Plasma phase transition in dense hydrogen and electron-hole plasmas
Filinov, V S; Levashov, P R; Fortov, V E; Ebeling, W; Schlanges, M; Koch, S W
2003-01-01
Plasma phase transitions in dense hydrogen and electron-hole plasmas are investigated by direct path integral Monte Carlo methods. The phase boundary of the electron-hole liquid in germanium is calculated and is found to agree reasonably well with the known experimental results. Analogous behaviour is found for high-density hydrogen. For a temperature of T = 10 000 K it is shown that the internal energy is lowered due to droplet formation for densities between 10 sup 2 sup 3 cm sup - sup 3 and 10 sup 2 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3.
Plasma electron hole kinematics. I. Momentum conservation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hutchinson, I. H.; Zhou, C. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2016-08-15
We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, which behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.
On Electron Hole Evolution in Inhomogeneous Plasmas
Kuzichev, I.; Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.
2017-12-01
Electron holes (EHs) are the stationary localized non-linear structures in phase space existing due to an electron population trapped within EH electrostatic potential. EHs were found to be a common phenomenon in the Earth's magnetosphere. Such structures were observed in reconnecting current sheets, injection fronts in the outer radiation belt, and in many other situations. EHs usually propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities about electron thermal velocity, are localized on the scale of about 4-10 Debye lengths, and have the field amplitude up to hundreds of mV/m. Generation of these structures, evolution, and their role in relaxation of instabilities and energy dissipation, particle energization, supporting large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. In this report, we present the results of 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of the EH evolution in plasmas with inhomogeneous magnetic field and inhomogeneous density. Our calculations show that the inhomogeneity has a critical effect on the EH dynamics. EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. During the deceleration of EH, the potential drop (weak double layer) along EH is generated. Such a potential drop might be experimentally observable even for single EH in the reconnecting current sheets. The same holds for the propagation in the plasma with inhomogeneous density. For some parameters of the system, the deceleration results in the turning of the hole. The interesting feature of this process is that the turning point depends only on the EH parameters, being independent of the average inhomogeneity scale. Our calculations also demonstrate the significant difference between "quasi-particle" concept and real evolution of the hole. Indeed, the EH is accelerated (decelerated) faster than it follows from a quasi-particle energy conservation law. It indicates
Interaction between Electron Holes in a Strongly Magnetized Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans
1980-01-01
The interaction between electron holes in a strongly magnetized, plasma-filled waveguide is investigated by means of computer simulation. Two holes may or may not coalesce, depending on their amplitudes and velocities. The interaction between holes and Trivelpiece-Gould solitons is demonstrated...
Electromagnetic interactions in an electron-hole plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-01-01
Certain problems electromagnetic interactions both of external SHF radiation with an electron-hole (eh) plasma and in the plasma itself are considered. The production and properties of a non-equilibrium eh plasma in semiconductors, pinch effect in a plasma of solids, strong electric fields in a plasma of inhomogeneous semiconductors and heat effects in a semiconductor plasma are discussed. The influence of a surface, kinetics of recombination processes in the semiconductor volume and the plasma statistics the spatial distribution of carriers, current characteristics and plasma recombination radiation under the conditions of pinch effect is described. The diagnostics methods of the phenomena are presented. The behaviour of diode structures with pn transitions in strong SHF fields is discussed. Special attention is paid to collective phenomena in the plasma of semiconductor devices and the variation of carrier density in strong fields. The appearance of electromotive force in inhomogeneous diode structures placed in strong SHF fields is considered
Electron holes observed in the Moon Plasma Wake
Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.
2017-10-01
Electrostatic instabilities are predicted in the magnetized wake of plasma flowing past a non-magnetic absorbing object such as a probe or the moon. Analysis of the data from the Artemis satellites, now orbiting the moon at distances ten moon radii and less, shows very clear evidence of fast-moving isolated solitary potential structures causing bipolar electric field excursions as they pass the satellite's probes. These structures have all the hallmarks of electron holes: BGK solitons typically a few Debye-lengths in size, self-sustaining by a deficit of phase-space density on trapped orbits. Electron holes are now observed to be widespread in space plasmas. They have been observed in PIC simulations of the moon wake to be the non-linear consequence of the predicted electron instabilities. Simulations document hole prevalence, speed, length, and depth; and theory can explain many of these features from kinetic analysis. The solar wind wake is certainly the cause of the overwhelming majority of the holes observed by Artemis, because we observe almost all holes to be in or very near to the wake. We compare theory and simulation of the hole generation, lifetime, and transport mechanisms with observations. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.
Crossover between the dense electron-hole phase and the BCS excitonic phase in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, B.A.; Gonzalez, A.; Quiroga, L.; Capote, R.; Rodriguez, F.J.
1999-09-01
Second order perturbation theory and a Lipkin-Nogami scheme combined with an exact Monte Carlo projection after variation are applied to compute the ground-state energy of 6 ≤ N ≤ 210 electron-hole pairs confined in a parabolic two-dimensional quantum dot. The energy shows nice scaling properties as N or the confinement strength is varied. A crossover from the high-density electron-hole phase to the BCS excitonic phase is found at a density which is roughly four times the close-packing density of excitons. (author)
Interaction of non-equilibrium phonons with electron-hole plasmas in germanium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirch, S.J.
1985-01-01
This thesis presents results of experiments on the interaction of phonons and photo-excited electron-hole plasmas in Ge at low temperature. The first two studies involved the low-temperature fluid phase known as the electron-hole liquid (EHL). The third study involved a wider range of temperatures and includes the higher temperature electron-hole plasma (EHP). In the first experiment, superconducting tunnel junctions are used to produce quasi-monochromatic phonons, which propagate through the EHL. The magnitude of the absorption of these non-equilibrium phonons gives a direct measure of the coupling constant, the deformation potential. In the second experiment, the nonequilibrium phonons are generated by laser excitation of a metal film. An unusual sample geometry allows examination of the EHL-phonon interaction near the EHL excitation surface. This coupling is examined for both cw and pulsed EHL excitation. In the third experiment, the phonons are byproducts of the photo-excited carrier thermalization. The spatial, spectral and temporal dependence of the recombination luminescence is examined. A phonon wind force is observed to dominate the transport properties of the EHL and the EHP. These carriers are never observed to move faster than the phonon velocity even during the laser pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
More, R.M.
1986-01-01
Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
More, R.M.
1986-01-01
Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.
Electron Hole Plasma in Solids Induced by Ultrashort XUV Laser Pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rethfeld, B.; Medvedev, N.
2013-01-01
Irradiation of solids with ultrashort XUV laser pulses leads to an excitation of electrons from the valence band and deeper shells to the conduction band leading to a nonequilibrium highly energetic electron hole plasma. We investigate the transient electron dynamics in a solid semiconductor and metal (silicon and aluminum, respectively) under irradiation with a femtosecond VUV to XUV laser pulse as used in experiments with the Free Electron Laser FLASH at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. Applying the Asymptotical Trajectory Monte-Carlo technique, we obtain the transient energy distribution of the excited and ionized electrons within the solid. Photon absorption by electrons in different bands and secondary excitation and ionization processes are simulated event by event. The method was extended in order to take into account the electronic band structure and Pauli's principle for electrons in the conduction band. In this talk we review our results on the dynamics of the transient electron-hole plasma, in particular its transient density and energy distribution in dependence on laser and material parameters. For semiconductors we introduce the concept of an ''effective energy gap'' for collective electronic excitation, which can be applied to estimate the free electron density after high-intensity ultrashort XUV laser pulse irradiation. For aluminum we demonstrate that the electronic spectra depend on the relaxation kinetics of the excited electronic subsystem. Experimentally observed spectra of emitted photons from irradiated aluminum can be explained well with our results. (author)
Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal theory of electron holes in superthermal space plasma
Aravindakshan, Harikrishnan; Kakad, Amar; Kakad, Bharati
2018-05-01
Several spacecraft missions have observed electron holes (EHs) in Earth's and other planetary magnetospheres. These EHs are modeled with the stationary solutions of Vlasov-Poisson equations, obtained by adopting the Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) approach. Through the literature survey, we find that the BGK EHs are modelled by using either thermal distribution function or any statistical distribution derived from particular spacecraft observations. However, Maxwell distributions are quite rare in space plasmas; instead, most of these plasmas are superthermal in nature and generally described by kappa distribution. We have developed a one-dimensional BGK model of EHs for space plasma that follows superthermal kappa distribution. The analytical solution of trapped electron distribution function for such plasmas is derived. The trapped particle distribution function in plasma following kappa distribution is found to be steeper and denser as compared to that for Maxwellian distribution. The width-amplitude relation of perturbation for superthermal plasma is derived and allowed regions of stable BGK solutions are obtained. We find that the stable BGK solutions are better supported by superthermal plasmas compared to that of thermal plasmas for small amplitude perturbations.
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2018-04-01
The influence of Landau damping on the spin-oriented collisional asymmetry is investigated in electron-hole semiconductor plasmas. The analytical expressions of the spin-singlet and the spin-triplet scattering amplitudes as well as the spin-oriented asymmetry Sherman function are obtained as functions of the scattering angle, the Landau parameter, the effective Debye length, and the collision energy. It is found that the Landau damping effect enhances the spin-singlet and spin-triplet scattering amplitudes in the forward and back scattering domains, respectively. It is also found that the Sherman function increases with an increase in the Landau parameter. In addition, the spin-singlet scattering process is found to be dominant rather than the spin-triplet scattering process in the high collision energy domain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
More, R.M.
1987-01-01
This paper covers some aspects of the theory of atomic processes in dense plasmas. Because the topic is very broad, a few general rules which give useful guidance about the typical behavior of dense plasmas have been selected. These rules are illustrated by semiclassical estimates, scaling laws and appeals to more elaborate calculations. Included in the paper are several previously unpublished results including a new mechanism for electron-ion heat exchange (section II), and an approximate expression for oscillator-strengths of highly charged ions (section V). However the main emphasis is not upon practical formulas but rather on questions of fundamental theory, the structural ingredients which must be used in building a model for plasma events. What are the density effects and how does one represent them? Which are most important? How does one identify an incorrect theory? The general rules help to answer these questions. 106 references, 23 figures, 2 tables
Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kant, Niti [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144 402 (India); Nandan Gupta, Devki [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, Hyyong [Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) and Graduate Program of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)
2012-01-15
In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.
Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kant, Niti; Nandan Gupta, Devki; Suk, Hyyong
2012-01-01
In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-31
The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.
Low-frequency instabilities of electron-hole plasmas in crossed fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, W.; Kirchesch, P.
1978-01-01
Using local point-contact probes, we observed two types of low-frequency instabilities in n-InSb at 85 K if the samples were exposed to crossed fields. One is a local density instability with threshold frequencies of f = 1 ... 20 Mc, the other a more turbulent current instability. The threshold values of U 0 and B for the onset of these instabilities and the dependence of their amplitudes on the fields have been measured. If a rectangular semiconductor slab is placed in crossed fields, regions of high electric field strength at opposite edges of the contacts are caused by the distortion of the Hall field, giving rise to the generation of electron-hole plasmas by impact ionization. These plasmas are the sources of the observed instabilities. This is especially evident in the case of the local density instability, which originates at the anode high field corner. Several possible reasons for the development of the instabilities are discussed. (orig.) [de
Plasmon sidebands in the gain spectrum of an electron-hole plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang Ngoc Cam; Nguyen Van Hieu; Nguyen Ai Viet.
1987-06-01
The theory is represented for the recombination of the electron-hole pair into the photon with and without the emission of the plasmon-phonon coupled modes. In calculating the energies of the plasmon and the plasmon-phonon coupled modes as well as the vertices of their effective interactions the quantum field theory method has been applied. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the experimental result in the main part EHP 0 and the first sideband EHP - of the gain spectrum. (author). 6 refs, 9 figs
Luminescence of high density electron-hole plasma in CdS and CdSe in a wide temperature range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, H.; Shionoya, S.
1983-01-01
Time-resolved spectra of the spontaneous luminescence of the high density electron-hole plasma (EHP) in CdS and CdSe are observed in a wide range of temperature which is surely higher than the calculated critical temperature for electron-hole liquid formation, in order to carry forward discussion on dynamic nature of the EHP previously observed in 4.2 K experiments. Spectra in the late stage are analyzed, and obtained values of the reduced bandgap energy and chemical potential are compared with those theoretically calculated for higher temperatures. The aspects of the change of the spectral shape in the late stage are hard to understand. Unfortunately no clear conclusion is drawn on the nature of the EHP produced at 4.2 K. The only thing one can say is that the condensed electron-hole liquid state, which is in equilibrium with the exciton state, is not realized. (author)
Landau damping effects on collision-induced quantum interference in electron-hole plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwa-Min, Kim; Young-Dae, Jung
2007-01-01
The Landau damping effects on the quantum interference in electron collisions are investigated in a quantum plasma composed of electrons and holes. The Born method and the total spin states are considered to obtain the scattering cross-section by using the effective screened potential model. It is found that the Landau damping effects enhance the scattering cross-section, especially, near the scattering angle θ L = π/4. (authors)
Landau damping effects on collision-induced quantum interference in electron-hole plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwa-Min, Kim [Daegu Univ. Catholic, Dept. of Electronics Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Young-Dae, Jung [Hanyang Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-15
The Landau damping effects on the quantum interference in electron collisions are investigated in a quantum plasma composed of electrons and holes. The Born method and the total spin states are considered to obtain the scattering cross-section by using the effective screened potential model. It is found that the Landau damping effects enhance the scattering cross-section, especially, near the scattering angle {theta}{sub L} = {pi}/4. (authors)
Mesoscopic chaos mediated by Drude electron-hole plasma in silicon optomechanical oscillators
Wu, Jiagui; Huang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Yongjun; Zhou, Hao; Yang, Jinghui; Liu, Jia-Ming; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Duan, Shukai; Wei Wong, Chee
2017-01-01
Chaos has revolutionized the field of nonlinear science and stimulated foundational studies from neural networks, extreme event statistics, to physics of electron transport. Recent studies in cavity optomechanics provide a new platform to uncover quintessential architectures of chaos generation and the underlying physics. Here, we report the generation of dynamical chaos in silicon-based monolithic optomechanical oscillators, enabled by the strong and coupled nonlinearities of two-photon absorption induced Drude electron–hole plasma. Deterministic chaotic oscillation is achieved, and statistical and entropic characterization quantifies the chaos complexity at 60 fJ intracavity energies. The correlation dimension D2 is determined at 1.67 for the chaotic attractor, along with a maximal Lyapunov exponent rate of about 2.94 times the fundamental optomechanical oscillation for fast adjacent trajectory divergence. Nonlinear dynamical maps demonstrate the subharmonics, bifurcations and stable regimes, along with distinct transitional routes into chaos. This provides a CMOS-compatible and scalable architecture for understanding complex dynamics on the mesoscopic scale. PMID:28598426
Formation of electrostatic double-layers and electron-holes in a low pressure mercury plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petraconi, G; Maciel, Homero S
2003-01-01
Experimental studies of the formation of electrostatic double layers (DLs) and electron-holes (e-holes) are reported. The measurements were performed in the positive column of a mercury arc discharge operating in the low-pressure range of (2.0-14.0) x 10 -2 Pa with current density in the range of (3.0-8.0) x 10 3 A m -2 . Stable and unstable modes of the discharge were identified as the current was gradually increased, keeping constant the vapour pressure. The discharge remains stable until a critical current from which a slight increase of the current leads to an unstable regime characterized by high discharge impedance and strong oscillations. This mode ceased after a DL was formed in the plasma column. To induce the DL formation and to transport it smoothly along the discharge column, a low intensity B-field (7-10) x 10 -3 T produced by a movable single coil was used. The B-field locally increases the electron current density and makes the DL form at the centre of the magnetic constriction where it remained at rest. Electrostatic potential structures compatible with ordinary DLs and multiple-layers could be formed in the plasma column by dealing with the combined effects of the operational parameters of the discharge. It is noticeable that a pure e-hole, which is a symmetric triple-layer having a bell shape potential profile, could easily be formed by means of this experimental technique. A partial kinetic description, based on the space charge structure derived from an experimental e-hole, is presented in order to infer the charged particle populations that could contribute to the space charge of the e-hole. Evidence is shown that strong e-hole formation might be driven by an ion beam, therefore it could not be formed in isolation since its formation requires a nearby ion accelerating potential structure. Probe measurements of the plasma properties, at various radial positions of the stable positive column, are also presented. In the stable mode, prior to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodin, M.S.; Bandura, V.M.; Matsko, M.G. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziki)
1983-09-01
The emission spectra of ZnTe and ZnSe crystals are investigated at T = 4.2 K at high excitation densities by a Coumarin 30 and 120 dye laser. It is shown that for excitation densities R/sub exc/ > 0.1 MW/cm/sup 2/ the emission spectrum of ZnTe exhibits the P-band due to inelastic exciton-exciton scattering. For R/sub exc/ > 6 MW/cm/sup 2/ the emission of a degenerate electron-hole plasma (EHP) is observed. These emission bands may be differentiated by scanning the exciting quanta energy in the short-wavelength tail region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodin, M.S.; Bandura, V.M.; Matsko, M.G.
1983-01-01
The emission spectra of ZnTe and ZnSe crystals are investigated at T = 4.2 K at high excitation densities by a Coumarin 30 and 120 dye laser. It is shown that for excitation densities R/sub exc/ > 0.1 MW/cm 2 the emission spectrum of ZnTe exhibits the P-band due to inelastic exciton-exciton scattering. For R/sub exc/ > 6 MW/cm 2 the emission of a degenerate electron-hole plasma (EHP) is observed. These emission bands may be differentiated by scanning the exciting quanta energy in the short-wavelength tail region. (author)
Optical properties of dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenther, S.
1996-05-01
The following topics were dealt with: Stellar spectra and stellar atmospheres, spectrocopic methods in the plasma diagnostic, Green function method, influence of charged plasma particles on the line profile, Storer-Strahler interaction, dynamic screening effects, line profile shift and asymmetry, collective plasma excitations, ion dynamic effects on line profiles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiss, Joel T.; Becker, Julian; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
2016-07-27
There is a compelling need for a high frame rate imaging detector with a wide dynamic range, from single x-rays/pixel/pulse to >10{sup 6} x-rays/pixel/pulse, that is capable of operating at both x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) and 3rd generation sources with sustained fluxes of > 10{sup 11} x-rays/pixel/s [1, 2, 3]. We propose to meet these requirements with the High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector (HDR-PAD) by (a) increasing the speed of charge removal strategies [4], (b) increasing integrator range by implementing adaptive gain [5], and (c) exploiting the extended charge collection times of electron-hole pair plasma clouds that form when a sufficiently large number of x-rays are absorbed in a detector sensor in a short period of time [6]. We have developed a measurement platform similar to the one used in [6] to study the effects of high electron-hole densities in silicon sensors using optical lasers to emulate the conditions found at XFELs. Characterizations of the employed tunable wavelength laser with picosecond pulse duration have shown Gaussian focal spots sizes of 6 ± 1 µm rms over the relevant spectrum and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude increase in available intensity compared to previous measurements presented in [6]. Results from measurements on a typical pixelated silicon diode intended for use with the HDR-PAD (150 µm pixel size, 500 µm thick sensor) are presented.
Atomic phenomena in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weisheit, J.C.
1981-03-01
The following chapters are included: (1) the plasma environment, (2) perturbations of atomic structure, (3) perturbations of atomic collisions, (4) formation of spectral lines, and (5) dielectronic recombination
Dense high-temperature plasma transport processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giniyatova, Sh.G.
2002-01-01
In this work the transport processes in dense high-temperature semiclassical plasma are studied on the base of the kinetic equation, where the semiclassical potential was used, in its collision integral. The coefficient of plasma electrical conductivity, viscosity and thermal conductivity were received. There were compared with the other authors' results. The Grad's method was used obtaining of viscosity and thermal coefficients. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shlachter, J.S.; Hammel, J.E.; Scudder, D.W.
1985-01-01
Early researchers recogniZed the desirable features of the linear Z-pinch configuration as a magnetic fusion scheme. In particular, a Z-pinch reactor might not require auxiliary heating or external field coils, and could constitute an uncomplicated, high plasma β geometry. The simple Z pinch, however, exhibited gross MHD instabilities that disrupted the plasma, and the linear Z pinch was abandoned in favor of more stable configurations. Recent advances in pulsed-power technology and an appreciation of the dynamic behavior of an ohmically heated Z pinch have led to a reexamination of the Z pinch as a workable fusion concept
Electron conductivity model for dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Y.T.; More, R.M.
1984-01-01
An electron conductivity model for dense plasmas is described which gives a consistent and complete set of transport coefficients including not only electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, but also thermoelectric power, and Hall, Nernst, Ettinghausen, and Leduc--Righi coefficients. The model is useful for simulating plasma experiments with strong magnetic fields. The coefficients apply over a wide range of plasma temperature and density and are expressed in a computationally simple form. Different formulas are used for the electron relaxation time in plasma, liquid, and solid phases. Comparisons with recent calculations and available experimental measurement show the model gives results which are sufficiently accurate for many practical applications
Dense plasma focus - a literature review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tendys, J.
1976-01-01
The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)
Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A
2005-01-01
A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil
Ionization equilibrium in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ying, R.
1987-01-01
The average degree of ionization for a strongly coupled plasma is investigated and calculated. Two widely used approaches: the Saha equation method and the Thomas-Fermi (TF) statistical atomic model are adopted to determine the degree of ionization. Both methods are modified in a number of ways to include the strong-coupling effect in the plasma. In the Saha equation approach, the strong-coupling effects are introduced through: (i) a replacement of the Coulomb potential by a screened Debye potential; (ii) adoption of the Planck-Larkin partition function; (iii) description of the electron component by Fermi-Dirac statistics. The calculated degree of ionization exceeds that obtained from the original Saha equation, exhibits a minimum as a function of the density and shows an abrupt phase transition from weakly ionized to a fully ionized state. The zero-temperature TF model for compressed ions and the finite-temperature TF model for ions are investigated for the first time. In order to take into account the strong-coupling effect in a systematic way, a strong-coupling TF model is set up. Favorable results with the relatively simple approximations indicate that the newly established strong-coupling TF model is a more systematic and physically consistent approach
Dense-plasma research using ballistic compressors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hess, H.
