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Sample records for dense ldl subfractions

  1. Low IDL-B and high LDL-1 subfraction levels in serum of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaye, J B; Patin, F; Piver, E; Bruno, C; Vasse, M; Vourc'h, P; Andres, C R; Corcia, P; Blasco, H

    2017-09-15

    Converging evidence highlights that lipid metabolism plays a key role in ALS pathophysiology. Dyslipidemia has been described in ALS patients and may be protective but peripheral lipoprotein subclasses have never been studied. We collected sera from 30 ALS patients and 30 gender and age-matched controls. We analyzed 11 distinct lipoprotein subclasses by linear polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Lipoprint, Quantimetrix Corporation, USA). We also measured lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein E levels. ALS patients had significant higher total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels than controls (pALS patients than controls. Our preliminary work confirmed the association between ALS and dyslipidemia. The low IDL-B levels may explain the hepatic steatosis frequently reported in ALS. The high levels of the cholesterol-rich LDL-1 subfraction is consistent with previously reported hypercholesterolemia. This study describes, for the first time, the distribution of serum lipoproteins in ALS patients, with low IDL-B and high LDL-1 subfraction level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  3. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  4. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  5. Mechanism of transfer of LDL-derived free cholesterol to HDL subfractions in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miida, T.; Fielding, C.J.; Fielding, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The transfer of [ 3 H]cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to different high-density lipoprotein (HDL) species in native human plasma was determined by using nondenaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis. Transfer from LDL had a t 1/2 at 37 degree C of 51 ± 8 min and an activation energy of 18.0 kCal mol -1 . There was unexpected specificity among HDL species as acceptors of LDL-derived labeled cholesterol. The largest fraction of the major α-migrating class (HDL 2b ) was the major initial acceptor of LDL-derived cholesterol. Kinetic analysis indicated a rapid secondary transfer from HDL 2b to smaller αHDL (particularly HDL 3 ) driven enzymatically by the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase reaction. Rates of transfer among αHDL were most rapid from the largest αHDL fraction (HDL 2b ), suggesting possible protein-mediated facilitation. Simultaneous measurements of the transport of LDL-derived and cell-derived isotopic cholesterol indicated that the former preferably utilized the αHDL pathyway, with little label in pre-βHDL. The same experiments confirmed earlier data that cell-derived cholesterol is preferentially channeled through pre-βHDL. The authors suggest that the functional heterogeneity of HDL demonstrated here includes the ability to independently process cell- and LDL-derived free cholesterol

  6. Association among retinol-binding protein 4, small dense LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels in dyslipidemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Shi, Yong-hui; Niu, Dong-mei; Li, Han-qing; Zhang, Chun-ni; Wang, Jun-jun

    2012-06-01

    To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects. We determined RBP4, sdLDL-C, ox-LDL levels in 150 various dyslipidemia subjects and 50 controls. The correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. The RBP4, sdLDL-C and ox-LDL levels were found increased in various dyslipidemia subjects. The sdLDL-C levels were positively correlated with RBP4 (r=0.273, P=0.001) and ox-LDL (r=0.273, P=0.001). RBP4 levels were also correlated with ox-LDL (r=0.167, P=0.043). The multiple regression analysis showed that only sdLDL-C was a significant independent predictor for RBP4 (β coefficient=0.219, P=0.009; adjusted R(2)=0.041) and ox-LDL (β coefficient=0.253, P=0.003; adjusted R(2)=0.057) levels, respectively. The independent associations of sdLDL-C with RBP4 and ox-LDL were observed in dyslipidemia subjects. RBP4 may play an important role in lipid metabolism of atherosclerosis, particularly in formation of sdLDL. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential reactivities of four homogeneous assays for LDL-cholesterol in serum to intermediate-density lipoproteins and small dense LDL: comparisons with the Friedewald equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shizuya; Kawase, Ryota; Nakaoka, Hajime; Nakatani, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Miwako; Yuasa-Kawase, Miyako; Tsubakio-Yamamoto, Kazumi; Sandoval, Jose C; Masuda, Daisaku; Ohama, Tohru; Nakagawa-Toyama, Yumiko; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Nishida, Makoto; Ishigami, Masato

    2009-12-01

    In routine clinical laboratory testing and numerous epidemiological studies, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been estimated commonly using the Friedewald equation. We investigated the relationship between the Friedewald equation and 4 homogeneous assays for LDL-C. LDL-C was determined by 4 homogeneous assays [liquid selective detergent method: LDL-C (L), selective solubilization method: LDL-C (S), elimination method: LDL-C (E), and enzyme selective protecting method: LDL-C (P)]. Samples with discrepancies between the Friedewald equation and the 4 homogeneous assays for LDL-C were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the beta-quantification method. The correlations between the Friedewald equation and the 4 homogeneous LDL-C assays were as follows: LDL-C (L) (r=0.962), LDL-C (S) (r=0.986), LDL-C (E) (r=0.946) and LDL-C (P) (r=0.963). Discrepancies were observed in sera from type III hyperlipoproteinemia patients and in sera containing large amounts of midband and small dense LDL on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. LDL-C (S) was most strongly correlated with the beta-quantification method even in sera from patients with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Of the 4 homogeneous assays for LDL-C, LDL-C (S) exhibited the closest correlation with the Friedewald equation and the beta-quantification method, thus reflecting the current clinical databases for coronary heart disease.

  8. Intercorrelations of lipoprotein subfractions and their covariation with lifestyle factors in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Eckoldt, Joachim; Winkler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration of triglyceri......So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration...... of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins (ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoB) in subfractions of LDL and HDL in 265 healthy working men. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB in small, dense atherogenic LDL particles (sdLDL) correlated negatively (p..., phospholipids, and ApoA1 in HDL2, respectively. Age correlated positively with sdLDL while increasing BMI correlated with an atherogenic shift of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB from large, buoyant LDL (lbLDL) to sdLDL and decreasing concentrations of HDL2 constituents. Physical activity and alcohol intake...

  9. The small, dense LDL phenotype and the risk of coronary heart disease: epidemiology, patho-physiology and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, B; Lemieux, I; Després, J P

    1999-09-01

    More than decade ago, several cross-sectional studies have reported differences in LDL particle size, density and composition between coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and healthy controls. Three recent prospective, nested case-control studies have since confirmed that the presence of small, dense LDL particles was associated with more than a three-fold increase in the risk of CHD. The small, dense LDL phenotype rarely occurs as an isolated disorder. It is most frequently accompanied by hypertriglyceridemia, reduced HDL cholesterol levels, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and by a series of other metabolic alterations predictive of an impaired endothelial function and increased susceptibility to thrombosis. Whether or not the small, dense LDL phenotype should be considered an independent CHD risk factor remains to be clearly established. The cluster of metabolic abnormalities associated with small, dense LDL particles has been referred to as the insulin resistance-dyslipidemic phenotype of abdominal obesity. Results from the Québec Cardiovascular Study have indicated that individuals displaying three of the numerous features of insulin resistance (elevated plasma insulin and apolipoprotein B concentrations and small, dense LDL particles) showed a remarkable increase in CHD risk. Our data suggest that the increased risk of CHD associated with having small, dense LDL particles may be modulated to a significant extent by the presence/absence of insulin resistance, abdominal obesity and increased LDL particle concentration. We suggest that the complex interactions among the metabolic alterations of the insulin resistance syndrome should be considered when evaluating the risk of CHD associated with the small, dense LDL phenotype. From a therapeutic standpoint, the treatment of this condition should not only aim at reducing plasma triglyceride levels, but also at improving all features of the insulin resistance syndrome, for which body weight loss and

  10. The effects of treatment on lipoprotein subfractions evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, Zuzana; Gaspar, Ludovit; Kruzliak, Peter; Celecová, Zuzana; Oravec, Stanislav

    2014-10-10

    Atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia is one of the most important risk factor for atherosclerotic changes development. Hypothyroidism is one of the most common causes of secondary dyslipidemias which results from reduced LDL clearance and therefore raised levels of LDL and apoB. Association between small dense LDL (sdLDL) presentation and thyroid status has been examinated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for lipoprotein subfractions evaluation. 40 patients with diagnosed autoimmune hypothyroidism and 30 patients with autoimmune hyperthyroidism were treated with thyroxine replacement or thyreo-suppressive treatment. In both groups lipid profiles, LDL subractions, apolipoproteins (apoA1, apoB), apoA1/apoB ratio and atherogenic index of plazma (AIP) were examined before treatment and in state of euthyreosis. Thyroxine replacement therapy significantly reduced levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL, triglycerides (TG) and also decreased levels of sdLDL (8,55±11,671 vs 0,83±1,693mg/dl; phyperthyroid patients. Atherogenic lipoprotein profile was present in 52.5% of hypothyroid subjects, which is higher prevalence than in normal, age-related population. Substitution treatment leads to an improvement of the lipid levels, TG, apoB, AIP and LDL subclasses. It significantly changed the presentation of sdLDL - we noticed shift to large, less atherogenic LDL particles. Significantly positive correlation between sdLDL and TAG; sdLDL and VLDL alerts to hypertriglyceridemia as a major cardiovascular risk factor.

  11. Non-HDL Cholesterol is a More Superior Predictor of Small-Dense LDL Cholesterol than LDL Cholesterol in Japanese Subjects with TG Levels <400 mg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko

    2016-09-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Japanese adults recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) calculated by Friedewald formula (F_LDL-C) for subjects with triglyceride (TG) levels <400 mg/dL and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for subjects with TG levels ≥400 mg/dL. Because small-dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large LDL particles, we sought the better lipid parameter which was more reflective of the high small-dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) levels in subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL. This study included 769 Japanese subjects who met our inclusion criteria and underwent an annual health examination, including sdLDL-C analyses. The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C for sdLDL-C (r=0.760) was significantly higher than that of F_LDL-C (r=0.601). The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.771 (0.731, 0.811) for F_LDL-C and 0.871 (0.842, 0.901) for non HDL-C, which showed significantly higher predictive value for more than fourth quartile value of sdLDL-C (46 mg/dL). The optimal cut-off point of non-HDL-C was 158 mg/dL. Even in subjects stratified by waist circumstance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG, and F_LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C showed stronger relationships with sdLDL-C than F_LDL-C. Moreover, non-HDL-C showed a better relationship with sdLDL-C than total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Our data suggested that non-HDL-C is superior to F_LDL-C and one of the reliable surrogate lipid markers of sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL.

  12. Small, dense LDL particles predict changes in intima media thickness and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes--a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp A Gerber

    Full Text Available The association of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL particles with an increased cardiovascular risk is well established. However, its predictive value with regard to glucose metabolism and arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been thoroughly investigated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study in patients with (prediabetes who were seen at baseline and after two years. sdLDL particles were determined by gradient gel electrophoresis. Insulin resistance was estimated by using the homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2. Intima media thickness (IMT and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were assessed by ultrasound measurements. Fifty-nine patients (mean age 63.0 ± 12.2 years were enrolled and 39 were seen at follow-up. IMT increased in the whole cohort during follow-up. The change in IMT was predicted by the proportion of sdLDL particles at baseline (p=0.03, and the change in FMD was predicted by LDL-cholesterol levels at baseline (p=0.049. HOMA2 and changes in HOMA2 correlated with the proportion of sdLDL particles and changes in this proportion, respectively (p<0.05 for both. Serum resistin levels increased in parallel with the increasing sdLDL particle number, while serum adiponectin increased only in patients with unaltered sdLDL particle number at follow-up (p<0.01 for both. In conclusion, the proportion of small, dense LDL particles and changes in this proportion are predictive of changes in intima media thickness and insulin resistance, and are closely associated with other determinants of an adverse metabolic status. Thus, this parameter extends the individual risk assessment beyond the limitations of traditional risk markers in patients with dysglycemia.

  13. Effects of low-dose simvastatin on the distribution of plasma cholesterol and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in three ultra-centrifugally separated low-density lipoprotein subfractions: 12- month, open-label trial.

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    Homma, Yasuhiko; Michishita, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Shigematsu, Hiroshi

    2010-10-27

    The effects of statins on the distribution of oxidized LDL in plasma LDL subfractions have not been well defined. Effects of 12-month treatment with low-dose simvastatin on the distribution of cholesterol and oxidized LDL in 3 ultracentrifugally separated plasma LDL subfractions were compared in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Simvastatin was administered to 30 hypercholesterolemic subjects for 12 months at an initial dose of 5 mg/day, which was increased to 20 mg/day via 10mg/day to decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol (C) lower than 130 mg/dL. Simvastatin dose was fixed after 3 months of treatment. The amounts of cholesterol and oxidized LDL in 3 ultracentrifugally separated plasma LDL subfractions were compared between 0 and 12 months of treatment. The distribution of ox-LDL skewed to denser LDL fractions, compared with cholesterol in plasma LDL subfractions. Plasma cholesterol in low-density LDL, medium-density LDL and high-density LDL decreased significantly by 31%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (pLDL was decreased from 70 U/L to 56 U/L in medium-density LDL (p=0.042). Oxidized LDL in low-density LDL and high-density LDL did not change significantly after 12 months of treatment. Treatment with low-dose simvastatin decreased plasma cholesterol in 3 LDL subfractions and oxidized LDL in medium-density LDL. The decrease of oxidized LDL seemed to be not due to the decrease of cholesterol in plasma LDL subfractions because the decreasing patterns of cholesterol and ox-LDL were different in 3 LDL subfractions.

  14. Effect of classic ketogenic diet treatment on lipoprotein subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo de Lima, Patricia; Baldini Prudêncio, Mariana; Murakami, Daniela Kawamoto; Pereira de Brito Sampaio, Leticia; Figueiredo Neto, Antônio Martins; Teixeira Damasceno, Nágila Raquel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the classic ketogenic diet (KD) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. This prospective study recruited children and adolescents of either sex, whose epilepsy was refractory to treatment with multiple drugs. To be included, the patient had to have an indication for treatment with the KD and be treated as an outpatient. At baseline and after 3 and 6 mo of the KD, lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], triacylglycerols [TG], LDL cholesterol [LDL-C], and HDL cholesterol [HDL-C]), apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB), 10 subfractions of HDL, 7 subfractions of LDL, LDL phenotype, and LDL size were analyzed using the Lipoprint system. The lipid profile components (TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, and apoB) increased during the 3-mo follow-up, and remained consistent after 6 mo of treatment. Similarly, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios, representing atherogenic particles, significantly increased. In contrast, qualitative lipoprotein characteristics progressively changed during the follow-up period. Small LDL subfractions increased, and this profile was related with reduced LDL size (27.3 nm to 26.7 nm). The LDL phenotype became worse; 52.1% of the patients had a non-A phenotype after 6 mo of the KD. Small HDL subfractions decreased only after 6 mo of the KD. KD treatment promotes negative changes in lipoprotein size and phenotype, contributing to atherogenic risk in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of a direct enzymatic assay and polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis for measurement of small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanavanan, Somlak; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Rochanawutanon, Mana; Kerdmongkol, Jirapa; Kroll, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) has been linked to the progression of cardiovascular disease. We compared two methods for determination of sdLDL-C, a direct enzymatic (ENZ) method and a polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis (PGE) assay, and investigated the associations of both sdLDL-C measurements with metabolic syndrome. We analyzed 242 patient sera for sdLDL and atherosclerosis-related markers. The PGE method separates the intermediate-density lipoprotein particles into three midbands (MID-A to MID-C) and the LDL particles into seven subfractions (LDL1 to LDL7); the sdLDL-PGE result is calculated as the sum of cholesterol concentrations from LDL3 to LDL7. The regression equation for sdLDL-C was [ENZmmol/L]=0.779[PGE]+0.67, r=0.713. ENZ showed higher sdLDL-C concentrations than PGE (0.86±0.33 vs. 0.24±0.32 mmol/L); however, the difference was not associated with sdLDL-C concentration (p=0.290). sdLDL-C, as measured with the enzymatic assay, exhibited significant positive correlations with very-low-density lipoprotein, MID-C, MID-B, and LDL2 (all p0.600). The ENZ and PGE methods yielded similar patterns of correlation between sdLDL-C, and atherosclerosis-related markers. Using logistic regression, sdLDL-ENZ and apolipoprotein B were identified as significant predictors of metabolic syndrome (p<0.03). The ENZ assay for sdLDL-C correlated well with the PGE method. The ENZ method measures a broader range of atherogenic lipoprotein particles than PGE and has the potential to identify subjects with vascular risk, thus contributing in directing specific interventions for cardiovascular prevention.

  16. Is sdLDL a valuable screening tool for cardiovascular disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radwa Momtaz Abdelsamie Zaki Khalil

    Lipoprotein Cholesterol; LDL I, large buoyant LDL; LDL II, intermediate density LDL; LDL III, smaller dense LDL; .... triglycerides >_150 mg, high density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg/dl in men ... sion of phenotype B.4,12 For a given triglyceride level, women were .... that sdLDL /LDL ratio is a very strong predictor of CHD in men;.

  17. Separation and characterization of asphaltenic subfractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honse, Siller O.; Ferreira, Silas R.; Mansur, Claudia R. E.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Gonzalez, Gaspar, E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br [Centro de Pesquisas da PETROBRAS (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The structure of the various asphaltenic subfractions found in crude oil was evaluated. For this purpose, C5 asphaltenes were extracted from an asphaltic residue using n-pentane as the flocculant solvent. The different subfractions were isolated from the C5 asphaltenes by the difference in solubility in different solvents. These were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray fluorescence, elementary analysis and mass spectrometry. The results confirmed that the subfractions extracted with higher alkanes had greater aromaticity and molar mass. However, small solubility variations between the subfractions were attributed mainly to the variation in the concentrations of cyclical hydrocarbon compounds and metals (author)

  18. Alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein subfraction in serum of a patient with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peynet, J.; Legrand, A.; Messing, B.; Thuillier, F.; Rousselet, F.

    1989-01-01

    An alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction was seen in a patient presenting with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis, who was given long-term cyclic parenteral nutrition. This subfraction, observed in addition to normal HDL, was precipitated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) by sodium phosphotungstate-magnesium chloride. The patient's serum lipoproteins were analyzed after fractionation by density gradient ultracentrifugation. The alpha slow-moving HDL floated in the ultracentrifugation subfractions with densities ranging from 1.028 to 1.084 kg/L, and their main apolipoproteins included apolipoprotein E in addition to apolipoprotein A-I. These HDL were larger than HDL2. The pathogenesis of this unusual HDL subfraction is hypothesized

  19. Low-density lipoprotein subfraction, carotid artery intima-media thickness, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor alpha are associated with newly diagnosed ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Cumhur Cure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Small dense (sd low-density lipoprotein (LDL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha (a, and nitric oxide (NO have recently emerged as important stroke risk factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of increased levels of small LDL particle size, TNF-a and NO on the developed ischemic stroke and increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 women and 25 men (a total of 54 ischemic stroke patients and a similar age group of 50 controls (29 females and 21 males were included in the study. CIMT, C-reactive protein (CRP, TNF-a, NO, and lipid subfraction test of the two groups were measured. Results: The mean LDL particle size was smaller in patients with stroke than in the controls (26.8 ± 0.31 nm vs. 27.0 ± 0.31 nm, P = 0.003. sd-LDL, TNF-a, NO, CRP, right CIMT, and left CIMT were higher in patients with stroke than in the controls (respectively; 8.2 ± 7.8 mg/dL vs. 3.3 ± 3.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001;75.6 ± 25.0 pg/mL vs. 65.4 ± 9.1 pg/mL, P = 0.009;76.4 ± 53.3 mmol/L vs. 41.5 ± 27.0 mmol/L, P < 0.001;1.9 ± 2.6 mm vs. 0.4 ± 0.3 mm P < 0.001;0.97 ± 0.38 mm vs. 0.83 ± 0.15 mm, P = 0.007;1.04 ± 0.44 mm vs. 0.87 ± 0.19 mm, P = 0.010. Conclusion: These results show that sd-LDL is independently associated with the incidence of stroke and may be a risk factor in the development of stroke. In addition, TNF-a, NO, right CIMT, and left CIMT may be a risk factor in the development of ischemic stroke.

  20. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL (bad) cholesterol and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to ...

  1. Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions Determined by Ion Mobility and First Cardiovascular Events After Random Allocation to High-Intensity Statin or Placebo: The Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Samia; Caulfield, Michael P; Wohlgemuth, Jay; Chen, Zhihong; Superko, H Robert; Rowland, Charles M; Glynn, Robert J; Ridker, Paul M; Krauss, Ronald M

    2015-12-08

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in individuals with low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C). We investigated whether detailed measures of LDL subfractions and other lipoproteins can be used to assess CVD risk in a population with both low LDL-C and high C-reactive protein who were randomized to high-intensity statin or placebo. In 11 186 Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) participants, we tested whether lipids, apolipoproteins, and ion mobility-measured particle concentrations at baseline and after random allocation to rosuvastatin 20 mg/d or placebo were associated with first CVD events (n=307) or CVD/all-cause death (n=522). In placebo-allocated participants, baseline LDL-C was not associated with CVD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.21). In contrast, associations with CVD events were observed for baseline non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), apolipoprotein B (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.11-1.48), and ion mobility-measured non-HDL particles (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.35) and LDL particles (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37). Association with CVD events was also observed for several LDL and very-low-density lipoprotein subfractions but not for ion mobility-measured HDL subfractions. In statin-allocated participants, CVD events were associated with on-treatment LDL-C, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B; these were also associated with CVD/all-cause death, as were several LDL and very-low-density lipoprotein subfractions, albeit with a pattern of association that differed from the baseline risk. In JUPITER, baseline LDL-C was not associated with CVD events, in contrast with significant associations for non-HDL cholesterol and atherogenic particles: apolipoprotein B and ion mobility-measured non-HDL particles, LDL particles, and select subfractions of very-low-density lipoprotein particles and

  2. Comparison of gemfibrozil versus simvastatin in familial combined hyperlipidemia and effects on apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein subfraction profile, and low-density lipoprotein oxidizability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S. J.; de Bruin, T. W.; Demacker, P. N.; Kastelein, J. J.; Stalenhoef, A. F.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 45 well-defined patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia, the effect of gemfibrozil (1,200 mg/day) or simvastatin (20 mg/day) on apolipoprotein-B (apo-B)-containing lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction

  3. The LDL receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life.

  4. Hepatic apo B-100 lipoproteins and plasma LDL heterogeneity in African green monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, V.N.; Marzetta, C.A.; Rudel, L.L.; Zech, L.A.; Foster, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 lipoproteins to plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolic heterogeneity was examined in African green monkeys. Hepatic 3H-labeled very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) (d less than 1.006, where d is density in g/ml) or hepatic 131I-labeled LDL (1.030 less than d less than 1.063) were isolated from perfused livers and injected simultaneously with autologous plasma 125I-LDL into African green monkeys. Serial blood samples were taken, and the distribution of radioactivity among various subfractions of apo B-100 lipoproteins was determined using density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Compartmental models were developed to describe simultaneously the kinetics of hepatic lipoproteins and plasma LDL. In five of seven studies, the metabolic behavior of LDL derived from radiolabeled hepatic lipoprotein precursors differed from the metabolic behavior of radiolabeled autologous plasma LDL. These differences could be described by different models supporting two hypotheses with different physiological interpretations: (1) lipoproteins of donor and recipient animals are kinetically distinct, and/or (2) plasma LDL derived from various potential sources are kinetically distinct. Compartmental modeling was used to test these hypotheses, which were not accessible to testing by conventional experimental methodologies. The kinetic analyses of these studies suggest that plasma LDL may be derived from a variety of precursors, including hepatic VLDL and hepatic LDL, with each source giving rise to metabolically distinct plasma LDL

  5. Nonparametric Regression with Subfractional Brownian Motion via Malliavin Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Cang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the asymptotic behavior of the sequence Sn=∑i=0n-1K(nαSiH1(Si+1H2-SiH2, as n tends to infinity, where SH1 and SH2 are two independent subfractional Brownian motions with indices H1 and H2, respectively. K is a kernel function and the bandwidth parameter α satisfies some hypotheses in terms of H1 and H2. Its limiting distribution is a mixed normal law involving the local time of the sub-fractional Brownian motion SH1. We mainly use the techniques of Malliavin calculus with respect to sub-fractional Brownian motion.

  6. Sphingomyelinase Activity of Trichomonas vaginalis Extract and Subfractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González-Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE, P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97.

  7. The relationship between migraine and lipid sub-fractions among individuals without cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional evaluation in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael J; Jones, Steven; Toth, Peter P; Kulkarni, Krishnaji; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Recent studies have explored the relationship between dyslipidemia and migraine in a cardiovascular context. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the possible association between lipids, lipoprotein subfractions and migraine according to aura symptoms in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods 1,560 women and 1,595 men, without CVD or lipid disorders requiring medication, underwent a baseline clinical assessment. Total-cholesterol and its sub-fractions (LDL, VLDL and HDL subclass cholesterol); triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol [TRL-C (VLDL 1+2 -C VLDL 3 -C + IDL-C)] were determined by vertical auto profile (VAP). We also calculated logarithmic LDL density ratio [LLDR = ln ((LDL 3 -C + LDL 4 -C)/(LDL 1 -C + LDL 2 -C))], T-Chol/HDL-C and triglycerides/HDL-C ratios. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained to evaluate the relationship between lipids tertiles and migraine for both sexes. Results Main findings revealed positive associations between migraine without aura (MO) and the highest tertiles of VLDL-C (OR, 1.61; 95%CI, 1.07-2.40) and TRL-C (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.03-2.34) in women. In men, the highest tertile of VLDL 3 -C (OR, 3.87; 95%CI, 1.23-12.19) was positively associated with MO, as well. Conclusions In middle-aged participants without CVD or lipid disorders requiring medication, the worst lipid profile was determined by the highest levels of TRL-C and their cholesterol-rich remnants in migraineurs without aura for both sexes.

  8. Histone H2A subfractions and their phosphorylation in cultured Peromyscus cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halleck, M.S.; Gurley, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Patterns of histone phosphorylation and histone H2A subfractionation have been compared in cultured cell lines from two species of deer mice, Peromyscus eremicus and Peromyscus boylii, which differ considerably in their content of heterochromatin but which contain essentially the same euchromatin content. DNA measurements by flow microfluorometry indicated that P. eremicus cells contained 34.2% more DNA than P. boylii cells, and C-band chromosome analysis indicated that the extra DNA in P. eremicus was present as constitutive heterochromatin. Subfraction of histone H2A by acid-urea polyacrylamide preparative gel electrophoresis in the presence of non-ionic detergent showed that each cell line contained two H2A subfractions. Incorporation of 32 PO 4 into these histones indicated that the steady state phosphorylation of the two H2A subfractions was not the same, the more hydrophobic H2A being greater than two times more phosphorylated than the less hydrophobic H2A in both cell lines. A comparison of the two cell lines indicated that the cell line with 34.2% greater constitutive heterochromatin contained a similar excess (29%) in its ratio of the more highly phosphorylated, more hydrophobic H2A subfraction to the less hydrophobic H2A subfraction. It is suggested that this enrichment of the more highly phosphorylated, more hydrophobic H2A subfraction may be related to the amount of constitutive heterochromatin present in the genome

  9. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  10. LDL cholesterol lowering beyond statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdim, F.

    2010-01-01

    Fatima Akdim beschrijft drie nieuwe LDL-cholesterolverlagende medicijnen die elk via een ander mechanisme hun doel bereiken: mipomersen (een antisense-remmer), ezetemibe (een cholesterolabsorbtieremmer) en implitapide (een middel dat de transfer van triglyceridetransferproteines (MTP) remt).

  11. Novel genes in LDL metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), whole-exome sequencing of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 'exome chip' studies pointing to novel genes in LDL metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: The genetic loci for ATP-binding cassette......-exome sequencing and 'exome chip' studies have additionally suggested several novel genes in LDL metabolism including insulin-induced gene 2, signal transducing adaptor family member 1, lysosomal acid lipase A, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 5 and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2. Most...... of these findings still require independent replications and/or functional studies to confirm the exact role in LDL metabolism and the clinical implications for human health. SUMMARY: GWAS, exome sequencing studies, and recently 'exome chip' studies have suggested several novel genes with effects on LDL cholesterol...

  12. Electronegative LDL: A Circulating Modified LDL with a Role in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Estruch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL(− is a minor modified fraction of LDL found in blood. It comprises a heterogeneous population of LDL particles modified by various mechanisms sharing as a common feature increased electronegativity. Modification by oxidation is one of these mechanisms. LDL(− has inflammatory properties similar to those of oxidized LDL (oxLDL, such as inflammatory cytokine release in leukocytes and endothelial cells. However, in contrast with oxLDL, LDL(− also has some anti-inflammatory effects on cultured cells. The inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties ascribed to LDL(− suggest that it could have a dual biological effect.

  13. Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bédard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet. The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24–53 years with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4–4.9 mmol/L or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255–260 Å (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01 and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06, men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03, with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL concentrations (p = 0.07, with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet.

  14. Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Alexandra; Corneau, Louise; Lamarche, Benoît; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-05-15

    Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24-53 years) with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4-4.9 mmol/L) or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255-260 Å) (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01) and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å) (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06), men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03), with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations (p = 0.07), with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet.

  15. Effects of dietary saturated fat on LDL subclasses and apolipoprotein CIII in men

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Small dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein (apo) CIII are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that can be modulated by diet, but there is little information regarding the effects of dietary saturated fat on their plasma levels. We tested the effects of high vs. low saturated fat intake in the context of a high beef protein diet on levels and composition of LDL subclasses and on apoCIII levels in plasma and LDL. Subjects/Methods Following consumption of a base...

  16. [PCSK-9 inhibitors, effects on LDL-C and future implications: What you should know].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, P; Ruiz, A J

    The discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in 2003 in families with familial hypercholesterolemia (HF) later generated the development of pharmacological strategies in order to inhibit this protein. Twelve years after this discovery, the first two biological compounds (monoclonal antibodies) were approved, which have been shown to substantially decrease LDL-C and other lipid subfractions. The objective of the present article is to review the history of the discovery of PCSK9, its physiology and pathophysiology and subsequent pharmacological development. The objectives and goals reached to date and the pending questions regarding the efficacy and safety of its clinical use are presented. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, D.; Urán, P.; Arnous, A.; Koppe, W.

    2007-01-01

    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical

  18. The characterization and metabolism of rat hepatic nascent HLD subfractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Nascent HDL was isolated from recirculating rat liver perfusates and separated by heparin-sepharose chromatography into a non-retained fraction (A) and a fraction (B) that eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. Fractions A and B contained 70% and 30% of the nascent HDL protein, respectively. Livers perfused by the single-pass technique produced fractions A and B in the same ratio as livers perfused by recirculation. The apolipoprotein compositions were similar to those in the recirculating perfusion; however, both fractions A and B had more triglyceride (greater than 50% of total lipid). In a preliminary study designed to investigate whether nascent HDL-apo E was secreted by Kupffer cells or hepatocytes, label was targeted to Kupffer cells by perfusing rat livers with 3 H-acetylated LDL or 3 H-amino acids incorporated into large multilamellar vesicles. For metabolic studies, nascent HDL and nascent VLDL were isolated from rat livers that had been perfused with 3 H-glycerol to label the triglyceride

  19. Differential trafficking of oxidized LDL and oxidized LDL immune complexes in macrophages: impact on oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M Al Gadban

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL and oxLDL-containing immune complexes (oxLDL-IC contribute to formation of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells. It has been shown that oxLDL-IC are considerably more efficient than oxLDL in induction of foam cell formation, inflammatory cytokines secretion, and cell survival promotion. Whereas oxLDL is taken up by several scavenger receptors, oxLDL-IC are predominantly internalized through the FCgamma receptor I (FCgamma RI. This study examined differences in intracellular trafficking of lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL and oxLDL-IC and the impact on oxidative stress.Fluorescently labeled lipid and protein moieties of oxLDL co-localized within endosomal and lysosomal compartments in U937 human monocytic cells. In contrast, the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC was detected in the endosomal compartment, whereas its apolipoprotein moiety advanced to the lysosomal compartment. Cells treated with oxLDL-IC prior to oxLDL demonstrated co-localization of internalized lipid moieties from both oxLDL and oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This sequential treatment likely inhibited oxLDL lipid moieties from trafficking to the lysosomal compartment. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, oxLDL-IC but not oxLDL induced GFP-tagged heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 and HSP70B', which co-localized with the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This suggests that HSP70 family members might prevent the degradation of the internalized lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC by delaying its advancement to the lysosome. The data also showed that mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was increased in U937 cell treated with oxLDL compared to oxLDL-IC.Findings suggest that lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL-IC traffic to separate cellular compartments, and that HSP70/70B' might sequester the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This mechanism could

  20. The nutraceutical benefits of subfractions of Abelmoschus esculentus in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ning Huang

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (AE, a commonly consumed vegetable, is well-known for its anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, few scientific reports have identified its targets because mucilage increases the difficulty of manipulation. We recently reported extraction steps to obtain subfractions of AE, which were found to attenuate the adverse effects of high glucose and fatty acid in vitro. In this study, we used modified extraction steps and type 2 diabetic rats to explore whether AE subfractions can improve the metabolic disturbances caused by insulin resistance in vivo. AE subfractions (F1, F2, and FR were prepared. The type 2 diabetes model was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats with a high-fat diet and injecting them with 35 mg/kgbw streptozotocin when their body weight reached 475 ± 15 g. After a hyperglycemic status had been confirmed, the rats were tube-fed with or without different doses of AE subfractions. Serum glucose, lipid markers, insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were measured in the following 12 weeks. Serum glucose promptly increased and insulin resistance was noted in the diabetic rats (glucose: 360-500 mg/dl, HOMA-IR 9.8-13.8. F2, rich in polysaccharides and carbohydrates, was most effective in attenuating hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (glucose: 200 mg/dl; HOMA-IR: 5.3 and especially HbA1C (from 8.0% to 6.5%. All of the AE subfractions lowered the level of triglycerides and free fatty acid, but not the level of total cholesterol. FR significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein ratio, indicating its benefits for lipoprotein profiles. While F2 and FR were associated with weight gain, F1 possessed an anti-obese effect. In conclusion, whether it is consumed as a vegetable or as a nutraceutical, AE has the potential to be an adjuvant therapy for diabetes. AE subfractions could be developed individually and deserve further investigation.

  1. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, D.; Uran, P.; Arnous, Anis

    2007-01-01

    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical......-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to evaluate the size distribution of the proteins present in each fraction. Molasses and the different subfractions were thereafter fed to Atlantic salmon in two successive fish trials....... The level of intestinal inflammation was evaluated by light microscopy using a semiquantitative scoring system. Histological assessments revealed that Atlantic salmon fed a combination of butanol phase and precipitate displayed significant enteritis. Atlantic salmon fed the water phase displayed normal...

  2. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application.

  3. Effect of thyroid function on LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, F; Pierdomenico, S D; De Cesare, D; De Remigis, P; Bucciarelli, T; Bittolo-Bon, G; Cazzolato, G; Nubile, G; Guagnano, M T; Sensi, S; Cuccurullo, F; Mezzetti, A

    1998-05-01

    In this study, the effect of different levels of thyroid hormone and metabolic activity on low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was investigated. Thus, in 16 patients with hyperthyroidism, 16 with hypothyroidism, and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy normolipidemic control subjects, the native LDL content in lipid peroxides, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and lycopene, as well as the susceptibility of these particles to undergo lipid peroxidation, was assessed. Hyperthyroidism was associated with significantly higher lipid peroxidation, as characterized by a higher native LDL content in lipid peroxides, a lower lag phase, and a higher oxidation rate than in the other two groups. This elevated lipid peroxidation was associated with a lower LDL antioxidant concentration. Interestingly, hypothyroid patients showed an intermediate behavior. In fact, in hypothyroidism, LDL oxidation was significantly lower than in hyperthyroidism but higher than in the control group. Hypothyroidism was also characterized by the highest beta-carotene LDL content, whereas vitamin E was significantly lower than in control subjects. In hyperthyroidism but not in the other two groups, LDL oxidation was strongly influenced by free thyroxine blood content. In fact in this group, the native LDL lipid peroxide content and the lag phase were directly and indirectly, respectively, related to free thyroxine blood levels. On the contrary, in hypothyroidism LDL oxidation was strongly and significantly related to serum lipids. In conclusion, both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are characterized by higher levels of LDL oxidation when compared with normolipidemic control subjects. In hyperthyroid patients, the increased lipid peroxidation was strictly related to free thyroxine levels, whereas in hypothyroidism it was strongly influenced by serum lipids.

  4. Recurrent LDL-receptor mutation causes familial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... 3. eaudet . New. Recurrent LDL-receptor mutation causes familial hypercholesterolaemia in ... amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)" and single- strand conformation .... Location. Afrikaner. Mixed race. ApaLl.

  5. Relations Between Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase and Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein of Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Susanti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP, ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM. METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001 increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004, odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 in uncontrolled T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM. KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP.

  6. Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities) in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1) using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR) as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2) revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3) prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4) obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.

  7. Stable isotopic carbon composition of apples and their subfractions--juice, seeds, sugars, and nonvolatile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    The 13C:12C ratios of 8 authentic apple juice samples and their subfractions were determined by mass spectrometry. Apples from Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States were processed into juice; pulp was collected from the milled fruit and seeds were collected from the press-cake. Sugars, nonvolatile acids, and phenolics were isolated from the juice by treatment with ion-exchange resins and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP). The mean value for all juice samples was -24.2% which is close to the values reported by other investigators. Juice from apples grown in Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand did not differ from U.S. samples. The isotopic composition of the subfractions ranged from -22.0 to -31.0%. The values for the pulp were essentially the same as for juice. The sugar fraction was slightly less negative than the juice; the nonvolatile acid and phenolic fractions were more negative. The levels of nonvolatile acids and phenolics in apple juice are low, however, so these compounds contribute little to overall delta 13C values in juice.

  8. LDLCHOLESTEROLEXAMINATION (LDL-C USINGHOMOGENEOUS ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made DwiAmbara Putra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous method describe as a method that does not require separation of free and bound label. This method has the ability tofully automate the determination of LDL-C directly small sample volume sand short examination time. In addition this method use automated pipette and control of time and temperature more accurate. There are 5 methods i.e. Solubilization homogeneous LDL-C assay (SOL from KyowaMedex, Surfactant LDL-C assay (SUR from Daiichi Pure Chemicals, Protecting LDL-assay reagent (PRO from Wako Chemicals, LDL-C assaycatalase (CAT Denka Seiken and Calixarene of LDL-C assay (CAL from International Reagents Corporation. All method is to use a variety of detergents and other chemicals that cause blocking or dissolution of specific lipoprotein classes to achieve specificity for LDL. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Traffic air pollution and oxidized LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL, taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult outpatients with diabetes we assessed individual chronic exposure to PM by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages, collected by sputum induction and by determining the distance from the patient's residence to a major road, through geocoding. These exposure indices were regressed against plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. We could assess the carbon load of airway macrophages in 79 subjects (58 percent. Each doubling in the distance of residence from major roads was associated with a 0.027 µm(2 decrease (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.048 to -0.0051 in the carbon load of airway macrophages. Independently from other covariates, we found that each increase of 0.25 µm(2 [interquartile range (IQR] in carbon load was associated with an increase of 7.3 U/L (95% CI: 1.3 to 13.3 in plasma oxidized LDL. Each doubling in distance of residence from major roads was associated with a decrease of -2.9 U/L (95% CI: -5.2 to -0.72 in oxidized LDL. Neither the carbon load of macrophages nor the distance from residence to major roads, were associated with plasma von Willebrand factor or PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: The observed positive association, in a susceptible group of the general population, between plasma oxidized LDL levels and either the carbon load of airway macrophages or the proximity of the subject's residence to busy roads suggests a proatherogenic effect of traffic air pollution.

  10. Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Chiu

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that increases in LDL-cholesterol resulting from substitution of dietary saturated fat for carbohydrate or unsaturated fat are due primarily to increases in large cholesterol-enriched LDL, with minimal changes in small, dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B. However, individuals can differ by their LDL particle distribution, and it is possible that this may influence LDL subclass response.The objective of this study was to test whether the reported effects of saturated fat apply to individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia as characterized by a preponderance of small LDL particles (LDL phenotype B.Fifty-three phenotype B men and postmenopausal women consumed a baseline diet (55%E carbohydrate, 15%E protein, 30%E fat, 8%E saturated fat for 3 weeks, after which they were randomized to either a moderate carbohydrate, very high saturated fat diet (HSF; 39%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 36%E fat, 18%E saturated fat or low saturated fat diet (LSF; 37%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 37%E fat, 9%E saturated fat for 3 weeks.Compared to the LSF diet, consumption of the HSF diet resulted in significantly greater increases from baseline (% change; 95% CI in plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B (HSF vs. LSF: 9.5; 3.6 to 15.7 vs. -6.8; -11.7 to -1.76; p = 0.0003 and medium (8.8; -1.3 to 20.0 vs. -7.3; -15.7 to 2.0; p = 0.03, small (6.1; -10.3 to 25.6 vs. -20.8; -32.8 to -6.7; p = 0.02, and total LDL (3.6; -3.2 to 11.0 vs. -7.9; -13.9 to -1.5; p = 0.03 particles, with no differences in change of large and very small LDL concentrations. As expected, total-cholesterol (11.0; 6.5 to 15.7 vs. -5.7; -9.4 to -1.8; p<0.0001 and LDL-cholesterol (16.7; 7.9 to 26.2 vs. -8.7; -15.4 to -1.4; p = 0.0001 also increased with increased saturated fat intake.Because medium and small LDL particles are more highly associated with cardiovascular disease than are larger LDL, the present results suggest that very high saturated fat intake may

  11. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J.; Evans, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to α, #betta#, #betta# and #betta# gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions. (Auth.)

  12. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  13. LDL cholesterol estimation in patients with the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gazi, Irene; Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Saougos, Vasilios G; Bairaktari, Eleni T; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The Friedewald formula (LDL-F) for the estimation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations is the most often used formula in clinical trials and clinical practice. However, much concern has been raised as to whether this formula is applicable in all patient populations such as the presence of chylomicronaemia and/or hypertriglyceridaemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate various LDL cholesterol calculation formulas as well as LDL cholesterol ...

  14. Lipoprotein receptors in copper-deficient rats: in vitro binding of high-density lipoprotein subfractions to liver membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassel, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to determine whether the elevated plasma and HDL cholesterol levels observed in copper-deficient rats could be explained by the interaction of 125 I-HDL subfractions with liver membrane preparations in vitro. Rats from all studies were randomly divided into two dietary treatments, copper-deficient and adequate (0.7 mg and 8.0 mg Cukg diet, respectively). Total binding data and computer derived estimates (K/sub d/ and B/sub max/) were used to compare differences between treatments. Binding data from all experiments conformed to a one-site model. In all cases, binding was saturable and EDTA and pronase insensitive. Treatment differences were observed in Study I ( 125 I-apo E-free HDL binding to crude liver membranes). Significantly lower total binding and B/sub max/ were observed when lipoproteins and membranes from copper-deficient animals were used in the assay. Competition experiments from Studies II and III demonstrate that the different HDL subfractions competed effectively with one another for binding sites, indicating that apo E is not a determinant in binding of rat 125 I-HDL subfractions to purified liver plasma membranes

  15. The effect of lowering LDL cholesterol on vascular access patency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrington, William; Emberson, Jonathan; Staplin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS...

  16. Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sally; Williams, Paul T; Krauss, Ronald M

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that increases in LDL-cholesterol resulting from substitution of dietary saturated fat for carbohydrate or unsaturated fat are due primarily to increases in large cholesterol-enriched LDL, with minimal changes in small, dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B. However, individuals can differ by their LDL particle distribution, and it is possible that this may influence LDL subclass response. The objective of this study was to test whether the reported effects of saturated fat apply to individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia as characterized by a preponderance of small LDL particles (LDL phenotype B). Fifty-three phenotype B men and postmenopausal women consumed a baseline diet (55%E carbohydrate, 15%E protein, 30%E fat, 8%E saturated fat) for 3 weeks, after which they were randomized to either a moderate carbohydrate, very high saturated fat diet (HSF; 39%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 36%E fat, 18%E saturated fat) or low saturated fat diet (LSF; 37%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 37%E fat, 9%E saturated fat) for 3 weeks. Compared to the LSF diet, consumption of the HSF diet resulted in significantly greater increases from baseline (% change; 95% CI) in plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B (HSF vs. LSF: 9.5; 3.6 to 15.7 vs. -6.8; -11.7 to -1.76; p = 0.0003) and medium (8.8; -1.3 to 20.0 vs. -7.3; -15.7 to 2.0; p = 0.03), small (6.1; -10.3 to 25.6 vs. -20.8; -32.8 to -6.7; p = 0.02), and total LDL (3.6; -3.2 to 11.0 vs. -7.9; -13.9 to -1.5; p = 0.03) particles, with no differences in change of large and very small LDL concentrations. As expected, total-cholesterol (11.0; 6.5 to 15.7 vs. -5.7; -9.4 to -1.8; pvs. -8.7; -15.4 to -1.4; p = 0.0001) also increased with increased saturated fat intake. Because medium and small LDL particles are more highly associated with cardiovascular disease than are larger LDL, the present results suggest that very high saturated fat intake may increase cardiovascular disease risk in phenotype B

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Chinese Standard Fulvic Acid Sub-fractions Separated from Forest Soil by Stepwise Elution with Pyrophosphate Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingchen; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan; Meng, Wei; Shi, Guolan; Ma, Yan; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    XAD-8 adsorption technique coupled with stepwise elution using pyrophosphate buffers with initial pH values of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 13 was developed to isolate Chinese standard fulvic acid (FA) and then separated the FA into five sub-fractions: FApH3, FApH5, FApH7, FApH9 and FApH13, respectively. Mass percentages of FApH3-FApH13 decreased from 42% to 2.5%, and the recovery ratios ranged from 99.0% to 99.5%. Earlier eluting sub-fractions contained greater proportions of carboxylic groups with greater polarity and molecular mass, and later eluting sub-fractions had greater phenolic and aliphatic content. Protein-like components, as well as amorphous and crystalline poly(methylene)-containing components were enriched using neutral and basic buffers. Three main mechanisms likely affect stepwise elution of humic components from XAD-8 resin with pyrophosphate buffers including: 1) the carboxylic-rich sub-fractions are deprotonated at lower pH values and eluted earlier, while phenolic-rich sub-fractions are deprotonated at greater pH values and eluted later. 2) protein or protein-like components can be desorbed and eluted by use of stepwise elution as progressively greater pH values exceed their isoelectric points. 3) size exclusion affects elution of FA sub-fractions. Successful isolation of FA sub-fractions will benefit exploration of the origin, structure, evolution and the investigation of interactions with environmental contaminants. PMID:25735451

  18. A short-run new analytical ultracentrifugal micromethod for determining low-density lipoprotein sub-fractions using Schlieren refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóky, Z; Fülöp, L; Köhidai, L

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new analytical ultracentrifugal micromethod for the determination of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses directly from ultracentrifugal Schlieren scans. We have used special software for the analysis of this type of single-spin density-gradient ultracentrifugation. The flotation of LDL patterns was obtained by underlayering a physiological salt solution with serum or isolated lipoprotein fractions raised to a density of 1.3 g/mL in the spinning ultracentrifugation capillary band-forming cell. The repeated analysis of Schlieren curves of the same sample from 10 to 100 microL in the 60-100 min full-speed interval time resulted in quite reproducible results. We obtained quantitative results by measuring the Schlieren areas between the sample curves and the reference baseline curve by using computerised numerical and graphic techniques. The decomposition of the integrated curve was carried out using a nonlinear regression program followed by deconvolution algorithm analysis in order to determine the parameters of the composing Gaussian subclasses. The LDL particle concentrations were calculated from the area under the integral of the Gaussian curve using a calibration data constant. The flotation range of the LDL Schlieren curves in the cell was identified with serum from which LDL had been removed by means of precipitation reagents and with centrifugation of isolated LDL aliquots. With this technique, we measured the concentration of LDL and analysed its polydispersity without the need for preceding sequential isolation of the LDL. On the basis of the Schlieren curves, the LDL samples were either physically paucidisperse, having a symmetrical peak within a narrow density range, or were polydisperse, showing an asymmetrical pattern distributed over a broader density region. The described method proved to be useful for a clear and immediate visual presentation of the concentration values of the LDL and for the identification of the

  19. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs

  20. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  1. 'LDL-C' = LDL-C + Lp(a)-C: implications of achieved ultra-low LDL-C levels in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 era of potent LDL-C lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Calvin; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2015-06-01

    The measurement that is termed 'LDL-cholesterol' (LDL-C) includes the cholesterol content of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)-C], which can contribute approximately 30-45% to measured LDL-C levels as a percentage of its mass. We review the implications of achieved very low LDL-C levels in patients treated with potent LDL-C-lowering agents in the context of varying Lp(a) levels. Combination therapy with statins, ezetimibe, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can lower LDL-C to unprecedentedly low levels. Recent PCSK9 trials have shown that routine achievement of mean LDL-C less than 50 mg/dl is feasible, along with the modest reductions in Lp(a). Many patients will achieve LDL-C less than 25 mg/dl with concomitantly elevated Lp(a) levels that contribute substantially to the measured 'LDL-C'. Therefore, it is possible that some of these patients may have little to no circulating LDL-C. As the new era of ultralow LDL-C levels ensues, it is imperative to understand the contribution of Lp(a)-C to measured LDL-C and the consequences of achieving ultralow or potentially absent LDL-C in the setting of elevated Lp(a) levels and possibly free apo(a). We review this concept and suggest avenues of research, including analyses of existing datasets in current clinical trials and new research studies, to understand its pathophysiological and clinical significance.

