%We examine the two-pion Hanbury-Brown-Twiss(HBT) interferometry for the expanding sources of quark-gluon plasma evolution with the Bjorken cylinder geometry. The two-pion HBT correlation functions are calculated using quantum probability amplitudes in a path-integral formalism and the HBT radius is extracted both for the expanding source and the static source.We find that the HBT radius for the freeze-out emission case is substantially greater than that for the case without absorption of multiple scattering. The expanding velocity of the source leads to a smaller HBT radius.The effect of expanding velocity for the Bjorken cylinder source with zero width of the transition temperature is smaller than those of the corresponding spherical source.
Isotropization of the quark gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Epelbaum, T.; Gelis, F.
2014-06-15
We report here recent analytical and numerical work on the theoretical treatment of the early stages of heavy ion collisions, that amounts to solving the classical Yang–Mills equations with fluctuating initial conditions. Our numerical simulations suggest a fast isotropization of the pressure tensor of the system. This trend appears already for small values of the coupling constant α{sub s}. In addition, the system exhibits an anomalously small shear viscosity.
Charmonium states in quark-gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Su Houng Lee; Kenji Morita
2009-01-01
We discuss how the spectral changes of quarkonia at c can reflect the `critical' behaviour of QCD phase transition. Starting from the temperature dependencies of the energy density and pressure from lattice QCD calculation, we extract the temperature dependencies of the scalar and spin-2 gluon condensates near c . We also parametrize these changes into the electric and magnetic condensate near c. While the magnetic condensate hardly changes across c, we find that the electric condensate increases abruptly above c. Similar abrupt change is also seen in the scalar condensate. Using the QCD second-order Stark effect and QCD sum rules, we show that these sudden changes induce equally abrupt changes in the mass and width of /, both of which are larger than 100 MeV at slightly above c.
Working group report: Quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pradip Roy; Bedangadas Mohanty; A P Balchandran; A Bhattacharyya; A K Chaudhuri; S Datta; S Digal; F Flueret; S Gupta; P Jaikumar; S H Lee; N Mathur; A Mishra; A P Mishra; H Mishra; B Mohanty; P Roy; P S Somia; A M Srivastava
2009-01-01
The 10th Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-10) was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai during January 2–13, 2008. One of our working grops (WG) is QCD and QGP. The discussions of QGP WG include matter at high density, lattice QCD, charmonium states in QGP, viscous hydrodynamics and jet quenching, colour factor in heavy ion collisions and RHIC results on photons, dileptons and heavy quark. There were two plenary talks and several working group talks with intense discussions regarding the future activities that are going to be persued.
Quark-gluon vertex in arbitrary gauge and dimension
Davydychev, A I; Saks, L
2001-01-01
One-loop off-shell contributions to the quark-gluon vertex are calculated, in an arbitrary covariant gauge and in arbitrary space-time dimension, including quark-mass effects. It is shown how one can get results for all on-shell limits of interest directly from the off-shell expressions. In order to demonstrate that the Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identity for the quark-gluon vertex is satisfied, we have also calculated the corresponding one-loop contribution involving the quark-quark-ghost-ghost vertex.
Exploring the Quark-Gluon Content of Hadrons: From Mesons to Nuclear Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matevosyan, Hrayr [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)
2007-08-01
Even though Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) was formulated over three decades ago, it poses enormous challenges for describing the properties of hadrons from the underlying quark-gluon degrees of freedom. Moreover, the problem of describing the nuclear force from its quark-gluon origin is still open. While a direct solution of QCD to describe the hadrons and nuclear force is not possible at this time, we explore a variety of developed approaches ranging from phenomenology to first principle calculations at one or other level of approximation in linking the nuclear force to QCD. The Dyson Schwinger formulation (DSE) of coupled integral equations for the QCD Green’s functions allows a non-perturbative approach to describe hadronic properties, starting from the level of QCD n-point functions. A significant approximation in this method is the employment of a finite truncation of the system of DSEs, that might distort the physical picture. In this work we explore the effects of including a more complete truncation of the quark-gluon vertex function on the resulting solutions for the quark 2-point functions as well as the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The exploration showed strong indications of possibly large contributions from the explicit inclusion of the gluon 3- and 4-point functions that are omitted in this and previous analyses. We then explore the possibility of extrapolating state of the art lattice QCD calculations of nucleon form factors to the physical regime using phenomenological models of nucleon structure. Finally, we further developed the Quark Meson Coupling model for describing atomic nuclei and nuclear matter, where the quark-gluon structure of nucleons is modeled by the MIT bag model and the nucleon many body interaction is mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. This approach allows us to formulate a fully relativistic theory, which can be expanded in the nonrelativistic limit to reproduce the well known phenomenological Skyrme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
More, R.M.
1986-01-01
Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.
Gaining (Mutual) Information about Quark/Gluon Discrimination
Larkoski, Andrew J; Waalewijn, Wouter J
2014-01-01
Discriminating quark jets from gluon jets is an important but challenging problem in jet substructure. In this paper, we use the concept of mutual information to illuminate the physics of quark/gluon tagging. Ideal quark/gluon separation requires only one bit of truth information, so even if two discriminant variables are largely uncorrelated, they can still share the same "truth overlap". Mutual information can be used to diagnose such situations, and thus determine which discriminant variables are redundant and which can be combined to improve performance. Using both parton showers and analytic resummation, we study a two-parameter family of generalized angularities, which includes familiar infrared and collinear (IRC) safe observables like thrust and broadening, as well as IRC unsafe variants like $p_T^D$ and hadron multiplicity. At leading-logarithmic (LL) order, the bulk of these variables exhibit Casimir scaling, such that their truth overlap is a universal function of the color factor ratio $C_A/C_F$. ...
Quark-gluon vertex: A perturbation theory primer and beyond
Bermudez, R.; Albino, L.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.; Bashir, A.
2017-02-01
There has been growing evidence that the infrared enhancement of the form factors defining the full quark-gluon vertex plays an important role in realizing a dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in quantum chromodynamics, leading to the observed spectrum and properties of hadrons. Both the lattice and the Schwinger-Dyson communities have begun to calculate these form factors in various kinematical regimes of momenta involved. A natural consistency check for these studies is that they should match onto the perturbative predictions in the ultraviolet, where nonperturbative effects mellow down. In this article, we carry out a numerical analysis of the one-loop result for all the form factors of the quark-gluon vertex. Interestingly, even the one-loop results qualitatively encode most of the infrared enhancement features expected of their nonperturbative counter parts. We analyze various kinematical configurations of momenta: symmetric, on shell, and asymptotic. The on-shell limit enables us to compute anomalous chromomagnetic moment of quarks. The asymptotic results have implications for the multiplicative renormalizability of the quark propagator and its connection with the Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations, allowing us to analyze and compare various Ansätze proposed so far.
The quark-gluon vertex in Landau gauge bound-state studies
Williams, Richard
2015-05-01
We present a practical method for the solution of the quark-gluon vertex for use in Bethe-Salpeter and Dyson-Schwinger calculations. The efficient decomposition into the necessary covariants is detailed, with the numerical algorithm outlined for both real and complex Euclidean momenta. A truncation of the quark-gluon vertex, that neglects explicit back-coupling to enable the application to bound-state calculations, is given together with results for the quark propagator and quark-gluon vertex for different quark flavours. The relative impact of the various components of the quark-gluon vertex is highlighted with the flavour dependence of the effective quark-gluon interaction obtained, thus providing insight for the construction of phenomenological models within the rainbow ladder. Finally, we solve the corresponding Green's functions for complex Euclidean momenta as required in future bound-state calculations.
The quark-gluon vertex in Landau gauge bound-state studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Richard [Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Giessen (Germany)
2015-05-15
We present a practical method for the solution of the quark-gluon vertex for use in Bethe-Salpeter and Dyson-Schwinger calculations. The efficient decomposition into the necessary covariants is detailed, with the numerical algorithm outlined for both real and complex Euclidean momenta. A truncation of the quark-gluon vertex, that neglects explicit back-coupling to enable the application to bound-state calculations, is given together with results for the quark propagator and quark-gluon vertex for different quark flavours. The relative impact of the various components of the quark-gluon vertex is highlighted with the flavour dependence of the effective quark-gluon interaction obtained, thus providing insight for the construction of phenomenological models within the rainbow ladder. Finally, we solve the corresponding Green's functions for complex Euclidean momenta as required in future bound-state calculations. (orig.)
200 A GeV Au + Au collisions serve a nearly perfect quark-gluon liquid.
Song, Huichao; Bass, Steffen A; Heinz, Ulrich; Hirano, Tetsufumi; Shen, Chun
2011-05-13
A new robust method to extract the specific shear viscosity (η/s)(QGP) of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at temperatures T(c) QGP with a microscopic transport model for hadronic freeze-out we find for 200 A GeV Au + Au collisions that v2/ε is a universal function of multiplicity density (1/S)(dN(ch)/dy) that depends only on the viscosity but not on the model used for computing the initial fireball eccentricity ε. Comparing with measurements we find 1QGP) < 2.5 where the uncertainty range is dominated by model uncertainties for the values of ε used to normalize the measured v2.
Quark Gluon Condensate,Virtuality and Susceptibility of QCD Vacuum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Li-Juan; WU Qing; MA Wei-Xing
2008-01-01
We study vacuum of QCD in this work.The structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate,values of various local quark and gluon vacuum condensates,quark-gluon mixed vacuum condensate,quark and gluon virtuality in QCD vacuum state,quark dynamical mass and susceptibility of QCD vacuum state to external field are predicted by use of the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in "rainbow" approximation with a modeling gluon propagator and three different sets of quark-quark interaction parameters.Our theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the correspondent empirical values used widely in literature,and many other theoretical calculations.The quark propagator and self-energy functions are also obtained from the numerical solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations.This work is centrally important for studying non-perturbative QCD,and has many important applications both in particle and nuclear physics.
Intermediate Mass Dilepton Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Ze-Jun; ZHOU Wen-Jie; ZHANG Jia-Ju; LIU Bo
2001-01-01
Dilepton production during the chemical equilibration of quark-gluon matter with a finite baryon density has been studied. We find that due to the slowing down of the cooling rate and the high initial temperature of the quark-gluon matter produced at RHIC energies, the quark phase contribution to dileptons with intermediate masses is significantly heightened and is much larger than that calculated by the evolution of the thermodynamic equilibrium system. The latter has shown an enhancement of intermediate mass dileptons from the quark phase. Therefore, such an enhancement of dileptons should be a signature for quark-gluon matter formation.
The quark-gluon vertex in Landau gauge bound-state studies
Williams, Richard
2014-01-01
We present a practical method for the solution of the quark-gluon vertex for use in Bethe--Salpeter and Dyson--Schwinger calculations. The efficient decomposition into the necessary covariants is detailed, with the numerical algorithm outlined for both real and complex Euclidean momenta. A model suitable for bound-state calculations is given together with results for the quark propagator and quark-gluon vertex for different quark flavours. The relative impact of the various components of the quark-gluon vertex is highlighted with the flavour dependence of the effective quark-gluon interaction obtained, thus providing insight for the construction of phenomenological models within Rainbow-Ladder. Finally, we solve the corresponding Green's functions for complex Euclidean momenta as required for practical calculations.
Lattice Landau gauge quark propagator and the quark-gluon vertex
Oliveira, Orlando; Silva, Paulo J; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Sternbeck, Andre; Williams, Anthony G
2016-01-01
We report preliminary results of our ongoing lattice computation of the Landau gauge quark propagator and the soft gluon limit of the quark-gluon vertex with 2 flavors of dynamical O(a) improved Wilson fermions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-31
The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.
Dense Hypervelocity Plasma Jets
Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael; van Doren, David; Elton, Raymond; Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker
2007-11-01
We are developing high velocity dense plasma jets for fusion and HEDP applications. Traditional coaxial plasma accelerators suffer from the blow-by instability which limits the mass accelerated to high velocity. In the current design blow-by is delayed by a combination of electrode shaping and use of a tailored plasma armature created by injection of a high density plasma at a few eV generated by arrays of capillary discharges or sparkgaps. Experimental data will be presented for a complete 32 injector gun system built for driving rotation in the Maryland MCX experiment, including data on penetration of the plasma jet through a magnetic field. We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma velocity, temperature, and density, as well as total momentum measured using a ballistic pendulum. Measurements are in agreement with each other and with time of flight data from photodiodes and a multichannel PMT. Plasma density is above 10^15 cm-3, velocities range up to about 100 km/s. Preliminary results from a quadrature heterodyne HeNe interferometer are consistent with these results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rakotozafindrabe, A
2007-05-15
This work deals with the measurement of the production of J/{psi} in Cu + Cu collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon pair via their decay channel into 2 muons. The experimental data used is that collected during the 2005 campaign at the RHIC. In the first chapter, we present the theoretical context of the study of quark-gluon plasmas (QGP) and its production in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The second chapter deals with the production of J/{psi} in proton-proton collisions and in case of light ion collisions where QGP can not be produced. The experimental setting is presented in the third chapter, particularly the muon spectrometer and the detectors whose purpose is to measure collision centrality. Data analysis concerning the extraction of the signal and the reconstruction of data is described in the fourth chapter. The method that has enabled us to extract the production of the J/{psi} as well as its uncertainties is detailed in the fifth chapter.
A possible evidence of the hadron-quark-gluon mixed phase formation in nuclear collisions
Kizka, V A; Bugaev, K A; Oliinychenko, D R
2015-01-01
The performed systematic meta-analysis of the quality of data description (QDD) of existing event generators of nucleus-nucleus collisions allows us to extract a very important physical information. Our meta-analysis is dealing with the results of 10 event generators which describe data measured in the range of center of mass collision energies from 3.1 GeV to 17.3 GeV. It considers the mean deviation squared per number of experimental points obtained by these event generators, i.e. the QDD, as the results of independent meta-measurements. These generators and their QDDs are divided in two groups. The first group includes the generators which account for the quark-gluon plasma formation during nuclear collisions (QGP models), while the second group includes the generators which do not assume the QGP formation in such collisions (hadron gas models). Comparing the QDD of more than a hundred of different data sets of strange hadrons by two groups of models, we found two regions of the equal quality description o...
Quark-gluon tagging with shower deconstruction: Unearthing dark matter and Higgs couplings
Ferreira de Lima, Danilo; Petrov, Petar; Soper, Davison; Spannowsky, Michael
2017-02-01
The separation of quark and gluon initiated jets can be an important way to improve the sensitivity in searches for new physics or in measurements of Higgs boson properties. We present a simplified version of the shower deconstruction approach as a novel observable for quark-gluon tagging. Assuming topoclusterlike objects as input, we compare our observable with energy correlation functions and find a favorable performance for a large variety of jet definitions. We address the issue of infrared sensitivity of quark-gluon discrimination. When this approach is applied to dark matter searches in monojet final states, limitations from small signal-to-background ratios can be overcome. We also show that quark-gluon tagging is an alternative way of separating weak boson from gluon-fusion production in the process p +p →H +jet+jet+X .
Thermo-magnetic behavior of the of the quark-gluon vertex
Ayala, Alejandro; Loewe, M; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena; Zamora, R
2015-01-01
The thermo-magnetic corrections to the quark-gluon vertex in the presence of a weak magnetic field are calculated in the frame of the Hard Thermal Loop approximation. The vertex satisfies a QED-like Ward identity with the quark self-energy calculated within the same approximation. It turns out that only the longitudinal vertex components get modified. The calculation provides a first principles result for the quark anomalous magnetic moment at high temperature in a weak magnetic field. The effective thermo-magnetic quark-gluon coupling shows a decreasing behavior as function of the field strength. This result supports the observation that the behavior of the effective quark-gluon coupling in the presence of a magnetic field is an important ingredient in order to understand the inverse magnetic catalysis phenomenon recently observed in the lattice QCD simulations.
SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF QUARKS IN THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
KARSCH,F.; KITAZAWA, M.
2007-07-30
We analyze the spectral properties of the quark propagator above the critical temperature for the deconfinement phase transition in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions. The bare quark mass dependence of the quark spectral function is analyzed by varying the hopping parameter {kappa} in Landau gauge. We assume a two-pole structure for the quark spectral function, which is numerically found to work quite well for any value of {kappa}. It is shown that in the chiral limit the quark spectral function has two collective modes that correspond to the normal and plasmino excitations, while it is dominated by a single-pole structure when the bare quark mass becomes large.
Entropy production for an interacting quark-gluon plasma
Mattiello, Stefano
2011-01-01
We investigate the entropy production within dissipative hydrodynamics in the Israel-Stewart (IS) and Navier-Stokes theory (NS) for relativistic heavy ion physics applications. In particular we focus on the initial condition in a 0+1D Bjorken scenario, appropriate for the early longitudinal expansion stage of the collision. Going beyond the standard simplification of a massless ideal gas we consider a realistic equation of state consistently derived within a virial expansion. The EoS used is well in line with recent three-flavor QCD lattice data for the pressure, speed of sound, and interaction measure at nonzero temperature and vanishing chemical potential ($\\mu_{\\rm q} = 0$). The shear viscosity has been consistently calculated within this formalism using a kinetic approach in the ultra-relativistic regime with an explicit and systematic evaluation of the transport cross section as function of temperature. We investigate the influence of the viscosity and the initial condition, i.e. formation time, initial ...
Viscous quark-gluon plasma in the early universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Al-Mukkatam, Cairo 11212 (Egypt); Mansour, H. [Department of Physics, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Harko, T. [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road (China)
2011-03-15
In the present work a study is given for the evolution of a flat, isotropic and homogeneous Universe, which is filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. We describe the viscous properties by an ultra-relativistic equation of state, and bulk viscosity coefficient obtained from recent lattice QCD calculations. The basic equation for the Hubble parameter is derived by using the energy equation obtained from the assumption of the covariant conservation of the energy-momentum tensor of the matter in the Universe. By assuming a power law dependence of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time on the energy density, we derive the evolution equation for the Hubble function. By using the equations of state from recent lattice QCD simulations and heavy-ion collisions we obtain an approximate solution of the field equations. In this treatment for the viscous cosmology, no evidence for singularity is observed. For example, both the Hubble parameter and the scale factor are finite at t=0, where t is the comoving time. Furthermore, their time evolution essentially differs from the one associated with non-viscous and ideal gas. Also it is noticed that the thermodynamic quantities, like temperature, energy density and bulk pressure remain finite. Particular solutions are also considered in order to prove that the free parameter in this model does qualitatively influence the final results. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Viscous Quark-Gluon Plasma in the Early Universe
Tawfik, A; Mansour, H; Harko, T
2010-01-01
We consider the evolution of a flat, isotropic and homogeneous Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid, that can be characterized by an ultra-relativistic equation of state and bulk viscosity coefficient obtained from recent lattice QCD calculations. The basic equation for the Hubble parameter is derived under the assumption that the total energy in the Universe is conserved. By assuming a power law dependence of bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time on energy density, an approximate solution of the field equations has been obtained, in which we utilized equations of state from recent lattice QCD simulations QCD and heavy-ion collisions to derive an evolution equation. In this treatment for the viscous cosmology, we found no evidence for singularity. For example, both Hubble parameter and scale factor are finite at $t=0$, $t$ is the comoving time. Furthermore, their time evolution essentially differs from the one associated with non-visco...
Physics of hot hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuryak, E.V.
1990-07-01
This Introductory talk contains a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental activities related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we discuss latest lattice results on the phase transition, recent progress in chiral symmetry physics based on the theory of interacting instantons, new in the theory of QGP and of hot hadronic matter, mean p{sub t} and collective flow, the shape of p{sub t} distribution, strangeness production, J/{psi} suppression and {phi} enhancement, two puzzles connected with soft pion and soft photon enhancements, and some other ultrasoft'' phenomena. 56 refs., 6 figs.
Spectral functions in the quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asakawa, Masayuki [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)
2002-09-01
Using the maximum entropy method, spectral functions of the vector mesons are extracted from lattice Monte Carlo data of the zero-temperature imaginary time Green's functions. The resonance and continuum structures as well as the ground state peaks are successfully obtained. In addition, we present a preliminary result for finite temperature spectral functions in the vector channel above the confinement-deconfinement phase transition temperature. (author)
The Strongly Interacting Quark Gluon Plasma at RHIC and LHC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tserruya Itzhak
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The study of heavy-ion collisions has currently unprecedented opportunities with two first class facilities, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC at BNL and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN, and five large experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, PHENIX and STAR producing a wealth of high quality data. Selected results recently obtained are presented on the study of flow, energy loss and direct photons.
On diquark clustering in quark-gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K Sisodiya; V S Bhasin; R S Kaushal
2006-02-01
The possibility that pairs of quarks will form diquark clusters in the regime above deconfinement transition for hadron matter at finite density is revisited. Here we present the results on the diquark-diquark (dq-dq) interaction in the framework of constituent quark model taking account of spin, isospin and color degrees of freedom in the spirit of generalized Pauli principle. By constructing the appropriate spin and color states of the dq-dq clusters we compute the expectation values of the interaction Hamiltonian involving pairwise quark-quark interaction. We find that the effective interaction between two diquark clusters is quite sensitive to different configurations characterized by color and spin states, obtained after the coupling of two diquark states. The value of the coupling parameter for a particular color-spin state, i.e., $\\{\\bar{3}, 1\\}$ is compared to the one obtained earlier by Donoghue and Sateesh, Phys. Rev. D38, 360 (1988) based on the effective 4-theory. This new value of derived for different color-spin dq-dq states, may lead to several important implications in the studies of diquark star and diquark gas.
Workshop on Quark-Gluon Plasma and Relativistic Heavy Ions
Lombardo, Maria Paola; Nardi, Marzia; GISELDA 2002; QGP 2002
2002-01-01
This book offers the unique possibility of tackling the problem of hadronic deconfinement from different perspectives. After general introductions to the physical issues, from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view, the book presents the most recent expertise on field theory approaches to the QCD phase diagram, many-body techniques and applications, the dynamics of phase transitions, and phenomenological analysis of relativistic heavy ion collisions. One of the major goals of this book is to promote interchange among those fields of research, which have traditionally been cult
Nonperturbative equation of state of quark gluon plasma: Applications
Komarov, E. V.; Simonov, Yu. A.
2008-05-01
The vacuum-driven nonperturbative factors Li for quark and gluon Green's functions are shown to define the nonperturbative dynamics of QGP in the leading approximation. EoS obtained recently in the framework of this approach is compared in detail with known lattice data for μ = 0 including P/ T4, ɛ/ T4, {ɛ-3P}/{T4}. The basic role in the dynamics at T ≲ 3 Tc is played by the factors Li which are approximately equal to the modulus of Polyakov line for quark Lfund and gluon Ladj. The properties of Li are derived from field correlators and compared to lattice data, in particular the Casimir scaling property Ladj=(Lfund) follows in the Gaussian approximation valid for small vacuum correlation lengths. Resulting curves for P/ T4, ɛ/ T4, {ɛ-3P}/{T4} are in a reasonable agreement with lattice data, the remaining difference points out to an effective attraction among QGP constituents.
Nonperturbative equation of state of quark-gluon plasma. Applications
Komarov, E V
2007-01-01
The vacuum-driven nonperturbative factors $L_i$ for quark and gluon Green's functions are shown to define the nonperturbative dynamics of QGP in the leading approximation. EoS obtained recently in the framework of this approach is compared in detail with known lattice data for $\\mu=0$ including $P/T^4$, $\\epsilon/T^4$, $\\frac{\\epsilon-3P}{T^4}$. The basic role in the dynamics at $T\\la 3T_c$ is played by the factors $L_i$ which are approximately equal to the modulus of Polyakov line for quark $L_{fund}$ and gluon $L_{adj}$. The properties of $L_i$ are derived from field correlators and compared to lattice data, in particular the Casimir scaling property $L_{adj} =(L_{fund})^{\\frac{C_2(adj)}{C_2(fund)}}$ follows in the Gaussian approximation valid for small vacuum correlation lengths. Resulting curves for $P/T^4$, $\\epsilon/T^4$, $\\frac{\\epsilon-3P}{T^4}$ are in a reasonable agreement with lattice data, the remaining difference points out to an effective attraction among QGP constituents.
Thermal rho`s in the quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pisarski, R.D.
1995-03-01
I discuss different models which predict changes in the mass of the thermal {rho} field. I emphasize that while the predictions are strongly model dependent, nevertheless substantial shifts in the thermal {rho} mass are expected to occur at the point of phase transition. As long as the thermal {rho} peak does not become too broad, this should provide a striking signature of the existence of a phase transition.
Properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma: A lattice perspective
Karsch, Frithjof
2007-01-01
We discuss results from lattice calculations for a few observables that are sensitive to different length scales in the high temperature phase of QCD and can give insight into its non-perturbative structure. We compare lattice results with perturbative calculations at high temperature obtained for vanishing and non-vanishing quark chemical potential.