1986-01-01
An introduction is given to research on dense (or nonideal) plasmas which can be generated to advantage by ballistic compressors. Some properties of ballistic compressors are discussed especially in comparison with shock tubes. A short review is given on the history of these devices for high-pressure plasma generation. The present state of the art is reported including research on the two ZIE (Central Institute for Electron Physics) ballistic compressors. (author)
Studying dense plasmas with coherent XUV pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stabile, H.
2006-12-01
The investigation of dense plasma dynamic requires the development of diagnostics able to ensure the measurement of electronic density with micro-metric space resolution and sub-nanosecond, or even subpicosecond, time resolution (indeed this must be at least comparable with the characteristic tune scale of plasma evolution). In contrast with low-density plasmas, dense plasmas cannot be studied using optical probes in the visible domain, the density range accessible being limited to the critical density (N c equals 1.1*10 21 λ -2 (μm) ∼ 10 21 cm -3 for infrared). In addition, light is reflected even at smaller densities if the medium exhibits sharp density gradients. Hence probing of dense plasmas, for instance those produced by laser irradiation of solids, requires using shorter wavelength radiation. Thanks to their physical properties, high order harmonics generated in rare gases are particularly adapted to the study of dense plasmas. Indeed, they can naturally be synchronized with the generating laser and their pulse duration is very short, which makes it possible to use them in pump-probe experiments. Moreover, they exhibit good spatial and temporal coherencies. Two types of diagnostics were developed during this thesis. The first one was used to study the instantaneous creation of hot-solid-density plasma generated by focusing a femtosecond high-contrast laser on an ultra-thin foil (100 nm) in the 10 18 W/cm 2 intensity regime. The use of high order harmonics, providing a probe beam of sufficiently short wavelengths to penetrate such a medium, enables the study of its dynamics on the 100 fs time scale. The second one uses the harmonics beam as probe beam (λ equals 32 nm) within an interferometric device. This diagnostic was designed to ensure a micro-metric spatial resolution and a temporal resolution in the femtosecond range. The first results in presence of plasma created by irradiation of an aluminum target underline the potentialities of this new
The electronic pressure in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozwolski, A.E.
1982-01-01
A thermodynamic calculation of the electronic pressure in a dense plasma is given. Approximations involved by the use of the Debye length are avoided, so the above theory remains valid even if the Debye length is smaller than the interionic distance. (author)
Nuclear Probing of Dense Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richard Petrasso
2007-01-01
The object of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to compress a fuel capsule to a state with high enough density and temperature to ignite, starting a self-sustaining fusion burn that consumes much of the fuel and releases a large amount of energy. The national ICF research program is trying to reach this goal, especially through experiments at the OMEGA laser facility of the University of Rochester Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE), planned experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and experimental and theoretical work at other national laboratories. The work by MIT reported here has played several important roles in this national program. First, the development of new and improved charged-particle-based plasma diagnostics has allowed the gathering of new and unique diagnostic information about the implosions of fuel capsules in ICF experiments, providing new means for evaluating experiments and for studying capsule implosion dynamics. Proton spectrometers have become the standard for evaluating the mass assembly in compressed capsules in experiments at OMEGA; the measured energy downshift of either primary or secondary D3He fusion protons to determines the areal density, or ?R, of imploded capsules. The Proton Temporal Diagnostic measures the time history of fusion burn, and multiple proton emission imaging cameras reveal the 3-D spatial distribution of fusion burn. A new compact neutron spectrometer, for measuring fusion yield, is described here for the first time. And of especially high importance to future work is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), which is a neutron spectrometer that will be used to study a range of important performance parameters in future experiments at the NIF. A prototype is currently being prepared for testing at OMEGA, using a magnet funded by this grant. Second, MIT has used these diagnostic instruments to perform its own physics experiments
Nuclear Probing of Dense Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard Petrasso
2007-02-14
The object of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to compress a fuel capsule to a state with high enough density and temperature to ignite, starting a self-sustaining fusion burn that consumes much of the fuel and releases a large amount of energy. The national ICF research program is trying to reach this goal, especially through experiments at the OMEGA laser facility of the University of Rochester Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE), planned experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and experimental and theoretical work at other national laboratories. The work by MIT reported here has played several important roles in this national program. First, the development of new and improved charged-particle-based plasma diagnostics has allowed the gathering of new and unique diagnostic information about the implosions of fuel capsules in ICF experiments, providing new means for evaluating experiments and for studying capsule implosion dynamics. Proton spectrometers have become the standard for evaluating the mass assembly in compressed capsules in experiments at OMEGA; the measured energy downshift of either primary or secondary D3He fusion protons to determines the areal density, or ?R, of imploded capsules. The Proton Temporal Diagnostic measures the time history of fusion burn, and multiple proton emission imaging cameras reveal the 3-D spatial distribution of fusion burn. A new compact neutron spectrometer, for measuring fusion yield, is described here for the first time. And of especially high importance to future work is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), which is a neutron spectrometer that will be used to study a range of important performance parameters in future experiments at the NIF. A prototype is currently being prepared for testing at OMEGA, using a magnet funded by this grant. Second, MIT has used these diagnostic instruments to perform its own physics experiments
Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2014-09-15
Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.
Atomic physics in dense plasmas. Recent advances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Angelo, P.; Ceccotti, T.; Derfoul, H.; Poquerusse, A.; Sauvan, P.; Oks, E.
2000-01-01
This paper presents observations and simulations of novel density-dependent spectroscopic features in hot and dense plasmas. Both time-integrated and time-resolved results using ultra-high resolutions spectrometers are presented; they are justified within the standard spectral line shape theory or the quasi-molecular alternative treatment. A particular attention is paid to the impact of the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma on the experimental spectra. Satellite-like features and molecular lines in the cases of Flyβ, Heβ are discussed emphasizing their importance for the density diagnostics when ion-ion correlations are significant. (authors)
Quasi-molecular processes in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Younger, S.M.
1991-01-01
Quasi-molecular phenomena occur in dense plasmas when the interatomic spacing is comparable to the characteristic wavelength of the electrons. If the electronic states are bound, covalent orbitals arise with different excitation energies, radiative rates, and collisional rates than for isolated ions. For continuum electrons, charge localization near transient clusters of nuclei can influence many scattering and transport processes. We identify several novel consequences of quasi-molecular phenomena in plasmas and give a possible explanation of high energy features associated with helium-like emissions lines observed in recent inertial fusion experiments. 7 refs
16. Hot dense plasma atomic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werner, Dappen; Totsuji, H.; Nishii, Y.
2002-01-01
This document gathers 13 articles whose common feature is to deal with atomic processes in hot plasmas. Density functional molecular dynamics method is applied to the hydrogen plasma in the domain of liquid metallic hydrogen. The effects of the density gradient are taken into account in both the electronic kinetic energy and the exchange energy and it is shown that they almost cancel with each other, extending the applicability of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximation to the cases where the density gradient is not negligible. Another article reports about space and time resolved M-shell X-ray measurements of a laser-produced gas jet xenon plasma. Plasma parameters have been measured by ion acoustic and electron plasma waves Thomson scattering. Photo-ionization becomes a dominant atomic process when the density and the temperature of plasmas are relatively low and when the plasma is submitted to intense external radiation. It is shown that 2 plasmas which have a very different density but have the same ionization parameters, are found in a similar ionization state. Most radiation hydrodynamics codes use radiative opacity data from available libraries of atomic data. Several articles are focused on the determination of one group Rosseland and Planck mean analytical formulas for several single elements used in inertial fusion targets. In another paper the plasma density effect on population densities, effective ionization, recombination rate coefficients and on emission lines from carbon and Al ions in hot dense plasma, is studied. The last article is devoted to a new atomic model in plasmas that considers the occupation probability of the bound state and free state density in the presence of the plasma micro-field. (A.C.)
Geometrical optics of dense aerosols: forming dense plasma slabs.
Hay, Michael J; Valeo, Ernest J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2013-11-01
Assembling a freestanding, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rarefied than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed field, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the finite particle density reduces the effective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing.
Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15
Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.
Dynamic plasma screening effects on atomic collisions in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young-Dae Jung
1999-01-01
Dynamic plasma screening effects are investigated on electron-ion collisional excitation and Coulomb Bremsstrahlung processes in dense plasmas. The electron-ion interaction potential is considered by introduction of the plasma dielectric function. The straight-ling trajectory method is applied to the path of the projectile electron. The transition probability including the dynamic plasma screening effect is found to be always greater than that including the static plasma screening effects. It is found that the differential Bremsstrahlung radiation cross section including the dynamic plasma screening effect is also greater than that including the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is smaller than the electron thermal velocity, the dynamic polarization screening effect becomes the static plasma screening effect. However, when the projectile velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, the interaction potential is almost unshielded
Dense hydrogen plasma: Comparison between models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clerouin, J.G.; Bernard, S.
1997-01-01
Static and dynamical properties of the dense hydrogen plasma (ρ≥2.6gcm -3 , 0.1< T<5eV) in the strongly coupled regime are compared through different numerical approaches. It is shown that simplified density-functional molecular-dynamics simulations (DFMD), without orbitals, such as Thomas-Fermi Dirac or Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Weiszaecker simulations give similar results to more sophisticated descriptions such as Car-Parrinello (CP), tight binding, or path-integral Monte Carlo, in a wide range of temperatures. At very low temperature, screening effects predicted by DFMD are still less pronounced than CP simulations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Thermodynamics of two component gaseous and solid state plasmas at any degeneracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraeft, W.D.; Stolzmann, W.; Fromhold-Treu, I.; Rother, T.
1988-10-01
We give the results of thermodynamical calculations for two component plasmas which are of interest for dense hydrogen, noble gas and alkali plasmas and for electron hole plasmas in optically excited semiconductors as well. 25 refs, 4 figs
Load Designs For MJ Dense Plasma Foci
Link, A.; Povlius, A.; Anaya, R.; Anderson, M. G.; Angus, J. R.; Cooper, C. M.; Falabella, S.; Goerz, D.; Higginson, D.; Holod, I.; McMahon, M.; Mitrani, J.; Koh, E. S.; Pearson, A.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Prasad, R.; van Lue, D.; Watson, J.; Schmidt, A. E.
2017-10-01
Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinches are compact pulse power driven devices with coaxial electrodes. The discharge of DPF consists of three distinct phases: first generation of a plasma sheath, plasma rail gun phase where the sheath is accelerated down the electrodes and finally an implosion phase where the plasma stagnates into a z-pinch geometry. During the z-pinch phase, DPFs can produce MeV ion beams, x-rays and neutrons. Megaampere class DPFs with deuterium fills have demonstrated neutron yields in the 1012 neutrons/shot range with pulse durations of 10-100 ns. Kinetic simulations using the code Chicago are being used to evaluate various load configurations from initial sheath formation to the final z-pinch phase for DPFs with up to 5 MA and 1 MJ coupled to the load. Results will be presented from the preliminary design simulations. LLNL-ABS-734785 This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and with support from the Computing Grand Challenge program at LLNL.
Rates of Thermonuclear Reactions in Dense Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsytovich, V.N.; Bornatici, M.
2000-01-01
The problem of plasma screening of thermonuclear reactions has attracted considerable scientific interest ever since Salpeter's seminal paper, but it is still faced with controversial statements and without any definite conclusion. It is of relevant importance to thermonuclear reactions in dense astrophysical plasmas, for which charge screening can substantially affect the reaction rates. Whereas Salpeter and a number of subsequent investigations have dealt with static screening, Carraro, Schafer, and Koonin have drawn attention to the fact that plasma screening of thermonuclear reactions is an essentially dynamic effect. In addressing the issue of collective plasma effects on the thermonuclear reaction rates, the first critical overview of most of the work carried out so far is presented and the validity of the test particle approach is assessed. In contrast to previous investigations, we base our description on the kinetic equation for nonequilibrium plasmas, which accounts for the effects on the rates of thermonuclear reactions of both plasma fluctuations and screening and allows one to analyze explicitly the effects of the fluctuations on the reaction rates. Such a kinetic formulation is more general than both Salpeter's approach and the recently developed statistical approaches and makes it possible to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the problem. A noticeable result of the fluctuation approach is that the static screening, which affects both the interaction and the self-energy of the reacting nuclei, does not affect the reaction rates, in contrast with the results obtained so far. Instead, a reduction of the thermonuclear reaction rates is obtained as a result of the effect of plasma fluctuations related to the free self-energy of the reacting nuclei. A simple physical explanation of the slowing down of the reaction rates is given, and the relation to the dynamically screened test particle approach is discussed. Corrections to the reaction rates
Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown
Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.
2015-11-01
A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Interparticle interaction and transport processes in dense semiclassical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baimbetov, F.B.; Giniyatova, Sh.G.
2005-01-01
On the basis of the density response formalism an expression for the pseudopotential of dense semiclassical plasma, which takes account of quantum-mechanical effects, local field corrections, and electronic screening effects is obtained. The static structure factors taking into account both local fields and quantum-mechanical effects are calculated. An electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity of dense semiclassical plasma are studied
Neutral helium spectral lines in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omar, Banaz; Wierling, August; Roepke, Gerd; Guenter, Sibylle
2006-01-01
Shift and broadening of isolated neutral helium lines 7281 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 S), 7065 A ring (2 3 P-3 3 S), 6678 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 D), 5048 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 S), 4922 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 D), and 4713 A ring (2 3 P-4 3 S) in a dense plasma are investigated. Based on a quantum statistical theory, the electronic contributions to the shift and width are considered, using the method of thermodynamic Green functions. Dynamic screening of the electron-atom interaction is included. Compared to the width, the electronic shift is more affected by dynamical screening. This effect increases at high density. A cut-off procedure for strong collisions is used. The contribution of the ions is taken into account in a quasi-static approximation, with both the quadratic Stark effect and the quadrupole interaction included. The results for shift and width agree well with the available experimental and theoretical data
Characterization of hot dense plasma with plasma parameters
Singh, Narendra; Goyal, Arun; Chaurasia, S.
2018-05-01
Characterization of hot dense plasma (HDP) with its parameters temperature, electron density, skin depth, plasma frequency is demonstrated in this work. The dependence of HDP parameters on temperature and electron density is discussed. The ratio of the intensities of spectral lines within HDP is calculated as a function of electron temperature. The condition of weakly coupled for HDP is verified by calculating coupling constant. Additionally, atomic data such as transition wavelength, excitation energies, line strength, etc. are obtained for Be-like ions on the basis of MCDHF method. In atomic data calculations configuration interaction and relativistic effects QED and Breit corrections are newly included for HDP characterization and this is first result of HDP parameters from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations.
Plasma focus - dense Z pinch and their applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Shozo
1986-02-01
''Workshop on the possibility of Z-pinch as a intense pulse light source'' in 1983 and ''Research meeting on plasma focus and Z-pinch'' in 1984 were held at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University under a collaborating research program. Research activities reported at the meetings on plasma focus, dense Z-pinch, and related phenomena are summerized. (author)
Interaction of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches with dense plasmas
Rukhadze, A A
2012-01-01
Here we discuss the possibility of employment of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches for generation of high plasma wakefields in dense plasmas due to the Cherenkov resonance plasma-bunch interaction. We estimate the maximum amplitude of such a wake and minimum system length at which the maximum amplitude can be generated at the given bunch parameters.
Arbitrary electron acoustic waves in degenerate dense plasmas
Rahman, Ata-ur; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.; Neelam, S.
2017-05-01
A theoretical investigation is carried out of the nonlinear dynamics of electron-acoustic waves in a collisionless and unmagnetized plasma whose constituents are non-degenerate cold electrons, ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons, and stationary ions. A dispersion relation is derived for linear EAWs. An energy integral equation involving the Sagdeev potential is derived, and basic properties of the large amplitude solitary structures are investigated in such a degenerate dense plasma. It is shown that only negative large amplitude EA solitary waves can exist in such a plasma system. The present analysis may be important to understand the collective interactions in degenerate dense plasmas, occurring in dense astrophysical environments as well as in laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments.
Collective plasma corrections to thermonuclear reactions rates in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsytovich, V.N.
2002-01-01
General kinetic equations for nuclear reaction in dense plasmas are obtained. They take into account the first order collective plasma effects. Together with previously known corrections proportional to Z i Z j , the product of the charges Z i and Z j of two interacting nuclei, it is shown that there exist corrections proportional to the squares Z i 2 and Z j 2 of the charges. It is shown that the Salpeter's [1] correction due to the plasma screening of the interaction potential is at least r/d smaller (r is the nuclei size and d is Debye screening length) than previously thought and is zero in the approximation when the terms of the order r/d are neglected. But the correlation effects in the first approximation in the parameter 1/N d (where N d is the number of particle in the Debye sphere) give corrections which often coincide with the first order Salpeter's corrections (found by expansion in another small parameter, the ratio of thermal energy to Gamov's energy). The correlation corrections are ∝ Z i Z j , have a different physical meaning than the corrections [1], can have a different sign and are present for reactions where the Salpeter's corrections are zero. Previously in astrophysical applications it was widely used the interpolation formulas between weak and strong Salpeter's screening corrections. Since the correlation correction take place the previously known Salpeter's corrections and the strong correlation corrections is difficult to describe analytically, the interpolation formulas between the weak and strong correlations cannot be yet found. A new type of corrections are found here which are proportional to the square of the charges. They are due to collective change in electrostatic self-energy of the plasma system during the nuclear reactions. The latter corrections are found by taking into account the changes of plasma particle fluctuations by the nuclear reactions. Numerical evaluation of the plasma corrections for the nuclear reactions of the
Energy Flow in Dense Off-Equilibrium Plasma
2016-07-15
brings the electron density and light emission into LTE at the measured spectral temperature while leaving the ions cold. Because of their large mass... measurements of ionization potential lowering and collision times indense plasmas, allowing us to distinguish between competing dense-plasma models...Hydrodynamic analysis of shockwaves generated by sparks yielded similar measurements ina different, more accessible system. Ultra-fast observations
Matching of dense plasma focus devices with fission reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harms, A.A.; Heindler, M.
1978-01-01
The potential role of dense plasma focus devices as compact neutron sources for fissile fuel breeding in conjunction with existing fission reactors is considered. It is found that advanced plasma focus devices can be used effectively in conjunction with neutronically efficient fission reactors to constitute ''self-sufficient'' breeders. Correlations among the various parameters such as the power output and conversion ratio of the fission reactor with the neutron yield and capacitor bank energy of the dense plasma focus device are presented and discussed
The Rosseland Mean Opacity in Dense Plasmas
van Horn, H. M.
1992-05-01
In post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution, densities in the interiors of stars become large enough so that hbar omega_p /kT>1, where omega_p is the electron plasma frequency. The plasma is thus a strongly dispersive medium at frequencies near the peak of the Planck function, and only photons with frequencies omega >omega_p can propagate in the plasma. These effects must be taken into account in computing radiative transfer in stellar interiors. Here I first identify several late evolutionary stages in which these effects may be significant. Then I use the formalism Harris 1965 has developed to treat radiative transfer in a dispersive medium in order to derive the resulting modification of the Rosseland mean opacity kappa_R . The resulting expression is the same as that presented (without a full derivation) by Aharony & Opher 1979, who interpreted the frequency-dependent absorption coefficient kappa_ ω as that in vacuo. However, the absorption coefficient in a plasma scales from that in vacuum according to the relation kappa_ ω=n_ω(-1) kappa_ ω((vac)) (Bekefi 1966, p. 52), where n_ω equiv (kc/omega ) = [1-(omega_p (2/) omega (2)right ](1/2)) is the index of refraction of the plasma. With this correction, we find the Rosseland mean opacity to be given by the expression {1\\over \\kappa_R}={{\\int_{\\omega_p}^{\\infty} {n_{\\omega}^3 \\over \\kappa_{\\omega}^{(vac)}}{partial B_{\\omega} \\over partial T} \\bigg|_{\\omega} d\\omega} \\over{\\int_0^{\\infty}{partial B_{\\omega} \\over partial T} \\bigg|_{\\omega} d\\omega}}. This research has been supported in part by NASA grant NAGW-2444 and in part by NSF grant AST 91-15132. \\centerline{References} Aharony, U., and Opher, R. 1979, A&A, 79, 27. Bekefi, G. 1966, Radiation Processes in Plasmas, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York). Harris, E. G. 1965, Phys. Rev., 138, B479.
Kinetic theory of the interdiffusion coefficient in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boercker, D.B.
1986-08-01
Naive applications of Spitzer's theory to very dense plasmas can lead to negative diffusion coefficients. The interdiffusion coefficients in Binary Ionic Mixtures (two species of point ions in a uniform neutralizing background) have been calculated recently using molecular dynamics techniques. These calculations can provide useful benchmarks for theoretical evaluations of the diffusion coefficient in dense plasma mixtures. This paper gives a brief description of a kinetic theoretic approximation to the diffusion coefficient which generalizes Spitzer to high density and is in excellent agreement with the computer simulations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Acoustic modes in dense dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avinash, K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hu, S.
2002-01-01
Properties of acoustic modes in high dust density dusty plasmas are studied. The solutions of fluid equations for electrons, ions, and dust grains with collisional and ionization effects are solved along with an equation for grain charging. The high dust density effects on the acoustic modes are interpreted in terms of a change in the screening properties of the grain charge. At low dust density, the grain charge is screened due to electrons and ions. However, at high dust density, the screening of the grain charge due to other grains also becomes important. This leads to a reduction of the phase-velocity, which in turn is shown to make the plasma more unstable at high dust density. In this regime the role of the ion acoustic mode is replaced by the charging mode. The relevance of these results to earlier theoretical studies and experimental results are discussed
Turbulent current heating of dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suprunenko, V.A.; Sukhomlin, E.A.; Volkov, E.D.; Perepelkij, N.F.