  2. Stimulation of LDL receptor activity in Hep-G2 cells by a serum factor(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, J.L.; Brown, C.; Cooper, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in the human hepatoma cell line Hep-G2 by serum components was examined. Incubation of dense monolayers of Hep-G2 cells with fresh medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FM) produced a time-dependent increase in LDL receptor activity. Uptake and degradation of 125I-LDL was stimulated two- to four-fold, as compared with that of Hep-G2 cells cultured in the same media in which they had been grown to confluence (CM); the maximal 125I-LDL uptake plus degradation increased from 0.2 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h to 0.8 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h. In addition, a two-fold increase in cell surface binding of 125I-LDL to Hep-G2 cells was observed when binding was measured at 4 degrees C. There was no change in the apparent Kd. The stimulation of LDL receptor activity was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by the addition of cholesterol, as LDL, to the cell medium. In contrast to the stimulation of LDL receptor activity, FM did not affect the uptake or degradation of 125I-asialoorosomucoid. Addition of FM increased the protein content per dish, and DNA synthesis was stimulated approximately five-fold, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA; however, the cell number did not change. Cellular cholesterol biosynthesis was also stimulated by FM; [14C]acetate incorporation into unesterified and esterified cholesterol was increased approximately five-fold. Incubation of Hep-G2 cells with high-density lipoproteins (200 micrograms protein/ml) or albumin (8.0 mg/ml) in the absence of the serum factor did not significantly increase the total processed 125I-LDL. Stimulation of LDL receptor activity was dependent on a heat-stable, nondialyzable serum component that eluted in the inclusion volume of a Sephadex G-75 column

  3. Early Transcriptomic Response to LDL and oxLDL in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Damián-Zamacona

    Full Text Available Although nowadays it is well known that the human transcriptome can importantly vary according to external or environmental condition, the reflection of this concept when studying oxidative stress and its direct relationship with gene expression profiling during the process of atherogenesis has not been thoroughly achieved.The ability to analyze genome-wide gene expression through transcriptomics has shown that the genome responds dynamically to diverse stimuli. Here, we describe the transcriptome of human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC stimulated by native and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (nLDL and oxLDL respectively, with the aim of assessing the early molecular changes that induce a response in this cell type resulting in a transcriptomic transformation. This expression has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques in vivo and in vitro, particularly in the light of the oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis.Total RNA was isolated with TRIzol reagent (Life Technologies and quality estimated using an Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer. The transcriptome of hVSMC under different experimental conditions (1,5 and 24 hours for nLDL and oxLDL was obtained using the GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST (Affymetrix designed to measure gene expression of 28,869 well-annotated genes. A fixed fold-change cut-off corresponding to ± 2 was used to identify genes exhibiting the most significant variation and statistical significance (P< 0.05, and 8 genes validated by qPCR using Taqman probes.10 molecular processes were significantly affected in hVSMC: Apoptosis and cell cycle, extracellular matrix remodeling, DNA repair, cholesterol efflux, cGMP biosynthesis, endocytic mechanisms, calcium homeostasis, redox balance, membrane trafficking and finally, the immune response to inflammation. The evidence we present supporting the hypothesis for the involvement of oxidative modification of several processes and metabolic pathways in atherosclerosis is

  4. Oxidized LDL but not total LDL is associated with HbA1c in individuals without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessatto, Débora; Brum, Liz Marina Bueno Dos Passos; Camargo, Joíza Lins

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the association between HbA1c, LDL and oxi-LDL in individuals without diabetes (DM). One hundred and ninety-six individuals, without DM, were enrolled and divided into three groups according to HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose values. HbA1c, oxi-LDL, LDL, and other biochemical measurements of lipid profile were also carried out. oxi-LDL levels showed significant differences among all groups and group 3 presented higher values [34U/L (27-46); 44U/L (37-70); and 86U/L (49-136); pHbA1c showed moderate positive associations with oxi-LDL (r=0.431; pHbA1c and TC (r=0.142; p=0.048), triglycerides (r=0.155; p=0.030), LDL (r=0.148; p=0.039), non-HDL (r=0.192; p=0.007) and Apo B (r=0.171, pHbA1c and oxi-LDL, oxi-LDL/HDL and oxi-LDL/LDL ratios remained significant even after adjustment by multiple linear regression analysis for the variables alcohol consumption, use of medicine, BMI, and age. oxi-LDL levels are significantly associated with HbA1c in non-diabetic individuals. However, the levels of traditional atherogenic lipids only showed a weak association with HbA1c levels. Those at high risk of developing DM or cardiovascular disease have higher levels of oxi-LDL. These data favor to the use of HbA1c as a biomarker to identify individuals at risk of developing complications even in non-diabetic glycemic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  6. Dietary fatty acids regulate hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) transport by altering LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J D; Cuthbert, J A; Spady, D K

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of LDL in plasma is strongly influenced by the amount and the type of lipid in the diet. Recent studies in the hamster have shown that dietary fatty acids differentially affect circulating LDL levels primarily by altering receptor-dependent LDL uptake in the liver. To investigate the mechanistic basis of this effect, rates of receptor-dependent LDL transport in the liver were correlated with LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels in hamsters fed safflower oil or coconut oil and varying amounts of cholesterol. Hepatic LDL receptor activity was significantly lower in animals fed coconut oil than in animals fed safflower oil at all levels of cholesterol intake (26, 53, and 61% lower at cholesterol intakes of 0, 0.06, and 0.12%, respectively). These fatty acid-induced changes in hepatic LDL receptor activity were accompanied by parallel changes in hepatic LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels, suggesting that dietary fatty acids regulate the LDL receptor pathway largely at the mRNA level. Images PMID:8349814

  7. The Effect of a Shear Flow on the Uptake of LDL and Ac-LDL by Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Koichi; Karino, Takeshi

    The effects of a shear flow on the uptake of fluorescence-labeled low-density lipoprotein (DiI-LDL), acetylated LDL (DiI-Ac-LDL), and lucifer yellow (LY; a tracer of fluid-phase endocytosis) by cultured bovine aortic ECs were studied using a rotating-disk shearing apparatus. It was found that 2hours’ exposure of ECs to a laminar shear flow that imposed ECs an area-mean shear stress of 10dynes/cm2 caused an increase in the uptake of DiI-LDL and LY. By contrast, the uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL was decreased by exposure of the ECs to a shear flow. Addition of dextran sulfate (DS), a competitive inhibitor of scavenger receptors, reversed the effect of a shear flow on the uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, resulting in an increase by the imposition of a shear flow, while the uptake of DiI-LDL and LY remained unaffected. It was concluded that a shear flow promotes the endocytosis of DiI-LDL and LY by ECs, but suppresses the uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL by ECs by inhibiting scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  8. Concentration, composition and apolipoprotein B species of very low density lipoprotein subfractions from normolipidemic and hypertriglyceridemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittolo Bon, G; Cazzolato, G; Zago, S; Avogaro, P

    1985-01-01

    Lipoproteins in the d less than 1.006 g/ml density range obtained form 13 healthy normolipidemic subjects and from 15 patients affected by primary endogenous hypertriglyceridemia after 14-h fasting were subfractionated by filtration in Biogel A-15 M columns. The mass values and chemical composition of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subfractions 1 and 2 thus obtained were studied. In each subfraction the behavior of apolipoprotein B (Apo B) was tested by sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. VLDL2 was higher and richer in cholesterol and proteins than VLDL1, while the percentage content of triglycerides was lower. In hypertriglyceridemic patients both VLDL1 and VLDL2 were higher than in normolipidemic subjects, the difference being particularly evident for VLDL1. In both VLDL1 and VLDL2 of nearly all the subjects studied the presence in electrophoretic gels of a large Apo B-100 band and of a minor Apo B-48 band with the appropriate mobility of lymph chylomicrons was detected. The Apo B-100/Apo B-48 ratio was about 6 in VLDL1 and 24 in VLDL2. A trend of a reduced Apo B-100/Apo B-48 ratio was observed in VLDL1 of hypertriglyceridemic patients.

  9. Oxidation of LDL and extent of peripheral atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Kruijssen, D.A.C.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Poppel, G. van; Princen, H.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated for oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to play an important role in the atherogenic process. Therefore, we investigated the relation between susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and risk of peripheral atherosclerosis among 249 men between 45 and 80 years

  10. Regulation of plasma LDL: the apoB paradigm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sniderman, A.D.; Graaf, J. de; Couture, P.; Williams, K.; Kiss, R.S.; Watts, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis are to re-examine the foundational studies of the in vivo metabolism of plasma LDL (low-density lipoprotein) particles in humans and, based on them, to reconstruct our understanding of the governance of the concentration of plasma LDL and the maintenance of

  11. oxLDL induces endothelial cell proliferation via Rho/ROCK/Akt/p27kip1 signaling: opposite effects of oxLDL and cholesterol loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxu; Adamos, Crystal; Oh, Myung-Jin; Baruah, Jugajyoti; Ayee, Manuela A A; Mehta, Dolly; Wary, Kishore K; Levitan, Irena

    2017-09-01

    Oxidized modifications of LDL (oxLDL) play a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of oxLDL-mediated cellular behavior are not completely understood. Here, we compared the effects of two major types of oxLDL, copper-oxidized LDL (Cu 2+ -oxLDL) and lipoxygenase-oxidized LDL (LPO-oxLDL), on proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Cu 2+ -oxLDL enhanced HAECs' proliferation in a dose- and degree of oxidation-dependent manner. Similarly, LPO-oxLDL also enhanced HAEC proliferation. Mechanistically, both Cu 2+ -oxLDL and LPO-oxLDL enhance HAEC proliferation via activation of Rho, Akt phosphorylation, and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27 kip1 ). Both Cu 2+ -oxLDL or LPO-oxLDL significantly increased Akt phosphorylation, whereas an Akt inhibitor, MK2206, blocked oxLDL-induced increase in HAEC proliferation. Blocking Rho with C3 or its downstream target ROCK with Y27632 significantly inhibited oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and proliferation mediated by both Cu 2+ - and LPO-oxLDL. Activation of RhoA was blocked by Rho-GDI-1, which also abrogated oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. In contrast, blocking Rac1 in these cells had no effect on oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation or cell proliferation. Moreover, oxLDL-induced Rho/Akt signaling downregulated cell cycle inhibitor p27 kip1 Preloading these cells with cholesterol, however, prevented oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. These findings provide a new understanding of the effects of oxLDL on endothelial proliferation, which is essential for developing new treatments against neovascularization and progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Association of protein structure, protein and carbohydrate subfractions with bioenergy profiles and biodegradation functions in modeled forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of forage protein inherent structure, biological compounds, protein and carbohydrate subfractions, bioenergy profiles, and biodegradation features. In this study, common available alfalfa hay from two different sourced-origins (FSO vs. CSO) was used as a modeled forage for inherent structure profile, bioenergy, biodegradation and their association between their structure and bio-functions. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included: protein structure amide I group, amide II group and their ratios; protein subfractions (PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2, PC); carbohydrate fractions (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, CB1, CB2, CC); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of protein (RDPA2, RDPB1, RDPB2, RDP; RUPA2 RUPB1, RUPB2, RUPC, RUP); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of carbohydrate (RDCA4, RDCB1, RDCB2, RDCB3, RDCHO; RUCA4, RUCB1; RUCB2; RUCB3 RUCC, RUCHO) and bioenergy profiles (tdNDF, tdFA, tdCP, tdNFC, TDN1 ×, DE3 ×, ME3 ×, NEL3 ×; NEm, NEg). The results show differences in protein and carbohydrate (CHO) subfractions in the moderately degradable true protein fraction (PB1: 502 vs. 420 g/kg CP, P = 0.09), slowly degraded true protein fraction (PB2: 45 vs. 96 g/kg CP, P = 0.02), moderately degradable CHO fraction (CB2: 283 vs. 223 g/kg CHO, P = 0.06) and slowly degraded CHO fraction (CB3: 369 vs. 408 g/kg CHO) between the two sourced origins. As to biodegradable (RD) fractions of protein and CHO in rumen, there were differences in RD of PB1 (417 vs. 349 g/kg CP, P = 0.09), RD of PB2 (29 vs. 62 g/kg CP, P = 0.02), RD of CB2 (251 vs. 198 g/kg DM, P = 0.06), RD of CB3 (236 vs. 261 g/kg CHO, P = 0.08). As to bioenergy profile, there were differences in total digestible nutrient (TDN: 551 vs. 537 g/kg DM, P = 0.06), and metabolic bioenergy (P = 0.095). As to protein molecular structure, there were differences in protein structure 1st

  13. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  14. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.

    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  15. Simulation of dense colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, H.J.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hecht, M.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2008-01-01

    We present in this proceeding recent large scale simulations of dense colloids. On one hand we simulate model clay consisting of nanometric aluminum oxide spheres in water using realistic DLVO potentials and a combination of MD and SRD. We find pronounced cluster formation and retrieve the shear

  16. Anticancer Activity of Chloroform Extract and Sub-fractions of Nepeta deflersiana on Human Breast and Lung Cancer Cells: An In vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oqail, Mai M; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam S; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Farshori, Nida N

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. The plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. Nepeta deflersiana (ND) is used in the folk medicine as antiseptic, carminative, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and for treating rheumatic disorders. However, the anticancer activity of ND chloroform extract has not been explored so far. The present study was aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of chloroform Nepeta deflersiana extract and various sub-fractions (ND-1-ND-15) of ND against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human lung cancer cells (A-549). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays, and cellular morphological alterations using phase contrast light microscope were studied. Cells were exposed with 10-1000 μg/ml of sub-fractions of ND for 24 h. Results showed that selected sub-fractions of the chloroform extract significantly reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 and A-549 cells, and altered the cellular morphology in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the sub-fractions, ND-10 fraction showed relatively higher cytotoxicity compared to other fractions whereas, ND-1 did not cause any cytotoxicity even at higher concentrations. The A-549 cells were found to be more sensitive to growth inhibition by all the extracts as compared to the MCF-7 cells. The present study provides preliminary screening of anticancer activities of chloroform extract and sub-fractions of ND, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent. Nepeta deflersiana extract exhibit cytotoxicity and altered the cellular morphology. Sub-fractions of the chloroform extract of Nepeta deflersiana reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 and A-549 cells. Among the sub-fractions, ND-10 fraction showed relatively higher cytotoxicity. The A-549 cells were found to be more sensitive

  17. Isolation of low density lipoprotein (LDL with its modification by Copper ion and Malondialdehyde (MDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doosty M

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDLs is belived to be an important step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. During oxidation, LDL particle undergoes a large number of structural changes that alters its biological properties, so it becomes atherogenic. To study atherogenic proteins, usually two forms of modified LDLs, including Cu2+-oxidized LDL (ox-LDL and malondialdehyde (MDA modified LDL (mal-LDL are used. In this study, LDL was isolated from 72 ml freshly prepared plasma by sequential Floatation Ultracentrifugation (SFU, which resulted in separation of 12.5 mg LDL protein. LDL oxidation was accomplished in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS with 2µM cupric sulfate, and mal-LDL was prepared by incubating LDL in PBS with 0.5 M solution of freshly prepared MDA. These modifications were evaluated by measuring optical density at 234 nm, Thiobarbitoric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS, and electrophoretic mobility at pH 8.6. The increase of 234 nm absorption reflected initiation of LDL oxidation. TBARS of ox-LDL and mal-LDL was 80 Nm MAD/mg LDL protein and 400 nm MDA/mg LDL protein, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility of ox-LDL and mal-LDL, in respect to native LDL (n-LDL, were increased.

  18. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Antiradical and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ethyl Acetate and Butanolic Subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius (DC. Polhill & Wiens (Loranthaceae Using Equine Myeloperoxidase and Both PMA-Activated Neutrophils and HL-60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainatou Boly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethyl acetate and n-butanolic subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius were investigated for their antioxidant and antimyeloperoxidase (MPO activities. The reactive oxygen species (ROS generation was assessed by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL and dichlorofluorescein- (DCF- induced fluorescence techniques from phorbol myristate acetate- (PMA- stimulated equine neutrophils and human myeloid cell line HL-60, respectively. In parallel, the effects of the tested subfractions were evaluated on the total MPO release by stimulated neutrophils and on the specific MPO activity by means of immunological assays. The results showed the potent activity of the butanolic subfraction, at least in respect of the chemiluminescence test (IC50 = 0.3±0.1 µg/mL and the ELISA and SIEFED assays (IC50 = 2.8±1.2 µg/mL and 1.3±1.0 µg/mL, respectively. However, the ethyl acetate subfraction was found to be the most potent in the DCF assay as at the highest concentration, DCF fluorescence intensity decreases of about 50%. Moreover, we demonstrated that the ethyl acetate subfraction was rich in catechin (16.51% while it was not easy to identify the main compounds in the butanolic subfraction using the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Nevertheless, taken together, our results provide evidence that Agelanthus dodoneifolius subfractions may represent potential sources of natural antioxidants and of antimyeloperoxidase compounds.

  20. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers some aspects of the theory of atomic processes in dense plasmas. Because the topic is very broad, a few general rules which give useful guidance about the typical behavior of dense plasmas have been selected. These rules are illustrated by semiclassical estimates, scaling laws and appeals to more elaborate calculations. Included in the paper are several previously unpublished results including a new mechanism for electron-ion heat exchange (section II), and an approximate expression for oscillator-strengths of highly charged ions (section V). However the main emphasis is not upon practical formulas but rather on questions of fundamental theory, the structural ingredients which must be used in building a model for plasma events. What are the density effects and how does one represent them? Which are most important? How does one identify an incorrect theory? The general rules help to answer these questions. 106 references, 23 figures, 2 tables

  1. Description of Discordance Between LDL Cholesterol, Non-HDL Cholesterol, and LDL Particle Number Among Patients of a Lipid Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W Gaborcik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While LDL cholesterol measures the cholesterol content within an LDL particle (LDL-P, it may not reflect LDL-P concentrations. If discordance exists, LDL-P may better predict cardiovascular events compared to LDL-C and non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C. In primary prevention patients, discordance has been associated with diabetes, ethnicity, gender, metabolic syndrome, and smoking history. Objective: To describe discordance in patients of a lipid clinic by exploring associations between patient characteristics and discordance among LDL-C, non-HDL-C, or LDL-P. Secondarily to compare proportion of patients with baseline concordance versus discordance who have ASCVD events, diagnoses of new onset diabetes or death. Methods: A retrospective, single-center cohort study at a large academic medical center was conducted. Patients establishing care from January 2009 through December 2012 with complete initial labs were included. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between discordance and patient characteristics. Results: Of 603 patients screened, the final cohort included 166 patients with 104 (62.7% discordant. LDL-P was the most common discordant value. Discordance was associated with gender, smoking status, use of lipid lowering medications, and achieving patient specific LDL-C goals. In terms of any event observed after initial measurements, no significant differences were detected between discordant and concordant groups. Conclusion: Within a lipid clinic population, discordance was associated with male gender, smoking status, lipid-lowering therapy, and being at patient specific LDL-C goal. While associations were found in our population, clinicians should consider measuring LDL-P to fully assess presence or extent of discordance. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the

  2. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  3. Structure of human low-density lipoprotein subfractions, determined by X-ray small-angle scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, M W; Kreutz, W; Berg, A; Frey, I; Keul, J

    1990-01-19

    The structure of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles from three different density ranges (LDL-1: d = 1.006-1.031 g/ml; LDL-3: d = 1.034-1.037 g/ml; LDL-6: d = 1.044-1.063 g/ml) was determined by X-ray small-angle scattering. By using a theoretical particle model, which accounted for the polydispersity of the samples, we were able to obtain fits of the scattering intensity that were inside the noise interval of the measured intensity. The assumption of deviations from radial symmetry is not supported by our data. This implies a spread-out conformation of the apolipoprotein B (apoB) molecule, which appears to be localized in the outer surface shell. A globular structure is not consistent with our data. Furthermore, different models exist concerning the structure of the cholesterol ester core below the phase transition temperature. The electron density data suggest an arrangement in which the steroid moieties are localized at average radii of 3.2 and 6.4 nm. Model calculations show that packing problems can only be avoided if approximately half of the acyl chains of each shell are pointing towards the center of the particle, the other half towards the surface. This arrangement of the acyl chains has never been proposed before. The LDL particles of different density classes differ mainly with respect to the size of the core but also with respect to the width of the surface shells. Model calculations show that the size of different LDL particles can be accurately predicted from the compositional data.

  4. Relationship among IL-6, LDL cholesterol and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrano, Valter; Gabriele, Morena; Puntoni, Maria Rita; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies evidenced a significant reduction in serum cholesterol levels during an episode of acute inflammation. The aim of the present study was to verify the hypothesis of a regulatory role of cytokines through an in vitro model that simulates a situation of vascular inflammation and high levels of LDL or lipoperoxides. Human microvascular endothelial cells-1 were used in all experiments. The cells were exposed for 24 h to increasing doses of LDL, oxidized lipoprotein, and 8-isoprostane (in the absence or presence of SQ29.548, a TXA2 receptor antagonist). Moreover, LDL receptor and oxidized lipoprotein receptor expression analyzed after endothelial cells' incubation with increasing doses of interleukin-6. The ELISA test and quantitative real-time PCR were performed. Endothelial cells showed a significant increase in interleukin-6 medium levels associated with LDL, oxidized LDL and with the degree of oxidation (absence or presence of SQ29.548), while 8-isoprostane did not. Treatment of human microvascular endothelial cells-1 for 24 h with increasing doses of interleukin-6 significantly enhanced LDL receptor and oxidized lipoprotein receptor-1 mRNA expression. Our data suggest the presence of a compensatory mechanism. The induction of a significant increase of IL-6 does not seem to be caused by the presence of the biological activity of 8-isoprostane.

  5. Estradiol protective role in atherogenesis through LDL structure modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papi, Massimiliano; Ciasca, Gabriele; Maiorana, Alessandro; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Palmieri, Valentina; De Spirito, Marco; Brunelli, Roberto; Parasassi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Relevant physiological functions are exerted by circulating low density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as eventual pathological processes triggering atherogenesis. Modulation of these functions can well be founded on modifications of LDL structure. Given its large dimension, multicomponent organization and strong interactions between the protein apoB-100 and lipids, determining LDL 3D structure remains a challenge. We propose a novel quantitative physical approach to this complex biological problem. We introduce a three-component model, fitted to small angle x-ray scattering data on LDL maintained in physiological conditions, able to achieve a consistent 3D structure. Unexpected features include three distinct protein domains protruding out of a sphere, quite rough in its surface, where several core lipid areas are exposed. All LDL components are affected by 17- β -estradiol (E2) binding to apoB-100. Mostly one of the three protruding protein domains, dramatically reducing its presence on the surface and with a consequent increase of core lipids’ exposure. This result suggests a structural basis for some E2 protecting roles and LDL physiological modifications. (paper)

  6. Arabidopsis Histone Demethylases LDL1 and LDL2 Control Primary Seed Dormancy by Regulating DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 and ABA Signaling-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming lei Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy controls germination and plays a critical role in regulating the beginning of the life cycle of plants. Seed dormancy is established and maintained during seed maturation and is gradually broken during dry storage (after-ripening. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA and DELAY OF GERMINATION1 (DOG1 protein are essential regulators of seed dormancy. Recent studies revealed that chromatin modifications are also involved in the transcription regulation of seed dormancy. Here, we showed that two Arabidopsis histone demethylases, LYSINESPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE LIKE 1 and 2 (LDL1 and LDL2 act redundantly in repressing of seed dormancy. LDL1 and LDL2 are highly expressed in the early silique developing stage. The ldl1 ldl2 double mutant displays increased seed dormancy, whereas overexpression of LDL1 or LDL2 in Arabidopsis causes reduced dormancy. Furthermore, we showed that LDL1 and LDL2 repress the expression of seed dormancy-related genes, including DOG1, ABA2 and ABI3 during seed dormancy establishment. Furthermore, genetic analysis revealed that the repression of seed dormancy by LDL1 and LDL2 requires DOG1, ABA2 and ABI3. Taken together, our findings revealed that LDL1 and LDL2 play an essential role in seed dormancy.

  7. Agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL cholesterol measured with 3 methods in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, Merete

    2011-01-01

    LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.......LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients....

  8. Lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells under LDL loading is independent of LDL receptor pathway and enhanced by hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Youichiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Yamamoto, Takashi; Naito, Makoto; Noguchi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Tsujita, Maki; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Mika; Izumi, Akashi; Kohro, Takahide; Tanaka, Toshiya; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Koyama, Hidenori; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Shizuya; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Niki, Etsuo; Hamakubo, Takao; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2002-10-01

    The effect of a variety of hypoxic conditions on lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was studied in an arterial wall coculture and monocultivation model. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was loaded under various levels of oxygen tension. Oil red O staining of rabbit and human SMCs revealed that lipid accumulation was greater under lower oxygen tension. Cholesterol esters were shown to accumulate in an oxygen tension-dependent manner by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Autoradiograms using radiolabeled LDL indicated that LDL uptake was more pronounced under hypoxia. This result holds in the case of LDL receptor-deficient rabbit SMCs. However, cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular cholesterol release were unaffected by oxygen tension. Hypoxia significantly increases LDL uptake and enhances lipid accumulation in arterial SMCs, exclusive of LDL receptor activity. Although the molecular mechanism is not clear, the model is useful for studying lipid accumulation in arterial wall cells and the difficult-to-elucidate events in the initial stage of atherogenesis.

  9. Statin action enriches HDL3 in polyunsaturated phospholipids and plasmalogens and reduces LDL-derived phospholipid hydroperoxides in atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ricardo; Giral, Philippe; Robillard, Paul; Kontush, Anatol; Chapman, M. John

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia associates with oxidative stress and defective HDL antioxidative function in metabolic syndrome (MetS). The impact of statin treatment on the capacity of HDL to inactivate LDL-derived, redox-active phospholipid hydroperoxides (PCOOHs) in MetS is indeterminate. Insulin-resistant, hypertriglyceridemic, hypertensive, obese males were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days, resulting in marked reduction in plasma TGs (−41%) and LDL-cholesterol (−38%), with minor effects on HDL-cholesterol and apoAI. Native plasma LDL (baseline vs. 180 days) was oxidized by aqueous free radicals under mild conditions in vitro either alone or in the presence of the corresponding pre- or poststatin HDL2 or HDL3 at authentic plasma mass ratios. Lipidomic analyses revealed that statin treatment i) reduced the content of oxidizable polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PUPC) species containing DHA and linoleic acid in LDL; ii) preferentially increased the content of PUPC species containing arachidonic acid (AA) in small, dense HDL3; iii) induced significant elevation in the content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plasmalogens containing AA and DHA in HDL3; and iv) induced formation of HDL3 particles with increased capacity to inactivate PCOOH with formation of redox-inactive phospholipid hydroxide. Statin action attenuated LDL oxidability Concomitantly, the capacity of HDL3 to inactivate redox-active PCOOH was enhanced relative to HDL2, consistent with preferential enrichment of PE plasmalogens and PUPC in HDL3. PMID:27581680

  10. Dense ceramic articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockbain, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the manufacture of articles of substantially pure dense ceramic materials, for use in severe environments. Si N is very suitable for use in such environments, but suffers from the disadvantage that it is not amenable to sintering. Some disadvantages of the methods normally used for making articles of Si N are mentioned. The method described comprises mixing a powder of the substantially pure ceramic material with an additive that promotes densification, and which is capable of nuclear transmutation into a gas when exposed to radiation, and hot pressing the mixture to form a billet. The billet is then irradiated to convert the additive into a gas which is held captive in the billet, and it is then subjected to a hot forging operation, during which the captive gas escapes and an article of substantially pure dense ceramic material is forged. The method is intended primarily for use for Si N, but may be applied to other ceramic materials. The additive may be Li or Be or their compounds, to the extent of at least 5 ppm and not more than 5% by weight. Irradiation is effected by proton or neutron bombardment. (UK)

  11. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  12. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  13. Hypolipidemic therapy modulates expression of apolipoprotein B (APOB) epitopes on low density lipoproteins (LDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, Y.; Schonfeld, g.; Oshry, Y.; Gevish, d.; Eisenberg, S.

    1986-01-01

    LDL of untreated hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients are smaller and enriched in triglycerides and proteins compared with normal LDL. HTG-LDL also bind defectively to the LDL receptor of cultured human fibroblasts. These defects are reversible by hypolipidemic therapy. The authors tested the hypothesis that LDL binding to cells may be altered by modulation of apoB epitopes on the surface of LDL. Fasting plasma samples were obtained from 5 HTG patients before and three weeks after bezafibrate therapy when mean triglyceride levels were 436 and 157 mg/dl, respectively (p 50 values of LDL with Mab B1B3 fell from 6.0 to 3.2 μg LDL protein (p 50 did not change with Mab D7.1. Thus, the improved interaction of LDL is related to the altered disposition of apoB on LDL

  14. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  15. Hyperons in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-01

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V low k ) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V low k can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V low k one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V low k potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three-body force with a density-dependent interaction. This

  16. Effects of Lowering LDL Cholesterol on Progression of Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haynes, Richard; Lewis, David; Emberson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in CKD, but the effects of such treatment on progression of kidney disease remain uncertain. Here, 6245 participants with CKD (not on dialysis) were randomly assigned to simvastatin (20 mg) plus ezetimibe (10 mg) daily...... or matching placebo. The main prespecified renal outcome was ESRD (defined as the initiation of maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation). During 4.8 years of follow-up, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in an average LDL cholesterol difference (SEM) of 0.96 (0.02) mmol/L compared...... with placebo; rate ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.01; P=0.09). Exploratory analyses also showed no significant effect on the rate of change in eGFR. Lowering LDL cholesterol by 1 mmol/L did not slow kidney disease progression within 5 years in a wide range of patients with CKD....

  17. Geometrical optics of dense aerosols: forming dense plasma slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael J; Valeo, Ernest J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2013-11-01

    Assembling a freestanding, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rarefied than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed field, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the finite particle density reduces the effective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing.

  18. Associations of serum LDL particle concentration with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Maryam; Miura, Katsuyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Abbott, Robert D; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Torii, Sayuki; Miyagawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Sentaro; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Sekikawa, Akira; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Horie, Minoru; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL-P) has recently been found to be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Whether LDL-P is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of LDL-C, as well as other lipid measures has not been fully examined. We aimed to analyze LDL-P associations with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. We examined 870 Japanese men randomly selected from Kusatsu City, Shiga, Japan, aged 40-79 years from 2006-2008, free of clinical CVD and not using lipid-lowering medication. Cross-sectional associations of lipid measures with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC; >0 Agatston score) were examined. LDL-P was significantly positively associated with cIMT and maintained this association after adjustments for LDL-C and other lipid measures. Although these lipid measures were positively associated with cIMT, model adjustment for LDL-P removed any significant relationships. Higher LDL-P was associated with a significantly higher odds ratio of CAC and further adjustment for LDL-C did not affect this relationship. In contrast, the LDL-C association with CAC was no longer significant after adjustment for LDL-P. Other lipid measures attenuated associations of LDL-P with CAC. Likewise, associations of these measures with CAC were attenuated when model adjustments for LDL-P were made. In a community-based sample of Japanese men, free of clinical CVD, LDL-P was a robust marker for subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of LDL-C and other lipid measures. Associations of LDL-C and other lipid measures with either cIMT or CAC were generally not independent of LDL-P. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  20. LDL cholesterol still a problem in old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Deelen, Joris; Sedaghat, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in older subjects have shown no or inverse associations between cholesterol levels and mortality. However, in old age plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may not reflect the lifetime level due to reverse causality, and hence the risk may...

  1. LDL cholesterol goals and cardiovascular risk during statin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Anders G; Lindahl, Christina; Holme, Ingar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the proportion of patients treated with either simvastatin 20 or 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg who achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals of 2.5 or 2.0 mmol/l in the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) study. We explored how...

  2. Oxidized LDL Promotes Apoptosis and Expression of Pro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulation of lipid within non-adipose tissues can induce inflammation by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Oxidized lipoproteins (oxLDL) have been known to induce cellular dysfunction in resident macrophages through pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. However research into the ...

  3. Increased large VLDL and small LDL particles are related to lower bilirubin in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P F; de Vries, Rindert; Lefrandt, Joop D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bilirubin may protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by virtue of its anti-oxidative properties, but lower bilirubin may also be associated to atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities. We determined associations of plasma (apo)lipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions in

  4. Hadrons in dense matter. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buballa, M.; Noerenberg, W.; Schaefer, B.J.; Wambach, J.

    2000-03-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Elementary hadronic reactions, Delta dynamics in nuclei, in-medium s-wave ππ-correlations, strangeness in hot and dense matter, medium modifications of vector mesons and dilepton production, medium modifications of charmonium, thermal properties of hot and dense hadronic matter, nuclear matter, spectral functions and QCD sum rules

  5. Suppression of thermal and chemical nociception in rats by methanol extract and its sub-fraction from lantana camara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simjee, S.U.; Perveen, H.; Zehra, S.Q.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional use of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) is reported to include anti-nociceptive, antimicrobial, and immunosuppressant activity. To our knowledge no systematic study has been carried out on the anti-nociceptive activity of L. camara. The present study was designed to delineate the analgesic activity of L. camara extract and its fractions to elucidate the traditional belief in the painkilling effects. Experimental models employed were thermal and chemical-induced nociception assays. After initial screening of the methanol extract and its fractions prepared from the aerial parts of the plant, the dose of 50,100 and 200 mg/kg were selected and route of administration was i.p. The test samples were tested against a reference drug indomethacine (i.p. 5 mg/kg). The observations were made at 15, 30, 60, and 120 seconds following the administration of the samples or reference drug. Experiments on naloxone antagonism were conducted to determine involvement of opioid receptors. Compared to concurrent controls, a significant anti-nociceptive activity was observed in methanol extract LC (ED50 50 mg/kg, P < 0.002) and its sub-fractions LCEA-AQ (ED50 50 mg/kg, P < 0.004), LCEA (ED50 100 mg/kg, P < 0.004) and LCEA-PEI (ED50 100 mg/kg, P < 0.005). No apparent acute toxicity was observed in any test groups. The anti-nociceptive activity was not precipitated by naloxone antagonism indicating that these fractions do not act through opioid receptors. The methanol extract and active fractions of Lantana camara possess anti-nociceptive activity. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanism of its action. (author)

  6. Altered Metabolism of LDL in the Arterial Wall Precedes Atherosclerosis Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D.; Christoffersen, Christina; Lindholm, Marie W.

    2015-01-01

    and degradation of LDL particles in atherosclerotic aortas of mice by measuring the accumulation of iodinated LDL particles in the arterial wall. Methods and Results: Cholesterol-fed, LDL receptor–deficient mice were treated with either an anti-Apob antisense oligonucleotide or a mismatch control antisense...... oligonucleotide once a week for 1 or 4 weeks before injection with preparations of iodinated LDL particles. The anti-Apob antisense oligonucleotide reduced plasma cholesterol by ≈90%. The aortic LDL permeability and degradation rates of newly entered LDL particles were reduced by ≈50% and ≈85% already after 1...... week of treatment despite an unchanged pool size of aortic iodinated LDL particles. In contrast, the size, foam cell content, and aortic pool size of iodinated LDL particles of aortic atherosclerotic plaques were not reduced until after 4 weeks of treatment with the anti-Apob antisense oligonucleotide...

  7. Unified approach to dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N c limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons

  8. Impact of high-density lipoprotein 3 cholesterol subfraction on periprocedural myocardial injury in patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Susumu; Tanaka, Akihito; Aoki, Toshijiro; Iwakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hirayama, Kenshi; Mitsuda, Takayuki; Sumi, Takuya; Negishi, Yosuke; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2018-02-02

    Periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) is a major complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with atherosclerotic coronary plaque and worse clinical outcomes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a protective factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the role of HDL-C subfractions, such as HDL2 cholesterol (HDL2-C) or HDL3 cholesterol (HDL3-C), in cardiovascular disease remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between HDL2-C and HDL3-C subfractions and the incidence of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI. We enrolled 129 patients who underwent elective PCI for stable angina pectoris. PMI was defined as an increase in high-sensitivity troponin T levels > 5 times the upper normal limit (> 0.070 ng/mL) at 24 h after PCI. Serum HDL-C subfractions (HDL2-C and HDL3-C) were assessed using ultracentrifugation in patients with and those without PMI. HDL3-C levels were significantly lower in patients with PMI than in those without (15.1 ± 3.0 mg/dL vs. 16.4 ± 2.9 mg/dL, p = 0.016) and had an independent and inverse association with PMI (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99; p = 0.038). When divided by the cut-off value of HDL3-C for PMI (14.3 mg/dL), the incidence of PMI was significantly higher in low HDL3-C patients than in high HDL3-C patients (51.2% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.020). HDL3-C was an independent inverse predictor of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI.

  9. LDL oxidation by platelets propagates platelet activation via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Bartimoccia, Simona; Nocella, Cristina; Di Santo, Serena; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Illuminati, Giulio; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Boz, Valentina; Del Ben, Maria; De Marco, Luigi; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Platelets generate oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) via NOX2-derived oxidative stress. We investigated if once generated by activated platelets ox-LDL can propagate platelet activation. Experiments were performed in platelets from healthy subjects (HS), hyper-cholesterolemic patients and patients with NOX2 hereditary deficiency. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with LDL were associated with a dose-dependent increase of reactive oxidant species and ox-LDL. Agonist-stimulated platelets from HS added with a fixed dose of LDL (57.14 μmol/L) or added with homogenized human atherosclerotic plaque showed enhanced ox-LDL formation (approximately +50% and +30% respectively), which was lowered by a NOX2 inhibitor (approximately -35% and -25% respectively). Compared to HS, ox-LDL production was more pronounced in agonist-stimulated platelet rich plasma (PRP) from hyper-cholesterolemic patients but was almost absent in PRP from NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet aggregation and 8-iso-PGF2α-ΙΙΙ formation increased in LDL-treated washed platelets (+42% and +53% respectively) and PRP (+31% and +53% respectively). Also, LDL enhanced platelet-dependent thrombosis at arterial shear rate (+33%) but did not affect platelet activation in NOX2-deficient patients. Platelet activation by LDL was significantly inhibited by CD36 or LOX1 blocking peptides, two ox-LDL receptor antagonists, or by a NOX2 inhibitor. LDL-added platelets showed increased p38MAPK (+59%) and PKC (+51%) phosphorylation, p47(phox) translocation to platelet membrane (+34%) and NOX2 activation (+30%), which were inhibited by ox-LDL receptor antagonists. Platelets oxidize LDL, which in turn amplify platelet activation via specific ox-LDL receptors; both effects are mediated by NOX2 activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECT OF CRP ON SOME OF THE IN VITRO PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Nayeri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the most important underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD which recently has been classified as an inflammatory disorder. Accumulation of large amounts of oxidized LDL in the intima during local inflammation reaction led to increase several factors such as C -reactive protein (CRP. It has also been reported that CRP is able to bind with modified forms of LDL as well as oxidized LDL. These findings suggest possible positive or negative involvement of this protein in atherogenesis. The main objective of the present study was to assess the influence of CRP on LDL oxidation and the possible physical \\changes of LDL in the presence of CRP in vitro.    METHODS: In this study, the susceptibility of purified LDL to oxidation was assayed by monitoring of formation of conjugated dienes in different physiological concentrations of CRP (0 - 0.5 -2  µg/ml using a shimadzu spectrophotometer. Electrophoresis was used to determine the electrophoretic mobility of LDL in those conditions.    RESULTS: CRP significantly reduced the susceptibility of Cu++ -induced LDL oxidation through increasing the lag timeand there was positive relationship between these findings and CRP concentration (P < 0.05. CRP caused a significant reduction in the electrophotretic mobility of LDL compared to native LDL (n-LDL (P<0.05.     CONCLUSION: A considerable reduction was shown in LDL oxidation, in higher concentration of CRP, via an unknown mechanism. The electrophoretic mobility of LDL, in the oxidative condition, decreases in the presence of CRP compared to n-LDL, which can be indicative of the effect of this protein on the physical and chemical properties of LDL. It seems that, other pathway than LDL oxidation is responsible for the effect of CRP on the atherogenesis processes.      Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Creactive protein, Low-density lipoprotein, Inflammation.  

  11. Trapping of oxidized LDL in lysosomes of Kupffer cells is a trigger for hepatic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieghs, Veerle; Walenbergh, Sofie M A; Hendrikx, Tim; van Gorp, Patrick J; Verheyen, Fons; Olde Damink, Steven W; Masclee, Ad A; Koek, Ger H; Hofker, Marten H; Binder, Christoph J; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    2013-08-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by steatosis and inflammation. The transition from steatosis towards NASH represents a key step in pathogenesis, as it will set the stage for further severe liver damage. Under normal conditions, lipoproteins that are endocytosed by Kupffer cells (KCs) are easily transferred from the lysosomes into the cytoplasm. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) that is taken up by the macrophages in vitro is trapped within the lysosomes, while acetylated LDL (acLDL) is leading to normal lysosomal hydrolysis, resulting in cytoplasmic storage. We have recently demonstrated that hepatic inflammation is correlated with lysosomal trapping of lipids. So far, a link between lysosomal trapping of oxLDL and inflammation was not established. We hypothesized that lysosomal trapping of oxLDL in KCs will lead to hepatic inflammation. Ldlr(-/-) mice were injected with LDL, acLDL and oxLDL and sacrificed after 2, 6 and 24 h. Electron microscopy of KCs demonstrated that after oxLDL injection, small lipid inclusions were present inside the lysosomes after all time points and were mostly pronounced after 6 and 24 h. In contrast, no lipid inclusions were present inside KCs after LDL or acLDL injection. Hepatic expression of several inflammatory genes and scavenger receptors was higher after oxLDL injections compared with LDL or acLDL. These data suggest that trapping of oxLDL inside lysosomes of KCs in vivo is causally linked to increased hepatic inflammatory gene expression. Our novel observations provide new bases for prevention and treatment of NASH. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Oxidative stress and hemoglobin-cholesterol adduct in renal patients with different LDL phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Milica; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Gojkovic, Tamara; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Nikolic, Milan; Simic-Ogrizovic, Sanja; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2016-10-01

    Unfavorable lipid profile is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in renal pathology. In this study, we compared chronic renal patients and healthy controls with different LDL phenotypes (A or B) in respect of various biochemical parameters related to cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense parameters [thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), total oxidative status (TOS), total anti-oxidative status (TAS), total protein sulfhydryl (-SH) groups], as well as red blood cell cholesterol distribution were assessed in 40 renal patients and 40 control subjects by standardized assays. LDL particle diameters were determined by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. LDL particles are subdivided according to their size into large LDL A phenotype (diameter >25.5 nm) and small LDL B phenotype (diameter ≤25.5 nm). Renal patients with LDL A phenotype had increased oxidative stress (TOS: p LDL phenotype. A notable decrease in hemoglobin-cholesterol adduct was detected in patients with LDL A phenotype (p LDL B phenotype (p LDL B phenotype was characterized with increased TBARS (p LDL A phenotype in control group. Increased oxidative stress, decreased anti-oxidative defense followed with unfavorable changes in hemoglobin-cholesterol binding capacity, could have important influence on cardiovascular disease risk in renal patients regardless of LDL phenotype.

  13. Extracts of human atherosclerotic lesions modify LDL inducing enhanced macrophage uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, H.F.; O'Neill, J.

    1986-01-01

    Both an LDL-like fraction isolated from human aortic plaques and LDL incubated with cultured aortic endothelial or smooth muscle cells have been shown to be internalized by macrophages in vitro in an unregulated fashion leading to foam cell formation. Lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals released from cells was shown to be responsible for cell-modified LDL. The authors incubated LDL with a supernatant fraction of leached, i.e. non-homogenized, extracts of aortic plaques for one hour at 37 0 C, to determine whether extracellular components present in arteries were also capable of modifying LDL. Extract-treated LDL showed the following changes relative to untreated LDL: 1) increased electrophretic mobility, 2) altered pattern of B-100 on SDS-PAGE, i.e. presence of a doublet with higher M/sub r/ than B-100, and 3) enhanced uptake by cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages as measured by increased degradation of 125 I-LDL, and increased stimulation of cholesterol esterification using 14 C-oleate. Extracts from homogenized plaques and grossly normal intima induced similar changes. The modification was tissue specific in that extracts of arteries but not of liver, muscle or skin modified LDL. Protease degradation of LDL during incubation was probably not responsible since inhibitors did not prevent modification. It is possible that products of lipid peroxidation present in extracellular lipid of arteries may propagate free radicals or be incorporated into LDL, leading to modifications similar to those found in cell-modified LDL

  14. miRNA regulation of LDL-cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedeke, Leigh; Wagschal, Alexandre; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Näär, Anders M

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of circulating levels of lipoproteins. Specifically, recent work has uncovered the role of miRNAs in controlling the levels of atherogenic low-density lipoprotein LDL (LDL)-cholesterol by post-transcriptionally regulating genes involved in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, cholesterol biosynthesis, and hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) expression. Interestingly, several of these miRNAs are located in genomic loci associated with abnormal levels of circulating lipids in humans. These findings reinforce the interest of targeting this subset of non-coding RNAs as potential therapeutic avenues for regulating plasma cholesterol and triglyceride (TAG) levels. In this review, we will discuss how these new miRNAs represent potential pre-disposition factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and putative therapeutic targets in patients with cardiometabolic disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MicroRNAs and lipid/energy metabolism and related diseases edited by Carlos Fernández-Hernando and Yajaira Suárez. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting LDL Cholesterol: Beyond Absolute Goals Toward Personalized Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Morton; Cohen-Stavi, Chandra; Basu, Sanjay; Balicer, Ran D

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review and assess the evidence for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals as presented in current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Different sets of guidelines and clinical studies for secondary prevention have centered on lower absolute LDL-C targets [achieve greater reductions in cardiovascular risk. Population-based risk models serve as the basis for statin initiation in primary prevention. Reviews of current population risk models for primary prevention show moderate ability to discriminate [with c-statistics ranging from 0.67 to 0.77 (95% CIs from 0.62 to 0.83) for men and women] with poor calibration and overestimation of risk. Individual clinical trial data are not compelling to support specific LDL-C targets and percent reductions in secondary prevention. Increasing utilization of electronic health records and data analytics will enable the development of individualized treatment goals in both primary and secondary prevention.

  16. Increased LDL susceptibility to oxidation accelerates future carotid artery atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the causal relationship between LDL susceptibility to oxidation and the development of new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a period of 5 years. We previously described the determinants related to a risk of cardiovascular changes determined in a Japanese population participating in the Niigata Study, which is an ongoing epidemiological investigation of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Methods We selected 394 individuals (169 males and 225 females who underwent a second carotid artery ultrasonographic examination in 2001 - 2002 for the present study. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was determined as the photometric absorbance and electrophoretic mobility of samples that had been collected in 1996 - 1997. The measurements were compared with ultrasonographic findings obtained in 2001 - 2002. Results The multivariate-adjusted model showed that age (odds ratio (OR, 1.034; 95% confidence interval (95%CI, 1.010 - 1.059, HbA1c (OR, 1.477; 95%CI, 0.980 - 2.225, and photometric O/N (OR, 2.012; 95%CI, 1.000 - 4.051 were significant variables that could independently predict the risk of new carotid artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was a significant parameter that could predict new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a 5-year period, and higher susceptibility was associated with a higher incidence of new carotid artery atherosclerosis.

  17. Transport properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Naoki; Mitake, Shinichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ichimaru, Setsuo

    1983-01-01

    Transport coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities in particular, are essential physical quantities for the theories of stellar structure. Since the discoveries of pulsars and X-ray stars, an accurate evaluation of the transport coefficients in the dense matter has become indispensable to the quantitative understanding of the observed neutron stars. The authors present improved calculations of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the dense matter in the liquid metal phase, appropriate to white dwarfs and neutron stars. (Auth.)

  18. LDL Receptors as Gateways for Intracellular Porphyrin Uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, S.; Laster, B.; Quastel, M.

    2004-01-01

    Boronated compounds are currently being studied for possible use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). We found that one of these agents, BOPP (tetrakis-carborane-carboxylate, esters of 2,4-bis (a,b- dihydroxyethyl) deuteroporphyrin IX), could also be labeled with indium (In-BOPP) and, therefore, could also be used potentially to transport high Z atoms into tumor cell DNA for AET (Auger Electron Therapy). In order to assess the uptake of these agents into cells, the role of the LDL receptor in the intracellular accumulation of BOPP and In-BOPP was investigated. Pre-incubation of V-79 Chinese hamster cells in medium containing delipidized fetal bovine serum (FBS) markedly increased the subsequent uptake of intracellular boron transported by both BOPP and In-BOPP when compared with cells that had been pre-incubated with medium containing 10% normal FBS (lipidized). The increased uptake was characterized by elevated levels of receptor, and greater affinity was shown for both BOPP and In-BOPP, although less marked with the latter. Positive cooperativity was demonstrated by sigmoid saturation curves, Scatchard analysis and Hill plots. Increasing the amount of LDL in the incubation medium had a relatively small effect on the total accumulation of either indium or boron atoms inside the cell. Furthermore, chemical acetylation of LDL did not decrease the intracellular uptake of either boron or indium transported by BOPP or In-BOPP. It is thus concluded that BOPP and In-BOPP preferentially enter the cells directly by way of the LDL receptor and that only a small fraction of these molecules are transported into the cells indirectly using serum LDLs as their carriers. These data suggest a novel way of bringing greater amounts of boron and indium (and perhaps other agents) into tissues. Porphyrins can be used to transport different agents into tumor cells because they are tumor affinic molecules. Tumors express a higher number of LDL receptors than do most normal tissues

  19. Effect of Heating Method on Alteration of Protein Molecular Structure in Flaxseed: Relationship with Changes in Protein Subfraction Profile and Digestion in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khan, Nazir; Booker, Helen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-02-04

    This study evaluated the effect of heating methods on alteration of protein molecular structure in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in relation to changes in protein subfraction profile and digestion in dairy cows. Seeds from two flaxseed varieties, sampled from two replicate plots at two locations, were evaluated. The seeds were either maintained in their raw state or heated in an air-draft oven (dry heating) or autoclave (moist heating) for 60 min at 120 °C or by microwave irradiation (MIR) for 5 min. Compared to raw seeds, moist heating decreased (P RUP) content (36.0 ± 5.19 to 46.9 ± 2.72% CP) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (61.0 ± 2.28 to 63.8 ± 2.67% RUP). Dry heating did not alter (P > 0.05) the protein subfraction profile and rumen degradation kinetics, whereas MIR increased (P RUP content from 36.0 ± 5.19 to 40.4 ± 4.67% CP. The MIR and dry heating did not alter (P > 0.05) the amide I to amide II ratio, but moist heating decreased (P RUP (R 2 = 0.71), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R 2 = 0.72). Overall, heat-induced changes in protein nutritive value and digestion were strongly associated with heat-induced alteration in protein molecular structures.

  20. Cryoprotection effectiveness of low concentrations of natural and lyophilized LDL (low density lipoproteins on canine spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Neves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of low concentrations of natural and lyophilized low density lipoprotein (LDL from hen's egg yolk for cryopreservation of canine semen. Different ammonium sulphate concentrations were tested to extract LDL from egg yolk. The yolk was centrifuged, and LDL was isolated using 10, 20, 40, 45, or 50% ammonium sulphate solution (ASS. The LDL-rich floating fraction was collected for chemical characterization. Dry matter content was lowest (P<0.05 in the LDL extracted with the 50% ASS. The purification of LDL increased in association with increasing ammonium sulphate concentrations. SDS-PAGE showed that the 50% ASS solution yielded a purer fraction of LDL from egg yolk. For semen cryopreservation, TRIS extender was used replacing 20% egg yolk (control by natural or lyophilized LDL using 1, 2, and 3% (w/v. Semen was centrifuged (755Xg for 7 min, diluted with one of the extenders, packed into 0.5mL straws (100x106 sperm/mL, and placed in a programmable cryopreservation machine. Thawed semen (37°C/ 30s was analyzed for sperm motility, morphology, and by the hypoosmotic and epifluorescence tests (CFDA/ PI. Natural LDL extracted with 50% ASS was as effective as whole egg yolk to preserve canine frozen sperm when using low concentrations. The lyophilized LDL, mainly in the two higher concentrations tested (2 and 3%, was unsuitable to maintain the effectiveness of the LDL cryoprotective effect on dog sperm.

  1. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals ALK1 mediates LDL uptake and transcytosis in endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehling, Jan R.; Chidlow, John H.; Rajagopal, Chitra; Sugiyama, Michael G.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Lee, Monica Y.; Zhang, Xinbo; Ramírez, Cristina M.; Park, Eon Joo; Tao, Bo; Chen, Keyang; Kuruvilla, Leena; Larriveé, Bruno; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa; Ola, Roxana; Rotllan, Noemi; Zhou, Wenping; Nagle, Michael W.; Herz, Joachim; Williams, Kevin Jon; Eichmann, Anne; Lee, Warren L.; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and animals lacking functional LDL receptor (LDLR), LDL from plasma still readily traverses the endothelium. To identify the pathways of LDL uptake, a genome-wide RNAi screen was performed in endothelial cells and cross-referenced with GWAS-data sets. Here we show that the activin-like kinase 1 (ALK1) mediates LDL uptake into endothelial cells. ALK1 binds LDL with lower affinity than LDLR and saturates only at hypercholesterolemic concentrations. ALK1 mediates uptake of LDL into endothelial cells via an unusual endocytic pathway that diverts the ligand from lysosomal degradation and promotes LDL transcytosis. The endothelium-specific genetic ablation of Alk1 in Ldlr-KO animals leads to less LDL uptake into the aortic endothelium, showing its physiological role in endothelial lipoprotein metabolism. In summary, identification of pathways mediating LDLR-independent uptake of LDL may provide unique opportunities to block the initiation of LDL accumulation in the vessel wall or augment hepatic LDLR-dependent clearance of LDL. PMID:27869117

  2. Serum ox-LDL Level is Reduced with the Extent of Stenosis in Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Najafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL lipoproteins are proposed as important modified particles triggering pro-inflammatory events through receptor-mediated pathways. We evaluated the circulating ox-LDL level on the concept that the chronic immune events may affect ox-LDL clearance as the vessel stenosis develops in coronary arteries. One hundred sixty five subjects underwent coronary angiography and then, subdivided into four subgroups controls (n=85; SVD, 2VD and 3VD (n=80. The serum ox-LDL level and other biochemical parameters were measured using ELISA method and routine laboratory techniques, respectively. The serum ox-LDL level in the control group (4.81±1.41 mU/mg was significantly higher than patients (4.28±1.73 mU/mg, P<0.05. The ox-LDL/LDL ratio was conversely reduced with the extent of stenosis as compared with the controls (P<0.05. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the ox-LDL/LDL ratio between the 2VD and 3VD patients. We suggested the atherosclerosis process increases the total clearing capacities of the circulating ox-LDL particles.