Spectral Properties of Quarks in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Karsch, F
2007-01-01
We analyze the spectral properties of the quark propagator above the critical temperature for the deconfinement phase transition in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions. The bare quark mass dependence of the quark spectral function is analyzed by varying the hopping parameter \\kappa in Landau gauge. We assume a two-pole structure for the quark spectral function, which is numerically found to work quite well for any value of \\kappa. It is shown that in the chiral limit the quark spectral function has two collective modes that correspond to the normal and plasmino excitations, while it is dominated by a single-pole structure when the bare quark mass becomes large.
Holographic Duals of Quark Gluon Plasmas with Unquenched Flavors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Francesco Bigazzi; Aldo Cotrone; Javier Mas; Daniel Mayerson; Javier Tarrio
2012-01-01
We review the construction of gravitational solutions holographically dual to N = 1 quiver gauge theories with dynamical flavor multiplets. We focus on the D3-D7 construction and consider the finite temperature, finite quark chemical potential case where there is a charged black hole in the dual solution. Discussed physical outputs of the model include its thermodynamics （with susceptibilities） and general hydrodynamic properties.
2015-01-01
Follow Italian @ALICEexperiment physicist Chiara Zampolli from INFN Bologna, Italy, as she shares her thoughts about the new physics frontiers opening up when the LHC begins collisions at the higher energy of #13TeV. Each week a new video will be uploaded to https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... allowing you to follow physicists from @ATLASexperiment @ALICEexperiment @CMSexperiment or @LHCbExperiment as the search the new frontiers in physics. Read more about these new frontiers in physics: http://cern.ch/go/x8VH
Thermal $\\varrho$s in the quark-gluon plasma
Pisarski, R D
1995-01-01
I discuss different models which predict changes in the mass of the thermal \\rho field. I emphasize that while the predictions are strongly model dependent, nevertheless substantial shifts in the thermal \\rho mass are expected to occur at the point of phase transition. As long as the thermal \\rho peak does not become too broad, this should provide a striking signature of the existence of a phase transition. (Based upon a talk presented at Quark Matter '95, Monterey, CA, Jan., 1995.)
Thermal charm and charmonium production in quark gluon plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Zhou
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We study the effect of thermal charm production on charmonium regeneration in high energy nuclear collisions. By solving the kinetic equations for charm quark and charmonium distributions in Pb+Pb collisions, we calculate the global and differential nuclear modification factors RAA(Npart and RAA(pt for J/ψ s. Due to the thermal charm production in hot medium, the charmonium production source changes from the initially created charm quarks at SPS, RHIC and LHC to the thermally produced charm quarks at Future Circular Collider (FCC, and the J/ψ suppression (RAA1 at FCC at low transverse momentum.
Building a non-perturbative quark-gluon vertex from a perturbative one
Bermudez, Rocio
2016-10-01
The quark-gluon vertex describes the electromagnetic and the strong interaction among these particles. The description of this interaction at high precision in both regimes, perturbative and non-perturbative, continues being a matter of interest in the context of QCD and Hadron Physics. There exist very helpful models in the literature that explain perturbative aspects of the theory but they fail describing non-perturbative phenomena, as confinement and dynamic chiral symmetry breaking. In this work we study the structure of the quark-gluon vertex in a non-perturbative regime examining QCD, checking results with QED, and working in the Schwinger-Dyson formalism.
Branching structure of QCD jets: new jet observables for quark-gluon discrimination
Davighi, Joseph (CERN)
2014-01-01
I have explored the fractal nature of hadronic jets and the potential use of fractal dimension in jet substructure physics. A more sophisticated set of parameters, named Branching Logarithmic Fit (BLF) parameters, has subsequently been developed to describe the fractal and corrections-to-fractal behavior due to QCD running in the perturbative regime. Theoretical motivation is given for these parameters, which have then been applied to the problem of quark/gluon discrimination. The BLF parameters are individually discriminating and only weakly correlated to variables currently used in quark/gluon discrimination. Consequently, their inclusion should improve discrimination, and evidence is presented for this at the generator level
Consequences Of Fully Dressing Quark-Gluon Vertex Function With Two-Point Gluon Lines
Matevosyan, Hrayr H; Tandy, Peter C
2007-01-01
We extend recent studies of the effects of quark-gluon vertex dressing upon the solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the quark propagator. A momentum delta function is used to represent the dominant infrared strength of the effective gluon propagator so that the resulting integral equations become algebraic. The quark-gluon vertex is constructed from the complete set of diagrams involving only 2-point gluon lines. The additional diagrams, including those with crossed gluon lines, are shown to make an important contribution to the DSE solutions for the quark propagator, because of their large color factors and the rapid growth in their number.
Branching structure of QCD jets: new jet observables for Quark/Gluon discrimination
Davighi, Joseph
2014-01-01
I have explored the fractal nature of hadronic jets and the potential use of fractal dimension in jet substructure physics. A more sophisticated set of parameters, named Branching Logarithmic Fit (BLF) parameters, has subsequently been developed to describe the fractal and corrections-to-fractal behaviour due to QCD running in the perturbative regime. Theoretical motivation is given for these parameters, which have then been applied to the problem of quark/gluon discrimination. The BLF parameters are individually discriminating and only weakly correlated to variables currently used in quark/gluon discrimination. Consequently, their inclusion should improve discrimination, and evidence is presented for this at the generator level.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
管娜娜
2016-01-01
Dileptons have large mean free paths due to their small cross sections for electromagnetic interaction in plasma. Therefore they are considered to be an important probe for the formation and evolution of the quark matter. In this work, we calculate the dilepton production of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in Au197+Au197 central collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) energy based on the evolution model of a chemically equilibrating viscous QGP. The evolution of the QGP system is described by a set of coupled relaxation equations containing the master equations of partons, the equation of baryon number conservation and equation of energy-momentum conservation. Solving the set of evolution equations, one can obtain the evolution of temperature T , quark chemical potential µq, fugacitiesλq for quarks andλg for gluons. To discuss the shear viscosity of QGP, the contributions of the elastic scattering of quarks q¯q−→q¯q and gluons gg→gg, as well as the inelastic scattering process of gluons gg↔ggg are included. Based on the evolution model including the viscosity, we perform a complete calculation of the dilepton production, including the processes of quark-antiquark annihilation q¯q→l¯l, next-order annihilation q¯q→gl¯l, Compton-like scattering qg → ql¯l, ¯qg → ¯ql¯l, multiple scattering of quarks, as well as gluon fusion gg → c¯c, annihilation q¯q→c¯c. It is found that the spectra from the quark-antiquark annihilations q¯q→l¯l and q¯q→gl¯l are dominated. The contributions from multiple scattering cannot be neglected. We also find that the dilepton yields remarkably decrease with considering an additional gluon inelastic process in the calculation compared with the results with considering only elastic scatterings of quarks and gluons. This indicates that the evolution of QGP system is accelerated and the evolution time is shortened by the inelastic scatterings of gluons.%双轻子是研究夸克物质的形
Renormalizability of a quark-gluon model with soft BRST breaking in the infrared region
Baulieu, L; Gomez, A J; Lemes, V E R; Sobreiro, R F; Sorella, S P
2010-01-01
We prove the renormalizability of a quark-gluon model with a soft breaking of the BRST symmetry, which accounts for the modification of the large distance behavior of the quark and gluon correlation functions. The proof is valid to all orders of perturbation theory, by making use of softly broken Ward identities.
Intermediate mass dilepton production in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
We find that in a chemically equilibrating baryon-rich quark-gluon matter, due to the slow cooling rate, high initial temperature, large gluon density as well as large fusion cross section ofin the intermediate mass region, the gluon fusion provides a dominant contribution to dileptons with intermediate masses, resulting in the significant enhancement of intermediate mass dileptons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pillot, Ph
2005-05-15
The study of heavy quark production such as J/{psi} (cc-bar resonance) and {upsilon} (bb-bar resonance) in heavy ion collisions at high incident energies has been proposed as a tool to investigate the formation of a Quark Gluon Plasma. Experimentally, these resonances can be detected through their decay channel into a muon pair, using a muon spectrometer. The optimal resolution of a muon spectrometer cannot be reached unless the position of the different tracking detectors are accurately known. In the first part of the work reported in this thesis are presented the design and performances of the Geometry Monitoring System of the ALICE experiment's muon spectrometer at LHC. This system, which is composed of several hundreds of RASNIK derived optical devices, allows to measure displacements and deformations of the chambers with a precision better than a hundred of microns. Thanks to its muon spectrometer associated with a vertex telescope, the NA60 experiment studies the dimuon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS. The second part of the work reported in this thesis is related to the analysis of the data collected in indium-indium collisions at 158 GeV/c/nucleon. More specifically, the J/{psi} production together with its transverse momentum and transverse mass distributions are studied as a function of the centrality of the collision. The different results arising from our analysis are then compared to those obtained previously by NA38 and NA50, allowing a better understanding of the ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. (author)
Propagation of cosmic rays through the atmosphere in the quark-gluon strings model
Erlykin, A. D.; Krutikova, N. P.; Shabelski, Y. M.
1985-01-01
The quark-gluon strings model succeeds in the description of multiple hadron production in the central rapidity region of nucleon-nucleon interctions. This model was developed for hadron-nucleus interactions and used for calculation of the cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. It is shown that at energies 10 to the 11th power to the 12th power eV, this model gives a satisfactory description of experimental data. But with the increase of the energy up to approximately 10 to the 14th power eV, results of calculations and of experiments begin to differ and this difference rises with the energy. It may indicate that the scaling violation in the fragmentation region of inclusive spectra for hadron-nucleus interactions is stronger than in the quark-gluon strings model.
QCD sum rules for quark-gluon three-body components in the B meson
Nishikawa, Tetsuo
2011-01-01
We discuss the QCD sum rule calculation of the heavy-quark effective theory parameters, $\\lambda_E$ and $\\lambda_H$, which correspond to matrix elements representing quark-gluon three-body components in the $B$-meson wavefunction. We derive the sum rules for $\\lambda_{E,H}$ calculating the new higher-order QCD corrections, i.e., the order $\\alpha_s$ radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients associated with the dimension-5 quark-gluon mixed condensates, and the power corrections due to the dimension-6 vacuum condensates. We find that the new radiative corrections significantly improve the stability of the corresponding Borel sum rules and lead to the reduction of the values of $\\lambda_{E,H}$. We also discuss the renormalization-group improvement for the sum rules and present update on the values of $\\lambda_{E,H}$.
Production of phi-mesons on nuclear targets in the Quark-Gluon String model
Arakelyan, G H; Shabelski, Yu M
2016-01-01
We consider the experimental data on phi-meson production on nuclear targets, and we find that they present unusually small shadow corrections for the inclusive density in the midrapidity region. We also give a quantitatively consistent description of both the initial energy dependence and the A-dependence of the produced phi-mesons, obtained in the frame of the Quark-Gluon String Model.
Influence of the nonperturbative quark-gluon vertex on the meson and baryon spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Richard; Sanchis-Alepuz, Hèlios [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Justus-Liebig–Universität Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany)
2016-01-22
We present a calculation of the Hadron spectrum in the Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter approach to continuum QCD. A sophisticated truncation featuring all covariant structures of the quark-gluon vertex, with its inherent flavour dependence, is employed in a framework that preserves the dynamics of chiral symmetry breaking. The study is suggestive as to the relevance of additional resonant and non-resonant two- and three-body contributions.
Thermal Charmed Quark Contribution to Dileptons in Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贺泽君; 龙家丽; 卢朝辉; 马余刚; 刘波
2003-01-01
We find that in a chemically equilibrating baryon-rich quark-gluon matter, due to the slow cooling rate, high initial temperature, large gluon density as well as large fusion cross section of gg → c(c) in the intermediate mass region, the gluon fusion gg → c(c) provides a dominant contributionto dileptons with intermediate masses, resulting in the significant enhancement of intermediate mass dileptons.
New approach to initializing hydrodynamic fields and mini-jet propagation in quark-gluon fluids
Okai, Michito; Kawaguchi, Koji; Tachibana, Yasuki; Hirano, Tetsufumi
2017-05-01
We propose a new approach to initialize the hydrodynamic fields, such as energy density distributions and four-flow velocity fields in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions at the collider energies. Instead of matching the energy-momentum tensor or putting the initial conditions of quark-gluon fluids at a fixed initial time, we utilize a framework of relativistic hydrodynamic equations with source terms to describe the initial stage. Putting the energy and momentum loss rate of the initial partons into the source terms, we obtain hydrodynamic initial conditions dynamically. The resultant initial profile of the quark-gluon fluid looks highly bumpy as seen in the conventional event-by-event initial conditions. In addition, initial random flow velocity fields also are generated as a consequence of momentum deposition from the initial partons. We regard the partons that survive after the dynamical initialization process as the mini-jets and find sizable effects of both mini-jet propagation in the quark-gluon fluids and initial random transverse flow on the final momentum spectra and anisotropic flow observables. We perform event-by-event (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic simulations with this new framework that enables us to describe the hydrodynamic bulk collectivity, parton energy loss, and interplay among them in a unified manner.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scharenberg, R.; Hirsch, A.; Tincknell, M.
1993-09-15
This report discusses the Fermilab experiment E735 which is dedicated to the search for the quark-gluon plasma from proton-antiproton interactions; multifragmentation using the EOS-TPC; STAR R&D; silicon avalanche diodes as direct time-of-flight detectors; and soft photons at the AGS-E855.
Performance of quark/gluon discrimination in 13 TeV data
CMS Collaboration
2016-01-01
The 2015 proton collision data at 13 TeV and corresponding simulated samples are used to produce an updated quark/gluon jet discriminator and to validate its performances making use of dimuon plus jet and dijet selected events. The three input discriminating jet observables are the same as those used for the latest validated Run 1 discriminator, as well as the likelihood method to combine them. A new method is employed to derive data-driven corrections to the simulated distributions, and access corresponding systematic uncertainties.
Effects of a dressed quark-gluon vertex in vector heavy-light mesons
Gomez-Rocha, M; Krassnigg, A
2016-01-01
We extend earlier investigations of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons to the vector case, using a simple model in the context of the Dyson-Schwinger-Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the effects of a dressed-quark-gluon vertex in a systematic fashion and illustrate and attempt to quantify corrections beyond the phenomenologically very useful and successful rainbow-ladder truncation. In particular we investigate dressed quark photon vertex in such a setup and make a prediction for the experimentally as yet unknown mass of the B_c*, which we obtain at 6.334 GeV well in line with predictions from other approaches.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN Jia-Jin; LU Juan; CHENG Yan; ZHOU Li-Huan; ZHU Wen-Jun; MA Wei-Xing; GOU Qing-Quan
2008-01-01
Based on the quark-gluon structure of nucleon and the existence of Odderon in nucleon via gluon self-interaction, the elastic scattering of pp at high energies is studied. Our theoretical predictions reproduce experimental data perfectly. The contributions from individual terms of quark-quark, gluon-gluon interactions, quark-gluon interfer-ence and the Odderon terms to total cross section are analyzed. In addition to the leading quark-quark contribution, the Odderon contribution is quite important. In particular, the Odderon plays an essential role in fitting to data. Therefore, We may claim that the high energy lap and pp elastic scattering may be good processes to search for the Odderon, the three Reggeized gluon bound states.
Quark-gluon vertex dressing and meson masses beyond ladder-rainbow truncation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hrayr Matevosyan; Anthony Thomas; Peter Tandy
2007-04-01
We include a generalized infinite class of quark-gluon vertex dressing diagrams in a study of how dynamics beyond the ladder-rainbow truncation influences the Bethe-Salpeter description of light quark pseudoscalar and vector mesons. The diagrammatic specification of the vertex is mapped into a corresponding specification of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel, which preserves chiral symmetry. This study adopts the algebraic format afforded by the simple interaction kernel used in previous work on this topic. The new feature of the present work is that in every diagram summed for the vertex and the corresponding Bethe-Salpeter kernel, each quark-gluon vertex is required to be the self-consistent vertex solution. We also adopt from previous work the effective accounting for the role of the explicitly non-Abelian three gluon coupling in a global manner through one parameter determined from recent lattice-QCD data for the vertex. With the more consistent vertex used here, the error in ladder-rainbow truncation for vector mesons is never more than 10% as the current quark mass is varied from the u/d region to the b region.
QCD sum rule calculation of quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function
Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhiro
2011-10-01
We discuss the QCD sum rule calculation of the heavy-quark effective theory parameters λE and λH, which represent quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function. We update the sum rules for λE,H calculating the new higher-order contributions to the operator product expansion for the corresponding correlator, i.e., the order αs radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients associated with the dimension-5 quark-gluon mixed condensate, and the power corrections due to the dimension-6 vacuum condensates. We find that the new radiative corrections significantly improve stability of the corresponding Borel sum rules, modifying the values of λE,H.
Different methods for quark/gluon jet classification on real data from the DELPHI detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Transtroemer, G
1999-05-01
Different methods to separate quark jets from gluon jets have been investigated and tested on data from the DELPHI experiment. A test sample of gluon jets was selected from bb-barg threejet events where the two b-jets had been identified using a lifetime tag and quark jet sample was obtained from qq-bar{gamma} events where the photon was required to have a high energy and to be well separated from the two jets. Three types of tests were made. Firstly, the jet energy, which is the variable most frequently used for quark/gluon jet separation, was compared with methods based of the differences in the fragmentation of quark and gluon jets. It was found that the fragmentation based classification provides significantly better identification than the jet energy only in events where the jets all have approximately the same energy. In Monte Carlo generated symmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} qq-barg threejet events, where the jet energy does not provide any identification at all, the gluon jet was correctly assigned in 58 % of the events. More important, however, is that the identification has been divided into two independent parts, the energy part and the fragmentation part. Secondly, two different sets of fragmentation sensitive variables were tested. It was found that a slightly better identification could be achieved using information from all the particles of the jet rather than using only the leading ones. Thirdly, three types of statistical discrimination methods were compared: a cut on a single fragmentation variable; a cut on the Fisher statistical discriminant calculated from one set of variables; a cut on the output from an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained on different sets of variables. The three types of classifiers gave about the same performance and one conclusion from this study was that the use of ANNs or Fisher statistical discrimination do not seem to improve the results significantly in quark/gluon jet separation on a jet to jet basis 45 refs
Rojas, E; El-Bennich, B; Oliveira, O; Frederico, T
2013-01-01
We investigate the dressed quark-gluon vertex combining two established non-perturbative approaches to QCD: the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) for the quark propagator and lattice-regularized simulations for the quark, gluon and ghost propagators. The vertex is modeled using a generalized Ball-Chiu ansatz parameterized by a single form factor $\\tilde X_0$ which effectively represents the quark-ghost scattering kernel. The solution space of the DSE inversion for $\\tilde X_0$ is highly degenerate, which can be dealt with by a numerical regularization scheme. We consider two possibilities: (i) linear regularization and (ii) the Maximum Entropy Method. These two numerical approaches yield compatible $\\tilde X_0$ functions for the range of momenta where lattice data is available and feature a strong enhancement of the generalized Ball-Chiu vertex for momenta below 1 GeV. Our ansatz for the quark-gluon vertex is then used to solve the quark DSE which yields a mass function in good agreement with lattice simulations...
Influence of vector interactions on the hadron-quark/gluon phase transition
Shao, G Y; Di Toro, M; Liu, B; Matera, F
2012-01-01
The hadron-quark/gluon phase transition is studied in the two-phase model. As a further study of our previous work, both the isoscalar and isovector vector interactions are included in the Polyakov loop modified Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model (PNJL) for the quark phase. The relevance of the exchange (Fock) terms is stressed and suitably accounted for. The calculation shows that the isovector vector interaction delays the phase transition to higher densities and the range of the mixed phase correspondingly shrinks. Meanwhile the asymmetry parameter of quark matter in the mixed phase decreases with the strengthening of this interaction channel. This leads to some possible observation signals being weakened, although still present. We show that these can be rather general effects of a repulsion in the quark phase due to the symmetry energy. This is also confirmed by a simpler calculation with the MIT--Bag model. However, the asymmetry parameter of quark matter is slightly enhanced with the inclusion of the isoscalar ...
Quark-gluon mixed condensate for the SU(2) light-flavor sector at finite temperature
Nam, Seung-il
2013-01-01
We investigate the quark-gluon mixed condensate m^2_0 = for the SU(2) light-flavor sector at finite temperature (T). Relevant model parameters, such as the average (anti)instanton size, inter-(anti)instanton distance, and constituent-quark mass at zero virtuality, are modified as functions of T, employing the trivial-holonomy caloron solution. By doing that, we observe correct chiral restoration patterns depending on the current-quark mass m. We also perform the two-loop renormalization-group (RG) evolution for the both condensates by increasing the renormalization scale mu=(0.6~2.0) GeV. It turns out that the mixed condensate is insensitive to the RG evolution, whereas the quark condensate become larger considerably by the evolution. Numerically, we obtain -^1/5 = (0.45 ~ 0.46) GeV at T=0 within the present theoretical framework, and the mixed condensate plays the role of the chiral order parameter for finite T. The ratio of the two condensates m^2_0 is almost flat below the chiral transition T (T_0), and ...
Dense magnetized plasma numerical simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bilbao, L [INFIP-CONICET, and Physics Department (FCEN-UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bernal, L, E-mail: bilbao@df.uba.a [Physics Department (FCEYN-UNMDP), Complejo Universitario, Funes y Pena, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2010-06-15
The scope for developing the present numerical method was to perform parametric studies for optimization of several configurations in magnetized plasmas. Nowadays there exist several efficient numerical codes in the subject. However, the construction of one's own computational codes brings the following important advantages: (a) to get a deeper knowledge of the physical processes involved and the numerical methods used to simulate them and (b) more flexibility to adapt the code to particular situations in a more efficient way than would be possible for a closed general code. The code includes ion viscosity, thermal conduction (electrons and ions), magnetic diffusion, thermonuclear or chemical reaction, Bremsstrahlung radiation, and equation of state (from the ideal gas to the degenerate electron gas). After each calculation cycle, mesh vertices are moved arbitrarily over the fluid. The adaptive method consists of shifting mesh vertices over the fluid in order to keep a reasonable mesh structure and increase the spatial resolution where the physical solution demands. The code was a valuable tool for parametric study of different physical problems, mainly optimization of plasma focus machine, detonation and propagation of thermonuclear reactions and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the boundary layer of the terrestrial magnetopause.
OZI violation in low energy omega and phi production in the pp system in a quark-gluon model
Dillig, M
2006-01-01
We investigate OZI violation in near-threshold omega and phi production in the pp system. Assuming ideal omega/phi mixing (corrections are estimated), the energy dependence of the ratio R(omega/phi) is analyzed in a perturbative quark-gluon exchange model up to the third other in the strong coupling constant alpha(s) with the proton represented as a quark - scalar diquark system. We give a very natural explanation of the violation of the OZI rule in omega/phi production and its energy dependence near the production thresholds.
Nuclear Probing of Dense Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard Petrasso
2007-02-14
The object of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to compress a fuel capsule to a state with high enough density and temperature to ignite, starting a self-sustaining fusion burn that consumes much of the fuel and releases a large amount of energy. The national ICF research program is trying to reach this goal, especially through experiments at the OMEGA laser facility of the University of Rochester Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE), planned experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and experimental and theoretical work at other national laboratories. The work by MIT reported here has played several important roles in this national program. First, the development of new and improved charged-particle-based plasma diagnostics has allowed the gathering of new and unique diagnostic information about the implosions of fuel capsules in ICF experiments, providing new means for evaluating experiments and for studying capsule implosion dynamics. Proton spectrometers have become the standard for evaluating the mass assembly in compressed capsules in experiments at OMEGA; the measured energy downshift of either primary or secondary D3He fusion protons to determines the areal density, or ?R, of imploded capsules. The Proton Temporal Diagnostic measures the time history of fusion burn, and multiple proton emission imaging cameras reveal the 3-D spatial distribution of fusion burn. A new compact neutron spectrometer, for measuring fusion yield, is described here for the first time. And of especially high importance to future work is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), which is a neutron spectrometer that will be used to study a range of important performance parameters in future experiments at the NIF. A prototype is currently being prepared for testing at OMEGA, using a magnet funded by this grant. Second, MIT has used these diagnostic instruments to perform its own physics experiments
Colloquium: Nonlinear Collective Interactions in Dense Plasmas
Shukla, P K
2010-01-01
The current understanding of some important collective processes in dense quantum plasmas is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons, we present model equations (e.g. the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations) that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in a nonlinear quantum electron pressure and tunneling/diffusion of electrons through a nonlinear quantum Bohm potential. Since degenerate electrons have $1/2-$spin due to their Fermionic nature, there also appear a spin electron current and a spin force acting on the electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The present nonlinear equations do not include strong electron correlations and electron-exchange interactions. The quantum effects caused by the electron degeneracy produce n...