1976-01-01
Based upon experimental results an attempt is made for systematizing and analysing conditions of experiments in anomalous resistance and turbulent heating of a plasma. The extensive program of such investigations aims at a direct practical study on quasistationary heating and plasma containment in magnetic traps. It has been shown that in real conditions turbulent heating turns out to be a far more complicated phenomenon than that described within the framework of theories developed so far. It has been established that the phenomenon alters in the transition through the critical values of electric and magnetic fields. This makes it possible to separate four characteristic experimental regimes. For all the regimes the stabilization of the electron current drift rate is typical. On the basis of the experimental results obtained an explanation is given of the sporadic character of the ultrathermal radiation in a quasistationary discharge
Statistical mechanics of reacting dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogers, F.J.
1978-11-22
A review of the quantum statistical theory of strongly coupled many component plasmas is given. The theoretical development is shown to consist of six separate parts. Compensation between bound and scattering state contributions to the partition function and use of the shifted Debye energy levels are important aspects of the analysis. The results are valid when the electrons are moderately coupled to the heavy ions, i.e., ..lambda../sub e..cap alpha../* < 1, but no restriction is placed on the coupling between heavy ions. Another restriction is that lambda/lambda/sub D/ < 1, i.e., the thermal deBroglie wavelength is less than the Debye length. Numerical calculations of PV/N/sub 0/kT and C/sub V/ are given for a Rubidium plasma.
Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott C.
2010-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a uniform hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into core fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). Unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection is similar to compact toroid injection but with much higher plasma density and total mass, and consequently lower required injection velocit...
Role of Magnetic Interaction in Dense Plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sarkar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Quasiparticle excitations and associated phenomena of energy and momentum transfer rates have been calculated in terms of the drag and the diffusion coefficients exposing clearly the dominance of the magnetic interaction over its electric counterpart. The results have been compared with the finite temperature results highlighting the similarities and dissimilarities in the two extreme regimes of temperature and density. Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of various physical quantities like neutrino mean free path and thermal relaxation time due to the inclusion of magnetic interaction has clearly been revealed. All the results presented in the current review are pertinent to the degenerate and ultradegenerate plasma.
Temperature Measurements of Dense Plasmas by Detailed Balance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holl, A; Redmer, R; Ropke, G; Reinholz, H; Thiele, R; Fortmann, C; Forster, E; Cao, L; Tschentscher, T; Toleikis, S; Glenzer, S H
2006-01-01
Plasmas at high electron densities of n e = 10 20 - 10 26 cm -3 and moderate temperatures T e = 1 - 20 eV are important for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. These plasmas are usually referred to as Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and are characterized by a coupling parameter of Λ ∼> 1 where correlations become important. The characterization of such plasmas is still a challenging task due to the lack of direct measurement techniques for temperatures and densities. They propose to measure the Thomson scattering spectrum of vacuum-UV radiation off density fluctuations in the plasma. Collective Thomson scattering provides accurate data for the electron temperature applying first principles. Further, this method takes advantage of the spectral asymmetry resulting from detailed balance and is independent of collisional effects in these dense systems
Stark broadening in hot, dense laser-produced plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tighe, R.J.; Hooper, C.F. Jr.
1976-01-01
Broadened Lyman-α x-ray lines from neon X and argon XVIII radiators, which are immersed in a hot, dense deuterium or deuterium-tritium plasma, are discussed. In particular, these lines are analyzed for several temperature-density cases, characteristic of laser-produced plasmas; special attention paid to the relative importance of ion, electron, and Doppler effects. Static ion microfield distribution functions are tabulated
Single-shot optical conductivity measurement of dense aluminum plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Churina, I. V.; Cho, B.-I.; Bernstein, A.; Stoker, D. S.; Dalton, A.; Symes, D. R.; Ditmire, T.
2009-01-01
The optical conductivity of a dense femtosecond laser-heated aluminum plasma heated to 0.1-1.5 eV was measured using frequency-domain interferometry with chirped pulses, permitting simultaneous observation of optical probe reflectivity and probe pulse phase shift. Coupled with published models of bound-electron contributions to the conductivity, these two independent experimental data yielded a direct measurement of both real and imaginary components of the plasma conductivity.
Energy eigenvalues of helium-like atoms in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashino, Tasuke; Nakazaki, Shinobu; Kato, Takako; Kashiwabara, Hiromichi.
1987-04-01
Calculations based on a variational method with wave functions including the correlation of electrons are carried out to obtain energy eigenvalues of Schroedinger's equation for helium-like atoms embedded in dense plasmas, taking the Debye-Hueckel approximation. Energy eigenvalues for the 1 1 S, 2 1 S, and 2 3 S states are obtained as a function of Debye screening length. (author)
Multi-scaling of the dense plasma focus
Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.
2015-03-01
The dense plasma focus is a copious source of multi-radiations with many potential new applications of special interest such as in advanced SXR lithography, materials synthesizing and testing, medical isotopes and imaging. This paper reviews the series of numerical experiments conducted using the Lee model code to obtain the scaling laws of the multi-radiations.
Interaction of graphite with a hot, dense deuterium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desko, J.C. Jr.
1980-01-01
The erosion of ATJ-S graphite caused by a hot, dense deuterium plasma has been investigated experimentally. The plasma was produced in an electromagnetic shock tube. Plasma characteristics were typically: ion temperature approx. = 800 eV (approx. 1 x 10 7 0 K), number density approx. = 10 16 /cm 3 , and transverse magnetic field approx. = 1 tesla. The energetic ion flux, phi, to the sample surfaces was approx. 10 23 ions/cm 2 -sec for a single pulse duration of approx. 0.1 usec. Sample surfaces were metallographically prepared and examined with a scanning electron microscope before and after exposure
Hugoniot measurements of double-shocked precompressed dense xenon plasmas
Zheng, J.; Chen, Q. F.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Z. Y.
2012-12-01
The current partially ionized plasmas models for xenon show substantial differences since the description of pressure and thermal ionization region becomes a formidable task, prompting the need for an improved understanding of dense xenon plasmas behavior at above 100 GPa. We performed double-shock compression experiments on dense xenon to determine accurately the Hugoniot up to 172 GPa using a time-resolved optical radiation method. The planar strong shock wave was produced using a flyer plate impactor accelerated up to ˜6 km/s with a two-stage light-gas gun. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were acquired by using a multiwavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Shock velocity was measured and mass velocity was determined by the impedance-matching methods. The experimental equation of state of dense xenon plasmas are compared with the self-consistent fluid variational calculations of dense xenon in the region of partial ionization over a wide range of pressures and temperatures.
1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichimaru, S.; Tajima, T.
1991-10-01
The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas
Equation of state of partially-ionized dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, F.J.
1989-01-01
This paper describes methods for calculating the equation of state of partially-ionized dense plasmas. The term dense plasma is used rather than strongly coupled plasma, since it is possible that at plasma conditions such that only a few levels can be observed spectroscopically the plasma coupling parameters are not large. Due mainly to their importance in theoretical astrophysics, the properties of partially ionized plasmas have been of interest for a long while. More recently, this interest has intensified due to the development of methods for producing partially ionized plasmas in the laboratory. This has opened up large programs of experimental investigation and of practical application. In this paper we consider detailed statistical mechanical methods that explicitly treat the distribution over ionic species and their energy level structure. These detailed approaches are generally characterized as being in the ''chemical picture'' when a free energy expression is minimized or in the ''physical picture'' when the starting point is the grand canonical ensemble. 52 refs., 2 tabs
Thermodynamic and dynamical properties of dense ICF plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabdullin Maratbek T.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In present work, thermodynamic expressions were obtained through potentials that took into consideration long-range many-particle screening effects as well as short-range quantum-mechanical effects and radial distribution functions (RDFs. Stopping power of the projectile ions in dense, non-isothermal plasma was considered. One of the important values that describe the stopping power of the ions in plasma is the Coulomb logarithm. We investigated the stopping power of ions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF plasma and other energetic characteristics of fuel. Calculations of ions energy losses in the plasma for different values of the temperature and plasma density were carried out. A comparison of the calculated data of ion stopping power and energy deposition with experimental and theoretical results of other authors was also performed.
Preliminary results obtained from a dense plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinman, S.; Sinman, A.
1982-01-01
In this study, for the data processing in our Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) system, a multiparameters numerical hierarchy obtained from the fundamental equations based on the snowplows model and its conclusions have been developed. Evaluating the data along the transients of the total plasma current, the anode current and the focus voltage recorded by an oscilloscope, they have been possible to determine the time domain plasma parameters such as the shock thickness, the sheath temperature, velocity and electron density, the pressure at the focus phase and the plasma temperature. Besides, the dissipated energy through the focus notch or in other words, the plasma temperature has also been calculated by means of the numerical integration. In the text, a performance chart together with some other correlation curves for the optimization of the DPF systems are submitted and discussed. (author)
Proton Radiography for the Diagnostics of a Dense Plasma
Barminova, H. Y.
2017-12-01
The possibility of using high-energy proton radiography for dense plasma diagnostics is discussed. The designed telescopic ion optical system for a proton radiography installation with a 1 GeV beam is presented. The schematic diagram of the proton microscope is given. It is shown that the estimate of spatial resolution for the installation obtained with consideration of chromatic aberrations of magnetic quadrupole lenses is limited from below.
Vortex structures in dense electron-positron-ion plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haque, Q [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: qamar_haque@hotmail.com
2009-11-15
A linear dispersion relation for electrostatic quantum drift and acoustic waves has been found for dense electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas. Both the fermion and thermal temperature effects have been considered for electrons and positrons. In the nonlinear regime, a stationary solution in the form of dipolar vortices has been obtained. For illustration, the results were applied to the astrophysical plasma of the atmosphere of neutron stars/pulsars.
Repetitively pulsed capacitor bank for the dense-plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R.; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.
1975-12-01
This report describes a 1 pulse per second capacitor bank designed to energize a dense-plasma focus (DPF). The DPF is a neutron source capable (with moderate scaling) of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse or neutron flux of 2 x 10 13 N/cm 2 .s. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue due to the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. This small source size high flux neutron source could be extemely useful to qualify fission reactor material irradiation results for fusion reactor design
Design of a repetitively pulsed megajoule dense-plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R.; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.
1975-01-01
This report describes a 1 pulse per second, dense-plasma-focus (DPF) materials-testing device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse. Moderate scaling up from existing designs is shown to be sufficient to provide 2 x 10 13 neutrons/ cm 2 . s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue due to the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. Also discussed is a novel approach to capacitor-bank and switch design with respect to repetitive-pulse operation. (auth)
Repetitively pulsed capacitor bank for the dense-plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R.; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.
1976-01-01
This report describes a 1 pulse per second capacitor bank designed to energize a dense-plasma focus (DPF). The DPF is a neutron source capable (with moderate scaling) of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse or neutron flux of 2 x 10 13 N/cm 2 . s. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue due to the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. This small source size high flux neutron source could be extremely useful to qualify fission reactor material irradiation results for fusion reactor design
Properties of the Dense Plasma Produced in Plasma Focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peacock, N.J.; Wilcock, P.D.; Speer, R.J.; Morgan, P.D.
1969-01-01
The plasma produced by the focus or quasi-cylindrical magnetic compression which occurs at the open end of a metal-walled, coaxial plasma gun has been studied, using the electrical waveforms and the electromagnetic and reaction particle, emission. The electromagnetic radiation in the XUV region of the spectrum has previously been briefly reported, and the present paper describes further more detailed analyses of the line emission at wavelengths shorter than 10 Å when impurities are added to the gas filling. The emission is characteristic of a plasma with a temperature of a few keV and a density greater than 10 19 cm -3 , while the appearance of optical transitions in highly stripped ions, e. g. A XVIII, gives a measure of the thermalization in the plasma. The stored electrical energy has been doubled and the scaling of the neutron emission with the applied voltage and the initial particle density is presented. The duration of the neutron and X-ray emission is considerably longer than the observed instability growth time in the plasma filament. Calculations of the mode of heating and the confinement of the plasma are compared with experimental observations. (author)
Statistical mechanics of dense plasmas: numerical simulation and theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeWitt, H.E.
1977-10-01
Recent Monte Carlo calculations from Paris and from Livermore for dense one and two component plasmas have led to systematic and accurate results for the thermodynamic properties of dense Coulombic fluids. This talk will summarize the results of these numerical experiments, and the simple analytic expressions for the equation of state and other thermodynamic functions that have been obtained. The thermal energy for the one component plasma has a simple power law dependence on temperature that is identical to Monte Carlo results on strongly coupled fluids governed by l/r/sup n/ potentials. A universal model for fluids governed by simple repulsive forces is suggested. For two component plasmas the ion-sphere model is shown to accurately reproduce the Monte Carlo data for the static portion of the energy. Electron screening is included using the Lindhard dielectric function and linear response theory. Free energy expressions have been constructed for one and two component plasmas that allow easy computation of all thermodynamic functions
Orbital free molecular dynamics; Approche sans orbitale des plasmas denses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lambert, F
2007-08-15
The microscopic properties of hot and dense plasmas stay a field essentially studied thanks to classical theories like the One Component Plasma, models which rely on free parameters, particularly ionization. In order to investigate these systems, we have used, in this PhD work, a semi-classical model, without free parameters, that is based on coupling consistently classical molecular dynamics for the nuclei and orbital free density functional theory for the electrons. The electronic fluid is represented by a free energy entirely determined by the local density. This approximation was validated by a comparison with an ab initio technique, quantum molecular dynamics. This one is identical to the previous except for the description of the free energy that depends on a quantum-independent-particle model. Orbital free molecular dynamics was then used to compute equation of state of boron and iron plasmas in the hot and dense regime. Furthermore, comparisons with classical theories were performed on structural and dynamical properties. Finally, equation of state and transport coefficients mixing laws were studied by direct simulation of a plasma composed of deuterium and copper. (author)
Calculation of Transport Coefficients in Dense Plasma Mixtures
Haxhimali, T.; Cabot, W. H.; Caspersen, K. J.; Greenough, J.; Miller, P. L.; Rudd, R. E.; Schwegler, E. R.
2011-10-01
We use classical molecular dynamics (MD) to estimate species diffusivity and viscosity in mixed dense plasmas. The Yukawa potential is used to describe the screened Coulomb interaction between the ions. This potential has been used widely, providing the basis for models of dense stellar materials, inertial confined plasmas, and colloidal particles in electrolytes. We calculate transport coefficients in equilibrium simulations using the Green- Kubo relation over a range of thermodynamic conditions including the viscosity and the self - diffusivity for each component of the mixture. The interdiffusivity (or mutual diffusivity) can then be related to the self-diffusivities by using a generalization of the Darken equation. We have also employed non-equilibrium MD to estimate interdiffusivity during the broadening of the interface between two regions each with a high concentration of either species. Here we present results for an asymmetric mixture between Ar and H. These can easily be extended to other plasma mixtures. A main motivation for this study is to develop accurate transport models that can be incorporated into the hydrodynamic codes to study hydrodynamic instabilities. We use classical molecular dynamics (MD) to estimate species diffusivity and viscosity in mixed dense plasmas. The Yukawa potential is used to describe the screened Coulomb interaction between the ions. This potential has been used widely, providing the basis for models of dense stellar materials, inertial confined plasmas, and colloidal particles in electrolytes. We calculate transport coefficients in equilibrium simulations using the Green- Kubo relation over a range of thermodynamic conditions including the viscosity and the self - diffusivity for each component of the mixture. The interdiffusivity (or mutual diffusivity) can then be related to the self-diffusivities by using a generalization of the Darken equation. We have also employed non-equilibrium MD to estimate interdiffusivity during
Skin-effect in a dense ionizing plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenkov, G.V.; Taranenko, S.B.
1989-01-01
Effect of multiple ionization and radiation (bremmstrahlung and photorecombination) on skin effect in a dense plasma is investigated. Limiting cases are considered: 1) fast skin-effect, when plasma movement and any types of losses (radiation, electron thermal conductivity) have no time to manifest themselves during short heating times; 2) deceleration of skinning under effect of radiation achieving equilibrium with Joule heating. Self-simulating solutions of the problem for half-space are investigated. The results are applied to analysing experiments with exploding wires. It is shown that under conditions, typical of heavy-current decelerators tubular structures are produced as a result of heat and current skinning under free dispersion of plasma produced during the explosion. Their dimensions are of the order of dozens of microns, and the temperature exceeds 50 eV. The linear power and complete ''tube'' radiation yield at this stage are able to make a substantial contribution to the energy balance in the group
Deposition of aluminium nanoparticles using dense plasma focus device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devi, Naorem Bilasini; Srivastava, M P; Roy, Savita
2010-01-01
Plasma route to nanofabrication has drawn much attention recently. The dense plasma focus (DPF) device is used for depositing aluminium nanoparticles on n-type Si (111) wafer. The plasma chamber is filled with argon gas and evacuated at a pressure of 80 Pa. The substrate is placed at distances 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm from the top of the central anode. The aluminium is deposited on Si wafer at room temperature with two focused DPF shots. The deposits on the substrate are examined for their morphological properties using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images have shown the formation of aluminium nanoparticles. From the AFM images, it is found that the size of aluminium nanoparticles increases with increase in distance between the top of anode and the substrate for same number of DPF shots.
Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices
Gribkov, V. A.
2008-04-01
Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement—MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy.
Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribkov, V. A.
2008-01-01
Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement--MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy
ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics: an executive summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribkov, V.A.; Mank, G.; Markowicz, A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Tuniz, C.; Crespo, M.L.
2011-01-01
The Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics was held from 15 to 26 November 2010 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. It was attended by 60 participants, including 15 lecturers, 2 tutors and 37 trainees, representing 25 countries. (conference report)
ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics: an executive summary
Gribkov, V. A.; Mank, G.; Markowicz, A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Tuniz, C.; Crespo, M. L.
2011-12-01
The Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics was held from 15 to 26 November 2010 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. It was attended by 60 participants, including 15 lecturers, 2 tutors and 37 trainees, representing 25 countries.
Reiterated inclusions of dipoles in a dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naouri, Gerard
1983-01-01
This thesis introduces a simple model made up for the calculation of pressure effects in dense and partially ionized 3 D two component plasma. The technic used is the description of the overlapping of atomic orbitals by means of interacting dipoles incased in one another. By iteration of this procedure we get an effective two-body potential which allows us to calculate line shifts of hydrogenic ions. In conclusion we suggest a possible improvement of the method by substituting a self consistent potential to the Debye one for the calculation of the wave functions. [fr
Efficient calculation of atomic rate coefficients in dense plasmas
Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg J.
2017-03-01
Modelling electron statistics in a cold, dense plasma by the Fermi-Dirac distribution leads to complications in the calculations of atomic rate coefficients. The Pauli exclusion principle slows down the rate of collisions as electrons must find unoccupied quantum states and adds a further computational cost. Methods to calculate these coefficients by direct numerical integration with a high degree of parallelism are presented. This degree of optimization allows the effects of degeneracy to be incorporated into a time-dependent collisional-radiative model. Example results from such a model are presented.
Many-particle correlations in quasi-two-dimensional electron-hole systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolaev, Valentin
2002-01-01
This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of many-particle correlation effects in semiconductor heterostructures containing quantum wells. Particular attention is paid towards quasi-particle pair correlations. Using the Green's function technique and the ladder approximation as a basis, the generalized mass action law, which describes the redistribution of particles between correlated and uncorrelated states in quasi-two-dimensional systems for different temperatures and total densities, is derived. The expression is valid beyond the low-density limit, which allows us to investigate the transition of the system from a dilute exciton gas to a dense electron-hole plasma. A generalized Levinson theorem, which takes k-space filling into account, is formulated. Screening in quasi-two-dimensional systems is analyzed rigorously. Firstly, the qualitatively new mechanism of static local screening by indirect excitons is studied using the simple Thomas-Fermi approximation. Then, a detailed many-body description suitable for a proper account of dynamic screening by a quasi-2D electron-hole plasma, and consistent with the previously derived mass action law, is provided. The generalized Lindhard approximation and excitonic plasmon-pole approximations are also derived. The theory is applied to single and double quantum wells. A self-consistent procedure is developed for numerical investigation of the ionization degree of an electron-hole plasma at different values of temperature/exciton Rydberg ratios. This procedure accounts for screening, k-space filling (exciton bleaching), and the formation of excitons. An abrupt jump in the value of the ionization degree that happens with an increase of the carrier density or temperature (Mott transition) is found in a certain density-temperature region. It has been found that the critical density of the Mott transition for indirect excitons may be much smaller than that for direct excitons. A suggestion has been made that some of the
FFM Applications to Dense and Warm Hydrogen Plasma Study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calisti, A.; Talin, B.; Bureyeva, L. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Shuvaev, D.
2006-01-01
A study of hydrogen lines emitted in dense and low temperature plasmas is presented. A transition from impact to quasi-static broadening for electrons is analyzed with the help of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM). Electron broadening of Balmer series lines is studied for different densities and temperatures spanning a wide domain from impact to quasi-static limit. It is shown that electronic broadening makes a transition from impact to quasi-static limit depending on plasma conditions and principal quantum number. Even for the Balmer alpha line, at a density equals 1018 cm-3 and a temperature equals 1 eV, this transition occurs both in the wings and the core of the line
The phenomenon of radiative compression in dense magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Peter
1998-01-01
Full text: Localized regions of extremely high energy density have long been observed in dense magnetized plasma, created in different experiments, including vacuum spark, exploding wire, Z-pinch and plasma focus. The physical dimensions of these regions are typically tens to hundreds of microns with a characteristic temperature of few hundred eV upward. A theory of self-compression under enhanced cooling, when the radiation rate exceeds the joule heating rate, was first put forward by Shearer to explain the possible responsible mechanism. More recent work suggests that a radiative collapse formalism could indeed produce eaters of ultra-high density. In the paper the experimental evidences are examined, and the applicability limit of the radiative collapse picture is discussed, when the properties of the driving generator are considered. A new set of relations connecting the driver parameters and the limiting size of the compression is proposed
Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, T.; Fletcher, L.; Pak, A.; Chapman, D. A.; Falcone, R. W.; Fortmann, C.; Galtier, E.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.; Hastings, J.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Turnbull, D.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Glenzer, S. H.; Döppner, T.
2014-05-01
Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ~3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4k=4Å-1. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.