  3. Association Between Baseline LDL-C Level and Total and Cardiovascular Mortality After LDL-C Lowering: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarese, Eliano P; Robinson, Jennifer G; Kowalewski, Mariusz; Kolodziejczak, Michalina; Andreotti, Felicita; Bliden, Kevin; Tantry, Udaya; Kubica, Jacek; Raggi, Paolo; Gurbel, Paul A

    2018-04-17

    Effects on specific fatal and nonfatal end points appear to vary for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering drug trials. To evaluate whether baseline LDL-C level is associated with total and cardiovascular mortality risk reductions. Electronic databases (Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, TCTMD, ClinicalTrials.gov, major congress proceedings) were searched through February 2, 2018, to identify randomized clinical trials of statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9-inhibiting monoclonal antibodies. Two investigators abstracted data and appraised risks of bias. Intervention groups were categorized as "more intensive" (more potent pharmacologic intervention) or "less intensive" (less potent, placebo, or control group). The coprimary end points were total mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Random-effects meta-regression and meta-analyses evaluated associations between baseline LDL-C level and reductions in mortality end points and secondary end points including major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In 34 trials, 136 299 patients received more intensive and 133 989 received less intensive LDL-C lowering. All-cause mortality was lower for more vs less intensive therapy (7.08% vs 7.70%; rate ratio [RR], 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88 to 0.96]), but varied by baseline LDL-C level. Meta-regression showed more intensive LDL-C lowering was associated with greater reductions in all-cause mortality with higher baseline LDL-C levels (change in RRs per 40-mg/dL increase in baseline LDL-C, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86 to 0.96]; P = .001; absolute risk difference [ARD], -1.05 incident cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -1.59 to -0.51]), but only when baseline LDL-C levels were 100 mg/dL or greater (P baseline LDL-C level. Meta-regression showed more intensive LDL-C lowering was associated with a greater reduction in cardiovascular mortality with higher baseline LDL-C levels (change in RRs per 40-mg/dL increase in baseline LDL-C, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.80 to 0.94]; P baseline LDL-C levels were 100

  4. A decrease in total bilirubin predicted hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in a health screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum total bilirubin (TB) and LDL cholesterol. It is a retrospective observational study. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between TB and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia were investigated in a health screening population. Odds ratios (ORs) of coexisting hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for TB were calculated in 3,866 subjects, Spearman's correlation coefficients between baseline TB and LDL cholesterol at baseline and after 4 years were calculated in 1,735 subjects who did not use antihyperlipidemic drugs and hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for TB were calculated in 1,992 followed subjects. The ORs (p values) of coexisting hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in TB was 1.04 (0.998) adjusted for sex, age, smoking, LDL cholesterol and other confounders. Spearman's correlation coefficients (p values) between baseline TB and LDL cholesterol at baseline and after 4 years and changes in LDL cholesterol were -0.026 (0.271), -0.078 (0.001) and -0.062 (0.010), respectively. Among 1,992 followed subjects, 481 developed hyper-LDL cholesterolemia during 4 years (60.4 per 1,000 person-years). The HRs (95% confidence intervals; p values) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in TB was 0.86 (0.77-0.96; 0.006) adjusted for sex, age, smoking, LDL cholesterol, body mass index, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and other confounders. The quintiles of TB were significantly associated with the incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia adjusted for the above covariates (p for trend = 0.008). A decrease in TB predicted incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in a health screening population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. LDL receptor-GFP fusion proteins: new tools for the characterization of disease-causing mutations in the LDL receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Henrik Uffe; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2001-01-01

    . In cultured liver cells this mutation was found to inhibit the transport of LDL receptor GFP fusion protein to the cell surface, thus leading to impaired internalisation of fluorescent labelled LDL. Co-locallisation studies confirmed the retention of the mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum....

  6. Dynamics of dense particle disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, S.; Tremaine, S.; Toronto Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation of mechanical equilibrium and collisional transport processes in dense, differentially rotating particle disks is based on the Enskog (1922) theory of dense, hard sphere gases, with the single exception that the spheres are inelastic. The viscous instability suggested as a source of Saturn B ring structure does not arise in the models presented, although the ring may be subject to a phase transition analogous to the liquid-solid transition observed in molecular dynamics simulations of elastic hard spheres. In such a case, the ring would alternately exhibit zero-shear, or solid, and high shear, or liquid, zones. 29 references

  7. Effective reduction of LDL cholesterol by indigenous plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P K; Dasgupta, D J; Prashar, B S; Kaushal, S S

    1994-03-01

    A herbal powder containing guar gum, methi, tundika and meshasringi was administered to 30 control and 30 type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus patients for a month. Total serum cholesterol and its fractions eg, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and serum triglyceride were determined before and after the trial period. Total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols were reduced significantly after the therapy. There were no significant changes in high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) or triglyceride levels. Side-effects eg, mild flatulence and looseness of bowel were noticed in less than 40% cases.

  8. [Increased oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in peritoneal fluid of women with advanced-stage endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Mazurek, Diana; Rogala, Ewelina; Nowicka, Aldona; Derewianka-Polak, Magdalena; Kotarski, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Proinflammatory and prooxidative environment in the peritoneal cavity may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Imbalance between reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant capacity leads to oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). The importance of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) in the development of atherosclerosis is well recognized. The aim of our study was to evaluate for the presence of ox-LDL in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with and without endometriosis. A total of 60 women who underwent laparoscopy were divided into groups: endometriosis sufferers with minimal to mild (n 20) and moderate to severe (n 20) stages, and the reference group (n 20) with functional follicle ovarian cysts. Oxidized LDL levels were determined in the PF using enzyme immunoassay Oxidized LDL levels were detectable in all peritoneal fluid samples. Significantly increased levels of ox-LDL were observed in PF of women with stage III/IV endometriosis compared to the reference group (p = 0.03). However peritoneal fluid ox-LDL concentrations did not differ significantly between patients with minimal/mild and women with moderate/severe stage of the disease (p = 0.2). No significant difference in the PF ox-LDL concentrations was also found between women with stage I/II endometriosis and patients with follicle cysts (p = 0.3). Increased peritoneal fluid ox-LDL levels observed in women with advanced-stage endometriosis suggest the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  9. Ordovas-Oxidized LDL is associated with metabolic syndrome traits independently of central obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses whether oxidative stress, using oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) as a proxy, is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), whether ox-LDL mediates the association between central obesity and MS, and whether insulin resistance mediates the association between ox-LDL and MS. We examined baselin...

  10. Dense Crowds of Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stüvel, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel crowd simulation method `Torso Crowds', aimed at the simulation of dense crowds. The method is based on the results of user studies and a motion capture experiment, which are also described in this thesis. Torso Crowds introduces a capsule shape to represent people in

  11. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  12. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte; Sjöberg, Beatrice; Kolsrud, Björn; Ringertz, Bo; Hafström, Ingiäld; Frostegård, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen. Blood lipids were analyzed by routine methods, and oxLDL and anti-PCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data and serum samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Mean ages were 50.0 years for the vegan group and 50.8 years for controls. Gluten-free vegan diet induced lower body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and higher anti-PC IgM than control diet (p vegan group, BMI, LDL, and cholesterol decreased after both 3 and 12 months (p vegan patients into clinical responders and non-responders at 12 months, the effects on oxLDL and anti-PC IgA were seen only in responders (p vegan diet in RA induces changes that are potentially atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory, including decreased LDL and oxLDL levels and raised anti-PC IgM and IgA levels.

  13. Atheroprotective immunization with malondialdehyde-modified LDL is hapten specific and dependent on advanced MDA adducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonen, Ayelet; Hansen, Lotte; Turner, William W

    2014-01-01

    as an immunogen would be impractical for generalized use. Furthermore, when MDA is used to modify LDL, a wide variety of related MDA adducts are formed, both simple and more complex. To define the relevant epitopes that would reproduce the atheroprotective effects of immunization with MDA-LDL, we sought......Immunization with homologous malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) leads to atheroprotection in experimental models supporting the concept that a vaccine to oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) of oxidized LDL could limit atherogenesis. However, modification of human LDL with OSE to use...... responses. We further demonstrate that a T helper (Th) 2-biased hapten-specific humoral and cellular response is sufficient, and thus, MAA-modified homologous albumin is an equally effective immunogen. We further show that such Th2-biased humoral responses per se are not atheroprotective if they do...

  14. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  15. Postpartum weight retention is associated with elevated ratio of oxidized LDL lipids to HDL-cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhkala, Jatta; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2013-12-01

    Oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL) are associated with lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated how postpartum weight retention effects on ox-LDL and serum lipids. The study is a nested comparative research of a cluster-randomized controlled trial, NELLI (lifestyle and counselling during pregnancy). During early pregnancy (8-12 weeks) and 1 year postpartum, 141 women participated in measurements for determining of plasma lipids: total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerols (TAG) and ox-LDL. Subjects were stratified into tertiles (weight loss, unaltered weight and weight gain groups) based on their weight change from baseline to follow-up. Ox-LDL was determined by baseline level of conjugated dienes in LDL lipids. Among the group of weight gainers, concentration of TAG reduced less (-0.14 vs. -0.33, p = 0.002), HDL-C reduced more (-0.31 vs. -0.16, p = 0.003) and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio increased (3.0 vs. -0.2, p = 0.003) when compared to group of weight loss. Both T-C and LDL-C elevated more (0.14 vs. -0.21, p = 0.008; 0.31 vs. 0.07, p = 0.015) and TAG and ox-LDL reduced less (-0.33 vs. 0.20, p = 0.033; -3.33 vs. -0.68, p = 0.026) in unaltered weight group compared to weight loss group. The women who gained weight developed higher TAG and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio as compared to those who lost weight. Postpartum weight retention of 3.4 kg or more is associated with atherogenic lipid profile.

  16. Oxidized-LDL induce morphological changes and increase stiffness of endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouinard, Julie A.; Grenier, Guillaume; Khalil, Abdelouahed; Vermette, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) play a critical role in endothelial injury contributing to the age-related physio-pathological process of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of native LDL and ox-LDL on the mechanical properties of living human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements. The contribution of filamentous actin (F-actin) and vimentin on cytoskeletal network organization were also examined by fluorescence microscopy. Our results revealed that ox-LDL had an impact on the HUVEC shape by interfering with F-actin and vimentin while native LDL showed no effect. AFM colloidal force measurements on living individual HUVEC were successfully used to measure stiffness of cells exposed to native and ox-LDL. AFM results demonstrated that the cell body became significantly stiffer when cells were exposed for 24 h to ox-LDL while cells exposed for 24 h to native LDL displayed similar rigidity to that of the control cells. Young's moduli of LDL-exposed HUVEC were calculated using two models. This study thus provides quantitative evidence on biomechanical mechanisms related to endothelial cell dysfunction and may give new insight on strategies aiming to protect endothelial function in atherosclerosis

  17. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanyong

    2014-01-01

    The holographic renormalization of a charged black brane with or without a dilaton field, whose dual field theory describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space

  18. Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.

  19. Dilute and dense axion stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visinelli, Luca; Baum, Sebastian; Redondo, Javier; Freese, Katherine; Wilczek, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Axion stars are hypothetical objects formed of axions, obtained as localized and coherently oscillating solutions to their classical equation of motion. Depending on the value of the field amplitude at the core |θ0 | ≡ | θ (r = 0) |, the equilibrium of the system arises from the balance of the kinetic pressure and either self-gravity or axion self-interactions. Starting from a general relativistic framework, we obtain the set of equations describing the configuration of the axion star, which we solve as a function of |θ0 |. For small |θ0 | ≲ 1, we reproduce results previously obtained in the literature, and we provide arguments for the stability of such configurations in terms of first principles. We compare qualitative analytical results with a numerical calculation. For large amplitudes |θ0 | ≳ 1, the axion field probes the full non-harmonic QCD chiral potential and the axion star enters the dense branch. Our numerical solutions show that in this latter regime the axions are relativistic, and that one should not use a single frequency approximation, as previously applied in the literature. We employ a multi-harmonic expansion to solve the relativistic equation for the axion field in the star, and demonstrate that higher modes cannot be neglected in the dense regime. We interpret the solutions in the dense regime as pseudo-breathers, and show that the life-time of such configurations is much smaller than any cosmological time scale.

  20. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P phenol levels (r = -0.296; P = 0.013). Phenols in LDL were not associated with other oxidation markers. In summary, the phenol concentration of olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  1. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  2. Towards increased selectivity of drug delivery to cancer cells: development of a LDL-based nanodelivery system for hydrophobic photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzova, Diana; Huntosova, Veronika; Kasak, Peter; Petrovajova, Dana; Joniova, Jaroslava; Dzurova, Lenka; Nadova, Zuzana; Sureau, Franck; Midkovsky, Pavol; Jancura, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), a natural in vivo carrier of cholesterol in the vascular system, play a key role in the delivery of hydrophobic photosensitizers (pts) to tumor cells in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. To make this delivery system even more efficient, we have constructed a nano-delivery system by coating of LDL surface by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran. Fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging were used to characterize redistribution of hypericin (Hyp), a natural potent pts, loaded in LDL/PEG and LDL/dextran complexes to free LDL molecules as well as to monitor cellular uptake of Hyp by U87-MG cells. It was shown than the redistribution process of Hyp between LDL molecules is significantly suppressed by dextran coating of LDL surface. On the other hand, PEG does not significantly influence this process. The modification of LDL molecules by the polymers does not inhibit their recognition by cellular LDL receptors. U-87 MG cellular uptake of Hyp loaded in LDL/PEG and LDL/dextran complexes appears to be similar to that one observed for Hyp transported by unmodified LDL particles. It is proposed that by polymers modified LDL molecules could be used as a basis for construction of a drug transport system for targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells expressing high level of LDL receptors.

  3. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor in locally advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, L.A.; Hegg, R.; Freitas, F.R.; Tavares, E.R.; Almeida, C.P.; Baracat, E.C.; Maranhão, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy

  4. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  5. Supplementation with low doses of vitamin E protects LDL from lipid peroxidation in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, H.M.G.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Buytenhek, R.; Laarse, A. van der; Poppel, G. van; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van

    1995-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that oxidative modification of LDL is an important step in the process of atherogenesis and that antioxidants may protect LDL from oxidation. We and others have previously shown that ingestion of pharmacological doses of the antioxidant D,L-α-tocopherol (vitamin E),

  6. HDL-LDL Ratio: A Significant Predisposition to the Onset of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of high-density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein (HDL-LDL) ratio as a predisposing factor to the onset of atherogenesis has been studied. Standard enzymatic method using Cholesterol kit to extract cholesterol was used. HDL was analysed using standard HDL Kit and LDL concentration was derived by a ...

  7. Cardiovascular risk assessment with oxidised LDL measurement in postmenopausal women receiving intranasal estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Yildirim, Mulazim; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Bilgihan, Ayse; Goktas, Bulent

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effect of intranasal estrogen replacement therapy administered to postmenopausal women alone or in combination with progesterone on markers of cardiovascular risk. The study was conducted with 44 voluntary postmenopausal women. In group I (n = 15), the patients were treated with only intranasal estradiol (300 μg/day estradiol hemihydrate). In group II (n = 11), the patients received cyclic progesterone (200 mg/day micronized progesterone) for 12 days in each cycle in addition to continuous intranasal estradiol. Group III (n = 18) was the controls. Serum lipid profiles, oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and other markers of cardiovascular risk were assessed at baseline and at the 3rd month of the treatment. Lipid profile, LDL apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein a, homocysteine, oxidised LDL values and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratio were not observed to change after 3 months compared to baseline values within each group (p > 0.016). In comparison to changes between the groups after the treatment, only oxidised LDL levels and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratios of group II were increased compared to control group (p < 0.05). Intranasal estradiol alone did not appear to have an effect on markers of cardiovascular risk in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the addition of cyclic oral micronized progesterone to intranasal estradiol influenced the markers of cardiovascular risk negatively in comparison to non-users in healthy postmenopausal women.

  8. Effects of triiodothyronine and amiodarone on the promoter of the human LDL receptor gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, O.; Hudig, F.; Meijssen, S.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of patients with amiodarone, a potent anti arrhythmic drug, increases plasma LDL cholesterol levels, similar to that seen during hypothyroidism. This increase is the result of a decreased expression of the hepatic LDL receptor gene. We investigated the effects of thyroid hormone,

  9. Screening in dense ionic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    There has been great progress in recent years in determining and understanding the structure of molten salts. I focus on molten alkali halides and discuss two main points concerning their liquid structure and its relationship with static electrical response in these dense ionic conductors. These are (i) the nature of screening and the related definitions and properties of the screening length and of the dielectric function, and (ii) developments in integral equations techniques for the evaluation of molten salt structure and static screening from given pair potentials. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Association of Serum LDL Cholesterol Level with Periodontitis among Patients Visiting a Tertiary-care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sharma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In recent years, some evidence has been presented that periodontitis,an infectious inflammatory condition of the periodontium, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To further elucidate this association, we have studied the levels of LDL cholesterol, a known risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in a periodontally-diseased group. Methods: The levels of serum LDL cholesterol in 47 subjects with mild to severe (clinical attachment loss equal to or greater than 1 mm chronic generalized (at least 30% of teeth affected periodontitis with the mean age of 42.21 ± 1.46 years were measured and compared with those obtained from 42 age (39.83 ± 0.94 and sex matched controls. Both groups were free from systemic illnesses. Results: The mean serum LDL cholesterol in periodontitis patients was found to be signifi cantly higher (P < 0.001 as compared to that of the controls. The mean clinical attachment loss was positively correlated with serum LDL cholesterol (P < 0.01 and gingival index (P<0.05. The frequency of persons with pathologic values of LDL cholesterol was signifi cantly higher in periodontitis patients compared with that of the controls. Conclusions: These results showed that high serum LDL cholesterol may be associated with periodontitis in healthy people. However, it is unclear whether periodontitis causes an increase in the levels of serum LDL or an increased LDL is a risk factor for both periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, LDL cholesterol, periodontitis.

  11. Imputation of Baseline LDL Cholesterol Concentration in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia on Statins or Ezetimibe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Isabelle; Aljenedil, Sumayah; Sadri, Iman; de Varennes, Émilie; Hegele, Robert A; Couture, Patrick; Bergeron, Jean; Wanneh, Eric; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane; Brunham, Liam R; Francis, Gordon A; Cermakova, Lubomira; Brophy, James M; Ryomoto, Arnold; Mancini, G B John; Genest, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most frequent genetic disorder seen clinically and is characterized by increased LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (>95th percentile), family history of increased LDL-C, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the patient or in first-degree relatives, presence of tendinous xanthomas or premature corneal arcus, or presence of a pathogenic mutation in the LDLR , PCSK9 , or APOB genes. A diagnosis of FH has important clinical implications with respect to lifelong risk of ASCVD and requirement for intensive pharmacological therapy. The concentration of baseline LDL-C (untreated) is essential for the diagnosis of FH but is often not available because the individual is already on statin therapy. To validate a new algorithm to impute baseline LDL-C, we examined 1297 patients. The baseline LDL-C was compared with the imputed baseline obtained within 18 months of the initiation of therapy. We compared the percent reduction in LDL-C on treatment from baseline with the published percent reductions. After eliminating individuals with missing data, nonstandard doses of statins, or medications other than statins or ezetimibe, we provide data on 951 patients. The mean ± SE baseline LDL-C was 243.0 (2.2) mg/dL [6.28 (0.06) mmol/L], and the mean ± SE imputed baseline LDL-C was 244.2 (2.6) mg/dL [6.31 (0.07) mmol/L] ( P = 0.48). There was no difference in response according to the patient's sex or in percent reduction between observed and expected for individual doses or types of statin or ezetimibe. We provide a validated estimation of baseline LDL-C for patients with FH that may help clinicians in making a diagnosis. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  12. Anticorpos contra LDL-ox e síndrome coronariana aguda Anticuerpos contra LDL-ox y síndrome coronario agudo Antibodies against OxLDL and acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Brito Medeiros

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A oxidação da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-ox induz à formação de epítopos imunogênicos na molécula. A presença de autoanticorpos contra a LDL-ox tem sido demonstrada no soro de pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Contudo, o papel desses autoanticorpos na fisiopatologia das síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA e o seu significado clínico permanecem indefinidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre autoanticorpos contra a LDL-ox e SCA. MÉTODOS: Os títulos de imunoglobulina G autoanticorpos contra a LDL-ox por cobre (antiLDL-ox e contra o peptídeo sintético D derivado da apolipoproteína B (antipeptD foram determinados por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA em 90 pacientes, nas primeiras 12h de SCA (casos e em 90 pacientes com DAC crônica (controles. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os títulos de antiLDL-ox foram significativamente mais elevados (p = 0,017 nos casos (0,40 ± 0,22, do que nos controles (0,33 ± 0,23. Por outro lado, os títulos de antipeptD foram significativamente menores (p FUNDAMENTO: La oxidación de la lipoproteína de baja densidad (LDL-ox induce a la formación de epítopos inmunogénicos en la molécula. La presencia de autoanticuerpos contra la LDL-ox ha sido demostrada en el suero de pacientes con enfermedad arterial coronaria (EAC. No obstante eso, el papel de esos autoanticuerpos en la fisiopatología de los síndromes coronarios agudos (SCA y su significado clínico permanecen indefinidos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre autoanticuerpos contra la LDL-ox y SCA. MÉTODOS: Los títulos de inmunoglobulina G autoanticuerpos contra la LDL-ox por cobre (antiLDL-ox y contra el péptido sintético D derivado de la apolipoproteína B (antipeptD fueron determinados por ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA en 90 pacientes, en las primeras 12h de SCA (casos y en 90 pacientes con EAC crónica (controles. RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron que los títulos de antiLDL-ox fueron

  13. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte; Sjöberg, Beatrice; Kolsrud, Björn; Ringertz, Bo; Hafström, Ingiäld; Frostegård, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). Methods Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen. Blood lipids were analyzed by routine methods, and oxLDL and anti-PCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data and serum samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Results Mean ages were 50.0 years for the vegan group and 50.8 years for controls. Gluten-free vegan diet induced lower body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and higher anti-PC IgM than control diet (p vegan group, BMI, LDL, and cholesterol decreased after both 3 and 12 months (p vegan patients into clinical responders and non-responders at 12 months, the effects on oxLDL and anti-PC IgA were seen only in responders (p vegan diet in RA induces changes that are potentially atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory, including decreased LDL and oxLDL levels and raised anti-PC IgM and IgA levels. PMID:18348715

  14. Arsenic augments the uptake of oxidized LDL by upregulating the expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor in mouse aortic endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Ota, Akinobu, E-mail: aota@aichi-med-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Karnan, Sivasundaram; Damdindorj, Lkhagvasuren [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Takahashi, Miyuki [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Konishi, Yuko; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Although chronic arsenic exposure is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, the molecular mechanism underlying arsenic-induced atherosclerosis remains obscure. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate this molecular mechanism. We examined changes in the mRNA level of the lectin-like oxidized LDL (oxLDL) receptor (LOX-1) in a mouse aortic endothelial cell line, END-D, after sodium arsenite (SA) treatment. SA treatment significantly upregulated LOX-1 mRNA expression; this finding was also verified at the protein expression level. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that the cellular uptake of fluorescence (Dil)-labeled oxLDL was significantly augmented with SA treatment. In addition, an anti-LOX-1 antibody completely abrogated the augmented uptake of Dil-oxLDL. We observed that SA increased the levels of the phosphorylated forms of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NF-κB)/p65. SA-induced upregulation of LOX-1 protein expression was clearly prevented by treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or an NF-κB inhibitor, caffeic acid phenethylester (CAPE). Furthermore, SA-augmented uptake of Dil-oxLDL was also prevented by treatment with NAC or CAPE. Taken together, our results indicate that arsenic upregulates LOX-1 expression through the reactive oxygen species-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway, followed by augmented cellular oxLDL uptake, thus highlighting a critical role of the aberrant LOX-1 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Sodium arsenite (SA) increases LOX-1 expression in mouse aortic endothelial cells. • SA enhances cellular uptake of oxidized LDL in dose-dependent manner. • SA-induced ROS generation enhances phosphorylation of NF-κB. • SA upregulates LOX-1 expression through ROS-activated NF-κB signaling pathway.

  15. [Phytosterols: another way to reduce LDL cholesterol levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzur, Rafael; Cohen, Hofit; Kamari, Yehuda; Harats, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Phytosterols are sterols found naturally in various oils from plants. Phytosterols compete with cholesterol for a place in the mixed micelles, needed for cholesterol absorption by the small intestine. As a result, cholesterol absorption, either from food or from bile salts is lowered by about 50%, leading to a towering of about 10% of blood cholesterol level, despite an increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. This reduction is achieved when phytosterols are given both as monotherapy, and in addition to statin therapy. The average Western diet contains about 400-800 mg of phytosterols per day, while the dose needed for lowering the blood cholesterol level is about 2-3 grams per day. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing blood cholesterol, they should be given either as phytosterol-enriched food or as supplements. The reduction in the level of LDL-choLesterol achieved with phytosterols may reduce the risk of coronary disease by about 25%. Hence, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of phytosterols, as part of a balanced diet, for towering blood cholesterol levels.

  16. Coenzyme O*U1*UO, Alpha-Tocopherol and Free Cholesterol in HDL and LDL Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kurt; Theorell, Henning; Karlsson, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL......Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL...

  17. Changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypo- and hyperthyroid patients are related to changes in free thyroxine, not to polymorphisms in LDL receptor or cholesterol ester transfer protein genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Anghelescu, N.; Endert, E.; Bakker, O.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in lipoprotein metabolism. Both plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase in hypothyroidism and decrease in hyperthyroidism. Changes in LDL-C relate to altered clearance of LDL particles

  18. Inhibitory effect of Piper betel leaf extracts on copper-mediated LDL oxidation and oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation via inducing reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gwo-Chin; Wu, Pei-Fang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2013-12-15

    Piper betel leaf (PBL) has the biological capabilities of detoxification and can work as an anti-inflammatory agent and an anti-oxidant. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of the extract of Piper betel leaves (PBLs) on the basis of Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation, and its ability to prevent foam cell formation in a model for oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages. Our data demonstrated that PBLs were able to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and are able to reduce the lipid accumulation in macrophages. We showed the underlying mechanisms to be the following: PBLs up-regulated the protein levels of the class A and class B scavenger receptors, the membrane lipid transporter ABCA1, and its upstream regulator Liver X receptor (LXR) in the macrophages exposed to oxLDL. The results suggested that PBLs activated the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism to enhance the metabolism of the oxLDL that could prevent both lipid accumulation and foam cell formation and further minimise the possible damage of vessels caused by the oxLDL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga; Castellote, Ana I; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Nurmi, Tarja; Poulsen, Henrik E; Gaddi, Antonio V; Kaikkonen, Jari; Zunft, Hans-Franz; Kiesewetter, Holger; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, María-Isabel; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2010-03-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded by a 2-wk washout period. The levels of LDL hydroxytyrosol monosulfate and homovanillic acid sulfate, but not of tyrosol sulfate, increased after VOO ingestion (P oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained, daily consumption. The inverse relationship of these metabolites with the degree of LDL oxidation supports the in vivo antioxidant role of olive oil phenolics compounds.

  20. Oxidized LDL Induces Alternative Macrophage Phenotype through Activation of CD36 and PAFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Rios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OxLDL is recognized by macrophage scavenger receptors, including CD36; we have recently found that Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor (PAFR is also involved. Since PAFR in macrophages is associated with suppressor function, we examined the effect of oxLDL on macrophage phenotype. It was found that the presence of oxLDL during macrophage differentiation induced high mRNA levels to IL-10, mannose receptor, PPARγ and arginase-1 and low levels of IL-12 and iNOS. When human THP-1 macrophages were pre-treated with oxLDL then stimulated with LPS, the production of IL-10 and TGF-β significantly increased, whereas that of IL-6 and IL-8 decreased. In murine TG-elicited macrophages, this protocol significantly reduced NO, iNOS and COX2 expression. Thus, oxLDL induced macrophage differentiation and activation towards the alternatively activated M2-phenotype. In murine macrophages, oxLDL induced TGF-β, arginase-1 and IL-10 mRNA expression, which were significantly reduced by pre-treatment with PAFR antagonists (WEB and CV or with antibodies to CD36. The mRNA expression of IL-12, RANTES and CXCL2 were not affected. We showed that this profile of macrophage activation is dependent on the engagement of both CD36 and PAFR. We conclude that oxLDL induces alternative macrophage activation by mechanisms involving CD36 and PAFR.

  1. Effect of immunization against ox-LDL with two different antigens on formation and development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saberi Salb-Ali

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies were pointed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL as one of the main immunogenes which have important roles in primary lesions of atherosclerosis. In this study, by immunization against ox-LDL with two different antigens in an animal model (rabbit and consideration of its effect on two different dietary regimens; we tried to clear relation between immune system and atherosclerosis. Methods LDL was isolated from hypercholesterolemic rabbits plasma and oxidized with MDA or Cu++. Rabbits were divided to three groups and immunized with MDA-LDL or Cu-LDL or phosphate-buffer (PBS as a control group. Immunization was repeated after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks and concentration of antibodies against ox-LDL was measured in each stage. After immunization, rabbits in each group were divided to two subgroups based on the dietary regimen (fed normal or high cholesterol diet. At the beginning and the end of the study, biochemical factors were measured. Also, fatty streaks in aorta and left and right coronary arteries evaluated. Results Immunization with Cu2+-LDL and MDA-LDL induced statistically significant antibodies against ox-LDL. In hypercholesterolemic rabbits immunized with MDA-LDL the level of cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar and fatty streak lesions in aorta and right coronary arteries were significantly decreased as compared with non-immunized high-cholesterol group. Immunization with Cu2+-LDL in hypercholesterolemic rabbits significantly decreased triglyceride, fasting blood sugar, cholesterol and CRP. No significant differences were detected in the fatty streak lesions in this group as compared with non-immunized high-cholesterol diet. In groups under normal diet immunized with MDA-LDL or Cu2+-LDL no significant effect on biochemical factors and atherosclerotic lesions were observed. Conclusion This study indicates that although the effect of produced antibodies in several methods and different dietary

  2. Deterministic and unambiguous dense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengjun; Cohen, Scott M.; Sun Yuqing; Griffiths, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal dense coding using a partially-entangled pure state of Schmidt rank D and a noiseless quantum channel of dimension D is studied both in the deterministic case where at most L d messages can be transmitted with perfect fidelity, and in the unambiguous case where when the protocol succeeds (probability τ x ) Bob knows for sure that Alice sent message x, and when it fails (probability 1-τ x ) he knows it has failed. Alice is allowed any single-shot (one use) encoding procedure, and Bob any single-shot measurement. For D≤D a bound is obtained for L d in terms of the largest Schmidt coefficient of the entangled state, and is compared with published results by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A71, 012311 (2005)]. For D>D it is shown that L d is strictly less than D 2 unless D is an integer multiple of D, in which case uniform (maximal) entanglement is not needed to achieve the optimal protocol. The unambiguous case is studied for D≤D, assuming τ x >0 for a set of DD messages, and a bound is obtained for the average . A bound on the average requires an additional assumption of encoding by isometries (unitaries when D=D) that are orthogonal for different messages. Both bounds are saturated when τ x is a constant independent of x, by a protocol based on one-shot entanglement concentration. For D>D it is shown that (at least) D 2 messages can be sent unambiguously. Whether unitary (isometric) encoding suffices for optimal protocols remains a major unanswered question, both for our work and for previous studies of dense coding using partially-entangled states, including noisy (mixed) states

  3. Continuous dose-response relationship of the LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of phytosterol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonty, Isabelle; Ras, Rouyanne T; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Meijer, Linsie; Zock, Peter L; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Trautwein, Elke A

    2009-02-01

    Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols) are well known for their LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering effect. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults was performed to establish a continuous dose-response relationship that would allow predicting the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of different phytosterol doses. Eighty-four trials including 141 trial arms were included. A nonlinear equation comprising 2 parameters (the maximal LDL-C lowering and an incremental dose step) was used to describe the dose-response curve. The overall pooled absolute (mmol/L) and relative (%) LDL-C-lowering effects of phytosterols were also assessed with a random effects model. The pooled LDL-C reduction was 0.34 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.36, -0.31) or 8.8% (95% CI: -9.4, -8.3) for a mean daily dose of 2.15 g phytosterols. The impacts of subject baseline characteristics, food formats, type of phytosterols, and study quality on the continuous dose-response curve were determined by regression or subgroup analyses. Higher baseline LDL-C concentrations resulted in greater absolute LDL-C reductions. No significant differences were found between dose-response curves established for plant sterols vs. stanols, fat-based vs. non fat-based food formats and dairy vs. nondairy foods. A larger effect was observed with solid foods than with liquid foods only at high phytosterol doses (>2 g/d). There was a strong tendency (P = 0.054) towards a slightly lower efficacy of single vs. multiple daily intakes of phytosterols. In conclusion, the dose-dependent LDL-C-lowering efficacy of phytosterols incorporated in various food formats was confirmed and equations of the continuous relationship were established to predict the effect of a given phytosterol dose. Further investigations are warranted to investigate the impact of solid vs. liquid food formats and frequency of intake on phytosterol efficacy.

  4. Antioxidant protection of LDL by physiological concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol. Requirement for estradiol modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwaery, G T; Vita, J A; Keaney, J F

    1997-03-18

    Exposure to estrogens reduces the risk for coronary artery disease and associated clinical events; however, the mechanisms responsible for these observations are not clear. Supraphysiological levels of estrogens act as antioxidants in vitro, limiting oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), an event implicated in atherogenesis. We investigated the conditions under which physiological concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) inhibit oxidative modification of LDL. Plasma incubated with E2 (0.1 to 100 nmol/L) for 4 hours yielded LDL that demonstrated a dose-related increase in resistance to oxidation by Cu2+ as measured by conjugated diene formation. This effect was dependent on plasma, because incubation of isolated LDL with E2 at these concentrations in buffered saline produced no effect on Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation. Incubation of plasma with E2 had no effect on LDL alpha-tocopherol content or cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide formation during the 4-hour incubation. Plasma incubation with [3H]E2 was associated with dose-dependent association of 3H with LDL. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of LDL derived from plasma incubated with [3H]E2 indicated that the majority of the associated species were not detectable as authentic E2 but as nonpolar forms of E2 that were susceptible to base hydrolysis consistent with fatty acid esterification of E2. Plasma-mediated association of E2 and subsequent antioxidant protection was inhibited by 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), an inhibitor of plasma acyltransferase activity. Exposure of LDL to physiological levels of E2 in a plasma milieu is associated with enhanced resistance to Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation and incorporation of E2 derivatives into LDL. This antioxidant capacity may be another means by which E2 limits coronary artery disease in women.

  5. Human mast cell neutral proteases generate modified LDL particles with increased proteoglycan binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaninka, Katariina; Nguyen, Su Duy; Mäyränpää, Mikko I; Plihtari, Riia; Rajamäki, Kristiina; Lindsberg, Perttu J; Kovanen, Petri T; Öörni, Katariina

    2018-04-13

    Subendothelial interaction of LDL with extracellular matrix drives atherogenesis. This interaction can be strengthened by proteolytic modification of LDL. Mast cells (MCs) are present in atherosclerotic lesions, and upon activation, they degranulate and release a variety of neutral proteases. Here we studied the ability of MC proteases to cleave apoB-100 of LDL and affect the binding of LDL to proteoglycans. Mature human MCs were differentiated from human peripheral blood-derived CD34 + progenitors in vitro and activated with calcium ionophore to generate MC-conditioned medium. LDL was incubated in the MC-conditioned medium or with individual MC proteases, and the binding of native and modified LDL to isolated human aortic proteoglycans or to human atherosclerotic plaques ex vivo was determined. MC proteases in atherosclerotic human coronary artery lesions were detected by immunofluorescence and qPCR. Activated human MCs released the neutral proteases tryptase, chymase, carboxypeptidase A3, cathepsin G, and granzyme B. Of these, cathepsin G degraded most efficiently apoB-100, induced LDL fusion, and enhanced binding of LDL to isolated human aortic proteoglycans and human atherosclerotic lesions ex vivo. Double immunofluoresence staining of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries for tryptase and cathepsin G indicated that lesional MCs contain cathepsin G. In the lesions, expression of cathepsin G correlated with the expression of tryptase and chymase, but not with that of neutrophil proteinase 3. The present study suggests that cathepsin G in human atherosclerotic lesions is largely derived from MCs and that activated MCs may contribute to atherogenesis by enhancing LDL retention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Continuous Dose-Response Response Relationship of the LDL-Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Phytosterol Intake 1,2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demonty, I.; Ras, R.T.; Knaap, van der H.C.M.; Duchateau, G.S.M.J.E.; Meijer, L.; Zock, P.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Trautwein, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols) are well known for their LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)¿lowering effect. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults was performed to establish a continuous dose-response relationship that would allow predicting the LDL-C¿lowering efficacy of different

  7. Development of a new LDL-based transport system for hydrophobic/amphiphilic drug delivery to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntosova, Veronika; Buzova, Diana; Petrovajova, Dana; Kasak, Peter; Nadova, Zuzana; Jancura, Daniel; Sureau, Franck; Miskovsky, Pavol

    2012-10-15

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), a natural in vivo carrier of cholesterol in the vascular system, play a key role in the delivery of hydrophobic/amphiphilic photosensitizers to tumor cells in photodynamic therapy of cancer. To make this delivery system even more efficient, we have constructed a nano-delivery system by coating of LDL surface by dextran. Fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal fluorescence imaging, stopped-flow experiments and flow-cytometry were used to characterize redistribution of hypericin (Hyp), a natural occurring potent photosensitizer, loaded in LDL/dextran complex to free LDL molecules as well as to monitor cellular uptake of Hyp by U87-MG cells. It is shown that the redistribution process of Hyp between LDL molecules is significantly suppressed by dextran coating of LDL surface. The modification of LDL molecules by dextran does not inhibit their recognition by cellular LDL receptors and U-87 MG cellular uptake of Hyp loaded in LDL/dextran complex appears to be similar to that one observed for Hyp transported by unmodified LDL particles. Thus, it is proposed that dextran modified LDL molecules could be used as a basis for construction of a drug transport system for targeted delivery of hydrophobic/amphiphilic drugs to cancer cells expressing high level of LDL receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces cardiovascular risk independently of presence of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Benjamin C; Staplin, Natalie; Haynes, Richard

    2018-01-01

    in patients with chronic kidney disease. To evaluate this, we used data from the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) to assess associations between circulating CRP and LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of vascular and non-vascular outcomes. Major vascular events were defined as nonfatal myocardial...... LDL cholesterol and non-vascular events (0.96, 0.92-0.99). The efficacy of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin/ezetimibe on major vascular events, in the randomized comparison, was similar irrespective of CRP concentration at baseline. Thus, decisions to offer statin-based therapy to patients...

  9. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Cantilever Sensor for in-Vitro LDL Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. Hosimin Thilagar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the design, simulation and analysis of microcantilever integrated with piezoresistors in Wheatstone bridge arrangement to detect low density lipoprotein (LDL in blood, which is responsible for cholesterol accumulation in arteries. This paper uses Finite Element Method (FEM to obtain the performance of piezoresistive microcantilever sensor to measure surface stress corresponding to the adsorption of LDL molecules. The FEM results are compared with the analytical solutions. The results suggest that the designed sensor can effectively sense LDL molecules as in-Vitro with few micro-litre of blood sample.

  10. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  11. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  12. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  13. Comparison of arterial intimal clearances of LDL from diabetic and nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits. Differences in intimal clearance explained by size differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordestgaard, B.G.; Zilversmit, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial intimal clearances of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from diabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits (D-LDL) and LDL from nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits (N-LDL) were compared. In six experiments, D-LDL and N-LDL were isolated from a diabetic and a nondiabetic rabbit, were iodinated with 125I and 131I, respectively, were mixed, and were reinjected into the same two rabbits as well as into a normal rabbit. Fractional catabolic rates for D-LDL and N-LDL in normal rabbits were 0.065 and 0.074 h-1 (p less than 0.05), respectively. For five of the six pairs of LDL, the D-LDL was smaller than N-LDL as determined by gel filtration. The arterial permeability to N-LDL, when normalized for differences in arterial cholesterol content, did not appear to differ between diabetic and nondiabetic rabbits. The relative arterial intimal clearance (D-LDL/N-LDL) in arteries from diabetic and nondiabetic rabbits was inversely related to the relative molecular weight (D-LDL/N-LDL). For example, when the molecular weight of D-LDL was as low as 60% of that of N-LDL (i.e., the diameter of D-LDL was reduced 16%), the intimal clearance of D-LDL was 40% larger than that of N-LDL. When, on the other hand, molecular weights and diameters of the two LDL were similar, the intimal clearance was also quite similar. These results suggest that arterial intimal clearance of LDL from diabetic and nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits is comparable unless the two types of LDL have a different size

  14. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  15. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  16. The effect of olive oil polyphenols on antibodies against oxidized LDL. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castañer, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIM: Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is a highly immunogenic particle that plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Some data suggest a protective role of OxLDL autoantibodies (OLAB) in atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the effect of olive oil polyphenols on the immunogenicity...... of oxLDL to autoantibody generation. METHODS: In a crossover, controlled trial, 200 healthy men were randomly assigned to 3-week sequences of 25 mL/day of 3 olive oils with high (366 mg/kg), medium (164 mg/kg), and low (2.7 mg/kg) phenolic content. RESULTS: Plasma OLAB concentration was inversely...

  17. Yoghurt kedelai hitam (black soyghurt dapat menurunkan kadar LDL tikus hiperkolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Riyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Hypercholesterolemia is a main risk factor of cardiovascular disease that remains the higher cause of deaths in the world. Black soy bean containing protein, fiber, vitamin, isoflavon, and flavonoid can decrease serum cholesterol level. Yoghurt contains lactic acid bacteria that decrease total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and increase the HDL cholesterol. Processing of black soy bean into black soyghurt can increase its isoflavon’s activity by forming aglicone, which has higher activity to decrease cholesterol.Objectives: To know the effect of black soyghurt feeding to LDL, HDL, and HDL ratio of hypercholesterolemic rats.Methods: This research was true-experimental using post test only with control group design. Subjects were 20 male Sprague dawley rats, 2 months old, inducted hypercholesterolemia, given black soyghurt diet using 2 mL, 3 mL, and 4 mL dosage for 21 days. Serum lipid profile were measured by CHOD-PAPand GPO-PAP methods respectively. Normality of the data were tested by Shapiro Wilks test. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Anova continued by LSD test using computer program.Results: The study revealed that black soyghurt 4 mL/day decreased LDL (p=0.02 at the most significant level. The other doses did not significantly influence the levels of LDL (p>0.05 . There was also no effect of black soyghurt feeding on serum HDL cholesterol levels (p=0.11 and the ratio of LDL /HDL (p=0.087.Conclusions: The feeding of black soyghurt at the dosage of 4 mL/day to hypercholesterolemic rats could decrease the serum LDL, but could decrease the ratio of LDL / HDL significantly.KEYWORDS: black soyghurt, LDL/HDL ratio, hypercholesterolemicABSTRAKLatar belakang: Hiperkolesterolemia merupakan faktor risiko penyakit kardiovaskuler yang menjadi penyebab kematian utama di dunia. Kedelai hitam mengandung protein, vitamin, serat, isoflavon, dan flavonoid yang mampu menurunkan kadar kolesterol. Yoghurt

  18. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM.......005 between genders for the mean [95 % CI] fasting adjusted difference at 4.5 h in the change versus time 0 in LDL-C; gender by time interaction: p50.007 (repeated measures mixed model)). Conclusions. In T2DM patients served a fat-rich meal, levels of LDL-C decreased significantly more in women compared...

  19. The Effect of LDL-Apheresis and Rheohaemapheresis Treatment on Vitamin E

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Solichová, D.; Bláha, M.; Aufartová, J.; Kujovská-Krčmářová, L.; Plíšek, J.; Honegrová, B.; Kasalová, E.; Lánská, M.; Urbánek, Lubor; Sobotka, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2015), s. 105-112 ISSN 0301-4800 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : vitamin E * LDL-apheresis * rheohaemapheresis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2015

  20. The effect of olive oil polyphenols on antibodies against oxidized LDL. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castañer, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2011-01-01

    of oxLDL to autoantibody generation. METHODS: In a crossover, controlled trial, 200 healthy men were randomly assigned to 3-week sequences of 25 mL/day of 3 olive oils with high (366 mg/kg), medium (164 mg/kg), and low (2.7 mg/kg) phenolic content. RESULTS: Plasma OLAB concentration was inversely......BACKGROUND & AIM: Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is a highly immunogenic particle that plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Some data suggest a protective role of OxLDL autoantibodies (OLAB) in atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the effect of olive oil polyphenols on the immunogenicity...

  1. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  2. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically ∼1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of ∼2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  3. Increased LDL cholesterol and CRP in infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Svarrer, Eva Martha Madsen; Damm, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.......Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis....

  4. Pengaruh Pemberian Snack Bar Kedelai Terhadap Kadar Kolesterol Ldl Dan Hdl Wanita Hiperkolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaningsih, Aryanti; Pramono, Adriyan

    2014-01-01

    Latar Belakang: Kedelai (hitam dan kuning) mengandung antosianin dan isoflavon yang dapat menurunkan kadar kolesterol LDL dan meningkatkan kadar kolesterol HDL. Selain itu ubi jalar ungu juga mengadung antosianin. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemberian snack bar ubi jalar ungu dicampur kedelai terhadap kadar kolesterol LDL dan HDL pada wanita hiperkolesterolemia. Metode: Desain peneitian ini adalah quasi-experimental dengan pre-post test control group design. Subyek penelitia...

  5. Perbedaan Kadar Kolesterol Ldl dan Hdl antara Wanita Vegetarian Tipe Vegan dan Non-vegan

    OpenAIRE

    Edyanto, Ermia; Puruhita, Niken

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies which investigated different risk for cardiovascular disease in vegetarian reported that each vegetarian diet type had different lipid serum level. Elevated LDL cholesterol level and reduced HDL cholesterol level are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease. This study was aimed to compare levels on LDL and HDL cholesterol between vegetarian vegan and non-vegan.Methods: Two groups of vegetarian women, 23 people in each group of vegan and non-vegan, participated ...

  6. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-05-01

    Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: -1.8%, -12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, -7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: -2.1%, -8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, -5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. HDL enhances oxidation of LDL in vitro in both men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehtimäki T

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL is a key event in the oxidation hypothesis of atherogenesis. Some in vitro experiments have previously suggested that high-density lipoprotein (HDL co-incubated with LDL prevents Cu2+-induced oxidation of LDL, while some other studies have observed an opposite effect. To comprehensively clarify the role of HDL in this context, we isolated LDL, HDL2 and HDL3 from sera of 61 free-living individuals (33 women and 28 men. Results When the isolated LDL was subjected to Cu2+-induced oxidation, both HDL2 and HDL3 particles increased the rate of appearance and the final concentration of conjugated dienes similarly in both genders. Oxidation rate was positively associated with polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the lipoproteins in that it was positively related to the content of linoleate and negatively related to oleate. More saturated fats thus protected the lipoproteins from damage. Conclusion We conclude that in vitro HDL does not protect LDL from oxidation, but is in fact oxidized fastest of all lipoproteins due to its fatty acid composition, which is oxidation promoting.

  8. The LDL-HDL profile determines the risk of atherosclerosis: a mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenrui Hao

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the leading death in the United State, is a disease in which a plaque builds up inside the arteries. As the plaque continues to grow, the shear force of the blood flow through the decreasing cross section of the lumen increases. This force may eventually cause rupture of the plaque, resulting in the formation of thrombus, and possibly heart attack. It has long been recognized that the formation of a plaque relates to the cholesterol concentration in the blood. For example, individuals with LDL above 190 mg/dL and HDL below 40 mg/dL are at high risk, while individuals with LDL below 100 mg/dL and HDL above 50 mg/dL are at no risk. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model of the formation of a plaque, which includes the following key variables: LDL and HDL, free radicals and oxidized LDL, MMP and TIMP, cytockines: MCP-1, IFN-γ, IL-12 and PDGF, and cells: macrophages, foam cells, T cells and smooth muscle cells. The model is given by a system of partial differential equations with in evolving plaque. Simulations of the model show how the combination of the concentrations of LDL and HDL in the blood determine whether a plaque will grow or disappear. More precisely, we create a map, showing the risk of plaque development for any pair of values (LDL,HDL.

  9. [Lack of association between LDL-cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Elisa; Salvati, Maria Antonietta; Ferro, Yvelise; De Bonis, Daniele; Gorgone, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the association between LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the elderly is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate this issue using carotid intima-media thickness as a marker of cardiovascular disease. Women aged 35-79 years were consecutively enrolled in the study. They underwent a questionnaire to assess cardiovascular disease, a clinical examination to assess blood pressure and anthropometric variables, a biochemical evaluation of lipid profile and glucose, and an ultrasound evaluation of carotid arteries. The study population was divided into two age groups (≤65 years and >65 years), and each group was then divided into two subgroups according to LDL-C level (normal and high). A Student's t-test was used to compare mean values between groups, and a chi square test was used to compare the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis. A lack of association between LDL-C and carotid intima-media thickness was observed in subjects aged >65 years, with the intima-media thickness average being similar between those with and without high LDL-C. Conversely, a significant difference in carotid intima-media thickness was observed among adults with and without high LDL-C level. Our findings, similar to those obtained in other epidemiological studies, provide the rationale for revising the use of statins in elderly women without cardiovascular disease.