X-ray scattering from dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McSherry, D.J
2000-09-01
Dense plasmas were studied by probing them with kilovolt x-rays and measuring those scattered at various angles. The Laser-Produced x-ray source emitted Ti He alpha 4.75 keV x-rays. Two different plasma types were explored. The first was created by laser driven shocks on either side of a sample foil consisting of 2 micron Al layer, sandwiched between two 1 micron CH layers. We have observed a peak in the x-ray scattering cross section, indicating diffraction from the plasma. However, the experimentally inferred plasma density, broadly speaking, did not always agree with the hydrodynamic simulation MEDX (A modified version of MEDUSA). The second plasma type that we studied was created by soft x-ray heating on either side of a sample foil, this time consisting of 1 micron layer of Al, sandwiched between two 0.2 micron CH layers. Two foil targets, each consisting of a 0.1 micron thick Au foil mounted on 1 micron of CH, where placed 4 mm from the sample foil. The soft x-rays where produced by laser irradiating these two foil targets. We found that, 0.5 ns after the peak of the laser heating pulses, the measured cross sections more closely matched those simulated using the Thomas Fermi model than the Inferno model. Later in time, at 2 ns, the plasma is approaching a weakly coupled state. This is the first time x-ray scattering cross sections have been measured from dense plasmas generated by radiatively heating both sides of the sample. Moreover, these are absolute values typically within a factor of two of expectation for early x-ray probe times. (author)
X-ray scattering from dense plasmas
McSherry, Declan Joseph
Dense plasmas were studied by probing them with kilovolt x-rays and measuring those scattered at various angles. The laser produced x-ray source emitted Ti He alpha 4.75 keV x-rays. Two different plasma types were explored. The first was created by laser driven shocks on either side of a sample foil consisting of 2 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 1 micron CH layers. We have observed a peak in the x-ray scattering cross section, indicating diffraction from the plasma. However, the experimentally inferred plasma density, did not always agree broadly with the hydrodynamic simulation MEDX (A modified version of MEDUSA). The second plasma type that we studied was created by soft x-ray heating on either side of a sample foil, this time consisting of 1 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 0.2 micron CH layers. Two foil targets, each consisting of a 0.1 micron thick Au foil mounted on 1 micron of CH, were placed 4 mm from the sample foil. The soft x-rays were produced by laser irradiating these two foil targets. We found that, 0.5 ns after the peak of the laser heating pulses, that the measured cross sections more closely matched those simulated using the Thomas Fermi model than the Inferno model. Later in time, at 2 ns, the plasma is approaching a weakly coupled state. This is the first time x-ray scattering cross sections have been measured from dense plasmas generated by radiatively heating both sides of the sample. Moreover, these are absolute values typically within a factor of two of expectation for early x-ray probe times.
The role of noise and dissipation in the hadronization of the quark-gluon plasma
Fraga, E S
2006-01-01
We discuss the role of noise and dissipation in the explosive spinodal decomposition scenario of hadron production during the chiral transition after a high-energy heavy ion collision. We use a Langevin description inspired by nonequilibrium field theory to perform real-time lattice simulations of the behavior of the chiral fields. Preliminary results for the interplay between additive and multiplicative noise terms, as well as for non-Markovian corrections, are also presented.
A chiral matrix model of the semi-Quark Gluon Plasma in QCD
Pisarski, Robert D
2016-01-01
A chiral matrix model applicable to QCD with 2+1 flavors is developed. This requires adding a SU(3)_L x SU(3)_R x Z(3)_A nonet of scalar fields, with both parities, and coupling these to quarks through a Yukawa coupling, y. Treating the scalar fields in mean field approximation, the effective Lagrangian is computed by integrating out quarks to one loop order. In addition to the usual symmetry breaking term, linear in the current quark mass m_qk, at a nonzero temperature T it is necessary to add a new term, ~ m_qk T^2. The parameters of the gluon part of the matrix model, including especially the deconfining transition temperature T_d = 270 MeV, are identical to that for the pure glue theory without quarks. The parameters in the chiral matrix model are fixed by the values, at zero temperature, of the pion decay constant the masses of the pions, kaons, eta, and eta'. The temperature for the chiral crossover at T_chi = 155 MeV is determined by adjusting the Yukawa coupling y. We find reasonable agreement with th...
Relativity matters from Einstein's EMC2 to laser particle acceleration and quark-gluon plasma
Rafelski, Johann
2017-01-01
Rafelski presents Special Relativity in a language deemed accessible to students without any topical preparation - avoiding the burden of geometry, tensor calculus, and space-time symmetries – and yet advancing in highly contemporary context all the way to research frontiers. Special Relativity is presented such that nothing remains a paradox or just apparent, but rather is explained. A text of similar character, content, and scope, has not been available before. This book describes Special Relativity when rigid material bodies are introduced describing the reality of body contraction; it shows the relevance of acceleration and the necessary evolution of the theoretical framework when acceleration is critical. This book also presents the evolving views of Einstein about the aether. In addition to a careful and elementary introduction to relativity complete with exercises, worked examples and many discussions, this volume connects to current research topics so that readers can explore Special Relativity fr...
Static quark-antiquark potential in the quark-gluon plasma from lattice QCD.
Burnier, Yannis; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Rothkopf, Alexander
2015-02-27
We present a state-of-the-art determination of the complex valued static quark-antiquark potential at phenomenologically relevant temperatures around the deconfinement phase transition. Its values are obtained from nonperturbative lattice QCD simulations using spectral functions extracted via a novel Bayesian inference prescription. We find that the real part, both in a gluonic medium, as well as in realistic QCD with light u, d, and s quarks, lies close to the color singlet free energies in Coulomb gauge and shows Debye screening above the (pseudo)critical temperature T_{c}. The imaginary part is estimated in the gluonic medium, where we find that it is of the same order of magnitude as in hard-thermal loop resummed perturbation theory in the deconfined phase.
Thermodynamics and equations of state of matter from ideal gas to quark-gluon plasma
Fortov, Vladimir
2016-01-01
The monograph presents a comparative analysis of different thermodynamic models of the equations of state. The basic ideological premises of the theoretical methods and the experiment are considered. The principal attention is on the description of states that are of greatest interest for the physics of high energy concentrations which are either already attained or can be reached in the near future in controlled terrestrial conditions, or are realized in astrophysical objects at different stages of their evolution. Ultra-extreme astrophysical and nuclear-physical applications are also analyzed where the thermodynamics of matter is affected substantially by relativism, high-power gravitational and magnetic fields, thermal radiation, transformation of nuclear particles, nucleon neutronization, and quark deconfinement. The book is intended for a wide range of specialists engaged in the study of the equations of state of matter and high energy density physics, as well as for senior students and postgraduates.
Describing the dynamics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma using relativistic viscous hydrodynamics
Yarbrough, Katherine Michelle
Shock diamonds occur in over- or under- expanded supersonic flow. They occur in the unsteady jet of a pulse detonation engine, displaying an array of complex features. Due to the highly transient nature of the flow, it must be captured using high-speed cinematography. A study of image processing of shock reflection in unsteady flow is presented. Using a computer-based environment, a method was developed to process images of shock waves to pinpoint where the shock wave starts. Using mathematical methods, such as Abel transforms, a computer code, written in Matlab, was developed to accurately transform the images to detect density distributions in the form of shock waves. The Mach number and specific heat, pressure, temperature, and density ratios were found using shock polars. Evolution of the flow was examined by transforming images to follow the flow patterns. Seven images were selected and analyzed with the methods developed in this thesis. Then a comparison was done by tracking particles seeded in the flow. The particle tracking revealed velocities which were compared to the Mach numbers found using the shock polars.
Direct Photon Anisotropy and the Time Evolution of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00360979
2016-07-22
Historically, the thermal photon inverse slope parameter has been interpreted as the thermalization temperature of the QGP. Observation of the thermal photon spectrum in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the ALICE and PHENIX experiments obtain the inverse slope parameter, but the obtained values are inconsistent with the thermalization temperature predicted by the hydrodynamic model. It has therefore been argued that the inverse slope parameter is not representative of the true QGP thermalization temperature because not all thermal photons are emitted at thermalization. This research will probe this assertion using an investigation of flow and nuclear suppression of thermal photons from ALICE Pb-Pb collisions at '\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76' TeV and comparison to p-p data at '\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76' TeV.
Unified Description of Charmonium Suppression in Quark-Gluon Plasma Medium at RHIC and LHC Energies
Singh, Captain R.; Srivastava, P. K.; Ganesh, S; Mishra, M.
2015-01-01
Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the quarkonia suppression in a thermal QCD medium created at heavy ion collisions is a complex interplay of various physical processes. In this article we put together most of these processes in a unified way to calculate the charmonium survival probability (nuclear modification factor) at energies available at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. We have included shadowing as the dominant ...
Dynamical energy loss as a novel Quark-Gluon Plasma tomographic tool
Djordjevic, Magdalena
2016-12-01
High momentum suppression of light and heavy flavor observables is considered to be an excellent probe of jet-medium interactions in QCD matter created at RHIC and LHC. Utilizing this tool requires accurate suppression predictions for different experiments, probes and experimental conditions, and their unbiased comparison with experimental data. With this goal, we developed the dynamical energy loss formalism towards generating predictions for non-central collisions; the formalism takes into account both radiative and collisional energy loss computed within the same theoretical framework, dynamical (as opposed to static) scattering centers, finite magnetic mass, running coupling and uses no free parameters in comparison with experimental data. Within this formalism, we provided predictions, and a systematic comparison with experimental data, for a diverse set of suppression data: all available light and heavy flavor probes, lower and high momentum ranges, various centrality ranges and various collision energies at RHIC and LHC. We here also provide clear qualitative and quantitative predictions for soon to become available LHC experimental data. Comprehensive agreement between our predictions and experimental results provides a good deal of confidence that our dynamical energy loss formalism can well explain the jet-medium interactions in QGP, which will be further tested by the obtained predictions for the upcoming data. Application of this model, as a novel high-precision tomographic tool of QGP medium, are also discussed.
Hot QCD equation of state and quark-gluon plasma-- finite quark chemical potential
Chandra, Vinod
2008-01-01
We explore the relevance of a hot QCD equation of state of $O[g^6\\ln(1/g)]$, which has been obtained\\cite{avrn} for non-vanishing quark-chemical potentials to heavy ion collisions. Employing a method proposed in a recent paper \\cite{chandra1}, we use the EOS to determine a host of thermodynamic quantities, the energy density, specific heat, entropy dnesity, and the temperature dependence of screening lengths, with the behaviour of QGP at RHIC and LHC in mind. We also investigate the sensitivity of these observables to the quark chemical potential.
From the QCD vacuum to (strongly coupled) quark-gluon plasma
Shuryak, Edward
2005-04-01
I start with brief discussion of the role of topological objects in the QCD vacuum, reminding why instantons play a special role in chiral symmetry breaking and hadronic physics. Then I move to high temperature T > T c domain, describing briefly some experimental discoveries made at RHIC such as robust collective flow phenomena. They are well described by ideal hydrodynamics, with the Equation of State (EoS) in good agreement with that predicted by lattice simulations. However for hydro to work the transport properties of QGP should be quite remarkable. These and other theoretical developments, especially based on lattice simulations, indicate that matter produced at RHIC is a strongly coupled liquid, sQGP for short. Existence of "new spectroscopy" of states, most of them colored, is expected. We also briefly discuss two other "strongly coupled systems", (i) the strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length.
Short path length pQCD corrections to energy loss in the quark gluon plasma
Kolbe, Isobel
2015-01-01
Recent surprising discoveries of collective behaviour of low-$p_T$ particles in $pA$ collisions at LHC hint at the creation of a hot, fluid-like QGP medium. The seemingly conflicting measurements of non-zero particle correlations and $R_{pA}$ that appears to be consistent with unity demand a more careful analysis of the mechanisms at work in such ostensibly minuscule systems. We study the way in which energy is dissipated in the QGP created in $pA$ collisions by calculating, in pQCD, the short separation distance corrections to the well-known DGLV energy loss formulae that have produced excellent predictions for $AA$ collisions. We find that, shockingly, due to the large formation time (compared to the $1/\\mu$ Debye screening length) assumption that was used in the original DGLV calculation, a highly non-trivial cancellation of correction terms results in a null short path length correction to the DGLV energy loss formula. We investigate the effect of relaxing the large formation time assumption in the final ...
Lower vs. high momentum mass tomography in Quark-Gluon Plasma
Djordjevic, Magdalena; Zivkovic, Lidija
2016-01-01
We here show that at lower energies single particle suppression for different types of probes exhibit a clear mass hierarchy, which is a direct consequence of the differences in the energy loss, rather than the differences in the initial distributions. On the other hand, we predict that the mass hierarchy is not expected at high energies; i.e. the probes of different masses exhibit nearly the same suppression once high momentum measurements are considered. Moreover, we also argue that the same insensitivity on the probe types is valid for jets as well. In particular, the experimental data in the momentum regions where they exist for both types of probes, show similar suppressions of charged hadrons and inclusive jet data. Finally, the available jet data also show (though with large error bars) an overlap between b-jets (heavy) and inclusive jets (light), which we predict will also be exhibited for soon-to-be-measured charm jets. Consequently, our results suggest that single particles in the momentum region be...
Globally Polarized Quark-gluon Plasma in Non-central A+ACollisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang, Zuo-tang; Wang, Xin-Nian
2004-10-01
Produced partons have large local relative orbital angular momentum along the direction opposite to the reaction plane in the early stage of non-central heavy-ion collisions. Parton scattering is shown to polarize quarks along the same direction due to spin-orbital coupling.Such global quark polarization will lead to many observable consequences,such as left-right asymmetry of hadron spectra, global transverse polarization of thermal photons, dileptons and hadrons. Hadrons from the decay of polarized resonances will have azimuthal asymmetry similar to the elliptic flow. Global hyperon polarization is predicted with indifferent hadronization scenarios and can be easily tested.
Where does the rho go? Chirally symmetric vector mesons in the quark-gluon plasma
Pisarski, R D
1995-01-01
If the phase transition of QCD at nonzero temperature is dominated by the (approximate) restoration of chiral symmetry, then the transition might be characterized using a gauged linear sigma model. Assuming that vector meson dominance holds, such sigma models predict that at the temperature of chiral restoration, the pole mass of the thermal \\rho meson is greater than that at zero temperature; in the chiral limit and in weak coupling this mass is \\sim 962 \\, MeV. The width of the thermal \\rho-a_1 peak is estimated to be about 200 - 250 \\, MeV.
Jet-evolution in the quark-gluon plasma from RHIC to the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domdey, S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Kopeliovich, B.Z. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Pirner, H.J., E-mail: pir@tphys.uni-heidelberg.d [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)
2011-04-15
The observed suppression of high{sub pperpendicular} hadrons allows different explanations. We discuss two possible scenarios: In scenario 1, parton energy loss from scattering in the hot medium is complemented by final state interactions in the resonance matter. Scenario 2 has an enhanced transport parameter q-hat which is fitted to RHIC data. For LHC, the two scenarios lead to very different predictions for the nuclear modification factor of hadrons. In addition, jet reconstruction allows more specific tests of the mechanisms responsible for jet quenching. We calculate the distribution of partons inside a jet and find different results for the two scenarios.
Initial temperature of the strongly interacting Quark Gluon Plasma created at RHIC
Csanad, Mate
2011-01-01
A 1+3 dimensional solution of relativistic hydrodynamics is analyzed in this paper. Momentum distribution and other observables are calculated from the solution and compared to hadronic measurements from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The solution is compatible with the data, but only the freeze-out point of the evolution is determined. Many equation of states and initial states (initial temperatures) are valid with the same freeze-out distribution, thus the same hadronic observables. The observable that would distinguish between these initial temperatures is momentum distribution of photons, as photons are created throughout the evolution of the fireball created in RHIC collisions. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC measures such data via low invariant mass e+e- pairs. Average temperature from this data is T=221+-23+-18 MeV, while a model calculation with initial temperature 370 MeV agree with the data.
Heavy flavours production in quark-gluon plasma formed in high energy nuclear reactions
Kloskinski, J.
1985-01-01
Results on compression and temperatures of nuclear fireballs and on relative yield of strange and charmed hadrons are given . The results show that temperatures above 300 MeV and large compressions are unlikely achieved in average heavy ion collision. In consequence, thermal production of charm is low. Strange particle production is, however, substantial and indicates clear temperature - threshold behavior.
Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures
Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe
2016-09-01
We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.
Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R; Weber, S; Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D; Gregori, G; Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R
2007-10-02
Compton scattering has been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.
Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, O L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R J; Weber, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94709 (United States); Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)], E-mail: glenzer1@llnl.gov
2008-05-15
Compton scattering techniques have been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.
New Basic Physics Derived from Laser Plasma Interaction (lirpp Vol. 10)
Hora, Heinrich
2016-10-01
The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * VARIOUS PHENOMENA * COMPLETION OF THE EQUATION OF MOTION BY NONLINEAR FORCES * NONLINEAR PRINCIPLE * CONTAINMENT FORCE OF HADRONS IN NUCLEI AND PHASE TRANSITION INTO QUARK GLUON PLASMA * Acknowledgements * References
Decay of Langmuir wave in dense plasmas and warm dense matter
Son, S; Moon, Sung Joon
2010-01-01
The decays of the Langmuir waves in dense plasmas are computed using the dielectric function theory widely used in the solid state physics. Four cases are considered: a classical plasma, a Maxwellian plasma, a degenerate quantum plasma, and a partially degenerate plasma. The result is considerably different from the conventional Landau damping theory.
Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown
Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.
2015-11-01
A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Hard probes (and soft ones) to test the quark-gluon soup
Preuss, Paul
2006-01-01
"We need the hardest probes of all to study the hot, dense state of matter that exists when two heavy nuclei like gold collide with enough energy to temporarily free the quarks and gluons in their constituent protons and neutrons." (3 pages)
Interaction of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches with dense plasmas
Rukhadze, A A
2012-01-01
Here we discuss the possibility of employment of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches for generation of high plasma wakefields in dense plasmas due to the Cherenkov resonance plasma-bunch interaction. We estimate the maximum amplitude of such a wake and minimum system length at which the maximum amplitude can be generated at the given bunch parameters.
Collective plasma corrections to thermonuclear reactions rates in dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsytovich, V.N. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2002-01-01
General kinetic equations for nuclear reaction in dense plasmas are obtained. They take into account the first order collective plasma effects. Together with previously known corrections proportional to Z{sub i}Z{sub j}, the product of the charges Z{sub i} and Z{sub j} of two interacting nuclei, it is shown that there exist corrections proportional to the squares Z{sub i}{sup 2} and Z{sub j}{sup 2} of the charges. It is shown that the Salpeter's [1] correction due to the plasma screening of the interaction potential is at least r/d smaller (r is the nuclei size and d is Debye screening length) than previously thought and is zero in the approximation when the terms of the order r/d are neglected. But the correlation effects in the first approximation in the parameter 1/N{sub d} (where N{sub d} is the number of particle in the Debye sphere) give corrections which often coincide with the first order Salpeter's corrections (found by expansion in another small parameter, the ratio of thermal energy to Gamov's energy). The correlation corrections are {proportional_to} Z{sub i}Z{sub j}, have a different physical meaning than the corrections [1], can have a different sign and are present for reactions where the Salpeter's corrections are zero. Previously in astrophysical applications it was widely used the interpolation formulas between weak and strong Salpeter's screening corrections. Since the correlation correction take place the previously known Salpeter's corrections and the strong correlation corrections is difficult to describe analytically, the interpolation formulas between the weak and strong correlations cannot be yet found. A new type of corrections are found here which are proportional to the square of the charges. They are due to collective change in electrostatic self-energy of the plasma system during the nuclear reactions. The latter corrections are found by taking into account the changes of plasma particle fluctuations by
Dense Plasma Injection Experiment at MCX
Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Messer, S.; Bomgardner, R.; Case, A.; Clary, R.; Ellis, R.; Elton, R.; Hassam, A.; Teodorescu, C.; Witherspoon, D.; Young, W.
2009-09-01
We present preliminary results of the High Density Plasma Injection Experiment at the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX). HyperV Technologies Corp. has designed, built, and installed a prototype coaxial gun to drive rotation in MCX. This gun has been designed to avoid the blow-by instability via a combination of electrode shaping and a tailored plasma armature. An array of diagnostics indicates the gun is capable of plasma jets with a mass of 160 μg at 70 km/s with an average plasma density above 1015 cm-3. Preliminary measurements are underway at MCX to understand the penetration of the plasma jet through the MCX magnetic field and the momentum transfer from the jet to the MCX plasma. Data will be presented for a wide range of MCX field parameters, and the prospects for future injection experiments will be evaluated.
Self-diffusion in a dense magnetized plasma
Cohen, J.S.; Suttorp, L.G.
1984-01-01
Self-diffusion through dense classical one-component plasmas in a uniform magnetic field is studied by means of renormalized kinetic theory. Extensions of the Landau and the Rostoker equations to plasmas of high density are derived. The coefficient of self-diffusion along the magnetic field is evalu
Electronic Structure of Dense Plasmas by X-Ray Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Rogers, F J; Pollaine, S M; Froula, D H; Blancard, C; Faussurier, G; Renaudin, P; Kuhlbrodt, S; Redmer, R; Landen, O L
2003-10-07
We present an improved analytical expression for the x-ray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret x-ray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equation-of-state models for carbon plasmas.
Kondrashova, Nataliia; Haller, Johannes
2016-01-01
A measurement of the differential cross-section of $pp \\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^{*}(\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-})$~+~jet production and a study of the jet quark-gluon decomposition are presented. The data of 21.3 $\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$ collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 at the centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s} = 8$~TeV are used.The double-differential $pp \\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^{*}(\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-})$~+~jet cross-section is measured as a function of the absolute rapidity and the transverse momentum of jets. The jet quark-gluon decomposition study is performed in bins of the transverse momentum and the absolute rapidity of the highest-$p_{T}$ jet. The possibility to distinguish between quark-initiated and gluon-initiated jets is especially important for beyond Standard Mode searches, where a lot of signal processes have quarks in the final states, while background processes in Quantum Chromodynamic have mostly gluons. The performance of the discrimination between these two types of jets ...
Kondrashova, Nataliia; Haller, Johannes
2016-01-01
A measurement of the differential cross-section of $pp \\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^{*}(\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-})$~+~jet production and a study of the jet quark-gluon decomposition are presented. The data of 21.3 $\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$ collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 at the centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s} = 8$~TeV are used.The double-differential $pp \\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^{*}(\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-})$~+~jet cross-section is measured as a function of the absolute rapidity and the transverse momentum of jets. The jet quark-gluon decomposition study is performed in bins of the transverse momentum and the absolute rapidity of the highest-$p_{T}$ jet. The possibility to distinguish between quark-initiated and gluon-initiated jets is especially important for beyond Standard Mode searches, where a lot of signal processes have quarks in the final states, while background processes in Quantum Chromodynamic have mostly gluons. The performance of the discrimination between these two types of jets ...
Laboratory measurements of the resistivity of warm dense plasmas
Booth, Nicola; Robinson, Alex; Hakel, Peter; Gregori, Ginaluca; Rajeev, Pattathil; Woolsey, Nigel
2015-11-01
In this talk we will present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory in which we interrogate the microphysics of the low energy electron distributions associated with an anisotropic return current. Through experimental measurements of the polarization of the Ly- α doublet emission (2s1 / 2-2p1 / 2,3/2 transitions) of sulphur, we determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to warm dense conditions by an ultra-intense laser at relativistic intensities, I ~ 5 ×1020 Wcm-2. We describe a method of exploiting classical x-ray scattering to separately measure both the π- and σ- polarizations of Ly-α1 spectral emission in a single shot. These measurements make it possible to explore fundamental material properties such as resistivity in warm and hot dense plasmas through matching plasma physics modelling to atomic physics calculations of the experimentally measured large, positive, polarisation.
Physics of High Temperature, Dense Plasmas.
1984-01-01
34Investigation of the High-Energy Acceleration Mode in the Coaxial Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S28, (1964). I. 9. Dattner, A. and Eninger J...34Studies of a Coaxial Plasma Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S41, (1964). II. 10. Wilcox, J. M., Pugh, E., Dattner, A. and Eninger , J., "Experimental Study of
Statistical mechanics of reacting dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogers, F.J.
1978-11-22
A review of the quantum statistical theory of strongly coupled many component plasmas is given. The theoretical development is shown to consist of six separate parts. Compensation between bound and scattering state contributions to the partition function and use of the shifted Debye energy levels are important aspects of the analysis. The results are valid when the electrons are moderately coupled to the heavy ions, i.e., ..lambda../sub e..cap alpha../* < 1, but no restriction is placed on the coupling between heavy ions. Another restriction is that lambda/lambda/sub D/ < 1, i.e., the thermal deBroglie wavelength is less than the Debye length. Numerical calculations of PV/N/sub 0/kT and C/sub V/ are given for a Rubidium plasma.