Monte Carlo simulations of ionization potential depression in dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stransky, M., E-mail: stransky@fzu.cz [Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
2016-01-15
A particle-particle grand canonical Monte Carlo model with Coulomb pair potential interaction was used to simulate modification of ionization potentials by electrostatic microfields. The Barnes-Hut tree algorithm [J. Barnes and P. Hut, Nature 324, 446 (1986)] was used to speed up calculations of electric potential. Atomic levels were approximated to be independent of the microfields as was assumed in the original paper by Ecker and Kröll [Phys. Fluids 6, 62 (1963)]; however, the available levels were limited by the corresponding mean inter-particle distance. The code was tested on hydrogen and dense aluminum plasmas. The amount of depression was up to 50% higher in the Debye-Hückel regime for hydrogen plasmas, in the high density limit, reasonable agreement was found with the Ecker-Kröll model for hydrogen plasmas and with the Stewart-Pyatt model [J. Stewart and K. Pyatt, Jr., Astrophys. J. 144, 1203 (1966)] for aluminum plasmas. Our 3D code is an improvement over the spherically symmetric simplifications of the Ecker-Kröll and Stewart-Pyatt models and is also not limited to high atomic numbers as is the underlying Thomas-Fermi model used in the Stewart-Pyatt model.
Monte Carlo simulations of ionization potential depression in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stransky, M.
2016-01-01
A particle-particle grand canonical Monte Carlo model with Coulomb pair potential interaction was used to simulate modification of ionization potentials by electrostatic microfields. The Barnes-Hut tree algorithm [J. Barnes and P. Hut, Nature 324, 446 (1986)] was used to speed up calculations of electric potential. Atomic levels were approximated to be independent of the microfields as was assumed in the original paper by Ecker and Kröll [Phys. Fluids 6, 62 (1963)]; however, the available levels were limited by the corresponding mean inter-particle distance. The code was tested on hydrogen and dense aluminum plasmas. The amount of depression was up to 50% higher in the Debye-Hückel regime for hydrogen plasmas, in the high density limit, reasonable agreement was found with the Ecker-Kröll model for hydrogen plasmas and with the Stewart-Pyatt model [J. Stewart and K. Pyatt, Jr., Astrophys. J. 144, 1203 (1966)] for aluminum plasmas. Our 3D code is an improvement over the spherically symmetric simplifications of the Ecker-Kröll and Stewart-Pyatt models and is also not limited to high atomic numbers as is the underlying Thomas-Fermi model used in the Stewart-Pyatt model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Y.
1997-01-01
In dense plasmas, dynamic plasma screening effects are investigated on 1s→2p dipole transition probabilities for electron-impact excitation of hydrogenic ions. The electron endash ion interaction potential is considered by introduction of the plasma dielectric function. A semiclassical straight-line trajectory method is applied to the path of the projectile electron in order to visualize the semiclassical transition probability as a function of the impact parameter, projectile energy, and plasma parameters. The transition probability including the dynamic plasma screening effect is always greater than that including the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is smaller than the electron thermal velocity, the dynamic polarization screening effect becomes the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, then the interaction potential is almost unshielded. The difference between the dynamic and static plasma screening effects is more significant for low-energy projectiles. It is also found that the static plasma screening formula obtained by the Debye endash Hueckel model overestimates the plasma screening effects on the atomic excitation processes in dense plasmas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Physical properties of dense, low-temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redmer, R.
1997-01-01
Plasmas occur in a wide range of the density-temperature plane. The physical quantities can be expressed by Green's functions which are evaluated by means of standard quantum statistical methods. The influences of many-particle effects such as dynamic screening and self-energy, structure factor and local-field corrections, formation and decay of bound states, degeneracy and Pauli exclusion principle are studied. As a basic concept for partially ionized plasmas, a cluster decomposition is performed for the self-energy as well as for the polarization function. The general model of a partially ionized plasma interpolates between low-density, nonmetallic systems such as atomic vapors and high-density, conducting systems such as metals or fully ionized plasmas. The equations of state, including the location of the critical point and the shape of the coexistence curve, are determined for expanded alkali-atom and mercury fluids. The occurrence of a metal-nonmetal transition near the critical point of the liquid-vapor phase transition leads in these materials to characteristic deviations from the behavior of nonconducting fluids such as the inert gases. Therefore, a unified approach is needed to describe the drastic changes of the electronic properties as well as the variation of the physical properties with the density. Similar results are obtained for the hypothetical plasma phase transition in hydrogen plasma. The transport coefficients (electrical and thermal conductivity, thermopower) are studied wthin linear response theory given here in the formulation of Zubarev which is valid for arbitrary degeneracy and yields the transport coefficients for the limiting cases of nondegenerate, weakly coupled plasmas (Spitzer theory) as well as degenerate, strongly coupled plasmas (Ziman theory). mercury within the MHNC scheme via effective ion-ion potentials which are derived from the polarization function within an extended RPA. The optical properties of dense plasmas, the shift
Advances of dense plasma physics with particle accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Blazevic, A.; Rosmej, O.N.; Spiller, P.; Tahir, N.A.; Weyrich, K. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, GSI-Darmstadt, Plasmaphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Dafni, T.; Kuster, M.; Roth, M.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D. [DarmstadtTechnische Univ., Institut fur Kernphysik (Germany); Jacoby, J. [Frankfurt Univ., Institut fur Angewandte Physik (Germany); Zioutas, K. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneve (Switzerland); Patras Univ., Dept. of Physics (Greece); Sharkov, B.Y. [Institut for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-06-15
High intensity particle beams from accelerators induce high energy density states in bulk matter. The SIS-18 heavy ion synchrotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) now routinely delivers intense Uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Due to the specific nature of the ion-matter interaction a volume of matter is heated uniformly with low gradients of temperature and pressure in the initial phase, depending on the pulse structure of the beam with respect to space and time. The new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. One special piece of accelerator equipment a superconducting high field dipole magnet, developed for the LHC at CERN is now serving as a key instrument to diagnose the dense plasma of the sun interior plasma, thus providing an extremely interesting combination of accelerator physics, plasma physics and particle physics. (authors)
Advances of dense plasma physics with particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Blazevic, A.; Rosmej, O.N.; Spiller, P.; Tahir, N.A.; Weyrich, K.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Dafni, T.; Kuster, M.; Roth, M.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Jacoby, J.; Zioutas, K.; Sharkov, B.Y.
2006-01-01
High intensity particle beams from accelerators induce high energy density states in bulk matter. The SIS-18 heavy ion synchrotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) now routinely delivers intense Uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Due to the specific nature of the ion-matter interaction a volume of matter is heated uniformly with low gradients of temperature and pressure in the initial phase, depending on the pulse structure of the beam with respect to space and time. The new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. One special piece of accelerator equipment a superconducting high field dipole magnet, developed for the LHC at CERN is now serving as a key instrument to diagnose the dense plasma of the sun interior plasma, thus providing an extremely interesting combination of accelerator physics, plasma physics and particle physics. (authors)
New excitation and ionization mechanism of ions in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimoto, Takashi; Kato, Takako.
1981-10-01
It is shown that, in dense plasmas, dielectronic capture into doubly excited ionic states followed by the ladder-like excitation-ionization chain becomes important in the excitation-ionization process of ions. For an example of a hydrogen-like ion, its contribution to the excitation 1s → 2s, 2p and also to the ionization has been evaluated by the method of the quasi-steady-state solution to the rate equations. The increase is found to be substantial, i.e., by more than a factor of two both for the excitation and ionization rate coefficients. PACS classification: 52.25., 32.80.D sub(z), 34.80.D. (author)
Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California 94550 (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States)
2014-10-15
Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.
Potential of mean force for electrical conductivity of dense plasmas
Starrett, C. E.
2017-12-01
The electrical conductivity in dense plasmas can be calculated with the relaxation-time approximation provided that the interaction potential between the scattering electron and the ion is known. To date there has been considerable uncertainty as to the best way to define this interaction potential so that it correctly includes the effects of ionic structure, screening by electrons and partial ionization. Current approximations lead to significantly different results with varying levels of agreement when compared to bench-mark calculations and experiments. We present a new way to define this potential, drawing on ideas from classical fluid theory to define a potential of mean force. This new potential results in significantly improved agreement with experiments and bench-mark calculations, and includes all the aforementioned physics self-consistently.
Simulation of a dense plasma focus x-ray source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stark, R.A.
1994-01-01
The authors are performing simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) x-ray source located at Science Research Laboratory (SRL), Alameda, CA, in order to optimize its performance. The SRL DPF, which was developed as a compact source for x-ray lithography, operates at 20 Hz, giving x-ray power (9--14 Angstroms) of 500 W using neon gas. The simulations are performed with the two dimensional MHD code MACH2, developed by Mission Research Corporation, with a steady state corona model as the equation of state. The results of studies of the sensitivity of x-ray output to charging voltage and current, and to initial gas density will be presented. These studies should indicate ways to optimize x-ray production efficiency. Simulations of various inner electrode configurations will also be presented
Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor (DMP WaPR), Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor offers significant improvements over existing water purification technologies used in Advanced Life Support...
Use of the shearing interferometry for dense inhomogeneous plasma diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharenkov, Yu.A.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Shikanov, A.S.
1980-01-01
Investigated is a possibility of applying the shearing interferometry for diagnostics of a dense inhomogeneous laser plasma which makes it possible to measure the electron density without losses in accuracy near the critical surface. A shearing interferogram is formed upon interference of two identical images of the object under study shifted at some fixed distance. The value of the interference band deflection inside phase inhomogeneity depends on the gradient of the index of refraction in the direction of shift. It has been found that for studying the inner region of the laser plasma a small shift should be used, and for the external one - a large one. The version of a radial shift interferometry is shown to be optimum. For the inner region of the interferogram the error of the electron density restoration does not exceed 10%, and for the external one the error is comparable with that for the version of standard interferometry. A systematic analysis of the optimum type interferometers shows advantages of shearing interferometers. The maximum electron density recorded in experiments makes up approximately equal to 10 20 cm -3 , which is 3-5 times higher than the corresponding value obtained by a standard double-slit type interferometer at equal limiting parameters of the optical system applied
Observations of dense plasma formation in the vacuum spark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Aliaga R, R.; Choi, P.; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C.
1994-01-01
A series of experimental observations have been performed on the dense plasma formations or Hot Spots generated in the Vacuum Spark. The plasma discharges are driven by a 1.5 Ohm, 120 ns line at currents up to 100 KA. The line may be used to deliver a rectangular current pulse when the line gap is used. Alternatively when the line gap is shorted, the Vacuum Spark itself switches the line. A Nd: Yag Laser, with an energy of 0.5 J in an 8 ns pulse, is used to pre ionizing the discharge. The formation of Hot Spots is studied under a range of different conditions. These include the pre ionizing conditions, as well as the Anode shape and the Anode Cathode separation. The optimization of these parameters permit very reproducible shot to shot behaviour. Of particular interest is the Hot Spot size dependence as a function of its temperature and of time. The use of a new variant on the Pin Hole Camera, the Slit Wire Camera provides a new method of measuring with precision the Hot Spot dimensions in different X-ray emission energy ranges. A quadruple hole Camera is used to measure the temperature of the Hot Spots. The temporal and spatial evolution of the X-ray emission is measured using using a Slit Wire, Scintillator, Fibre Optic, Photomultiplier array. The temporal emission of the X-rays is also observed using an array of PIN X-ray diodes. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs
Laser induced focusing for over-dense plasma beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Peter; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Mulser, Peter
2015-01-01
The capability of ion acceleration with high power, pulsed lasers has become an active field of research in the past years. In this context, the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) mechanism has been the topic of numerous theoretical and experimental publications. Within that mechanism, a high power, pulsed laser beam hits a thin film target. In contrast to the target normal sheath acceleration, the entire film target is accelerated as a bulk by the radiation pressure of the laser. Simulations predict heavy ion beams with kinetic energy up to GeV, as well as solid body densities. However, there are several effects which limit the efficiency of the RPA: On the one hand, the Rayleigh-Taylor-instability limits the predicted density. On the other hand, conventional accelerator elements, such as magnetic focusing devices are too bulky to be installed right after the target. Therefore, we present a new beam transport method, suitable for RPA-like/over-dense plasma beams: laser induced focusing
Study of microwave emission from a dense plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerdin, G.; Venneri, F.; Tanisi, M.
1985-01-01
Microwave emission was detected in a 12.5 kJ dense plasma focus, using microwave horns and detectors placed in various locations outside the device. The results show that the parallel plates connecting the focus to its capacitor banks act as antennas and transmission lines, rather than wave guides. Subsequent measurements were performed with a microwave detector (R-band) attached to the focus anode, directly looking into the coaxial gun region, allowing to restrict the microwave emitting region to the muzzle end of the focus. The microwave frequency spectrum, determined with a time of flight detection system, strongly suggests the lower hybrid instability as the driving mechanism of the emissions. Comparing the time sequence of the emissions with those of other observable phenomena in the focus, a model was developed, to explain the possible relationship between the generation of microwave radiation and turbulence induced resistivity in the focus pinch. According to the model, microwaves and enhanced resistivity are caused by current driven instabilities occurring in the current sheath produced at the outer boundary of the pinch during the initial compression phase. Comparisons of the model predictions with observed experimental results are presented, including time resolved measurements of the pinch resistivity
Dense strongly non-ideal plasma generation by laser isobaric heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulik, P.P.; Rozanov, E.K.; Riabii, V.A.; Titov, M.A.
1975-01-01
A method of generation of a dense strongly non-ideal plasma by slow isobaric heating of a small target in a high inert gas medium is discussed. The characteristic life-time of dense plasma is 10 -3 sec. Estimations show that such a plasma is homogeneous. Conditions are found for temperature uniformity. The experimental results of the isobaric heating of a thin potassium foil target by a ruby laser beam at 500 atm are described. (Auth.)
Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.
Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K
2015-12-24
Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.
Analysis and simulation of BGK electron holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Muschietti
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Recent observations from satellites crossing regions of magnetic-field-aligned electron streams reveal solitary potential structures that move at speeds much greater than the ion acoustic/thermal velocity. The structures appear as positive potential pulses rapidly drifting along the magnetic field, and are electrostatic in their rest frame. We interpret them as BGK electron holes supported by a drifting population of trapped electrons. Using Laplace transforms, we analyse the behavior of one phase-space electron hole. The resulting potential shapes and electron distribution functions are self-consistent and compatible with the field and particle data associated with the observed pulses. In particular, the spatial width increases with increasing amplitude. The stability of the analytic solution is tested by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code with open boundaries. We consider a strongly magnetized parameter regime in which the bounce frequency of the trapped electrons is much less than their gyrofrequency. Our investigation includes the influence of the ions, which in the frame of the hole appear as an incident beam, and impinge on the BGK potential with considerable energy. The nonlinear structure is remarkably resilient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.
2013-01-01
Linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in magnetized dense electron-ion plasmas are studied with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate and singly, doubly charged helium (He + , He ++ ) and hydrogen (H + ) ions, respectively. The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in magnetized dense plasmas is obtained under both the energy limits of degenerate electrons. Using reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for nonlinear propagation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas is derived for both nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons. It is found that variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, different mass, and charge number of ions play significant role in the formation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas. The numerical plots are also presented for illustration using the parameters of dense astrophysical plasma situations such as white dwarfs and neutron stars exist in the literature. The present investigation is important for understanding the electrostatic waves propagation in the outer periphery of compact stars which mostly consists of hydrogen and helium ions with degenerate electrons in dense magnetized plasmas
Polarization of X rays of multiply charged ions in dense high-temperature plasma
Baronova, EO; Dolgov, AN; Yakubovskii, LK
2004-01-01
The development of a method for studying the features of X-ray emission by multiply charged ions in a dense hot plasma is considered. These features are determined by the radiation polarization phenomenon.
Statistical mechanics of dense plasmas and implications for the plasma polarization shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, F.J.
1984-01-01
A brief description of the statistical mechanics of reacting, dense, plasmas is given. The results do not support a Debye-like polarization shift at low density. It is shown that the electronic charge density factors into a strongly quantum mechanical part, that is not much affected by many body correlations and a weakly quantum mechanical part, that is considerably effected by many body correlations. The few body charge density is obtained from direct solution of the Schroedinger equation and the many body charge density is obtained from the hypernetted chain equation through the introduction of a pseudopotential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillman, Eric D., E-mail: eric.gillman.ctr@nrl.navy.mil [National Research Council Postdoctoral Associate at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Amatucci, W. E. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2014-06-15
These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.
Rawat, R. S.
2015-03-01
The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rawat, R S
2015-01-01
The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 10 10 J/m 3 . The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I 4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of
Experiments on two-step heating of a dense plasma in the GOL-3 facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astrelin, V.T.; Burdakov, A.V.; Koidan, V.S.; Mekler, K.I.; Mel'nikov, P.I.; Postupaev, V.V.; Shcheglov, M.A.
1998-01-01
This paper presents the results of experiments on two-stage heating of a dense plasma by a relativistic electron beam in the GOL-3 facility. A dense plasma with a length of about a meter and a hydrogen density up to 10 17 cm -3 was created in the main plasma, whose density was 10 15 cm -3 . In the process of interacting with the plasma, the electron beam (1 MeV, 40 kA, 4 μs) imparts its energy to the electrons of the main plasma through collective effects. The heated electrons, as they disperse along the magnetic field lines, in turn reach the region of dense plasma and impart their energy to it by pairwise collisions. Estimates based on experimental data are given for the parameters of the flux of hot plasma electrons, the energy released in the dense plasma, and the energy balance of the beam-plasma system. The paper discusses the dynamics of the plasma, which is inhomogeneous in density and temperature, including the appearance of pressure waves
Observations of non-linear plasmon damping in dense plasmas
Witte, B. B. L.; Sperling, P.; French, M.; Recoules, V.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.
2018-05-01
We present simulations using finite-temperature density-functional-theory molecular-dynamics to calculate dynamic dielectric properties in warm dense aluminum. The comparison between exchange-correlation functionals in the Perdew, Burke, Ernzerhof approximation, Strongly Constrained and Appropriately Normed Semilocal Density Functional, and Heyd, Scuseria, Ernzerhof (HSE) approximation indicates evident differences in the electron transition energies, dc conductivity, and Lorenz number. The HSE calculations show excellent agreement with x-ray scattering data [Witte et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 225001 (2017)] as well as dc conductivity and absorption measurements. These findings demonstrate non-Drude behavior of the dynamic conductivity above the Cooper minimum that needs to be taken into account to determine optical properties in the warm dense matter regime.
Soft X-ray spectroscopy of high-Z ions in a cool dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Presnyakov, L.P.; Shevelko, A.P.; Uskov, D.B.
1991-01-01
Spectra of multiply-charged ions with one and two electrons are investigated when a laser-produced plasma interacts with a solid obstacle. The level population densities of the Mg ions, recombining in the region of dense cool plasma near the obstacle, are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Values of the gain coefficient are calculated for the case of carbon ions. (orig.)
Monte Carlo simulations of ionization potential depression in dense plasmas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Stránský, Michal
2016-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 1 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 012708. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15013 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Monte Carlo methods * aluminium * plasma temperature * computer modeling * ionization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Y.
1997-01-01
In dense plasmas, dynamic plasma screening effects are investigated on electron capture from hydrogenic ions by past fully stripped ions. The classical Bohr Lindhard model has been applied to obtain the electron capture probability. The interaction potential in dense plasmas is represented in terms of the longitudinal dielectric function. The classical straight-line trajectory approximation is applied to the motion of the projectile ion in order to visualize the electron capture probability as a function of the impact parameter, projectile energy, and plasma parameters. The electron capture probability including the dynamic plasma screening effect is always greater than that including the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is smaller than the electron thermal velocity, the dynamic polarization screening effect becomes the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is greater than the plasma electron thermal velocity, the interaction potential is almost unshielded. The difference between the dynamic and static plasma screening effects is more significant for low energy projectiles. It is found that the static screening formula obtained by the Debye Hueckel model overestimates the plasma screening effects on the electron capture processes in dense plasmas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Stability Limits and Properties of Dense Nonneutral Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollock, R. E.
2001-01-01
Developed equipment consisted of a high magnetic field solenoid with supporting instrumentation for electron plasma confinement. The solenoid was designed and delivered in year 1. In year 2, it was mapped and the trap was created and commissioned. In parallel, an ongoing program of beam-plasma interaction studies was carried out with a lower field trap developed earlier. The trap was placed in the IUCF Coolor (an intermediate-energy electron-cooled storage ring) and the effects of the beam on the plasma were investigated, including energy and angular momentum transfer. Student projects carried out within the beam-plasma group also included development of a diagnostic with high spatial resolution, and preparation for extension of the beam-plasma interaction study to much lower beam energy. This became the principal group activity during the latter part of the project
Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gribkov, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V.N.; Maslyaev, S.A. [Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G.G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Vilemova, M.; Matejicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Prague (Czech Republic)
2016-12-15
Highlights: • Materials perspective for use in mainstream nuclear fusion facilities were studied. • Powerful streams of hot plasma and fast ions were used to induce irradiation. • High temporal, spatial, angular and spectral resolution available in experiments. • Results of irradiation were investigated by number of analysis techniques. - Abstract: A process of irradiating and ablating solid-state targets with hot plasma and fast ion streams in two Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices – PF-6 and PF-1000 was examined by applying a number of diagnostics of nanosecond time resolution. Materials perspective for use in chambers of the mainstream nuclear fusion facilities (mainly with inertial plasma confinement like NIF and Z-machine), intended both for the first wall and for constructions, have been irradiated in these simulators. Optical microscopy, SEM, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, images in secondary electrons and in characteristic X-ray luminescence of different elements, and X-ray elemental analysis, gave results on damageability for a number of materials including low-activated ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, β-alloy of Ti, as well as two types of W and a composite on its base. With an increase of the number of shots irradiating the surface, its morphology changes from weakly pronounced wave-like structures or ridges to strongly developed ones. At later stages, due to the action of the secondary plasma produced near the target materials they melted, yielding both blisters and a fracturing pattern: first along the grain and then “in-between” the grains creating an intergranular net of microcracks. At the highest values of power flux densities multiple bubbles appeared. Furthermore, in this last case the cracks were developed because of microstresses at the solidification of melt. Presence of deuterium within the irradiated ferritic steel surface nanolayers is explained by capture of deuterons in lattice defects of the types of impurity atoms
Study of warm dense plasma electronic dynamics by optical interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deneuville, F.