  10. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Rare and Low-Frequency Coding Variants Associated with LDL Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Leslie A.; Hu, Youna; Zhang, He; Xue, Chenyi; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Tang, Zheng-Zheng; Bizon, Chris; Lange, Ethan M.; Smith, Joshua D.; Turner, Emily H.; Jun, Goo; Kang, Hyun Min; Peloso, Gina; Auer, Paul; Li, Kuo-ping; Flannick, Jason; Zhang, Ji; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle; Lindgren, Cecilia; Locke, Adam; Manning, Alisa; Sim, Xueling; Rivas, Manuel A.; Holmen, Oddgeir L.; Gottesman, Omri; Lu, Yingchang; Ruderfer, Douglas; Stahl, Eli A.; Duan, Qing; Li, Yun; Durda, Peter; Jiao, Shuo; Isaacs, Aaron; Hofman, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Correa, Adolfo; Griswold, Michael E.; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Smith, Albert V.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Crosby, Jacy; Wassel, Christina L.; Do, Ron; Franceschini, Nora; Martin, Lisa W.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Crosslin, David R.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Tsai, Michael; Rieder, Mark J.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lumley, Thomas; Fox, Ervin R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Peters, Ulrike; Jackson, Rebecca D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Levy, Daniel; Rotter, Jerome I.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Siscovick, David S.; Fornage, Myriam; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Chen, Y. Eugene; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Sætrom, Pål; Hveem, Kristian; Boehnke, Michael; Groop, Leif; McCarthy, Mark; Meitinger, Thomas; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy S.; North, Kari E.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Altshuler, David; Kathiresan, Sekar; Lin, Dan-Yu; Jarvik, Gail P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kooperberg, Charles; Wilson, James G.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Rich, Stephen S.; Tracy, Russell P.; Willer, Cristen J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Altshuler, David M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Allayee, Hooman; Cresci, Sharon; Daly, Mark J.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; DePristo, Mark A.; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Peter; Farlow, Deborah N.; Fennell, Tim; Garimella, Kiran; Hazen, Stanley L.; Hu, Youna; Jordan, Daniel M.; Jun, Goo; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kang, Hyun Min; Kiezun, Adam; Lettre, Guillaume; Li, Bingshan; Li, Mingyao; Newton-Cheh, Christopher H.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Peloso, Gina; Pulit, Sara; Rader, Daniel J.; Reich, David; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Schwartz, Steve; Scott, Laura; Siscovick, David S.; Spertus, John A.; Stitziel, Nathaniel O.; Stoletzki, Nina; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Willer, Cristen J.; Rich, Stephen S.; Akylbekova, Ermeg; Atwood, Larry D.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Barbalic, Maja; Barr, R. Graham; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bis, Joshua; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bowden, Donald W.; Brody, Jennifer; Budoff, Matthew; Burke, Greg; Buxbaum, Sarah; Carr, Jeff; Chen, Donna T.; Chen, Ida Y.; Chen, Wei-Min; Concannon, Pat; Crosby, Jacy; Cupples, L. Adrienne; D’Agostino, Ralph; DeStefano, Anita L.; Dreisbach, Albert; Dupuis, Josée; Durda, J. Peter; Ellis, Jaclyn; Folsom, Aaron R.; Fornage, Myriam; Fox, Caroline S.; Fox, Ervin; Funari, Vincent; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Gardin, Julius; Goff, David; Gordon, Ora; Grody, Wayne; Gross, Myron; Guo, Xiuqing; Hall, Ira M.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Heintz, Nicholas; Herrington, David M.; Hickson, DeMarc; Huang, Jie; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Jacobs, David R.; Jenny, Nancy S.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Johnson, Craig W.; Kawut, Steven; Kronmal, Richard; Kurz, Raluca; Lange, Ethan M.; Lange, Leslie A.; Larson, Martin G.; Lawson, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Levy, Daniel; Li, Dalin; Lin, Honghuang; Liu, Chunyu; Liu, Jiankang; Liu, Kiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Liu, Yongmei; Longstreth, William T.; Loria, Cay; Lumley, Thomas; Lunetta, Kathryn; Mackey, Aaron J.; Mackey, Rachel; Manichaikul, Ani; Maxwell, Taylor; McKnight, Barbara; Meigs, James B.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; North, Kari; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; O’Leary, Daniel; Ong, Frank; Palmas, Walter; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan D.; Paul, Shom; Perez, Marco; Person, Sharina D.; Polak, Joseph; Post, Wendy S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Rice, Kenneth; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sanders, Jill P.; Schreiner, Pamela; Seshadri, Sudha; Shea, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Silverstein, Kevin; Smith, Nicholas L.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Srinivasan, Asoke; Taylor, Herman A.; Taylor, Kent; Thomas, Fridtjof; Tracy, Russell P.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Wassel, Chrstina L.; Watson, Karol; Wei, Gina; White, Wendy; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Williams, O. Dale; Wilson, Gregory; Wilson, James G.; Wolf, Phillip; Zakai, Neil A.; Hardy, John; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Worrall, Brad; Bamshad, Michael J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Accurso, Frank; Anbar, Ran; Beaty, Terri; Bigham, Abigail; Black, Phillip; Bleecker, Eugene; Buckingham, Kati; Cairns, Anne Marie; Caplan, Daniel; Chatfield, Barbara; Chidekel, Aaron; Cho, Michael; Christiani, David C.; Crapo, James D.; Crouch, Julia; Daley, Denise; Dang, Anthony; Dang, Hong; De Paula, Alicia; DeCelie-Germana, Joan; Drumm, Allen DozorMitch; Dyson, Maynard; Emerson, Julia; Emond, Mary J.; Ferkol, Thomas; Fink, Robert; Foster, Cassandra; Froh, Deborah; Gao, Li; Gershan, William; Gibson, Ronald L.; Godwin, Elizabeth; Gondor, Magdalen; Gutierrez, Hector; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hassoun, Paul M.; Hiatt, Peter; Hokanson, John E.; Howenstine, Michelle; Hummer, Laura K.; Kanga, Jamshed; Kim, Yoonhee; Knowles, Michael R.; Konstan, Michael; Lahiri, Thomas; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Lin, Lin; Lin, Xihong; Louie, Tin L.; Lynch, David; Make, Barry; Martin, Thomas R.; Mathai, Steve C.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNamara, John; McNamara, Sharon; Meyers, Deborah; Millard, Susan; Mogayzel, Peter; Moss, Richard; Murray, Tanda; Nielson, Dennis; Noyes, Blakeslee; O’Neal, Wanda; Orenstein, David; O’Sullivan, Brian; Pace, Rhonda; Pare, Peter; Parker, H. Worth; Passero, Mary Ann; Perkett, Elizabeth; Prestridge, Adrienne; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Ramsey, Bonnie; Regan, Elizabeth; Ren, Clement; Retsch-Bogart, George; Rock, Michael; Rosen, Antony; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ruczinski, Ingo; Sanford, Andrew; Schaeffer, David; Sell, Cindy; Sheehan, Daniel; Silverman, Edwin K.; Sin, Don; Spencer, Terry; Stonebraker, Jackie; Tabor, Holly K.; Varlotta, Laurie; Vergara, Candelaria I.; Weiss, Robert; Wigley, Fred; Wise, Robert A.; Wright, Fred A.; Wurfel, Mark M.; Zanni, Robert; Zou, Fei; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Rieder, Mark J.; Green, Phil; Shendure, Jay; Akey, Joshua M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Crosslin, David R.; Eichler, Evan E.; Fox, P. Keolu; Fu, Wenqing; Gordon, Adam; Gravel, Simon; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnsen, Jill M.; Kan, Mengyuan; Kenny, Eimear E.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Lara-Garduno, Fremiet; Leal, Suzanne M.; Liu, Dajiang J.; McGee, Sean; O’Connor, Timothy D.; Paeper, Bryan; Robertson, Peggy D.; Smith, Joshua D.; Staples, Jeffrey C.; Tennessen, Jacob A.; Turner, Emily H.; Wang, Gao; Yi, Qian; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Carlson, Christopher S.; Anderson, Garnet; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Auer, Paul L.; Beresford, Shirley; Bizon, Chris; Black, Henry; Brunner, Robert; Brzyski, Robert; Burwen, Dale; Caan, Bette; Carty, Cara L.; Chlebowski, Rowan; Cummings, Steven; Curb, J. David; Eaton, Charles B.; Ford, Leslie; Franceschini, Nora; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Gass, Margery; Geller, Nancy; Heiss, Gerardo; Howard, Barbara V.; Hsu, Li; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ioannidis, John; Jiao, Shuo; Johnson, Karen C.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kuller, Lewis; LaCroix, Andrea; Lakshminarayan, Kamakshi; Lane, Dorothy; Lasser, Norman; LeBlanc, Erin; Li, Kuo-Ping; Limacher, Marian; Lin, Dan-Yu; Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Ludlam, Shari; Manson, JoAnn E.; Margolis, Karen; Martin, Lisa; McGowan, Joan; Monda, Keri L.; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Nathan, Lauren; Ockene, Judith; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Prentice, Ross L.; Robbins, John; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Sarto, Gloria E.; Shumaker, Sally; Simon, Michael S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Stein, Evan; Tang, Hua; Taylor, Kira C.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Thornton, Timothy A.; Van Horn, Linda; Vitolins, Mara; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wallace, Robert; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Zeng, Donglin; Applebaum-Bowden, Deborah; Feolo, Michael; Gan, Weiniu; Paltoo, Dina N.; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Sturcke, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a treatable, heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 157 variants associated with lipid levels but are not well suited to assess the impact of rare and low-frequency variants. To determine whether rare or low-frequency coding variants are associated with LDL-C, we exome sequenced 2,005 individuals, including 554 individuals selected for extreme LDL-C (>98th or <2nd percentile). Follow-up analyses included sequencing of 1,302 additional individuals and genotype-based analysis of 52,221 individuals. We observed significant evidence of association between LDL-C and the burden of rare or low-frequency variants in PNPLA5, encoding a phospholipase-domain-containing protein, and both known and previously unidentified variants in PCSK9, LDLR and APOB, three known lipid-related genes. The effect sizes for the burden of rare variants for each associated gene were substantially higher than those observed for individual SNPs identified from GWASs. We replicated the PNPLA5 signal in an independent large-scale sequencing study of 2,084 individuals. In conclusion, this large whole-exome-sequencing study for LDL-C identified a gene not known to be implicated in LDL-C and provides unique insight into the design and analysis of similar experiments. PMID:24507775

  11. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  12. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using 125 I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, 125 I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using 131 I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal

  13. Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kausik K; Landmesser, Ulf; Leiter, Lawrence A; Kallend, David; Dufour, Robert; Karakas, Mahir; Hall, Tim; Troquay, Roland P T; Turner, Traci; Visseren, Frank L J; Wijngaard, Peter; Wright, R Scott; Kastelein, John J P

    2017-04-13

    In a previous study, a single injection of inclisiran, a chemically synthesized small interfering RNA designed to target PCSK9 messenger RNA, was found to produce sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels over the course of 84 days in healthy volunteers. We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending-dose trial of inclisiran administered as a subcutaneous injection in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of placebo or 200, 300, or 500 mg of inclisiran or two doses (at days 1 and 90) of placebo or 100, 200, or 300 mg of inclisiran. The primary end point was the change from baseline in LDL cholesterol level at 180 days. Safety data were available through day 210, and data on LDL cholesterol and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels were available through day 240. A total of 501 patients underwent randomization. Patients who received inclisiran had dose-dependent reductions in PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels. At day 180, the least-squares mean reductions in LDL cholesterol levels were 27.9 to 41.9% after a single dose of inclisiran and 35.5 to 52.6% after two doses (PLDL cholesterol levels: 48% of the patients who received the regimen had an LDL cholesterol level below 50 mg per deciliter (1.3 mmol per liter) at day 180. At day 240, PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels remained significantly lower than at baseline in association with all inclisiran regimens. Serious adverse events occurred in 11% of the patients who received inclisiran and in 8% of the patients who received placebo. Injection-site reactions occurred in 5% of the patients who received injections of inclisiran. In our trial, inclisiran was found to lower PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels among patients at high cardiovascular risk who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels. (Funded by the Medicines Company

  14. Interactions between stepwise-eluted sub-fractions of fulvic acids and protons revealed by fluorescence titration combined with EEM-PARAFAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fanhao; Wu, Fengchang; Guo, Fei; Wang, Hao; Feng, Weiying; Zhou, Min; Deng, Yanghui; Bai, Yingchen; Xing, Baoshan; Giesy, John P

    2017-12-15

    In aquatic environments, pH can control environmental behaviors of fulvic acid (FA) via regulating hydrolysis of functional groups. Sub-fractions of FA, eluted using pyrophosphate buffers with initial pHs of 3.0 (FA 3 ), 5.0 (FA 5 ), 7.0 (FA 7 ), 9.0 (FA 9 ) and 13.0 (FA 13 ), were used to explore interactions between the various, operationally defined, FA fractions and protons, by use of EEM-PARAFAC analysis. Splitting of peaks (FA 3 and FA 13 ), merging of peaks (FA 7 ), disappearance of peaks (FA 9 and FA 13 ), and red/blue-shifting of peaks were observed during fluorescence titration. Fulvic-like components were identified from FA 3 -FA 13 , and protein-like components were observed in fractions FA 9 and FA 13 . There primary compounds (carboxylic-like, phenolic-like, and protein-like chromophores) in PARAFAC components were distinguished based on acid-base properties. Dissociation constants (pK a ) for fulvic-like components with proton ranged from 2.43 to 4.13 in an acidic pH and from 9.95 to 11.27 at basic pH. These results might be due to protonation of di-carboxylate and phenolic functional groups. At basic pH, pK a values of protein-like components (9.77-10.13) were similar to those of amino acids. However, at acidic pH, pK a values of protein-like components, which ranged from 3.33 to 4.22, were 1-2units greater than those of amino acids. Results presented here, will benefit understanding of environmental behaviors of FA, as well as interactions of FA with environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Wang, Chi-Ping; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu 2+ -induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression

  16. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien [School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chi-Ping [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hui-Hsuan, E-mail: linhh@csmu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu{sup 2+}-induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression.

  17. Characterization of LDL-receptors of freshly isolated mononuclear cells of healthy subjects and of FH-patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banyai, M.

    1991-05-01

    The central role of the LDL (=low density lipoproteins) receptor in artherosclerosis was first appreciated when it was shown that its absence was responsible for FH (familial hypercholesterolemia). To determine the high affinity cell surface binding activity in circulating human mononuclear cells (MNCs), these cells were incubated with low concentrations (1-50 μg protein/ml) of 123 I-LDL or 111 In-LDL either in the presence or absence of an excess of unlabeled LDL at 4 deg C for 45 minutes. MNCs of healthy subjects and of heterozygous FH-patients were found to possess high affinity LDL receptors immediately after they were isolated from the blood stream. The results indicate that the FH-patients enclosed in this study possess a reduced number of the same high affinity binding sites as healthy subjects confirming the diagnosis of heterozygous FH. In this study 123 I-LDL binding and 111 In-LDL binding to MNCs has been shown to saturable, reversible and displaceable and time-dependent. 123 I-LDL and 111 In-LDL as well can be recommended for the in-vitro determination of LDL-receptor binding activity as both binding processes show approximately the same characteristics. (author)

  18. The association between adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and α1-antitrypsin-LDL in female subjects without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2010-12-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may act as an atheroprotective (anti-atherosclerotic) agent under some conditions. While the α1-antitrypsin (AT)-LDL complex is considered a type of oxidized LDL, its clinical relevance remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between AT-LDL and anti-atherosclerotic variables such as HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). In asymptomatic females (n = 194; mean age, 54 years) who were divided into non-MetS (n = 108) and MetS groups (n = 86), the fasting levels of serum AT-LDL, adiponectin and glucose/lipid panels were measured, in addition to body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The MetS group showed significantly higher BMI, blood pressure, glucose and triglyceride levels as well as significantly lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin than the non-MetS group. A multivariate-adjusted analysis revealed that in the non-MetS group, AT-LDL was significantly, independently and positively correlated with adiponectin (β = 0.297, P cholesterol (β = 0.217, P LDL was significantly, independently and positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol only (β = 0.342, P LDL may exert anti-atherosclerotic effects in female subjects without MetS. More studies are required to clarify the clinical roles of AT-LDL in relation to the pathophysiology of MetS.

  19. Curcumin prevents the oxidation and lipid modification of LDL and its inhibition of prostacyclin generation by endothelial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamedain M; Zhou, Sherry Q; Kummerow, Fred A

    2009-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was isolated from human plasma and oxidized by 5microM copper sulfate for 4h at 37 degrees C in the absence and presence of 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20microM of curcumin. LDL oxidized in the absence of curcumin (oxLDL) showed an increased levels of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides (TBARS) and lysolecithin (lysoPC) and a significant loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). LDL oxidized with 5microM copper sulfate in the presence of curcumin caused a significant decrease of conjugated diene, lipid peroxides, lysoPC and significant increase of PUFA compared to oxLDL. These changes were dose dependent and reached a maximum at 5microM curcumin. Incubation of human endothelial cells (EC) with 200microg protein/ml of oxLDL caused a significant decrease of prostacyclin (PGI(2)) generation. LDL oxidized in presence of 5microM curcumin did not show any inhibition of PGI(2) generation compared to the control cells. These results indicate that curcumin is an effective chain-breaking antioxidant which prevents oxidation and lipid modification of LDL. The inhibition of oxLDL on PGI(2) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Curcumin supplementation could be an effective strategy in preventing LDL oxidation and its impact on atherosclerosis and lesion formation.

  20. Composite systems of dilute and dense couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J R; Saad, D

    2008-01-01

    Composite systems, where couplings are of two types, a combination of strong dilute and weak dense couplings of Ising spins, are examined through the replica method. The dilute and dense parts are considered to have independent canonical disordered or uniform bond distributions; mixing the models by variation of a parameter γ alongside inverse temperature β we analyse the respective thermodynamic solutions. We describe the variation in high temperature transitions as mixing occurs; in the vicinity of these transitions we exactly analyse the competing effects of the dense and sparse models. By using the replica symmetric ansatz and population dynamics we described the low temperature behaviour of mixed systems

  1. Review of clinical practice guidelines for the management of LDL-related risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela B; Ballantyne, Christie M; Birtcher, Kim K; Dunn, Steven P; Urbina, Elaine M

    2014-07-15

    Managing risk related to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is vital in therapy for patients at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events given its important etiologic role in atherogenesis. Despite decades of research showing reduction of ASCVD risk with multiple approaches to lowering of LDL cholesterol, there continue to be significant gaps in care with inadequate numbers of patients receiving standard of care lipid-lowering therapy. Confusion regarding implementation of the multiple published clinical practice guidelines has been identified as one contributor to suboptimal management of LDL-related risk. This review summarizes the current guidelines for reduction of LDL-related cardiovascular risk provided by a number of major professional societies, which have broad applicability to diverse populations worldwide. Statements have varied in the process and methodology of development of recommendations, the grading system for level and strength of evidence, the inclusion or exclusion of expert opinion, the suggested ASCVD risk assessment tool, the lipoproteins recommended for risk assessment, and the lipoprotein targets of therapy. The similarities and differences among important guidelines in the United States and internationally are discussed, with recommendations for future strategies to improve consistency in approaches to LDL-related ASCVD risk and to reduce gaps in implementation of evidence-based therapies. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ox-LDL increases OX40L in endothelial cells through a LOX-1-dependent mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Q.; Xiang, R.; Zhang, D.Y.; Qin, S. [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2013-09-19

    Oxidative low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is a key risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, and it can stimulate the expression of a variety of inflammatory signals. As a new and highly sensitive inflammation index, OX40L may be a key to understanding the mechanisms that regulate interactions between cells within the vessel wall and inflammatory mediators during the development of atherosclerosis. To investigate whether Ox-LDL regulates OX40L expression through an oxidized LDL-1 receptor (LOX-1)-mediated mechanism, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of Ox-LDL (50, 100, 150 µg/mL) on endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. Stimulation with Ox-LDL increased OX40L protein 1.44-fold and mRNA 4.0-fold in endothelial cells, and these effects were inhibited by blocking LOX-1. These results indicate that LOX-1 plays an important role in the chronic inflammatory process in blood vessel walls. Inhibiting LOX-1 may reduce blood vessel inflammation and provide a therapeutic option to limit atherosclerosis progression.

  3. LDL-Cholesterol Increases the Transcytosis of Molecules through Endothelial Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Ana; Matias, Inês; Palmela, Inês; Brito, Maria Alexandra; Dias, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol has been identified as a causative factor in numerous pathologies including atherosclerosis and cancer. One of the frequent effects of elevated cholesterol levels in humans is the compromise of endothelial function due to activation of pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. While the mechanisms involved in endothelial activation by cholesterol during an inflammatory response are well established, less is known about the mechanisms by which cholesterol may affect endothelial barrier function, which were the subject of the present study. Here we show that low density lipoprotein (LDL) increases the permeability of endothelial monolayers to high molecular weight dextrans in an LDL receptor and cholesterol-dependent manner. The increased permeability seen upon LDL treatment was not caused by disruption of cell-to-cell junctions as determined by a normal localization of VE-Cadherin and ZO-1 proteins, and no major alterations in transendothelial electrical resistance or permeability to fluorescein. We show instead that LDL increases the level of high molecular weight transcytosis and that this occurs in an LDL receptor, cholesterol and caveolae-dependent way. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the systemic pathological effects of elevated cholesterol and the transport of cargo through endothelial monolayers.

  4. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieglinde Zelzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (n = 30 and high-fat diet (n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE, the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  5. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelzer, Sieglinde; Mangge, Harald; Pailer, Sabine; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Kieslinger, Petra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Prüller, Florian; Weghuber, Daniel; Datz, Christian; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Trummer, Christian; Gostner, Johanna; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-05-21

    Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (n = 30) and high-fat diet (n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  6. Ox-LDL increases OX40L in endothelial cells through a LOX-1-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Q.; Xiang, R.; Zhang, D.Y.; Qin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is a key risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, and it can stimulate the expression of a variety of inflammatory signals. As a new and highly sensitive inflammation index, OX40L may be a key to understanding the mechanisms that regulate interactions between cells within the vessel wall and inflammatory mediators during the development of atherosclerosis. To investigate whether Ox-LDL regulates OX40L expression through an oxidized LDL-1 receptor (LOX-1)-mediated mechanism, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of Ox-LDL (50, 100, 150 µg/mL) on endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. Stimulation with Ox-LDL increased OX40L protein 1.44-fold and mRNA 4.0-fold in endothelial cells, and these effects were inhibited by blocking LOX-1. These results indicate that LOX-1 plays an important role in the chronic inflammatory process in blood vessel walls. Inhibiting LOX-1 may reduce blood vessel inflammation and provide a therapeutic option to limit atherosclerosis progression

  7. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. 125 I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids

  8. The Effect of Hypertension on the Transport of LDL Across the Deformable Arterial Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagh, Mahsa; Jalali, Payman

    2010-05-01

    The influences of increased endothelial cell turnover and deformation of the intima on the transport of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) under hypertension are investigated by applying a multilayered model of aortic wall. The thickness and properties of the endothelium, intima, internal elastic lamina (IEL), and media are affected by the transmural pressure. Navier-Stokes and Brinkman equations are applied for the transport of the transmural flow and the convective-diffusion equation is solved for LDL transport. LDL macromolecules enter the intima through leaky junctions, and then pass through the media layer where they permeate over the surface of smooth muscle cells (SMC). Uptake of LDL by cells is modeled through a uniform reaction evenly distributed in the macroscopically homogeneous media layer. The results show that transmural pressure significantly affects the LDL fluxes across the leaky junction, the intima, fenestral pores in the IEL, and the media layer. Many realistic predictions including the proper magnitudes for the permeability of endothelium and intimal layers, and the hydraulic conductivity of all layers as well as their trends with pressure are predicted by the present model.

  9. Oriented immobilized anti-LDL antibody carrying poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel for cholesterol removal from human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereli, Nilay; Sener, Guelsu; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2011-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a major ingredient of the plaque that collects in the coronary arteries and causes coronary heart diseases. Among the methods used for the extracorporeal elimination of LDL from intravasal volume, immunoaffinity technique using anti-LDL antibody as a ligand offers superior selectivity and specificity. Proper orientation of the immobilized antibody is the main issue in immunoaffinity techniques. In this study, anti-human β-lipoprotein antibody (anti-LDL antibody) molecules were immobilized and oriented through protein A onto poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogel in order to remove LDL from hypercholesterolemic human plasma. PHEMA cryogel was prepared by free radical polymerization initiated with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED). PHEMA cryogel with a swelling degree of 8.89 g H 2 O/g and 67% macro-porosity was characterized by swelling studies, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and blood compatibility tests. All the clotting times were increased when compared with control plasma. The maximum immobilized anti-LDL antibody amount was 63.2 mg/g in the case of random antibody immobilization and 19.6 mg/g in the case of oriented antibody immobilization (protein A loading was 57.0 mg/g). Random and oriented anti-LDL antibody immobilized PHEMA cryogels adsorbed 111 and 129 mg LDL/g cryogel from hypercholesterolemic human plasma, respectively. Up to 80% of the adsorbed LDL was desorbed. The adsorption-desorption cycle was repeated 6 times using the same cryogel. There was no significant loss of LDL adsorption capacity. - Research highlights: → LDL cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart diseases. → Antibodies against LDL are used for the selective extracorporeal removal of LDL. → Protein A is used for the oriented immobilization of anti LDL onto PHEMA cryogel. → PHEMA cryogels are biocompatible, exhibit a low pressure drop, lack diffusion resistance and viscous samples can be

  10. Oriented immobilized anti-LDL antibody carrying poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel for cholesterol removal from human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereli, Nilay [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Sener, Guelsu [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Yavuz, Handan, E-mail: handany@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-07-20

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a major ingredient of the plaque that collects in the coronary arteries and causes coronary heart diseases. Among the methods used for the extracorporeal elimination of LDL from intravasal volume, immunoaffinity technique using anti-LDL antibody as a ligand offers superior selectivity and specificity. Proper orientation of the immobilized antibody is the main issue in immunoaffinity techniques. In this study, anti-human {beta}-lipoprotein antibody (anti-LDL antibody) molecules were immobilized and oriented through protein A onto poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogel in order to remove LDL from hypercholesterolemic human plasma. PHEMA cryogel was prepared by free radical polymerization initiated with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED). PHEMA cryogel with a swelling degree of 8.89 g H{sub 2}O/g and 67% macro-porosity was characterized by swelling studies, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and blood compatibility tests. All the clotting times were increased when compared with control plasma. The maximum immobilized anti-LDL antibody amount was 63.2 mg/g in the case of random antibody immobilization and 19.6 mg/g in the case of oriented antibody immobilization (protein A loading was 57.0 mg/g). Random and oriented anti-LDL antibody immobilized PHEMA cryogels adsorbed 111 and 129 mg LDL/g cryogel from hypercholesterolemic human plasma, respectively. Up to 80% of the adsorbed LDL was desorbed. The adsorption-desorption cycle was repeated 6 times using the same cryogel. There was no significant loss of LDL adsorption capacity. - Research highlights: {yields} LDL cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart diseases. {yields} Antibodies against LDL are used for the selective extracorporeal removal of LDL. {yields} Protein A is used for the oriented immobilization of anti LDL onto PHEMA cryogel. {yields} PHEMA cryogels are biocompatible, exhibit a low pressure drop, lack diffusion

  11. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tiphoton and tunneling ionization, the physics of plasma formed in dense matter is .... A typical Gaussian laser pulse of 100 fs dura- .... J range) – and finally it is compressed back to its .... bond-hardening, molecular orientation and reori-.

  12. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for semi-constrained indoor movement, and then uses this to map raw tracking records into mapping records representing object entry and exit times in particular locations. Then, an efficient indexing structure, the Dense Location Time Index (DLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals...... of the mapping table, along with associated construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The DLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point queries, interval queries, and dense location queries. A comprehensive experimental study with real data shows that the proposed techniques can efficiently......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based model...

  13. Interference Coordination for Dense Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2015-01-01

    and dense deployment in Tokyo are compared. Evolution to DenseNets offers new opportunities for further development of downlink interference cooperation techniques. Various mechanisms in LTE and LTE-Advanced are revisited. Some techniques try to anticipate the future in a proactive way, whereas others......The promise of ubiquitous and super-fast connectivity for the upcoming years will be in large part fulfilled by the addition of base stations and spectral aggregation. The resulting very dense networks (DenseNets) will face a number of technical challenges. Among others, the interference emerges...... as an old acquaintance with new significance. As a matter of fact, the interference conditions and the role of aggressor and victim depend to a large extent on the density and the scenario. To illustrate this, downlink interference statistics for different 3GPP simulation scenarios and a more irregular...

  14. Skyrmions, dense matter and nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethick, C.J.

    1984-12-01

    A simple introduction to a number of properties of Skyrme's chiral soliton model of baryons is given. Some implications of the model for dense matter and for nuclear interactions are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  16. Kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graedel, T.E.; Langer, W.D.; Frerking, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds has been developed to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature, and other topics of interest. The full computation involves 328 individual reactions (expanded to 1067 to study carbon and oxygen isotope chemistry); photodegradation processes are unimportant in these dense clouds and are excluded

  17. Electronegative LDL is linked to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Ho, Shu-Li; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lu, Shao-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), like that of atherosclerosis, involves lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis. Recent studies suggest that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may be a risk factor for NASH, but oxLDL levels were not directly measured in these studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an association between electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], a mildly oxLDL found in the blood, and the development of NASH using two animal models. Golden Syrian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 6 or 12weeks, then liver lipid and histopathology, plasma lipoprotein profile and LDL(-) levels were examined. The HFC-diet-fed hamsters and mice had similar levels of hepatic lipid but different histopathological changes, with microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and bridging fibrosis in the hamsters, but only in mild steatohepatitis with low inflammatory cell infiltration in the mice. It also resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and LDL(-) in hamsters, but only a slight increase in mice. Moreover, enlarged Kupffer cells, LDL(-) and accumulation of unesterified cholesterol were detected in the portal area of HFC-diet-fed hamsters, but not HFC-diet-fed mice. An in vitro study showed that LDL(-) from HFC-diet-fed hamsters induced TNF-α secretion in rat Kupffer cell through a LOX-1-dependent pathway. Our results strongly suggest that LDL(-) is one of the underlying causes of hepatic inflammation and plays a critical role in the development of NASH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. LDL cholesterol counteracts the antitumour effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors against renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Sei; Makhov, Peter; Astsaturov, Igor; Golovine, Konstantin; Tulin, Alexei; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Kolenko, Vladimir M

    2017-04-25

    Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) significantly improves survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, about one-quarter of the RCC patients are primarily refractory to treatment with TKIs. We examined viability of RCC and endothelial cells treated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and/or TKIs. Next, we validated the potential role of PI3K/AKT signalling in LDL-mediated TKI resistance. Finally, we examined the effect of a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet on the response of RCC xenograft tumours to sunitinib. The addition of LDL cholesterol increases activation of PI3K/AKT signalling and compromises the antitumour efficacy of TKIs against RCC and endothelial cells. Furthermore, RCC xenograft tumours resist TKIs in mice fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. The ability of renal tumours to maintain their cholesterol homoeostasis may be a critical component of TKI resistance in RCC patients.

  19. Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Y; Vinson, J A; Etherton, T D; Proch, J; Lazarus, S A; Kris-Etherton, P M

    2001-11-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds of plant origin with antioxidant effects. Flavonoids inhibit LDL oxidation and reduce thrombotic tendency in vitro. Little is known about how cocoa powder and dark chocolate, rich sources of polyphenols, affect these cardiovascular disease risk factors. We evaluated the effects of a diet high in cocoa powder and dark chocolate (CP-DC diet) on LDL oxidative susceptibility, serum total antioxidant capacity, and urinary prostaglandin concentrations. We conducted a randomized, 2-period, crossover study in 23 healthy subjects fed 2 diets: an average American diet (AAD) controlled for fiber, caffeine, and theobromine and an AAD supplemented with 22 g cocoa powder and 16 g dark chocolate (CP-DC diet), providing approximately 466 mg procyanidins/d. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (P = 0.01) after the CP-DC diet than after the AAD. Serum total antioxidant capacity measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity was approximately 4% greater (P = 0.04) after the CP-DC diet than after the AAD and was positively correlated with LDL oxidation lag time (r = 0.32, P = 0.03). HDL cholesterol was 4% greater after the CP-DC diet (P = 0.02) than after the AAD; however, LDL-HDL ratios were not significantly different. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of thromboxane B(2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1)(alpha) and the ratio of the 2 compounds were not significantly different between the 2 diets. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate may favorably affect cardiovascular disease risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility, increasing serum total antioxidant capacity and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and not adversely affecting prostaglandins.

  20. Dose-dependent LDL-cholesterol lowering effect by plant stanol ester consumption: clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitinen Kirsi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elevated serum lipids are linked to cardiovascular diseases calling for effective therapeutic means to reduce particularly LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C levels. Plant stanols reduce levels of LDL-C by partly blocking cholesterol absorption. Accordingly the consumption of foods with added plant stanols, typically esterified with vegetable oil fatty acids in commercial food products, are recommended for lowering serum cholesterol levels. A daily intake of 1.5 to 2.4 g of plant stanols has been scientifically evaluated to lower LDL-C by 7 to 10% in different populations, ages and with different diseases. Based on earlier studies, a general understanding is that no further reduction may be achieved in intakes in excess of approximately 2.5 g/day. Recent studies however suggest that plant stanols show a continuous dose–response effect in serum LDL-C lowering. This review discusses the evidence for a dose-effect relationship between plant stanol ester consumption and reduction of LDL-C concentrations with daily intakes of plant stanols of 4 g/day or more. We identified five such studies and the overall data demonstrate a linear dose-effect relationship with the most pertinent LDL-Cholesterol lowering outcome, 18%, achieved by a daily intake of 9 to 10 g of plant stanols. Along with reduction in LDL-C, the studies demonstrated a decrease in cholesterol absorption markers, the serum plant sterol to cholesterol ratios, by increasing the dose of plant stanol intake. None of the studies with daily intakes up to 10 g of plant stanols reported adverse clinical or biochemical effects from plant stanols. In a like manner, the magnitude of decrease in serum antioxidant vitamins was not related to the dose of plant stanols consumed and the differences between plant stanol ester consumers and controls were minor and insignificant or nonexisting. Consumption of plant stanols in high doses is feasible as a range of food products are commercially available for

  1. Cardiovascular disease markers responses in male receiving improved-fat meat-products vary by initial LDL-cholesterol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Celada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is prevalent in people at high meat-product consumption. To study the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on clinical/emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers with different initial LDL-cholesterol levels (< and ³ 3.36 mmol/L. Method: Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a crossover controlled study. Pork-products were consumed during 4wk: reduced-fat (RF, omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF, and normal-fat (NF. Pork-products were separated by 4wk washout. Lipids, lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL, apolipoproteins (apo and their ratios, homocysteine (tHcys, arylesterase (AE, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrotic factor (TNFa were tested. Results: The rate of change for AE, oxLDL, Lp(a, AE/HDL-cholesterol, LDL/apo B and AE/oxLDL ratios varied (p<0.05 among periods only in volunteers with LDLcholesterol ³3.36 mmol/L. TNFa decreased (p<0.05 among volunteers with low-normal LDL-cholesterol values while AE increased (p<0.01 in high LDL-cholesterol volunteers during the RF-period. AE increased while CRP decreased (both p<0.01 in low-normal LDL-cholesterol volunteers while AE (p<0.001 and apo B (p<0.01 increased in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the n-3RF-period. Total cholesterol (p<0.05 increased in the low/normal LDL-cholesterol group while tHcys decreased (p<0.05 in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the NF-period. Differences in response in volunteers with low-normal vs. high initial LDL-cholesterol levels to the n-3RF but not to the RF meat-products seem evident. Conclusions: Subjects with high LDL-cholesterol seem target for n-3RF products while subjects with LDL-cholesterol <3.36 mmol/L were more negatively affected by NF-products. Any generalization about functional meat product or consumption should be avoided.

  2. Constitutive law of dense granular matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of dense granular matter under steady shear flow are investigated using numerical simulation. Shear flow tends to localize near the driving boundary unless the coefficient of restitution is close to zero and the driving velocity is small. The bulk friction coefficient is independent of shear rate in dense and slow flow, whereas it is an increasing function of shear rate in rapid flow. The coefficient of restitution affects the friction coefficient only in such rapid flow. Contrastingly, in dense and slow regime, the friction coefficient is independent of the coefficient of restitution and mainly determined by the elementary friction coefficient and the rotation of grains. It is found that the mismatch between the vorticity of flow and the angular frequency of grains plays a key role to the frictional properties of sheared granular matter.

  3. HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barter, Philip; Gotto, Antonio M.; LaRosa, John C.; Maroni, Jaman; Szarek, Michael; Grundy, Scott M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Bittner, Vera; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear whether this association is maintained at very low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of the recently

  4. Adeno-associated virus LPL(S447X) gene therapy in LDL receptor knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rip, Jaap; Sierts, Jeroen A.; Vaessen, Stefan F. C.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Twisk, Jaap; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overexpression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) protects against atherosclerosis in genetically engineered mice. We tested whether a gene therapy vector that delivers human (h) LPL(S447X) cDNA to skeletal muscle could induce similar effects. METHODS: LDL receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mice were

  5. Whole-exome sequencing identifies rare and low-frequency coding variants associated with LDL cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Lange (Leslie); Y. Hu (Youna); H. Zhang (He); C. Xue (Chenyi); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); Z.-Z. Tang (Zheng-Zheng); C. Bizon (Chris); E.M. Lange (Ethan); G.D. Smith; E.H. Turner (Emily); Y. Jun (Yang); H.M. Kang (Hyun Min); G.M. Peloso (Gina); P. Auer (Paul); K.-P. Li (Kuo-Ping); J. Flannick (Jason); J. Zhang (Ji); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); K. Gaulton (Kyle); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); A. Locke (Adam); A.K. Manning (Alisa); X. Sim (Xueling); M.A. Rivas (Manuel); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); Y. Lu (Yingchang); D. Ruderfer (Douglas); E.A. Stahl (Eli); Q. Duan (Qing); Y. Li (Yun); P. Durda (Peter); S. Jiao (Shuo); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C. Bis (Joshua); D.D. Correa; M.D. Griswold (Michael); M. Jakobsdottir (Margret); G.D. Smith; P.J. Schreiner (Pamela); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); S. Crosby; C.L. Wassel (Christina); R. Do (Ron); N. Franceschini (Nora); L.W. Martin (Lisa); J.G. Robinson (Jennifer); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); D.R. Crosslin (David); E.A. Rosenthal (Elisabeth); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); M. Rieder (Mark); D.N. Farlow (Deborah); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); T. Lumley (Thomas); E.R. Fox (Ervin); C.S. Carlson (Christopher); U. Peters (Ulrike); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D. Levy (Daniel); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); H.A. Taylor (Herman); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); D.S. Siscovick (David); M. Fornage (Myriam); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); C. Hayward (Caroline); I. Rudan (Igor); Y.E. Chen (Y. Eugene); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); P. Sætrom (Pål); K. Hveem (Kristian); M. Boehnke (Michael); L. Groop (Leif); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Ballantyne (Christie); S.B. Gabriel (Stacey); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); W.S. Post (Wendy S.); K.E. North (Kari); A. Reiner (Alexander); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); D. Altshuler (David); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); D.Y. Lin (Dan); G.P. Jarvik (Gail); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); C. Kooperberg (Charles); J.G. Wilson (James); D.A. Nickerson (Deborah); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); S.S. Rich (Stephen); R.P. Tracy (Russell); C.J. Willer (Cristen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractElevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a treatable, heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 157 variants associated with lipid levels but are not well suited to assess the impact of rare and low-frequency

  6. Expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in smooth muscle cells after vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Hideyuki; Miyata, Masaaki; Kume, Noriaki; Minami, Manabu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Orihara, Koji; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Biro, Sadatoshi; Otsuji, Yutaka; Kita, Toru; Tei, Chuwa

    2006-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an oxidized LDL receptor, and its role in restenosis after angioplasty remains unknown. We used a balloon-injury model of rabbit aorta, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that LOX-1 mRNA expression was modest in the non-injured aorta, reached a peak level 2 days after injury, and remained elevated until 24 weeks after injury. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that LOX-1 was not detected in the media of non-injured aorta but expressed in both medial and neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) at 2 and 24 weeks after injury. Low concentrations of ox-LDL (10 μg/mL) stimulated the cultured SMC proliferation, which was inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides of LOX-1 mRNA. Double immunofluorescense staining showed the colocalization of LOX-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in human restenotic lesion. These results suggest that LOX-1 mediates ox-LDL-induced SMC proliferation and plays a role in neointimal formation after vascular injury

  7. Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, Kausik K.; Landmesser, Ulf; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Kallend, David; Dufour, Robert; Karakas, Mahir; Hall, Tim; Troquay, Roland P. T.; Turner, Traci; Visseren, Frank L. J.; Wijngaard, Peter; Wright, R. Scott; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a previous study, a single injection of inclisiran, a chemically synthesized small interfering RNA designed to target PCSK9 messenger RNA, was found to produce sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels over the course of 84 days in healthy volunteers.

  8. LDL cholesterol in CKD-to treat or not to treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massy, Ziad A.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    In the majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) the total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are usually normal, with the exception of patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and in peritoneal dialysis patients. Moreover, epidemiological evidence shows that the link

  9. [Lipids and cerebrovascular disease - New therapeutic options in lowering LDL-cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovadi, Emese; Csécsei, Péter; Lovig, Csenge; Karádi, Zsófia; Szapáry, László

    2016-12-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide following myocardial infaction and malignancies, furthermore, its functional outcome is the worst of all conditions. Cholesterol, especially LDL-cholesterol plays a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. It has been verified recently that escalating incidence and mortality of cerebrovascular diseases are proportional to increased levels of LDL-cholesterol. Statin therapy undeniably reduces the risk of stroke, however other methods for decreasing lipid levels have not been proved significantly effective. Preventive effect of high-dose statin treatment is without doubt, although administration of such high dosage might require special precautions for patients with prior intracerebral hemorrhage and it also risks development of incident diabetes. The recently published IMPROVE-IT study is the first to prove that the addition of ezetimibe as a non-statin type drug, to statin treatment contributes to further reduction of LDL-cholesterol. The combination treatment results in additional decrease in the incidence and mortality of cerebrovascular events, without any expansion in the number or adverse effects. These results confirm the importance of any further reduction of LDL-cholesterol levels. Achieving target values with statin-ezetimibe combination allows administration of low to moderate dose of statin, which decreases risks of adverse effects related to high-dose statin therapy. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(52), 2059-2065.

  10. Impact of LDL apheresis on atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway in familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsoni, Alexina; Villard, Elise F.; Bruckert, Eric; Robillard, Paul; Carrie, Alain; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Chapman, M. John; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Le Goff, Wilfried; Guerin, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with functional alterations of HDL particles that reduce their capacity to mediate the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of LDL apheresis

  11. Elevated capillary tube hematocrit reflects degradation of endothelial cell glycocalyx by oxidized LDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinescu, A. A.; Vink, H.; Spaan, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Proteoglycans and plasma proteins bound to the endothelial cell glycocalyx are essential for vascular function, but at the same time, they lower capillary tube hematocrit by reducing capillary volume available to flowing blood. Because oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) reduce the effective

  12. Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: Influence on LDL oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Vissers, M.N.; Schuurbiers, J.A.E.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Wiseman, S.A.; Put, van de F.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Phenols present in olive oil may contribute to the health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Olive oil antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation in vitro, but human intervention studies have failed to demonstrate similar consistent effects. To

  13. Pengaruh Ekstrak Daun Singawalang Terhadap Kadar LDL Tikus Putih Jantan Hiperkolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudi Artha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a condition of high cholesterol in the blood that is characterized by elevated levels of LDL without elevated triglyceride levels. Thus, currently the use of herbal medicines by utilizing plant biotic compounds being developed. Petiveria Alliaceae or known as singawalang can decrease levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood because of the content of compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. This study is a laboratory experimental research with pre and posttest control group design. Sample using rats (Rattus norvegicus males, aged 2-3 months with body weight ± 150 grams. The average LDL cholesterol level of negative control group (KN is 3.40 ± 2.07, which means there is no significant increase. In the simvastatin group (S, the treatment group 1 (K1, group 2 (K2, and treatment group 3 (K3 the average of LDL cholesterol results showed a decrease with the result S = -71.10 ± 31.35, K1 = -53.60 ± 26.80, K2 = -67.05 ± 23.98, and K3 = -51.06 ± 20.27. By using One Way Anova obtained significance value of p <0.05, which showed significant differences between group KN with group S, K1, K2, K3.

  14. High LDL levels lead to increased synovial inflammation and accelerated ectopic bone formation during experimental osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munter, W. de; Bosch, M.H. van den; Sloetjes, A.W.; Croce, K.J.; Vogl, T.; Roth, J.; Koenders, M.I.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Berg, W.B. van den; Kraan, P.M. van der; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A relation between osteoarthritis (OA) and increased cholesterol levels is apparent. In the present study we investigate OA pathology in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-)(/-) mice with and without a cholesterol-rich diet, a model for high systemic low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels

  15. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine during LDL oxidation is mediated by platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, U P; Pritchard, P H

    1989-03-01

    Degradation of phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine occurs during oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL). In this study, we have shown that this phospholipid hydrolysis is brought about by an LDL-associated phospholipase A2 that can hydrolyze oxidized but not intact LDL phosphatidylcholine. The chemical nature of the oxidized phospholipids that can act as substrates for this enzyme was not fully characterized, but we hypothesized that the specificity of the enzyme for oxidized LDL phosphatidylcholine might be explained by fragmentation of polyunsaturated sn-2 fatty acyl groups in LDL phosphatidylcholine during oxidation. To facilitate characterization of this enzyme, we therefore selected a fluorescent phosphatidylcholine substrate that had a short-chain, polar residue in the sn-2 position: 1-palmitoyl 2-(6-[7-nitrobenzoxadiazolyl]amino) caproyl phosphatidylcholine, (C6NBD PC). This substrate was efficiently hydrolyzed by LDL, but the dodecanoyl analogue of C6NBD PC, which differed only in that a 12-carbon rather than a 6-carbon acyl derivative was present in the sn-2 position, was not hydrolyzed. The phospholipase activity was heat-stable, calcium-independent, and was inhibited by the serine esterase inhibitors phenylmethylsulfonyl-fluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate, but was resistant to p-bromophenacylbromide and dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid. The phospholipid hydrolysis could not be attributed to the action of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase or lipoprotein lipase. Nearly all of the activity in EDTA-anticoagulated normal plasma was physically associated with apoB-containing lipoproteins, but this apoprotein was not essential as enzyme activity was present in plasma from abetalipoproteinemic patients. These properties are very similar to those recently reported for human plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase. In the present study, we found that acylhydrolase activity against C6NBD PC, PAF, and oxidized

  16. The lipid- and lipoprotein- [LDL-Lp(a)] apheresis techniques. Updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, C; Morozzi, C; Perrone, G; Di Giacomo, S; Vivenzio, A; D'Alessandri, G

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic plasmapheresis allows the extracorporeal removal of plasmatic lipoproteins (Lipid-apheresis) (LA). It can be non selective (non specific), semi - selective or selective low density lipoprotein-lipoprotein(a) (specific [LDL- Lp(a)] apheresis) (Lipoprotein apheresis, LDLa). The LDL removal rate is a perfect parameter to assess the system efficiency. Plasma-Exchange (PEX) cannot be considered either specific nor, selective. In PEX the whole blood is separated into plasma and its corpuscular components usually through centrifugation or rather filtration. The corpuscular components mixed with albumin solution plus saline (NaCl 0.9%) solution at 20%-25%, are then reinfused to the patient, to substitute the plasma formerly removed. PEX eliminates atherogenic lipoproteins, but also other essential plasma proteins, such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and hemocoagulatory mediators. Cascade filtration (CF) is a method based on plasma separation and removal of plasma proteins through double filtration. During the CF two hollow-fiber filters with pores of different diameter are used to eliminate the plasma components of different weight and molecular diameter. A CF system uses a first polypropylene filter with 0.55 µm diameter pores and a second one of diacetate of cellulose with 0.02 µm pores. The first filter separates the whole blood, and the plasma is then perfused through a second filter which allows the recovery of molecules with a diameter lower than 0.02 µm, and the removal of molecules larger in diameter as apoB100-containing lipoproteins. Since both albumin and immunoglobulins are not removed, or to a negligible extent, plasma-expanders, substitution fluids, and in particular albumin, as occurs in PEX are not needed. CF however, is characterized by lower selectivity since removes also high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles which have an antiatherogenic activity. In the 80's, a variation of Lipid-apheresis has been developed which allows the LDL

  17. Nucleon structure and properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Pethick, C.J.; Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL

    1988-01-01

    We consider the properties of dense matter in a framework of the Skyrme soliton model and the chiral bag model. The influence of the nucleon structure on the equation of state of dense matter is emphasized. We find that in both models the energy per unit volume is proportional to n 4/3 , n being the baryon number density. We discuss the properties of neutron stars with a derived equation of state. The role of many-body effects is investigated. The effect of including higher order terms in the chiral lagrangian is examined. The phase transition to quark matter is studied. 29 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  18. Fast Solvers for Dense Linear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauers, Manuel [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Altenbergerstrasse 69, A4040 Linz (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    It appears that large scale calculations in particle physics often require to solve systems of linear equations with rational number coefficients exactly. If classical Gaussian elimination is applied to a dense system, the time needed to solve such a system grows exponentially in the size of the system. In this tutorial paper, we present a standard technique from computer algebra that avoids this exponential growth: homomorphic images. Using this technique, big dense linear systems can be solved in a much more reasonable time than using Gaussian elimination over the rationals.

  19. Prospective analysis of LDL-C goal achievement and self-reported medication adherence among statin users in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bermingham, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Improvements in the control of LDL-C levels have occurred in the past decade due to the introduction of increasingly potent statins, such as atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Many patients, however, do not achieve their LDL-C goals, which presents a practical dilemma for clinicians and highlights the need to identify adherence problems in a clinically relevant manner.

  20. Comparative reactivity of the myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants HOCl and HOSCN with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Fahd O; Proudfoot, Julie M; Brown, Bronwyn E

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterised by the accumulation of lipids within macrophages in the artery wall. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the source of this lipid, owing to the uptake of oxidised LDL by scavenger receptors. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) released by leukocytes during inflammation produces ox...

  1. Studies with doxazosin on the saturable binding of 125I-LDL by liver in normocholesterolemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanjee, M.N.; Miller, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Tissue culture studies have provided evidence that alpha 1-adrenergic receptor inhibition with doxazosin increases the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in human fibroblasts. A similar effect occurring in vivo might explain the reduction of plasma LDL concentration observed in some clinical trials of prazosin. In order to examine this question further, mice were given doxazosin 100 or 400 micrograms/kg/day by i.p. injection for 4 days, after which they were killed, blood was collected and livers were excised. Binding of 125 I-labelled human LDL to tissue homogenates, over the concentration range 30-120 micrograms LDL protein/ml, was measured at 37 degrees C in the absence and presence of excess unlabelled LDL. Woolf plots of the results for saturable binding were found to be compatible with a single class of binding site. In control animals Bmax for this receptor was 867 +/- 117 ng LDL protein/mg tissue protein, and the equilibrium dissociation constant was 32.7 +/- 6.6 micrograms LDL protein/ml (mean +/- SD, n = 5). Doxazosin treatment had no effect on either parameter of 125 I-LDL binding. A trend towards a decrease in liver triglyceride concentration with increasing doses of doxazosin was recorded, but there was no evidence for effects on liver cholesterol or serum lipid concentrations

  2. Scavenger receptor classes A and B. Their roles in atherogenesis and the metabolism of modified LDL and HDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, T. J.; van Eck, M.; Herijgers, N.; Fluiter, K.; Nion, S.

    2000-01-01

    Scavenger-receptor class A has been held responsible for the clearance of modified LDL from the blood circulation. However, in mice deficient in scavenger-receptor class A, the decay in vivo of acetylated LDL (t1/2 <2 min), as well as tissue distribution and liver uptake (at 5 min 77.4 +/- 4.6% of

  3. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Cidón B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bárbara Fernández-Cidón,1–3 Ariadna Padró-Miquel,1 Pedro Alía-Ramos,1 María José Castro-Castro,1 Marta Fanlo-Maresma,4 Dolors Dot-Bach,1 José Valero-Politi,1 Xavier Pintó-Sala,4 Beatriz Candás-Estébanez1 1Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 2Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacogenetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 4Cardiovascular Risk Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Background: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation. Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results: The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73 + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13, demonstrating no significant statistical differences

  4. Purple perilla extracts with α-asarone enhance cholesterol efflux from oxidized LDL-exposed macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Hye; Paek, Ji Hun; Shin, Daekeun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-04-01

    The cellular accumulation of cholesterol is critical in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating the efflux of excess cholesterol. In the current study, we investigated whether purple Perilla frutescens extracts (PPE) at a non-toxic concentration of 1-10 µg/ml stimulate the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden J774A.1 murine macrophages exposed to 50 ng/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Purple perilla, an annual herb in the mint family and its constituents, have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and cytostatic activity, as well as to exert anti-allergic effects. Our results revealed that treatment with oxidized LDL for 24 h led to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the macrophages. PPE suppressed the oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation by blocking the induction of scavenger receptor B1. However, PPE promoted the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and subsequently accelerated cholesterol efflux from the lipid-loaded macrophages. The liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, TO-091317, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist, pioglitazone, increased ABCA1 expression and treatment with 10 µg/ml PPE further enhanced this effect. PPE did not induce LXRα and PPARγ expression per se, but enhanced their expression in the macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone was isolated from PPE and characterized as a major component enhancing the induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone, but not β-asarone was effective in attenuating foam cell formation and enhancing cholesterol efflux, revealing an isomeric difference in their activity. The results from the present study demonstrate that PPE promotes cholesterol efflux from macrophages by activating the interaction of PPARγ-LXRα-ABC transporters.