Multi-scaling of the dense plasma focus
Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.
2015-03-01
The dense plasma focus is a copious source of multi-radiations with many potential new applications of special interest such as in advanced SXR lithography, materials synthesizing and testing, medical isotopes and imaging. This paper reviews the series of numerical experiments conducted using the Lee model code to obtain the scaling laws of the multi-radiations.
Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.
2010-10-30
Space-charge neutralization is required to compress and focus a pulsed, high-current ion beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described approaches to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary space-charge compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means, by an array of movable Langmuir probes, by a small single probe, and by evaluating Stark broadening of the Balmer H beta spectral line. In the main approach described here, the plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. It is shown that the plasma is essentially hollow, as determined by the structure of the magnetic field, though the plasma density exceeds 1014 cm-3 in practically all zones of the solenoid volume if the ring electrode is placed a few centimeters off the center of the solenoid. The plasma is non-uniform and fluctuating, however, since its density exceeds the ion beam density it is believed that this approach could provide a practical solution to the space charge neutralization challenge.
Exotic x-ray emission from dense plasmas
Rosmej, F. B.; Dachicourt, R.; Deschaud, B.; Khaghani, D.; Dozières, M.; Šmíd, M.; Renner, O.
2015-11-01
Exotic x-ray emission from dense matter is identified as the complex high intensity satellite emission from autoionizing states of highly charged ions. Among a vast amount of possible transitions, double K-hole hollow ion (HI) x-ray emission K0L X → K1L X-1 + hν hollow is of exceptional interest due to its advanced diagnostic potential for matter under extreme conditions where opacity and radiation fields play important roles. Transient ab initio simulations identify intense short pulse radiation fields (e.g., those emitted by x-ray free electron lasers) as possible driving mechanisms of HI x-ray emission via two distinct channels: first, successive photoionization of K-shell electrons, second, photoionization followed by resonant photoexciation among various ionic charge states that are simultaneously present in high density matter. We demonstrated that charge exchange of intermixing inhomogenous plasmas as well as collisions driven by suprathermal electrons are possible mechanisms to populate HIs to observable levels in dense plasmas, particularly in high current Z-pinch plasmas and high intensity field-ionized laser produced plasmas. Although the HI x-ray transitions were repeatedly identified in many other cases of dense optical laser produced plasmas on the basis of atomic structure calculations, their origin is far from being understood and remains one of the last holy grails of high intensity laser-matter interaction.
The equilibrium of dense plasma in a gravity field
Vasilev, B V
2000-01-01
The equilibrium of dense plasma in a gravity field and problem of a gravity-induced electric polarization in this matter are discussed. The calculation for metals performed before shows that both - the gravity-induced compressive strain and the gravity-induced electric field - are inversely proportional to their Young moduli. The calculation for high dense plasma, where Young modulus is equal to zero, shows that there is another effect: each cell of this plasma inside a celestial body in own gravity field obtains the small positive electric charge. It happens as heavy ions sag on to light electron clouds. A celestial body stays electrically neutral as a whole, because the negative electric charge concentrates on its surface. The gravity-induced positive volume charge is very small, its order of magnitude equals to $10^{-18}e$ per atom only. But it is sufficient for the complete conterbalancing of the gravity force.
Magnetoacoustic solitons in dense astrophysical electron-positron-ion plasmas
Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Mushtaq, A.
2013-08-01
Nonlinear magnetoacoustic waves in dense electron-positron-ion plasmas are investigated by using three fluid quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. The quantum mechanical effects of electrons and positrons are taken into account due to their Fermionic nature (to obey Fermi statistics) and quantum diffraction effects (Bohm diffusion term) in the model. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for low amplitude magnetoacoustic soliton in dense electron-positron-ion plasmas. It is found that positron concentration has significant impact on the phase velocity of magnetoacoustic wave and on the formation of single pulse nonlinear structure. The numerical results are also illustrated by taking into account the plasma parameters of the outside layers of white dwarfs and neutron stars/pulsars.
Warm, Dense Plasma Characterization by X-ray Thomson Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H; Cauble, R C; Lee, R W; Edwards, J E; Degroot, J S
2000-07-18
We describe how the powerful technique of spectrally resolved Thomson scattering can be extended to the x-ray regime, for direct measurements of the ionization state, density, temperature, and the microscopic behavior of dense cool plasmas. Such a direct measurement of microscopic parameters of solid density plasmas could eventually be used to properly interpret laboratory measurements of material properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, EUS and opacity. In addition, x-ray Thomson scattering will provide new information on the characteristics of rarely and hitherto difficult to diagnose Fermi degenerate and strongly coupled plasmas.
Ion structure in dense plasmas: MSA versus HNC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wuensch, K; Vorberger, J; Gericke, D O [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.wuensch@warwick.ac.uk
2009-05-29
We present results for the ionic structure in dense, moderately to strongly coupled plasmas using two models: the mean spherical approximation (MSA) and the hypernetted chain (HNC) approach. While the first method allows for an analytical solution, the latter has to be solved iteratively. Independent of the coupling strength, the results show only small differences when the ions are considered to form an unscreened one-component plasma (OCP) system. If the electrons are treated as a polarizable background, the different ways to incorporate the screening yield, however, large discrepancies between the models, particularly for more strongly coupled plasmas.
1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas. Proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ichimaru, S. [ed.] [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tajima, T. [ed.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies
1991-10-01
The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.
1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ichimaru, S. (ed.) (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Tajima, T. (ed.) (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies)
1991-10-01
The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
EN YO,H.; SAITO,N.; SHIBATA,T.A.; YAZAKI,K.; BUNCE,G.
2002-03-29
The RIKEN School on ''Quark-Gluon Structure of the Nucleon and QCD'' was held from March 29th through 31st at the Nishina Memorial Hall of RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan, sponsored by RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research). The school was the second of a new series with a broad perspective of hadron and nuclear physics. The purpose of the school was to offer young researchers an opportunity to learn theoretical aspects of hadron physics based on QCD and related experimental programs being or to be carried out by Japanese groups. We had 3 theoretical courses, each consisting of 3 one-hour lectures, and 6 experimental courses, each consisting of a one-hour lecture.
Thermodynamic and dynamical properties of dense ICF plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabdullin Maratbek T.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In present work, thermodynamic expressions were obtained through potentials that took into consideration long-range many-particle screening effects as well as short-range quantum-mechanical effects and radial distribution functions (RDFs. Stopping power of the projectile ions in dense, non-isothermal plasma was considered. One of the important values that describe the stopping power of the ions in plasma is the Coulomb logarithm. We investigated the stopping power of ions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF plasma and other energetic characteristics of fuel. Calculations of ions energy losses in the plasma for different values of the temperature and plasma density were carried out. A comparison of the calculated data of ion stopping power and energy deposition with experimental and theoretical results of other authors was also performed.
Results of the NA49 experiment on the search for the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN SPS
Seyboth, P
2001-01-01
Experiment NA49 at the CERN SPS has performed large acceptance measurements of hadron production in Pb+Pb collisions at 40 and 158 A.GeV beam energies. These data allowed a study of the space-time evolution, the hadro-chemical composition and event-by-event fluctuations of average event properties of the created hadron system. Results at top SPS energy are consistent with the existence of a transient deconfined phase in the early stage of the reaction. (22 refs).
Song, Jun; Liang, Zuo-tang
2014-01-01
We propose a new kind of two-particle correlation of identified hadrons in longitudinal rapidity space, called $G_{\\alpha\\beta}(y_{\\alpha},y_{\\beta})$, which can reflect clearly the charge correlations of hot quark system produced in AA collisions at LHC energies. It is derived from the basic scenario of quark combination mechanism of hadron production. Like the elliptic flow of identified hadrons at intermediate transverse momentum, this correlation is independent of the absolute hadronic yields but dependent only on the flavor compositions of hadrons, and thus exhibits interesting properties for different kinds of hadron species. We suggest the measurement of this observable in AA collisions at LHC to gain more insights into the charge correlation properties of produced hot quark matter.
Singh, R., Captain; Srivastava, P. K.; Ganesh, S.; Mishra, M.
2015-09-01
Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the quarkonium suppression in a thermal QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions is a complex interplay of various physical processes. In this article we put together most of these processes in a unified way to calculate the charmonium survival probability (nuclear modification factor) at energies available at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. We include shadowing as the dominant cold-nuclear-matter effect. Further, gluonic dissociation and collision damping are included, which provide width to the spectral function of charmonia in a thermal medium and cause the dissociation of charmonium along with the usual color screening. We include color screening by using our recently proposed modified Chu-Matsui model. Furthermore, we incorporate the recombination of uncorrelated charm and anticharm quarks for the regeneration of charmonium over the entire temporal evolution of the QGP medium. Finally, we do a feed-down correction from the excited states to calculate the survival probability of charmonium. We find that our unified model suitably and simultaneously describes the experimental nuclear modification data of J /ψ at RHIC and LHC.
Mathews, Grant J.; Meixner, Matthew; Olson, J. Pocahontas; Lan, Nguyen Q.; Dalhed, Holister E.
2013-10-01
We present an updated and improved equation of state (which we call the NDL EoS) for use in neutron-star structure and core-collapse supernova simulations. This EoS is begins with a framework originally developed by Bowers & Wilson, but there are numerous changes. Among them are: (1) a reformulation in the context of density functional theory; (2) the possibility of the formation of material with a net proton excess (Ye > 0 . 5); (3) an improved treatment of the nuclear statistical equilibrium and the transition to heavy nuclei as the density approaches nuclear matter density; (4) an improved treatment of the effects of pions in the regime above nuclear matter density including the incorporation of all the known mesonic and baryonic states at high temperature; (5) the effects of 3-body nuclear forces at high densities; and (6) the possibility of a first-order or crossover transition to a QCD chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase at densities above nuclear matter density. This paper details the physics of, and constraints on, this new EoS and describes its implementation in numerical simulations. We show comparisons of this EoS with other equations of state commonly used in supernova collapse simulations. Work at the University of Notre Dame is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Nuclear Theory Grant DE-FG02-95-ER40934.
The interfacial surface tension of a quark-gluon plasma ﬁreball in a hadronic medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R Ramanathan; K K Gupta; Agam K Jha; S S Singh
2007-05-01
We calculate the interfacial surface tension of a QGP-ﬁreball in a hadronic medium in the Ramanathan et al statistical model. The constancy of the ratio of the surface tension with the cube of the critical transition temperature is in overall accordance with lattice QCD ﬁndings. It is in complete agreement with a recent MIT bag model calculation of surface tension. The velocity of sound in the QGP droplet is predicted to be in the range (0.27 ± 0.02) times the velocity of light in vacuum and this value is independent of both the value of the transition temperature and the model parameters.
The electron-atom interaction in partially ionized dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omarbakiyeva, Yu A; Ramazanov, T S; Roepke, G [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96a, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: yultuz@physics.kz
2009-05-29
The electron-atom interaction is considered in dense partially ionized plasmas. The separable potential is constructed from scattering data using effective radius theory. Parameters of the interaction potential were obtained from phase shifts, scattering length and effective radius. The binding energy of the electron in the H{sup -} ion is determined for the singlet channel on the basis of the reconstructed separable potential. In dense plasmas, the influence of the Pauli exclusion principle on the phase shifts and the binding energy is considered. Due to the Pauli blocking, the binding energy vanishes at the Mott density. At that density the behavior of the phase shifts is drastically changed. This leads to modifications of macroscopic properties such as composition and transport coefficients.
Composition and thermodynamic properties of dense alkali metal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gabdullin, M.T. [NNLOT, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 al-Farabi Str., Almaty 050035 (Kazakhstan); Ramazanov, T.S.; Dzhumagulova, K.N. [IETP, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 al-Farabi Str., Almaty 050035 (Kazakhstan)
2012-04-15
In this work composition and thermodynamic properties of dense alkali metal plasmas (Li, Na) were investigated. Composition was derived by solving the Saha equations with corrections due to nonideality. The lowering of the ionization potentials was calculated on the basis of pseudopotentials by taking screening and quantum effects into account (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Structures of Strong Shock Waves in Dense Plasmas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Zhong-He; HE Yong; HU Xi-Wei; LV Jian-Hong; HU Ye-Min
2007-01-01
@@ Structures of strong shock waves in dense plasmas are investigated via the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations and Poisson equation. The structures from fluid simulation agree with the ones from kinetic simulation. The effects of the transport coefficients on the structures are analysed. The enhancements of the electronic heat conduction and ionic viscosity both will broaden the width of the shock fronts, and decrease the electric fields in the fronts.
Interaction of fast magnetoacoustic solitons in dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jahangir, R.; Saleem, Khalid [National Centre for Physics (NCP) Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan); Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Masood, W. [National Centre for Physics (NCP) Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pak Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.; Batool, Nazia [National Centre for Physics (NCP) Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2015-09-15
One dimensional propagation of fast magnetoacoustic solitary waves in dense plasmas with degenerate electrons is investigated in this paper in the small amplitude limit. In this regard, Korteweg deVries equation is derived and discussed using the plasma parameters that are typically found in white dwarf stars. The interaction of fast magnetoacoustic solitons is explored by using the Hirota bilinear formalism, which admits multi soliton solutions. It is observed that the values of the propagation vectors determine the interaction of solitary waves. It is further noted that the amplitude of the respective solitary waves remain unchanged after the interaction; however, they do experience a phase shift.
3D electron fluid turbulence at nanoscales in dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaikh, Dastgeer [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomy Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: dastgeer@cspar.uah.edu, E-mail: ps@tp4.rub.de
2008-08-15
We have performed three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear fluid simulations of electron fluid turbulence at nanoscales in an unmagnetized warm dense plasma in which mode coupling between wave function and electrostatic (ES) potential associated with underlying electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) lead to nonlinear cascades in inertial range. While the wave function cascades towards smaller length scales, ES potential follows an inverse cascade. We find from our simulations that the quantum diffraction effect associated with a Bohm potential plays a critical role in determining the inertial range turbulent spectrum and the subsequent transport level exhibited by the 3D EPOs.
3D Electron Fluid Turbulence at Nanoscales in Dense Plasmas
Shaikh, Dastgeer
2008-01-01
We have performed three dimensional nonlinear fluid simulations of electron fluid turbulence at nanoscales in an unmagnetized warm dense plasma in which mode coupling between wave function and electrostatic potential associated with underlying electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) lead to nonlinear cascades in inertial range. While the wave function cascades towards smaller length scales, electrostatic potential follows an inverse cascade. We find from our simulations that quantum diffraction effect associated with a Bohm potential plays a critical role in determining the inertial range turbulent spectrum and the subsequent transport level exhibited by the 3D EPOs.
GigaGauss magnetic fields in under-dense plasma
Lecz, Zsolt; Seryi, Andrei; Andreev, Alexander
2016-01-01
Magnetic fields have a crucial role in physics at all scales, from synchrotrons and laser-driven plasma accelerators to astrophysics and nanotechnology. Large field strengths, beside the guiding of relativistic particles along a shorter curvature, allows the investigation of material in extreme conditions existing only in exotic astro-objects like neutron stars or pulsars. Here we propose a method for generating magnetic field on the GigaGauss level in under-dense plasma using high intensity laser pulses with azimuthally non-uniform intensity distribution. The interaction is studied with the help of three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulation code. Beside the standard wake-field and bubble generation, such laser beam induces the rotational motion of electrons at the edge of evacuated plasma region. The combined axial magnetic and electric fields form a compact source of both high frequency radiation, due to coherent synchrotron emission, and low emittance, high density relativistic electron bunches. ...
Orbital free molecular dynamics; Approche sans orbitale des plasmas denses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lambert, F
2007-08-15
The microscopic properties of hot and dense plasmas stay a field essentially studied thanks to classical theories like the One Component Plasma, models which rely on free parameters, particularly ionization. In order to investigate these systems, we have used, in this PhD work, a semi-classical model, without free parameters, that is based on coupling consistently classical molecular dynamics for the nuclei and orbital free density functional theory for the electrons. The electronic fluid is represented by a free energy entirely determined by the local density. This approximation was validated by a comparison with an ab initio technique, quantum molecular dynamics. This one is identical to the previous except for the description of the free energy that depends on a quantum-independent-particle model. Orbital free molecular dynamics was then used to compute equation of state of boron and iron plasmas in the hot and dense regime. Furthermore, comparisons with classical theories were performed on structural and dynamical properties. Finally, equation of state and transport coefficients mixing laws were studied by direct simulation of a plasma composed of deuterium and copper. (author)
Understanding neutron production in the deuterium dense plasma focus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appelbe, Brian, E-mail: b.appelbe07@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk; Chittenden, Jeremy, E-mail: b.appelbe07@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2014-12-15
The deuterium Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) can produce copious amounts of MeV neutrons and can be used as an efficient neutron source. However, the mechanism by which neutrons are produced within the DPF is poorly understood and this limits our ability to optimize the device. In this paper we present results from a computational study aimed at understanding how neutron production occurs in DPFs with a current between 70 kA and 500 kA and which parameters can affect it. A combination of MHD and kinetic tools are used to model the different stages of the DPF implosion. It is shown that the anode shape can significantly affect the structure of the imploding plasma and that instabilities in the implosion lead to the generation of large electric fields at stagnation. These electric fields can accelerate deuterium ions within the stagnating plasma to large (>100 keV) energies leading to reactions with ions in the cold dense plasma. It is shown that the electromagnetic fields present can significantly affect the trajectories of the accelerated ions and the resulting neutron production.
Physical properties of dense, low-temperature plasmas
Redmer, Ronald
1997-04-01
Plasmas occur in a wide range of the density-temperature plane. The physical quantities can be expressed by Green's functions which are evaluated by means of standard quantum statistical methods. The influences of many-particle effects such as dynamic screening and self-energy, structure factor and local-field corrections, formation and decay of bound states, degeneracy and Pauli exclusion principle are studied. As a basic concept for partially ionized plasmas, a cluster decomposition is performed for the self-energy as well as for the polarization function. The general model of a partially ionized plasma interpolates between low-density, nonmetallic systems such as atomic vapors and high-density, conducting systems such as metals or fully ionized plasmas. The equations of state, including the location of the critical point and the shape of the coexistence curve, are determined for expanded alkali-atom and mercury fluids. The occurrence of a metal-nonmetal transition near the critical point of the liquid-vapor phase transition leads in these materials to characteristic deviations from the behavior of nonconducting fluids such as the inert gases. Therefore, a unified approach is needed to describe the drastic changes of the electronic properties as well as the variation of the physical properties with the density. Similar results are obtained for the hypothetical plasma phase transition in hydrogen plasma. The transport coefficients (electrical and thermal conductivity, thermopower) are studied within linear response theory given here in the formulation of Zubarev which is valid for arbitrary degeneracy and yields the transport coefficients for the limiting cases of nondegenerate, weakly coupled plasmas (Spitzer theory) as well as degenerate, strongly coupled plasmas (Ziman theory). This linear response method is applied to partially ionized systems such as dense, low-temperature plasmas. Here, the conductivity changes from nonmetallic values up to those typical for
Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices
Gribkov, V. A.
2008-04-01
Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement—MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy.
Spaced resolved analysis of suprathermal electrons in dense plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moinard A.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The investigation of the hot electron fraction is a crucial topic for high energy density laser driven plasmas: first, energy losses and radiative properties depend strongly on the hot electron fraction and, second, in ICF hohlraums suprathermal electrons preheat the D-T-capsule and seriously reduce the fusion performance. In the present work we present our first experimental and theoretical studies to analyze single shot space resolved hot electron fractions inside dense plasmas via optically thin X-ray line transitions from autoionizing states. The benchmark experiment has been carried out at an X-pinch in order to create a dense, localized plasma with a well defined symmetry axis of hot electron propagation. Simultaneous high spatial and spectral resolution in the X-ray spectral range has been obtained with a spherically bent quartz Bragg crystal. The high performance of the X-ray diagnostics allowed to identify space resolved hot electron fractions via the X-ray spectral distribution of multiple excited states.
INFERNO - A better model of atoms in dense plasmas
Liberman, D. A.
1982-03-01
A self-consistent field model of atoms in dense plasmas has been devised and incorporated in a computer program. In the model there is a uniform positive charge distribution with a hole in it and at the center of the hole an atomic nucleus. There are electrons, in both bound and continuum states, in sufficient number to form an electrically neutral system. The Dirac equation is used so that high Z atoms can be dealt with. A finite temperature is assumed, and a mean field (average atom) approximation is used in statistical averages. Applications have been made to equations of states and to photoabsorption.
Electrostatic Waves in Dense Dusty Plasmas with High Fugacity
Rao, N. N.
Propagation of electrostatic dust modes has been reviewed in the light of the concept of dust fugacity defined by f≡4πnd0λD2R, where nd0 and R are the dust number density and the grain size (radius) while the plasma Debye length (λD) is given through λD-2=λDe-2+λDi-2. Dusty plasmas are defined to be tenuous, dilute or dense when f≪1, ˜1, or ≫1, respectively. Attention is focused on “Dust-Acoustic Waves” (DAWs) and “Dust-Coulomb Waves” (DCWs) which exist in the tenuous (f≪1) and the dense (f≫1) regimes, respectively. A simple physical picture of the DCWs has been proposed in terms of an effective pressure called “Coulomb Pressure defined by PC≡nd0qd02/R, where qd0 is the grain charge. In the lowest order, the DCW phase speed is given by ω/k=PC/ρdδ, where ρd≡nd0md is the dust mass density and δ≡ω2/ω1 is the ratio of charging frequencies. Thus, DCWs which are driven by the Coulomb pressure can be considered as the electrostatic analogue of hydromagnetic (Alfvén or magnetoacoustic) modes which are driven by magnetic field pressure. In the dilute regime, the two waves loose their identities and merge into a single mode, which may be called “Dust Charge-Density Wave” (DCDW). When the grains are closest, DCW dispersion relation is identical with that of “Dust-Lattice Waves” (DLWs). Dense dusty plasmas are governed by a new scale-length defined by λR≡1/4πnd0Rδ, which characterizes the effective shielding length due to grain collective interactions. The scale-length λR plays a fundamental role in dense dusty plasmas, which is very similar to that of the Debye length λD in the tenuous regime. The two scale-lengths are related to the fugacity through fδ≡λD2/λR2. The frequency spectrum as well as the damping rates for various dust modes have been analytically obtained, and compared with the numerical solutions of the kinetic (Vlasov) dispersion relation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kondrashova, Nataliia
2016-04-15
A measurement of the differential cross-section of pp→Z/γ{sup *}(→e{sup +}e{sup -})+jet production and a study of the jet quark-gluon decomposition are presented. The data of 21.3 fb{sup -1} collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 at the centre-of-mass energy √(s)=8 TeV are used. The double-differential pp→Zγ{sup *}(→e{sup +}e{sup -})+jet cross-section is measured as a function of the absolute rapidity and the transverse momentum of jets. The jet quark-gluon decomposition study is performed in bins of the transverse momentum and the absolute rapidity of the highest-p{sub T} jet. The possibility to distinguish between quark-initiated and gluon-initiated jets is especially important for beyond Standard Mode searches, where a lot of signal processes have quarks in the final states, while background processes in Quantum Chromodynamic have mostly gluons. The performance of the discrimination between these two types of jets using different jet properties is studied using data-driven techniques with purified quark-like and gluon-like jet samples. The pp→Z/γ{sup *}(→e{sup +}e{sup -})+jet production provides an important test of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics and is an important background for many Standard Model processes and beyond Standard Model searches. In addition, the measurement of the pp→Z/γ{sup *}(→e{sup +}e{sup -})+jet cross section as a function of the absolute rapidity and the transverse momentum of inclusive jets provides constraints on the uncertainties on the parton distribution functions. The rapidity of jets provides the information on the fraction of the initial proton's momentum carried by the interacting partons, which provides the sensitivity to the parton distribution functions, while the transverse momentum of jets allows to probe different transfer momentum scales.The measured cross-section is compared to the predictions from Monte Carlo generators based on leading order matrix elements
Non-LTE modeling of radiatively driven dense plasmas
Scott, H. A.
2017-03-01
There are now several experimental facilities that use strong X-ray fields to produce plasmas with densities ranging from ˜1 to ˜103 g/cm3. Large laser facilities, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the Omega laser reach high densities with radiatively driven compression, short-pulse lasers such as XFELs produce solid density plasmas on very short timescales, and the Orion laser facility combines these methods. Despite the high densities, these plasmas can be very far from LTE, due to large radiation fields and/or short timescales, and simulations mostly use collisional-radiative (CR) modeling which has been adapted to handle these conditions. These dense plasmas present challenges to CR modeling. Ionization potential depression (IPD) has received much attention recently as researchers work to understand experimental results from LCLS and Orion [1,2]. However, incorporating IPD into a CR model is only one challenge presented by these conditions. Electron degeneracy and the extent of the state space can also play important roles in the plasma energetics and radiative properties, with effects evident in recent observations [3,4]. We discuss the computational issues associated with these phenomena and methods for handling them.