2013-01-01
The Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime is characterised by a density close to the solid density and an electron temperature close to the Fermi temperature. In this work, the nonequilibrium Warm Dense Matter is studied during the solid to liquid phase transition induced by an ultra short laser interacting with a solid. A 30 femtosecond time resolution pump-probe experiment (FDI) is set up, yielding to the measurement of the heated sample complex reflectivity for both S and P polarisation. We have determined a criterion based on the measured reflectivities, which permits to control the interface shape of the probed matter. For pump laser fluences around 1 J/cm 2 , the hydrodynamics of the heated matter is studied and experimental results are compared to the two-temperatures code ESTHER. Furthermore, the evolution of the dielectric function at 800 nm and 400 nm is inferred from our measurements on a sub-picosecond time-scale. Within the Drude-Lorentz model for the conduction electrons, the dielectric function yields information such as ionisation state, electronic temperature and electron collision frequency. (author) [fr
Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients
Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman, Mirza, Arshad M.
2012-05-01
We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.
Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)
2012-05-15
We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.
Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman; Mirza, Arshad M.
2012-01-01
We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.
Free-free opacity in dense plasmas with an average atom model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Ferris, Natalie G.; Colgan, James Patrick; Kilcrease, David Parker; Starrett, Charles Edward
2017-01-01
A model for the free-free opacity of dense plasmas is presented. The model uses a previously developed average atom model, together with the Kubo-Greenwood model for optical conductivity. This, in turn, is used to calculate the opacity with the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. Furthermore, comparisons to other methods for dense deuterium results in excellent agreement with DFT-MD simulations, and reasonable agreement with a simple Yukawa screening model corrected to satisfy the conductivity sum rule.
Expansion of dense particle clouds in magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lengyel, L.L.
1988-01-01
A single-cell Lagrangian model has been developed for calculating the ionization and expansion dynamics of high-density clouds in magnetic fields or in magnetically confined plasmas. The model was tested by means of data from magnetospheric barium cloud experiments and approximately reproduced such global characteristics as expansion rate, stopping radius, stopping time, and magnetic cavity lifetime. Detailed calculations were performed for hydrogen clouds associated with the injection of frozen hydrogen pellets into tokamak plasmas. The dynamic characteristics of the cloud expansion, such as ionization radius, stopping time, lifetime, oscillation frequencies, and amplitudes, etc., are computed as functions of the magnetic field strength, the background plasma temperature, and the cloud mass. The results are analyzed and compared with experimental observations
Density effects on electronic configurations in dense plasmas
Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe
2018-02-01
We present a quantum mechanical model to describe the density effects on electronic configurations inside a plasma environment. Two different approaches are given by starting from a quantum average-atom model. Illustrations are shown for an aluminum plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium at solid density and at a temperature of 100 eV and in the thermodynamic conditions of a recent experiment designed to characterize the effects of the ionization potential depression treatment. Our approach compares well with experiment and is consistent in that case with the approach of Stewart and Pyatt to describe the ionization potential depression rather than with the method of Ecker and Kröll.
Enhanced nuclear level decay in hot dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gosselin, G.; Morel, P.
2004-01-01
A model of nuclear level decay in a plasma environment is described. Nuclear excitation and decay by photon processes, nuclear excitation by electron capture, and decay by internal conversion are taken into account. The electrons in the plasma are described by a relativistic average atom model for the bound electrons and by a relativistic Thomas-Fermi-Dirac model for the free electrons. Nuclear decay of isomeric level may be enhanced through an intermediate level lying above the isomer. An enhanced nuclear decay rate may occur for temperatures far below the excitation energy of the transition to the intermediate level. In most cases, the enhancement factor may reach several decades
Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.; Ali, Munazza Z.
2016-06-01
The obliquely propagating arbitrary amplitude electrostatic wave is studied in a dense magnetized plasma having singly and doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons pressures. The Fermi temperature for ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons described by N. M. Vernet [(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007), p. 57] is used to define ion acoustic speed in ultra-dense plasmas. The pseudo-potential approach is used to solve the fully nonlinear set of dynamic equations for obliquely propagating electrostatic waves in a dense magnetized plasma containing helium ions. The upper and lower Mach number ranges for the existence of electrostatic solitons are found which depends on the obliqueness of the wave propagation with respect to applied magnetic field and charge number of the helium ions. It is found that only compressive (hump) soliton structures are formed in all the cases and only subsonic solitons are formed for a singly charged helium ions plasma case with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons. Both subsonic and supersonic soliton hump structures are formed for doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons plasma case containing singly as well as doubly charged helium ions. The effect of propagation direction on the soliton amplitude and width of the electrostatic waves is also presented. The numerical plots are also shown for illustration using dense plasma parameters of a compact star (white dwarf) from literature.
Quantum-Mechanical Calculation of Ionization-Potential Lowering in Dense Plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sang-Kil Son (손상길
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The charged environment within a dense plasma leads to the phenomenon of ionization-potential depression (IPD for ions embedded in the plasma. Accurate predictions of the IPD effect are of crucial importance for modeling atomic processes occurring within dense plasmas. Several theoretical models have been developed to describe the IPD effect, with frequently discrepant predictions. Only recently, first experiments on IPD in Al plasma have been performed with an x-ray free-electron laser, where their results were found to be in disagreement with the widely used IPD model by Stewart and Pyatt. Another experiment on Al, at the Orion laser, showed disagreement with the model by Ecker and Kröll. This controversy shows a strong need for a rigorous and consistent theoretical approach to calculate the IPD effect. Here, we propose such an approach: a two-step Hartree-Fock-Slater model. With this parameter-free model, we can accurately and efficiently describe the experimental Al data and validate the accuracy of standard IPD models. Our model can be a useful tool for calculating atomic properties within dense plasmas with wide-ranging applications to studies on warm dense matter, shock experiments, planetary science, inertial confinement fusion, and nonequilibrium plasmas created with x-ray free-electron lasers.
The dense plasma focus and nuclear energy. A possible path towards fuel-selfsufficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heindler, M.; Harms, A.A.
1983-01-01
This chapter examines the concept of incorporating a dense plasma focus device which supplies neutrons to breed fissile fuel for fission reactions in a nuclear energy system. Discusses the dense plasma focus in a fusion-fission symbiont concept; a parametric description of a DPF-based nuclear energy system; fissile fuel and energy balance in a DPF based symbiont; a fusion-fission symbiont with a DPF device of current design; and DPF facility requirements for a self-sufficient fusion-fission symbiont. The primary objective of this study was to establish a systems concept which is essentially self-sufficient with respect to nuclear fuel. Concludes that while existing dense plasma focus devices are insufficient and inadequate for such purpose, the improvement of some critical performance parameters (e.g., the pulse repetition rate and the neutron yield per pulse) could render a self-sufficient nuclear energy concept a nearterm technological objective
A Seemingly Simple Task: Filling a Solenoid Volume in Vacuum with Dense Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Roy, Prabir; Oks, Efim
2010-01-01
Space-charge neutralization of a pulsed, high-current ion beam is required to compress and focus the beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described attempts to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary charge-compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from four pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means and by an array of movable Langmuir probes. The plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. Beam neutralization and compression are accomplished, though issues of density, uniformity, and pulse-to-pulse reproducibly remain to be solved.
Preionization Techniques in a kJ-Scale Dense Plasma Focus
Povilus, Alexander; Shaw, Brian; Chapman, Steve; Podpaly, Yuri; Cooper, Christopher; Falabella, Steve; Prasad, Rahul; Schmidt, Andrea
2016-10-01
A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a type of z-pinch device that uses a high current, coaxial plasma gun with an implosion phase to generate dense plasmas. These devices can accelerate a beam of ions to MeV-scale energies through strong electric fields generated by instabilities during the implosion of the plasma sheath. The formation of these instabilities, however, relies strongly on the history of the plasma sheath in the device, including the evolution of the gas breakdown in the device. In an effort to reduce variability in the performance of the device, we attempt to control the initial gas breakdown in the device by seeding the system with free charges before the main power pulse arrives. We report on the effectiveness of two techniques developed for a kJ-scale DPF at LLNL, a miniature primer spark gap and pulsed, 255nm LED illumination. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Study of dense-plasma properties using very high-frequency electromagnetic waves (light waves)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gormezano, C.
1966-06-01
A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N e > 10 15 e/cm 3 ): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10 15 and 10 19 e/cm 3 and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [fr
Measurements of VUV lines on dense Z-pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertschinger, G.
1980-01-01
The transition n = 1 to n = 2 has the most simple structure of all hydrogen transitions and the corresponding spectralline Ly-α is therefore very appropriate to reveal discrepancies between theory and experiment. In this work mainly the Ly-α spectral line of neutral hydrogen has been studied. The electron density of the Z-pinch amounts to 1.5 x 10 24 m -3 with an electron temperature of about 1.2 x 10 5 K. In this parameter range the plasma can still be studied with spectroscopic methods in the visible spectral region. Based on a space and time resolved measurement of the continuous emission spectra the plasma parameters can be determined independent of line broadening. (orig./HT) [de
Radiative redistribution modeling for hot and dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosse, C.; Calisti, A.; Talin, B.; Stamm, R.; Lee, R. W.; Klein, L.
1999-01-01
A model based on an extension of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM) is developed to investigate the two-photon processes and particularly the radiative redistribution functions for complex emitters in a wide range of plasmas conditions. The FFM, originally, designed as a fast and reliable numerical procedure for the calculation of the spectral shape of the Stark broadened lines emitted by multi-electron ions, relies on the hypothesis that the emitter-plasma system can be well represented by a set of 'Stark Dressed Transitions', SDT. These transitions connected to each others through a stochastic mixing process accounting for the local microfield random fluctuations, form the basis for the extension of the FFM to computation of non-linear response functions. The formalism of the second order radiative redistribution function is presented and examples are shown
Parametric modelling of correlation in a dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krikorian V, R.; Daveloza de K, S.
1982-01-01
A two-component-symmetric quantum plasma is analyzed. The collective repulsive effects are considered by means of models for the local structures, in their coordination shell, using partial distribution functions. The generalized expressions for the internal energy and equation of state of the system are presented, which reflect the local structure effects and guarantee the thermodynamic stability of the system. The only limit on the density is that due to the impenetrability of the particles. (L.C.) [pt
Uses of dense magnetized plasmas as neutron sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, Jose Hector
2004-01-01
In this work, a lumped parameter model for Plasma Focus is presented.A fast running computer code was developed, specially focused to the calculation of the neutron production in Deuterium-filled devices.This code is suitable to parameters optimization at the conceptual engineering stage.The kinematics of the current sheet is represented by a plane, 2D snowplow model.It is complemented with sensible estimations for the current sheet characteristics (density n and temperature T).After the radial collapse, a one fluid MHD model with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch is proposed.Then, assuming thermal equilibrium in the plasma, the neutron production by termofusion can be estimated.The dynamics equations are coupled with the electrical circuit. A computer code in FORTRAN language was programmed to solve this set of equations.A powerful numerical integrator for first order differential equations is used, and the code can perform an estimation of the neutron production very quickly.The resulting neutron yield and dynamics predictions have been compared against experimental results of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world, for different geometric and energetic conditions.The effective parameters of the model were validated using those experimental measurements. The presented model ultimately calculates the neutron production given the geometric and energetic parameters, and the filling pressure
Light ion beams generation in dense plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Okada, M.; Yamamoto, Y.
1982-01-01
The high energy deuterons and protons in a Mather type plasma focus device were measured by nuclear activation techniques. The radioactivity induced in graphite, aluminum and copper targets provided the deuteron intensity, energy spectra and angular dependence. High energy protons were measured by cellulose nitrate particle track detectors. The plasma focus device was operated at 30 kV for a stored energy of 18 kJ at 1.5 Torr D 2 (low pressure mode), and 5 Torr D 2 (high pressure mode). The yield ratio of N-13 and Al-28 showed the mean deuteron energy of 1.55 MeV under low pressure mode and of 1.44 MeV under high pressure mode. The deuteron energy spectra were measured by the stacks of 10 aluminum foils, and consisted of two components as well as the proton energy spectra measured by CN film technique. The angular spread of deuteron beam was within 30 degree under low pressure mode. Under high pressure mode, the distribution showed multi-structure, and two peaks were observed at the angle smaller than 20 degree and at 60 degree. The protons with energy more than 770 keV were directed in the angle of 10 degree. The high energy electron beam was also observed. A three-channel ruby laser holographic interferometry was used to see the spatial and temporal location of the generation of high energy ions. The ion temperature in plasma focus was estimated from D + He 3 mixture gas experiment. (Kato, T.)
Exotic x-ray emission from dense plasmas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rosmej, F.B.; Dachicourt, R.; Deschaud, B.; Khaghani, D.; Dozières, M.; Šmíd, Michal; Renner, Oldřich
2015-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 22 (2015), s. 224005 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; AVČR(CZ) M100101208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hollow ions * x-ray spectroscopy * atomic physics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2015
Decay Modes of a Dense Plasma in a Magnetic Well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coensgen, F. H.; Cummins, W. F.; Ellis, R. E.; Nexsen, Jr., W. E. [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)
1969-03-15
Energetic deuterium plasmas of {beta} Almost-Equal-To 5% are formed in an open-ended magnetic well system using the techniques of plasma injection and magnetic compression. Containment in the quasi-dc field following compression is studied. Under ordinary vacuum wall conditions there are rapid plasma losses, accompanied by rf signals at ion-cyclotron frequencies, {omega}{sub ci}. This activity is tentatively identified as the ion-ion instability due to a ''double humped'' ion energy distribution. The loss has been suppressed by forming gas-free Ti surfaces throughout the chamber. Under these latter conditions, it was also shown that interchange instabilities are suppressed by the minimum-B field for densities as high as 5x10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. The D{sup +} energy distribution as derived from analysis of chargeexchange fast atoms extends from 2 to 50 keV and, following the initial containment phase, remains essentially unchanged with time. The mean ion energy of {beta} keV derived from the distribution is in good agreement with the ion temperature deduced from the measured density and prompt neutron flux. The fact that the reaction rate decays as n{sup 2} is further evidence that the energetic D{sup +} ions are the primary plasma component. The decay rate is at all times substantially greater than that expected from ion-ion scattering, and thus is indicative of anomalous losses. Sporadic bursts of particles through the mirrors as well as fluctuations near wci and harmonics give direct evidence of cooperative effects at densities above 2 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}. The density history is divided into three periods: After compression, the decay proceeds exponentially with a characteristic lifetime {tau} Almost-Equal-To 200 {mu}s down to a density near 1.5 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} where the decay rate abruptly decreases so that r increases to approximately 400 us. At densities {<=} 2 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} the decay rate decreases markedly, so that this density remains
O--H charge exchange in cold, dense, hydrogen plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, S.A.; Dylla, H.F.
1977-05-01
It is pointed out that the accidentally resonant charge exchange reaction, O + + H 0 reverse arrows O 0 + H + , is an important mechanism for causing the loss of singly charged oxygen ions from oxygen contaminated hydrogen plasmas. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation are presented which show that the fraction of oxygen lost because of charge exchange exceeds 1 / 3 when the parameters n/sub e/ approx. 10 13 cm -3 , n/sub H//sup o/ approx. 10 11 cm -3 and T/sub e/ approx. 3 eV are attained
Basic physical phenomena, neutron production and scaling of the dense plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaeppeler, H.J.
This paper presents an attempt at establishing a model theory for the dense plasma focus in order to present a consistent interpretation of the basic physical phenomena leading to neutron production from both acceleration and thermal processes. To achieve this, the temporal history of the focus is divided into the compression of the plasma sheath, a qiescent and very dense phase with ensuing expansion, and an instable phase where the focus plasma is disrupted by instabilities. Finally, the decay of density, velocity and thermal fields is considered. Under the assumption that Io 2 /sigmaoRo 2 = const and to/Tc = const, scaling laws for plasma focus devices are derived. It is shown that while generally the neutron yield scales with the fourth power of maximum current, neutron production from thermal processes becomes increasingly important for large devices, while in the small devices neutron production from acceleration processes is by far predominant. (orig.) [de
X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of high-temperature dense plasmas created in different gaseous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skobelev, I.Y.; Dyakin, V.M.; Faenov, A.Y.
1997-01-01
The investigations of emission x-ray spectra of multicharged ions of some chemical elements (S, F, Ar, Fr, O) have been carried out. These atoms are contained in gases and consequently can be used as diagnostic elements in a dense plasma focus experiments. The investigations were done in the dense high-temperature plasma (N e ∼ 10 21 cm -3 , T e ∼ 500 eV) created by laser heating of high-pressure gas puff targets, and X-ray spectrographs with a spherically bent mica crystals were used for spectra observations. Some new spectroscopic results (line identifications, high-precision wavelength measurements) have been obtained and have been applied to determine a spatial distribution of plasma parameters. It is shown that spectroscopic techniques used is a very suitable tool for studies of a plasma with complicated spatial structure
Experiments on hot and dense laser-produced plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Back, C.A.; Woolsey, N.C.; Asfaw, A.; Glenzer, S.H.; Hammel, B.A.; Keane, C.J.; Lee, R.W.; Liedahl, D.; Moreno, J.C.; Nash, J.K.; Osterheld, A.L.; Calisti, A.; Stamm, R.; Talin, B.; Godbert, L.; Mosse, C.; Ferri, S.; Klein, L.
1996-01-01
Plasmas generated by irradiating targets with ∼20 kJ of laser energy are routinely created in inertial confinement fusion research. X-ray spectroscopy provides one of the few methods for diagnosing the electron temperature and electron density. For example, electron densities approaching 10 24 cm -3 have been diagnosed by spectral linewidths. However, the accuracy of the spectroscopic diagnostics depends on the population kinetics, the radiative transfer, and the line shape calculations. Analysis for the complex line transitions has recently been improved and accelerated by the use of a database where detailed calculations can be accessed rapidly and interactively. Examples of data from Xe and Ar doped targets demonstrate the current analytic methods. First we will illustrate complications that arise from the presence of a multitude of underlying spectral lines. Then, we will consider the Ar He-like 1s 2 ( 1 S 0 ) - 1s3p( 1 P 0 ) transition where ion dynamic effects may affect the profile. Here, the plasma conditions are such that the static ion microfield approximation is no longer valid; therefore in addition to the width, the details of the line shape can be used to provide additional information. We will compare the data to simulations and discuss the possible pitfalls involved in demonstrating the effect of ion dynamics on lineshapes
Quantum statistics of dense gases and nonideal plasmas
Ebeling, Werner; Filinov, Vladimir
2017-01-01
The aim of this book is the pedagogical exploration of the basic principles of quantum-statistical thermodynamics as applied to various states of matter – ranging from rare gases to astrophysical matter with high-energy density. The reader will learn in this work that thermodynamics and quantum statistics are still the concepts on which even the most advanced research is operating - despite of a flood of modern concepts, classical entities like temperature, pressure, energy and entropy are shown to remain fundamental. The physics of gases, plasmas and high-energy density matter is still a growing field and even though solids and liquids dominate our daily life, more than 99 percent of the visible Universe is in the state of gases and plasmas and the overwhelming part of matter exists at extreme conditions connected with very large energy densities, such as in the interior of stars. This text, combining material from lectures and advanced seminars given by the authors over many decades, is a must-have intr...
Space-Time Characterization of Laser Plasma Interactions in the Warm Dense Matter Regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, L F; Uschmann, I; Forster, E; Zamponi, F; Kampfer, T; Fuhrmann, A; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentsher, T; Glenzer, S H
2008-04-30
Laser plasma interaction experiments have been performed using a fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. The electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were compared with hydrodynamic simulation. First results to characterize the plasma density and temperature as a function of space and time are obtained. This work aims to generate plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime at near solid-density in an ultra-fast laser target interaction process. Plasmas under these conditions can serve as targets to develop x-ray Thomson scattering as a plasma diagnostic tool, e.g., using the VUV free-electron laser (FLASH) at DESY Hamburg.
X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Dense Plasmas: Experimental Limits, Line Shifts and Field Effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renner, Oldrich; Sauvan, Patrick; Dalimier, Elisabeth; Riconda, Caterina; Rosmej, Frank B.; Weber, Stefan; Nicolai, Philippe; Peyrusse, Olivier; Uschmann, Ingo; Hoefer, Sebastian; Kaempfer, Tino; Loetzsch, Robert; Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Oks, Eugene
2008-01-01
High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is capable of providing complex information on environmental conditions in hot dense plasmas. Benefiting from application of modern spectroscopic methods, we report experiments aiming at identification of different phenomena occurring in laser-produced plasma. Fine features observed in broadened profiles of the emitted x-ray lines and their satellites are interpreted using theoretical models predicting spectra modification under diverse experimental situations.
Experimental study of fast electron transport in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaisseau, Xavier
2014-01-01
The framework of this PhD thesis is the inertial confinement fusion for energy production, in the context of the electron fast ignition scheme. The work consists in a characterization of the transport mechanisms of fast electrons, driven by intense laser pulses (10 19 - 10 20 W/cm 2 ) in both cold-solid and warm-dense matter. The first goal was to study the propagation of a fast electron beam, characterized by a current density ≥ 10 11 A/cm 2 , in aluminum targets initially heated close to the Fermi temperature by a counter-propagative planar shock. The planar compression geometry allowed us to discriminate the energy losses due to the resistive mechanisms from collisional ones by comparing solid and compressed targets of the same initial areal densities. We observed for the first time a significant increase of resistive energy losses in heated aluminum samples. The confrontation of the experimental data with the simulations, including a complete characterization of the electron source, of the target compression and of the fast electron transport, allowed us to study the time-evolution of the material resistivity. The estimated resistive electron stopping power in a warm-compressed target is of the same order as the collisional one. We studied the transport of the fast electrons generated in the interaction of a high-contrast laser pulse with a hollow copper cone, buried into a carbon layer, compressed by a counter-propagative planar shock. A X-ray imaging system allowed us to visualize the coupling of the laser pulse with the cone at different moments of the compression. This diagnostic, giving access to the fast electron spatial distribution, showed a fast electron generation in the entire volume of the cone for late times of compression, after shock breakout from the inner cone tip. For earlier times, the interaction at a high-contrast ensured that the source was contained within the cone tip, and the fast electron beam was collimated into the target depth by
The plasmon contribution to the electrical resistivity of dense, high-temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daveloza K, S.M.; Krikorian, R.; Ferro Fontan, C.