  5. Andrographolide Inhibits Oxidized LDL-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation and Foam Cell Formation in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Hui-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Yang, Ya-Chen; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2018-01-01

    oxLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide, the bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anticancer functions. Scavenger receptors (SRs), including class A SR (SR-A) and CD36, are responsible for the internalization of oxLDL. In contrast, receptors for reverse cholesterol transport, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, mediate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells. Transcription factor liver X receptor [Formula: see text] (LXR[Formula: see text] plays a key role in lipid metabolism and inflammation as well as in the regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Because of the contribution of inflammation to macrophage foam cell formation and the potent anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, we hypothesized that andrographolide might inhibit oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. The results showed that andrographolide reduced oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide decreased the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 by inducing the degradation of CD36 mRNA; however, andrographolide had no effect on SR-A expression. In contrast, andrographolide increased the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, which were dependent on LXR[Formula: see text]. Andrographolide enhanced LXR[Formula: see text] nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. Treatment with the LXR[Formula: see text] antagonist GGPP and transfection with LXR[Formula: see text] siRNA reversed the ability of andrographolide to stimulate ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. In conclusion, inhibition of CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake and induction of ABCA1- and ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux are two working mechanisms by which andrographolide inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, which suggests that andrographolide could be a potential candidate to prevent

  6. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Catarina; Fonseca, Isabel; Dias, Sérgio; Mendes de Almeida, JC

    2014-01-01

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients

  7. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Catarina [Gulbenkian Programme for Advanced Medical Education, Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Surgical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Fonseca, Isabel [Department of Pathology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Dias, Sérgio [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes de Almeida, JC [Department of Surgical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-02-26

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients.

  8. ASUPAN SERAT MAKANAN DAN KADAR KOLESTEROL-LDL PENDUDUK BERUSIA 25-65 TAHUN DI KELURAHAN KEBON KALAPA, BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Diana Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOne of the main risk factor for atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia as measured by elevated LDL cholesterol level. Life style change by lack of fruits and vegetables consumption considered a risk to increased cholesterol level. Intake of dietary fiber provide many health benefits. Dietary fiber intake may reduced the risk for the occurrence of various diseases, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the association between dietary fiber consumption and the content of LDL cholesterol for the people of 25-65 years of age at Kebon Kelapa Village in Bogor in 2013. The study was a cross-sectional design. The study utilized baseline data from Cohort Study of Non Communicable Disease Risk Factors conducted by National Institute of Health Research and Development using bivariate analysis. The result showed that the proportion of high LDL cholesterol was 78.3% with the mean cholesterol level 120 mg/dl. The mean daily dietary fiber consumption was 7 gram/day. All samples significant consumed food fiber below RDA(<25 gram/day which 78.3 percent of them had high LDL cholesterol levels. Age, intake of fat and vegetable protein had a significant association with LDL cholesterol levels.Keywords: LDL cholesterol, dietary fiber intake, HypercholesterolemiaABSTRAKSalah satu faktor risiko utama penyebab aterosklerosis adalah hiperkolesterolemia yang ditunjukkan dengan terjadinya peningkatan kadar kolesterol LDL. Perubahan pola hidup yang ditandai dengan kurang mengonsumsi sayuran dan buah merupakan salah satu risiko terjadinya peningkatan kadar kolesterol LDL. Asupan serat makanan memberikan banyak keuntungan bagi kesehatan. Asupan serat-makanan dapat mengurangi risiko untuk terjadinya berbagai penyakit, seperti PJK, stroke, hipertensi, diabetes,dan obesitas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan asupan serat-makanan dengan kadar kolesterol LDL pada penduduk usia 25

  9. Association of anti-Mullerian hormone and small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hepatosteatosis in young lean women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Efser; Caglar, Gamze S; Kaya, Cemil; Karadag, Demet; Demirtas, Selda; Kurt, Mevlut; Pabuccu, Recai

    2014-11-01

    To study the association of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL) with hepatosteatosis among young, lean, polycystic ovary patients. A prospective, case control study was carried out including 79 young lean women. Fifty-eight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 21 age-and BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited. Anthropometric variables, biochemical and hormonal parameters, insulin-resistance indices, lipid profiles including sd-LDL levels and serum AMH levels were determined. Hepatic lipid content was evaluated by abdominal ultrasonography (USG). Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate normal USG and hepatosteatosis was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. PCOS patients had an increased prevalence of hepatosteatosis by 41.4% (P = 0.006) and they had significantly higher levels of sd-LDL and AMH when compared with the control group (P lean women with and without PCOS (OR: 2.877, 95%CI: 1.453-5.699, P: 0.02 and OR: 1.336, 95%CI: 1.083-1.648, P: 0.007, respectively). AMH and sd-LDL levels were positively correlated in PCOS patients (r = 0.626, P PCOS group. (OR: 3.347, 95%CI: 1.348-8.313, P = 0.009 and OR: 1.375, 95%CI: 1.072-1.764, P = 0.012, respectively). Statistically significant higher levels of AMH were associated with hepatosteatosis both in insulin resistance (IR) positive and IR negative PCOS patients (P lean PCOS patients. Increased AMH and sd-LDL levels may independently predict hepatosteatosis in young lean women with and without PCOS.

  10. Oxidized LDL-induced angiogenesis involves sphingosine 1-phosphate: prevention by anti-S1P antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaré, Caroline; Trayssac, Magali; Garmy-Susini, Barbara; Mucher, Elodie; Sabbadini, Roger; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Neovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic lesions may promote plaque expansion, intraplaque haemorrhage and rupture. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are atherogenic, but their angiogenic effect is controversial; both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. The angiogenic mechanism of oxLDL is partly understood, but the role of the angiogenic sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), in this process is not known. Thus, we investigated whether S1P is involved in the oxLDL-induced angiogenesis and whether an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody can prevent this effect. Angiogenesis was assessed by capillary tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) cultured on Matrigel and in vivo by the Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice. Human oxLDL exhibited a biphasic angiogenic effect on HMEC-1; low concentrations were angiogenic, higher concentrations were cytotoxic. The angiogenic response to oxLDL was blocked by the sphingosine kinase (SPHK) inhibitor, dimethylsphingosine, by SPHK1-siRNA and by an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibition of oxLDL uptake and subsequent redox signalling by anti-CD36 and anti-LOX-1 receptor antibodies and by N-acetylcysteine, respectively, blocked SPHK1 activation and tube formation. In vivo, in the Matrigel plug assay, low concentrations of human oxLDL or murine oxVLDL also triggered angiogenesis, which was prevented by i.p. injection of the anti-S1P antibody. These data highlight the role of S1P in angiogenesis induced by oxLDL both in HMEC-1 cultured on Matrigel and in vivo in the Matrigel plug model in mice, and demonstrate that the anti-S1P antibody effectively blocks the angiogenic effect of oxLDL. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  12. Dense high-temperature plasma transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giniyatova, Sh.G.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the transport processes in dense high-temperature semiclassical plasma are studied on the base of the kinetic equation, where the semiclassical potential was used, in its collision integral. The coefficient of plasma electrical conductivity, viscosity and thermal conductivity were received. There were compared with the other authors' results. The Grad's method was used obtaining of viscosity and thermal coefficients. (author)

  13. The electronic pressure in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozwolski, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermodynamic calculation of the electronic pressure in a dense plasma is given. Approximations involved by the use of the Debye length are avoided, so the above theory remains valid even if the Debye length is smaller than the interionic distance. (author)

  14. APT: Action localization Proposals from dense Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Jain, M.; Gati, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is on action localization in video with the aid of spatio-temporal proposals. To alleviate the computational expensive video segmentation step of existing proposals, we propose bypassing the segmentations completely by generating proposals directly from the dense trajectories used to

  15. Dense Alternating Sign Matrices and Extensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.; Stroev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 444, 1 March (2014), s. 219-226 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : alternating sign matrix * dense matrix * totally unimodular matrix * combined matrix * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  16. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  17. Probing dense matter with strange hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann; Rafelski, Johann; Letessier, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of hadron production experimental data allows to understand the properties of the dense matter fireball produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We interpret the analysis results and argue that color deconfined state has been formed at highest CERN-SPS energies and at BNL-RHIC.

  18. Characterization of a family of gamma-ray-induced CHO mutants demonstrates that the ldlA locus is diploid and encodes the low-density lipoprotein receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, R.D.; Kozarsky, K.F.; Krieger, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ldlA locus is one of four Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell loci which are known to be required for the synthesis of functional low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Previous studies have suggested that the ldlA locus is diploid and encodes the LDL receptor. To confirm this assignment, we have isolated a partial genomic clone of the Chinese hamster LDL receptor gene and used this and other nucleic acid and antibody probes to study a family of ldlA mutants isolated after gamma-irradiation. Our analysis suggests that there are two LDL receptor alleles in wild-type CHO cells. Each of the three mutants isolated after gamma-irradiation had detectable deletions affecting one of the two LDL receptor alleles. One of the mutants also had a disruption of the remaining allele, resulting in the synthesis of an abnormal receptor precursor which was not subject to Golgi-associated posttranslational glycoprotein processing. The correlation of changes in the expression, structure, and function of LDL receptors with deletions in the LDL receptor genes in these mutants directly demonstrated that the ldlA locus in CHO cells is diploid and encodes the LDL receptor. In addition, our analysis suggests that CHO cells in culture may contain a partial LDL receptor pseudogene

  19. Assessment of oxLDL, anti-oxLDL antibodies and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as cardiovascular risk markers in obese adolescents with and without T1DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesreen N. Omar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL, anti-oxLDL antibodies (oxLDL Ab and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 are the sequel of lipoprotein oxidation and were not studied contemporarily in obese adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes (T1DM. Subjects and methods: The current study enrolled seventy-five adolescents with T1DM who were selected as having hyperglycemia and seventy-five matched control subjects. Both the diabetic and the control groups were further divided into obese, normal weight and underweight subgroups according to body mass index (BMI. The following tests were performed: fasting plasma glucose (FG glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin, apolipoprotein AI (apo AI, apolipoprotein B (apo B, oxLDL, oxLDL Ab and Lp-PLA2 mass. The diabetic subgroups were selected as having hyperglycemia. Results: Obese diabetic subgroup had higher insulin level and HOMA value than underweight and normal weight diabetic subgroups. oxLDL, oxLDL Ab and Lp-PLA2 showed higher concentrations in patients with T1DM than in control subjects (118.48 ± 23.7, 1231.8 ± 940 and 401.26 ± 97.2 vs. 58.1 ± 17.9, 424.9 ± 290.0 and 315.7 ± 70; p < 0.001.. In patients with T1DM, direct correlations were found between oxLDL, oxLDL Ab and Lp-PLA2 and cardiometabolic markers represented by apo B/apo AI ratio, FG and BMI. Conclusion: The current data provide evidence that oxLDL, its retroactive enzyme and antibody are present in circulation early in childhood when primed by obesity and hyperglycemia in T1DM and suggests that they could be useful markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Keywords: OxLDL, OxLDL Ab, Lp-PLA2, Cardiometabolic markers, Obese, Diabetes

  20. A Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effect of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Muso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: LDL apheresis (LDL-A is used for drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS as an alternative therapy to induce remission by improvement of hyperlipidemia. Several clinical studies have suggested the efficacy of LDL-A for refractory NS, but the level of evidence remains insufficient. A multicenter prospective study, POLARIS (Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effects of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome, was conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy with high-level evidence. Methods: Patients with NS who showed resistance to primary medication for at least 4 weeks were prospectively recruited to the study and treated with LDL-A. The long-term outcome was evaluated based on the rate of remission of NS 2 years after treatment. Factors affecting the outcome were also examined. Results: A total of 58 refractory NS patients from 40 facilities were recruited and enrolled as subjects of the POLARIS study. Of the 44 subjects followed for 2 years, 21 (47.7% showed remission of NS based on a urinary protein (UP level Conclusions: Almost half of the cases of drug-resistant NS showed remission 2 years after LDL-A. Improvement of nephrotic parameters at termination of the LDL-A treatment was a predictor of a favorable outcome.

  1. Comparison of effects of diet versus exercise weight loss regimens on LDL and HDL particle size in obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempel Monica C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile characterized by a predominance of small LDL and HDL particles. Weight loss, by dietary restriction or exercise, increases LDL particle size. Whether these interventions can augment HDL size in conjunction with LDL size remains unknown. Objective This study compared the effects of alternate day fasting (ADF, calorie restriction (CR, and endurance exercise on LDL and HDL particle size in overweight and obese subjects. Methods In a 12-week parallel-arm trial, adult subjects (n = 60 were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: 1 ADF (75% energy restriction for 24-h alternated with ad libitum feeding for 24-h, 2 CR (25% energy restriction every day, 3 exercise (moderate intensity training 3 x/week, or 4 control. Results Body weight was reduced (P P P P = 0.01 by ADF and CR. The proportion of small LDL particles decreased (P = 0.04 with ADF only, and the proportion of large HDL particles increased (P = 0.03 with exercise only. Conclusion These results indicate that dietary restriction increases LDL particle size, while endurance training augments HDL particle size, with minimal weight loss. None of these interventions concomitantly increased both LDL and HDL particle size, however.

  2. Prickly pear induces upregulation of liver LDL binding in familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, B.; Palumbo, R.; Efthimiou, Y.; Stamatopoulos, J.; Sinzinger, H.; Oguogho, A.; Budinsky, A.; Sinzinger, H.

    2003-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of prickly pear is well known by native local Indian population since a long time. Beside the beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, oxidation injury and platelet function has been claimed in experimental animals. We recently found an upregulation of apo-B/E receptor. We therefore examined 10 patients with isolated heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) being enrolled in a dietary run-in phase of 6 weeks after dietary counselling and a further 6 weeks of prickly pear addition. Uptake of autologous 123 I-radiolabeled LDL was determined at entry as well as after 6 weeks of daily prickly pear ingestion. We found a significant (p 176.4 mg/dl; p 123 I-LDL binding by prickly pear in FH-patients in vivo and indicate that prickly pear exerts a significant hypolipidemic action via receptor upregulation. (author)

  3. Correlation of Apo B-48 and Apo B-100 with Oxidized LDL in Men with Central Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Diah Fibriani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity has a central role in the metabolic syndrome, which raises the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASVCD. Apo B-48 and Apo B-100 are the necessary structural proteins required for the assembly and secretion of chylomicron and VLDL which have role in atherogenesis. The key initiating process in atherogenesis is the subendothelial retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Oxidation of LDL is a hallmark of atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to asses the association between Apo B-48 and Apo B-100 with Oxidized-LDL as marker of atherosclerosis risk in central obesity. We hope that the result of this study can help to make a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of vascular disease. RESULTS: There were 68 patients aged 39.6±7.3 years, Apo B-48 concentration was 7.47±5.36 μg/mL, Apo B-100 was 117.26±25.74 mg/dL, and ox-LDL was 137.05±18.88 U/L. This study showed a significant correlation between Apo B-100 and ox-LDL (r=0.608, p<0.05 and correlation between Apo B-48 and ox-LDL (r= 0.171, p<0.05. The levels of Apo B-100 were significantly different between obese with Mets and obese without Mets individuals (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that Apo B-100 concentration increase in obese in Mets as compared with obese without Mets. Apo B-48 and Apo B-100 were correlated with Oxidized LDL, but correlation between Apo B-100 and ox-LDL more significant that Apo B-48and ox-LDL. KEYWORDS: obesity, atherogenesis, Apo B-48, Apo B-100, ox-LDL.

  4. Prognostic role of LDL cholesterol in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: Multicenter prospective study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Luca; Provenzano, Michele; Chiodini, Paolo; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Tripepi, Giovanni; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Conte, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Francesco; Zoccali, Carmine; Minutolo, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The prognostic role of LDL in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still undefined. We addressed this question in a multicenter prospective study including patients referred to nephrologist for management. 1306 patients with CKD stage III-V were studied at basal visit in 79 Italian nephrology clinics in 2004-2006, and then followed for survival analyses. Study endpoints were incident cardiovascular -CV events (fatal and major non-fatal) and renal events (start of renal replacement therapy or eGFR halving). Mean age was 67.6 ± 11.8 years, male 65%, diabetes 25%, CV disease 27%, and eGFR 35.8 ± 12.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2). LDL was 119 ± 40 mg/dL, with high levels in 50.1% and 82.8% defined on the basis of the individual CV risk profile estimated according to ATPIII 2001 and ESC 2012 guidelines (LDL 100 to 160, and >70 or >100 mg/dL, respectively). Over a median follow up of 2.87 years, 178 CV and 181 renal events occurred. At multivariable Cox analyses, CV risk linearly increased with higher LDL (hazard ratio-HR per 40 mg/dL higher LDL: 1.20, 95% confidence intervals-CI 1.03-1.39); risk doubled when considering high LDL defined according to ESC 2012 (HR 2.37, 95%CI 1.39-4.03) while this association was not significant when considering the higher threshold levels of ATPIII 2001 (HR 1.10, 95%CI 0.82-1.49). No association emerged between LDL and renal risk. In non-dialysis CKD patients, CV risk increases linearly with higher LDL and is more than doubled when considering the lower threshold values currently indicated for defining optimal LDL level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. WARM EXTENDED DENSE GAS AT THE HEART OF A COLD COLLAPSING DENSE CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Phillips, Thomas G.; Furuya, Ray S.; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate when and how the birth of a protostellar core occurs, we made survey observations of four well-studied dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud using CO transitions in submillimeter bands. We report here the detection of unexpectedly warm (∼30-70 K), extended (radius of ∼2400 AU), dense (a few times 10 5 cm -3 ) gas at the heart of one of the dense cores, L1521F (MC27), within the cold dynamically collapsing components. We argue that the detected warm, extended, dense gas may originate from shock regions caused by collisions between the dynamically collapsing components and outflowing/rotating components within the dense core. We propose a new stage of star formation, 'warm-in-cold core stage (WICCS)', i.e., the cold collapsing envelope encases the warm extended dense gas at the center due to the formation of a protostellar core. WICCS would constitute a missing link in evolution between a cold quiescent starless core and a young protostar in class 0 stage that has a large-scale bipolar outflow.

  6. The effect of indigestible dextrin and phytosterol on serum LDL-cholesterol level on hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Then

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and phytosterol 2x0.6g/day provided for 6 weeks in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol levels amongs hypercholesterolemic subjects.Methods A randomized clinical trial, two pararel groups, double blinded and randomly assigned to each different group was done in 16 subjects per-group.Results Before the, intervention the level of LDL cholesterol of both ID and FS group were 158.81 ± 17.74 mg/dL and 176.18 ± 25.31 mg/dL, respectively. After the intervention there was a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol level in both groups, i.e. among the ID group by 20.93 ± 12.65 mg/dL (13.24% with p value of <0.001, while the reduction of LDL cholesterol level among the PS group was 21.87 ± 28.76 mg/dL (11.21% with p value of 0.008. However, the reduction of cholesterol level between the two groups did not show any significant difference.Conclusion Consuming indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and 2x0.6g/day phytosterol (PS for 6 weeks will have the same ability to decrease the serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 114-9Key words: indigestible dextrin, phytosterol, cholesterol

  7. Treatment of hyperprolactinaemia reduces total cholesterol and LDL in patients with prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwetz, Verena; Librizzi, Rosaria; Trummer, Christian; Theiler, Georg; Stiegler, Claudia; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Pilz, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia might have adverse effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether dopamine agonist treatment with cabergoline has significant effects on blood lipids, fasting glucose and HbA1c levels in patients with micro- or macroprolactinoma. In this retrospective observational study the main outcome measures are changes in parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism compared at hyperprolactinaemia and after achievement of normoprolactinaemia by cabergoline treatment. We enrolled 53 study participants (22 females; median [interquartile range] age: 40.0 [27.5 to 50.0] years), 22 (41.5 %) with micro-, and 31 (58.5 %) with macroprolactinomas. After a median follow-up of 9 months, prolactin levels decreased from 220.6 (80.7-913.4) to 11.2 (3.5-18.7) ng/mL (p LDL) from 121.6 (±39.4) to 110.6 mg/dl (±37.6, p = 0.005) and total cholesterol from 191 (168.5-241) to 181 mg/dl (162-217, p cholesterol or LDL as dependent, and the change in prolactin, oestradiol, and testosterone as independent variables, no significant predictor of the change in total cholesterol or LDL was identified. In patients with prolactinomas, normalisation of elevated prolactin levels by cabergoline treatment was accompanied by significant reductions in LDL and total cholesterol. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to evaluate the clinical implications of lipid levels in the monitoring and treatment of patients with prolactinomas.

  8. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL TRAINING ON THE MYOCARDIUM OF FEMALE LDL KNOCKOUT OVARIECTOMIZED MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Brianezi, Ledimar; Marques, Mara Rubia; Cardoso, Clever Gomes; Miranda, Maria Luiza de Jesus; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The emergence of coronary heart disease increases with menopause, physical inactivity and with dyslipidemia. It is known that physical training promotes the improvement of cardiovascular functions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic physical training on the left ventricle in female LDL knockout ovariectomized mice. Methods: Thirty animals were divided into 6 groups (n=5), namely, sedentary non-ovariectomized control; sedentary...

  9. Type 1 diabetes promotes disruption of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Fredrik; Kramer, Farah; Barnhart, Shelley; Kanter, Jenny E.; Vaisar, Tomas; Merrill, Rachel D.; Geng, Linda; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Chait, Alan; Heinecke, Jay W.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, largely because of disruption of atherosclerotic lesions, accounts for the majority of deaths in people with type 1 diabetes. Recent mouse models have provided insights into the accelerated atherosclerotic lesion initiation in diabetes, but it is unknown whether diabetes directly worsens more clinically relevant advanced lesions. We therefore used an LDL receptor-deficient mouse model, in which type 1 diabetes can be induced at will, to investigate the effects of diabe...

  10. Pengaruh pemberian yoghurt sinbiotik tanpa lemak ditambah tepung gembili terhadap kadar kolesterol ldl tikus hiperkolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afida Soucha Towil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoghurt is probiotics a fermented milk product, produced by lactic acid bacteria and has being proved tolower cholesterol. The addition lesser yam of inulin could be the hypocholesterolemic effect.Objective:The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of non-fat yoghurt synbiotic added with of lesser yam flouradministration towards LDL cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemic rats.Methods: True experimental study with pre-post test was conducted to 24 male Wistar ratshypercholesterolemiainducedwhich grouped using simple random sampling. Samples was divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling:control, P1 (consumed 2 ml dose, P2 (consumed 3 ml dose, and P3 (consumed 4 ml dose, each group were containedof 6 rats. Non-fat yoghurt synbiotic added with oflesser yam were administered for 14 days intervention. LDLcholesterol level were determined using CHOD-PAP methods. All datas collected were analyzed using paired t-test andOne Way ANOVA followed by LSD test at 95% confidence level.Results: LDL cholesterol level was decreased significantly after 14 days intervention (P1=16.63% (p=0.033;P2=20.72% (p=0.034; P3=20.51% (p=0.013. P2 was the highest decreasing of LDL cholesterol compared to P3,with the provision of non-fat yoghurt synbiotic added with of lesser yam flour for about 3 ml.Conclusion: Non-fat yoghurt synbiotic added with of lesser yam flour was significant lowering LDL cholesterol level inhypercholesterolemic rats.

  11. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  12. Dense plasma focus - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendys, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)

  13. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    -ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation......Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X...

  14. Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A

    2005-01-01

    A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil

  15. Deterministic dense coding with partially entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozes, Shay; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of a d -level partially entangled state, shared by two parties wishing to communicate classical information without errors over a noiseless quantum channel, is discussed. We analytically construct deterministic dense coding schemes for certain classes of nonmaximally entangled states, and numerically obtain schemes in the general case. We study the dependency of the maximal alphabet size of such schemes on the partially entangled state shared by the two parties. Surprisingly, for d>2 it is possible to have deterministic dense coding with less than one ebit. In this case the number of alphabet letters that can be communicated by a single particle is between d and 2d . In general, we numerically find that the maximal alphabet size is any integer in the range [d,d2] with the possible exception of d2-1 . We also find that states with less entanglement can have a greater deterministic communication capacity than other more entangled states.

  16. PHOTOCHEMICAL HEATING OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassgold, A. E. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Najita, J. R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    Photochemical heating is analyzed with an emphasis on the heating generated by chemical reactions initiated by the products of photodissociation and photoionization. The immediate products are slowed down by collisions with the ambient gas and then heat the gas. In addition to this direct process, heating is also produced by the subsequent chemical reactions initiated by these products. Some of this chemical heating comes from the kinetic energy of the reaction products and the rest from collisional de-excitation of the product atoms and molecules. In considering dense gas dominated by molecular hydrogen, we find that the chemical heating is sometimes as large, if not much larger than, the direct heating. In very dense gas, the total photochemical heating approaches 10 eV per photodissociation (or photoionization), competitive with other ways of heating molecular gas.

  17. Saikosaponin-a Attenuates Oxidized LDL Uptake and Prompts Cholesterol Efflux in THP-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Wang, Hongyan; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xiaoqing; Peng, Kuang; Wang, Lili; Liu, Pixu; Qu, Peng

    2016-06-01

    Saikosaponins-a (Ssa) is a major bioactive extract of Radix Bupleuri which is a traditional Chinese medicine. The roles of inflammatory response and lipid transportation in the process of atherosclerosis have drawn increasing attention. We explored the regulation of lipid transportation and immune-inflammatory role of Ssa in early atherosclerosis. The antiatherogenic actions and possible molecular mechanisms of Ssa were texted in THP-1 cells. We examined the effect of Ssa on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced lipid uptake, cholesterol efflux, immune-inflammatory response. THP-1 macrophages were treated with Ssa followed by ox-LDL for 24 hours. Results from western blot showed that Ssa obviously reduced lipoprotein uptake to block foam cell formation and the expression of Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 and CD36. Ssa also significantly boosted cholesterol efflux and the expression of ATP binding cassettetransporter A1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The results also indicated that Ssa inhibited ox-LDL-induced activation of AKT and nuclear factor-κB, assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome and production of proinflammatory cytokines. It is suggested that the ability against immune inflammatory response of Ssa is due to modulation of the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into Ssa's molecular mechanism and its therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  18. Lipid fluidity at different regions in LDL and HDL of β-thalassemia/Hb E patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Charlermchoung, Chalermkhwan; Luechapudiporn, Rataya; Yamanont, Paveena; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chantharaksri, Udom

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-related vascular complications in β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (β-thal/Hb E) patients may result from iron induced oxidation of lipoproteins. To identify the specific site of oxidative damage, changes in lipid fluidity at different regions in LDL and HDL particle were investigated using two fluorescence probes and two ESR spin probes. The magnitude of increased lipid fluidity in thalassemic lipoproteins was dependent on the location of the probes. In hydrophobic region, the rotational correlation times for 16-doxyl stearic acid and DPH anisotropy were markedly changed in LDL and HDL of the patients. In the surface region, there was only a slight change in the order parameter (S) for 5-doxyl stearic acid and TMA-DPH anisotropy. Lipid fluidity at the core of LDL and HDL showed good correlation with oxidative stress markers, the ratio of CL/CO, and the level of α-tocopherol, suggesting that hydrophobic region of thalassemic lipoprotein was a target site for oxidative damage

  19. Rapamycin down-regulates LDL-receptor expression independently of SREBP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Laura J.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    As a key regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) up-regulates expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (e.g., 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase) and uptake (the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor). Previously, we showed that Akt, a critical kinase in cell growth and proliferation, contributes to SREBP-2 activation. However, the specific Akt target involved is unknown. A potential candidate is the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR. Rapamycin can cause hyperlipidaemia clinically, and we hypothesised that this may be mediated via an effect of mTOR on SREBP-2. Herein, we found that SREBP-2 activation and HMG-CoA Reductase gene expression were unaffected by rapamycin treatment. However, LDL-receptor gene expression was decreased by rapamycin, suggesting that this may contribute to the hyperlipidaemia observed in rapamycin-treated patients. Rapamycin did not affect mRNA stability, so the decrease in LDL-receptor gene expression is likely to be occurring at the transcriptional level, although independently of SREBP-2

  20. The Inhibition Effect of Cell DNA Oxidative Damage and LDL Oxidation by Bovine Colostrums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effect of bovine colostrums on inhibition of DNA oxidative damage and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in vitro. Results showed that whey and skimmed milk exhibited not only higher inhibitory activities of oxidative damage of deoxyribose but also an inhibitory effect on the breakdown of supercoiled DNA into open circular DNA and linear DNA. The quantities of 8-OH-2′-dG formed under whey, caseins and skimmed milk treatment were 0.24, 0.24 and 1.24 μg/mL, respectively. The quantity of malondialdehyde formed through LDL oxidation induced by copprous ion was significantly decreased as colostrums protein solutions were added, in which whey and caseins led to a more significant decrease than skimmed milk. The formation of conjugated dienes could be inhibited by treatment with colostrums protein solutions. Whey exhibited the longest lag time of conjugated dienes formation among the colostrums proteins. The lag time of the whey was 2.33 times that of the control. From the results of foregoing, the bovine colostrums protein has potential value in the inhibition of DNA oxidation damage and LDL oxidation.

  1. Dense-plasma research using ballistic compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, H.

    1986-01-01

    An introduction is given to research on dense (or nonideal) plasmas which can be generated to advantage by ballistic compressors. Some properties of ballistic compressors are discussed especially in comparison with shock tubes. A short review is given on the history of these devices for high-pressure plasma generation. The present state of the art is reported including research on the two ZIE (Central Institute for Electron Physics) ballistic compressors. (author)

  2. Studying dense plasmas with coherent XUV pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabile, H.

    2006-12-01

    The investigation of dense plasma dynamic requires the development of diagnostics able to ensure the measurement of electronic density with micro-metric space resolution and sub-nanosecond, or even subpicosecond, time resolution (indeed this must be at least comparable with the characteristic tune scale of plasma evolution). In contrast with low-density plasmas, dense plasmas cannot be studied using optical probes in the visible domain, the density range accessible being limited to the critical density (N c equals 1.1*10 21 λ -2 (μm) ∼ 10 21 cm -3 for infrared). In addition, light is reflected even at smaller densities if the medium exhibits sharp density gradients. Hence probing of dense plasmas, for instance those produced by laser irradiation of solids, requires using shorter wavelength radiation. Thanks to their physical properties, high order harmonics generated in rare gases are particularly adapted to the study of dense plasmas. Indeed, they can naturally be synchronized with the generating laser and their pulse duration is very short, which makes it possible to use them in pump-probe experiments. Moreover, they exhibit good spatial and temporal coherencies. Two types of diagnostics were developed during this thesis. The first one was used to study the instantaneous creation of hot-solid-density plasma generated by focusing a femtosecond high-contrast laser on an ultra-thin foil (100 nm) in the 10 18 W/cm 2 intensity regime. The use of high order harmonics, providing a probe beam of sufficiently short wavelengths to penetrate such a medium, enables the study of its dynamics on the 100 fs time scale. The second one uses the harmonics beam as probe beam (λ equals 32 nm) within an interferometric device. This diagnostic was designed to ensure a micro-metric spatial resolution and a temporal resolution in the femtosecond range. The first results in presence of plasma created by irradiation of an aluminum target underline the potentialities of this new

  3. Particle identification system based on dense aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Beloborodov, K.I., E-mail: K.I.Beloborodov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, 5, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Golubev, V.B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Martin, K.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, Karl Marx prospect, Novosibirsk, 630092 (Russian Federation); Serednyakov, S.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Street, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-12-21

    A threshold Cherenkov counter based on dense aerogel with refraction index n=1.13 is described. This counter is used for kaon identification at momenta below 1 GeV/c in the SND detector, which takes data at the VEPP-2000 e{sup +}e{sup −} collider. The results of measurements of the counter efficiency using electrons, muons, pions, and kaons produced in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation are presented.

  4. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficiation 2010, 4–6 May 2010. 671The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 110 NOVEMBER 2010 L Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant mixed with magnetite in the launder and enters... with production. Plant equipment operational changes Cyclone spigot changes In an attempt to lower the cut-point density, the spigot on the L 672 NOVEMBER 2010 VOLUME 110 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Figure 1...

  5. Collective dynamics in dense fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short wavelength collective dynamics of dense binary fluid mixtures. The analysis shows that at the level of linearized generalized hydrodynamics, the longitudinal modes of the system separates essentially into two parts - one involves the coupling of partial density fluctuations of the two species and the other involves coupling of longitudinal momentum and temperature fluctuations. The authors have shown that the coupling of longitudinal momentum and temperature fluctuations leads to an adequate description of sound propagation in such systems. In particular, they show that structural disorder controls the trapping of sound waves in dense mixtures. The coupling of the partial density fluctuations of the two species leads to a simple description of the partial dynamic structure factors. The results are in agreement with the molecular dynamics simulations of soft sphere mixtures. The partial density fluctuations are the slowest decaying fluctuations on molecular length scales and it turns out that nonlinear coupling of these slow modes leads to important corrections to the long time behavior of the time correlation functions determining the shear viscosity in dense mixtures

  6. Formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Anaelle

    2009-01-01

    Stars form in molecular clouds, when they collapse and fragment to produce protostellar dense cores. These dense cores are then likely to contract under their own gravity, and form young protostars, that further evolve while accreting their circumstellar mass, until they reach the main sequence. The main goal of this thesis was to study the formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores. To do so, two main studies, described in this manuscript, were carried out. First, we studied the formation of protostellar cores by quantifying the impact of protostellar outflows on clustered star formation. We carried out a study of the protostellar outflows powered by the young stellar objects currently formed in the NGc 2264-C proto-cluster, and we show that protostellar outflows seem to play a crucial role as turbulence progenitors in clustered star forming regions, although they seem unlikely to significantly modify the global infall processes at work on clump scales. Second, we investigated the formation of multiple systems by core fragmentation, by using high - resolution observations that allow to probe the multiplicity of young protostars on small scales. Our results suggest that the multiplicity rate of protostars on small scales increase while they evolve, and thus favor dynamical scenarios for the formation of multiple systems. Moreover, our results favor magnetized scenarios of core collapse to explain the small-scale properties of protostars at the earliest stages. (author) [fr

  7. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  8. Replication of LDL GWAs hits in PROSPER/PHASE as validation for future (pharmacogenetic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stott David J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PHArmacogenetic study of Statins in the Elderly at risk (PHASE is a genome wide association study in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at risk for vascular disease (PROSPER that investigates the genetic variation responsible for the individual variation in drug response to pravastatin. Statins lower LDL-cholesterol in general by 30%, however not in all subjects. Moreover, clinical response is highly variable and adverse effects occur in a minority of patients. In this report we first describe the rationale of the PROSPER/PHASE project and second show that the PROSPER/PHASE study can be used to study pharmacogenetics in the elderly. Methods The genome wide association study (GWAS was conducted using the Illumina 660K-Quad beadchips following manufacturer's instructions. After a stringent quality control 557,192 SNPs in 5,244 subjects were available for analysis. To maximize the availability of genetic data and coverage of the genome, imputation up to 2.5 million autosomal CEPH HapMap SNPs was performed with MACH imputation software. The GWAS for LDL-cholesterol is assessed with an additive linear regression model in PROBABEL software, adjusted for age, sex, and country of origin to account for population stratification. Results Forty-two SNPs reached the GWAS significant threshold of p = 5.0e-08 in 5 genomic loci (APOE/APOC1; LDLR; FADS2/FEN1; HMGCR; PSRC1/CELSR5. The top SNP (rs445925, chromosome 19 with a p-value of p = 2.8e-30 is located within the APOC1 gene and near the APOE gene. The second top SNP (rs6511720, chromosome 19 with a p-value of p = 5.22e-15 is located within the LDLR gene. All 5 genomic loci were previously associated with LDL-cholesterol levels, no novel loci were identified. Replication in WOSCOPS and CARE confirmed our results. Conclusion With the GWAS in the PROSPER/PHASE study we confirm the previously found genetic associations with LDL-cholesterol levels. With this proof

  9. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos; Jangabylova, Aliya; Kusmanov, Adil

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step

  10. About chiral models of dense matter and its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.

    1990-12-01

    The chiral models of dense nucleon matter are discussed. The quark matter with broken chiral symmetry is described. The magnetic properties of dense matter are presented and conclusions are given. 37 refs. (A.S.)

  11. Increased VLDL in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased LDL results from increased synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain-van der Velden, M; Kaysen, GA; Barrett, HA; Stellaard, F; Gadellaa, MM; Voorbij, HA; Reijngoud, DJ; Rabelink, TJ

    Increased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) results from increased synthesis. Hyperlipidemias a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for ischemic heart

  12. Higher Risk of Abdominal Obesity, Elevated LDL Cholesterol and Hypertriglyceridemia, but not of Hypertension, in People Living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelpi, Marco; Afzal, Shoaib; Lundgren, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) have lower life expectancy than uninfected individuals, partly explained by excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD risk factors. We investigated the association between HIV infection and abdominal obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL...... and underwent blood pressure, waist-, hip-, weight-, and height-measurements. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants. We assessed whether HIV was independently associated with abdominal obesity, elevated LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension using logistic regression models...... adjusted for known risk factors. Results: HIV infection was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.92[1.60-2.30]) for a given BMI, elevated LDL-C (aOR: 1.32[1.09-1.59]), hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 1.76[1.49-2.08]), and lower risk of hypertension (aOR: 0.63[0.54 - 0...

  13. Novel phage group infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, as revealed by genomic and proteomic analysis of bacteriophage Ldl1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; Neve, Horst; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-02-01

    Ldl1 is a virulent phage infecting the dairy starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis LdlS. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that this phage exhibits a large head and a long tail and bears little resemblance to other characterized phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii. In vitro propagation of this phage revealed a latent period of 30 to 40 min and a burst size of 59.9 +/- 1.9 phage particles. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses showed remarkable similarity between the genome of Ldl1 and that of Lactobacillus plantarum phage ATCC 8014-B2. The genomic and proteomic characteristics of Ldl1 demonstrate that this phage does not belong to any of the four previously recognized L. delbrueckii phage groups, necessitating the creation of a new group, called group e, thus adding to the knowledge on the diversity of phages targeting strains of this industrially important lactic acid bacterial species.

  14. The pro-inflammatory effect of uraemia overrules the anti-atherogenic potential of immunization with oxidized LDL in apoE-/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja X; Binder, Christoph J; Fredrikson, Gunilla N

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uraemia increases oxidative stress, plasma titres of antibodies recognizing oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and development of atherosclerosis. Immunization with oxLDL prevents classical, non-uraemic atherosclerosis. We have investigated whether immunization with oxLDL might...... also prevent uraemia-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. METHODS: ApoE-/- mice were immunized with either native LDL (n = 25), Cu(2+)-oxidized LDL (n = 25), PBS (n = 25), the apolipoprotein B-derived peptide P45 (apoB-peptide P45) conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA...

  15. LDL electronegativa: caracterització fisico-química i biològica en individus normolipèmics i hipercolesterolèmics

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez i Gonzàlez, Sònia

    2002-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada L'LDL electronegativa (LDL(-)) és una fracció modificada de l'LDL total present en circulació. Vàries evidències indiquen que l'LDL(-) pot presentar característiques aterogèniques, ja que se suggereix que podria estar mínimament oxidada. En la present tesi s'han estudiat les propietats de l'LDL(-) procedent d'individus normolipèmics (NL) i hipercolesterolèmics (HF). Es van avaluar els següents aspectes: 1) Característiqu...

  16. Cardiovascular Outcomes of PCSK9 Inhibitors: With Special Emphasis on Its Effect beyond LDL-Cholesterol Lowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C. Using PCSK9 inhibitors could lead to a substantial decrement in LDL-C plasma level ranging from 50% to 70%, either as a monotherapy or on top of statins. A large number of trials have shown robust reduction of LDL-C plasma level with the use of PCSK9 inhibitors as a monotherapy or in combination with statins in familial and nonfamilial forms of hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, PCSK9 inhibitors do not appear to increase the risk of hepatic and muscle-related side effects. PCSK9 inhibitors proved to be a highly potent and promising antihypercholesterolemic drug by decreasing LDL-R lysosomal degradation by PCSK9 protein. Statin drugs are known to have some pleiotropic effects. In this article, we are also focusing on the effects of PCSK9 inhibitor beyond LDL-C reduction like endothelial inflammation, atherosclerosis, its safety in patients with diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease, and its influence on neurocognition and stroke.

  17. LDL-oxidation, serum uric acid, kidney function and pulse-wave velocity: Data from the Brisighella Heart Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Kuwabara, Masanari; Johnson, Richard; Bove, Marilisa; Fogacci, Federica; Rosticci, Martina; Giovannini, Marina; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2018-06-15

    Serum uric acid (SUA) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may be associated with arterial aging. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between SUA, oxLDL and arterial stiffness in subjects with normal renal function and in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. From the database of the 2012 Brisighella Heart Study, we compared age-matched adult, non-smoker subjects without cardiovascular disease and with normal renal function (n = 205), subjects with stage II chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 118) and subjects with stage III CKD (n = 94). All subjects underwent a determination of the LDL oxidative susceptibility, oxLDL levels, SUA and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV). By univariate analysis, PWV correlated with a large number of clinical, haemodynamic and metabolic parameters, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with normal renal function and in those with stage II or III CKD. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that in the presence of normal renal function or stage II CKD, the main predictors of PWV were age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), ox-LDL, apolipoprotein B and SUA (p function, but not in the subjects with more compromised eGFR. This study confirms the complex relationship of SUA with cardiovascular and metabolic disease in the patient with established renal disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Evolution of dense spatially modulated electron bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, N.; Bratman, V. L.; Friedman, A.

    2018-03-01

    An analytical theory describing the dynamics of relativistic moving 1D electron pulses (layers) with the density modulation affected by a space charge has been revised and generalized for its application to the formation of dense picosecond bunches from linear accelerators with laser-driven photo injectors, and its good agreement with General Particle Tracer simulations has been demonstrated. Evolution of quasi-one-dimensional bunches (disks), for which the derived formulas predict longitudinal expansion, is compared with that for thin and long electron cylinders (threads), for which the excitation of non-linear waves with density spikes was found earlier by Musumeci et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 184801 (2011)] and Musumeci et al. [Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. -Accel. Beams 16(10), 100701 (2013)]. Both types of bunches can be used for efficiency enhancement of THz sources based on the Doppler frequency up-shifted coherent spontaneous radiation of electrons. Despite the strong Coulomb repulsion, the periodicity of a preliminary modulation in dense 1D layers persists during their expansion in the most interesting case of a relatively small change in particle energy. However, the period of modulation increases and its amplitude decreases in time. In the case of a large change in electron energy, the uniformity of periodicity is broken due to different relativistic changes in longitudinal scales along the bunch: the "period" of modulation decreases and its amplitude increases from the rear to the front boundary. Nevertheless, the use of relatively long electron bunches with a proper preliminary spatial modulation of density can provide a significantly higher power and a narrower spectrum of coherent spontaneous radiation of dense bunches than in the case of initially short single bunches with the same charge.

  20. Electron conductivity model for dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; More, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    An electron conductivity model for dense plasmas is described which gives a consistent and complete set of transport coefficients including not only electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, but also thermoelectric power, and Hall, Nernst, Ettinghausen, and Leduc--Righi coefficients. The model is useful for simulating plasma experiments with strong magnetic fields. The coefficients apply over a wide range of plasma temperature and density and are expressed in a computationally simple form. Different formulas are used for the electron relaxation time in plasma, liquid, and solid phases. Comparisons with recent calculations and available experimental measurement show the model gives results which are sufficiently accurate for many practical applications

  1. Dense hydrogen plasma: Comparison between models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerouin, J.G.; Bernard, S.

    1997-01-01

    Static and dynamical properties of the dense hydrogen plasma (ρ≥2.6gcm -3 , 0.1< T<5eV) in the strongly coupled regime are compared through different numerical approaches. It is shown that simplified density-functional molecular-dynamics simulations (DFMD), without orbitals, such as Thomas-Fermi Dirac or Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Weiszaecker simulations give similar results to more sophisticated descriptions such as Car-Parrinello (CP), tight binding, or path-integral Monte Carlo, in a wide range of temperatures. At very low temperature, screening effects predicted by DFMD are still less pronounced than CP simulations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  3. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwmeester, Henny J.M. [Laboratory for Inorganic Materials Science, Department of Science and Technology and MESA Research Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2003-07-30

    Dense ceramic membranes made from mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting perovskite-related oxides allow separation of oxygen from an air supply at elevated temperatures (>700C). By combining air separation and catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas into a ceramic membrane reactor, this technology is expected to significantly reduce the capital costs of conversion of natural gas to liquid added-value products. The present survey is mainly concerned with the material properties that govern the performance of the mixed-conducting membranes in real operating conditions and highlights significant developments in the field.

  4. The Magpie dense z-pinch project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittenden, J.; Choi, P.; Mitchell, I.; Dangor, A.E.; Haines, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a design study on the Mega Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE), a project currently under construction at Imperial College London, to study radiative collapse of a dense Z-pinch plasma created from a 20 um diameter cryogenic hydrogen fiber. The 2 TW generator is composed of four individual 2.4 MV Marx banks of the HERMES III type design with a maximum stored energy of 336 kJ. They drive four 5 ohm Pulse Forming Lines which are combined into a single 1.25 MA in 150 ns to a 150 nH load

  5. Strange mesons in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senger, P.

    2000-10-01

    Experimental data on the production of kaons and antikaons in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies are reviewed with respect to in-medium effects. The K - /K + ratios measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than in proton-proton collisions. The azimuthal angle distributions of K + mesons indicate a repulsive kaon-nucleon potential. Microscopic transport calculations consistently explain both the yields and the emission patterns of kaons and antikaons when assuming that their properties are modified in dense nuclear matter. The K + production excitation functions measured in light and heavy collision systems provide evidence for a soft nuclear equation-of-state. (orig.)

  6. Atomic physics in dense plasmas. Recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Angelo, P.; Ceccotti, T.; Derfoul, H.; Poquerusse, A.; Sauvan, P.; Oks, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents observations and simulations of novel density-dependent spectroscopic features in hot and dense plasmas. Both time-integrated and time-resolved results using ultra-high resolutions spectrometers are presented; they are justified within the standard spectral line shape theory or the quasi-molecular alternative treatment. A particular attention is paid to the impact of the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma on the experimental spectra. Satellite-like features and molecular lines in the cases of Flyβ, Heβ are discussed emphasizing their importance for the density diagnostics when ion-ion correlations are significant. (authors)

  7. Structure of a new dense amorphous ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, J.L.; Bowron, D.T.; Soper, A.K.; Loerting, T.; Mayer, E.; Hallbrucker, A.

    2002-01-01

    The detailed structure of a new dense amorphous ice, VHDA, is determined by isotope substitution neutron diffraction. Its structure is characterized by a doubled occupancy of the stabilizing interstitial location that was found in high density amorphous ice, HDA. As would be expected for a thermally activated unlocking of the stabilizing 'interstitial', the transition from VHDA to LDA (low-density amorphous ice) is very sharp. Although its higher density makes VHDA a better candidate than HDA for a physical manifestation of the second putative liquid phase of water, as for the HDA case, the VHDA to LDA transition also appears to be kinetically controlled

  8. Fabrication of dense panels in lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, P.; Roger, J.; Pointud, R.

    1958-04-01

    The authors report a study aimed at the fabrication of large and dense lithium fluoride panels. This sintered lithium fluoride is then supposed to be used for the construction of barriers of protection against a flow of thermal neutrons. They briefly present the raw material which is used under the form of chamotte obtained through a pre-sintering process which is also described. Grain size measurements and sample preparation are indicated. Shaping, drying, and thermal treatment are briefly described, and characteristics of the sintered product are indicated

  9. Quasi-molecular processes in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Quasi-molecular phenomena occur in dense plasmas when the interatomic spacing is comparable to the characteristic wavelength of the electrons. If the electronic states are bound, covalent orbitals arise with different excitation energies, radiative rates, and collisional rates than for isolated ions. For continuum electrons, charge localization near transient clusters of nuclei can influence many scattering and transport processes. We identify several novel consequences of quasi-molecular phenomena in plasmas and give a possible explanation of high energy features associated with helium-like emissions lines observed in recent inertial fusion experiments. 7 refs

  10. Graph Quasicontinuous Functions and Densely Continuous Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica Hola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let $X, Y$ be topological spaces. A function $f: X \\to Y$ is said to be graph quasicontinuous if there is a quasicontinuous function $g: X \\to Y$ with the graph of $g$ contained in the closure of the graph of $f$. There is a close relation between the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and minimal usco maps as well as the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and densely continuous forms. Every function with values in a compact Hausdorff space is graph quasicontinuous; more generally every locally compact function is graph quasicontinuous.

  11. Consumption of Energy-Dense Diets in Relation to Cardiometabolic Abnormalities among Tehranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Khayatzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the association between dietary energy density and prevalence of the cardiometabolic risk factors among Te-hranian adult women. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study we assessed habitual dietary intakes of 486 Tehranian adult women by the use of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary en-ergy density (DED was calculated as each individual’s reported daily energy intake (kcal/d into total weight of foods (excluding beverages consumed (g/d. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, lipid profiles and blood pressure were measured. Diabetes (FPG? 126 mg/dL, dyslip-idemia (based on Adult Treatment Panel III and hypertension (based on Joint National Committee VI were defined. The presence of “at least one risk factor” and "at least two risk factors" of the three major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes were also evaluated. To explore the associations between DED and cardio-metabolic risk factors, we obtained prevalence ratios in different models accounting for con-founders. Results: Mean dietary energy density was 1.77±0.35 kcal/g. Consumption of energy-dense diets was associated with higher intakes of energy, dietary fat, cholesterol, vegetable oils, refined grains and high-fat dairy products and lower intakes of dietary carbohydrates, fruits, vegetables , meat and fish. Adherence to an energy-dense diet was associated with elevated levels of serum triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol and lower levels of serum HDL-cholesterol. Women in the top quartile of DED were more likely to have dyslipidemia (61% vs. 31%, P<0.05, at least one (68% vs. 35%, P<0.05 and at least two (29% vs. 10%, P<0.05 cardiometabolic risk factors as compared with those in the bottom quartile. Addi-tional control for BMI slightly attenuated the associations. No overall significant associations were found between consumption of energy-dense

  12. LDL oxidada: Como um fator de risco para doença cardiovascular no transplante renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Soltani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivos: A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC, que tenham sido submetidos à terapia de substituição renal, é muito elevada devido a doenças cardiovasculares (DCV. Alguns estudos indicaram que a ciclosporina A (CsA, um medicamento utilizado para prevenir a rejeição de transplante, está associada à perda óssea após o transplante. Além disso, ela tem um efeito oxidante sobre os lipídeos circulantes. Seu efeito pró-oxidante nas membranas celulares provoca a liberação de cálcio. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar se o transplante renal pode ou não resultar em melhora no estresse oxidativo (EO; e avaliar a associação entre a LDL oxidada (LDL-ox e algumas variáveis na predição do risco de DCV em pacientes transplantados renais (TR, comparados com o grupo controle. Materiais e Métodos: Um total de 30 pacientes com DRC foram recrutados para avaliação das alterações dependentes do tempo no biomarcador de EO antes e após TR. Foram avaliados: LDL-ox, parâmetros do metabolismo dos lipídeos, a CsA, creatinina, cálcio e fosfato tanto antes do TR, 10 dias e 6 meses após o TR, em comparação com o grupo controle (n = 30. Resultados: após 6 meses, a concentração de LDL-ox mudou de 79,7 ± 9,7-72 ± 7 mU/ml (p < 0,009. O nível de fosfato de cálcio foi positivamente correlacionado com a concentração de LDL-ox (R = 0,467, p = 0,011 e ciclosporina (r = 0,419, p = 0,024 6 meses após o transplante. Conclusão: Os resultados indicaram que a restauração da função renal pelo transplante, melhora o estresse oxidativo induzido pela uremia. O produto de fosfato de cálcio, como um fator de risco independente para DCV, correlaciona-se com o LDL-ox antes do TR e 6 meses após o TR. O produto de fosfato de cálcio também se correlaciona com a ciclosporina no grupo TR.