Dense plasma focus (DPF) accelerated non radio isotopic radiological source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rusnak, Brian; Tang, Vincent
2017-01-31
A non-radio-isotopic radiological source using a dense plasma focus (DPF) to produce an intense z-pinch plasma from a gas, such as helium, and which accelerates charged particles, such as generated from the gas or injected from an external source, into a target positioned along an acceleration axis and of a type known to emit ionizing radiation when impinged by the type of accelerated charged particles. In a preferred embodiment, helium gas is used to produce a DPF-accelerated He2+ ion beam to a beryllium target, to produce neutron emission having a similar energy spectrum as a radio-isotopic AmBe neutron source. Furthermore, multiple DPFs may be stacked to provide staged acceleration of charged particles for enhancing energy, tunability, and control of the source.
Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, T., E-mail: ma8@llnl.gov; Pak, A.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Turnbull, D.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fletcher, L.; Galtier, E.; Hastings, J.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Chapman, D. A. [Plasma Physics Group, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Falcone, R. W. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fortmann, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Gericke, D. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G.; White, T. G. [University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Neumayer, P. [Extreme Matter Institute, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Vorberger, J. [Max Planck Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nötthnizer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); and others
2014-05-15
Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ∼3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4Å{sup −1}. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.
Monte Carlo simulations of ionization potential depression in dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stransky, M., E-mail: stransky@fzu.cz [Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
2016-01-15
A particle-particle grand canonical Monte Carlo model with Coulomb pair potential interaction was used to simulate modification of ionization potentials by electrostatic microfields. The Barnes-Hut tree algorithm [J. Barnes and P. Hut, Nature 324, 446 (1986)] was used to speed up calculations of electric potential. Atomic levels were approximated to be independent of the microfields as was assumed in the original paper by Ecker and Kröll [Phys. Fluids 6, 62 (1963)]; however, the available levels were limited by the corresponding mean inter-particle distance. The code was tested on hydrogen and dense aluminum plasmas. The amount of depression was up to 50% higher in the Debye-Hückel regime for hydrogen plasmas, in the high density limit, reasonable agreement was found with the Ecker-Kröll model for hydrogen plasmas and with the Stewart-Pyatt model [J. Stewart and K. Pyatt, Jr., Astrophys. J. 144, 1203 (1966)] for aluminum plasmas. Our 3D code is an improvement over the spherically symmetric simplifications of the Ecker-Kröll and Stewart-Pyatt models and is also not limited to high atomic numbers as is the underlying Thomas-Fermi model used in the Stewart-Pyatt model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-10-01
This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out by New Mexico State University from April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1996 under a grant from the US Department of Energy. During this period we began phasing out our programs of study of pion-nucleus and pion-nucleon interaction and of nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions, which have been our major focus of the past two or three years. At the same time we continued moving in a new direction of research on studies of the internal structure of nucleons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons. The pion and nucleon work has been aimed at improving our understanding of the nature of pion and proton interactions in the nuclear medium and of various aspects of nuclear structure. The studies of the quark-gluon structure of nucleons are aimed at clarifying such problems as the nature of the quark sea and the relation of the nucleon spin to the spins of the quarks within the nucleon, questions which are of a very fundamental nature.
Viscosity over entropy ratio in a quark plasma
Czerski, P.; Alberico, W. M.; Chiacchiera, S.; DePace, A.; Hansen, H.; Molinari, A.; Nardi, M.
2009-02-01
The quark viscosity in the quark-gluon plasma is evaluated in the hard thermal loop (HTL) approximation. The different contributions to the viscosity arising from the various components of the quark spectral function are discussed. The calculation is extended to finite values of the chemical potential.
Modeling the Spectra of Dense Hydrogen Plasmas: Beyond Occupation Probability
Gomez, T A; Nagayama, T; Kilcrease, D P; Winget, D E
2016-01-01
Accurately measuring the masses of white dwarf stars is crucial in many astrophysical contexts (e.g., asteroseismology and cosmochronology). These masses are most commonly determined by fitting a model atmosphere to an observed spectrum; this is known as the spectroscopic method. However, for cases in which more than one method may be employed, there are well known discrepancies between masses determined by the spectroscopic method and those determined by astrometric, dynamical, and/or gravitational-redshift methods. In an effort to resolve these discrepancies, we are developing a new model of hydrogen in a dense plasma that is a significant departure from previous models. Experiments at Sandia National Laboratories are currently underway to validate these new models, and we have begun modifications to incorporate these models into stellar-atmosphere codes.
Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California 94550 (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States)
2014-10-15
Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.
Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor (DMP WaPR) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor offers significant improvements over existing water purification technologies used in Advanced Life Support...
Opening switch research on a dense plasma focus
Gerdin, G.
1987-02-01
Experiments were performed to enhance power coupling to the load by placing the load electrode opposite the muzzle end of the Dense Plasma Focus plasma gun. The impaler concept, whereby the current sheath is run into a knife edge insulator, was tested in two configurations. However, the power coupled to the load was always less than one tenth that of the experiments where the load was coupled to the breach of the gun. Other load coupling schemes where the load electrode was brought near the outside of the central electrode prevented pinches (voltage surges) when placed too close and the power coupled to the load was reduced when the load electrodes were moved away. The results were not as good as those of the impaler concept. Measurements of the dynamics of the current sheath in various stages were performed and compared with theory. Generally the velocity of the current sheath falls below theoretical expectations suggesting the presence of electrode drag, a phenomenon not present in the model. During the radial collapse phase the model and the experimental estimates of dL/dt are in substantiaL agreement before pinch time but disagree afterward due to two dimensional effects not present in the theory.
MHD modeling of dense plasma focus electrode shape variation
McLean, Harry; Hartman, Charles; Schmidt, Andrea; Tang, Vincent; Link, Anthony; Ellsworth, Jen; Reisman, David
2013-10-01
The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a very simple device physically, but results to date indicate that very extensive physics is needed to understand the details of operation, especially during the final pinch where kinetic effects become very important. Nevertheless, the overall effects of electrode geometry, electrode size, and drive circuit parameters can be informed efficiently using MHD fluid codes, especially in the run-down phase before the final pinch. These kinds of results can then guide subsequent, more detailed fully kinetic modeling efforts. We report on resistive 2-d MHD modeling results applying the TRAC-II code to the DPF with an emphasis on varying anode and cathode shape. Drive circuit variations are handled in the code using a self-consistent circuit model for the external capacitor bank since the device impedance is strongly coupled to the internal plasma physics. Electrode shape is characterized by the ratio of inner diameter to outer diameter, length to diameter, and various parameterizations for tapering. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Liu, Wei
2010-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into core fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). Unmagnetized jet injection is similar to compact toroid injection but with higher possible injection density and total mass, as well as a potentially smaller footprint for the injector hardware. Our simulation results show that the unmagnetized dense jet is quickly magnetized upon injection. The penetration depth of the jet into the tokamak plasma is mostly dependent on the jet's initial kinetic energy while the jet's magnetic field determines its interior evolution. A key requirement for spatially precise fueling is for the jet's slowing-down time to be less than the time for the perturbed tokamak magnetic flux to relax due to magnetic reconnection. Thus ...
Unified Concept of Effective One Component Plasma for Hot Dense Plasmas.
Clérouin, Jean; Arnault, Philippe; Ticknor, Christopher; Kress, Joel D; Collins, Lee A
2016-03-18
Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations are used to benchmark two popular models for hot dense plasmas: the one component plasma (OCP) and the Yukawa model. A unified concept emerges where an effective OCP (EOCP) is constructed from the short-range structure of the plasma. An unambiguous ionization and the screening length can be defined and used for a Yukawa system, which reproduces the long-range structure with finite compressibility. Similarly, the dispersion relation of longitudinal waves is consistent with the screened model at vanishing wave number but merges with the OCP at high wave number. Additionally, the EOCP reproduces the overall relaxation time scales of the correlation functions associated with ionic motion. In the hot dense regime, this unified concept of EOCP can be fruitfully applied to deduce properties such as the equation of state, ionic transport coefficients, and the ion feature in x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.
A unified concept of effective one component plasma for hot dense plasmas
Clérouin, Jean; Ticknor, Christopher; Kress, Joel D; Collins, Lee A
2016-01-01
Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations are used to benchmark two popular models for hot dense plasmas: the one component plasma (OCP) and the Yukawa model. A unified concept emerges where an effective OCP (eOCP) is constructed from the short-range structure of the plasma. An unambiguous ionization and the screening length can be defined and used for a Yukawa system, which reproduces the long range structure with finite compressibility. Similarly, the dispersion relation of longitudinal waves is consistent with the screened model at vanishing wavenumber but merges with the OCP at high wavenumber. Additionally, the eOCP reproduces the overall relaxation timescales of the correlation functions associated with ionic motion. In the hot dense regime, this unified concept of eOCP can be fruitfully applied to deduce properties such as the equation of state, ionic transport coefficients, and the ion feature in x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.
Quark-Gluon Mixed Vacuum Condensates in Dyson-Schwinger Equations%在Dyson-Schwinger方程中夸克-胶子的混合真空凝聚
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周丽娟; 马维兴
2005-01-01
基于夸克传播子的Dyson-Schwinger方程,计算了夸克胶子混合真空凝聚和夸克真空凝聚.这些凝聚不仅联系着夸克在真空态中的虚度,而且也表征了真空中夸克分布的空间宽度.真空凝聚的存在直接反映着QCD真空的非微扰结构. 计算表明:上夸克与下夸克的虚度为λ2u,d=0.7GeV2, 奇异夸克的虚度为λ2s=1.6GeV2.这些结果与许多用完全不同的方法得到的结果一致.%Based on Dyson-Schwinger Equations of quark propagator, we calculate quark-gluon mixed vacuum condensates 〈0|∶gsσμνGμνq∶|0〉 and quark vacuum condensates 〈0|∶q∶|0〉 which are not only related to virtuality of quark in vacuum state but also characterize the space width of quark distribution in the vacuum. The existence of these vacuum condensates reflects in a direct way the non-perturbative structure of QCD vacuum. Our calculated results on the mixed condensates lead to quark virtualities of λ2u,d=0.7GeV2 for u,d quarks, and λ2s=1.6GeV2 for s quark which are consistent with other's calculations using completely different methods.
Final Report LDRD 02-ERD-013 Dense Plasma Characterization by X-ray Thomson Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Pollaine, S M; Hammer, J H; Rogers, F; Meezan, N B; Chung, H; Lee, R W
2005-02-11
We have successfully demonstrated spectrally-resolved x-ray scattering in a variety of dense plasmas as a powerful new technique for providing microscopic dense plasma parameters unattainable by other means. The results have also been used to distinguish between ionization balance models. This has led to 10 published or to be published papers, 8 invited talks and significant interest from both internal and external experimental plasma physicists and the international statistical plasma physics theory community.
Inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate for dense plasmas in laser fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dey, R. [D-203, Samruddhi Residency, Motera, Ahmedabad-380009, Gujarat (India); Roy, A. C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711202, West Bengal (India)
2013-07-15
We report a theoretical analysis of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate in the eikonal approximation. The present analysis is performed for a dense plasma using the screened electron-ion interaction potential for the ion charge state Z{sub i} = 1 and for both the weak and strong plasma screening cases. We have also compared the eikonal results with the first Born approximation (FBA) [M. Moll et al., New J. Phys. 14, 065010 (2012)] calculation. We find that the magnitudes of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate within the eikonal approximation (EA) are larger than the FBA values in the weak screening case (κ = 0.03 a.u.) in a wide range of field strength for three different initial electron momenta (2, 3, and 4 a.u.). But for strong screening case (κ = 0.3 a.u.), the heating rates predicted by the two approximations do not differ much after reaching their maximum values. Furthermore, the individual contribution of photoemission and photoabsorption processes to heating rate is analysed for both the weak and strong screening cases. We find that the single photoemission and photoabsorption rates are the same throughout the field strength while the multiphoton absorption process dominates over the multiphoton emission process beyond the field strength ≈ 4×10{sup 8} V/cm. The present study of the dependence of heating rate on the screening parameter ranging from 0.01 to 20 shows that whereas the heating rate predicted by the EA is greater than the FBA up to the screening parameter κ = 0.3 a.u., the two approximation methods yield results which are nearly identical beyond the above value.
Survival of Bc mesons in a hot plasma within a potential model
Alberico, W M; Czerski, P; De Pace, A; Nardi, M; Ratti, C
2013-01-01
We extend a previous work on the study of heavy charmonia and bottomonia in a deconfined quark-gluon plasma by considering the Bc family of mesons. With the introduction of this bound state of a charm and a beauty quark, we investigate at finite temperature the behavior of the quarkonium, in an energy region between the {\\psi} and the {\\Upsilon} states.
A thin column of dense plasma for space-charge neutralization of intense ion beams
Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Greenway, W.; Sefkow, A. B.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; Waldron, W. L.; Welch, D. R.
2008-11-01
Typical ion driven warm dense matter experiment requires a plasma density of 10^14/cm^3 to meet the challenge of np>nb, where np, and nb are the number densities of plasma and beam, respectively. Plasma electrons neutralize the space charge of an ion beam to allow a small spot of about 1-mm radius. In order to provide np>nb for initial warm, dense matter experiments, four cathodic arc plasma sources have been fabricated, and the aluminum plasma is focused in a focusing solenoid (8T field). A plasma probe with 37 collectors was developed to measure the radial plasma profile inside the solenoid. Results show that the plasma forms a thin column of diameter ˜7mm along the solenoid axis. The magnetic mirror effect, plasma condensation, and the deformation of the magnetic field due to eddy currents are under investigation. Data on plasma parameters and ion beam neutralization will be presented.
Thermodynamics of the N=2^* strongly coupled plasma
Buchel, A; Kerner, P; Liu, J T; Buchel, Alex; Deakin, Stan; Kerner, Patrick; Liu, James T.
2007-01-01
Gauge/string duality is a potentially important framework for addressing the properties of the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma produced at RHIC. However, constructing an actual string theory dual to QCD has so far proven elusive. In this paper, we take a partial step towards exploring the QCD plasma by investigating the thermodynamics of a non-conformal system, namely the N=2^* theory, which is obtained as a mass deformation of the conformal N=4 gauge theory. We find that at temperatures of order the mass scale, the thermodynamics of the mass deformed plasma is surprisingly close to that of the conformal gauge theory plasma. This suggests that many properties of the quark gluon plasma at RHIC may in fact be well described by even relatively simple models such as that of the conformal N=4 plasma.
Pre-equilibrium plasma dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinz, U.
1986-01-01
Approaches towards understanding and describing the pre-equilibrium stage of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. Focus is on a kinetic theory approach to non-equilibrium dynamics, its extension to include the dynamics of color degrees of freedom when applied to the quark-gluon plasma, its quantum field theoretical foundations, and its relationship to both the particle formation stage at the very beginning of the nuclear collision and the hydrodynamic stage at late collision times. The usefulness of this approach to obtain the transport coefficients in the quark-gluon plasma and to derive the collective mode spectrum and damping rates in this phase are discussed. Comments are made on the general difficulty to find appropriated initial conditions to get the kinetic theory started, and a specific model is given that demonstrates that, once given such initial conditions, the system can be followed all the way through into the hydrodynamical regime. 39 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)
Launching of Microwaves into a Dense Plasma in Open Confinement Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timofeev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2001-02-15
A study is made of the propagation of microwave beams in a plasma and their passage through the critical surface. It is shown that, in order for microwaves to penetrate deeply into a dense plasma, it is necessary to launch them through a magnetic mirror at a slight angle to the device axis. The characteristic features of ray trajectories are analyzed both ahead of and behind the critical surface. In a dense plasma behind the critical surface, microwaves tend to run out of the axial region toward the plasma periphery. This tendency may be unfavorable for heating plasmas whose radial density profiles are strongly peaked about the system axis. The problems under analysis are particularly important for assessing the prospects for ECR heating of dense plasmas in open confinement systems.
First experimental demonstration of magnetic-field assisted fast heating of a dense plasma core
Fujioka, Shinsuke; Sakata, Shohei; Lee, Seung Ho; Matsuo, Kazuki; Sawada, Hiroshi; Iwasa, Yuki; Law, King Fai Farley; Morita, Hitoki; Kojima, Sadaoki; Abe, Yuki; Yao, Akira; Hata, Masayasu; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Morace, Alessio; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Nagatomo, Hideo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Firex Project Team
2016-10-01
Fast heating of a dense plasma core by an energetic electron beam is being studied on GEKKO-LFEX laser facility. Here, we introduce a laser-driven kilo-tesla external magnetic field to guide the diverging electron beam to the dense plasma core. This involve placing a spherical target in the magnetic field, compressing it with the GEKKO-XII laser beams and then using the LFEX laser beams injected into the dense plasma to generate the electron beam which do the fast heating. Cu-Ka emission is used to visualize transport or heating processes of a dense plasma. X-ray spectrum from a highly ionized Cu ions indicates several keV of the temperature increment induced by the LFEX.
Rawat, R. S.
2015-03-01
The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of
Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.
2014-06-01
These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.
Absorption of a laser light pulse in a dense plasma.
Mehlman-Balloffet, G.
1973-01-01
An experimental study of the absorption of a laser light pulse in a transient, high-density, high-temperature plasma is presented. The plasma is generated around a metallic anode tip by a fast capacitive discharge occurring in vacuum. The amount of transmitted light is measured for plasmas made of different metallic ions in the regions of the discharge of high electronic density. Variation of the transmission during the laser pulse is also recorded. Plasma electrons are considered responsible for the very high absorption observed.
Generation of magnetic fields by the ponderomotive force of electromagnetic waves in dense plasmas
Shukla, P K; Shukla, Nitin; Stenflo, Lennart
2010-01-01
We show that the non-stationary ponderomotive force of a, large-amplitude electromagnetic move in a very dense quantum plasma wall streaming degenerate electrons can spontaneously create d.c. magnetic fields. The present result can account for the seed magnetic fields in compact astrophysical objects and in the next-generation intense laser-solid density, plasma interaction experiments.
Kinetic theory of self-diffusion in a moderately dense one-component plasma
Suttorp, L.G.
1980-01-01
A microscopic description of self-diffusion in a moderately dense classical one-component plasma is given on the basis of renormalized kinetic theory. The effects of close binary collisions and of collective interactions in the plasma are taken into account through the use of a composite memory kern
Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gribkov, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V.N.; Maslyaev, S.A. [Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G.G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Vilemova, M.; Matejicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Prague (Czech Republic)
2016-12-15
Highlights: • Materials perspective for use in mainstream nuclear fusion facilities were studied. • Powerful streams of hot plasma and fast ions were used to induce irradiation. • High temporal, spatial, angular and spectral resolution available in experiments. • Results of irradiation were investigated by number of analysis techniques. - Abstract: A process of irradiating and ablating solid-state targets with hot plasma and fast ion streams in two Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices – PF-6 and PF-1000 was examined by applying a number of diagnostics of nanosecond time resolution. Materials perspective for use in chambers of the mainstream nuclear fusion facilities (mainly with inertial plasma confinement like NIF and Z-machine), intended both for the first wall and for constructions, have been irradiated in these simulators. Optical microscopy, SEM, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, images in secondary electrons and in characteristic X-ray luminescence of different elements, and X-ray elemental analysis, gave results on damageability for a number of materials including low-activated ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, β-alloy of Ti, as well as two types of W and a composite on its base. With an increase of the number of shots irradiating the surface, its morphology changes from weakly pronounced wave-like structures or ridges to strongly developed ones. At later stages, due to the action of the secondary plasma produced near the target materials they melted, yielding both blisters and a fracturing pattern: first along the grain and then “in-between” the grains creating an intergranular net of microcracks. At the highest values of power flux densities multiple bubbles appeared. Furthermore, in this last case the cracks were developed because of microstresses at the solidification of melt. Presence of deuterium within the irradiated ferritic steel surface nanolayers is explained by capture of deuterons in lattice defects of the types of impurity atoms
Bleibel, J.; Bravina, L. V.; Zabrodin, E. E.
2016-06-01
Multiplicity, rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of hadrons produced both in inelastic and nondiffractive p p collisions at energies from √{s }=200 GeV to 14 TeV are studied within the Monte Carlo quark-gluon string model. Good agreement with the available experimental data up to √{s }=13 TeV is obtained, and predictions are made for the collisions at top LHC energy √{s }=14 TeV . The model indicates that Feynman scaling and extended longitudinal scaling remain valid in the fragmentation regions, whereas strong violation of Feynman scaling is observed at midrapidity. The Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling in multiplicity distributions is violated at LHC also. The origin of both maintenance and violation of the scaling trends is traced to short range correlations of particles in the strings and interplay between the multistring processes at ultrarelativistic energies.
Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
2014-01-08
The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereas the efficient generation of electric current in low-energy-density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-energy-density plasma the ideas for steady-state current drive developed for low-energy-density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-energy-density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.
Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisch, Nathaniel J
2014-01-08
I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-energy-density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-energy-density plasma the ideas for steady-state current drive developed for low-energy-density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-energy-density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.
Energy Flow in Dense Off-Equilibrium Plasma
2016-07-15
visible and UV light. Opacity is determined using calibrated time-resolved spectroscopy (W/nm). Bataller et al. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...Spectrum as function of time Plasmas at 12,000-18,000 K emit visible and UV light. Opacity is determined using calibrated time-resolved...different systems that all produce plasmas with a similar thermodynamic state. Probing sonoluminescence with visible -wavelength lasers yielded
Tsunoura, Toru; Yoshida, Katsumi; Yano, Toyohiko; Kishi, Yukio
2017-06-01
Yttrium oxyfluoride (YOF) ceramics are expected to be one of the attractive plasma-resistant materials for semiconductor production equipment. In this study, dense YOF ceramics were fabricated by hot pressing using YOF powder, and their physical, mechanical, and thermal properties were characterized. Moreover, behavior against fluorine-plasma exposure was investigated. The results suggest that the YOF ceramics showed excellent mechanical and thermal properties, and superior resistance for fluorine-plasma exposure to Y2O3 ceramics.
Two views on the Bjorken scenario for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Maire, Antonin
2011-01-01
The sketch describes the Bjorken scenario foreseen for the collision of ultra-relativistic heavy-ions, leading to the creation of strongly-interacting hot and dense deconfined matter, the so-called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).
JINA Workshop Nuclear Physics in Hot Dense Dynamic Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kritcher, A L; Cerjan, C; Landen, O; Libby, S; Chen, M; Wilson, B; Knauer, J; Mcnabb, D; Caggiano, J; Bleauel, D; Weideking, M; Kozhuharov, C; Brandau, C; Stoehlker, T; Meot, V; Gosselin, G; Morel, P; Schneider, D; Bernstein, L A
2011-03-07
Measuring NEET and NEEC is relevant for probing stellar cross-sections and testing atomic models in hot plasmas. Using NEEC and NEET we can excite nuclear levels in laboratory plasmas: (1) NIF: Measure effect of excited nuclear levels on (n,{gamma}) cross-sections, 60% and never been measured; (2) Omega, Test cross-sections for creating these excited levels via NEEC and NEET. Will allow us to test models that estimate resonance overlap of atomic states with the nucleus: (1) Average Atom model (AA) (CEA&LLNL), single average wave-function potential; (2) Super Transition Array (STA) model (LLNL), More realistic individual configuration potentials NEET experimental data is scarce and not in a plasma environment, NEEC has not yet been observed.
Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.; Ali, Munazza Z.
2016-06-01
The obliquely propagating arbitrary amplitude electrostatic wave is studied in a dense magnetized plasma having singly and doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons pressures. The Fermi temperature for ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons described by N. M. Vernet [(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007), p. 57] is used to define ion acoustic speed in ultra-dense plasmas. The pseudo-potential approach is used to solve the fully nonlinear set of dynamic equations for obliquely propagating electrostatic waves in a dense magnetized plasma containing helium ions. The upper and lower Mach number ranges for the existence of electrostatic solitons are found which depends on the obliqueness of the wave propagation with respect to applied magnetic field and charge number of the helium ions. It is found that only compressive (hump) soliton structures are formed in all the cases and only subsonic solitons are formed for a singly charged helium ions plasma case with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons. Both subsonic and supersonic soliton hump structures are formed for doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons plasma case containing singly as well as doubly charged helium ions. The effect of propagation direction on the soliton amplitude and width of the electrostatic waves is also presented. The numerical plots are also shown for illustration using dense plasma parameters of a compact star (white dwarf) from literature.
Extended First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Method From Cold Materials to Hot Dense Plasmas
Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu
2016-01-01
An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically, and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of elec- tronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of the lowering of ionization potential, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, opacity, and high-Z dense plasmas, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.