1990-01-01
The plasmon contribution to the resistivity of a dense, nonideal and degenerate plasma in the framework of the Quantum Boltzmann Equation is studied. Holstein's integral equation is presented and a rough estimate of the electron plasmon scattering rate is given, which extends to the quantum domain a previous heuristic derivation by Kurilenkov and Valuev. (Author)
A comparison of two atomic models for the radiative properties of dense hot low Z plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minguez, E.; Sauvan, P.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Florido, R.; Martel, P.; Angelo, P.; Schott, R.; Philippe, F.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Mancini, R.
2003-01-01
In this work, two different atomic models (ANALOP based on parametric potentials and IDEFIX based on the dicenter model) are used to calculate the opacities for bound-bound transitions in hot dense, low Z plasmas, and the results are compared to each other. In addition, the ANALOP code has been used to compute free-bound cross sections for hydrogen-like ions
Electron holes in phase space: What they are and why they matter
Hutchinson, I. H.
2017-05-01
This is a tutorial and selective review explaining the fundamental concepts and some currently open questions concerning the plasma phenomenon of the electron hole. The widespread occurrence of electron holes in numerical simulations, space-craft observations, and laboratory experiments is illustrated. The elementary underlying theory is developed of a one-dimensional electron hole as a localized potential maximum, self-consistently sustained by a deficit of trapped electron phase-space density. The spatial extent of a hole is typically a few Debye lengths; what determines the minimum and maximum possible lengths is explained, addressing the key aspects of the as yet unsettled dispute between the integral and differential approaches to hole structure. In multiple dimensions, holes tend to form less readily; they generally require a magnetic field and distribution-function anisotropy. The mechanisms by which they break up are explained, noting that this transverse instability is not fully understood. Examples are given of plasma circumstances where holes play an important role, and of recent progress on understanding their holistic kinematics and self-acceleration.
Computationally efficient description of relativistic electron beam transport in dense plasma
Polomarov, Oleg; Sefkov, Adam; Kaganovich, Igor; Shvets, Gennady
2006-10-01
A reduced model of the Weibel instability and electron beam transport in dense plasma is developed. Beam electrons are modeled by macro-particles and the background plasma is represented by electron fluid. Conservation of generalized vorticity and quasineutrality of the plasma-beam system are used to simplify the governing equations. Our approach is motivated by the conditions of the FI scenario, where the beam density is likely to be much smaller than the plasma density and the beam energy is likely to be very high. For this case the growth rate of the Weibel instability is small, making the modeling of it by conventional PICs exceedingly time consuming. The present approach does not require resolving the plasma period and only resolves a plasma collisionless skin depth and is suitable for modeling a long-time behavior of beam-plasma interaction. An efficient code based on this reduced description is developed and benchmarked against the LSP PIC code. The dynamics of low and high current electron beams in dense plasma is simulated. Special emphasis is on peculiarities of its non-linear stages, such as filament formation and merger, saturation and post-saturation field and energy oscillations. *Supported by DOE Fusion Science through grant DE-FG02-05ER54840.
Time resolved x-ray photography of a dense plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnett, J.C.; Meyer, J.; Rankin, G.
1977-01-01
The temporal development of the hot plasma in a dense plasma focus is studied by x-ray streak photography of approximately 2 ns resolution time. It is shown that initially a uniform x-ray emitting pinch plasma is formed which subsequently cools down until x-ray emission stops after approximately 50 ns. At a time of around 100 ns after initial x-ray emission coinciding with the break-up time of the pinch a second burst of x-rays is observed coming from small localized regions. The observations are compared with results obtained from time-resolved shadow and schlieren photography of a similar dense focus discharge. (author)
GigaGauss solenoidal magnetic field inside bubbles excited in under-dense plasma
Lécz, Zs.; Konoplev, I. V.; Seryi, A.; Andreev, A.
2016-10-01
This paper proposes a novel and effective method for generating GigaGauss level, solenoidal quasi-static magnetic fields in under-dense plasma using screw-shaped high intensity laser pulses. This method produces large solenoidal fields that move with the driving laser pulse and are collinear with the accelerated electrons. This is in contrast with already known techniques which rely on interactions with over-dense or solid targets and generates radial or toroidal magnetic field localized at the stationary target. The solenoidal field is quasi-stationary in the reference frame of the laser pulse and can be used for guiding electron beams. It can also provide synchrotron radiation beam emittance cooling for laser-plasma accelerated electron and positron beams, opening up novel opportunities for designs of the light sources, free electron lasers, and high energy colliders based on laser plasma acceleration.
Excitation of hydrogen atom by ultrashort laser pulses in optically dense plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calisti, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, Marseille (France); Astapenko, V.A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudnyi (Russian Federation); Lisitsa, V.S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudnyi (Russian Federation); Russian Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-10-15
The features of excitation of a hydrogen atom by ultrashort laser pulses (USP) with a Gaussian envelope in optically dense plasma at a Lyman-beta transition are studied theoretically. The problem is of interest for diagnostics of optically dense media. USP have two doubtless advantages over conventional laser excitation: (a) the USP carrier frequency is shifted to the region of short wavelengths allowing exciting atoms from the ground state and (b) the wide spectrum of USP allows them to penetrate into optically dense media to much longer distances as compared with monochromatic radiation. As actual realistic cases, two examples are considered: hot rarefied plasma (the coronal limit) and dense cold plasma (the Boltzmann equilibrium). Universal expressions for the total probability of excitation of the transition under consideration are obtained in view of absorption of radiation in a medium. As initial data for the spectral form of a line, the results of calculations by methods of molecular dynamics are used. The probability of excitation of an atom is analysed for different values of problem parameters: the pulse duration, the optical thickness of a medium, and the detuning of the pulse carrier frequency from the eigenfrequency of an electron transition. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auluck, S.K.H.
2014-01-01
Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed. (author)
Electron acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized two electron population dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmood, S.; Masood, W.
2008-01-01
The electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in unmagnetized two population electron quantum plasmas. The quantum hydrodynamic model is employed with the Sagdeev potential approach to describe the arbitrary amplitude electron acoustic waves in a two electron population dense Fermi plasma. It is found that hot electron density hump structures are formed in the subsonic region in such type of quantum plasmas. The wave amplitude as well as the width of the soliton are increased with the increase of percentage presence of cold (thinly populated) electrons in a multicomponent quantum plasma. It is found that an increase in quantum diffraction parameter broadens the nonlinear structure. Furthermore, the amplitude of the nonlinear electron acoustic wave is found to increase with the decrease in Mach number. The numerical results are also presented to understand the formation of solitons in two electron population Fermi plasmas.
Departures from thermal equilibrium in a dense Z-pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neufeld, C.R.
1979-01-01
This paper presents on analysis of several features of the emission spectrum obtained from a dense hydrogen Z-pinch plasma. The spectrum is characterized by an extremely broad H/sub β/ line and by the absence of an emission line at the H/sub b/ wavelength. Comparison with theory shows that the spectrum is inconsistent with the assumption of a thermal or collision-dominated plasma. The assumption of a substantial overpopulation of the atomic-hydrogen excited levels, ascribed to a rising degree of plasma ionization, provides a satisfactory description of the observed spectrum. This result illustrates the difficulty of establishing valid equilibrium criteria for transient plasmas, even in the case of plasma densities as high as 10 19 cm -3
Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics
Hansen, S. B.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Gomez, M. R.; Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.
2018-05-01
The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma produces bright x-rays at stagnation that can directly diagnose core conditions essential for comparison to simulations and understanding fusion yields. These x-rays also backlight the surrounding shell of warm, dense matter, whose properties are critical to understanding the efficacy of the inertial confinement and global morphology. We show that the absorption and fluorescence spectra of mid-Z impurities or dopants in the warm dense shell can reveal the optical depth, temperature, and density of the shell and help constrain models of warm, dense matter. This is illustrated by the example of a high-resolution spectrum collected from an ICF plasma with a beryllium shell containing native iron impurities. Analysis of the iron K-edge provides model-independent diagnostics of the shell density (2.3 × 1024 e/cm3) and temperature (10 eV), while a 12-eV red shift in Kβ and 5-eV blue shift in the K-edge discriminate among models of warm dense matter: Both shifts are well described by a self-consistent field model based on density functional theory but are not fully consistent with isolated-atom models using ad-hoc density effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Kun; Shi, Zongqian; Shi, Yuanjie; Bai, Jun; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli
2015-01-01
The equation of state, ionization equilibrium, and conductivity are the most important parameters for investigation of dense plasma. The equation of state is calculated with the non-ideal effects taken into consideration. The electron chemical potential and pressure, which are commonly used thermodynamic quantities, are calculated by the non-ideal free energy and compared with results of a semi-empirical equation of state based on Thomas-Fermi-Kirzhnits model. The lowering of ionization potential, which is a crucial factor in the calculation of non-ideal Saha equation, is settled according to the non-ideal free energy. The full coupled non-ideal Saha equation is applied to describe the ionization equilibrium of dense plasma. The conductivity calculated by the Lee-More-Desjarlais model combined with non-ideal Saha equation is compared with experimental data. It provides a possible approach to verify the accuracy of the equation of state and ionization equilibrium
XFEL resonant photo-pumping of dense plasmas and dynamic evolution of autoionizing core hole states
Rosmej, F. B.; Moinard, A.; Renner, O.; Galtier, E.; Lee, J. J.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P. A.; Schlotter, W.; Turner, J. J.; Lee, R. W.; Makita, M.; Riley, D.; Seely, J.
2016-03-01
Similarly to the case of LIF (Laser-Induced Fluorescence), an equally revolutionary impact to science is expected from resonant X-ray photo-pumping. It will particularly contribute to a progress in high energy density science: pumped core hole states create X-ray transitions that can escape dense matter on a 10 fs-time scale without essential photoabsorption, thus providing a unique possibility to study matter under extreme conditions. In the first proof of principle experiment at the X-ray Free Electron Laser LCLS at SCLAC [Seely, J., Rosmej, F.B., Shepherd, R., Riley, D., Lee, R.W. Proposal to Perform the 1st High Energy Density Plasma Spectroscopic Pump/Probe Experiment”, approved LCLS proposal L332 (2010)] we have successfully pumped inner-shell X-ray transitions in dense plasmas. The plasma was generated with a YAG laser irradiating solid Al and Mg targets attached to a rotating cylinder. In parallel to the optical laser beam, the XFEL was focused into the plasma plume at different delay times and pump energies. Pumped X-ray transitions have been observed with a spherically bent crystal spectrometer coupled to a Princeton CCD. By using this experimental configuration, we have simultaneously achieved extremely high spectral (λ/δλ ≈ 5000) and spatial resolution (δx≈70 μm) while maintaining high luminosity and a large spectral range covered (6.90 - 8.35 Å). By precisely measuring the variations in spectra emitted from plasma under action of XFEL radiation, we have successfully demonstrated transient X- ray pumping in a dense plasma.
Diagnostic system for EUV radiation measurements from dense xenon plasma generated by MPC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, Yu.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Solyakov, D.G.; Marchenko, A.K.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Ladygina, M.S.; Staltsov, V.V.; Yelisyeyev, D.V.; Hassanein, A.
2011-01-01
Magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) of compact geometry has been designed and tested as a source of EUV radiation. In present paper diagnostic system for registration of EUV radiation is described. It was applied for radiation measurements in different operation modes of MPC. The registration system was designed on the base of combination of different types of AXUV photodiodes. Possibility to minimize the influence of electrons and ions flows from dense plasma stream on AXUV detector performance and results of the measurements has been discussed.
Electron transport phenomena and dense plasmas produced by ultra-short pulse laser interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
More, R.M.
1994-01-01
Recent experiments with femtosecond lasers provide a test bed for theoretical ideas about electron processes in hot dense plasmas. We briefly review aspects of electron conduction theory likely to prove relevant to femtosecond laser absorption. We show that the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit implies a maximum inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of about 50% at temperatures near the Fermi temperature. We also propose that sheath inverse bremsstrahlung leads to a minimum absorption of 7-10% at high laser intensity
Experiments on the interaction of heavy ions with dense plasma at GSI-Darmstadt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoeckl, C.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Geissel, M.; Roth, M.; Wetzler, H.; Seelig, W.; Iwase, O.; Spiller, P.; Bock, R.; Suess, W.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.
1998-01-01
One of the main objectives of the experimental plasma physics activities at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) are the interaction processes of heavy ions with dense ionized matter. Gas-discharge plasma targets were used for energy loss and charge state measurements in a regime of electron density and temperature up to 10 19 cm -3 and 20 eV, respectively. An improved model of the charge exchange processes in fully ionized hydrogen plasma, taking into account multiple excited electronic configurations which subsequently ionize, has removed the discrepancies of previous theoretical descriptions. The energy loss of the ion beam in partially ionized plasmas such as argon was found to agree very well with our simple theoretical model based on the modified Bethe-Bloch theory. A new setup with a 100 J/5 GW Nd-glass laser now provides access to density ranges up to 10 21 cm -3 and temperatures of up to 100 eV. First results of interaction experiments with laser-produced plasma are presented. To fully exploit the experimental possibilities of the new laser-plasma setup both improved charge state detection systems and better plasma diagnostics are indispensable. Present developments and future possibilities in these fields are presented. This paper summarizes the following contributions: Interaction of heavy-ion beams with laser plasma by C. Stoeckl et al. Energy loss of heavy ions in a laser-produced plasma by M. Roth et al. Charge state measurements of heavy ions passing a laser produced plasma with high time resolution by W. Suess et al. Plasma diagnostics for laser-produced plasma by O. Iwase et al. Future possibilities of plasma diagnostics at GSI by M. Geissel et al. (orig.)
Accelerated Recombination in Cold Dense Plasmas with Metastable Ions due to Resonant Deexcitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ralchenko, Yu.V.; Maron, M.
2001-01-01
In a recombining plasma the metastable states are known to accumulate population thereby slowing down the recombination process. We show that a proper account of the doubly-excited autoionizing states, populated through collisional 3-body recombination of metastable ions, results in a significant acceleration of recombination. 3-body recombination followed by collisional (de)excitations and autoionization effectively produces deexcitation via the following chain of elementary events: A fully time-dependent collisional-radiative (CR) modeling for stripped ions of carbon recombining in a cold dense plasma demonstrates an order of magnitude faster recombination of He-like ions. The CR model used in calculations is discussed in details
Stark broadening of isolated lines from high-Z emitters in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weisheit, J.C.; Pollock, E.L.
1980-09-01
The joint distribution of the electric microfield and its longitudinal derivative is required for the calculation of line profiles for the He-like ions in very dense plasmas. We used a molecular dynamics code to compute exact distributions in single- and multi-component plasmas, and then we investigated various analytical approximations to these results. We found that a simplified, two-nearest-neighbor scheme leads to surprisingly accurate distribution functions. Our results are illustrated by sample profiles for Ne +8 and Ar +16 resonance lines
Soft X-ray spectrometer design for warm dense plasma measurements on DARHT Axis-I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramey, Nicholas Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, John Oliver [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coleman, Joshua Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-07-11
A preliminary design study is being performed on a soft X-ray spectrometer to measure K-shell spectra emitted by a warm dense plasma generated on Axis-I of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100-ns-long intense, relativistic electron pulse with a beam current of 1.7 kA and energy of 19.8 MeV deposits energy into a thin metal foil heating it to a warm dense plasma. The collisional ionization of the target by the electron beam produces an anisotropic angular distribution of K-shell radiation and a continuum of both scattered electrons and Bremsstrahlung up to the beam energy of 19.8 MeV. The principal goal of this project is to characterize these angular distributions to determine the optimal location to deploy the soft X-ray spectrometer. In addition, a proof-of-principle design will be presented. The ultimate goal of the spectrometer is to obtain measurements of the plasma temperature and density to benchmark equation-of-state models of the warm dense matter regime.
Mangla, Onkar; Roy, Savita; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken
2015-12-29
The hot and dense plasma formed in modified dense plasma focus (DPF) device has been used worldwide for the nanofabrication of several materials. In this paper, we summarize the fabrication of III-V semiconductor nanostructures using the high fluence material ions produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma generated in a modified DPF device. In addition, we present the recent results on the fabrication of porous nano-gallium arsenide (GaAs). The details of morphological, structural and optical properties of the fabricated nano-GaAs are provided. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the above properties of porous nano-GaAs is studied. The study reveals that it is possible to tailor the size of pores with annealing temperature. The optical properties of these porous nano-GaAs also confirm the possibility to tailor the pore sizes upon annealing. Possible applications of the fabricated and subsequently annealed porous nano-GaAs in transmission-type photo-cathodes and visible optoelectronic devices are discussed. These results suggest that the modified DPF is an effective tool for nanofabrication of continuous and porous III-V semiconductor nanomaterials. Further opportunities for using the modified DPF device for the fabrication of novel nanostructures are discussed as well.
Ionization-potential depression and dynamical structure factor in dense plasmas
Lin, Chengliang; Röpke, Gerd; Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich; Reinholz, Heidi
2017-07-01
The properties of a bound electron system immersed in a plasma environment are strongly modified by the surrounding plasma. The modification of an essential quantity, the ionization energy, is described by the electronic and ionic self-energies, including dynamical screening within the framework of the quantum statistical theory. Introducing the ionic dynamical structure factor as the indicator for the ionic microfield, we demonstrate that ionic correlations and fluctuations play a critical role in determining the ionization potential depression. This is, in particular, true for mixtures of different ions with large mass and charge asymmetry. The ionization potential depression is calculated for dense aluminum plasmas as well as for a CH plasma and compared to the experimental data and more phenomenological approaches used so far.
Microparticle injection effects on microwave transmission through an overly dense plasma layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillman, Eric D., E-mail: eric.gillman@nrl.navy.mil; Amatucci, W. E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Williams, Jeremiah [Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45501 (United States); Compton, C. S. [Sotera Defense Solutions, Herndon, Virginia 20171 (United States)
2015-04-15
Microparticles injected into a plasma have been shown to deplete the free electron population as electrons are collected through the process of microparticles charging to the plasma floating potential. However, these charged microparticles can also act to scatter electromagnetic signals. These experiments investigate microwave penetration through a previously impenetrable overly dense plasma layer as microparticles are injected and the physical phenomena associated with the competing processes that occur due to electron depletion and microwave scattering. The timescales for when each of these competing processes dominates is analyzed in detail. It was found that while both processes play a significant and dominant role at different times, ultimately, transmission through this impenetrable plasma layer can be significantly increased with microparticle injection.
Andreev, Pavel A.
2018-04-01
Two kinds of quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections to electromagnetic interactions and their influence on the properties of highly dense quantum plasmas are considered. Linear radiative correction to the Coulomb interaction is considered. Its contribution in the spectrum of the Langmuir waves is presented. The second kind of radiative corrections are related to the nonlinearity of the Maxwell equations for the strong electromagnetic field. Their contribution in the spectrum of transverse waves of magnetized plasmas is briefly discussed. At the consideration of the Langmuir wave spectrum, we included the effect of different distributions of the spin-up and spin-down electrons revealing in the Fermi pressure shift.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, J.; Okuda, A.
1989-01-01
When an extremely high pressure gas is irradiated by an intense laser light, a dense plasma produced at the focal spot moves towards the focusing lens with a high velocity. Making use of this phenomenon, a new plasma-bridged gap switch is proposed and its switching characteristics is experimentally examined. From the experiments, it is confirmed that the switching time is almost constant with the applied voltage only when the focal spot is just on the positive electrode, indicating that the bridging of gap is caused by the laser light. (author)
Calisti, Annette; Ferri, Sandrine; Mossé, Caroline; Talin, Bernard
2017-02-01
The radiative properties of an emitter surrounded by a plasma, are modified through various mechanisms. For instance the line shapes emitted by bound-bound transitions are broadened and carry useful information for plasma diagnostics. Depending on plasma conditions the electrons occupying the upper quantum levels of radiators no longer exist as they belong to the plasma free electron population. All the charges present in the radiator environment contribute to the lowering of the energy required to free an electron in the fundamental state. This mechanism is known as ionization potential depression (IPD). The knowledge of IPD is useful as it affects both the radiative properties of the various ionic states and their populations. Its evaluation deals with highly complex n-body coupled systems, involving particles with different dynamics and attractive ion-electron forces. A classical molecular dynamics (MD) code, the BinGo-TCP code, has been recently developed to simulate neutral multi-component (various charge state ions and electrons) plasma accounting for all the charge correlations. In the present work, results on IPD and other dense plasma statistical properties obtained using the BinGo-TCP code are presented. The study focuses on aluminum plasmas for different densities and several temperatures in order to explore different plasma coupling conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dozieres, Maylis
2016-01-01
This PhD work is an experimental study, based on emission and absorption spectroscopy of hot and dense nanosecond laser-produced plasmas. Atomic physics in such plasmas is a complex subject and of great interest especially in the fields of astrophysics or inertial confinement fusion. On the atomic physics point of view, this means determining parameters such as the average ionization or opacity in plasmas at given electronic temperature and density. Atomic physics codes then need of experimental data to improve themselves and be validated so that they can be predictive for a wide range of plasmas. With this work we focus on plasmas whose electronic temperature varies from 10 eV to more than a hundred and whose density range goes from 10 -5 ato10 -2 g/cm 3 . In this thesis, there are two types of spectroscopic data presented which are both useful and necessary to the development of atomic physics codes because they are both characteristic of the state of the studied plasma: 1) some absorption spectra from Cu, Ni and Al plasmas close to local thermodynamic equilibrium; 2) some emission spectra from non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas of C, Al and Cu. This work highlights the different experimental techniques and various comparisons with atomic physics codes and hydrodynamics codes. (author) [fr
Electron-hole drop (EHD) stability in deformation potential well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarov, A.G.; Tikhodeev, S.G.