  13. Haloperidol inhibits the development of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Nahon, Joya E; Reuwer, Anne Q; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-05-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to modulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key factor in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport process, in vitro. Here we evaluated the potential of the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol to modulate the cholesterol efflux function of macrophages in vitro and their susceptibility to atherosclerosis in vivo. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were used for in vitro studies. Hyperlipidaemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were implanted with a haloperidol-containing pellet and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 5 weeks to induce the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Haloperidol induced a 54% decrease in the mRNA expression of ABCA1 in peritoneal macrophages. This coincided with a 30% decrease in the capacity of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1. Haloperidol treatment stimulated the expression of ABCA1 (+51%) and other genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, that is, CYP7A1 (+98%) in livers of LDL receptor knockout mice. No change in splenic ABCA1 expression was noted. However, the average size of the atherosclerotic size was significantly smaller (-31%) in the context of a mildly more atherogenic metabolic phenotype upon haloperidol treatment. More importantly, haloperidol markedly lowered MCP-1 expression (-70%) and secretion (-28%) by peritoneal macrophages. Haloperidol treatment lowered the susceptibility of hyperlipidaemic LDL receptor knockout mice to develop atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of haloperidol on atherosclerosis susceptibility can be attributed to its ability to inhibit macrophage chemotaxis. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. MicroRNAs expression in ox-LDL treated HUVECs: MiR-365 modulates apoptosis and Bcl-2 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Bing; Xiao, Bo [Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liang, Desheng [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410078 (China); Xia, Jian; Li, Ye [Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Yang, Huan, E-mail: yangh69@yahoo.cn [Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} We evaluated the role of miRNAs in ox-LDL induced apoptosis in ECs. {yields} We found 4 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated miRNAs in apoptotic ECs. {yields} Target genes of the dysregulated miRNAs regulate ECs apoptosis and atherosclerosis. {yields} MiR-365 promotes ECs apoptosis via suppressing Bcl-2 expression. {yields} MiR-365 inhibitor alleviates ECs apoptosis induced by ox-LDL. -- Abstract: Endothelial cells (ECs) apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is thought to play a critical role in atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, whether miRNAs are associated with ox-LDL induced apoptosis and their effect on ECs is still unknown. Therefore, this study evaluated potential miRNAs and their involvement in ECs apoptosis in response to ox-LDL stimulation. Microarray and qRT-PCR analysis performed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to ox-LDL identified 15 differentially expressed (4 up- and 11 down-regulated) miRNAs. Web-based query tools were utilized to predict the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs, and the potential target genes were classified into different function categories with the gene ontology (GO) term and KEGG pathway annotation. In particular, bioinformatics analysis suggested that anti-apoptotic protein B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a target gene of miR-365, an apoptomir up-regulated by ox-LDL stimulation in HUVECs. We further showed that transfection of miR-365 inhibitor partly restored Bcl-2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, leading to a reduction of ox-LDL-mediated apoptosis in HUVECs. Taken together, our findings indicate that miRNAs participate in ox-LDL-mediated apoptosis in HUVECs. MiR-365 potentiates ox-LDL-induced ECs apoptosis by regulating the

  15. Neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.; Lattimer, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We study the charged and neutral current weak interaction rates relevant for the determination of neutrino opacities in dense matter found in supernovae and neutron stars. We establish an efficient formalism for calculating differential cross sections and mean free paths for interacting, asymmetric nuclear matter at arbitrary degeneracy. The formalism is valid for both charged and neutral current reactions. Strong interaction corrections are incorporated through the in-medium single particle energies at the relevant density and temperature. The effects of strong interactions on the weak interaction rates are investigated using both potential and effective field-theoretical models of matter. We investigate the relative importance of charged and neutral currents for different astrophysical situations, and also examine the influence of strangeness-bearing hyperons. Our findings show that the mean free paths are significantly altered by the effects of strong interactions and the multi-component nature of dense matter. The opacities are then discussed in the context of the evolution of the core of a protoneutron star. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Predicting diffusivities in dense fluid mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DARIVA

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the Enskog solution of the Boltzmann equation, as corrected by Speedy, together with the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA perturbation theory of liquids is employed in correlating and predicting self-diffusivities of dense fluids. Afterwards this theory is used to estimate mutual diffusion coefficients of solutes at infinite dilution in sub and supercritical solvents. We have also investigated the behavior of Fick diffusion coefficients in the proximity of a binary vapor-liquid critical point since this subject is of great interest for extraction purposes. The approach presented here, which makes use of a density and temperature dependent hard-sphere diameter, is shown to be excellent for predicting diffusivities in dense pure fluids and fluid mixtures. The calculations involved highly nonideal mixtures as well as systems with high molecular asymmetry. The predicted diffusivities are in good agreement with the experimental data for the pure and binary systems. The methodology proposed here makes only use of pure component information and density of mixtures. The simple algebraic relations are proposed without any binary adjustable parameters and can be readily used for estimating diffusivities in multicomponent mixtures.

  17. Cold dense baryonic matter and compact stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun Kyu Lee; Sang-Jin Sin; Mannque Rho

    2011-01-01

    Probing dense hadronic matter is thus far an uncharted field of physics. Here we give a brief summary of the highlights of what has been so far accomplished and what will be done in the years ahead by the World Class University III Project at Hanyang University in the endeavor to unravel and elucidate the multi-facet of the cold dense baryonic matter existing in the interior of the densest visible stable object in the universe, i.e. neutron stars, strangeness stars and/or quark stars, from a modest and simplified starting point of an effective field theory modeled on the premise of QCD as well as from a gravity dual approach of hQCD. The core of the matter of our research is the possible origin of the ∼ 99% of the proton mass that is to be accounted for and how the 'vacuum' can be tweaked so that the source of the mass generation can be uncovered by measurements made in terrestrial as well as space laboratories. Some of the issues treated in the program concern what can be done - both theoretically and experimentally - in anticipation of what's to come for basic physics research in Korea. (authors)

  18. Collective dynamics in dense Hg vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, D; Inui, M; Matsuda, K; Tamura, K; Baron, A Q R; Tsutsui, S; Tanaka, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic structure factor, S(Q,ο), of dense Hg vapour has been measured by high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering for densities of 3.0, 2.1 and 1.0 g cm -3 corresponding to 0.52, 0.36 and 0.17 times the critical density, respectively, and for momentum transfers between 2.0 and 48 nm -1 . Analysis of the longitudinal current-current correlation function in the framework of generalized hydrodynamics reveals that the frequencies of the collective excitations increase faster with Q than estimated from the macroscopic speed of sound. The ratios of the frequencies were found to be 1.27 at 3.0 g cm -3 , 1.12 at 2.1 g cm -3 and 1.10 at 1.0 g cm -3 . The sound velocity obtained from the present experiments is well reproduced by a wavenumber dependent adiabatic sound velocity, which means that the collective modes remain in the spectra of dense Hg vapour. (letter to the editor)

  19. Redesigning Triangular Dense Matrix Computations on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2016-08-09

    A new implementation of the triangular matrix-matrix multiplication (TRMM) and the triangular solve (TRSM) kernels are described on GPU hardware accelerators. Although part of the Level 3 BLAS family, these highly computationally intensive kernels fail to achieve the percentage of the theoretical peak performance on GPUs that one would expect when running kernels with similar surface-to-volume ratio on hardware accelerators, i.e., the standard matrix-matrix multiplication (GEMM). The authors propose adopting a recursive formulation, which enriches the TRMM and TRSM inner structures with GEMM calls and, therefore, reduces memory traffic while increasing the level of concurrency. The new implementation enables efficient use of the GPU memory hierarchy and mitigates the latency overhead, to run at the speed of the higher cache levels. Performance comparisons show up to eightfold and twofold speedups for large dense matrix sizes, against the existing state-of-the-art TRMM and TRSM implementations from NVIDIA cuBLAS, respectively, across various GPU generations. Once integrated into high-level Cholesky-based dense linear algebra algorithms, the performance impact on the overall applications demonstrates up to fourfold and twofold speedups, against the equivalent native implementations, linked with cuBLAS TRMM and TRSM kernels, respectively. The new TRMM/TRSM kernel implementations are part of the open-source KBLAS software library (http://ecrc.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Res-kblas.aspx) and are lined up for integration into the NVIDIA cuBLAS library in the upcoming v8.0 release.

  20. Natural Biflavonoids Modulate Macrophage–Oxidized LDL Interaction In Vitro and Promote Atheroprotection In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. Tabares-Guevara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of oxidized ApoB-100-containing lipoproteins in the vascular intima and its subsequent recognition by macrophages results in foam cell formation and inflammation, key events during atherosclerosis development. Agents targeting this process are considered potentially atheroprotective. Since natural biflavonoids exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, we evaluated the atheroprotective effect of biflavonoids obtained from the tropical fruit tree Garcinia madruno. To this end, the pure biflavonoid aglycones morelloflavone (Mo and volkensiflavone (Vo, as well as the morelloflavone’s glycoside fukugiside (Fu were tested in vitro in primary macrophages, whereas a biflavonoid fraction with defined composition (85% Mo, 10% Vo, and 5% Amentoflavone was tested in vitro and in vivo. All biflavonoid preparations were potent reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, and most importantly, protected low-density lipoprotein particle from both lipid and protein oxidation. In biflavonoid-treated macrophages, the surface expression of the oxidized LDL (oxLDL receptor CD36 was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated macrophages. Uptake of fluorescently labeled oxLDL and cholesterol accumulation were also attenuated in biflavonoid-treated macrophages and followed a pattern that paralleled that of CD36 surface expression. Fu and Vo inhibited oxLDL-induced ROS production and interleukin (IL-6 secretion, respectively, whereas all aglycones, but not the glucoside Fu, inhibited the secretion of one or more of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-12p70, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages. Interestingly, in macrophages primed with low-dose LPS and stimulated with cholesterol crystals, IL-1β secretion was significantly and comparably inhibited by all biflavonoid preparations. Intraperitoneal administration of the defined biflavonoid fraction into Apo

  1. Natural Biflavonoids Modulate Macrophage–Oxidized LDL Interaction In Vitro and Promote Atheroprotection In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabares-Guevara, Jorge H.; Lara-Guzmán, Oscar J.; Londoño-Londoño, Julian A.; Sierra, Jelver A.; León-Varela, Yudy M.; Álvarez-Quintero, Rafael M.; Osorio, Edison J.; Ramirez-Pineda, José R.

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of oxidized ApoB-100-containing lipoproteins in the vascular intima and its subsequent recognition by macrophages results in foam cell formation and inflammation, key events during atherosclerosis development. Agents targeting this process are considered potentially atheroprotective. Since natural biflavonoids exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, we evaluated the atheroprotective effect of biflavonoids obtained from the tropical fruit tree Garcinia madruno. To this end, the pure biflavonoid aglycones morelloflavone (Mo) and volkensiflavone (Vo), as well as the morelloflavone’s glycoside fukugiside (Fu) were tested in vitro in primary macrophages, whereas a biflavonoid fraction with defined composition (85% Mo, 10% Vo, and 5% Amentoflavone) was tested in vitro and in vivo. All biflavonoid preparations were potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, and most importantly, protected low-density lipoprotein particle from both lipid and protein oxidation. In biflavonoid-treated macrophages, the surface expression of the oxidized LDL (oxLDL) receptor CD36 was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated macrophages. Uptake of fluorescently labeled oxLDL and cholesterol accumulation were also attenuated in biflavonoid-treated macrophages and followed a pattern that paralleled that of CD36 surface expression. Fu and Vo inhibited oxLDL-induced ROS production and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion, respectively, whereas all aglycones, but not the glucoside Fu, inhibited the secretion of one or more of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-12p70, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Interestingly, in macrophages primed with low-dose LPS and stimulated with cholesterol crystals, IL-1β secretion was significantly and comparably inhibited by all biflavonoid preparations. Intraperitoneal administration of the defined biflavonoid fraction into ApoE−/− mice

  2. A fibre cocktail of fenugreek, guar gum and wheat bran reduces oxidative modification of LDL induced by an atherogenic diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandini; Devaraj, S Niranjali; Devaraj, H

    2007-01-01

    LDL (low-density lipoprotein) oxidation is a key trigger factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Relatively few studies exist on the impact of dietary fibre on LDL oxidation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of a novel fibre mix of fenugreek seed powder, guar gum and wheat bran (Fibernat) on LDL oxidation induced by an atherogenic diet. Male Wistar albino rats were administered one of the following diets: (1) a control diet that was fibre-free (Group I); (2) an atherogenic diet containing 1.5% cholesterol and 0.1% cholic acid (Group II) or (3) an atherogenic diet supplemented with Fibernat (Group III). Peroxidative changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the oxidative susceptibility of LDL and the LDL + VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) fraction were determined. As a corollary to the oxidative modification theory, the titer of autoantibodies to oxidised LDL (oxLDL) was determined at various time points of the study. In addition, plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (Lp (a)), apolipoprotein (apoB), cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and alpha-tocopherol content of LDL were determined. A decrease in malonaldehyde (MDA) content (p<0.05) and relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of LDL was observed in the group III rats as compared to the group II rats. An increase in lag time to oxidation (p<0.01) and decrease in maximum oxidation (p<0.01) and oxidation rate (p<0.01) were observed in the LDL + VLDL fraction of group III rats. In group II rats, formation of autoantibodies to oxLDL occurred at an earlier time point and at levels greater than in the group III rats. Fibernat, had a sparing effect on LDL alpha-tocopherol, which was about 51% higher in the group III rats than in the group II rats; apo B content of LDL was reduced by 37.6% in group III rats. LDL of group III rats displayed a decrease in free and ester cholesterol (p<0.01) as compared to that of group II. A decrease in plasma homocysteine (p<0.01) and an increase

  3. Gly[14]-humanin inhibits ox-LDL uptake and stimulates cholesterol efflux in macrophage-derived foam cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wa-Wa; Wang, Shu-Rong; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Cao, Yong-Jun; Wang, Fen; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chun-Feng; Xie, Ying; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Foam cell formation, which is caused by imbalanced cholesterol influx and efflux by macrophages, plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Humanin (HN), a mitochondria-derived peptide, can prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and death of human aortic endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and has a protective effect on patients with in early atherosclerosis. However, the effects of HN on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in RAW 264.7 macrophages are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate the role of [Gly14]-humanin (HNG) in lipid uptake and cholesterol efflux in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Flow cytometry and live cell imaging results showed that HNG reduced Dil-ox-LDL accumulation in the RAW 264.7 macrophages. A similar result was obtained for lipid accumulation by measuring cellular cholesterol content. Western blot analysis showed that ox-LDL treatment upregulated not only the protein expression of CD36 and LOX-1, which mediate ox-LDL endocytosis, but also ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 and ABCG1, which mediate ox-LDL exflux. HNG pretreatment inhibited the upregulation of CD36 and LOX-1 levels, prompting the upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 levels induced by ox-LDL. Therefore we concluded that HNG could inhibit ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation, which occurs because of a decrease in lipid uptake and an increase in cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyperglycemia and oxidized-LDL exert a deleterious effect on endothelial progenitor cell migration in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Brenner, Benjamin; Abassi, Zaid; Aharon, Anat; Daoud, Deeb; Roguin, Ariel

    2010-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have elevated plasma oxidized-LDL (OxLDL) levels and impaired neovascularization. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia impair endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) migration, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and NO synthase (NOS) activity are essential for EPC migration. Stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF1alpha) contributes to EPC mobilization and homing by stimulating the CXC receptor-4 (CXCR4) on the EPC plasmalemma to activate the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high glucose (HG) and OxLDL on the migration and NO bioavailability of EPCs from healthy individuals, and then correlated the findings with those of EPCs from type 2 DM patients with and without CAD. EPCs from 15 healthy and 55 patients were exposed to HG, OxLDL, or both before evaluating EPC count, migration and NO production, and expression of CXCR4 and members of Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling cascade. Counts, migration, CXCR4 expression, and NO production were significantly reduced in EPCs from DM and CAD patients compared with that obtained in EPCs from healthy, and were further reduced in DM patients with CAD. The expression of CXCR4 and activation of Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling cascade were suppressed in OxLDL- and HG-treated EPCs, and this suppression was exacerbated when EPCs were treated simultaneously with HG and OxLDL. Hyperglycemia and elevated circulating OxLDL in DM patients with CAD severely impair EPC migration. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism for this impaired EPC migration is linked to the CXCR4/Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Attainment of LDL Cholesterol Treatment Goals in Children and Adolescents With Familial Hypercholesterolemia. The SAFEHEART Follow-up Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltijeral, Adriana; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Alonso, Rodrigo; Muñiz, Ovidio; Díaz-Díaz, José Luis; Fuentes, Francisco; Mata, Nelva; de Andrés, Raimundo; Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Pastor, José; Pinilla, José Miguel; Zambón, Daniel; Pinto, Xavier; Badimón, Lina; Mata, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of persons with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) younger than 18 years, the lipid-lowering therapy used in these patients, and the lipid goals reached in real life. Our aim was to evaluate the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals in FH patients younger than 18 years enrolled in a large national registry. We analyzed patients younger than 18 years enrolled in a large ongoing registry of molecularly-defined patients with FH in Spain. The attainment of guideline-recommended plasma LDL-C goals at entry and follow-up was analyzed in relation to the use of lipid-lowering therapy. We enrolled 392 individuals younger than 18 years. Of these, 217 were molecularly-diagnosed FH patients and had a complete follow-up. The median follow-up time was 4.69 years (interquartile range, 2.48-6.38 years), 68.2% of FH patients were on statins, and 41.5% patients had LDL-C < 130mg/dL. Statin use was the only predictor of LDL-C goal attainment. This study shows that a high proportion of FH patients younger than 18 years have high LDL-C levels and fail to achieve recommended LDL-C targets. Statin use was the only independent predictor of LDL-C goal achievement. No safety concerns were detected during follow-up. These results indicate that many FH patients are not adequately controlled and that there is still room for treatment improvement. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNA-98 rescues proliferation and alleviates ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in HUVECs by targeting LOX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo; Wang, Mian; He, Qiong; Li, Zilun; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Wenjian; Ma, Jieyi; Li, Yongxin; Chang, Guangqi

    2017-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a major and critical mediator of atherosclerosis, and the underlying mechanism is thought to involve the ox-LDL-induced dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of target genes, have been associated with diverse cellular functions and the pathogenesis of various diseases, including atherosclerosis. miRNA-98 (miR-98) has been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of cellular apoptosis; however, the role of miR-98 in ox-LDL-induced dysfunction of ECs and atherosclerosis has yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of miR-98 in ox-LDL-induced dysfunction of ECs and the underlying mechanism. It was demonstrated that miR-98 expression was markedly downregulated in ox-LDL-treated human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and that miR-98 promoted the proliferation and alleviated apoptosis of HUVECs exposed to ox-LDL. In addition, the results demonstrated that lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) was a direct target of miR-98 in HUVECs, as indicated by a luciferase assay. The results of the present study suggested that miR-98 may inhibit the uptake of toxic ox-LDL, maintain HUVEC proliferation and protect HUVECs against apoptosis via the suppression of LOX-1. PMID:28565756

  7. Potential antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon citratus on OxLDL and H2O2 LDL induced Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamuna S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass is commonly used in traditional folk medicine. The essential oil extracted from C. citratus has been reported as a potential anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. This study has been designed to explore the protective effect of C. citratus (lemon grass against modified LDL (OxLDL and H2O2 LDL induced cytotoxicity in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC. The essential oil extracted from C. citratus (EOC was subjected to FT-IR spectroscopic analysis for the identification of functional groups. In vitro antioxidant assays were carried out to assess the electron donating capability of EOC as compared with a known standard L-ascorbic acid. The cytoprotective effects of EOC were determined in PBMC induced with modified LDL. Spectra obtained from FT-IR analysis showed the presence of functional groups in EOC such as H-bonded, OH stretching, NH stretching, aldehydeCH stretching, aldehyde/ketoneCO stretching, CC-stretching, CH3 bending, CH in plane bending. EOC has greater antioxidant property when compared with the standard L-ascorbic acid. EOC at all test concentrations demonstrated free radical scavenging activity and cytoprotective effect when challenged against modified LDL in PBMC. The above results show EOC as a promising antioxidant and cytoprotective agent.

  8. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chun-Yu [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Chao-Yu [School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kang, Chao-Kai [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, (China); Sher, Yuh-Pyng [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne H.-H. [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che, E-mail: chia_che@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tsung-Han, E-mail: thlee@email.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation.

  9. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation

  10. Specificity determinants in the interaction of apolipoprotein(a) kringles with tetranectin and LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterer, Nigel R; Graversen, Jonas H; Jacobsen, Christian; Moestrup, Søren K; Sigurskjold, Bent W; Etzerodt, Michael; Thøgersen, Hans C

    2002-11-01

    Lipoprotein(a) is composed of low density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein(a). Apolipoprotein(a) has evolved from plasminogen and contains 10 different plasminogen kringle 4 homologous domains [KIV(1-110)]. Previous studies indicated that lipoprotein(a) non-covalently binds the N-terminal region of lipoprotein B100 and the plasminogen kringle 4 binding plasma protein tetranectin. In this study recombinant KIV(2), KIV(7) and KIV(10) derived from apolipoprotein(a) were produced in E. coli and the binding to tetranectin and low density lipoprotein was examined. Only KIV(10) bound to tetranectin and binding was similar to that of plasminogen kringle 4 to tetranectin. Only KIV(7) bound to LDL. In order to identify the residues responsible for the difference in specificity between KIV(7) and KIV(10), a number of surface-exposed residues located around the lysine binding clefts were exchanged. Ligand binding analysis of these derivatives showed that Y62, and to a minor extent W32 and E56, of KIV(7) are important for LDL binding to KIV(7), whereas R32 and D56 of KIV(10) are required for tetranectin binding of KIV(10).

  11. The LDL Receptor-Related Protein 1: At the Crossroads of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Insulin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianaly T. Au

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is an escalating worldwide public health concern. Defined by a combination of physiological, metabolic, and biochemical factors, the metabolic syndrome is used as a clinical guideline to identify individuals with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have been known for decades, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases and their interrelationship remain unclear. The LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 is a large endocytic and signaling receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. As a member of the LDL receptor family, LRP1 is involved in the clearance of chylomicron remnants from the circulation and has been demonstrated to be atheroprotective. Recently, studies have shown that LRP1 is involved in insulin receptor trafficking and regulation and glucose metabolism. This review summarizes the role of tissue-specific LRP1 in insulin signaling and its potential role as a link between lipoprotein and glucose metabolism in diabetes.

  12. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Andalib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Materials and Methods: The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol, lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. Results: The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of −25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. Conclusions: The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  13. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Sare; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Sadeghi, Hojjat

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol), lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of -25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  14. LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1 Regulates Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lillis

    Full Text Available Within the circulation, cholesterol is transported by lipoprotein particles and is taken up by cells when these particles associate with cellular receptors. In macrophages, excessive lipoprotein particle uptake leads to foam cell formation, which is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Currently, mechanisms responsible for foam cell formation are incompletely understood. To date, several macrophage receptors have been identified that contribute to the uptake of modified forms of lipoproteins leading to foam cell formation, but the in vivo contribution of the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 to this process is not known [corrected]. To investigate the role of LRP1 in cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we generated mice with a selective deletion of LRP1 in macrophages on an LDL receptor (LDLR-deficient background (macLRP1-/-. After feeding mice a high fat diet for 11 weeks, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Lrp+/+ mice contained significantly higher levels of total cholesterol than those from macLRP1-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that this was due to increased levels of cholesterol esters. Interestingly, macLRP1-/- mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulting from accumulation of large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in the circulation. This increase did not result from an increase in hepatic VLDL biosynthesis, but rather results from a defect in catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in macLRP1-/- mice. These studies reveal an important in vivo contribution of macrophage LRP1 to cholesterol homeostasis.

  15. Glaciations and dense interstellar clouds; and reply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, W H [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK); Dennison, B; Mansfield, V N

    1976-09-16

    Reference is made to Dennison and Mansfield (Nature 261:32 (1976)) who offered comments on a previous paper by the author (Nature 255:607 (1975)), in which he suggested that a possible cause of an ice age on the Earth was the passage of the solar system through an interstellar matter compression region bordering a spiral arm of the Galaxy. Dennison and Mansfield criticised this suggestion because it led them to expect to find a dense cloud of interstellar matter still very close to the Earth, whereas no such cloud is known. It is stated here that this criticism ignores the structure of the Galaxy, that provided the basis of the suggestion. A reply by Dennison and Mansfield is appended.

  16. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  17. Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Desjarlais, Michael; Redmer, Ronald; Trickey, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent...

  18. Intrinsically secure fast reactors with dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Secure safety, resistance to weapons material proliferation and problems of long-lived wastes remain the most important 'painful points' of nuclear power. Many innovative reactor concepts have been developed aimed at a radical enhancement of safety. The promising potential of innovative nuclear reactors allows for shifting accents in current reactor safety 'strategy' to reveal this worth. Such strategy is elaborated focusing on the priority for intrinsically secure safety features as well as on sure protection being provided by the first barrier of defence. Concerning the potential of fast reactors (i.e. sodium cooled, lead-cooled, etc.), there are no doubts that they are able to possess many favourable intrinsically secure safety features and to lay the proper foundation for a new reactor generation. However, some of their neutronic characteristics have to be radically improved. Among intrinsically secure safety properties, the following core parameters are significantly important: reactivity margin values, reactivity feed-back and coolant void effects. Ways of designing intrinsically secure safety features in fast reactors (titled hereafter as Intrinsically Secure Fast Reactors - ISFR) can be found in the frame of current reactor technologies by radical enhancement of core neutron economy and by optimization of core compositions. Simultaneously, respecting resistance to proliferation, by using non-enriched fuel feed as well as a core breeding gain close to zero, are considered as the important features (long-lived waste problems will be considered in a separate paper). This implies using the following reactor design options as well as closed fuel cycles with natural U as the reactor feed: ·Ultra-plate 'dense cores' of the ordinary (monolithic) type with negative total coolant void effects. ·Modular type cores. Multiple dense modules can be embedded in the common reflector for achieving the desired NPP total power. The modules can be used also independently (as

  19. Coherent neutrino interactions in a dense medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiers, K.; Weiss, N.

    1997-01-01

    Motivated by the effect of matter on neutrino oscillations (the MSW effect) we study in more detail the propagation of neutrinos in a dense medium. The dispersion relation for massive neutrinos in a medium is known to have a minimum at nonzero momentum p∼G F ρ/√(2). We study in detail the origin and consequences of this dispersion relation for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos both in a toy model with only neutral currents and a single neutrino flavor and in a realistic open-quotes standard modelclose quotes with two neutrino flavors. We find that for a range of neutrino momenta near the minimum of the dispersion relation, Dirac neutrinos are trapped by their coherent interactions with the medium. This effect does not lead to the trapping of Majorana neutrinos. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Equation of state of dense baryonic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.; Weigel, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous investigation we treated nuclear matter as well as neutron matter at zero and finite temperatures in the frame of different relativistic field theoretical models, but with the restriction to nucleons as the only present baryons. This approach is extended by including a larger fraction of baryons and mesons, necessary for a description of baryon matter under extreme conditions. The equation of state (EOS) is calculated in both the Hartree and Hartree-Fock (HF) approximations for dense nuclear as well as neutron matter. Self-interactions of the σ field up to fourth order have been taken into account. For the treatment of many-baryon matter in the HF approach the parameters of the theory had to be readjusted. A phase transition of both many-baryon systems (neutron as well as nuclear matter) in the high-pressure and high-energy-density region has been found. (author)

  1. Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  2. Statistical mechanics of dense granular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coniglio, A; Fierro, A; Nicodemi, M; Ciamarra, M Pica; Tarzia, M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss some recent results on the statistical mechanics approach to dense granular media. In particular, by analytical mean field investigation we derive the phase diagram of monodisperse and bidisperse granular assemblies. We show that 'jamming' corresponds to a phase transition from a 'fluid' to a 'glassy' phase, observed when crystallization is avoided. The nature of such a 'glassy' phase turns out to be the same as found in mean field models for glass formers. This gives quantitative evidence for the idea of a unified description of the 'jamming' transition in granular media and thermal systems, such as glasses. We also discuss mixing/segregation transitions in binary mixtures and their connections to phase separation and 'geometric' effects

  3. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Schulz, Jacqueline A; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Rotor, Jose; Mantilla, Libertie B; Liska, DeAnn J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited. Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol. Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period. Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P cholesterol [-3.9% (95% CI: -9.3%, 1.7%) compared with 0.8% (95% CI: -1.5%, 4.5%), respectively], LDL cholesterol [-4.8% (95% CI: -12.6%, 3.1%) compared with 1.2% (95% CI: -2.3%, 7.8%), respectively], non-HDL cholesterol [-5.3% (95% CI: -8.6%, 2.1%) compared with 1.7% (95% CI: -0.9%, 5.6%), respectively], and the total-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio [-0.0% (95% CI: -4.3%, 4.8%) compared with 3.4% (95% CI: 0.6%, 5.2%), respectively]. There were no

  4. Integrative pathway dissection of molecular mechanisms of moxLDL-induced vascular smooth muscle phenotype transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiannis George S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis (AT is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of inflammatory cells, lipoproteins and fibrous tissue in the walls of arteries. AT is the primary cause of heart attacks and stroke and is the leading cause of death in Western countries. To date, the pathogenesis of AT is not well-defined. Studies have shown that the dedifferentiation of contractile and quiescent vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC to the proliferative, migratory and synthetic phenotype in the intima is pivotal for the onset and progression of AT. To further delineate the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of AT, we analyzed the early molecular pathways and networks involved in the SMC phenotype transformation. Methods Quiescent human coronary artery SMCs were treated with minimally-oxidized LDL (moxLDL, for 3 hours and 21 hours, respectively. Transcriptomic data was generated for both time-points using microarrays and was subjected to pathway analysis using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, GeneMANIA and Ingenuity software tools. Gene expression heat maps and pathways enriched in differentially expressed genes were compared to identify functional biological themes to elucidate early and late molecular mechanisms of moxLDL-induced SMC dedifferentiation. Results Differentially expressed genes were found to be enriched in cholesterol biosynthesis, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, cell cycle control and myogenic contraction themes. These pathways are consistent with inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, migration and ECM production, which are characteristic of SMC dedifferentiation. Furthermore, up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis and dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism was observed in moxLDL-induced SMC. These observations are consistent with the accumulation of cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol esters, which induce proinflammatory reactions during atherogenesis. Our data implicate for the

  5. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  6. Dense gas dispersion in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-09-01

    Dense gas dispersion is characterized by buoyancy induced gravity currents and reduction of the vertical mixing. Liquefied gas releases from industrial accidents are cold because of the heat of evaporation which determines the density for a given concentration and physical properties. The temperature deficit is moderated by the heat flux from the ground, and this convection is an additional source of turbulence which affects the mixing. A simple model as the soil heat flux is used to estimate the ability of the ground to sustain the heat flux during release. The initial enthalpy, release rate, initial entrainment and momentum are discussed for generic source types and the interaction with obstacles is considered. In the MTH project BA experiments source with and without momentum were applied. The continuously released propane gas passed a two-dimensional removable obstacle perpendicular to the wind direction. Ground-level gas concentrations and vertical profiles of concentration, temperature, wind speed and turbulence were measured in front of and behind the obstacle. Ultrasonic anemometers providing fast velocity and concentration signals were mounted at three levels on the masts. The observed turbulence was influenced by the stability and the initial momentum of the jet releases. Additional information were taken from the `Dessert tortoise` ammonia jet releases, from the `Fladis` experiment with transition from dense to passive dispersion, and from the `Thorney Island` continuous releases of isothermal freon mixtures. The heat flux was found to moderate the negative buoyancy in both the propane and ammonia experiments. The heat flux measurements are compared to an estimate by analogy with surface layer theory. (au) 41 tabs., 146 ills., 189 refs.

  7. Nur77 inhibits oxLDL induced apoptosis of macrophages via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Qin; Han, Fei; Peng, Shi; He, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between macrophages and oxLDL plays a crucial role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. As a key initiator in a number of plaque promoting processes, oxLDL induces variable effects such as cell apoptosis or proliferation. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is potently induced in macrophages by diverse stimuli, suggesting that it is of importance in vascular inflammation resulting in atherosclerosis, but whether Nur77 induction is detrimental or protective is unclear. In our study, we explore the role of Nur77 in the regulation of oxLDL-induced macrophage apoptosis and the signaling pathways that are involved. We found that oxLDL induced Nur77 expression in a dose and time dependent fashion, and cell viability was decreased in parallel. To determine whether Nur77 induction contributes to the loss of cell viability or is a protective mechanism, the effect of Nur77 overexpression was examined. Importantly, Nur77 overexpression inhibited the oxLDL-induced decrease of cell viability, inhibited the production of apoptotic bodies and restored DNA synthesis following oxLDL exposure. Furthermore, we found that Nur77 induction is mediated through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. After pretreatment with SB203580, cell viability was decreased, the expression of CyclinA2 and PCNA was attenuated and the percentage of cell apoptosis was enhanced. Likewise, Nur77 overexpression increased the expression of the cell cycle genes PCNA and p21, and attenuated the increase in caspase-3. On the other hand, knockdown of Nur77 expression by specific siRNA resulted in the increased expression of caspase 3. The results demonstrate that Nur77 is induced by oxLDL via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, which is involved in the regulation of cell survival. Nur77 enhanced cell survival via suppressing apoptosis, without affecting cell proliferation of activated macrophages, which may be beneficial in patients with atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • oxLDL could induce Nur77

  8. LDL-C levels in older people: Cholesterol homeostasis and the free radical theory of ageing converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Auley, Mark T; Mooney, Kathleen M

    2017-07-01

    The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increases with age, up until the midpoint of life in males and females. However, LDL-C can decrease with age in older men and women. Intriguingly, a recent systematic review also revealed an inverse association between LDL-C levels and cardiovascular mortality in older people; low levels of LDL-C were associated with reduced risk of mortality. Such findings are puzzling and require a biological explanation. In this paper a hypothesis is proposed to explain these observations. We hypothesize that the free radical theory of ageing (FRTA) together with disrupted cholesterol homeostasis can account for these observations. Based on this hypothesis, dysregulated hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in older people is characterised by two distinct metabolic states. The first state accounts for an older person who has elevated plasma LDL-C. This state is underpinned by the FRTA which suggests there is a decrease in cellular antioxidant capacity with age. This deficiency enables hepatic reactive oxidative species (ROS) to induce the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase, the key rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. An increase in cholesterol synthesis elicits a corresponding rise in LDL-C, due to the downregulation of LDL receptor synthesis, and increased production of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). In the second state of dysregulation, ROS also trigger the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase. However, due to an age associated decrease in the activity of cholesterol-esterifying enzyme, acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase, there is restricted conversion of excess free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol esters. Consequently, the secretion of VLDL-C drops, and there is a corresponding decrease in LDL-C. As intracellular levels of FC accumulate, this state progresses to a pathophysiological condition akin to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is our

  9. Nur77 inhibits oxLDL induced apoptosis of macrophages via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Qin; Han, Fei; Peng, Shi; He, Ben, E-mail: heben@medmail.com.cn

    2016-03-18

    The interaction between macrophages and oxLDL plays a crucial role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. As a key initiator in a number of plaque promoting processes, oxLDL induces variable effects such as cell apoptosis or proliferation. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is potently induced in macrophages by diverse stimuli, suggesting that it is of importance in vascular inflammation resulting in atherosclerosis, but whether Nur77 induction is detrimental or protective is unclear. In our study, we explore the role of Nur77 in the regulation of oxLDL-induced macrophage apoptosis and the signaling pathways that are involved. We found that oxLDL induced Nur77 expression in a dose and time dependent fashion, and cell viability was decreased in parallel. To determine whether Nur77 induction contributes to the loss of cell viability or is a protective mechanism, the effect of Nur77 overexpression was examined. Importantly, Nur77 overexpression inhibited the oxLDL-induced decrease of cell viability, inhibited the production of apoptotic bodies and restored DNA synthesis following oxLDL exposure. Furthermore, we found that Nur77 induction is mediated through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. After pretreatment with SB203580, cell viability was decreased, the expression of CyclinA2 and PCNA was attenuated and the percentage of cell apoptosis was enhanced. Likewise, Nur77 overexpression increased the expression of the cell cycle genes PCNA and p21, and attenuated the increase in caspase-3. On the other hand, knockdown of Nur77 expression by specific siRNA resulted in the increased expression of caspase 3. The results demonstrate that Nur77 is induced by oxLDL via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, which is involved in the regulation of cell survival. Nur77 enhanced cell survival via suppressing apoptosis, without affecting cell proliferation of activated macrophages, which may be beneficial in patients with atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • oxLDL could induce Nur77

  10. Native High Density Lipoproteins (HDL Interfere with Platelet Activation Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoproteins (OxLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Volf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Platelets and lipoproteins play a crucial role in atherogenesis, in part by their ability to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress. While oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL play a central role in the development of this disease, high density lipoproteins (HDL represent an atheroprotective factor of utmost importance. As platelet function is remarkably sensitive to the influence of plasma lipoproteins, it was the aim of this study to clarify if HDL are able to counteract the stimulating effects of OxLDL with special emphasis on aspects of platelet function that are relevant to inflammation. Therefore, HDL were tested for their ability to interfere with pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory aspects of platelet function. We are able to show that HDL significantly impaired OxLDL-induced platelet aggregation and adhesion. In gel-filtered platelets, HDL decreased both the formation of reactive oxygen species and CD40L expression. Furthermore, HDL strongly interfered with OxLDL-induced formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates in whole blood, suggesting that platelets represent a relevant and sensitive target for HDL. The finding that HDL effectively competed with the binding of OxLDL to the platelet surface might contribute to their atheroprotective and antithrombotic properties.

  11. [Influence of FPS on the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-he; Xing, Yan-hong; Rong, Xiang-lu; Huang, Ping

    2007-08-01

    To explore the effect of FPS on low-density lipoprotein acceptor (LDL-R) mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats. Sixty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, model control, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, FPS low dosage, FPS moderate dosage, and FPS high dosage group. Excepting the rats in the normal control group, the ones in other groups were all made rats' hyperlipidemic model by irrigating hyperlipidemic emulsion into the stomach and observed the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of rats of each group. Relative content of LDL-RmRNA in low and moderate dosage groups was notably higher than that inmodel group. The contents's difference was not remarkable between FPS moderate dosage group and Gynostemma pentaphyllum group. FPS can appreciably increase the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats and promote the elimination ofLDL-C to reduce serum cholesterol notably.

  12. Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Preston, Amy Griel; Karmally, Wahida; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2011-04-01

    Diet plays a seminal role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of tree nuts has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a primary target for coronary disease prevention, by 3-19%. Almonds have been found to have a consistent LDL-C-lowering effect in healthy individuals, and in individuals with high cholesterol and diabetes, in both controlled and free-living settings. Almonds are low in saturated fatty acids, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, and contain fiber, phytosterols, and plant protein. Other cardioprotective nutrients unique to almonds include α-tocopherol, arginine, magnesium, copper, manganese, calcium, and potassium. Mechanisms responsible for the LDL-C reduction observed with almond consumption are likely associated with the nutrients almonds provide. Biologically active by nature, these nutrients target primary mechanistic routes of LDL-C reduction, including decreased (re)absorption of cholesterol and bile acid, increased bile acid and cholesterol excretion, and increased LDL-C receptor activity. The nutrients present in almonds may regulate enzymes involved in de novo cholesterol synthesis and bile acid production. Research is needed to understand all mechanisms by which almonds reduce cardiovascular disease risk. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. Low LDL cholesterol, PCSK9 and HMGCR genetic variation, and risk of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Egger Mendelian randomisation analysis gave a risk ratio for Alzheimer's disease of 0.24 (0.02 to 2.79) for 26 PCSK9 and HMGCR variants, and of 0.64 (0.52 to 0.79) for 380 variants of LDL cholesterol level lowering.Conclusion Low LDL cholesterol levels due to PCSK9 and HMGCR variants had no causal......Objective To test the hypothesis that low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol due to genetic variation in the genes responsible for LDL cholesterol metabolism and biosynthesis(PCSK9 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), respectively) is associated with a high risk of Alzheimer.......79), whereas the corresponding hazard ratios for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or any dementia did not differ from 1.0. PCSK9 and HMGCR variants combined were associated with a 9.3% lower LDL cholesterol level. In genetic, causal analyses adjusted for age, sex, and year of birth, the risk ratios...

  14. Dense Deposit Disease Mimicking a Renal Small Vessel Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lavleen; Bhardwaj, Swati; Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind; Dinda, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Dense deposit disease is caused by fluid-phase dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway and frequently deviates from the classic membranoproliferative pattern of injury on light microscopy. Other patterns of injury described for dense deposit disease include mesangioproliferative, acute proliferative/exudative, and crescentic GN. Regardless of the histologic pattern, C3 glomerulopathy, which includes dense deposit disease and C3 GN, is defined by immunofluorescence intensity of C3c two or more orders of magnitude greater than any other immune reactant (on a 0–3 scale). Ultrastructural appearances distinguish dense deposit disease and C3 GN. Focal and segmental necrotizing glomerular lesions with crescents, mimicking a small vessel vasculitis such as ANCA-associated GN, are a very rare manifestation of dense deposit disease. We describe our experience with this unusual histologic presentation and distinct clinical course of dense deposit disease, discuss the pitfalls in diagnosis, examine differential diagnoses, and review the relevant literature. PMID:26361799

  15. Determination of auto-antibodies to native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in serum of patients underwent coronariography in the Medical-Surgical Research Center (MSRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde CerdeiraI, Hector; Soto Lopez, Yosdel; Aroche Aportela, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is an important event in atherosclerosis development. The relationship between oxidized LDL (oxLDL) autoantibodies and coronary artery disease (CAD) remains controversial. IgM and IgG autoantibodies to oxLDL were measured in twenty patients undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography, and in ten young healthy volunteers from the Center of Molecular Immunology. The levels of IgM autoantibodies to oxLDL did not differ between no CAD patients and healthy subjects, but the levels of IgM autoantibodies to oxLDL of these two groups were higher compared with the one of CAD patient group. Our results, although preliminary, supports the hypothesis that this kind of Abs might be inversely associated with the presence of atherosclerosis

  16. Is sdLDL a valuable screening tool for cardiovascular disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many patients with cardiovascular disease have their low density lipoprotein cholesterol within normal range. This raises the question about the most important lipoprotein to use as a marker of atherogenecity. In fact, small dense low density lipoprotein has recently been suggested as a strong predictor of cardiovascular ...

  17. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  18. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  19. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  20. [Interfering effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and lingustrazine on mm-LDL activating BKCa in ECV304 cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Zheng, Y F; Qu, J H; Bao, G H

    2001-08-01

    To observe the action of minimally modified low density lipoprotein (mm-LDL) on BKCa in ECV304 cell and the interfering effects of radix salviae miltiorrhizae extract powder 764-3 (30 micrograms/ml) and lingustrazine (200 micrograms/ml) on this action. The cell-attached configuration of patch clamp technique was applied. mm-LDL (100 micrograms/ml) potentiated the activity of BKCa in ECV304. While 764-3 and lingustrazine abolished it. mm-LDL acted on vascular endothelial cell ECV304 could rapidly activate the activity of BKCa and might result in the increase of electro-chemical gradient for the resting Ca2+ influx, thus resting cytoplasmic concentration of calcium could be elevated and endothelial dysfunction would be induced. 764-3 and lingustrazine might have the protective action through decreasing the activity of BKCa.

  1. Low LDL cholesterol, PCSK9 and HMGCR genetic variation, and risk of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2017-01-01

     Risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, all dementia, and Parkinson's disease.Results In observational analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for Parkinson's disease in participants with an LDL cholesterol level ....79), whereas the corresponding hazard ratios for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or any dementia did not differ from 1.0. PCSK9 and HMGCR variants combined were associated with a 9.3% lower LDL cholesterol level. In genetic, causal analyses adjusted for age, sex, and year of birth, the risk ratios...... for a lifelong 1 mmol/L lower LDL cholesterol level were 0.57 (0.27 to 1.17) for Alzheimer's disease, 0.81 (0.34 to 1.89) for vascular dementia, 0.66 (0.34 to 1.26) for any dementia, and 1.02 (0.26 to 4.00) for Parkinson's disease. Summary level data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project using...

  2. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (re)absorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory) mechanisms. PMID:22018353

  3. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eussen Simone RBM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  4. Delineation of molecular pathways that regulate hepatic PCSK9 and LDL receptor expression during fasting in normolipidemic hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minhao; Dong, Bin; Cao, Aiqin; Li, Hai; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Background PCSK9 has emerged as a key regulator of serum LDL-C metabolism by promoting the degradation of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). In this study, we investigated the effect of fasting on serum PCSK9, LDL-C, and hepatic LDLR expression in hamsters and further delineated the molecular pathways involved in fasting-induced repression of PCSK9 transcription. Results Fasting had insignificant effects on serum total cholesterol and HDL-C levels, but reduced LDL-C, triglyceride and insulin levels. The decrease in serum LDL-C was accompanied by marked reductions of hepatic PCSK9 mRNA and serum PCSK9 protein levels with concomitant increases of hepatic LDLR protein amounts. Fasting produced a profound impact on SREBP1 expression and its transactivating activity, while having modest effects on mRNA expressions of SREBP2 target genes in hamster liver. Although PPARα mRNA levels in hamster liver were elevated by fasting, ligand-induced activation of PPARα with WY14643 compound in hamster primary hepatocytes did not affect PCSK9 mRNA or protein expressions. Further investigation on HNF1α, a critical transactivator of PCSK9, revealed that fasting did not alter its mRNA expression, however, the protein abundance of HNF1α in nuclear extracts of hamster liver was markedly reduced by prolonged fasting. Conclusion Fasting lowered serum LDL-C in hamsters by increasing hepatic LDLR protein amounts via reductions of serum PCSK9 levels. Importantly, our results suggest that attenuation of SREBP1 transactivating activity owing to decreased insulin levels during fasting is primarily responsible for compromised PCSK9 gene transcription, which was further suppressed after prolonged fasting by a reduction of nuclear HNF1α protein abundance. PMID:22954675

  5. LDL cholesterolemia as a novel risk factor for radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis: a single-center prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune-Jung Park

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia has been implicated in various musculoskeletal diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Evidence is emerging that there might be a pathogenic interaction among inflammation, dyslipidemia, and adipokines. We prospectively investigated the association of cumulative lipid levels with radiographic progression of RA. RA patients (n=242 underwent plasma cholesterol assessment at four visits. Disease activity parameters and X-rays of the hands and feet were also serially monitored in these patients. The cumulative inflammatory burden and lipid levels were estimated by time-integrated values. Serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. When patients were divided into three groups according to time-integrated lipid levels, as expected, patients with LDL cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels in the third tertile had persistently higher ESR and CRP levels. In parallel, a more rapid radiographic progression over two years was observed in patients with higher LDL cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels. In multivariate analysis, time-integrated LDL cholesterol was independently associated with radiographic progression. Particularly, the risk of radiographic progression was 5.6-fold in a subgroup with both LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the third tertile. Moreover, LDL cholesterol synergistically increased the adjusted probability of radiographic progression in patients with high serum leptin levels but not in those without. These results demonstrate that LDL cholesterolemia is a novel serum marker that can be used to predict radiographic progression of RA, which seems to be related to circulatory leptin levels. We suggest that personalized and more aggressive anti-rheumatic therapy is required for dyslipidemic subgroups in RA patients.

  6. TRPV4 calcium-permeable channel is a novel regulator of oxidized LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Rishov; Merth, Michael; Sharma, Shweta; Alharbi, Mazen O; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Zhu, Xiaoping; Rahaman, Shaik O

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in United States, and atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory arterial disease, is the most dominant underlying pathology. Macrophages are thought to orchestrate atherosclerosis by generating lipid-laden foam cells and by secreting inflammatory mediators. Emerging data support a role for a mechanical factor, e.g., matrix stiffness, in regulation of macrophage function, vascular elasticity, and atherogenesis. However, the identity of the plasma membrane mechanosensor and the mechanisms by which pro-atherogenic signals are transduced/maintained are unknown. We have obtained evidence that TRPV4, an ion channel in the transient receptor potential vanilloid family and a known mechanosensor, is the likely mediator of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-dependent macrophage foam cell formation, a critical process in atherogenesis. Specifically, we found that: i) genetic ablation of TRPV4 or pharmacologic inhibition of TRPV4 activity by a specific antagonist blocked oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation, and ii) TRPV4 deficiency prevented pathophysiological range matrix stiffness or scratch-induced exacerbation of oxLDL-induced foam cell formation. Mechanistically, we found that: i) plasma membrane localization of TRPV4 was sensitized to the increasing level of matrix stiffness, ii) lack of foam cell formation in TRPV4 null cells was not due to lack of expression of CD36, a major receptor for oxLDL, and iii) TRPV4 channel activity regulated oxLDL uptake but not its binding on macrophages. Altogether, these findings identify a novel role for TRPV4 in regulating macrophage foam cell formation by modulating uptake of oxLDL. These findings suggest that therapeutic targeting of TRPV4 may provide a selective approach to the treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Comparision of Inhibitory effects of Satureja Khozistanica,vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 on LDL peroxidation induced-CuSO4 in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan Ahmadvand

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been strongly suggested as a key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Thus the inclusion of some anti-oxidant compounds such as Satureja Khozistanica,vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 in daily dietary food stuff may inhibit the production of oxidized LDL and may decrease both the development and the progression of atherosclerosis. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of Satureja Khozistanica, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 on LDL peroxidation induced by CuSO4 quantitatively in vitro. Materials and Methods: LDL was incubated with CuSO4 and the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS of LDL were monitored as markers of LDL oxidation. Inhibition of this Cu-induced oxidation was studied in the presence of extracts of Satureja Khozistanica,vitamin E and coenzyme Q10. Results: It was demonstrated that Satureja Khozistanica like vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 is able to inhibit LDL oxidation and decrease the resistance of LDL against oxidation in vitro. Conclusion: This study showed that Satureja Khozistanica similar to vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 prevented the oxidation of LDL in vitro and it may suggest that they have the similar effect in vivo

  8. Effect of P/S ratio (0.5 vs 0.9) on hepatic LDL transport at three levels of dietary cholesterol in cynomolgus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.; Funk, G.M.; Turley, S.D.; Spady, D.K.; Dietschy, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction between dietary polyunsaturated to saturated (P/S) fatty acid ratio and cholesterol (C) was studied in 6 groups of male cynomolgus macaques fed diets (oleic acid constant) for 72 weeks as follows (C mg/Cal-P/S): (1), 0.06 - 0.5; (2), 0.06-0.9, (3), 0.28-0.5; (4), 0.28-0.9; (5), 2,35-0.5; (6), 2,35-0.9. Plasma C was proportional to dietary C and was affected significantly by P/S in 1 and 2 only. Mean plasma C (mg/dl) at 72 weeks was: (1) 158; (2) 117; (3) 320; (4) 284; (5) 602; (6) 601. LDL-C was significantly higher in (1) than in (2) (90 vs 65 mg/dl). In vivo LDL turnover studies showed that LDL clearance was suppressed by excess dietary C and by saturated fats in low C diets. Receptor-independent clearance was relatively constant. Hepatic LDL transport was determined after injection of 125I-cellobiose-LDL. Hepatic LDL-C uptake was greater in (2) than in (1). LDL-C synthesis was reduced in (4) and (6) compared to (3) and (5), respectively. The authors conclude that (i) hepatic LDL receptor activity is altered by degree of saturation in dietary triglycerides when dietary C is minimal and (ii) saturated triglycerides enhance LDL-C synthesis when dietary C is ample in this model

  9. Is non-HDL-cholesterol a better predictor of long-term outcome in patients after acute myocardial infarction compared to LDL-cholesterol? : a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Sutthiwutthichai, Satjatham; Gunaparn, Siriluck; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2017-01-05

    It has recently been shown that non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on known ethic differences in lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk prediction, we sought to study the predictability of attaining non-HDL-C target and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) in Thai patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to attaining LDL-C target. We retrospectively obtained the data of all patients who were admitted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai hospital due to AMI during 2006-2013. The mean non-HDL-C and LDL-C during long-term follow-up were used to predict MACE at each time point. The patients were classified as target attainment if non-HDL-C LDL-C LDL-C target and 21.2% experienced MACEs. LDL-C and non-HDL-C were directly compared in Cox regression model. Compared with non-HDL-C 130 mg/dl had higher incidence of MACEs (HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.46-6.80, P = 0.003). Surprisingly, LDL-C >100 mg/dl was associated with reduced risk of MACE as compared to LDL LDL-C goal was not associated with the higher risk. Therefore, non-HDL-C may be a more suitable target of dyslipidemia treatment than LDL-C in patients after AMI.