Preionization Techniques in a kJ-Scale Dense Plasma Focus
Povilus, Alexander; Shaw, Brian; Chapman, Steve; Podpaly, Yuri; Cooper, Christopher; Falabella, Steve; Prasad, Rahul; Schmidt, Andrea
2016-10-01
A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a type of z-pinch device that uses a high current, coaxial plasma gun with an implosion phase to generate dense plasmas. These devices can accelerate a beam of ions to MeV-scale energies through strong electric fields generated by instabilities during the implosion of the plasma sheath. The formation of these instabilities, however, relies strongly on the history of the plasma sheath in the device, including the evolution of the gas breakdown in the device. In an effort to reduce variability in the performance of the device, we attempt to control the initial gas breakdown in the device by seeding the system with free charges before the main power pulse arrives. We report on the effectiveness of two techniques developed for a kJ-scale DPF at LLNL, a miniature primer spark gap and pulsed, 255nm LED illumination. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Electroweak interactions between intense neutrino beams and dense electron-positron magneto-plasmas
Tsintsadze, N L; Stenflo, L
2003-01-01
The electroweak coupling between intense neutrino beams and strongly degenerate relativistic dense electron-positron magneto-plasmas is considered. The intense neutrino bursts interact with the plasma due to the weak Fermi interaction force, and their dynamics is governed by a kinetic equation. Our objective here is to develop a kinetic equation for a degenerate neutrino gas and to use that equation to derive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic equations. The latter are useful for studying numerous collective processes when intense neutrino beams nonlinearly interact with degenerate, relativistic, dense electron-positron plasmas in strong magnetic fields. If the number densities of the plasma particles are of the order of 10 sup 3 sup 3 cm sup - sup 3 , the pair plasma becomes ultra-relativistic, which strongly affects the potential energy of the weak Fermi interaction. The new system of equations allows several neutrino-driven streaming instabilities involving new types of relativistic Alfven-like waves, The re...
Dense plasma focus research at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka (Japan)
Yokoyama, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kisoda, A.; Yamada, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, C.
1983-09-01
Research using a 50 kV/50 kJ deuterium plasma focus with 1.25 MA maximum current is summarized. Plasma dynamics in implosion phase of dense plasma focus were investigated by 2nsec ruby laser holographic interferometry and shadowgraphy. Radial pinch velocity of the plasma column and ionizing front velocity are 20 million cm/sec. Rayleigh-Taylor instability is observed in the early stage of the implosion phase. Effects of CO2 laser light on a dense plasma focus are discussed. High energy deuteron intensity, energy spectrum, and angular distribution were measured from radioactivity induced in graphite, aliminum and copper in ion dominant low pressure mode and neutron dominant high pressure mode.
Design and Construction of a Dense Plasma Focus Device
1976-10-01
breakdown phase ............ 6 3. Typical device waveforms ........ .................... . 11 4. Fluid models of pinch mechanisms...16 5. Ion trajectory models ........... ...................... 19 6. Fillipov-type plasma focus device ...... ................ ... 22 7...52 14a. Pulse amplifier .......... ......................... ... 56 14b. Triggering circuit for the thyratron tube and spark gap ........ 57 15
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a degenerate dense plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M M Masud; A A Mamun
2013-07-01
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) waves in a degenerate dense plasma (with all the constituents being degenerate, for both the non-relativistic or ultrarelativistic cases) have been investigated by the reductive perturbation method. The linear dispersion relation and Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation have been derived, and the numerical solutions of KdV equation have been analysed to identify the basic features of electrostatic solitary structures that may form in such a degenerate dense plasma. The implications of our results in compact astrophysical objects, particularly, in white dwarfs and neutron stars, have been briefly discussed.
On the effect of runaway electrons in dense plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramazanov, T.S.; Turekhanova, K.M. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)
2003-10-01
The effect of runaway electrons has been studied in this work. There were derived the conditions runaway electrons, the influence of electric field on the electron velocity distribution is considered for nonideal classical plasma models. The dependence of friction force on electrons on their velocities,electron-ion collision frequency as a function of the coupling parameter and the strength of critical electric field on particle density and temperature are determined. The results are compared with the asymptotic theory. It has been shown that for the definite density and temperature ranges the difference between critical electric field values is essential for various plasma models. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
X-ray emission of exotic ions in dense plasmas
Rosmej, F. B.; Khaghani, D.; Dozières, M.; Dachicourt, R.; Šmíd, M.; Renner, O.
2017-03-01
Hollow ion X-ray emission has been observed in experiments studying interaction of heavy ion beams with solids and their occurrence has been ascribed to charge exchange processes occurring when highly charged ions interact with a metal surface. In high temperature high-density plasmas, like, e.g., high intensity laser produced plasmas or high current Z-pinches, numerous researchers have reported about "exotic" X-ray transitions of hollow ions: K0LX →K1LX-1+hνhollow. Although atomic structure calculations seem to confirm that measured line positions correspond to transitions in hollow ions, line identification is difficult and the observed high intensity remains a mystery (by orders of magnitude) up to present days.
Effective polarization interaction potentials of the partially ionized dense plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramazanov, T S [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96a, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Dzhumagulova, K N [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96a, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Omarbakiyeva, Yu A [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96a, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Roepke, G [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)
2006-04-28
The effective polarization interaction potential between charged and neutral particles is considered for a partially ionized plasma. This pseudopotential is deduced taking into account quantum-mechanical effects at short distances as well as screening effects at large distances. Furthermore, a cutoff radius is obtained using a modified effective-range theory. Explicit results for parameters describing the interaction of the atom with charged particles are given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Rehman, Aman-ur- [Theoretical Physics Division (TPD), PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan and Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2014-11-15
Linear and nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic waves in the perpendicular direction to the ambient magnetic field is studied in dense plasmas for non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure. The sources of nonlinearities are the divergence of the ions and electrons fluxes, Lorentz forces on ions and electrons fluids and the plasma current density in the system. The Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetosonic waves propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is derived by employing reductive perturbation method for non-relativistic as well as ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases in dense plasmas. The plots of the magnetosonic wave solitons are also shown using numerical values of the plasma parameters such a plasma density and magnetic field intensity of the white dwarfs from literature. The dependence of plasma density and magnetic field intensity on the magnetosonic wave propagation is also pointed out in dense plasmas for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases.
Vovchenko, V; Satarov, L M; Mishustin, I N; Csernai, L P; Kisel, I; Stoecker, H
2016-01-01
We study the possibility that partonic matter produced at early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is out of chemical equilibrium. It is assumed that initially this matter is mostly composed of gluons, but quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. The dynamical evolution of partonic system is described by the Bjorken-like ideal hydrodynamics with a time dependent quark fugacity. The results of this model are compared with those obtained by assuming the complete chemical equilibrium of partons already at the initial stage. It is shown that in a chemically non-equilibrium scenario the entropy gradually increases, and about 25% of the total final entropy is generated during the hydrodynamic evolution of deconfined matter. We argue that the (anti)quark suppression included in this approach may be responsible for reduced (anti)baryon to meson ratios observed in heavy-ion collisions at LHC energies.
Takahashi, Y.; Eby, P. B.
1985-01-01
Possibilities of observing abundances of phi mesons and narrow hadronic pairs, as results of QGP and Chiral transitions, are considered for nucleus-nucleus interactions. Kinematical requirements in forming close pairs are satisfied in K+K decays of S(975) and delta (980) mesons with small phi, and phi (91020) mesons with large PT, and in pi-pi decays of familiar resonance mesons only in a partially restored chiral symmetry. Gluon-gluon dominance in QGP can enhance phi meson production. High hadronization rates of primordial resonance mesons which form narrow hadronic pairs are not implausible. Past cosmic ray evidences of anomalous phi production and narrow pair abundances are considered.
The eigenmass of plasmon in the quark-gluon plasma%QGP中等离子激元的本征质量
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方洁; 刘绘; 方芳; 孙红
2002-01-01
在QGP动力论框架下,既讨论了夸克质量等于零时,QGP中等离子激元的本征质量的解析表达式及其它对化学势和温度的依赖关系,又研究了夸克质量不等于零,如在讨论奇异夸克物质时,应考虑奇异夸克数s,通过对化学势,温度及相关量赋值,计算了QGP中等离子激元的本征质量的数值积分,作出了本征质量的等化学势,等温度线,分析了夸克和胶子对本征质量贡献的大小,并与夸克质量为零时的极端相对论情况作了比较.
夸克-胶子等离子体中的喷注-光子转换机制%Jet-photon Conversion in Expanding Quark-gluon Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
傅永平; 李云德
2010-01-01
提出了一种夸克-胶子等离子体中的喷注-光子转换机制.对于热光子而言,在热夸克-胶子媒介中的喷注-光子转换是一个非常重要的热光子来源.喷注可以通过次级康普顿散射和湮灭过程来实现喷注-光子转换.此外,还考虑了在快光子产生过程中起重要修正作用的胶子-光子贡献,其中,核遮蔽效应和同位旋效应也被引入到了部分子模型中.
Berrehrah, Hamza; Aichelin, Jörg; Cassing, Wolfgang; Bratkovskaya, Elena
2014-01-01
In this study we evaluate the dynamical collisional energy loss of heavy quarks, their interaction rate as well as the different transport coefficients (drag and diffusion coefficients, $\\hat{q}$, etc). We calculate these different quantities for i) perturbative partons (on-shell particles in the vacuum with fixed and running coupling) and ii) for dynamical quasi-particles (off-shell particles in the QGP medium at finite temperature $T$ with a running coupling in temperature as described by the dynamical quasi-particles model). We use the perturbative elastic $(q(g) Q \\rightarrow q (g) Q)$ cross section for the first case, and the Infrared Enhanced Hard Thermal Loop cross sections for the second. The results obtained in this work demonstrate the effects of a finite parton mass and width on the heavy quark transport properties and provide the basic ingredients for an explicit study of the microscopic dynamics of heavy flavors in the QGP - as formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions - within transport approa...
Interaction of CO2 laser radiation with a dense Z-pinch plasma
Neufeld, C. R.
1980-01-01
Results obtained when a TEA-CO2 laser pulse is radially incident on a dense hydrogen Z-pinch plasma are presented. Perturbations of the plasma column are visible on high-speed streak photographs. Spectral measurements indicate that stimulated Brillouin scattering in the underdense plasma regions is the dominant mechanism for the observed backscattering of laser radiation by the plasma column. The time behavior of the backscattered signal can be very complex, both prompt and delayed backscatter having been observed under ostensibly identical experimental conditions. The backscattered power is typically 1-2 percent of the incident laser power.
Electrical conductivity tensor of dense plasma in magnetic fields
Harutyunyan, Arus
2016-01-01
Electrical conductivity of finite-temperature plasma in neutron star crusts is studied for applications in magneto-hydrodynamical description of compact stars. We solve the Boltzmann kinetic equation in relaxation time approximation taking into account the anisotropy of transport due to the magnetic field, the effects of dynamical screening in the scattering matrix element and corre- lations among the nuclei. We show that conductivity has a minimum at a non-zero temperature, a low-temperature decrease and a power-law increase with increasing temperature. Selected numerical results are shown for matter composed of carbon, iron, and heavier nuclei present in the outer crusts of neutron star.
Magnetic Moment Fields in Dense Relativistic Plasma Interacting with Laser Radiations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B.Ghosh1* , S.N.Paul 1 , S.Bannerjee2 and C.Das3
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Theory of the generation of magnetic moment field from resonant interaction of three high frequency electromagnetic waves in un-magnetized dense electron plasma is developed including the relativistic change of electron mass. It is shown that the inclusion of relativistic effect enhances the magnetic moment field. For high intensity laser beams this moment field may be of the order of a few mega gauss. Such a high magnetic field can considerably affect the transport of electrons in fusion plasma
Dense monoenergetic proton beams from chirped laser-plasma interaction
Galow, Benjamin J; Liseykina, Tatyana V; Harman, Zoltan; Keitel, Christoph H
2011-01-01
Interaction of a frequency-chirped laser pulse with single protons and a hydrogen plasma cell is studied analytically and by means of particle-in-cell simulations, respectively. Feasibility of generating ultra-intense (10^7 particles per bunch) and phase-space collimated beams of protons (energy spread of about 1 %) is demonstrated. Phase synchronization of the protons and the laser field, guaranteed by the appropriate chirping of the laser pulse, allows the particles to gain sufficient kinetic energy (around 250 MeV) required for such applications as hadron cancer therapy, from state-of-the-art laser systems of intensities of the order of 10^21 W/cm^2.
Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of transport properties in liquid and dense-plasma plutonium
Kress, J. D.; Cohen, James S.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Horner, D. A.; Collins, L. A.
2011-02-01
We have calculated the viscosity and self-diffusion coefficients of plutonium in the liquid phase using quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) and in the dense-plasma phase using orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD), as well as in the intermediate warm dense matter regime with both methods. Our liquid metal results for viscosity are about 40% lower than measured experimentally, whereas a previous calculation using an empirical interatomic potential (modified embedded-atom method) obtained results 3-4 times larger than the experiment. The QMD and OFMD results agree well at the intermediate temperatures. The calculations in the dense-plasma regime for temperatures from 50 to 5000 eV and densities about 1-5 times ambient are compared with the one-component plasma (OCP) model, using effective charges given by the average-atom code inferno. The inferno-OCP model results agree with the OFMD to within about a factor of 2, except for the viscosity at temperatures less than about 100 eV, where the disagreement is greater. A Stokes-Einstein relationship of the viscosities and diffusion coefficients is found to hold fairly well separately in both the liquid and dense-plasma regimes.
A nonlinear model for magnetoacoustic waves in dense dissipative plasmas with degenerate electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masood, W. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan); Jahangir, R.; Siddiq, M. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan); Eliasson, B. [SUPA, Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)
2014-10-15
The properties of nonlinear fast magnetoacoustic waves in dense dissipative plasmas with degenerate electrons are studied theoretically in the framework of the Zabolotskaya-Khokhlov (ZK) equation for small but finite amplitude excitations. Shock-like solutions of the ZK equation are obtained and are applied to parameters relevant to white dwarf stars.
A comparison of two atomic models for the radiative properties of dense hot low Z plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minguez, E. E-mail: minguez@denim.upm.es; Sauvan, P.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Florido, R.; Martel, P.; Angelo, P.; Schott, R.; Philippe, F.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Mancini, R
2003-11-01
In this work, two different atomic models (ANALOP based on parametric potentials and IDEFIX based on the dicenter model) are used to calculate the opacities for bound-bound transitions in hot dense, low Z plasmas, and the results are compared to each other. In addition, the ANALOP code has been used to compute free-bound cross sections for hydrogen-like ions.
Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of transport properties in liquid and dense-plasma plutonium.
Kress, J D; Cohen, James S; Kilcrease, D P; Horner, D A; Collins, L A
2011-02-01
We have calculated the viscosity and self-diffusion coefficients of plutonium in the liquid phase using quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) and in the dense-plasma phase using orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD), as well as in the intermediate warm dense matter regime with both methods. Our liquid metal results for viscosity are about 40% lower than measured experimentally, whereas a previous calculation using an empirical interatomic potential (modified embedded-atom method) obtained results 3-4 times larger than the experiment. The QMD and OFMD results agree well at the intermediate temperatures. The calculations in the dense-plasma regime for temperatures from 50 to 5000 eV and densities about 1-5 times ambient are compared with the one-component plasma (OCP) model, using effective charges given by the average-atom code INFERNO. The INFERNO-OCP model results agree with the OFMD to within about a factor of 2, except for the viscosity at temperatures less than about 100 eV, where the disagreement is greater. A Stokes-Einstein relationship of the viscosities and diffusion coefficients is found to hold fairly well separately in both the liquid and dense-plasma regimes.
Microscopic and thermodynamic properties of dense semiclassical partially ionized hydrogen plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramazanov, T S; Dzhumagulova, K N; Gabdullin, M T [IETP, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a, Tole Bi St, Almaty, 050012 (Kazakhstan)
2006-04-28
Microscopic and thermodynamic properties of dense semiclassical partially ionized hydrogen plasma were investigated on the basis of pseudopotential models. Radial distribution functions (RDF) of particles were obtained using a system of the Ornstein-Zernike integral equations. The corrections to internal energy and the equation of state were calculated using RDF.
Expanding plasmas and quasinormal modes of anti-de Sitter black holes
Friess, J J; Michalogiorgakis, G; Pufu, S S; Friess, Joshua J.; Gubser, Steven S.; Michalogiorgakis, Georgios; Pufu, Silviu S.
2007-01-01
We compute the gravitational quasinormal modes of the global AdS_5-Schwarzschild solution. We show how to use the holographic dual of these modes to describe a thermal plasma of finite extent expanding in a slightly anisotropic fashion. We compare these flows with the behavior of quark-gluon plasmas produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions by estimating the elliptic flow coefficient and the thermalization time.
Numerical study of ion acoustic shock waves in dense quantum plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanif, M.; Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Department of Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ali, S.; Mukhtar, Q., E-mail: qaisarm@ncp.edu.pk [National Center for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2014-03-15
Two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations are solved numerically to investigate the propagation characteristics of ion acoustic shock waves in an unmagnetized dense quantum plasma, whose constituents are the electrons and ions. For this purpose, we employ the standard finite difference Lax Wendroff and relaxation methods, to examine the quantum effects on the profiles of shock potential, the electron/ion number densities, and velocity even for quantum parameter at H = 2. The effects of the latter vanish in a weakly non-linear limit while obeying the KdV theory. It is shown that the evolution of the wave depends sensitively on the plasma density and the quantum parameter. Numerical results reveal that the kinks or oscillations are pronounced for large values of quantum parameter, especially at H = 2. Our results should be important to understand the shock wave excitations in dense quantum plasmas, white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc.
GigaGauss solenoidal magnetic field inside bubbles excited in under-dense plasma
Lécz, Zs.; Konoplev, I. V.; Seryi, A.; Andreev, A.
2016-10-01
This paper proposes a novel and effective method for generating GigaGauss level, solenoidal quasi-static magnetic fields in under-dense plasma using screw-shaped high intensity laser pulses. This method produces large solenoidal fields that move with the driving laser pulse and are collinear with the accelerated electrons. This is in contrast with already known techniques which rely on interactions with over-dense or solid targets and generates radial or toroidal magnetic field localized at the stationary target. The solenoidal field is quasi-stationary in the reference frame of the laser pulse and can be used for guiding electron beams. It can also provide synchrotron radiation beam emittance cooling for laser-plasma accelerated electron and positron beams, opening up novel opportunities for designs of the light sources, free electron lasers, and high energy colliders based on laser plasma acceleration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Sung Soo [Department of Applied Mathematics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)
2013-12-15
The renormalization plasma screening effects on the electron-ion collision are investigated in dense partially ionized hydrogen plasmas. The Hamilton-Jacobi and eikonal methods with the effective interaction potential are employed to obtain the eikonal scattering phase shift and eikonal cross section for the electron-ion collision. It is found that the influence of renormalization screening strongly suppresses the eikonal scattering phase shift as well as the eikonal cross section, especially, for small impact parameter regions. In addition, the renormalization screening effect reduces the total eikonal cross section in all energy domains. The variation of the renormalization effects on the electron-ion collision in dense partially ionized hydrogen plasmas is also discussed.
Pseudo-Potentials in Dense and He-like Hot temperature Plasmas
Deutsch, Claude; Rahal, Hamid
2012-10-01
Extending our former derivations in dense and high temperature plasmas of hydrogenic effective interactions mimiking the Heisenberg uncertainty principle [1,2], we worked out in a canonical ensemble, effective interactions in He-like plasmas where an orbital 1s electron remains strongly tighted to the He-like ions. The plasma electrons are then taken into account through appropriate Slater sums obtained in the most economical hydrogenic extension of the He-like bound and scattered states with angular orbital momentum lClementi and C. Roetti, Atomic Data and Nucl. Data Tables, 14,177(1974)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
奚衍斌; 刘悦
2012-01-01
A finite difference time domain （FDTD） method is used to numerically study the power absorption of broadband terahertz （0.1 - 1.5 THz） electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized uniform plasma layer under low pressure and atmosphere discharge conditions. The power absorption spectra are calculated numerically and the numerical results are in accordance with the analytic results. Meanwhile, the effects on the power absorption are calculated with different applied magnetic fields, collision frequencies and electron number densities, which depend strongly on those parameters. Under the dense strongly magnetized plasma conditions, the absorption gaps appear in the range of 0.3 - 0.36 THz, and are enlarged with the increasing electron number density.
Partial ionization in dense plasmas: Comparisons among average-atom density functional models
Murillo, Michael S.; Weisheit, Jon; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Dharma-wardana, M. W. C.
2013-06-01
Nuclei interacting with electrons in dense plasmas acquire electronic bound states, modify continuum states, generate resonances and hopping electron states, and generate short-range ionic order. The mean ionization state (MIS), i.e, the mean charge Z of an average ion in such plasmas, is a valuable concept: Pseudopotentials, pair-distribution functions, equations of state, transport properties, energy-relaxation rates, opacity, radiative processes, etc., can all be formulated using the MIS of the plasma more concisely than with an all-electron description. However, the MIS does not have a unique definition and is used and defined differently in different statistical models of plasmas. Here, using the MIS formulations of several average-atom models based on density functional theory, we compare numerical results for Be, Al, and Cu plasmas for conditions inclusive of incomplete atomic ionization and partial electron degeneracy. By contrasting modern orbital-based models with orbital-free Thomas-Fermi models, we quantify the effects of shell structure, continuum resonances, the role of exchange and correlation, and the effects of different choices of the fundamental cell and boundary conditions. Finally, the role of the MIS in plasma applications is illustrated in the context of x-ray Thomson scattering in warm dense matter.
Partial ionization in dense plasmas: comparisons among average-atom density functional models.
Murillo, Michael S; Weisheit, Jon; Hansen, Stephanie B; Dharma-wardana, M W C
2013-06-01
Nuclei interacting with electrons in dense plasmas acquire electronic bound states, modify continuum states, generate resonances and hopping electron states, and generate short-range ionic order. The mean ionization state (MIS), i.e, the mean charge Z of an average ion in such plasmas, is a valuable concept: Pseudopotentials, pair-distribution functions, equations of state, transport properties, energy-relaxation rates, opacity, radiative processes, etc., can all be formulated using the MIS of the plasma more concisely than with an all-electron description. However, the MIS does not have a unique definition and is used and defined differently in different statistical models of plasmas. Here, using the MIS formulations of several average-atom models based on density functional theory, we compare numerical results for Be, Al, and Cu plasmas for conditions inclusive of incomplete atomic ionization and partial electron degeneracy. By contrasting modern orbital-based models with orbital-free Thomas-Fermi models, we quantify the effects of shell structure, continuum resonances, the role of exchange and correlation, and the effects of different choices of the fundamental cell and boundary conditions. Finally, the role of the MIS in plasma applications is illustrated in the context of x-ray Thomson scattering in warm dense matter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-Dong, Gunsan-City, Jeollabuk-Do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-15
The renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization of hydrogen atom are investigated in dense partially ionized plasmas. The effective projectile-target interaction Hamiltonian and the semiclassical trajectory method are employed to obtain the transition amplitude as well as the ionization probability as functions of the impact parameter, the collision energy, and the renormalization parameter. It is found that the renormalization shielding effect suppresses the transition amplitude for the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas. It is also found that the renormalization effect suppresses the differential ionization cross section in the peak impact parameter region. In addition, it is found that the influence of renormalization shielding on the ionization cross section decreases with an increase of the relative collision energy. The variations of the renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization cross section are also discussed.
Advances towards pB11 Fusion with the Dense Plasma Focus
Lerner, Eric J
2007-01-01
The prospects for achieving net energy production with pB11 fuel have recently considerably brightened. Studies have shown that the multi-GG field potentially obtainable with modest dense plasma focus devices have the effect of reducing the flow of energy from the ions to the electrons and thus suppressing bremsstrahlung radiation that cools the plasma. We report here on new simulations that indicate that net energy production may be achievable in high-magnetic-field devices at peak currents as low as 2.3 MA. While these simulations only model the dense plasmoid formed in the focus, new simulation techniques can allow a full particle-in-cell simulation of DPF functioning over the wide range of time and space scales needed. Such simulations will be of great value in the next round of experiments that will use pB11 fuel.
Equation of state of dense neon and krypton plasmas in the partial ionization regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Q. F., E-mail: chenqf01@gmail.com; Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, Z. G. [Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)
2015-12-15
The compression behaviors of dense neon and krypton plasmas over a wide pressure-temperature range are investigated by self-consistent fluid variational theory. The ionization degree and equation of state of dense neon and krypton are calculated in the density-temperature range of 0.01–10 g/cm{sup 3} and 4–50 kK. A region of thermodynamic instability is found which is related to the plasma phase transition. The calculated shock adiabat and principal Hugoniot of liquid krypton are in good agreement with available experimental data. The predicted results of shock-compressed liquid neon are presented, which provide a guide for dynamical experiments or numerical first-principle calculations aimed at studying the compression properties of liquid neon in the partial ionization regime.