1984-01-01
In heterogeneously-deformed Ge the stability of electron-hole droplets (EHD) being in a potential well is considered. It is shown that the potential well effect is equivalent to the decrease of effective density of phonon EHD charge. It is pointed out that heating EHD (for example, by IR radiation), can increase the phonon droplet charge and affect its stability
Quantum simulations of small electron-hole complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, M.A.; Kalia, R.K.; Vashishta, P.D.
1984-09-01
The Green's Function Monte Carlo method is applied to the calculation of the binding energies of electron-hole complexes in semiconductors. The quantum simulation method allows the unambiguous determination of the ground state energy and the effects of band anisotropy on the binding energy. 22 refs., 1 fig
Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics
Hansen, Stephanie
2017-10-01
The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma at stagnation is surrounded by a shell of warm, dense matter whose properties are difficult both to model (due to a complex interplay of thermal, degeneracy, and strong coupling effects) and to diagnose (due to low emissivity and high opacity). We demonstrate a promising technique to study the warm dense shells of ICF plasmas based on the fluorescence emission of dopants or impurities in the shell material. This emission, which is driven by x-rays produced in the hot core, exhibits signature changes in response to compression and heating. High-resolution measurements of absorption and fluorescence features can refine our understanding of the electronic structure of material under high compression, improve our models of density-driven phenomena such as ionization potential depression and plasma polarization shifts, and help diagnose shell density, temperature, mass distribution, and residual motion in ICF plasmas at stagnation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Early Career Research Program, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under FWP-14-017426.
Cracks and nanodroplets produced on tungsten surface samples by dense plasma jets
Ticoş, C. M.; Galaţanu, M.; Galaţanu, A.; Luculescu, C.; Scurtu, A.; Udrea, N.; Ticoş, D.; Dumitru, M.
2018-03-01
Small samples of 12.5 mm in diameter made from pure tungsten were exposed to a dense plasma jet produced by a coaxial plasma gun operated at 2 kJ. The surface of the samples was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after applying consecutive plasma shots. Cracks and craters were produced in the surface due to surface tensions during plasma heating. Nanodroplets and micron size droplets could be observed on the samples surface. An energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that the composition of these droplets coincided with that of the gun electrode material. Four types of samples were prepared by spark plasma sintering from powders with the average particle size ranging from 70 nanometers up to 80 μm. The plasma power load to the sample surface was estimated to be ≈4.7 MJ m-2 s-1/2 per shot. The electron temperature and density in the plasma jet had peak values 17 eV and 1.6 × 1022 m-3, respectively.
Plasma-particle interaction effects in induction plasma modelling under dense loading conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proulx, P.; Mostaghimi, J.; Boulos, M.
1983-07-01
The injection of solid particles or aerosol droplets in the fire-ball of an inductively coupled plasma can substantially perturb the plasma and even quench it under high loading conditions. This can be mainly attributed to the local cooling of the plasma by the particles or their vapour cloud, combined with the possible change of the thermodynamic and transport properties of the plasma in the presence of the particle vapour. This paper reports the state-of-the-art in the mathematical modelling of the induction plasma. A particle-in-cell model is used in order to combine the continuum approach for the calculation of the flow, temperature and concentration fields in the plasma, with the stochastic single particle approach, for the calculation of the particle trajectories and temperature histories. Results are given for an argon induction plasma under atmospheric pressure in which fine copper particles are centrally injected in the coil region of the discharge
Simulation of dense recombining divertor plasmas with a Navier endash Stokes neutral transport model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Sigmar, D.J.
1996-01-01
A two-dimensional combined edge plasma Navier endash Stokes neutral transport model is presented for the simulation of dense recombining divertor plasmas. This model includes ions, electrons, and neutral atoms which undergo Coulomb collisions, electron impact ionization, ion endash neutral elastic collisions, three-body and radiative recombination, and neutral endash neutral collisions. The advanced fully implicit solution algorithm is briefly described and a variety of results on a model geometry are presented. It is shown that interesting neutral flow patterns can exist and that these flows can convect significant energy. A solution that ignores neutral endash neutral collisions is shown to be quantitatively different from one that includes neutral endash neutral collisions. Solutions are also shown to be sensitive to the plasma opacity for Lyman α radiation. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, R.; Beg, F. N. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Leblanc, P.; Sentoku, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Wei, M. S. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)
2013-07-15
Fully relativistic collisional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code, PICLS, has been developed to study extreme energy density conditions produced in intense laser-solid interaction. Recent extensions to PICLS, such as the implementation of dynamic ionization, binary collisions in a partially ionized plasma, and radiative losses, enhance the efficacy of simulating intense laser plasma interaction and subsequent energy transport in resistive media. Different ionization models are introduced and benchmarked against each other to check the suitability of the model. The atomic physics models are critical to determine the energy deposition and transport in dense plasmas, especially when they consist of high Z (atomic number) materials. Finally we demonstrate the electron transport simulations to show the importance of target material on fast electron dynamics.
Characterization of electron states in dense plasmas and its use in atomic kinetics modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisher, D.V.; Maron, Y.
2003-01-01
We describe a self-consistent statistical approach to account for plasma density effects in collisional-radiative kinetics. The approach is based on the characterization of three distinct types of electron states, namely, bound, collectivized, and free, and on the formalism of the effective statistical weights (ESW) of the bound states. The present approach accounts for individual and collective effects of the surrounding electrons and ions on atomic (ionic) electron states. High-accuracy expressions for the ESWs of bound states have been derived. The notions of ionization stage population, free electron density, and rate coefficient are redefined in accordance with the present characterization scheme. The modified expressions for the probabilities of electron-impact induced transitions as well as spontaneous and induced radiative transitions are then obtained. The influence of collectivized states on a dense plasma ionization composition is demonstrated to be strong. Examples of calculated ESWs and populations of ionic quantum states for steady state and transient plasmas are given
Effect of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasma systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johzaki, T.; Nakao, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Kudo, K.
1997-01-01
The effects of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasmas are investigated by making transport calculations for the fast particles. It is found that the degeneracy substantially affects the profiles of energy deposition of 3.52-MeV α-particles. On the other hand, the effect on the energy deposition of 14.1-MeV neutrons is negligibly small because the recoil ions, which transfer the neutron energy to the plasma constituents, are produced in a whole plasma volume due to the long mean-free-path of neutrons. The coupled transport-hydrodynamic calculations show that these effects of degeneracy are negligible in the ignition and burn characteristics of central ignition D-T targets. (author)
First results on dense plasma confinement at the multimirror open trap GOL-3-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koidan, V.S.; Arzhannikov, A.V.; Astrelin, V.T.
2001-01-01
First results of experiments on plasma confinement in multimirror open trap GOL-3-II are presented. This facility is an open trap with total length of 17 m intended for confinement of a relatively dense (10 15 -10 17 cm -3 ) plasma in axially-symmetrical magnetic system. The plasma heating is provided by a high-power electron beam (1 MeV, 30 kA, 8 ms, 200 kJ). New phase of the experiments is aimed to confinement of high-β thermalized plasma. Two essential modifications of the facility have been done. First, plasma column was separated by vacuum sections from the beam accelerator and exit beam receiver. Second, the magnetic field on part of the solenoid was reconfigured into multimirror system with H max /H min ∼1.5 and 22 cm cell length. Results of the experiments at modified configuration of the device indicate that the confinement time of the plasma with n e ∼(0, 5/5)·10 15 cm -3 and T e ∼1 keV increases more than order of magnitude. (author)
Cheng, D. Y.; Wang, P.
1972-01-01
The injection of dense plasmas into a B sub z long magnetic field from both ends of the field coil was investigated. Deflagration plasma guns and continuous flow Z-pinch are discussed along with the possibility of a continuous flow Z-pinch fusion reactor. The injection experiments are described with emphasis on the synchronization of the two plasma deflagration guns, the collision of the two plasma beams, and the determination of plasma density.
Path Integral Monte Carlo Simulations of Warm Dense Matter and Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Militzer, Burkhard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2018-01-13
New path integral Monte Carlo simulation (PIMC) techniques will be developed and applied to derive the equation of state (EOS) for the regime of warm dense matter and dense plasmas where existing first-principles methods cannot be applied. While standard density functional theory has been used to accurately predict the structure of many solids and liquids up to temperatures on the order of 10,000 K, this method is not applicable at much higher temperature where electronic excitations become important because the number of partially occupied electronic orbitals reaches intractably large numbers and, more importantly, the use of zero-temperature exchange-correlation functionals introduces an uncontrolled approximation. Here we focus on PIMC methods that become more and more efficient with increasing temperatures and still include all electronic correlation effects. In this approach, electronic excitations increase the efficiency rather than reduce it. While it has commonly been assumed such methods can only be applied to elements without core electrons like hydrogen and helium, we recently showed how to extend PIMC to heavier elements by performing the first PIMC simulations of carbon and water plasmas [Driver, Militzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 115502]. Here we propose to continue this important development to extend the reach of PIMC simulations to yet heavier elements and also lower temperatures. The goal is to provide a robust first-principles simulation method that can accurately and efficiently study materials with excited electrons at solid-state densities in order to access parts of the phase diagram such the regime of warm dense matter and plasmas where so far only more approximate, semi-analytical methods could be applied.
Development and Benchmarking of a Hybrid PIC Code For Dense Plasmas and Fast Ignition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witherspoon, F. Douglas [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Welch, Dale R. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thompson, John R. [FAR-TECH, Inc.; MacFarlane, Joeseph J. [Prism Computational Sciences Inc.; Phillips, Michael W. [Advanced Energy Systems, Inc.; Bruner, Nicki [Voss Scientific, LLC; Mostrom, Chris [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thoma, Carsten [Voss Scientific, LLC; Clark, R. E. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Bogatu, Nick [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Galkin, Sergei [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Golovkin, Igor E. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Woodruff, P. R. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Wu, Linchun [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Messer, Sarah J. [HyperV Technologies Corp.
2014-05-20
Radiation processes play an important role in the study of both fast ignition and other inertial confinement schemes, such as plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion, both in their effect on energy balance, and in generating diagnostic signals. In the latter case, warm and hot dense matter may be produced by the convergence of a plasma shell formed by the merging of an assembly of high Mach number plasma jets. This innovative approach has the potential advantage of creating matter of high energy densities in voluminous amount compared with high power lasers or particle beams. An important application of this technology is as a plasma liner for the flux compression of magnetized plasma to create ultra-high magnetic fields and burning plasmas. HyperV Technologies Corp. has been developing plasma jet accelerator technology in both coaxial and linear railgun geometries to produce plasma jets of sufficient mass, density, and velocity to create such imploding plasma liners. An enabling tool for the development of this technology is the ability to model the plasma dynamics, not only in the accelerators themselves, but also in the resulting magnetized target plasma and within the merging/interacting plasma jets during transport to the target. Welch pioneered numerical modeling of such plasmas (including for fast ignition) using the LSP simulation code. Lsp is an electromagnetic, parallelized, plasma simulation code under development since 1995. It has a number of innovative features making it uniquely suitable for modeling high energy density plasmas including a hybrid fluid model for electrons that allows electrons in dense plasmas to be modeled with a kinetic or fluid treatment as appropriate. In addition to in-house use at Voss Scientific, several groups carrying out research in Fast Ignition (LLNL, SNL, UCSD, AWE (UK), and Imperial College (UK)) also use LSP. A collaborative team consisting of HyperV Technologies Corp., Voss Scientific LLC, FAR-TECH, Inc., Prism
Observations of non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao Lihua; Zhang Jiyan; Zhao Yang; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Xiaoding
2012-01-01
An experiment for observing the spectrally resolved non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma is presented in this paper. The experiment used Ta M-band x-rays to heat a foamed carbon cylinder sample isochorically and measured the scattering spectrum with a HOPG crystal spectrometer. The spectrum was compared with the calculation results using a Born-Mermin-approximation model. The best fitting was found at an electron temperature of T e =34 eV and an electron density of n e =1.6×10 23 cm −3 .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Compernolle, B.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.; Cooper, C. M.
2011-01-01
A portable lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) cathode has been developed for use in the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The LaB 6 cathode can be used as a tool for many different studies in experimental plasma physics. To date, the cathode has been used as a source of a plasma with a hot dense core for transport studies and diagnostics development, as a source of gradient driven modes, as a source of shear Alfven waves, and as a source of interacting current channels in reconnection experiments. The LaB 6 cathode is capable of higher discharge current densities than the main barium oxide coated LAPD cathode and is therefore able to produce plasmas of higher densities and higher electron temperatures. The 8.25 cm diameter cathode can be introduced into the LAPD at different axial locations without the need to break vacuum. The cathode can be scaled up or down for use as a portable secondary plasma source in other machines.
Effect of spin-polarized D-3He fuel on dense plasma focus for space propulsion
Mei-Yu Wang, Choi, Chan K.; Mead, Franklin B.
1992-01-01
Spin-polarized D-3He fusion fuel is analyzed to study its effect on the dense plasma focus (DPF) device for space propulsion. The Mather-type plasma focus device is adopted because of the ``axial'' acceleration of the current carrying plasma sheath, like a coaxial plasma gun. The D-3He fuel is chosen based on the neutron-lean fusion reactions with high charged-particle fusion products. Impulsive mode of operation is used with multi-thrusters in order to make higher thrust (F)-to-weight (W) ratio with relatively high value of specific impulse (Isp). Both current (I) scalings with I2 and I8/3 are considered for plasma pinch temperature and capacitor mass. For a 30-day Mars mission, with four thrusters, for example, the typical F/W values ranging from 0.5-0.6 to 0.1-0.2 for I2 and I8/3 scalings, respectively, and the Isp values of above 1600 s are obtained. Parametric studies indicate that the spin-polarized D-3He provides increased values of F/W and Isp over conventional D-3He fuel which was due to the increased fusion power and decreased radiation losses for the spin-polarized case.
Desorption by Femtosecond Laser Pulses : An Electron-Hole Effect?
D. M., NEWNS; T. F., HEINZ; J. A., MISEWICH; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center
1992-01-01
Desorption of molecules from metal surfaces induced by femtosecond visible laser pulses has been reported. Since the lattice temperature rise is insufficient to explain desorption, an electronic mechanism is clearly responsible. It is shown that a theory based on direct coupling between the center-of-mass degree of freedom of the adsorbate and the electron-hole excitations of the substrate provides a satisfactory explanation of the various experimental findings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimaldi, F.; Grimaldi-Lecourt, A.; Dharma-Wardana, M.W.C.
1986-10-01
The objective of this paper is to present a simple time-dependent calculation of the light absorption cross section for a strongly coupled partially degenerate plasma so as to transcend the usual single-particle picture. This is achieved within the density functional theory (DFT) of plasmas by generalizing the method given by Zangwill and Soven for atomic calculations at zero temperature. The essential feature of the time dependent DFT is the correct treatment of the relaxation of the system under the external field. Exploratory calculations for a Fe-plasma at 100 eV show new features in the absorption cross section which are absent in the usual single particle theory. These arise from inter-shell correlations, channel mixing and self-energy effects. These many-body effects introduce significant modifications to the radiative properties of plasmas and are shown to be efficiently calculable by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimaldi, F.; Grimaldi-Lecourt, A.; Dharma-Wardana, M.W.C.
1985-02-01
The objective of this paper is to present a simple time-dependent calculation of the light absorption cross section for a strongly coupled partially degenerate plasma so as to transcend the usual single-particle picture. This is achieved within the density functional theory (DFT) of plasmas by generalizing the method given by Zangwill and Soven for atomic calculations at zero temperature. The essential feature of the time dependent DFT is the correct treatment of the relaxation of the system under the external field. Exploratory calculations for an Fe-plasma at 100 eV show new features in the absorption cross section which are absent in the usual single particle theory. These arise from inter-shell correlations, channel mixing and self-energy effects. These many-body effects introduce significant modifications to the radiative properties of plasma and are shown to be efficiently calculable by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)
Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chernyshova, M.; Gribkov, V. A.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E.; Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Bondarenko, G.G.; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 113, December (2016), s. 109-118 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Radiation damageability * Materials tests * Plasma focus * Plasma streams * Ion beams * Laser interferometrya Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379616306858
Heating of a dense plasma with an intense relativistic electron beam: initial observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, M.D.; Parker, J.V.; Riepe, K.B.; Sheffield, R.L.
1981-01-01
A dense (approx. 10 17 cm -3 ) plasma has been heated via the relativistic two-stream instability using a 3 MeV, intense (5 x 10 5 A/cm 2 ) electron beam. Evidence for heating has been obtained with diamagnetic loops, thin-foil witness plates, and a 2-channel, broad-band soft x-ray detector. Measurements of energy loss from the beam using calorimetry techniques have been attempted. The measured strong dependence of heating on beam transverse temperature and the very short interaction length ( 100 ns after the beam pulse are consistent with a plasma temperature <150 eV and line emission near 80 to 90 eV
MD and FFM Electron Broadening for Warm and Dense Hydrogen Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferri, S.; Calisti, A.; Mosse, C.; Talin, B.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Gigosos, M. A.
2006-01-01
Direct integration of the semi-classical evolution equation based on Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) and the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM) have long been used to synthesize spectra accounting for ion dynamics. Cross comparisons of these approaches generally show results in good agreement. Recently, interest in low temperature (Te ∼ 1eV) and high density (Ne ∼ 1018 cm-3) hydrogen plasma spectroscopy has motivated extended applications of FFM. Arising discrepancies were found to originate in electron collision operators suggesting an improper use of impact approximations for warm and dense plasma conditions. In order to clarify this point, new useful cross comparisons between MD and FFM have been carried out for electron broadening
Low-velocity ion stopping in a dense and low-temperature plasma target
Deutsch, Claude; Popoff, Romain
2007-07-01
We investigate the stopping specificities involved in the heating of thin foils irradiated by intense ion beams in the 0.3-3 MeV/amu energy range and in close vicinity of the Bragg peak. Considering a swiftly ionized target to eV temperatures before expansion while retaining solid-state density, a typical warm dense matter (WDM) situation thus arises. We stress low Vp stopping through ion diffusion in the given target plasma. This allows to include the case of a strongly magnetized target in a guiding center approximation. We also demonstrate that the ion projectile penetration depth in target is significantly affected by multiple scattering on target electrons. The given plasma target is taken weakly coupled with Maxwell electron either with no magnetic field ( B=0) or strongly magnetized ( B≠0). Dynamical coupling between ion projectiles energy losses and projectiles charge state will also be addressed.
Frequency-dependent absorbance of broadband terahertz wave in dense plasma sheet
Peng, Yan; Qi, Binbin; Jiang, Xiankai; Zhu, Zhi; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhu, Yiming
2018-05-01
Due to the ability of accurate fingerprinting and low-ionization for different substances, terahertz (THz) technology has a lot of crucial applications in material analysis, information transfer, and safety inspection, etc. However, the spectral characteristic of atmospheric gas and ionized gas has not been widely investigated, which is important for the remote sensing application. Here, in this paper, we investigate the absorbance of broadband terahertz wave in dense plasma sheet generated by femtosecond laser pulses. It was found that as the terahertz wave transmits through the plasma sheet formed, respectively, in carbon dioxide, oxygen, argon and nitrogen, spectrum presents completely different and frequency-dependent absorbance. The reasons for these absorption peaks are related to the molecular polarity, electric charge, intermolecular and intramolecular interactions, and collisional absorption of gas molecules. These results have significant implications for the remote sensing of gas medium.
On the quantum Landau collision operator and electron collisions in dense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daligault, Jérôme, E-mail: daligaul@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2016-03-15
The quantum Landau collision operator, which extends the widely used Landau/Fokker-Planck collision operator to include quantum statistical effects, is discussed. The quantum extension can serve as a reference model for including electron collisions in non-equilibrium dense plasmas, in which the quantum nature of electrons cannot be neglected. In this paper, the properties of the Landau collision operator that have been useful in traditional plasma kinetic theory and plasma transport theory are extended to the quantum case. We outline basic properties in connection with the conservation laws, the H-theorem, and the global and local equilibrium distributions. We discuss the Fokker-Planck form of the operator in terms of three potentials that extend the usual two Rosenbluth potentials. We establish practical closed-form expressions for these potentials under local thermal equilibrium conditions in terms of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals. We study the properties of linearized quantum Landau operator, and extend two popular approximations used in plasma physics to include collisions in kinetic simulations. We apply the quantum Landau operator to the classic test-particle problem to illustrate the physical effects embodied in the quantum extension. We present useful closed-form expressions for the electron-ion momentum and energy transfer rates. Throughout the paper, similarities and differences between the quantum and classical Landau collision operators are emphasized.
On the quantum Landau collision operator and electron collisions in dense plasmas
Daligault, Jérôme
2016-03-01
The quantum Landau collision operator, which extends the widely used Landau/Fokker-Planck collision operator to include quantum statistical effects, is discussed. The quantum extension can serve as a reference model for including electron collisions in non-equilibrium dense plasmas, in which the quantum nature of electrons cannot be neglected. In this paper, the properties of the Landau collision operator that have been useful in traditional plasma kinetic theory and plasma transport theory are extended to the quantum case. We outline basic properties in connection with the conservation laws, the H-theorem, and the global and local equilibrium distributions. We discuss the Fokker-Planck form of the operator in terms of three potentials that extend the usual two Rosenbluth potentials. We establish practical closed-form expressions for these potentials under local thermal equilibrium conditions in terms of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals. We study the properties of linearized quantum Landau operator, and extend two popular approximations used in plasma physics to include collisions in kinetic simulations. We apply the quantum Landau operator to the classic test-particle problem to illustrate the physical effects embodied in the quantum extension. We present useful closed-form expressions for the electron-ion momentum and energy transfer rates. Throughout the paper, similarities and differences between the quantum and classical Landau collision operators are emphasized.