  10. A bovine papillomavirus-1 based vector restores the function of the low-density lipoprotein receptor in the receptor-deficient CHO-ldlA7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustav Mart

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rationale of using bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1 derived vectors in gene therapy protocols lies in their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number, and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. We constructed the BPV-1 based vector harbouring the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene cDNA and tested its ability to restore the function of the LDLR in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7. Results The introduced vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation as determined by the internalisation assay with the labelled LDL particles. Conclusion Bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1-derived vectors could be suitable for gene therapy due to their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. The constructed BPV-1 based vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the LDLR-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation. In vivo experiments should reveal, whether 1–5% transfection efficiency obtained in the current work is sufficient to bring about detectable and clinically significant lowering of the amount of circulating LDL cholesterol particles.

  11. The effect of ingestion of egg and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation on serum lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Techakriengkrai1

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg is a major source of dietary cholesterol. The serum lipid response to egg shows marked individual variation, beingpartly genetically determined, and influence by ethnic groups and the overall diet response. In the present investigation, weinvestigated the effect of ingestion of egg and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation on serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemicwomen. Forty hypercholesterolemic women volunteers on a cholesterol-lowering diet (CLD divided into 2 groups ina randomized controlled cross-over study of one egg per day (CLD + 1 egg for 4-week and three eggs per day (CLD + 3 eggsfor 4-week, separated by 4-week period egg-free. The body weight, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles and LDL oxidationwere measured at 4-week intervals. Cholesterol-lowering diet was applied throughout the study by a dietitian using a foodexchange program and 3-day dietary recall every 4 weeks. Compared to the values obtained at baseline, the mean serum totalcholesterol and LDL cholesterol of CLD + 3 eggs was not significantly different from baseline whereas of those of 4-week ofegg-free period and CLD + 1 egg were significantly decreased (238.3±2.9 mg/dL and 228.3±4.7 mg/dL compared to thebaseline (252.2±5.9 mg/dL as was LDL cholesterol (161.2±3.0 mg/dL and 155.7±4.8 mg/dL compared to the baseline (177.5±6.0 mg/dL (p<0.05. The study showed there were no significantly difference the body weight, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol,triglycerides or LDL oxidation during the study. However, serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol of 1 or 3 eggsper day after 4-week of egg consumption was not significantly higher than the egg-free period. The study suggests that inhypercholesterolemic women who are on cholesterol-lowering diet, consuming one or three eggs per day did not raise serumcholesterol or LDL cholesterol levels at 4 weeks or result in any change in LDL oxidation.

  12. Low LDL cholesterol, PCSK9 and HMGCR genetic variation, and risk of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease: Mendelian randomisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-04-24

    Objective  To test the hypothesis that low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol due to genetic variation in the genes responsible for LDL cholesterol metabolism and biosynthesis( PCSK9 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase ( HMGCR ), respectively) is associated with a high risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, any dementia, and Parkinson's disease in the general population. Design  Mendelian randomisation study. Setting  Copenhagen General Population Study and Copenhagen City Heart Study. Participants  111 194 individuals from the Danish general population. Main outcome measures  Risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, all dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Results  In observational analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for Parkinson's disease in participants with an LDL cholesterol level LDL cholesterol level. In genetic, causal analyses adjusted for age, sex, and year of birth, the risk ratios for a lifelong 1 mmol/L lower LDL cholesterol level were 0.57 (0.27 to 1.17) for Alzheimer's disease, 0.81 (0.34 to 1.89) for vascular dementia, 0.66 (0.34 to 1.26) for any dementia, and 1.02 (0.26 to 4.00) for Parkinson's disease. Summary level data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project using Egger Mendelian randomisation analysis gave a risk ratio for Alzheimer's disease of 0.24 (0.02 to 2.79) for 26 PCSK9 and HMGCR variants, and of 0.64 (0.52 to 0.79) for 380 variants of LDL cholesterol level lowering. Conclusion  Low LDL cholesterol levels due to PCSK9 and HMGCR variants had no causal effect on high risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, any dementia, or Parkinson's disease; however, low LDL cholesterol levels may have a causal effect in reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. The Comparison of Gemfibrozil and Lovastatin Therapy in Patients with High LDL and Low HDL Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    CLI ’T i-ITI2N 20. IM~IA~iN OF ASIRACTj OF REPORT OF TIIlS PAGF OF ARrsWiIlACT i The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin therapy in patients...PRESENTATIONS/SEMINARS: Jun 1990 The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin in a subpopulation of patients with high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels...aggressive ndical treatment. 2 Gemfibrozil is known to increase HDL cholesterol, decrease VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as lower LDL

  14. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance of such gene......To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...

  15. Combining LDL-C and HDL-C to predict survival in late life: The InChianti study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zuliani

    Full Text Available While the relationship between total cholesterol (TC and cardiovascular disease (CVD progressively weakens with aging, several studies have shown that low TC is associated with increased mortality in older individuals. However, the possible additive/synergic contribution of the two most important cholesterol rich fractions (LDL-C and HDL-C to mortality risk has not been previously investigated. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between baseline LDL-C and HDL-C, both separately and combined, and 9-years mortality in a sample of community dwelling older individuals from the InCHIANTI study.1044 individuals over 64 years were included. CVD and cancer mortality were defined by ICD-9 codes 390-459 and 140-239, respectively. LDL-C <130 mg/dL (3.36 mmol/L was defined as "optimal/near optimal". Low HDL-C was defined as <40/50 mg/dL (1.03/1.29 mmol/L in males/females, respectively. Nine-years mortality risk was calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. We found that, compared to subjects with high LDL-C and normal HDL-C (reference group, total mortality was significantly increased in subjects with optimal/near optimal LDL-C and low HDL-C (H.R.:1.58; 95%CI:1.11-2.25. As regards the specific cause of death, CVD mortality was not affected by LDL-C/HDL-C levels, while cancer mortality was significantly increased in all subjects with optimal/near optimal LDL-C (with normal HDL-C: H.R.: 2.49; with low HDL-C: H.R.: 4.52. Results were unchanged after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up, and of subjects with low TC (<160 g/dL-4.13 mmol/L.Our findings suggest that, in community dwelling older individuals, the combined presence of optimal/near optimal LDL-C and low HDL-C represents a marker of increased future mortality.

  16. Characterisation of Ferrosilicon Dense Medium Separation Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Mans, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ferrosilicon is used in the dense medium separation of iron ore at Kumba resources, Sishen, South Africa. Due to high cost and losses that occur during use, maximum recovery by means of magnetic separation is aimed for. The purpose of this project was to determine the characteristics of the unused Fe-Si and then to characterise the changes that occur during storage and use thereof. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the composition of each sample, whilst Moessbauer spectroscopy yielded a two-sextet spectrum with hyperfine magnetic field strengths of 20 and 31 T, respectively, for the fresh samples. Additional hematite oxide peaks appeared in the Moessbauer spectra after use of the Fe-Si over a length of time, but this did not result in a dramatic degradation of the medium. No definite changes occurred during correct storage methods. It was, however, found that the biggest loss of Fe-Si was due to the abrasion of the particles, which resulted in the formation of an oxihydroxide froth, during the process.

  17. Improved models of dense anharmonic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenau, P., E-mail: rosenau@post.tau.ac.il; Zilburg, A.

    2017-01-15

    We present two improved quasi-continuous models of dense, strictly anharmonic chains. The direct expansion which includes the leading effect due to lattice dispersion, results in a Boussinesq-type PDE with a compacton as its basic solitary mode. Without increasing its complexity we improve the model by including additional terms in the expanded interparticle potential with the resulting compacton having a milder singularity at its edges. A particular care is applied to the Hertz potential due to its non-analyticity. Since, however, the PDEs of both the basic and the improved model are ill posed, they are unsuitable for a study of chains dynamics. Using the bond length as a state variable we manipulate its dispersion and derive a well posed fourth order PDE. - Highlights: • An improved PDE model of a Newtonian lattice renders compacton solutions. • Compactons are classical solutions of the improved model and hence amenable to standard analysis. • An alternative well posed model enables to study head on interactions of lattices' solitary waves. • Well posed modeling of Hertz potential.

  18. Load Designs For MJ Dense Plasma Foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, A.; Povlius, A.; Anaya, R.; Anderson, M. G.; Angus, J. R.; Cooper, C. M.; Falabella, S.; Goerz, D.; Higginson, D.; Holod, I.; McMahon, M.; Mitrani, J.; Koh, E. S.; Pearson, A.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Prasad, R.; van Lue, D.; Watson, J.; Schmidt, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinches are compact pulse power driven devices with coaxial electrodes. The discharge of DPF consists of three distinct phases: first generation of a plasma sheath, plasma rail gun phase where the sheath is accelerated down the electrodes and finally an implosion phase where the plasma stagnates into a z-pinch geometry. During the z-pinch phase, DPFs can produce MeV ion beams, x-rays and neutrons. Megaampere class DPFs with deuterium fills have demonstrated neutron yields in the 1012 neutrons/shot range with pulse durations of 10-100 ns. Kinetic simulations using the code Chicago are being used to evaluate various load configurations from initial sheath formation to the final z-pinch phase for DPFs with up to 5 MA and 1 MJ coupled to the load. Results will be presented from the preliminary design simulations. LLNL-ABS-734785 This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and with support from the Computing Grand Challenge program at LLNL.

  19. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Neutrino ground state in a dense star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiers, K.; Tytgat, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    It has recently been argued that long range forces due to the exchange of massless neutrinos give rise to a very large self-energy in a dense, finite-ranged, weakly charged medium. Such an effect, if real, would destabilize a neutron star. To address this issue we have studied the related problem of a massless neutrino field in the presence of an external, static electroweak potential of finite range. To be precise, we have computed to one loop the exact vacuum energy for the case of a spherical square well potential of depth α and radius R. For small wells, the vacuum energy is reliably determined by a perturbative expansion in the external potential. For large wells, however, the perturbative expansion breaks down. A manifestation of this breakdown is that the vacuum carries a non-zero neutrino charge. The energy and neutrino charge of the ground state are, to a good approximation for large wells, those of a neutrino condensate with chemical potential μ=α. Our results demonstrate explicitly that long-range forces due to the exchange of massless neutrinos do not threaten the stability of neutron stars. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Neutral helium spectral lines in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, Banaz; Wierling, August; Roepke, Gerd; Guenter, Sibylle

    2006-01-01

    Shift and broadening of isolated neutral helium lines 7281 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 S), 7065 A ring (2 3 P-3 3 S), 6678 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 D), 5048 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 S), 4922 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 D), and 4713 A ring (2 3 P-4 3 S) in a dense plasma are investigated. Based on a quantum statistical theory, the electronic contributions to the shift and width are considered, using the method of thermodynamic Green functions. Dynamic screening of the electron-atom interaction is included. Compared to the width, the electronic shift is more affected by dynamical screening. This effect increases at high density. A cut-off procedure for strong collisions is used. The contribution of the ions is taken into account in a quasi-static approximation, with both the quadratic Stark effect and the quadrupole interaction included. The results for shift and width agree well with the available experimental and theoretical data

  2. Deterministic dense coding and entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, P. S.; Gerjuoy, E.; McDonald, J. P.; Williams, H. T.

    2008-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the standard two-party deterministic dense-coding protocol, under which communication of perfectly distinguishable messages takes place via a qudit from a pair of nonmaximally entangled qudits in a pure state |ψ>. Our results include the following: (i) We prove that it is possible for a state |ψ> with lower entanglement entropy to support the sending of a greater number of perfectly distinguishable messages than one with higher entanglement entropy, confirming a result suggested via numerical analysis in Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A 71, 012311 (2005)]. (ii) By explicit construction of families of local unitary operators, we verify, for dimensions d=3 and d=4, a conjecture of Mozes et al. about the minimum entanglement entropy that supports the sending of d+j messages, 2≤j≤d-1; moreover, we show that the j=2 and j=d-1 cases of the conjecture are valid in all dimensions. (iii) Given that |ψ> allows the sending of K messages and has √(λ 0 ) as its largest Schmidt coefficient, we show that the inequality λ 0 ≤d/K, established by Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 042311 (2006)], must actually take the form λ 0 < d/K if K=d+1, while our constructions of local unitaries show that equality can be realized if K=d+2 or K=2d-1

  3. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  4. Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs

  5. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland

    2014-09-07

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile--each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  6. Deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, T.J.; Bennett, A.; Herbst, E.

    1989-01-01

    The time-dependent gas-phase chemistry of deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds ranging in temperature between 10 and 70 K was investigated using a pseudo-time-dependent model similar to that of Brown and Rice (1986). The present approach, however, considers much more complex species, uses more deuterium fractionation reactions, and includes the use of new branching ratios for dissociative recombinations reactions. Results indicate that, in cold clouds, the major and most global source of deuterium fractionation is H2D(+) and ions derived from it, such as DCO(+) and H2DO(+). In warmer clouds, reactions of CH2D(+), C2HD(+), and associated species lead to significant fractionation even at 70 K, which is the assumed Orion temperature. The deuterium abundance ratios calculated at 10 K are consistent with those observed in TMC-1 for most species. However, a comparison between theory and observatiom for Orion, indicates that, for species in the ambient molecular cloud, the early-time results obtained with the old dissociative recombination branching ratios are superior if a temperature of 70 K is utilized. 60 refs

  7. Deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, T. J.; Bennett, A.; Herbst, Eric

    1989-05-01

    The time-dependent gas-phase chemistry of deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds ranging in temperature between 10 and 70 K was investigated using a pseudo-time-dependent model similar to that of Brown and Rice (1986). The present approach, however, considers much more complex species, uses more deuterium fractionation reactions, and includes the use of new branching ratios for dissociative recombinations reactions. Results indicate that, in cold clouds, the major and most global source of deuterium fractionation is H2D(+) and ions derived from it, such as DCO(+) and H2DO(+). In warmer clouds, reactions of CH2D(+), C2HD(+), and associated species lead to significant fractionation even at 70 K, which is the assumed Orion temperature. The deuterium abundance ratios calculated at 10 K are consistent with those observed in TMC-1 for most species. However, a comparison between theory and observatiom for Orion, indicates that, for species in the ambient molecular cloud, the early-time results obtained with the old dissociative recombination branching ratios are superior if a temperature of 70 K is utilized.

  8. Matching Cost Filtering for Dense Stereo Correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense stereo correspondence enabling reconstruction of depth information in a scene is of great importance in the field of computer vision. Recently, some local solutions based on matching cost filtering with an edge-preserving filter have been proved to be capable of achieving more accuracy than global approaches. Unfortunately, the computational complexity of these algorithms is quadratically related to the window size used to aggregate the matching costs. The recent trend has been to pursue higher accuracy with greater efficiency in execution. Therefore, this paper proposes a new cost-aggregation module to compute the matching responses for all the image pixels at a set of sampling points generated by a hierarchical clustering algorithm. The complexity of this implementation is linear both in the number of image pixels and the number of clusters. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art local methods in terms of both accuracy and speed. Moreover, performance tests indicate that parameters such as the height of the hierarchical binary tree and the spatial and range standard deviations have a significant influence on time consumption and the accuracy of disparity maps.

  9. Reduced right frontal fractional anisotropy correlated with early elevated plasma LDL levels in obese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Lou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n = 22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years and normal weight (n = 27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. RESULTS: In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies.

  10. L-arginine prevents xanthoma development and inhibits atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, W; Ravalli, S; Szabolcs, M; Jiang, X C; Sciacca, R R; Michler, R E; Cannon, P J

    1997-01-21

    The potential antiatherosclerotic actions of NO were investigated in four groups of mice (n = 10 per group) lacking functional LDL receptor genes, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia. Group 1 was fed a regular chow diet. Groups 2 through 4 were fed a 1.25% high-cholesterol diet. In addition, group 3 received supplemental L-arginine and group 4 received L-arginine and N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). Animals were killed at 6 months; aortas were stained with oil red O for planimetry and with antibodies against constitutive and inducible NOSs. Plasma cholesterol was markedly increased in the animals receiving the high-cholesterol diet. Xanthomas appeared in all mice fed the high-cholesterol diet alone but not in those receiving L-arginine. Aortic atherosclerosis was present in all mice on the high-cholesterol diet. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was reduced significantly (P < .01) in the cholesterol-fed mice given L-arginine compared with those receiving the high-cholesterol diet alone. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly larger (P < .01) in cholesterol-fed mice receiving L-arginine + L-NA than in those on the high-cholesterol diet alone. Within the atherosclerotic plaques, endothelial cells immunoreacted for endothelial cell NOS; macrophages, foam cells, and smooth muscle cells immunostained strongly for inducible NOS and nitrotyrosine residues. The data indicate that L-arginine prevents xanthoma formation and reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. The abrogation of the beneficial effects of L-arginine by L-NA suggests that the antiatherosclerotic actions of L-arginine are mediated by NOS. The data suggest that L-arginine may be beneficial in familial hypercholesterolemia.

  11. Intradomain Confinement of Disulfides in the Folding of Two Consecutive Modules of the LDL Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martínez-Oliván

    Full Text Available The LDL receptor internalizes circulating LDL and VLDL particles for degradation. Its extracellular binding domain contains ten (seven LA and three EGF cysteine-rich modules, each bearing three disulfide bonds. Despite the enormous number of disulfide combinations possible, LDLR oxidative folding leads to a single native species with 30 unique intradomain disulfides. Previous folding studies of the LDLR have shown that non native disulfides are initially formed that lead to compact species. Accordingly, the folding of the LDLR has been described as a "coordinated nonvectorial" reaction, and it has been proposed that early compaction funnels the reaction toward the native structure. Here we analyze the oxidative folding of LA4 and LA5, the modules critical for ApoE binding, isolated and in the LA45 tandem. Compared to LA5, LA4 folding is slow and inefficient, resembling that of LA5 disease-linked mutants. Without Ca++, it leads to a mixture of many two-disulfide scrambled species and, with Ca++, to the native form plus two three-disulfide intermediates. The folding of the LA45 tandem seems to recapitulate that of the individual repeats. Importantly, although the folding of the LA45 tandem takes place through formation of scrambled isomers, no interdomain disulfides are detected, i.e. the two adjacent modules fold independently without the assistance of interdomain covalent interactions. Reduction of incredibly large disulfide combinatorial spaces, such as that in the LDLR, by intradomain confinement of disulfide bond formation might be also essential for the efficient folding of other homologous disulfide-rich receptors.

  12. Expression of LDL receptor-related proteins (LRPs in common solid malignancies correlates with patient survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Gonias

    Full Text Available LDL receptor-related proteins (LRPs are transmembrane receptors involved in endocytosis, cell-signaling, and trafficking of other cellular proteins. Considerable work has focused on LRPs in the fields of vascular biology and neurobiology. How these receptors affect cancer progression in humans remains largely unknown. Herein, we mined provisional databases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to compare expression of thirteen LRPs in ten common solid malignancies in patients. Our first goal was to determine the abundance of LRP mRNAs in each type of cancer. Our second goal was to determine whether expression of LRPs is associated with improved or worsened patient survival. In total, data from 4,629 patients were mined. In nine of ten cancers studied, the most abundantly expressed LRP was LRP1; however, a correlation between LRP1 mRNA expression and patient survival was observed only in bladder urothelial carcinoma. In this malignancy, high levels of LRP1 mRNA were associated with worsened patient survival. High levels of LDL receptor (LDLR mRNA were associated with decreased patient survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. High levels of LRP10 mRNA were associated with decreased patient survival in hepatocellular carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. LRP2 was the only LRP for which high levels of mRNA expression correlated with improved patient survival. This correlation was observed in renal clear cell carcinoma. Insights into LRP gene expression in human cancers and their effects on patient survival should guide future research.

  13. Annexin A2 is a natural extrahepatic inhibitor of the PCSK9-induced LDL receptor degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil G Seidah

    Full Text Available Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 (PCSK9 enhances the degradation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR. Deletion of PCSK9, and loss-of-function mutants in humans result in lower levels of circulating LDL-cholesterol and a strong protection against coronary heart disease. Accordingly, the quest for PCSK9 inhibitors has major clinical implications. We have previously identified annexin A2 (AnxA2 as an endogenous binding partner and functional inhibitor of PCSK9. Herein, we studied the relevance of AnxA2 in PCSK9 inhibition and lipid metabolism in vivo. Plasma analyses of AnxA2(-/- mice revealed: i a ∼1.4-fold increase in LDL-cholesterol without significant changes in VLDLs or HDLs, and ii a ∼2-fold increase in circulating PCSK9 levels. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of AnxA2(-/- tissues revealed that the LDLR was decreased by ∼50% in extrahepatic tissues, such as adrenals and colon. We also show that AnxA2-derived synthetic peptides block the PCSK9≡LDLR interaction in vitro, and adenoviral overexpression of AnxA2 in mouse liver increases LDLR protein levels in vivo. These results suggest that AnxA2 acts as an endogenous regulator of LDLR degradation, mostly in extrahepatic tissues. Finally, we identified an AnxA2 coding polymorphism, V98L, that correlates with lower circulating levels of PCSK9 thereby extending our results on the physiological role of AnxA2 in humans.

  14. Pengaruh Lama Pemberian Diet Tinggi Kolesterol terhadap Kadar LDL dan TGF-Β Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biomechy Oktomalioputri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDiet tinggi kolesterol ini akan meningkatkan kadar Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL sebagai penanda hiperlipidemia yang berdampak pada terjadinya aterosklerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β memiliki peranan dalam proses terjadinya aterosklerosis ini. Keterlibatannya dalam hiperlipidemia sebagai faktor risiko utama aterosklerosis belum banyak diketahui. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh lama permberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan TGF-β pada tikus putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode post test only control group design yang dilakukan terhadap tikus Rattus novergicus jantan umur 3-4 bulan, berat 200-250 gram. Sampel penelitian terdiri dari 24 ekor tikus yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, A, B dan C. Selain kelompok kontrol, kelompok tikus diberi diet tinggi kolesterol berupa lemak kambing 10%, telur puyuh 5%, selama 10 hari untuk kelompok A, 20 hari untuk kelompok B dan 30 hari untuk kelompok C. Pada akhir percobaan darah tikus diambil dan dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar LDL dan TGF-β serum. Hasil penelitian diolah secara bivariat. Analisis yang digunakan yaitu uji oneway Anova. Hasil penelitian diketahui terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap peningkatan kadar LDL serum tikus dengan p=0,01 (p<0,05. Terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap penurunan kadar TGF-β dimana p=0,04 (p>0,05. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan tikus putih Rattus novergicus strain Wistar.Kata kunci: diet tinggi kolesterol, LDL, TGF-β AbstractHigh-cholesterol diet will increase Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL levels which impact to atherosclerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β play a role in atherosclerosis process. But its involvement in hyperlipidemia as the main risk factor of atherosclerosis still unknown. The objective of this study was

  15. In vitro production of beta-very low density lipoproteins and small, dense low density lipoproteins in mildly hypertriglyceridemic plasma: role of activities of lecithin:cholester acyltransferase, cholesterylester transfer proteins and lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, B H; Segrest, J P; Franklin, F

    1998-12-01

    As a model for the formation of beta-very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and small, dense LDL by the intraplasma metabolic activities in vivo, lipoproteins in fresh plasma were interacted in vitro with endogenous lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterylester transfer proteins (CETP) and subsequently with purified lipoprotein lipase (LpL). The LCAT and CETP reactions in a mildly hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) plasma at 37 degrees C for 18 h resulted in (1) esterification of about 45% plasma unesterified cholesterol (UC), (2) a marked increase in cholesterylester (CE) (+129%) and a decrease in triglyceride (TG) (-45%) in VLDL, and (3) a marked increase of TG (+ 341%) with a small net decrease of CE (-3.6%) in LDL, causing a significant alteration in the TG/CE of VLDL (from 8.0 to 1.9) and of LDL (from 0.20 to 0.93). The LDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma is larger and more buoyant than that in control plasma. In vitro lipolysis of control and LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma by LpL, which hydrolyzed >90% of VLDL-TG and about 50-60% of LDL-TG, converted most of VLDL in control plasma (>85%) but less than half (40%) of VLDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into the IDL-LDL density fraction and transformed the large, buoyant LDL in the LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into particles smaller and denser than those in the control plasma. The remnants that accumulated in the VLDL density region of the postlipolysis LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma contained apo B-100 and E but little or no detectable apo Cs and consisted of particles having pre-beta and beta-electrophoretic mobilities. The inhibition of LCAT during incubation of plasma, which lessened the extent of alteration in VLDL and LDL core lipids, increased the extent of lipolytic removal of VLDL from the VLDL density region but lowered the extent of alteration in the size and density of LDL. The LCAT, CETP and/or LpL-mediated alterations in the density of LDL in normolipidemic fasting plasma were less pronounced

  16. Mining connected global and local dense subgraphs for bigdata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Shen, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The problem of discovering connected dense subgraphs of natural graphs is important in data analysis. Discovering dense subgraphs that do not contain denser subgraphs or are not contained in denser subgraphs (called significant dense subgraphs) is also critical for wide-ranging applications. In spite of many works on discovering dense subgraphs, there are no algorithms that can guarantee the connectivity of the returned subgraphs or discover significant dense subgraphs. Hence, in this paper, we define two subgraph discovery problems to discover connected and significant dense subgraphs, propose polynomial-time algorithms and theoretically prove their validity. We also propose an algorithm to further improve the time and space efficiency of our basic algorithm for discovering significant dense subgraphs in big data by taking advantage of the unique features of large natural graphs. In the experiments, we use massive natural graphs to evaluate our algorithms in comparison with previous algorithms. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our algorithms for the two problems and their efficiency. This work is also the first that reveals the physical significance of significant dense subgraphs in natural graphs from different domains.

  17. Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, K.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Pankow,J.F. & Cherry,J.A.: Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater. Waterloo Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996......Anmeldelse af Pankow,J.F. & Cherry,J.A.: Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater. Waterloo Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996...

  18. Dry processing versus dense medium processing for preparing thermal coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Korte, GJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available of the final product. The separation efficiency of dry processes is, however, not nearly as good as that of dense medium and, as a result, it is difficult to effectively beneficiate coals with a high near-dense content. The product yield obtained from some raw...

  19. Interparticle interaction and transport processes in dense semiclassical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baimbetov, F.B.; Giniyatova, Sh.G.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the density response formalism an expression for the pseudopotential of dense semiclassical plasma, which takes account of quantum-mechanical effects, local field corrections, and electronic screening effects is obtained. The static structure factors taking into account both local fields and quantum-mechanical effects are calculated. An electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity of dense semiclassical plasma are studied

  20. 16. Hot dense plasma atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Dappen; Totsuji, H.; Nishii, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers 13 articles whose common feature is to deal with atomic processes in hot plasmas. Density functional molecular dynamics method is applied to the hydrogen plasma in the domain of liquid metallic hydrogen. The effects of the density gradient are taken into account in both the electronic kinetic energy and the exchange energy and it is shown that they almost cancel with each other, extending the applicability of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximation to the cases where the density gradient is not negligible. Another article reports about space and time resolved M-shell X-ray measurements of a laser-produced gas jet xenon plasma. Plasma parameters have been measured by ion acoustic and electron plasma waves Thomson scattering. Photo-ionization becomes a dominant atomic process when the density and the temperature of plasmas are relatively low and when the plasma is submitted to intense external radiation. It is shown that 2 plasmas which have a very different density but have the same ionization parameters, are found in a similar ionization state. Most radiation hydrodynamics codes use radiative opacity data from available libraries of atomic data. Several articles are focused on the determination of one group Rosseland and Planck mean analytical formulas for several single elements used in inertial fusion targets. In another paper the plasma density effect on population densities, effective ionization, recombination rate coefficients and on emission lines from carbon and Al ions in hot dense plasma, is studied. The last article is devoted to a new atomic model in plasmas that considers the occupation probability of the bound state and free state density in the presence of the plasma micro-field. (A.C.)

  1. DENSE MOLECULAR CORES BEING EXTERNALLY HEATED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwanjeong; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Mi-Ryang [Radio Astronomy division, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Gopinathan, Maheswar [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital 263129 (India); Jeong, Woong-Seob, E-mail: archer81@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajungro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-20

    We present results of our study of eight dense cores, previously classified as starless, using infrared (3–160 μ m) imaging observations with the AKARI telescope and molecular line (HCN and N{sub 2}H{sup +}) mapping observations with the KVN telescope. Combining our results with the archival IR to millimeter continuum data, we examined the starless nature of these eight cores. Two of the eight cores are found to harbor faint protostars having luminosities of ∼0.3–4.4 L {sub ⊙}. The other six cores are found to remain starless and probably are in a dynamically transitional state. The temperature maps produced using multi-wavelength images show an enhancement of about 3–6 K toward the outer boundary of these cores, suggesting that they are most likely being heated externally by nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields. Large virial parameters and an overdominance of red asymmetric line profiles over the cores may indicate that the cores are set into either an expansion or an oscillatory motion, probably due to the external heating. Most of the starless cores show a coreshine effect due to the scattering of light by the micron-sized dust grains. This may imply that the age of the cores is of the order of ∼10{sup 5} years, which is consistent with the timescale required for the cores to evolve into an oscillatory stage due to external perturbation. Our observational results support the idea that the external feedback from nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of the cores.

  2. Fabrication of dense panels in lithium fluoride; Fabrication de panneaux denses en fluorure de lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcy, P.; Roger, J.; Pointud, R.

    1958-04-15

    The authors report a study aimed at the fabrication of large and dense lithium fluoride panels. This sintered lithium fluoride is then supposed to be used for the construction of barriers of protection against a flow of thermal neutrons. They briefly present the raw material which is used under the form of chamotte obtained through a pre-sintering process which is also described. Grain size measurements and sample preparation are indicated. Shaping, drying, and thermal treatment are briefly described, and characteristics of the sintered product are indicated.

  3. Maternal-fetal cholesterol transport in the second half ofmouse pregnancy does not involve LDL receptor-related protein 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Mathijs V; Baardman, Maria E; van Dijk, Theo H; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Wisse, Lambertus J; Bloks, Vincent W; Berger, Rolf M F; DeRuiter, Marco C; Groen, Albert K; Plösch, Torsten

    AimLDL receptor-related protein type 2 (LRP2) is highly expressed on both yolk sac and placenta. Mutations in the corresponding gene are associated with severe birth defects in humans, known as Donnai-Barrow syndrome. We here characterized the contribution of LRP2 and maternal plasma cholesterol

  4. Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans - A Quantitative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid

  5. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ould Mohamedou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B, CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P=0.001, total chol by 9.13%, (P=0.01, and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P=0.02. However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P=0.01 and 9.40%,  P=0.045, resp.. Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P=0.038 in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  6. CCC- and WASH-mediated endosomal sorting of LDLR is required for normal clearance of circulating LDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartuzi, Paulina; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Favier, Robert; Rong, Shunxing; Dekker, Daphne; Fedoseienko, Alina; Fieten, Hille; Wijers, Melinde; Levels, Johannes H.; Huijkman, Nicolette; Kloosterhuis, Niels; Van der Molen, Henk; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.; Elliott, Alison M.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Plecko, Barbara; Grangl, Gernot; McGaughran, Julie; Horton, Jay D.; Burstein, Ezra; Hofker, Marten H.; van de Sluis, Bart

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) plays a pivotal role in clearing atherogenic circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Here we show that the COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complexes are both crucial for endosomal

  7. CCC- and WASH-mediated endosomal sorting of LDLR is required for normal clearance of circulating LDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartuzi, Paulina; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Favier, Robert; Rong, Shunxing; Dekker, Daphne; Fedoseienko, Alina; Fieten, Hille; Wijers, Melinde; Levels, Johannes H.; Huijkman, Nicolette; Kloosterhuis, Niels; van der Molen, Henk; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.; Elliott, Alison M.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Plecko, Barbara; Grangl, Gernot; McGaughran, Julie; Horton, Jay D.; Burstein, Ezra; Hofker, Marten H.; van de Sluis, Bart

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) plays a pivotal role in clearing atherogenic circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Here we show that the COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complexes are both crucial for endosomal

  8. Clinical characteristics and evaluation of LDL-cholesterol treatment of the Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Longitudinal Cohort Study (SAFEHEART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients are at high risk for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite the use of statins, most patients do not achieve an optimal LDL-cholesterol goal. The aims of this study are to describe baseline characteristics and to evaluate Lipid Lowering Therapy (L...

  9. Normal LDL-Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis in the Absence of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Fuster, Valentín; López-Melgar, Beatriz; Oliva, Belén; García-Ruiz, José M; Mendiguren, José; Bueno, Héctor; Pocock, Stuart; Ibáñez, Borja; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanz, Javier

    2017-12-19

    Absence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is traditionally considered low risk for atherosclerosis; however, individuals without CVRFs, as currently defined, still have events. This study sought to identify predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in CVRF-free individuals. Participants from the PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study (n = 4,184) without conventional CVRFs were evaluated (n = 1,779; 45.0 ± 4.1 years, 50.3% women). CVRF freedom was defined as no current smoking and untreated blood pressure cholesterol cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol ≥40 mg/dl. A subgroup with optimal CVRFs (n = 740) was also defined as having blood pressure cholesterol LDL-C was independently associated with atherosclerosis presence and extent, in both the CVRF-free and CVRF-optimal groups (odds ratio [×10 mg/dl]: 1.14 to 1.18; p LDL-C, even at levels currently considered normal, is independently associated with the presence and extent of early systemic atherosclerosis in the absence of major CVRFs. These findings support more effective LDL-C lowering for primordial prevention, even in individuals conventionally considered at optimal risk. (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis [PESA] Study; NCT01410318). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  11. LDL-apheresis depletes apoE-HDL and pre-β1-HDL in familial hypercholesterolemia: relevance to atheroprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsoni, Alexina; Saheb, Samir; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Atassi, Marielle; Bittar, Randa; Robillard, Paul; Bruckert, Eric; Kontush, Anatol; Carrié, Alain; Chapman, M. John

    2011-01-01

    Subnormal HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo)AI levels are characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), reflecting perturbed intravascular metabolism with compositional anomalies in HDL particles, including apoE enrichment. Does LDL-apheresis, which reduces HDL-cholesterol,

  12. Effect of VCO and olive oil on HDL, LDL, and cholesterol level of hyperglycemic Rattus Rattus Norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf Wachidah Yuiwarti, Enny; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Kusdiyantini, Endang

    2018-05-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and olive oil are edible oil containing an antioxidant that can prevent free radicals in Rattus rattus norvegicus hypoglycemic due to the damage of pancreatic beta cell after alloxan injection. Virgin coconut oil and olive oil are fatty acids when being consumed will affect lipid metabolism particularly HDL, LDL and cholesterol in serum. This research aims to determine the effect of VCO and Olive oil on cholesterol levels in hyperglycemic rats. Research materials were twenty male Rattus rattus norvegicus. Randomized Factorial Design was used in four treatment groups including P1(control), P2 (mice injected with alloxan), P3 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each VCO and vitamin E) and P4 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each olive oil and vitamin E. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. Feed and water were provided adlibitum for four weeks. The result showed that there was no significant difference in the level of HDL serum across the treatments, but P4 had a significantly higher LDL than the other treatments. Moreover, total cholesterol was significantly increased in P4 compared to the other groups. It can be concluded that olive oil could increase the level of cholesterol and LDL in serum, while VCO did not increase the level of cholesterol and LDL so VCO more potential to maintain cholesterol in hyperglycemic Rattus rattus norvegicus.

  13. Macrophage heterogeneity and cholesterol homeostasis: classically-activated macrophages are associated with reduced cholesterol accumulation following treatment with oxidized LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Eugene M; Tai, Daven C; Beer, Jennifer L; Hill, John S

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are centrally involved during atherosclerosis development and are the predominant cell type that accumulates cholesterol in the plaque. Macrophages however, are heterogeneous in nature reflecting a variety of microenvironments and different phenotypes may be more prone to contribute towards atherosclerosis progression. Using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, we sought to evaluate one aspect of atherogenic potential of different macrophage phenotypes by determining their propensity to associate with and accumulate oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Classically-activated macrophages treated simultaneously with interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) associated with less oxLDL and accumulated less cholesterol compared to untreated controls. The combined treatment of IFNγ and TNFα reduced the mRNA expression of CD36 and the expression of both cell surface CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) protein. Under oxLDL loaded conditions, IFNγ and TNFα did not reduce macrophage protein expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor γ (PPARγ) which is known to positively regulate CD36 expression. However, macrophages treated with IFNγ attenuated the ability of the PPARγ-specific agonist rosiglitazone from upregulating cell surface CD36 protein expression. Our results demonstrate that the observed reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophages treated with IFNγ and TNFα following oxLDL treatment was due at least in part to reduced cell surface CD36 and MSR1 protein expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...... of such genetic determinants with cardiovascular disease risk will either favor or disfavor that these lipoproteins are causally related to cardiovascular disease....

  15. Lipoprotein lipase S447X variant associated with VLDL, LDL and HDL diameter clustering in the MetS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous analysis clustered 1,238 individuals from the general population Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs Network (GOLDN) study by the size of their fasting very low-density, low-density and high-density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL) using latent class analysis. From two of the eight identified gro...

  16. Effect of LDL cholesterol and treatment with losartan on end-stage renal disease in the RENAAL study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tershakovec, A.M.; Keane, W.F.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Renal pathology and dyslipidemia commonly coexist. Treatments that lower albuminuria/proteinuria may lower lipids, but it is not known whether lipid lowering independent of lessening albuminuria/proteinuria slows progression of kidney disease. We examined the association between LDL cholesterol...

  17. FttC-Based Fronthaul for 5G Dense/Ultra-Dense Access Network: Performance and Costs in Realistic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mazzenga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to terminals. However, the deployment of dense/ultra-dense networks is slowed down by the cost of the fiber-based infrastructure required to connect radio nodes to the central processing units and then to the core network. In this paper, we investigate the possibility for existing FttC access networks to provide fronthaul capabilities for dense/ultra-dense 5G wireless networks. The analysis is realistic in that it is carried out considering an actual access network scenario, i.e., the Italian FttC deployment. It is assumed that access nodes are connected to the Cabinets and to the corresponding distributors by a number of copper pairs. Different types of cities grouped in terms of population have been considered. Results focus on fronthaul transport capacity provided by the FttC network and have been expressed in terms of the available fronthaul bit rate per node and of the achievable coverage.

  18. The effect of oxLDL on microvesicle release from platelets, measured by a sensitive flow cytometry method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Bo Nielsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles (MVs are submicron vesicles with sizes of 0.1-1.0-µm in diameter, released from various cell types upon activation or apoptosis. Their involvement in a variety of diseases has been intensively investigated. In blood, platelets are potent MV secretors, and oxLDL, a platelet ligand, induce platelet activation and thus potentially MV secretion. This interaction occurs through binding of oxLDL with CD36, located on the platelet membrane. In this study we investigated the effect of in vitro incubation of platelets with oxLDL on MV release. Furthermore, we compared the results obtained when separating MVs larger than 0.5-µm as a measure of results obtained from less sensitive conventional flow cytometers with MVs below the 0.5-µm limit. MV size-distribution was analysed in plasma from 11 healthy volunteers (4 females, 7 males. MVs were identified as < 1-μm and positive for lactadherin binding and cell specific markers. Platelet rich plasma (PRP was incubated without and with oxLDL or LDL (as control to investigate the impact on platelet activation, evident by release of MVs. Size-calibrated fluorescent beads were used to establish the MV gate, and separate small- and large-size vesicles. CD41+ and CD41+CD36+ MVs increased by 6-8 fold in PRP, when left at room temperature, and the presence of cell specific markers increased. Total MV count was unaffected. Incubations with oxLDL did not increase the MV release or affect the distribution of small- and large-size MVs. We found a large inter-individual variation in the fraction of small- and large-size MVs of 73%. In conclusion, we propose that pro-coagulant activity and activation of platelets induced by interaction of platelet CD36 with oxLDL may not involve release of MVs. Furthermore, our results demonstrate great inter-individual variability in size-distribution of platelet derived MVs and thereby stresses the importance for generation of standardized protocols for MV quantification

  19. Type of dyslipidemia and achievement of the LDL-cholesterol goal in chronic kidney disease patients at the University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawang, Tamon; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been defined as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent. Therefore, the current guideline has been recommended for CKD patients to reach and maintain a low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of less than 100 mg/dL. However, the data regarding the achievement of LDL-C goal in these patients is lacking. This study was conducted to evaluate the types of dyslipidemia affecting patients with CKD stages 3 and 4 and to determine whether these patients achieved LDL-C goal. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia who were followed-up at Siriraj Hospital between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 150 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia were recruited. The mean age was 72±10 years, and the body mass index was 25.6±4 kg/m(2); 60% had CKD stage 3 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 34±12 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 54% had type 2 diabetes. The percentage of patients with hypercholesterolemia was 78%, hypertriglyceridemia 54%, and low high-density lipoprotein-C 36%. Of these, 52% had mixed hyperlipidemia. Statin treatment was prescribed to 87% of the patients, of which only 31.3% achieved the LDL-C goal according to the National Cholesterol Education Program and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society recommendations. Patients who did not achieve the LDL-C goal had a higher cholesterol level at diagnosis and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and stroke than those who achieved it. Two-thirds of CKD patients with hyperlipidemia had mixed hyperlipidemia. Despite the high frequency of statin treatment, only one-third of patients with CKD achieved the LDL-C goal. Thus, a developmental plan for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with CKD should be implemented to increase their achievement of the LDL-C goal.

  20. Advanced glycation end products-modified proteins and oxidized LDL mediate down-regulation of leptin in mouse adipocytes via CD36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Yuka; Sakai, Masakazu; Sakamoto, Yu-ichiro; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Nagai, Ryoji; Horiuchi, Seikoh

    2004-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGE)-modified proteins as well as oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis by CHO cells overexpressing CD36, a member of class B scavenger receptor family. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of glycolaldehyde-modified BSA (GA-BSA) as an AGE-ligand and Ox-LDL on leptin expression in adipocytes. GA-BSA decreased leptin expression at both protein and mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mouse epididymal adipocytes. Ox-LDL showed a similar inhibitory effect on leptin expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which effect was protected by N-acetylcysteine, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor. Binding of 125 I-GA-BSA or 125 I-Ox-LDL to 3T3-L1 adipocytes and subsequent endocytic degradation were inhibited by a neutralizing anti-CD36 antibody. Furthermore, this antibody also suppressed Ox-LDL-induced leptin down-regulation. These results clarify that the interaction of GA-BSA and Ox-LDL with CD36 leads to down-regulation of leptin expression via ROS system(s) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that a potential link of AGE- and/or Ox-LDL-induced leptin down-regulation might be linked to insulin-sensitivity in metabolic syndrome

  1. Rapid characterization of disease-causing mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene by overexpression in COS cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S; Jensen, H K

    1996-01-01

    To characterize disease-causing mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene, COS cells are transfected with the mutant gene in an EBV-based expression vector and characterized by flow cytometry. Using antibodies against the LDL-receptor the amount of receptor protein on the cel...

  2. α-Defensins Induce a Post-translational Modification of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) That Promotes Atherosclerosis at Normal Levels of Plasma Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Fanne, Rami; Maraga, Emad; Abd-Elrahman, Ihab; Hankin, Aviel; Blum, Galia; Abdeen, Suhair; Hijazi, Nuha; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2016-02-05

    Approximately one-half of the patients who develop clinical atherosclerosis have normal or only modest elevations in plasma lipids, indicating that additional mechanisms contribute to pathogenesis. In view of increasing evidence that inflammation contributes to atherogenesis, we studied the effect of human neutrophil α-defensins on low density lipoprotein (LDL) trafficking, metabolism, vascular deposition, and atherogenesis using transgenic mice expressing human α-defensins in their polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Def(+/+)). Accelerated Def(+/+) mice developed α-defensin·LDL complexes that accelerate the clearance of LDL from the circulation accompanied by enhanced vascular deposition and retention of LDL, induction of endothelial cathepsins, increased endothelial permeability to LDL, and the development of lipid streaks in the aortic roots when fed a regular diet and at normal plasma levels of LDL. Transplantation of bone marrow from Def(+/+) to WT mice increased LDL clearance, increased vascular permeability, and increased vascular deposition of LDL, whereas transplantation of WT bone marrow to Def(+/+) mice prevented these outcomes. The same outcome was obtained by treating Def(+/+) mice with colchicine to inhibit the release of α-defensins. These studies identify a potential new link between inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. HDL cholesterol, LDL receptor activity and response to dietary cholesterol *1 A reply to the letter of Cortese, Miller, Marenah and Lewis [2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the concentration of cholesterol in blood plasma is partly accounted for by differences in diet, age, sex and genetic constitution. No correlation between plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and the activity of the LDL receptor in white blood cells could be

  4. Prevention of LDL-suppression of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity by progesterone (PG): evidence for cytochrome P-450 involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.C.; Gupta, A.; Panini, S.R.; Rudney, H.

    1987-01-01

    Incubation of rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) with PG has been reported by us to prevent the suppression of HMGR activity by LDL. In the present study, addition of LDL and PG to IEC-6 cells resulted in a 2 fold increase in cellular free cholesterol (CH) in 24 h, while HMGR activity remained elevated. PG did not affect the internalization and degradation of [ 125 I] LDL nor the accumulation of free [ 3 H] CH in cells incubated with [ 3 H-cholesteryl linoleate]-LDL. Also, PG did not affect the intracellular transport of LDL-derived [ 3 H] CH to the plasma membrane nor the efflux of the [ 3 H] CH into medium containing human high density lipoprotein. Addition of LDL to cells, in which the cellular CH was radiolabeled from [ 3 H] acetate, resulted in an increased formation of radiolabeled oxysterols, detected by HPLC, and a corresponding decrease in HMGR activity. PG attenuated both the LDL-induced formation of oxysterols and suppression of HMGR activity. PG inhibited cytochrome P-450 dependent oxidation of benzphetamine, aminopyrine and aniline by liver microsomes from phenobarbitol treated rats. These results suggest PG may prevent LDL suppression of HMGR activity in IEC-6 cells by inhibiting cytochrome P-450 dependent formation of regulatory oxysterols

  5. No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL Oxidation in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, H.M.G.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Buytenhek, R.; Blonk, C.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Langius, J.A.E.; Meinders, A.E.; Pijl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Intake of flavonoids is associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk. Oxidation of LDL is a major step in atherogenesis, and antioxidants may protect LDL from oxidation. Because tea is an important source of flavonoids which are strong antioxidants, we have assessed in a randomized,

  6. [Prevalence of inapropriate LDL cholesterol levels in patients with coronary disease and/or type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Isla, L; Saltijeral Cerezo, A; Vitale, G; González Timón, B; Torres Do Rego, A; Alvarez-Sala Walther, L A

    2012-11-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend achieving concentrations of LDL cholesterol less than 100 mg/dl (and in some cases less than 70 mg/dl) in patients with coronary artery disease and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). We have examined the compliance with these objectives in patients treated in Spain with these conditions. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Data were obtained during the visit of the study or, in their absence, based on data contained in the medical record by 874 doctors of the 17 autonomous communities in Spain. Demographic information, risk factors, cardiovascular and prescribed treatments were collected. In the final analysis 6.988 (62.7% male) patients were included. 2586 (37%) had coronary disease, 2654 (38%) DM2 and 1748 (25%) both conditions. 65% had metabolic syndrome. Vascular risk factors median number was 4. 57% and 86% showed a concentration of LDL cholesterol >100 and >70 mg/dl respectively. The proportion patients with LDL concentration >100 mg/dl was 4% greater in the DM2 (62.4%) than in coronary patients (57.1%; p0.0001). Concentration of triglycerides >150 mg/dl was higher in patients with DM2 (50.5%) than in coronary patients (43.5%; p0.0001). The proportion of patients with LDL>70 mg/dl was similar in the coronary group and in the DM2 Group (88.4% and 87.0%, respectively). More than half of patients with coronary heart disease (57.5%) or DM2 (55.7%) showed inadequate levels of HDL (women). More than a half of patients with diabetes mellitus and/or coronary artery disease enrolled in the CODIMET study do not achieve the recommended LDL cholesterol target for high cardiovascular risk patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Polysaccharide from Fuzi protects against Ox-LDL-induced calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells by increasing autophagic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lizhen; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Li, Weidong; Su, Qibiao; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Polysaccharide from Fuzi (FPS) is a water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Fuzi. It has been demonstrated to protect hepatocytes against ischemia-reperfusion injury through its potent antioxidant effects, and to attenuate starvation-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells by increasing autophagic activity. In the present study, Alizarin Red S staining was used to detect mineral deposition and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the core binding factor α1 and smooth muscle 22α mRNA expression. To analyze autophagic activity, western blotting was used to detect microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3 and nucleoporin P62 expression. In addition, green fluorescent protein-LC3 dots-per-cell was observed by fluorescence microscopy. It was demonstrated that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) could increase the calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a concentration-dependent manner, and that FPS treatment had a significant protective effect against Ox-LDL-induced calcification of human VSMCs. Furthermore, FPS treatment alleviated the Ox-LDL-induced downregulation of autophagic activity, and the protective effect of FPS on Ox-LDL-induced calcification was attenuated by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge that FPS can protect against Ox-LDL-induced vascular calcification in human VSMCs, and that this likely occurs via the activation of autophagy. This supports the hypothesis that autophagy may be an endogenous protective mechanism counteracting vascular calcification, and that FPS may be used as a potential therapeutic for vascular calcification. PMID:29393437

  8. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 is an enhancer of tumor angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván González-Chavarría

    Full Text Available Altered expression and function of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1 has been associated with several diseases such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and obesity. In these pathologies, oxLDL/LOX-1 activates signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, cell motility and angiogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that olr1 mRNA is over-expressed in stage III and IV of human prostatic adenocarcinomas. However, the function of LOX-1 in prostate cancer angiogenesis remains to be determined. Our aim was to analyze the contribution of oxLDL and LOX-1 to tumor angiogenesis using C4-2 prostate cancer cells. We analyzed the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules and angiogenesis on prostate cancer tumor xenografts, using prostate cancer cell models with overexpression or knockdown of LOX-1 receptor. Our results demonstrate that the activation of LOX-1 using oxLDL increases cell proliferation, and the expression of the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a dose-dependent manner. Noticeably, these effects were prevented in the C4-2 prostate cancer model when LOX-1 expression was knocked down. The angiogenic effect of LOX-1 activated with oxLDL was further demonstrated using the aortic ring assay and the xenograft model of tumor growth on chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryos. Consequently, we propose that LOX-1 activation by oxLDL is an important event that enhances tumor angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.