Insight of breaking of powerful axisymmetrically-polarized laser pulses in under-dense plasma
Nakanii, Nobuhiko; Pathak, Naveen C; Masuda, Shinichi; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Nakahara, Hiroki; Iwasa, Kenta; Mizuta, Yoshio; Takeguchi, Naoki; Otsuka, Takamitsu P; Sueda, Keiichi; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Mori, Michiaki; Kando, Masaki; Kodama, Ryosuke
2015-01-01
Interaction of axisymmetrically-polarized (radially or azimuthally-polarized), relativistically intense laser pulses (ALP) with under-dense plasma is shown experimentally to be different from the interaction of conventional Gaussian pulses. The difference is clearly observed in distinct spectra of scattered laser light as well as in appearance of a strong side emission of second harmonic in the vicinity of focus spot. According 3D particle-in-cell simulations, this is a result of instability in the propagation of ALP in under-dense plasma. Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons by ALP, therefore, is less efficient than that by Gaussian laser pulses but ALP may be interesting for efficient electron self-injection.
Stark profiles of forbidden and allowed transitions in a dense, laser produced helium plasma.
Ya'akobi, B.; George, E. V.; Bekefi, G.; Hawryluk, R. J.
1972-01-01
Comparisons of experimental and theoretical Stark profiles of the allowed 2(1)P-3(1)D helium line at 6678 A and of the forbidden 2(1)P-3(1)P component at 6632 A in a dense plasma were carried out. The plasma was produced by optical breakdown of helium by means of a repetitive, high power CO2 laser. The allowed line shows good agreement with conventional theory, but discrepancies are found around the centre of the forbidden component. When normally neglected ion motions are taken into consideration, the observed discrepancies are partially removed. Tables of the Stark profiles for the pair of lines are given.
Analytical model of particle and heat flux collection by dust immersed in dense magnetized plasmas
Vignitchouk, L.; Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.
2017-10-01
A comprehensive analytical description is presented for the particle and heat fluxes collected by dust in dense magnetized plasmas. Compared to the widely used orbital motion limited theory, the suppression of cross-field transport leads to a strong reduction of the electron fluxes, while ion collection is inhibited by thin-sheath effects and the formation of a potential overshoot along the field lines. As a result, the incoming heat flux loses its sensitivity to the floating potential, thereby diminishing the importance of electron emission processes in dust survivability. Numerical simulations implementing the new model for ITER-like detached divertor plasmas predict a drastic enhancement of the dust lifetime.
Soft X-ray spectrometer design for warm dense plasma measurements on DARHT Axis-I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramey, Nicholas Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, John Oliver [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coleman, Joshua Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-07-11
A preliminary design study is being performed on a soft X-ray spectrometer to measure K-shell spectra emitted by a warm dense plasma generated on Axis-I of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100-ns-long intense, relativistic electron pulse with a beam current of 1.7 kA and energy of 19.8 MeV deposits energy into a thin metal foil heating it to a warm dense plasma. The collisional ionization of the target by the electron beam produces an anisotropic angular distribution of K-shell radiation and a continuum of both scattered electrons and Bremsstrahlung up to the beam energy of 19.8 MeV. The principal goal of this project is to characterize these angular distributions to determine the optimal location to deploy the soft X-ray spectrometer. In addition, a proof-of-principle design will be presented. The ultimate goal of the spectrometer is to obtain measurements of the plasma temperature and density to benchmark equation-of-state models of the warm dense matter regime.
Stark Broadening Analysis Using Optical Spectroscopy of the Dense Plasma Focus
Ross, Patrick; Bennett, Nikki; Dutra, Eric; Hagen, E. Chris; Hsu, Scott; Hunt, Gene; Koch, Jeff; Waltman, Tom; NSTec DPF Team
2015-11-01
To aid in validating numerical modeling of MA-class dense plasma focus (DPF) devices, spectroscopic measurements of the Gemini Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) were performed using deuterium and deuterium/dopant (argon/krypton) gas. The spectroscopic measurements were made using a fiber-coupled spectrometer and streak camera. Stark line-broadening analysis was applied to the deuterium beta emission (486 nm) in the region near the breakdown of the plasma and during the run-down and run-in phases of the plasma evolution. Densities in the range of 1e17 to low 1e18 cm-3 were obtained. These values are in agreement with models of the DPF performed using the LSP code. The spectra also show a rise and fall with time, indicative of the plasma sheath passing by the view port. Impurity features were also identified in the spectra which grew in intensity as the gas inside the DPF was discharged repeatedly without cycling. Implications of this impurity increase for D-T discharges (without fresh gas fills between every discharge) will be discussed. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946, and by Los Alamos National Laboratory, under Contract no. DE-AC52-06NA25396 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25946-2515.
Collisional effects on the current-filamentation instability in a dense plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAO Biao; SHENG Zheng-Ming; ZHANG Jie
2009-01-01
The collisional current-filamentation instability (CFI) is studied for a nonrelativistic electron beampenetrating an infinite uniform plasma.It is analytically shown that the CFI is driven by the drift-anisotropyrather than the classical anisotropy of the beam and the background plasma.Therefore,collisional effects can either attenuate or enhance the CFI depending on the drift-anisotropy of the beam-plasma system.Numerical results are given for some typical parameters,which show that collisional effects cannot stabilize but enhance the CFI in a dense plasma.Thus,the CFI may play a dominant role in the fast electron transport and deposition relevant to the fast ignition scenario(FIS).
Ionization-potential depression and dynamical structure factor in dense plasmas
Lin, Chengliang; Röpke, Gerd; Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich; Reinholz, Heidi
2017-07-01
The properties of a bound electron system immersed in a plasma environment are strongly modified by the surrounding plasma. The modification of an essential quantity, the ionization energy, is described by the electronic and ionic self-energies, including dynamical screening within the framework of the quantum statistical theory. Introducing the ionic dynamical structure factor as the indicator for the ionic microfield, we demonstrate that ionic correlations and fluctuations play a critical role in determining the ionization potential depression. This is, in particular, true for mixtures of different ions with large mass and charge asymmetry. The ionization potential depression is calculated for dense aluminum plasmas as well as for a CH plasma and compared to the experimental data and more phenomenological approaches used so far.
Development and Benchmarking of a Hybrid PIC Code For Dense Plasmas and Fast Ignition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witherspoon, F. Douglas [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Welch, Dale R. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thompson, John R. [FAR-TECH, Inc.; MacFarlane, Joeseph J. [Prism Computational Sciences Inc.; Phillips, Michael W. [Advanced Energy Systems, Inc.; Bruner, Nicki [Voss Scientific, LLC; Mostrom, Chris [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thoma, Carsten [Voss Scientific, LLC; Clark, R. E. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Bogatu, Nick [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Galkin, Sergei [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Golovkin, Igor E. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Woodruff, P. R. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Wu, Linchun [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Messer, Sarah J. [HyperV Technologies Corp.
2014-05-20
Radiation processes play an important role in the study of both fast ignition and other inertial confinement schemes, such as plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion, both in their effect on energy balance, and in generating diagnostic signals. In the latter case, warm and hot dense matter may be produced by the convergence of a plasma shell formed by the merging of an assembly of high Mach number plasma jets. This innovative approach has the potential advantage of creating matter of high energy densities in voluminous amount compared with high power lasers or particle beams. An important application of this technology is as a plasma liner for the flux compression of magnetized plasma to create ultra-high magnetic fields and burning plasmas. HyperV Technologies Corp. has been developing plasma jet accelerator technology in both coaxial and linear railgun geometries to produce plasma jets of sufficient mass, density, and velocity to create such imploding plasma liners. An enabling tool for the development of this technology is the ability to model the plasma dynamics, not only in the accelerators themselves, but also in the resulting magnetized target plasma and within the merging/interacting plasma jets during transport to the target. Welch pioneered numerical modeling of such plasmas (including for fast ignition) using the LSP simulation code. Lsp is an electromagnetic, parallelized, plasma simulation code under development since 1995. It has a number of innovative features making it uniquely suitable for modeling high energy density plasmas including a hybrid fluid model for electrons that allows electrons in dense plasmas to be modeled with a kinetic or fluid treatment as appropriate. In addition to in-house use at Voss Scientific, several groups carrying out research in Fast Ignition (LLNL, SNL, UCSD, AWE (UK), and Imperial College (UK)) also use LSP. A collaborative team consisting of HyperV Technologies Corp., Voss Scientific LLC, FAR-TECH, Inc., Prism
Laser-driven Beat-Wave Current Drive in Dense Plasmas with Demo on CTIX
Liu, Fei; Horton, Robert; Hwang, David; Zhu, Ben; Evans, Russell; Hong, Sean; Hsu, Scott
2010-11-01
The ability to remotely generate plasma current in dense plasmas hanging freely in vacuum in voluminous amount without obstruction to diagnostics will greatly enhance our ability to study the physics of high energy density plasmas in strong magnetic fields. Plasma current can be generated through nonlinear beat-wave process by launching two intense electromagnetic waves into unmagnetized plasma. Beat-wave acceleration of electrons has been demonstrated in a low-density plasma using microwaves [1]. The proposed PLX experimental facility presently under construction at Los Alamos offers the opportunity to test the method at a density level scalable to the study of HED plasmas. For PLX beat-wave experiments, CO2 lasers will be used as pump waves due to their high power and tunability. For a typical PLX density ne=10^17cm-3, two CO2 lasers can be separately tuned to 9P(28) and 10P(20) to match the 2.84THz plasma frequency. The beat-wave demo experiment will be conducted on CTIX. The laser arrangement is being converted to two independent single lasers. Frequency-tuning methods, optics focusing system and diagnostics system will be discussed. The laser measurements and results of synchronization of two lasers will be presented, and scaling to PLX experiments will be given. [1] Rogers, J. H. and Hwang, D. Q., PRL. v68 p3877 (1992).
Quantum-mechanical calculation of ionization potential lowering in dense plasmas
Son, Sang-Kil; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin
2014-01-01
The charged environment within a dense plasma leads to the phenomenon of ionization potential depression (IPD) for ions embedded in the plasma. Accurate predictions of the IPD effect are of crucial importance for modeling atomic processes occurring within dense plasmas. Several theoretical models have been developed to describe the IPD effect, with frequently discrepant predictions. Only recently, first experiments on IPD in Al plasma have been performed with an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), where their results were found to be in disagreement with the widely-used IPD model by Stewart and Pyatt. Another experiment on Al, at the Orion laser, showed disagreement with the model by Ecker and Kr\\"oll. This controversy shows a strong need for a rigorous and consistent theoretical approach to calculate the IPD effect. Here we propose such an approach: a two-step Hartree-Fock-Slater model. With this parameter-free model we can accurately and efficiently describe the experimental Al data and validate the accuracy ...
Seeding the m = 0 instability in dense plasma focus Z-pinches with a hollow anode
Liu, J X; McMahon, M; Tummel, K; Cooper, C; Higginson, D; Shaw, B; Povilus, A; Link, A; Schmidt, A
2016-01-01
The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a classic Z-pinch plasma device that has been studied for decades as a radiation source. The formation of the m = 0 plasma instability during the compression phase is linked to the generation of high-energy charged particle beams, which, when operated in deuterium, lead to beam-target fusion reactions and the generation of neutron yield. In this paper, we present a technique of seeding the m = 0 instability by employing a hollow in the anode. As the plasma sheath moves along the anode's hollow structure, a low density perturbation is formed and this creates a non-uniform plasma column which is highly unstable. Dynamics of the low density perturbation and preferential seeding of the m = 0 instability were studied in detail with fully kinetic plasma simulations performed in the Large Scale Plasma particle-in-cell code as well as with a simple snowplow model. The simulations showed that by employing an anode geometry with appropriate inner hollow radius, the neutron yield of the D...
Time-resolved spectra of dense plasma focus using spectrometer, streak camera, and CCD combination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldin, F. J. [Livermore Operations, National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C. [North Las Vegas Facility, National Security Technologies, LLC, North Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States); Wilkins, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2010-10-15
A time-resolving spectrographic instrument has been assembled with the primary components of a spectrometer, image-converting streak camera, and CCD recording camera, for the primary purpose of diagnosing highly dynamic plasmas. A collection lens defines the sampled region and couples light from the plasma into a step index, multimode fiber which leads to the spectrometer. The output spectrum is focused onto the photocathode of the streak camera, the output of which is proximity-coupled to the CCD. The spectrometer configuration is essentially Czerny-Turner, but off-the-shelf Nikon refraction lenses, rather than mirrors, are used for practicality and flexibility. Only recently assembled, the instrument requires significant refinement, but has now taken data on both bridge wire and dense plasma focus experiments.
Time-Resolved Spectra of Dense Plasma Focus Using Spectrometer, Streak Camera, CCD Combination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
F. J. Goldin, B. T. Meehan, E. C. Hagen, P. R. Wilkins
2010-10-01
A time-resolving spectrographic instrument has been assembled with the primary components of a spectrometer, image-converting streak camera, and CCD recording camera, for the primary purpose of diagnosing highly dynamic plasmas. A collection lens defines the sampled region and couples light from the plasma into a step index, multimode fiber which leads to the spectrometer. The output spectrum is focused onto the photocathode of the streak camera, the output of which is proximity-coupled to the CCD. The spectrometer configuration is essentially Czerny–Turner, but off-the-shelf Nikon refraction lenses, rather than mirrors, are used for practicality and flexibility. Only recently assembled, the instrument requires significant refinement, but has now taken data on both bridge wire and dense plasma focus experiments.
Dense Plasma Focus Z-pinches for High Gradient Particle Acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, V; Adams, M L; Rusnak, B
2009-07-24
The final Z-pinch stage of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) could be used as a simple, compact, and potentially rugged plasma-based high-gradient accelerator with fields at the 100 MV/m level. In this paper we review previously published experimental beam data that indicate the feasibility of such an DPF-based accelerator, qualitatively discuss the physical acceleration processes in terms of the induced voltages, and as a starting point examine the DPF acceleration potential by numerically applying a self-consistent DPF system model that includes the induced voltage from both macroscopic and instability driven plasma dynamics. Applications to the remote detection of high explosives and a multi-staged acceleration concept are briefly discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zastrau, U; Fortmann, C; Faustlin, R; Bornath, T; Cao, L F; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Holl, A; Laarmann, T; Lee, H; Meiwes-Broer, K; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Tiggesbaumker, J; Thiele, R; Truong, N X; Uschmann, I; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, T; Wierling, A
2008-03-07
We report on the novel creation of a solid density aluminum plasma using free electron laser radiation at 13.5 nm wavelength. Ultrashort pulses of 30 fs duration and 47 {micro}J pulse energy were focused on a spot of 25 {micro}m diameter, yielding an intensity of 3 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} on the bulk Al-target. The radiation emitted from the plasma was measured using a high resolution, high throughput EUV spectrometer. The analysis of both bremsstrahlung and line spectra results in an estimated electron temperature of (30 {+-} 10) eV, which is in very good agreement with radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the laser-target-interaction. This demonstrates the feasibility of exciting plasmas at warm dense matter conditions using EUV free electron lasers and their accurate characterization by EUV spectroscopy.
Extreme ultraviolet emission from dense plasmas generated with sub-10-fs laser pulses
Osterholz, J; Cerchez, M; Fischer, T; Hemmers, D; Hidding, B; Pipahl, A; Pretzler, G; Rose, S J; Willi, O
2008-01-01
The extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission from dense plasmas generated with sub-10-fs laser pulses with varying peak intensities up to 3*10^16 W/cm^2 is investigated for different target materials. K shell spectra are obtained from low Z targets (carbon and boron nitride). In the spectra a series limit for the hydrogen and helium like resonance lines is observed indicating that the plasma is at high density and pressure ionization has removed the higher levels. In addition, L shell spectra from titanium targets were obtained. Basic features of the K and L shell spectra are reproduced with computer simulations. The calculations include hydrodynamic simulation of the plasma expansion and collisional radiative calculations of the XUV emission.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘松芬; 胡北来
2003-01-01
The internal energy and pressure of dense hydrogen plasma are calculated by the direct path integral Monte Carlo approach. The Kelbg potential is used as interaction potentials both between electrons and between protons and electrons in the calculation. The complete formulae for internal energy and pressure in dense hydrogen plasma derived for the simulation are presented. The correctness of the derived formulae are validated by the obtained simulation results. The numerical results are discussed in details.
Charge exchange between two nearest neighbour ions immersed in a dense plasma
Sauvan, P.; Angelo, P.; Derfoul, H.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Devdariani, A.; Calisti, A.; Talin, B.
1999-04-01
In dense plasmas the quasimolecular model is relevant to describe the radiative properties: two nearest neighbor ions remain close to each other during a time scale of the order of the emission time. Within the frame of a quasistatic approach it has been shown that hydrogen-like spectral line shapes can exhibit satellite-like features. In this work we present the effect on the line shapes of the dynamical collision between the two ions exchanging transiently their bound electron. This model is suitable for the description of the core, the wings and the red satellite-like features. It is post-processed to the self consistent code (IDEFIX) giving the adiabatic transition energies and the oscillator strengths for the transient molecule immersed in a dense free electron bath. It is shown that the positions of the satellites are insensitive to the dynamics of the ion-ion collision. Results for fluorine Lyβ are presented.
Kabeer, Fairoja Cheenicode; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S.; Garcia, Martin E.
2014-03-01
Intense ultrashort extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses can be used to create warm dense matter in the laboratory, which then develops to a plasma state. So far, however, it is unknown, whether this transition occurs via heat transfer from hot electrons to cold atoms or nonthermally due to a lattice instability. Here we computed the response of the phonon spectra of copper and silver to the presence of XUV-excited core holes and core holes together with very hot electrons. We found that the average interatomic bonds become stronger in the warm dense state. We discuss why these findings support the above-mentioned heat transfer scenario.
Nanosecond CO2 laser interaction with a dense helium Z-pinch plasma
Voss, D. F.
A short pulse CO2 laser system was constructed to investigate the interaction of intense electromagnetic radiation with dense plasma. The laser was focused perpendicular to the axis of a linear helium Z-pinch plasma and properties of the transmitted beam were monitored. Transmitted beam intensity and spatial distribution were measured as functions of incident intensity and interaction time. The results of the experiments with the overdense plasma were found to be consistent with plasma hydrodynamic theory. A 40 nanosecond pulse was sufficiently long to burn through the plasma, but a 4 nanosecond pulse was not. The 4 nanosecond pulse was long enough to form a local density depression in the underdense plasma and density gradients steep enough to produce Fresnel diffraction, despite the absence of a critical surface. The resultant change in refractive index could cause thermal self-focusing. The transmission measurement was not found to be consistent with a simple model of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption. At an intensity of 10 to the 12th power W/cu/cm there was a sharp decrease in transmission. This suggests the possibility of either increased absorption due to enhanced ionization or increased reflection due to simulated Brillouin backscatter.
Study of Neutron From a Dense Plasma Focus Paco Instrument by Means of Nuclear Tracks Detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Milanese
2016-08-01
Full Text Available A most interesting feature of dense plasma foci is the acceleration of charge particle at energy in the range of MeV per nucleon. Using deuterium gas, this devices produce fusion D-D reactions, generation fast neutron pulses (~ 2.5 MeV. The device used in the present work is a Mather-type dense plasma focus, called PACO. It is a 2kJ device at 31 kV, with an oxygen-free copper anode, 50 mm long with 40 mm diameter. The coaxial cathode is formed by ten copper rods arranged in a squirrel cage configuration at a radius of 50mm. The insulator in an annular Pyrex® tube located at the base of the anode. The energy store is provided by four 1 µF (40 kV, 40 nH capacitors in parallel. The plasma focus was operated at 1.5 mb deuterium gas pressure. Neutron and accelerated particles are analyzed with material detectors (CR-39 Lantrack® for different conditions. A detailed study is made of track diameters when the plastic is chemically etched with, 6N KOH at 60°C (±1 for 12 h.
Irfan, M.; Ali, S.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2016-02-01
Two-fluid quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) equations are employed to investigate linear and nonlinear properties of the magnetosonic waves in a semi-relativistic dense plasma accounting for degenerate relativistic electrons. In the linear analysis, a plane wave solution is used to derive the dispersion relation of magnetosonic waves, which is significantly modified due to relativistic degenerate electrons. However, for a nonlinear investigation of solitary and shock waves, we employ the reductive perturbation technique for the derivation of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equations, admitting nonlinear wave solutions. Numerically, it is shown that the wave frequency decreases to attain a lowest possible value at a certain critical number density Nc(0), and then increases beyond Nc(0) as the plasma number density increases. Moreover, the relativistic electrons and associated pressure degeneracy lead to a reduction in the spatial extents of the magnetosonic waves and a strengthening of the shock amplitude. The results might be important for understanding the linear and nonlinear magnetosonic excitations in dense astrophysical plasmas, such as in white dwarfs, magnetars and neutron stars, etc., where relativistic degenerate electrons are present.
Development and Benchmarking of a Hybrid PIC Code For Dense Plasmas and Fast Ignition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witherspoon, F. Douglas [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Welch, Dale R. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thompson, John R. [FAR-TECH, Inc.; MacFarlane, Joeseph J. [Prism Computational Sciences Inc.; Phillips, Michael W. [Advanced Energy Systems, Inc.; Bruner, Nicki [Voss Scientific, LLC; Mostrom, Chris [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thoma, Carsten [Voss Scientific, LLC; Clark, R. E. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Bogatu, Nick [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Galkin, Sergei [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Golovkin, Igor E. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Woodruff, P. R. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Wu, Linchun [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Messer, Sarah J. [HyperV Technologies Corp.
2014-05-20
Radiation processes play an important role in the study of both fast ignition and other inertial confinement schemes, such as plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion, both in their effect on energy balance, and in generating diagnostic signals. In the latter case, warm and hot dense matter may be produced by the convergence of a plasma shell formed by the merging of an assembly of high Mach number plasma jets. This innovative approach has the potential advantage of creating matter of high energy densities in voluminous amount compared with high power lasers or particle beams. An important application of this technology is as a plasma liner for the flux compression of magnetized plasma to create ultra-high magnetic fields and burning plasmas. HyperV Technologies Corp. has been developing plasma jet accelerator technology in both coaxial and linear railgun geometries to produce plasma jets of sufficient mass, density, and velocity to create such imploding plasma liners. An enabling tool for the development of this technology is the ability to model the plasma dynamics, not only in the accelerators themselves, but also in the resulting magnetized target plasma and within the merging/interacting plasma jets during transport to the target. Welch pioneered numerical modeling of such plasmas (including for fast ignition) using the LSP simulation code. Lsp is an electromagnetic, parallelized, plasma simulation code under development since 1995. It has a number of innovative features making it uniquely suitable for modeling high energy density plasmas including a hybrid fluid model for electrons that allows electrons in dense plasmas to be modeled with a kinetic or fluid treatment as appropriate. In addition to in-house use at Voss Scientific, several groups carrying out research in Fast Ignition (LLNL, SNL, UCSD, AWE (UK), and Imperial College (UK)) also use LSP. A collaborative team consisting of HyperV Technologies Corp., Voss Scientific LLC, FAR-TECH, Inc., Prism
Real-time study of fast-electron transport inside dense hot plasmas.
Sandhu, A S; Ravindra Kumar, G; Sengupta, S; Das, A; Kaw, P K
2006-03-01
We offer a method to study transport of fast electrons in dense hot media. The technique relies on temporal profiling of the laser induced magnetic fields and offers a unique capability to map the hot electron currents and their neutralization (or lack of it) by the return currents in the plasma. We report direct quantitative measurements of strong electric inhibition in insulators and turbulence induced anomalous stopping of hot electrons in conductors. The present technique can prove extremely important from the point of view of fast ignition scheme, which relies on the penetration of fast electrons into the fusion core.
Time-dependent calculations of hydrogen spectral line shapes in dense plasmas
Olchawa, Wiesław
2001-04-01
A new formalism has been elaborated for calculations of hydrogen line profiles emitted by dense plasmas. Calculated line shapes are broadened, shifted and asymmetrical. The formalism is very general and yields full line shapes, shifts and widths at relatively small number of assumptions. For this purpose a new basis of the appropriate subspace of the Hilbert space has been built. This basis gives an accurate description of the quadratic Stark effect and the interaction of the emitter with field gradients. A computer simulation has been used to determine the emitter perturbations by electrons and ions. Final results have been compared with experimental and theoretical findings of other authors.