  9. Total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol decrease with age in older men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study 1984-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A; Barrett-Connor, E; Shan, J

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study the effects of age, weight change, and covariates on lipid and lipoprotein levels cross-sectionally and prospectively in an elderly population. A community-based sample of 1041 men and 1303 women aged 50 to 93 years was studied cross-sectionally in 1984 to 1987, with follow-up of 372 men and 545 women 8 years later. In the cross-sectional study, levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased and levels of HDL cholesterol (HDLC) increased with age in men (all P or = 75 years) and in all weight change groups (> 2.5-kg loss, change within 2.5 kg, and > 2.5-kg gain) and in all waist girth change groups, for an overall decrement of approximately 1% per year. In multiple linear regression models, change in weight was the most important independent and consistent predictor of changes in TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Similar results were obtained in analyses excluding subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or estrogen and in analyses adjusted for changes in cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, medication use, and incident myocardial infarction, cancer, or diabetes. Cross-sectional decrements in TC and LDL-C with age in men are not explained by survivor bias because they are also observed prospectively. Although weight change was the most important explanatory variable, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels also decreased in those who lost or gained weight. Age was not an independent predictor of change. Other prospective studies are recommended to better define the causes and consequences of cholesterol and lipoprotein changes in old age.

  10. Atractylenolide I restores HO-1 expression and inhibits Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammatory responses in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; He, Zehong; Wang, Xiuei; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2017-04-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is characterized by the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inflammatory lesions. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of atractylenolide I (AO-I) on smooth muscle cell inflammation, proliferation and migration induced by oxidized modified low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL). Here, We found that atractylenolide I inhibited Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in VSMCs. The study also identified that AO-I prominently inhibited p38-MAPK and NF-κB activation. More importantly, the specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) IX partially abolished the beneficial effects of atractylenolide I on Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs. Furthermore, atractylenolide I blocked the foam cell formation in macrophages induced by Ox-LDL. In summary, inhibitory roles of AO-I in VSMCs proliferation and migration, lipid peroxidation and subsequent inflammatory responses might contribute to the anti-atherosclerotic property of AO-I. - Highlights: • AO-I inhibited Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration. • AO-I alleviated inflammatory response via inhibiting TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production. • AO-I restored HO-1 expression and down-regulated PCNA expression. • MCP-1 overexpression is potentially regulated by NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathway. • AO-I possesses strong anti-lipid peroxidation effect.

  11. Inhibition of LDL-oxidation and antioxidant properties related to polyphenol content of hydrophilic fractions from seaweed Halimeda Incrassata (Ellis Lamouroux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Costa-Mugica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available LDL oxidation and oxidative stress are closely related to atherosclerosis. Therefore, natural antioxidants have been studied as promising candidates. In the present study, the LDL oxidation inhibition activity of bioactive compounds from Halimeda incrassata seaweed. associated to antioxidant capacity, was evaluated in vitro. Experimental work was conducted with lyophilized aqueous extract and phenolic-rich fractions of the seaweed and their effect on LDL oxidation was evaluated using heparin-precipitated LDL (hep-LDL with exposure to Cu2+ ions and AAPH as the free radical generator. H. incrassata had a protective effect for hep-LDL in both systems and the presence of phenolic compounds contributed to the activity where phenolic-rich fractions showed significant capacity for inhibition of oxidation mediated by Cu2+ ions. The observed effect could be related to the antioxidant potential of polar fractions evidenced by reducing activity and DPPH• radical scavenging. The results obtained in vitro further support the antioxidant and LDL oxidation inhibition properties of H. incrassata and further knowledge toward future phytotherapeutic application of the seaweed.A oxidação da LDL e o estresse oxidativo estão intimamente relacionados com a aterosclerose. Por isso, os antioxidantes naturais têm sido estudados como candidatos promissores. No presente trabalho foi avaliada in vitro a capacidade de inibição da oxidação da LDL pelos compostos bioativos da alga Halimeda incrassata em associação à capacidade antioxidante. O trabalho experimental foi conduzido com extratos polares (extrato aquoso liofilizado e frações ricas em fenólicos e seu efeito na oxidação da LDL foi avaliado usando LDL precipitada com heparina (hep-LDL, oxidada com íons de Cu2+ e AAPH, como geradores de radicais livres. A H. incrassata apresentou efeito protetor para hep-LDL em ambos sistemas e a presença de compostos fenólicos contribuiu para a atividade em que as

  12. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Rates of Thermonuclear Reactions in Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bornatici, M.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of plasma screening of thermonuclear reactions has attracted considerable scientific interest ever since Salpeter's seminal paper, but it is still faced with controversial statements and without any definite conclusion. It is of relevant importance to thermonuclear reactions in dense astrophysical plasmas, for which charge screening can substantially affect the reaction rates. Whereas Salpeter and a number of subsequent investigations have dealt with static screening, Carraro, Schafer, and Koonin have drawn attention to the fact that plasma screening of thermonuclear reactions is an essentially dynamic effect. In addressing the issue of collective plasma effects on the thermonuclear reaction rates, the first critical overview of most of the work carried out so far is presented and the validity of the test particle approach is assessed. In contrast to previous investigations, we base our description on the kinetic equation for nonequilibrium plasmas, which accounts for the effects on the rates of thermonuclear reactions of both plasma fluctuations and screening and allows one to analyze explicitly the effects of the fluctuations on the reaction rates. Such a kinetic formulation is more general than both Salpeter's approach and the recently developed statistical approaches and makes it possible to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the problem. A noticeable result of the fluctuation approach is that the static screening, which affects both the interaction and the self-energy of the reacting nuclei, does not affect the reaction rates, in contrast with the results obtained so far. Instead, a reduction of the thermonuclear reaction rates is obtained as a result of the effect of plasma fluctuations related to the free self-energy of the reacting nuclei. A simple physical explanation of the slowing down of the reaction rates is given, and the relation to the dynamically screened test particle approach is discussed. Corrections to the reaction rates

  14. Neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohs, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter are studied. In particular, this work is concerned with neutrino-matter interactions that are relevant for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The majority of the energy from a CCSN is released in the form of neutrinos. Accurate understanding and computation of these interactions is most relevant to achieve sufficiently reliable predictions for the evolution of CCSNe and other related question such as the production of heavy elements or neutrino oscillations. For this purpose this work follows the combined approach of searching for new important neutrino reactions and improving the computation of those reactions that are already implemented. First we estimate the relevance of charged-current weak interactions that include muon-neutrinos or muons, as well as the role of neutron decay for neutrino transport in CCSNe. All of these reactions were previously neglected in CCSN-simulations. We derive and compute the matrix element and subsequent semi-analytic expressions for transport properties like the inverse mean free path of the new reactions. It is found that these reactions are important for muon neutrinos and low energy electron antineutrinos at very high densities in the protoneutron star surface. Consequently their implementation might lead to several changes in the prediction of CCSNe signatures such as the nucleosynthesis yields. Second we improve the precision in the computation of well known neutrino-nucleon reactions like neutrino absorption on neutrons. We derive semi-analytic expressions for transport properties that use less restrictive approximations while keeping the computational demand constant. Therefore we consider the full relativistic kinematics of all participating particles i.e. allowing for relativistic nucleons and finite lepton masses. Also the weak magnetism terms of the matrix elements are explicitly included to all orders. From our results we suggest that the

  15. Neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohs, Andreas

    2015-04-13

    In this thesis, neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter are studied. In particular, this work is concerned with neutrino-matter interactions that are relevant for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The majority of the energy from a CCSN is released in the form of neutrinos. Accurate understanding and computation of these interactions is most relevant to achieve sufficiently reliable predictions for the evolution of CCSNe and other related question such as the production of heavy elements or neutrino oscillations. For this purpose this work follows the combined approach of searching for new important neutrino reactions and improving the computation of those reactions that are already implemented. First we estimate the relevance of charged-current weak interactions that include muon-neutrinos or muons, as well as the role of neutron decay for neutrino transport in CCSNe. All of these reactions were previously neglected in CCSN-simulations. We derive and compute the matrix element and subsequent semi-analytic expressions for transport properties like the inverse mean free path of the new reactions. It is found that these reactions are important for muon neutrinos and low energy electron antineutrinos at very high densities in the protoneutron star surface. Consequently their implementation might lead to several changes in the prediction of CCSNe signatures such as the nucleosynthesis yields. Second we improve the precision in the computation of well known neutrino-nucleon reactions like neutrino absorption on neutrons. We derive semi-analytic expressions for transport properties that use less restrictive approximations while keeping the computational demand constant. Therefore we consider the full relativistic kinematics of all participating particles i.e. allowing for relativistic nucleons and finite lepton masses. Also the weak magnetism terms of the matrix elements are explicitly included to all orders. From our results we suggest that the

  16. Dense-gas dispersion advection-diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    A dense-gas version of the ADPIC particle-in-cell, advection- diffusion model was developed to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of denser-than-air releases. In developing the model, it was assumed that the dense-gas effects could be described in terms of the vertically-averaged thermodynamic properties and the local height of the cloud. The dense-gas effects were treated as a perturbation to the ambient thermodynamic properties (density and temperature), ground level heat flux, turbulence level (diffusivity), and windfield (gravity flow) within the local region of the dense-gas cloud. These perturbations were calculated from conservation of energy and conservation of momentum principles along with the ideal gas law equation of state for a mixture of gases. ADPIC, which is generally run in conjunction with a mass-conserving wind flow model to provide the advection field, contains all the dense-gas modifications within it. This feature provides the versatility of coupling the new dense-gas ADPIC with alternative wind flow models. The new dense-gas ADPIC has been used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of ground-level, colder-than-ambient, denser-than-air releases and has compared favorably with the results of field-scale experiments

  17. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadhri, Comandur [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account for overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.

  18. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  19. Dense interstellar cloud chemistry: Basic issues and possible dynamical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.S.; Heere, K.R.; Tarafdar, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Standing at crossroad of enthusiasm and frustration, dense intertellar cloud chemistry has a squarely posed fundamental problem: Why do the grains appear to play at best a minor role in the chemistry? Grain surface chemistry creates considerable difficulties when the authors treat dense clouds as static objects and ignore the implications of the processes by which the clouds became dense in the first place. A new generation of models which treat chemical and dynamical evolutions concurrently are therefore presented as possible solution to the current frustrations. The proposed modeling philosophy and agenda could make the next decade quite exciting for interstellar chemistry

  20. Dense time discretization technique for verification of real time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makackas, Dalius; Miseviciene, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Verifying the real-time system there are two different models to control the time: discrete and dense time based models. This paper argues a novel verification technique, which calculates discrete time intervals from dense time in order to create all the system states that can be reached from the initial system state. The technique is designed for real-time systems specified by a piece-linear aggregate approach. Key words: real-time system, dense time, verification, model checking, piece-linear aggregate

  1. Photons in dense nuclear matter: Random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, Stephan; Rrapaj, Ermal; Reddy, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    We present a comprehensive and pedagogic discussion of the properties of photons in cold and dense nuclear matter based on the resummed one-loop photon self-energy. Correlations among electrons, muons, protons, and neutrons in β equilibrium that arise as a result of electromagnetic and strong interactions are consistently taken into account within the random phase approximation. Screening effects, damping, and collective excitations are systematically studied in a fully relativistic setup. Our study is relevant to the linear response theory of dense nuclear matter, calculations of transport properties of cold dense matter, and investigations of the production and propagation of hypothetical vector bosons such as the dark photons.

  2. Intracellular trafficking of the free cholesterol derived from LDL cholesteryl ester is defective in vivo in Niemann-Pick C disease: insights on normal metabolism of HDL and LDL gained from the NP-C mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamburek, R D; Pentchev, P G; Zech, L A; Blanchette-Mackie, J; Carstea, E D; VandenBroek, J M; Cooper, P S; Neufeld, E B; Phair, R D; Brewer, H B; Brady, R O; Schwartz, C C

    1997-12-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NP-C) is a rare inborn error of metabolism with hepatic involvement and neurological sequelae that usually manifest in childhood. Although in vitro studies have shown that the lysosomal distribution of LDL-derived cholesterol is defective in cultured cells of NP-C subjects, no unusual characteristics mark the plasma lipoprotein profiles. We set out to determine whether anomalies exist in vivo in the cellular distribution of newly synthesized, HDL-derived or LDL-derived cholesterol under physiologic conditions in NP-C subjects. Three affected and three normal male subjects were administered [14C]mevalonate as a tracer of newly synthesized cholesterol and [3H]cholesteryl linoleate in either HDL or LDL to trace the distribution of lipoprotein-derived free cholesterol. The rate of appearance of free [14C]- and free [3H]cholesterol in the plasma membrane was detected indirectly by monitoring their appearance in plasma and bile. The plasma disappearance of [3H]cholesteryl linoleate was slightly faster in NP-C subjects regardless of its lipoprotein origin. Appearance of free [14C] cholesterol ill the plasma (and in bile) was essentially identical in normal and affected individuals as was the initial appearance of free [3H]cholesterol derived from HDL, observed before extensive exchange occurred of the [3H]cholesteryl linoleate among lipoproteins. In contrast, the rate of appearance of LDL-derived free [3H]cholesterol in the plasma membrane of NP-C subjects, as detected in plasma and bile, was retarded to a similar extent that LDL cholesterol metabolism was defective in cultured fibroblasts of these affected subjects. These findings show that intracellular distribution of both newly synthesized and HDL-derived cholesterol are essentially unperturbed by the NP-C mutation, and therefore occur by lysosomal-independent paths. In contrast, in NP-C there is defective trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol to the plasma membrane in vivo as well as in vitro

  3. Hematopoietic sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Bot

    Full Text Available AIMS: Altered sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P homeostasis and signaling is implicated in various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. As S1P levels are tightly controlled by S1P lyase, we investigated the impact of hematopoietic S1P lyase (Sgpl1(-/- deficiency on leukocyte subsets relevant to atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: LDL receptor deficient mice that were transplanted with Sgpl1(-/- bone marrow showed disrupted S1P gradients translating into lymphopenia and abrogated lymphocyte mitogenic and cytokine response as compared to controls. Remarkably however, Sgpl1(-/- chimeras displayed mild monocytosis, due to impeded stromal retention and myelopoiesis, and plasma cytokine and macrophage expression patterns, that were largely compatible with classical macrophage activation. Collectively these two phenotypic features of Sgpl1 deficiency culminated in diminished atherogenic response. CONCLUSIONS: Here we not only firmly establish the critical role of hematopoietic S1P lyase in controlling S1P levels and T cell trafficking in blood and lymphoid tissue, but also identify leukocyte Sgpl1 as critical factor in monocyte macrophage differentiation and function. Its, partly counterbalancing, pro- and anti-inflammatory activity spectrum imply that intervention in S1P lyase function in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis should be considered with caution.

  4. Novel natural food colourant G8000 benefits LDL- and HDL-cholesterol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Rogerio Correa; Gollücke, Andrea Pitelli Boiago; Soares, Clayton; Machado, Patricia; Viveiros Filho, Vitor; Rocha, Silvana; Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic composition of a natural food colourant (G8000™) as well as its effects on plasma markers after 28-day consumption by healthy individuals at a dietary dose (70 g). Parameters of total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides and plasma enzymes biomarkers of muscle injury were measured. Major compounds identified in G8000™ by ESI-MS showed the presence of anthocyanins, organic acids, phenolic acids as well as monosaccharides. HDL levels significantly increased from 43 ± 10.2 mg/dL to 95 ± 16.9 mg/dL. LDL levels significantly decreased from 110 ± 40.9 mg/dL to 69 ± 39 mg/dL (p  0.05) were observed for total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL. After the intake, plasma enzyme CK-MB decreased from 20 ± 12.1 U/L to 10 ± 1.9 U/L while LDH levels increased from 275 ± 124.4 U/L to 317 ± 114.7 U/L (p natural colourant G8000™ was able to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis biomarkers.

  5. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  6. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Prakasam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes.

  7. Densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes .2. Thermal and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Derks, R.; van der Vegt, H.A.; Stenekes, R.; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of two densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxane systems were investigated in relation to the molecular structure. The networks were prepared from functional branched prepolymers and crosslinked via a hydrosilylation curing reaction. The prepolymers having only

  8. Automated Motion Estimation for 2D Cine DENSE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Andrew D.; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2013-01-01

    Cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) is a magnetic resonance (MR) method that directly encodes tissue displacement into MR phase images. This technique has successfully interrogated many forms of tissue motion, but is most commonly used to evaluate cardiac mechanics. Currently, motion analysis from cine DENSE images requires manually delineated anatomical structures. An automated analysis would improve measurement throughput, simplify data interpretation, and potentially access important physiological information during the MR exam. In this article, we present the first fully automated solution for the estimation of tissue motion and strain from 2D cine DENSE data. Results using both simulated and human cardiac cine DENSE data indicate good agreement between the automated algorithm and the standard semi-manual analysis method. PMID:22575669

  9. Finding dense locations in symbolic indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    presents two graph-based models for constrained and semi-constrained indoor movement, respectively, and then uses the models to map raw tracking records into mapping records that represent object entry and exit times in particular locations. Subsequently, an efficient indexing structure called Hierarchical...... Dense Location Time Index (HDLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals of the mapping table, along with index construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The HDLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point, interval, and duration queries as well as dense location queries......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for many applications such as overloaded area detection, security control, crowd management, indoor navigation, and so on. Indoor tracking data can be enormous and are not immediately ready for finding dense locations. This paper...

  10. Dense Medium Machine Processing Method for Palm Kernel/ Shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Cracked palm kernel is a mixture of kernels, broken shells, dusts and other impurities. In ... machine processing method using dense medium, a separator, a shell collector and a kernel .... efficiency, ease of maintenance and uniformity of.

  11. Physics of dense matter, neutron stars, and supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1989-02-01

    Nuclear and astrophysical evidence on the equation of state of dense matter is examined. The role of hyperonization of matter in the development of proto-neutron stars is briefly discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

  12. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2015-01-01

    In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes. PMID:26703750

  13. Reply to 'Comment on 'Quantum dense key distribution''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Berchera, I. Ruo; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this Reply we propose a modified security proof of the quantum dense key distribution protocol, detecting also the eavesdropping attack proposed by Wojcik in his Comment [Wojcik, Phys. Rev. A 71, 016301 (2005)

  14. Dilemmas of Warfare in Densely Populated Civilian Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Tamir

    2012-01-01

    This essay attempts to present operational perspectives on conducting warfare in densely populated areas. It also distinguishes between three types of combat within this general category, with the goal of shedding light on this complex type of warfare.

  15. Dense medium ore concentrates of Bois-Noirs; Minerais des bois noirs, concentres de milieu dense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bris, J; Leduc, M

    1959-01-20

    The chemical treatment of uranium concentrates of Bois-Noirs ore obtained by heavy medium are discussed. The first part deals with sulfuric acid attack on the concentrate, and the second part with the separation of the solution from residues by filtration. A third part deals with this separation by decantation. The fourth part deals with the carbonation of the pickling solutions obtained. (author) [French] Le present rapport est relatif a l'etude du traitement chimique de concentres uraniferes de minerais des Bois-Noirs obtenus par milieu dense. Une premiere partie est consacree a l'attaque sulfurique des concentres, une deuxieme partie a Ia separation de Ia solution d'attaque des residus par decantation. Une quatrieme partie a la carbonatation des solutions d'attaque obtenues. (auteur)

  16. Sevelamer does not decrease lipopolysaccharide or soluble CD14 levels but decreases soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in individuals with untreated HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Netanya G; Zhang, Xinyan; Bosch, Ronald J; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Choi, Andrew I; Robinson, Janet K; Fine, Derek M; Coombs, Robert W; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Landay, Alan L; Douek, Daniel C; Tressler, Randall; Read, Sarah W; Wilson, Cara C; Deeks, Steven G; Lederman, Michael M; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits. NCT 01543958. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn; Li, Song; Zhang, Chi [China University of Mining and Technology, School of Sciences (China); Ye, Bin [China University of Mining and Technology, School of Information and Electrical Engineering (China)

    2015-01-15

    We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained.

  18. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli , Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liq...

  19. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical co...

  20. Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, George [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-01-14

    The Topical Collaboration for Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense matter brought together researchers from a variety of nuclear science specialties and a number of institutions to address nuclear physics and neutrino physics problems associated with dense matter and the origin of the elements. See attached final technical reports for (1) the UCSD award and (2) a copy of the report for the whole TC

  1. Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang; Li, Song; Zhang, Chi; Ye, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained

  2. Interaction of Interstellar Shocks with Dense Obstacles: Formation of ``Bullets''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The so-called cumulative effect take place in converging conical shock waves arising behind dense obstacles overtaken by incident interstellar shock. A significant part of energy of converging flow of matter swept-up by a radiative conical shock can be transferred to a dense jet-like ejection (``bullet'') directed along the cone axis. Possible applications of this effect for star-forming regions (e.g., OMC-1) and supernova remnants (e.g., Vela SNR) are discussed.

  3. Biochemical and ultrastructural analysis of β-VLDL and AC-LDL metabolism by pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that monocyte-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions of White Carneau pigeons become lipid-filled through the uptake of lipoproteins including β-migrating very low density lipoproteins (β-VLDL) and acetylated low density lipoproteins (Ac-LDL). Using iodinated forms of the above lipoproteins, specific and saturable receptors for both β-VLDL and Ac-LDL were detected on the surface of White Carneau pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages in culture. Competition studies demonstrated the high degree of binding specificity for 125 I-Ac-LDL. Likewise, binding of 125 I-β-VLDL to its receptor was significantly inhibited by excess β-VLDL, however LDL from both hyper- and normocholesterolemic pigeons were also recognized by the receptor. Upon binding of β-VLDL and Ac-LDL to their respective receptors, the lipoproteins were rapidly internalized and delivered to intracellular sites of degradation. As measured by the amount of 14 C-oleate incorporated into cholesteryl 14 C-oleate, the cholesterole liberated from the degradation of both β-VLDL and Ac-LDL stimulated cholesteryl ester synthesis in the pigeon cells. Using lipoproteins conjugated to colloidal gold of visualization with transmission electron microscopy, a major difference in the binding and uptake properties of β-VLDL-Gold and Ac-LDL-Gold was documented

  4. A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Potency of lipid-lowering therapy and Race-gender Differences in LDL cholesterol control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Mark

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for race and gender differences in controlling elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol may be related to variations in prescribed lipid-lowering therapy. We examined the effect of lipid-lowering drug treatment and potency on time until LDL control for black and white women and men with a baseline elevated LDL. Methods We studied 3,484 older hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia in 6 primary care practices over a 4-year timeframe. Potency of lipid-lowering drugs calculated for each treated day and summed to assess total potency for at least 6 and up to 24 months. Cox models of time to LDL control within two years and logistic regression models of control within 6 months by race-gender adjust for: demographics, clinical, health care delivery, primary/specialty care, LDL measurement, and drug potency. Results Time to LDL control decreased as lipid-lowering drug potency increased (P Conclusions Black women and, to a lesser extent, black men and white women were less likely to achieve LDL control than white men after accounting for lipid-lowering drug potency as well as diverse patient and provider factors. Future work should focus on the contributions of medication adherence and response to treatment to these clinically important differences.

  5. Kaempferol alleviates ox-LDL-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of autophagy via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jianbo; Liang, Bing; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Yi; Tang, Jianyu; Shi, Gongning

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) has been reported to induce apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) and contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Kaempferol has been shown to possess antiatherosclerotic effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and its possible molecular basis. The results showed that kaempferol alleviated ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. Kaempferol increased the ratio of LC3-II/I and beclin-1 level in ox-LDL-induced HUVECs. Moreover, the expression of p-Akt and p-mTOR was down-regulated after treatment with kaempferol in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs, which is similar to the effect of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or mTOR inhibitor [rapamycin (RAP)]. Besides, autophagy induced by kaempferol was enhanced by LY294002 or RAP, while kaempferol-induced autophagy was attenuated with insulin treatment, the activator of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, insulin also abated the effect of kaempferol on cell viability and apoptosis in ox-LDL-induced HUVECs. The results indicated that kaempferol alleviated ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by up-regulation of autophagy via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in human ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-03-01

    Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2.4 (1.9-2.9) for remnant cholesterol of ≥1.5 mmol/L (58 mg/dL) (P for trend LDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol of 3-3.99 mmol/L (115.8-154 mg/dL) to 2.3 (1.9-2.8) for LDL cholesterol of ≥5 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) (P cholesterol (P LDL cholesterol (P cholesterol concentrations were associated stepwise with all-cause mortality ranging from hazard ratio 1.0 (0.9-1.1) to 1.6 (1.4-1.9) (P LDL cholesterol concentrations were associated with decreased all-cause mortality risk in a U-shaped pattern, with hazard ratios from 0.8 (0.7-0.8) to 0.9 (0.8-1.0) (P = 0.002). After mutual adjustment, LDL cholesterol best predicted MI, and remnant cholesterol best predicted all-cause mortality. Both lipoproteins were associated equally with risk of IHD and MI; however, only nonfasting remnant cholesterol concentrations were associated stepwise with increased all-cause mortality risk. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Taku

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Taku1, Keizo Umegaki1, Yoshiko Ishimi2, Shaw Watanabe31Information Center, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 3Nutritional Education Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1–3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966–2007, EMBASE (1966–2007, CENTRAL (1966–2007, ICHUSHI (1983–2008, and CNKI (1979–2007 were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials published in English, Japanese, and Chinese, describing the changes in lipid profiles in adult humans resulting from ingestion of extracted soy isoflavones for 1–3 months. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were hand-searched. Meta-analysis of 10 and 9 trials with usable information using REVMAN found that an average of 70 mg soy isoflavones/day (27–132 mg, as the aglycone form alone had a nonsignificant effect on total (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.12, 0.14]; P = 0.86 and LDL (0.03 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.11, 0.16]; P = 0.71 cholesterol in menopausal women, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of about 70 mg extracted soy isoflavones/day alone for 1–3 months does not improve total and LDL cholesterol levels in normocholesterolemic menopausal women; further studies are needed to verify the effects of extracted soy isoflavones.Keywords: extracted soy isoflavones, lipid, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol

  8. Mitofusin2 decreases intracellular cholesterol of oxidized LDL-induced foam cells from rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Chen, Ying; Liu, Chun; Cao, Ming; Fan, Yu-jin; Guo, Xiao-mei

    2013-04-01

    Mitofusin2 (Mfn2) plays a pivotal role in the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Mfn2 on the trafficking of intracellular cholesterol in the foam cells derived from rat VSMCs (rVSMCs) and also to investigate the effects of Mfn2 on the expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The rVSMCs were co-cultured with oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL, 80 μg/mL) to produce foam cells and cholesterol accumulation in cells. Before oxidized LDL treatment, different titers (20, 40 and 60 pfu/cell) of recombinant adenovirus containing Mfn2 gene (Adv-Mfn2) were added into the culture medium for 24 h to transfect the Mfn2 gene into the rVSMCs. Then the cells were harvested for analyses. The protein expression of Mfn2 was significantly higher in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group than in untransfected group (PLDL treatment, rVSMCs became irregular and their nuclei became larger, and their plasma abounded with red lipid droplets. However, the number of red lipid droplets was significantly decreased in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group as compared with untransfected group. At 48 h after oxidized LDL treatment, the intracellular cholesterol in rVSMCs was significantly increased (P0.05), the phosporylation levels of PPARγ were significantly decreased in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group as compared with untransfected group (Pcholesterol in oxidized LDL-induced rVSMCs possibly by decreasing PPARγ phosporylation and then increasing protein expression levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, which may be helpful to suppress the formation of foam cells.

  9. Impact of family history on relations between insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT in healthy adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderwald, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.

  10. Pemberian Teh Kombucha Pada Air Minum Terhadap Nilai Ldl Kolesterol Dan Hdl Kolesterol Darah Ayam Broiler (Gallus SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Djaelani, Muhammad Anwar; Tana, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The risk of consuming large quantities of food containing cholesterol has been widely known. By knowing the cholesterol content of food products, people could restrict their consumption of high cholesterol food. This study was to knew LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol of blood broiler chickens after treated with kombucha tea. This research used the CP 707 broiler strains chickens aged 1 week, treated with kombucha tea that has been fermented for 12 days at a temperature of 25oC. 20 broiler ...

  11. Analysis of flow and LDL concentration polarization in siphon of internal carotid artery: Non-Newtonian effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Alireza; Niazmand, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Carotid siphon is known as one of the risky sites among the human intracranial arteries, which is prone to formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Indeed, scientists believe that accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) inside the lumen is the major cause of atherosclerosis. To this aim, three types of internal carotid artery (ICA) siphon have been constructed to examine variations of hemodynamic parameters in different regions of the arteries. Providing real physiological conditions, blood considered as non-Newtonian fluid and real velocity and pressure waveforms have been employed as flow boundary conditions. Moreover, to have a better estimation of risky sites, the accumulation of LDL particles has been considered, which has been usually ignored in previous relevant studies. Governing equations have been discretized and solved via open source OpenFOAM software. A new solver has been built to meet essential parameters related to the flow and mass transfer phenomena. In contrast to the common belief regarding negligible effect of blood non-Newtonian behavior inside large arteries, current study suggests that the non-Newtonian blood behavior is notable, especially on the velocity field of the U-type model. In addition, it is concluded that neglecting non-Newtonian effects underestimates the LDL accumulation up to 3% in the U-type model at the inner side of both its bends. However, in the V and C type models, non-Newtonian effects become relatively small. Results also emphasize that the outer part of the second bend at the downstream is also at risk similar to the inner part of the carotid bends. Furthermore, from findings it can be implied that the risky sites strongly depend on the ICA shape since the extension of the risky sites are relatively larger for the V-type model, while the LDL concentrations are higher for the C-type model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. → Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. → P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. → Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the regulation of foam

  13. Ascorbic acid improves the antioxidant activity of European grape juices by improving the juices' ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of human LDL in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    . Red grape juice concentrate inhibited lipid peroxidation of LDL by prolonging the lag phase by 2.7 times relative to a control when evaluated at a total phenolic concentration of 10 muM gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Both red grape juices tested blocked lipid peroxidation of LDL at 20 muM GAE. White.......96, P acid alone did not exert antioxidant activity towards LDL, but combinations of 5 muM ascorbic acid with 5 muM GAE juice phenols eliminated the prooxidant activity of white grape juice, and significantly...

  14. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunpanich, Vilasinee; Utaipat, Anocha; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Sato, Hitoshi; Herunsalee, Angkana; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee

    2005-03-01

    The present study quantitatively investigated the antioxidant effects of the aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa LINN. (roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Formations of the conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were monitored as markers of the early and later stages of the oxidation of LDL, respectively. Thus, we demonstrated that the dried calyx extracts of roselle exhibits strong antioxidant activity in Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL (proselle inhibited TBARs-formation with greater potency than 100 microM of vitamin E. In conclusion, this study provides a quantitative insight into the potent antioxidant effect of roselle in vitro.

  15. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyi2004a@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. {yields} Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. {yields} P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. {yields} Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the

  16. Oxidative profiles of LDL and HDL isolated from women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Reyes, G; Maida-Claros, R F; Urrutia-Medina, A X; Jorge-Galarza, E; Guzmán-Grenfell, A M; Fuentes-García, S; Medina-Navarro, R; Moreno-Eutimio, M A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J L; Hicks, J J; Torres-Ramos, Y D

    2017-05-16

    Oxidative stress causes biochemical changes in lipids and proteins; these changes can induce damage to the vascular endothelium and create maternal complications that are characteristic of preeclampsia. In this study, we evaluated the oxidative profile of lipoproteins isolated from women with preeclampsia. Thirty women diagnosed with preeclampsia and thirty women without preeclampsia were included in the study. Lipid-damage biomarkers, including conjugated dienes, lipohydroperoxides and malondialdehyde, were measured. The reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium, the formation of dityrosines, and the carbonylation of proteins were assessed as indicators of protein damage. The protective activity of HDL-c was evaluated by the paraoxonase-I activity present on the HDL-c particles. Serum lipid profiles were also quantified in both groups. Data were analysed using Student's t test and the Pearson correlation coefficient. Our results demonstrated in PE women evident oxidative changes in the lipids and proteins in HDL-c and LDL-c particles and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme PON-I decreased 59.9%. HDL-c exhibited self-defence, as demonstrated by the negative correlation between paraoxonase-I activity and the formation of lipohydroperoxides in HDL-c (r = -0.3755, p preeclampsia show oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. We propose an oxidative profile based on the oxidation levels indicated by each of the markers used. We also found that paraoxonase-I is inactivated in the presence of lipohydroperoxides. Antioxidant support might be helpful to reduce oxidative stress in patients with preeclampsia. Further investigations are necessary to define the association between antioxidant activities and preeclampsia.

  17. The Risk-Benefit Paradigm vs the Causal Exposure Paradigm: LDL as a primary cause of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Thanassoulis, George; Williams, Ken; Furberg, Curt D; Sniderman, Allan

    2014-01-01

    All current guidelines use the 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event to select subjects for statin primary preventive therapy. Benefit from therapy is stated to be determined by risk with the result that statin primary preventive therapy is initiated only when the risk of a cardiovascular event over the next decade exceeds a specified level. Thus all current guidelines are based primarily on the Risk-Benefit paradigm of primary prevention. The recent American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines differ from others in basing selection for statin therapy virtually exclusively on risk except for those few subjects with markedly elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The Causal Exposure paradigm differs from the Risk-Benefit paradigm in that the objective of therapy is to prevent the anatomic disease within arterial walls that produces cardiovascular risk. Moreover, the anatomic disease and, therefore, the cardiovascular risk, is a function of the injurious action of the causal factors of vascular disease, such as blood pressure and LDL, on the arterial wall over long periods. In this article, we explain the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms to provide a more secure framework to compare the strengths and weaknesses in the different cholesterol guidelines with particular emphasis on the evidence that the cardiovascular risk and the benefit from statin therapy is related to the level of LDL. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of HIV infection with a raltegravir-based regimen increases LDL levels, but improves HDL cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Xu, Dihua; Playford, Martin P; Joshi, Aditya A; Andrade, Adriana; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lederman, Michael M; Mehta, Nehal N

    2017-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. We report results from 39 ART-naive participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir, emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after ART initiation. We performed advanced lipid phenotyping using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Liposcience, Raleigh, NC, USA) for lipid particle size and number, and examined high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function measuring reverse cholesterol transport using J774 macrophages. We report significant increases in total cholesterol (13 mg/dl; PLDL; 8 mg/dl; P=0.03), with no change in triglycerides and without an increase in LDL particle number (P>0.1 all time points). HDL levels were increased over baseline levels at all time points (PLDL (oxLDL) levels decreased by week 12, but rose subsequently, and were not different from baseline at later time points. HDL increases were associated with increases in beneficial HDL particles and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, which may reduce future CVD events. Persistent inflammation in these HIV+ participants, may be a cause or consequence of oxLDL levels, and may contribute to declining levels of HDL over time. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00660972.

  19. Thematic review series: patient-oriented research. What we have learned about VLDL and LDL metabolism from human kinetics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhofer, Klaus G; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2006-08-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism is the result of a complex network of many individual components. Abnormal lipoprotein concentrations can result from changes in the production, conversion, or catabolism of lipoprotein particles. Studies in hypolipoproteinemia and hyperlipoproteinemia have elucidated the processes that control VLDL secretion as well as VLDL and LDL catabolism. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding apolipoprotein B (apoB) metabolism, focusing on selected clinically relevant conditions. In hypobetalipoproteinemia attributable to truncations in apoB, the rate of secretion is closely linked to the length of apoB. On the other hand, in patients with the metabolic syndrome, it appears that substrate, in the form of free fatty acids, coupled to the state of insulin resistance can induce hypersecretion of VLDL-apoB. Studies in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, familial defective apoB, and mutant forms of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 show that mutations in the LDL receptor, the ligand for the receptor, or an intracellular chaperone for the receptor are the most important determinants in regulating LDL catabolism. This review also demonstrates the variance of results within similar, or even the same, phenotypic conditions. This underscores the sensitivity of metabolic studies to methodological aspects and thus the importance of the inclusion of adequate controls in studies.

  20. Dietary patterns associated with HbA1c and LDL cholesterol among individuals with type 1 diabetes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Mendez, Michelle A.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liu, Wei; Ji, Linong; Du, Shufa; Rosamond, Wayne; Popkin, Barry M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To identify dietary patterns that influence cardiometabolic risk among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in China. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study of T1D in China (n=99). Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-hour recalls. Reduced rank regression was used to identify dietary patterns from a set of 20 food groups that maximized the explained variation in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Results Dietary pattern 1 was characterized by low intakes of wheat products and high-fat cakes, and high intakes of beans and pickled vegetables. Dietary pattern 2 was characterized by low intakes of high-fat cakes, nuts/seeds, fish/shellfish, and teas/coffee, and high intakes of rice and eggs. Participants in the highest tertile of dietary pattern 1 had significantly (pfor age and household income. Dietary pattern 2 was not associated with HbA1c or LDL cholesterol. Conclusions We identified a dietary pattern that is significantly related to HbA1c and LDL cholesterol. These findings provide support for behavioral strategies to prevent complications in individuals with T1D in China. PMID:25630525

  1. Effect of Dietary Amorphophallus sp From East Java on LDL-C Rats (Rattus novergicus Wistar Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widyarti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of indication of obesity is high LDL-C . Obesity has serious risk to health, it can cause heart disease and stroke. Effort to lower obesity using drugs have significant side effects such as insomnia, increased blood pressure, dry mouth and so forth. Therefore using natural products that contain glucomannan to reduce obesity and LDL-C is good choise. Glucomannan in the global market derived from Amorphophallus konjac. In this study, we used glucomannan from Amorphophallus endemic East Java to reduce fattened Wistar rats. Amorphophallus that used include Amorphophallus muelleri, A.variabilis (variant: Brongkos 32; Brongkos 5; Wonorejo, Brangsi and Amorphophallus campanulatus (Var Selopuro. Amorphophallus diet was given to white rats of Wistar strain that previously fattened using a mixture of cholesterol and lard, in addition to PARS (Chicken Feed Race Super as a basic food. Amorphophallus konjac was used as control. Measurement of LDL-C was conducted in four different time points, namely 1. Prior to dietary cholesterol, 2. 24 days after the dietary cholesterol, 3 11 days after Amorphophallus (+cholesterol diet, 4. 25 days after Amorphophallus (+cholesterol diet. The results showed that the diet of A.variabilis potentially lowered blood cholesterol levels for their respective 22.98%, 5.85% and 7.37% for consecutive variant Brongkos 32; Brongkos 5; Wonorejo. Diet from A.campanulatus and A.konjac had not been able to reduce cholesterol to the end of observation (25 days.

  2. Pharmacological Targeting of the Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Complex: The Next Frontier in CVD Prevention Beyond Lowering LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changting; Dash, Satya; Morgantini, Cecilia; Hegele, Robert A; Lewis, Gary F

    2016-07-01

    Notwithstanding the effectiveness of lowering LDL cholesterol, residual CVD risk remains in high-risk populations, including patients with diabetes, likely contributed to by non-LDL lipid abnormalities. In this Perspectives in Diabetes article, we emphasize that changing demographics and lifestyles over the past few decades have resulted in an epidemic of the "atherogenic dyslipidemia complex," the main features of which include hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, qualitative changes in LDL particles, accumulation of remnant lipoproteins, and postprandial hyperlipidemia. We briefly review the underlying pathophysiology of this form of dyslipidemia, in particular its association with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, and the marked atherogenicity of this condition. We explain the failure of existing classes of therapeutic agents such as fibrates, niacin, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors that are known to modify components of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex. Finally, we discuss targeted repurposing of existing therapies and review promising new therapeutic strategies to modify the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex. We postulate that targeting the central abnormality of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex, the elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles, represents a new frontier in CVD prevention and is likely to prove the most effective strategy in correcting most aspects of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex, thereby preventing CVD events. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  3. Discordance Between Apolipoprotein B and LDL-Cholesterol in Young Adults Predicts Coronary Artery Calcification: The CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, John T; Li, Ron C; Sniderman, Allan; Chan, Cheeling; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-01-19

    High levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) have been shown to predict atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults even in the context of low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C). This study aimed to quantify the associations between apoB and the discordance between apoB and LDL-C or non-HDL-C in young adults and measured coronary artery calcium (CAC) in midlife. Data were derived from a multicenter cohort study of young adults recruited at ages 18 to 30 years. All participants with complete baseline CVD risk factor data, including apoB and year 25 (Y25) CAC score, were entered into this study. Presence of CAC was defined as having a positive, nonzero Agatston score as determined by computed tomography. Baseline apoB values were divided into tertiles of 4 mutually exclusive concordant/discordant groups, based on median apoB and LDL-C or non-HDL-C. Analysis included 2,794 participants (mean age: 25 ± 3.6 years; body mass index: 24.5 ± 5 kg/m(2); and 44.4% male). Mean lipid values were as follows: total cholesterol: 177.3 ± 33.1 mg/dl; LDL-C: 109.9 ± 31.1 mg/dl; non-HDL-C: 124.0 ± 33.5 mg/dl; HDL-C: 53 ± 12.8 mg/dl; and apoB: 90.7 ± 24 mg/dl; median triglycerides were 61 mg/dl. Compared with the lowest apoB tertile, higher odds of developing Y25 CAC were seen in the middle (odds ratio [OR]: 1.53) and high (OR: 2.28) tertiles based on traditional risk factor-adjusted models. High apoB and low LDL-C or non-HDL-C discordance was also associated with Y25 CAC in adjusted models (OR: 1.55 and OR: 1.45, respectively). These data suggest a dose-response association between apoB in young adults and the presence of midlife CAC independent of baseline traditional CVD risk factors. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Porphyromonas gingivalis Differentially Modulates Cell Death Profile in Ox-LDL and TNF-α Pre-Treated Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Maximiliano Bugueno

    Full Text Available Clinical studies demonstrated a potential link between atherosclerosis and periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, one of the main periodontal pathogen, has been associated to atheromatous plaque worsening. However, synergism between infection and other endothelial stressors such as oxidized-LDL or TNF-α especially on endothelial cell (EC death has not been investigated. This study aims to assess the role of Pg on EC death in an inflammatory context and to determine potential molecular pathways involved.Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs were infected with Pg (MOI 100 or stimulated by its lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS (1μg/ml for 24 to 48 hours. Cell viability was measured with AlamarBlue test, type of cell death induced was assessed using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. mRNA expression regarding caspase-1, -3, -9, Bcl-2, Bax-1 and Apaf-1 has been evaluated with RT-qPCR. Caspases enzymatic activity and concentration of APAF-1 protein were evaluated to confirm mRNA results.Pg infection and Pg-LPS stimulation induced EC death. A cumulative effect has been observed in Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs infected or stimulated. This effect was not observed in TNF-α pre-treated cells. Pg infection promotes EC necrosis, however, in infected Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs, apoptosis was promoted. This effect was not observed in TNF-α pre-treated cells highlighting specificity of molecular pathways activated. Regarding mRNA expression, Pg increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes including caspases-1,-3,-9, Bax-1 and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. In Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs, Pg increased significantly the expression of Apaf-1. These results were confirmed at the protein level.This study contributes to demonstrate that Pg and its Pg-LPS could exacerbate Ox-LDL and TNF-α induced endothelial injury through increase of EC death. Interestingly, molecular pathways are differentially modulated by the infection in function of the pre-stimulation.

  5. Replication of LDL GWAs hits in PROSPER/PHASE as validation for future (pharmaco)genetic analyses

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Trompet, Stella

    2011-10-06

    Abstract Background The PHArmacogenetic study of Statins in the Elderly at risk (PHASE) is a genome wide association study in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at risk for vascular disease (PROSPER) that investigates the genetic variation responsible for the individual variation in drug response to pravastatin. Statins lower LDL-cholesterol in general by 30%, however not in all subjects. Moreover, clinical response is highly variable and adverse effects occur in a minority of patients. In this report we first describe the rationale of the PROSPER\\/PHASE project and second show that the PROSPER\\/PHASE study can be used to study pharmacogenetics in the elderly. Methods The genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using the Illumina 660K-Quad beadchips following manufacturer\\'s instructions. After a stringent quality control 557,192 SNPs in 5,244 subjects were available for analysis. To maximize the availability of genetic data and coverage of the genome, imputation up to 2.5 million autosomal CEPH HapMap SNPs was performed with MACH imputation software. The GWAS for LDL-cholesterol is assessed with an additive linear regression model in PROBABEL software, adjusted for age, sex, and country of origin to account for population stratification. Results Forty-two SNPs reached the GWAS significant threshold of p = 5.0e-08 in 5 genomic loci (APOE\\/APOC1; LDLR; FADS2\\/FEN1; HMGCR; PSRC1\\/CELSR5). The top SNP (rs445925, chromosome 19) with a p-value of p = 2.8e-30 is located within the APOC1 gene and near the APOE gene. The second top SNP (rs6511720, chromosome 19) with a p-value of p = 5.22e-15 is located within the LDLR gene. All 5 genomic loci were previously associated with LDL-cholesterol levels, no novel loci were identified. Replication in WOSCOPS and CARE confirmed our results. Conclusion With the GWAS in the PROSPER\\/PHASE study we confirm the previously found genetic associations with LDL-cholesterol levels. With this proof

  6. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  7. Myeloperoxidase-Dependent LDL Modifications in Bloodstream Are Mainly Predicted by Angiotensin II, Adiponectin, and Myeloperoxidase Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paradigm of atherogenesis proposes that low density lipoproteins (LDLs are trapped in subendothelial space of the vascular wall where they are oxidized. Previously, we showed that oxidation is not restricted to the subendothelial location. Myeloperoxidase (MPO, an enzyme secreted by neutrophils and macrophages, can modify LDL (Mox-LDL at the surface of endothelial cells. In addition we observed that the activation of the endothelial cells by angiotensin II amplifies this process. We suggested that induction of the NADPH oxidase complex was a major step in the oxidative process. Based on these data, we asked whether there was an independent association, in 121 patients, between NADPH oxidase modulators, such as angiotensin II, adiponectin, and levels of circulating Mox-LDL. Our observations suggest that the combination of blood angiotensin II, MPO activity, and adiponectin explains, at least partially, serum Mox-LDL levels.

  8. Liquid fructose supplementation in LDL-R−/− mice fed a western-type diet enhances lipid burden and atherosclerosis despite identical calorie consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hutter

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: SLF, without changing total calorie intake, increases atherosclerosis, visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol burden in a background of overweight LDL receptor knockout mice consuming an unhealthy, Western-type solid rodent chow.

  9. The Expected Cardiovascular Benefit of Plasma Cholesterol Lowering with or Without LDL-C Targets in Healthy Individuals at Higher Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henpin Yue Cesena

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is controversy whether management of blood cholesterol should be based or not on LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c target concentrations. Objectives: To compare the estimated impact of different lipid-lowering strategies, based or not on LDL-c targets, on the risk of major cardiovascular events in a population with higher cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included consecutive individuals undergoing a routine health screening in a single center who had a 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD ≥ 7.5% (pooled cohort equations, ACC/AHA, 2013. For each individual, we simulated two strategies based on LDL-c target (≤ 100 mg/dL [Starget-100] or ≤ 70 mg/dL [Starget-70] and two strategies based on percent LDL-c reduction (30% [S30%] or 50% [S50%]. Results: In 1,897 subjects (57 ± 7 years, 96% men, 10-year ASCVD risk 13.7 ± 7.1%, LDL-c would be lowered from 141 ± 33 mg/dL to 99 ± 23 mg/dL in S30%, 71 ± 16 mg/dL in S50%, 98 ± 9 mg/dL in Starget-100, and 70 ± 2 mg/dL in Starget-70. Ten-year ASCVD risk would be reduced to 8.8 ± 4.8% in S50% and 8.9 ± 5.2 in Starget-70. The number of major cardiovascular events prevented in 10 years per 1,000 individuals would be 32 in S30%, 31 in Starget-100, 49 in S50%, and 48 in Starget-70. Compared with Starget-70, S50% would prevent more events in the lower LDL-c tertile and fewer events in the higher LDL-c tertile. Conclusions: The more aggressive lipid-lowering approaches simulated in this study, based on LDL-c target or percent reduction, may potentially prevent approximately 50% more hard cardiovascular events in the population compared with the less intensive treatments. Baseline LDL-c determines which strategy (based or not on LDL-c target is more appropriate at the individual level.

  10. Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeustlin, Roland Rainer

    2010-05-01

    X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)

  11. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Saiz, E; Riley, D [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gregori, G; Clarke, R J; Neely, D; Notley, M M; Spindloe, C [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX (United Kingdom); Gericke, D O; Vorberger, J; Wunsch, K [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Barbrel, B; Koenig, M [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Laser Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique - Universite Paris-6, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Freeman, R R; Weber, R L; Van Woerkom, L [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Price, D [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Khattak, F Y [Department of Physics, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat-26000, NWFP (Pakistan); Pelka, A; Roth, M; Schollmeier, M [Institut fur Kernphysik, Technische Universitat Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    One of the grand challenges of contemporary physics is understanding strongly interacting quantum systems comprising such diverse examples as ultracold atoms in traps, electrons in high-temperature superconductors and nuclear matter. Warm dense matter, defined by temperatures of a few electron volts and densities comparable with solids, is a complex state of such interacting matter. Moreover, the study of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where it is encountered during the implosion phase, and it also represents laboratory analogues of astrophysical environments found in the core of planets and the crusts of old stars. Here we demonstrate how warm dense matter states can be diagnosed and structural properties can be obtained by inelastic X-ray scattering measurements on a compressed lithium sample. Combining experiments and ab initio simulations enables us to determine its microscopic state and to evaluate more approximate theoretical models for the ionic structure. (authors)

  12. Scale-chiral symmetry, ω meson, and dense baryonic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Liang; Rho, Mannque

    2018-05-01

    It is shown that explicitly broken scale symmetry is essential for dense skyrmion matter in hidden local symmetry theory. Consistency with the vector manifestation fixed point for the hidden local symmetry of the lowest-lying vector mesons and the dilaton limit fixed point for scale symmetry in dense matter is found to require that the anomalous dimension (|γG2| ) of the gluon field strength tensor squared (G2 ) that represents the quantum trace anomaly should be 1.0 ≲|γG2|≲3.5 . The magnitude of |γG2| estimated here will be useful for studying hadron and nuclear physics based on the scale-chiral effective theory. More significantly, that the dilaton limit fixed point can be arrived at with γG2≠0 at some high density signals that scale symmetry can arise in dense medium as an "emergent" symmetry.

  13. Rayleigh-Taylor/gravitational instability in dense magnetoplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S., E-mail: shahid.ali@ncp.edu.p [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ahmed, Z. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Wah Campus (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ahmad, I. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Islamabad Campus (Pakistan)

    2009-08-10

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated in a nonuniform dense quantum magnetoplasma. For this purpose, a quantum hydrodynamical model is used for the electrons whereas the ions are assumed to be cold and classical. The dispersion relation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes modified with the quantum corrections associated with the Fermi pressure law and the quantum Bohm potential force. Numerically, it is found that the quantum speed and den