Ion-ion correlation effects in opacities of ultra-dense and hot plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sauvan, P.; Minguez, E. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales U.P.M., Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain); Angelo, P.; Derfoul, H.; Ceccotti, T.; Poquerusse, A.; Gharbi, I.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, Universite Paris 6, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
2000-07-01
The present work is devoted to the study of opacities for ultra-dense, hot, low Z (Z{<=}15) plasmas. The required photo-excitation and photo-ionisation cross sections are determined by the JIMENA code which allows the postprocessing of atomic data (dipole transition moments and line profiles) taking care of ion-ion correlations. These atomic data are computed with the radiative property code IDEFIX. The strong ion-ion correlation effects predicted by the simulations reinforce the impact of the experiment designed for this purpose. (authors)
Three-Dimensional PIC-MC Modeling for Relativistic Electron Beam Transport Through Dense Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Lihua; CHANG Tieqiang; PEI Wenbing; LIU Zhanjun; LI Meng; ZHENG Chunyang
2008-01-01
We have developed a three dimensional (3D) PIC (particle-in-cell)-MC (Monte Carlo) code in order to simulate an electron beam transported into the dense matter based on our previous two dimensional code. The relativistic motion of fast electrons is treated by the particle-in-cell method under the influence of both a self-generated transverse magnetic field and an axial electric field, as well as collisions. The electric field generated by return current is ex-pressed by Ohm's law and the magnetic field is calculated from Faraday's law. The slowing down of monoenergy electrons in DT plasma is calculated and discussed.
Observations of non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma
Lihua, Bao; Jiyan, Zhang; Xiaoding, Zhang; Yang, Zhao; Yongkun, Ding
2012-12-01
An experiment for observing the spectrally resolved non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma is presented in this paper. The experiment used Ta M-band x-rays to heat a foamed carbon cylinder sample isochorically and measured the scattering spectrum with a HOPG crystal spectrometer. The spectrum was compared with the calculation results using a Born-Mermin-approximation model. The best fitting was found at an electron temperature of Te=34 eV and an electron density of ne=1.6×1023cm-3.
Elastic scattering of low energy electrons in partially ionized dense semiclassical plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzhumagulova, K. N., E-mail: dzhumagulova.karlygash@gmail.com; Shalenov, E. O.; Ramazanov, T. S. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71al Farabi Street, Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)
2015-08-15
Elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a dense semiclassical hydrogen plasma for low impact energies has been studied. Differential scattering cross sections were calculated within the effective model of electron-atom interaction taking into account the effect of screening as well as the quantum mechanical effect of diffraction. The calculations were carried out on the basis of the phase-function method. The influence of the diffraction effect on the Ramsauer–Townsend effect was studied on the basis of a comparison with results made within the effective polarization model of the Buckingham type.
Dense-plasma-driven ultrafast formation of FePt organization on silicon substrate
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ROHIT MEDWAL; NEERU SEHDEV; WANG YING; R S RAWAT; S ANNAPOORNI
2017-02-01
This article demonstrates the removal of organic capping and promotion of long-range 2D organization of chemically synthesized FePt nanoparticles dispersed on Si$\\langle 100\\rangle$ substrate by means of pulsed H+ energetic ion irradiation using a dense plasma focus (DPF) device. The irradiation of energetic H$^+$ ions on FePt nanoparticles clearly resulted in enhanced structural and magnetic behaviour of the FePt nanoparticles as a function ofplasma focused irradiation shots. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the FePt nanoparticles clearly show a marked enhancement in average particle size from 2.5 nm for nonirradiated sample to about 28nm for four plasma focus shots irradiation. The gradual removal of organic capping over chemically synthesized FePt nanoparticles with increasing plasma focus shots exposure is confirmed usingRaman spectroscopy. A uniform 2D organization of bimetallic FePt nanoparticles over 1 cm $\\times$ 1 cm silicon substrate is obtained with three plasma focus shots with better magnetic properties as compared with plasma-untreated FePtnanoparticles.
High-Energy Ion Acceleration Mechanisms in a Dense Plasma Focus Z-Pinch
Higginson, D. P.; Link, A.; Schmidt, A.; Welch, D.
2016-10-01
The compression of a Z-pinch plasma, specifically in a dense plasma focus (DPF), is known to accelerate high-energy electrons, ions and, if using fusion-reactant ions (e.g. D, T), neutrons. The acceleration of particles is known to coincide with the peak constriction of the pinch, however, the exact physical mechanism responsible for the acceleration remains an area of debate and uncertainty. Recent work has suggested that this acceleration is linked to the growth of an m =0 (sausage) instability that evacuates a region of low-density, highly-magnetized plasma and creates a strong (>MV/cm) electric field. Using the fully kinetic particle-in-cell code LSP in 2D-3V, we simulate the compression of a 2 MA, 35 kV DPF plasma and investigate in detail the formation of the electric field. The electric field is found to be predominantly in the axial direction and driven via charge-separation effects related to the resistivity of the kinetic plasma. The strong electric and magnetic fields are shown to induce non-Maxwellian distributions in both the ions and electrons and lead to the acceleration of high-energy tails. We compare the results in the kinetic simulations to assumptions of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations of transport properties in dense-plasma uranium
Kress, J. D.; Cohen, James S.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Horner, D. A.; Collins, L. A.
2011-09-01
We have calculated the self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity of dense-plasma uranium using orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD) at the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac level. The transport properties of uranium in this regime have not previously been investigated experimentally or theoretically. The OFMD calculations were performed for temperatures from 50 to 5000 eV and densities from ambient to 10 times compressed. The results are compared with the one-component-plasma (OCP) model, using effective charges given by the average-atom code INFERNO and by the regularization procedure from the OFMD method. The latter generally showed better agreement with the OFMD for viscosity and the former for diffusion. A Stokes-Einstein relationship of the OFMD viscosities and diffusion coefficients is found to hold fairly well with a constant of 0.075 ± 0.10, while the OCP/INFERNO model yields 0.13 ± 0.10.
Optical Measurements of Dense Hypervelocity Plasmoids from Coaxial and Railgun Plasma Accelerators
Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Brockington, Samuel; Witherspoon, Douglas; Elton, Ray
2009-11-01
High velocity dense plasma jets are under continued experimental development for fusion applications including refueling, disruption mitigation, momentum injection/rotation drive, and magnetized target fusion. We present measurements taken on the plasmoids produced by a half-scale coaxial plasmoid accelerator, a full scale coaxial plasmoid accelerator, and a novel minirailgun accelerator. The data presented includes spectroscopic measurements of velocity and density, two point interferometric measurements of line integrated density and velocity, and fast framing camera imaging. Results from these measurements are in agreement with each other and with time of flight measurements taken using photodiodes, as well as total plasmoid momentum measurements taken using a ballistic pendulum technique. Plasma density is greater than 5 x10^15 cm-3, and velocities range up to 100 km/s, with a small component in some cases exceeding 120 km/s.
Radiography using a dense plasma focus device as a source of pulsed X-rays
Herrera, Julio; Castillo, Fermín; Gamboa, Isabel; Rangel, José
2007-11-01
Soft and hard X-ray emissions have been studied in the FN-II, which is a small dense plasma focus machine (5 kJ), operating at the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, using aluminum filtered pin-hole cameras. Their angular distribution has been measured using TLD-200 dosimeters [1]. Their temporal evolution has been observed by means of a PIN diode, and scinltillators coupled to photomultipliers outside the discharge chamber. The X rays source can be concentrated by placing a needle on the end of the electrode. X-rays crossing across a 300 micron aluminum window, through the axis of the machine, can be used to obtain high contrast radiographs, with an average dose of 0.4 mGy per shot. In contrast, the average dose with a hollow cathode is 0.2 mGy per shot. This work is partially supported by grant IN105705 de la DGAPA-UNAM. [1] F. Castillo, J.J.E. Herrera, J. Rangel, I. Gamboa, G. Espinosa y J.I. Golzarri ``Angular Distribution of fusion products and X-rays emitted by a small dense plasma focus machine'' Journal of Applied Physics 101 013303-1-7 (2007).
Measurement of the Electron-Ion Temperature Relaxation Rate in a Dense Plasma
Taccetti, J. M.; Shurter, R. P.; Goodwin, P. M.; Benage, J. F., Jr.
2008-11-01
Current theoretical approaches to temperature relaxation, which can be categorized as binary-collision and many-body approaches, disagree. Existing experimental evidence infers a lower relaxation rate compared to the binary-collision approach, but is insufficient to determine which approach is correct. We present the most recent results from an experiment aimed at obtaining the temperature relaxation rate between ions and electrons in a dense, strongly coupled plasma by directly measuring the temperature of each component. The plasma is formed by heating a gas jet with a 10 ps laser pulse. The electrons are preferentially heated by the short pulse laser (Te 100 eV), while the ions, after undergoing very rapid (sub-ps time-scale) disorder-induced heating, should only reach a temperature of 10-15 eV. This results in a strongly coupled ion plasma with an ion-ion coupling parameter γii 3-5. We plan to measure the electron and ion temperatures of the resulting plasma independently during and after heating, using collective Thomson scattering for electrons and a high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for the ions (measuring Doppler-broadened absorption lines).
Dense plasmas research in the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission: past, present and future
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soto, Leopoldo; Silva, Patricio; Moreno, Jose; Zambra, Marcelo; Sylvester, Gustavo; Esaulov, Andrey; Altamirano, Luis [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl
2002-03-01
A review of the dense transient plasmas researches, developed in the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, is presented. A brief summary of the researches done in collaboration with the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, between 1993 to 1997, is shown. In addition, the program 'Plasma Physics in Small Devices', developed at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear since 1999 is delineated. The diagnostics development and results obtained during three experiments using small pinch devices are shown: a capillary discharge; a Z pinch driven by a small generator; and a low energy plasma focus. The experiments were complemented by magnetohydrodynamics numerical calculations, in order to assist the design and physical interpretation of the experimental data. The diagnostics techniques used in these experiments include current and voltage monitors, multi pinhole camera, plasma image using a ICCD camera gated from 3 to 20 ns, holographic interferometry, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy. Recently, the pulse power generator SPEED 2, a medium energy and large current device (187 kJ, 4 MA, 300 kV, 400 ns, dI/dt{approx}10{sup 13} A/s), has been transferred from the Duesseldorf University to the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear. Future experiments, and the perspectives of using this device, are also discussed. (author)
Comparisons of dense-plasma-focus kinetic simulations with experimental measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Link, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Falabella, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tang, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-06-01
Dense-plasma-focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high-energy electrons and ions, x rays, and neutrons. The mechanisms through which these physically simple devices generate such high-energy beams in a relatively short distance are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously we reported on fully kinetic simulations of a DPF and compared them with hybrid and fluid simulations of the same device. Here we present detailed comparisons between fully kinetic simulations and experimental data on a 1.2 kJ DPF with two electrode geometries, including neutron yield and ion beam energy distributions. A more intensive third calculation is presented which examines the effects of a fully detailed pulsed power driver model. We also compare simulated electromagnetic fluctuations with direct measurement of radiofrequency electromagnetic fluctuations in a DPF plasma. These comparisons indicate that the fully kinetic model captures the essential physics of these plasmas with high fidelity, and provide further evidence that anomalous resistivity in the plasma arises due to a kinetic instability near the lower hybrid frequency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gormezano, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)
AmBe Radiological Source Replacement Using Dense Plasma Focus Z-Pinch
Shaw, Brian; Povilus, Alexander; Chapman, Steven; Podpaly, Yuri; Cooper, Christopher; Higginson, Drew; Link, Anthony; Schmidt, Andrea
2016-10-01
A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a compact plasma gun that produces high energy ion beams up to several MeV through strong potential gradients formed from m=0 plasma instabilities. These ion beams can be used to replace radiological sources for a variety of applications. Americium-beryllium (AmBe) neutron sources are commonly used for oil well logging. An optimized DPF produces high energy helium ion beams of 2+ MeV which can interact with a beryllium target to produce neutrons. The alpha-Be interaction produces a neutron energy spectrum similar to the neutrons produced by the AmBe reaction. To demonstrate this concept experimentally a 2 kJ DPF is used to produce a beam of alpha particles which interacts with a beryllium target. We report on the improvements made to the DPF platform using He gas and the observation of 3.0 ×104 peak neutrons generated per shot. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Effect of driver impedance on dense plasma focus Z-pinch neutron yield
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sears, Jason, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, Anthony, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Schmidt, Andrea, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Welch, Dale [Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)
2014-12-15
The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) heats the plasma by rapid compression and accelerates ions across its intense electric fields, producing neutrons through both thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. Driver characteristics have empirically been shown to affect performance, as measured by neutron yield per unit of stored energy. We are exploring the effect of driver characteristics on DPF performance using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a kJ scale DPF. In this work, our PIC simulations are fluid for the run-down phase and transition to fully kinetic for the pinch phase, capturing kinetic instabilities, anomalous resistivity, and beam formation during the pinch. The anode-cathode boundary is driven by a circuit model of the capacitive driver, including system inductance, the load of the railgap switches, the guard resistors, and the coaxial transmission line parameters. It is known that the driver impedance plays an important role in the neutron yield: first, it sets the peak current achieved at pinch time; and second, it affects how much current continues to flow through the pinch when the pinch inductance and resistance suddenly increase. Here we show from fully kinetic simulations how total neutron yield depends on the impedance of the driver and the distributed parameters of the transmission circuit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for neutron source applications.
Coulomb Explosion and Energy Loss of Energetic C_(20) Clusters in Dense Plasmas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Gui-Qiu; LI Wen-Kun; WANG You-Nian
2009-01-01
The molecular dynamics(MD)method is used to simulate the interactions of energetic C_(20) clusters with the dense plasma targets within the framework of the linear Vlasov-Poisson theory.The influences of various clusters(H_2,N_2,C_(20) and C_(60) respectively)on stopping power are discussed.The simulation results show that the vicinage effects in the Coulomb explosion dynamics and the stopping power are strongly affected by the variations in the cluster speed and the plasma parameters.Coulomb explosions axe found to proceed faster for higher speeds,lower plasma densities and higher electron temperatures.In addition,the cluster stopping power is strongly enhanced in the early stages of Coulomb explosions due to the vicinage effect,but this enhancement eventually diminishes,after the cluster constituent ions are sufficiently separated.For the large and heavy clusters,the stopping power ratio reaches much higher values in the early stage of Coulomb explosion owing to the constructive interferences in the vicinage effect.
Construction of a Compact, Low-Inductance, 100 J Dense Plasma Focus for Yield Optimization Studies
Cooper, Christopher; Povilus, Alex; Chapman, Steven; Falabella, Steve; Podpaly, Yuri; Shaw, Brian; Liu, Jason; Schmidt, Andrea
2016-10-01
A new 100 J mini dense plasma focus (DPF) is constructed to optimize neutron yields for a variety of plasma conditions and anode shapes. The device generates neutrons by leveraging instabilities that occur during a z-pinch in a plasma sheath to accelerate a beam of deuterium ions into a background deuterium gas target. The features that distinguish this miniDPF from previous 100 J devices are a compact, engineered electrode geometry and a low-impedance driver. The driving circuit inductance is minimized by mounting the capacitors close to the back of the anode and cathode yields. The anode can rapidly be changed out to test new designs. The neutron yield and 2D images of the visible light emission are compared to simulations with the hybrid kinetic code LSP which can directly simulate the device and anode designs. Initial studies of the sheath physics and neutron yields for a scaling of discharge voltages and neutral fill pressures are presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Ion beam and neutron output from a sub-kilojoule dense plasma focus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellsworth, J. L., E-mail: ellsworth7@llnl.gov; Falabella, S., E-mail: ellsworth7@llnl.gov; Schmidt, A., E-mail: ellsworth7@llnl.gov; Tang, V., E-mail: ellsworth7@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2014-12-15
We are seeking to gain a better fundamental understanding of the ion beam acceleration and neutron production dense plasma focus (DPF) device. Experiments were performed on a kilojoule level, fast rise time DPF located at LLNL. Ion beam spectra and neutron yield were measured for deuterium pinches. Visible light images of the pinch are used to determine the pinch length. In addition, an RF probe was placed just outside the cathode to measure fluctuations in E{sub z} up to 6 GHz, which is within the range of the lower hybrid frequencies. We find these oscillations arise at a characteristic frequency near 4 GHz during the pinch. Comparisons of the neutron yield and ion beam characteristics are presented. The neutron yield is also compared to scaling laws.
Megagauss magnetic fields in ultra-intense laser generated dense plasmas
Shaikh, Moniruzzaman; Lad, Amit D.; Jana, Kamalesh; Sarkar, Deep; Dey, Indranuj; Kumar, G. Ravindra
2017-01-01
Table-top terawatt lasers can create relativistic light intensities and launch megaampere electron pulses in a solid. These pulses induce megagauss (MG) magnetic pulses, which in turn strongly affect the hot electron transport via electromagnetic instabilities. It is therefore crucial to characterize the MG magnetic fields in great detail. Here, we present measurements of the spatio-temporal evolution of MG magnetic fields produced by a high contrast (picosecond intensity contrast 10-9) laser in a dense plasma on a solid target. The MG magnetic field is measured using the magneto-optic Cotton-Mouton effect, with a time delayed second harmonic (400 nm) probe. The magnetic pulse created by the high contrast laser in a glass target peaks much faster and has a more rapid fall than that induced by a low contrast (10-6) laser.
Opacity of Hot and Dense Plasmas of a Mixture using an Average-Atom Approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁建民
2002-01-01
An average-atom model is proposed to calculate the opacities of hot and dense plasmas of a mixture. A self-consistent scheme is used to reach the requirements of the same temperature and chemical potential for all kinds ofatoms in the mixtures, the same electron density at the boundaries between the atoms, and the electrical neutralitywithin each atomic sphere. The orbital energies and wavefunctions for the bound electrons are calculated withthe Dirac-Slater equations. The occupation numbers at each orbital of each kind of atom are determined by theFermi-Dirac distribution with the same chemical potential for all kinds of atoms. As an example, the opacity ofthe mixture of Au and Cd is calculated at a few temperatures and densities.
MCNP Simulation to Hard X-Ray Emission of KSU Dense Plasma Focus Machine
Mohamed, Amgad E
2015-01-01
The MCNP program used to simulate the hard x-ray emission from KSU dense plasma focus device, an electron beam spectrum of maximum energy 100 keV was used to hit anode target. The bremsstrahlung radiation was measured using the F2 tally functions on the chamber walls and on a virtual sphere surrounding the machine, the radiation spectrum was recorded for various anode materials like tungsten, stainless steel and molybdenum. It was found that tungsten gives the best and the most intense radiation for the same electron beam. An aluminum filter of thickness 2mm and 4mm was used to cutoff the lower energy band from the x-ray spectrum. It was found that the filters achieved the mission and there is no distinct difference in between.
A reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport in solids and dense plasmas
Touati, M.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph; Santos, J. J.; Gremillet, L.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.
2014-07-01
A hybrid reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport based on the angular moments of the relativistic kinetic equation with a special closure is presented. It takes into account collective effects with the self-generated electromagnetic fields as well as collisional effects with the slowing down of the relativistic electrons by plasmons, bound and free electrons and their angular scattering on both ions and electrons. This model allows for fast computations of relativistic electron beam transport while describing their energy distribution evolution. Despite the loss of information concerning the angular distribution of the electron beam, the model reproduces analytical estimates in the academic case of a monodirectional and monoenergetic electron beam propagating through a warm and dense plasma and hybrid particle-in-cell simulation results in a realistic laser-generated electron beam transport case.
Quantum diffraction effects on the atomic polarization collision in partially ionized dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0407, USA and Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-04-15
The influence of quantum diffraction on the electron-atom polarization collision process is investigated in partially ionized dense plasmas. The pseudopotential model and eikonal method are employed to obtain the eikonal phase shift and eikonal cross section as functions of the impact parameter, collision energy, Debye length, electron de Broglie wavelength, and atomic polarizability. The results show that the eikonal phase shift for the electron-hydrogen atom polarization collision decreases with an increase of the electron de Broglie wavelength. It is important to note that the influence of quantum diffraction produces the repulsive part in the electron-atom polarization interaction. It is also found that the quantum diffraction effect enhances the differential eikonal cross section. Additionally, the total eikonal cross section decreases with increasing electron de Broglie wavelength. The variations of the eikonal cross section due to the influence of finite size of the de Broglie wavelength and Debye radius are also discussed.
Measurements of X-ray spectral opacity of dense plasma at Iskra-5 laser facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Annenkov, V.I.; Bel' kov, S.A.; Bessarab, A.V.; Bondarenko, S.V.; Garanin, R.V.; Kochemasov, G.G.; Kovalenko, V.P.; Pinegin, A.V.; Suslov, N.A.; Zhidkov, N.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation)
2006-06-15
The powerful iodine ISKRA-5 laser facility has been upgraded and now operates on the second harmonic. Experiments were performed to measure the X-ray spectral opacity of dense plasma of different materials. Sample of Al and Au material under study was fabricated as a thin plate with the 0.1-0.15 {mu}m thickness and was heated by the soft X-rays generated by irradiation of a thin film gold converter by one beam of the ISKRA-5 laser facility. Typical laser intensity on the converter was (1-5).10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} and laser pulse duration was 0.5-0.6 ns. The effective temperature of sample under experimental conditions did not exceed 30-40 eV. The sample was tempered by about 1 {mu}m plastic layers on both sides to avoid its rarefaction during heating and to obtain a quasi-stationary layer of a dense plasma prepared to be probed by a back-lighter. The back-lighter was aluminum or dysprosium film irradiated by another beam of the ISKRA-5 laser facility with an intensity of 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Probe X-rays were registered by a Bragg spectrometer with spatial resolution. Comparison between experimental data and simulations is discussed. In the case of Al sample, 3 absorption lines corresponding to 1s-2p transition of the Al{sup +4}-Al{sup +6} ions are recorded. The absorption of the Au sample is very close to the absorption of the cold material. The theoretical simulations show that the temperature of the heated Al sample is about 20-25 eV, substantial amount of the Au sample remains unheated at a solid density.
Exploring Quarks, Gluons and the Higgs Boson
Johansson, K. Erik
2013-01-01
With real particle collision data available on the web, the amazing dynamics of the fundamental particles of the standard model can be explored in classrooms. Complementing the events from the ATLAS experiment with animations of the fundamental processes on the quark and gluon level makes it possible to better understand the invisible world of…
Exploring Quarks, Gluons and the Higgs Boson
Johansson, K. Erik
2013-01-01
With real particle collision data available on the web, the amazing dynamics of the fundamental particles of the standard model can be explored in classrooms. Complementing the events from the ATLAS experiment with animations of the fundamental processes on the quark and gluon level makes it possible to better understand the invisible world of…
Quark-gluon separation at the LHC
Rauco, Giorgia
2017-01-01
Studies focused on the discrimination between gluon- and quark-like jets at the LHC are presented. The results here discussed are obtained with proton collisions collected by the ATLAS experiment at 8 TeV and by the CMS experiment at 13 TeV.
Ionization Energies of Ions in Hot and Dense Plasma: Beryllium-Like Ions for Z = 26 - 36
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yong-Qiang; WU Jian-Hua; YUAN Jian-Min
2008-01-01
Ionization energies of beryllium-like ions for Z = 26 - 36 in hot and dense plasmas (ne = 1022 - 1024 cm-3,kT = 500- 2000 eV) are obtained by using an approach developed for electronic structure and transition property of ions in hot and dense plasmas based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock model.Influence of the plasma environment is considered by introducing a correction to the one-electron potential to account for the screening of the ionized electrons. This correction is calculated from the ionized electron micro-space distribution, which is obtained based on an average atom model for the temperature and density-dependent average ionization of atoms in plasmas. Comparison between the present and the ion sphere models is made to display the significance of the ionized electron micro-space distribution.
Ion probe beam experiments and kinetic modeling in a dense plasma focus Z-pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, A., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Ellsworth, J., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Falabella, S., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, A., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; McLean, H., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Rusnak, B., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Sears, J., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Tang, V., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, LLC, 418 Washington St SE, Albuquerque NM 87108 (United States)
2014-12-15
The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) emits multiple-MeV ions in a ∼cm length. The mechanisms through which these physically simple devices generate such high energy beams in a relatively short distance are not fully understood. We are exploring the origins of these large gradients using measurements of an ion probe beam injected into a DPF during the pinch phase and the first kinetic simulations of a DPF Z-pinch. To probe the accelerating fields in our table top experiment, we inject a 4 MeV deuteron beam along the z-axis and then sample the beam energy distribution after it passes through the pinch region. Using this technique, we have directly measured for the first time the acceleration of an injected ion beam. Our particle-in-cell simulations have been benchmarked on both a kJ-scale DPF and a MJ-scale DPF. They have reproduced experimentally measured neutron yields as well as ion beams and EM oscillations which fluid simulations do not exhibit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for accelerator and neutron source applications.