Electron capture and excitation processes in H+-H collisions in dense quantum plasmas
Jakimovski, D.; Markovska, N.; Janev, R. K.
2016-10-01
Electron capture and excitation processes in proton-hydrogen atom collisions taking place in dense quantum plasmas are studied by employing the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling (TC-AOCC) method. The Debye-Hückel cosine (DHC) potential is used to describe the plasma screening effects on the Coulomb interaction between charged particles. The properties of a hydrogen atom with DHC potential are investigated as a function of the screening strength of the potential. It is found that the decrease in binding energy of nl levels with increasing screening strength is considerably faster than in the case of the Debye-Hückel (DH) screening potential, appropriate for description of charged particle interactions in weakly coupled classical plasmas. This results in a reduction in the number of bound states in the DHC potential with respect to that in the DH potential for the same plasma screening strength, and is reflected in the dynamics of excitation and electron capture processes for the two screened potentials. The TC-AOCC cross sections for total and state-selective electron capture and excitation cross sections with the DHC potential are calculated for a number of representative screening strengths in the 1-300 keV energy range and compared with those for the DH and pure Coulomb potential. The total capture cross sections for a selected number of screening strengths are compared with the available results from classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations.
Simulations of a dense plasma focus on a high impedance generator
Beresnyak, Andrey; Giuliani, John; Jackson, Stuart; Richardson, Steve; Swanekamp, Steve; Schumer, Joe; Commisso, Robert; Mosher, Dave; Weber, Bruce; Velikovich, Alexander
2017-10-01
We study the connection between plasma instabilities and fast ion acceleration for neutron production on a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The experiments will be performed on the HAWK generator (665 kA), which has fast rise time, 1.2 μs, and a high inductance, 607 nH. It is hypothesized that high impedance may enhance the neutron yield because the current will not be reduced during the collapse resulting in higher magnetization. To prevent upstream breakdown, we will inject plasma far from the insulator stack. We simulated rundown and collapse dynamics with Athena - Eulerian 3D, unsplit finite volume MHD code that includes shock capturing with Riemann solvers, resistive diffusion and the Hall term. The simulations are coupled to an equivalent circuit model for HAWK. We will report the dynamics and implosion time as a function of the initial injected plasma distribution and the implications of non-ideal effects. We also traced test particles in MHD fields and confirmed the presence of stochastic acceleration, which was limited by the size of the system and the strength of the magnetic field. Supported by DOE/NNSA and the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gormezano, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gormezano, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)
Vlasov simulations of electron hole dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic field
Kuzichev, Ilya; Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton
2017-04-01
Electron holes (EHs) or phase space vortices are solitary electrostatic waves existing due to electrons trapped within EH electrostatic potential. Since the first direct observation [1], EHs have been widely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: in reconnecting current sheets [2], injection fronts [3], auroral region [4], and many other space plasma systems. EHs have typical spatial scales up to tens of Debye lengths, electric field amplitudes up to hundreds of mV/m and propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities of about electron thermal velocity [5]. The role of EHs in energy dissipation and supporting of large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. The accurate interpretation of spacecraft observations requires understanding of EH evolution in inhomogeneous plasma. The critical role of plasma density gradients in EH evolution was demonstrated in [6] using PIC simulations. Interestingly, up to date no studies have addressed a role of magnetic field gradients in EH evolution. In this report, we use 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov code to demonstrate the critical role of magnetic field gradients in EH dynamics. We show that EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. Remarkably, the reflection points of decelerating EHs are independent of the average magnetic field gradient in the system and depend only on the EH parameters. EHs are decelerated (accelerated) faster than would follow from the "quasi-particle" concept assuming that EH is decelerated (accelerated) entirely due to the mirror force acting on electrons trapped within EH. We demonstrate that EH propagation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields results in development of a net potential drop along an EH, which depends on the magnetic field gradient. The revealed features will be helpful for interpreting spacecraft observations and results of advanced particle simulations. In
Jednorog, S; Szydlowski, A; Bienkowska, B; Prokopowicz, R
The dense plasma focus (DPF) device-DPF-1000U which is operated at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion is the largest that type plasma experiment in the world. The plasma that is formed in large plasma experiments is characterized by vast numbers of parameters. All of them need to be monitored. A neutron activation method occupies a high position among others plasma diagnostic methods. The above method is off-line, remote, and an integrated one. The plasma which has enough temperature to bring about nuclear fusion reactions is always a strong source of neutrons that leave the reactions area and take along energy and important information on plasma parameters and properties as well. Silver as activated material is used as an effective way of neutrons measurement, especially when they are emitted in the form of short pulses like as it happens from the plasma produced in Dense Plasma-Focus devices. Other elements such as beryllium and yttrium are newly introduced and currently tested at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion to use them in suitable activation neutron detectors. Some specially designed massive indium samples have been recently adopted for angular neutrons distribution measurements (vertical and horizontal) and have been used in the recent plasma experiment conducted on the DPF-1000U device. This choice was substantiated by relatively long half-lives of the neutron induced isotopes and the threshold character of the 115 In(n,n') 115m In nuclear reaction.
Electron-hole collision limited transport in charge-neutral bilayer graphene
Nam, Youngwoo; Ki, Dong-Keun; Soler-Delgado, David; Morpurgo, Alberto F.
2017-12-01
Ballistic transport occurs whenever electrons propagate without collisions deflecting their trajectory. It is normally observed in conductors with a negligible concentration of impurities, at low temperature, to avoid electron-phonon scattering. Here, we use suspended bilayer graphene devices to reveal a new regime, in which ballistic transport is not limited by scattering with phonons or impurities, but by electron-hole collisions. The phenomenon manifests itself in a negative four-terminal resistance that becomes visible when the density of holes (electrons) is suppressed by gate-shifting the Fermi level in the conduction (valence) band, above the thermal energy. For smaller densities, transport is diffusive, and the measured conductivity is reproduced quantitatively, with no fitting parameters, by including electron-hole scattering as the only process causing velocity relaxation. Experiments on a trilayer device show that the phenomenon is robust and that transport at charge neutrality is governed by the same physics. Our results provide a textbook illustration of a transport regime that had not been observed previously and clarify the nature of conduction through charge-neutral graphene under conditions in which carrier density inhomogeneity is immaterial. They also demonstrate that transport can be limited by a fully electronic mechanism, originating from the same microscopic processes that govern the physics of Dirac-like plasmas.
Development of the dense plasma focus for short-pulse applications
Bennett, N.; Blasco, M.; Breeding, K.; Constantino, D.; DeYoung, A.; DiPuccio, V.; Friedman, J.; Gall, B.; Gardner, S.; Gatling, J.; Hagen, E. C.; Luttman, A.; Meehan, B. T.; Misch, M.; Molnar, S.; Morgan, G.; O'Brien, R.; Robbins, L.; Rundberg, R.; Sipe, N.; Welch, D. R.; Yuan, V.
2017-01-01
The dense plasma focus (DPF) has long been considered a compact source for pulsed neutrons and has traditionally been optimized for the total neutron yield. In this paper, we describe the efforts to optimize the DPF for short-pulse applications by introducing a reentrant cathode at the end of the coaxial plasma gun. The resulting neutron pulse widths are reduced by an average of 21 ±9 % from the traditional long-drift DPF design. Pulse widths and yields achieved from deuterium-tritium fusion at 2 MA are 61.8 ±30.7 ns FWHM and 1.84 ±0.49 ×1012 neutrons per shot. Simulations were conducted concurrently to elucidate the DPF operation and confirm the role of the reentrant cathode. A hybrid fluid-kinetic particle-in-cell modeling capability demonstrates correct sheath velocities, plasma instabilities, and fusion yield rates. Consistent with previous findings that the DPF is dominated by beam-target fusion from superthermal ions, we estimate that the thermonuclear contribution is at the 1% level.
Electron Bernstein wave experiments in a over-dense reversed field pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, C. B.; Anderson, J.K.; Cengher, M.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Carter, M.; Harvey, R.W.; Pinsker, R.I.; Smirnov, A.P.
2003-01-01
Experiments and theoretical work show that it is possible to couple power to the EBW in an RFP, and that these waves may be suitable for driving current. The main results of our work thus far are: (1) A coupling theory for a phased array of waveguides is developed and compared to experiment. Both O and X mode polarizations can be used; in general coupling for both is optimized for obliquely launched waves. (2) The surface impedance and reflection coefficients have been measured for EBWs launched by waveguide antennas on the edge of MST. Emission and coupling measurements are both consistent with theoretical models and the measured density gradients at the plasma edge. In particular, the coupling showed a strong asymmetry in N Φ for X-mode launch. (3) Black-body levels of emission have been observed in the ECRF from over-dense MST plasmas, which by reciprocity indicate that coupling to the EBW is possible with external antennas. Emission is preferentially polarized in the X-mode and is affected by density fluctuations at the plasma edge. Mode conversion efficiencies as high as 75% have been observed. (4) Ray tracing of EBW waves, coupled to Fokker Planck calculations show that localized, efficient current drive is possible. Current drive is possible by choosing the poloidal angle of the launching antenna to control the N of the wave. (authors)
Plasma-erosion-enhanced neutron emission in fiber-generated dense Z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosher, D.; Colombant, D.
1990-01-01
Experiments in which dense z-pinches are created from high-current discharges through frozen deuterium fibers have reported neutron yields far in excess of those expected from thermal processes. A simple analysis based on pinch collapse due to the sausage instability has successfully predicted the relative variation of neutron yield with discharge current, but model assumptions precluded prediction of absolute values of the yield. A pinch-collapse model derived from a 2-dimensional, nonlinear treatment of the sausage instability, combined with space-charged-limited (SCL) ion orbital dynamic for the vacuum region above the pinches and between the expanding flares, leads to neutron yields four or more orders-of-magnitude below experimental values. Here, the same pinch-collapse model is used in conjunction with a low-density plasma background above the collapsing pinches. Ions are accelerated across the space-charge sheath separating the background plasma from the flares, which electron emission from the flares is strongly insulated by the z-discharge magnetic field. The sheath gap increases in time, i.e., the background plasma erodes, at a rate determined by its density and the SCL ion current density which, in turn, depends on the z-discharge dynamics and the associated induced electromagnetic fields. A model incorporating the above processes is used to determine the accelerated ion energy spectrum and associated neutron yield as functions of the discharge, instability, and background parameters
Density and field effect on electron-ion collision cross-sections in hot dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de
2003-03-01
Collisional excitation cross-sections are essential for the modeling of the properties of non equilibrium plasmas. There has been a lot of work on electron impact excitation of isolated ions, but in dense plasmas, neighboring particles are expected to widely disturb these electron transitions in atoms. Plasma modeling through a radially perturbed potential has already been done but is not satisfactory as it does not account for levels degeneracy breaking and its consequences. Introduction of a quasistatic electric micro-field of neighboring ions allows us to break spherical symmetry. Our original theoretical study has given birth to a numerical code that accurately computes collisional strengths and rates (in the Distorted Waves approach) in atoms submitted to a realistic micro-field. Hydrogen- and helium-like aluminium is studied. Stark mixing widely increases rates of transitions from high l levels and forbidden transitions are field-enhanced by many orders of magnitude until they reach allowed ones. Eventually, we conduct an elementary stationary collisional radiative study to investigate field-enhancement effects on corresponding line shapes. In cases we study (aluminium, hydrogen- and helium-like) we find a relatively weak increase of K-shell line broadening
Multi-Dimensional Radiation Transport in Dense Z-pinch Wire Array Plasmas
Jennings, C. A.; Chittenden, J. P.; Ciardi, A.; Sherlock, M.; Lebedev, S. V.
2004-11-01
Z-pinch wire arrays have proven to be an extremely efficient high yield, short pulse x-ray source with potential application to ICF. The characteristics of the x-ray pulse produced have been shown to be largely determined by non-uniform break up of the wires leading to a highly irregular distribution of mass which implodes towards the axis. Modelling the inherent 3D nature of these plasmas is already computationally very expensive, and so energy exchange through radiation is frequently neglected, assuming instead an optically thin radiation loss model. With a significant fraction of the total energy at late stages being radiated through a dense, optically thick plasma this approach is potentially inadequate in fully describing the implosion. We analyse the effects of radiative cooling and radiation transport on stagnation and precursor development in wire array z-pinch implosions. A three temperature multidimensional MHD code using a single group radiation diffusion model is used to study radiation trapping in the precursor, and the effects of preheating on the implosion dynamics. Energy exchange in the final stagnated plasma and its effects on the x-ray pulse shape is also discussed. This work was partially supported by the SSAA program of the NNSA through DoE cooperative agreement DE-F03-02NA00057.
Influence of dense plasma on the energy levels and transition properties in highly charged ions
Chen, Zhan-Bin; Hu, Hong-Wei; Ma, Kun; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Guo, Xue-Ling; Li, Shuang; Zhu, Bo-Hong; Huang, Lian; Wang, Kai
2018-03-01
The studies of the influence of plasma environments on the level structures and transition properties for highly charged ions are presented. For the relativistic treatment, we implemented the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method incorporating the ion sphere (IS) model potential, in which the plasma screening is taken into account as a modified interaction potential between the electron and the nucleus. For the nonrelativistic treatment, analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation with two types of the IS screened potential are proposed. The Ritz variation method is used with hydrogenic wave function as a trial wave function that contains two unknown variational parameters. Bound energies are derived from an energy equation, and the variational parameters are obtained from the minimisation condition of the expectation value of the energy. Numerical results for hydrogen-like ions in dense plasmas are presented as examples. A detailed analysis of the influence of relativistic effects on the energy levels and transition properties is also reported. Our results are compared with available results in the literature showing a good quantitative agreement.
Spatial Distribution and Semiannual Variation of Cold-Dense Plasma Sheet
Bai, Shichen; Shi, Quanqi; Tian, Anmin; Nowada, Motoharu; Degeling, Alexander W.; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Rae, I. Jonathan; Fu, Suiyan; Zhang, Hui; Pu, Zuyin; Fazakerly, Andrew N.
2018-01-01
The cold-dense plasma sheet (CDPS) plays an important role in the entry process of the solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere. Investigating the seasonal variation of CDPS occurrences will help us better understand the long-term variation of plasma exchange between the solar wind and magnetosphere, but any seasonal variation of CDPS occurrences has not yet been reported in the literature. In this paper, we investigate the seasonal variation of the occurrence rate of CDPS using Geotail data from 1996 to 2015 and find a semiannual variation of the CDPS occurrences. Given the higher probability of solar wind entry under stronger northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, 20 years of IMF data (1996-2015) are used to investigate the seasonal variation of IMF Bz under northward IMF conditions. We find a semiannual variation of IMF Bz, which is consistent with the Russell-McPherron (R-M) effect. We therefore suggest that the semiannual variation of CDPS may be related to the R-M effect.
Interaction of dense nitrogen plasma with SS304 surface using APF plasma focus device
Afrashteh, M.; Habibi, M.; Heydari, E.
2012-04-01
The nitridation of SS304 surfaces is obtained by irradiating nitrogen ions from Amirkabir plasma focus device, which use multiple focus deposition shots at optimum distance 10 cm from the anode. The Vickers Micro-Hardness values are improved more than twice for the nitrided samples comparing to the nonnitrided ones. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is carried out in order to explore the phase changes in the near surface structure of the metals. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indicate changes in surface morphology which are the emergence of smooth and uniform film on the surface of the nitrided metals.
Pressure ionization of dense plasmas in spherical ion-cell model with spin-orbit interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, K.; Blenski, T.; Takahashi, H.; Iguchi, T.; Nakazawa, M.
1996-01-01
We study the continuity of pressure of dense plasmas in pressure ionization in case where spin-orbit interactions are taken into account in calculations. Pressure is calculated using a stress-tensor pressure formula in the relativistically-corrected self-consistent field spherical ion-cell model (average-atom model). It appears that calculated pressure and electronic density distribution change continuously in pressure ionization if we take narrow shape resonances into account properly. This observation stresses the need of a coherent description of bound and free electrons. We also compare the results by the stress-tensor pressure formula with those by other pressure formulas. It appears that different pressure formulas give rather discrepant results in some cases. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Review of results from the FN-2 dense plasma focus machine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrera, J.J.E.; Castillo, F.; Gamboa, I.; Rangel, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Golzarri, J.I.; Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2004-07-01
The FN-II is a small dense plasma focus (4.8 kJ at 36 kV), operating at the University of Mexico. Substantial effort has been dedicated to the study of the anisotropy in the neutron, proton and hard X-ray radiation. Concerning the neutron, it has been observed that there is an anisotropic distribution superposed on a far larger isotropic one. These clearly separated effects can be interpreted as the consequence of two different neutron emission mechanisms. The shape of the proton distribution is very similar to the neutron one. The angular distribution of hard X-rays and ions is also studied within the chamber with TLD and CR-39 detectors respectively. Two maxima are found around the axis of the device for X rays within the 20-200 keV range. (authors)
Self-gravitational instability of dense degenerate viscous anisotropic plasma with rotation
Sharma, Prerana; Patidar, Archana
2017-12-01
The influence of finite Larmor radius correction, tensor viscosity and uniform rotation on self-gravitational and firehose instabilities is discussed in the framework of the quantum magnetohydrodynamic and Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) fluid models. The general dispersion relation is obtained for transverse and longitudinal modes of propagation. In both the modes of propagation the dispersion relation is further analysed with respect to the direction of the rotational axis. In the analytical discussion the axis of rotation is considered in parallel and in the perpendicular direction to the magnetic field. (i) In the transverse mode of propagation, when rotation is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field, the Jeans instability criterion is affected by the rotation, finite Larmor radius (FLR) and quantum parameter but remains unaffected due to the presence of tensor viscosity. The calculated critical Jeans masses for rotating and non-rotating dense degenerate plasma systems are \\odot $ and \\odot $ respectively. It is clear that the presence of rotation enhances the threshold mass of the considered system. (ii) In the case of longitudinal mode of propagation when rotation is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field, Alfvén and viscous self-gravitating modes are obtained. The Alfvén mode is modified by FLR corrections and rotation. The analytical as well as graphical results show that the presence of FLR and rotation play significant roles in stabilizing the growth rate of the firehose instability by suppressing the parallel anisotropic pressure. The viscous self-gravitating mode is significantly affected by tensor viscosity, anisotropic pressure and the quantum parameter while it remains free from rotation and FLR corrections. When the direction of rotation is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the rotation of the considered system coupled the Alfvén and viscous self-gravitating modes to each other. The finding of the present work is applicable to
Kraus, Dominik
2017-10-01
Carbon-hydrogen demixing and subsequent diamond precipitation has been predicted to strongly participate in shaping the internal structure and evolution of icy giant planets like Neptune and Uranus. The very same dense plasma chemistry is also a potential concern for CH plastic ablator materials in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments where similar conditions are present during the first compression stage of the imploding capsule. Here, carbon-hydrogen demixing may enhance the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in the following compression stages. First experiments applying dynamic compression and ultrafast in situ X-ray diffraction at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source demonstrated diamond formation from polystyrene (CH) at 150 GPa and 5000 K. Very recent experiments have now investigated the influence of oxygen, which is highly abundant in icy giant planets on the phase separation process. Compressing PET (C5H4O2) and PMMA(C5H8O2), we find again diamond formation at pressures above 150 GPa and temperatures of several thousand kelvins, showing no strong effect due to the presence of oxygen. Thus, diamond precipitation deep inside icy giant planets seems very likely. Moreover, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was added to the platform, which determines an upper limit for the diamond particle size, while the width of the diffraction features provides a lower limit. We find that diamond particles of several nanometers in size are formed on a nanosecond timescale. Finally, spectrally resolved X-ray scattering is used to scale amorphous diffraction signals and allows for determining the amount of carbon-hydrogen demixing inside the compressed samples even if no crystalline diamond is formed. This whole set of diagnostics provides unprecedented insights into the nanosecond kinetics of dense plasma chemistry.
Theory of magnetostriction of electron-hole drops in Ge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markiewicz, R.S.
1978-01-01
A large mass of electron-hole liquid (γ drop) formed in a strain-induced potential well in Ge is known to distort its shape significantly in a magnetic field B > or approx. = 1 kG. It is shown in this paper that the shape change can be understood in detail as due to a ''recombination current'' of electron-hole pairs needed to replace those pairs which recombine in the drop volume. The Lorentz force deflects this current and produces a macroscopic dipole current loop inside the drop. The drop then changes shape to minimize its total energy, including magnetic, strain, and surface energies. While the drop usually flattens along the field direction, both para- and diamagnetic effects (elongated drops) are found to be possible, depending on excitation conditions, in accord with experiment. Similar effects are predicted to occur in small drops in unstrained Ge. This paper presents a magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetostriction which takes into account density variations which occur in the strain well and in high magnetic fields. A simpler theory is given for the special case in which the drop may be considered incompressible (small drops and moderate fields). Effects of carrier mass anisotropy and fluid viscosity are taken into consideration
Varying Radii of On-Axis Anode Hollows For kJ-Class Dense Plasma Focus
Shaw, Brian; Chapman, Steven; Falabella, Steven; Pankin, Alexei; Liu, Jason; Link, Anthony; Schmidt, Andréa
2017-10-01
A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a compact plasma gun that produces high energy ion beams, up to several MeV, through strong potential gradients. Motivated by particle-in-cell simulations, we have tried a series of hollow anodes on our kJ-class DPF. Each anode has varying hollow sizes, and has been studied to optimize ion beam production in Helium, reduce anode sputter, and increase neutron yields in deuterium. We diagnose the rate at which electrode material is ablated and deposited onto nearby surfaces. This is of interest in the case of solid targets, which perform poorly in the presence of sputter. We have found that the larger the hollow radius produces more energetic ion beams, higher neutron yield, and sputter less than a flat top anode. A complete comparison is presented. This work was prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development within U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.
Time-resolved Thomson scattering on high-intensity laser-produced hot dense helium plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sperling, P; Liseykina, T; Bauer, D; Redmer, R
2013-01-01
The introduction of brilliant free-electron lasers enables new pump–probe experiments to characterize warm and hot dense matter states, i.e. systems at solid-like densities and temperatures of one to several hundred eV. Such extreme conditions are relevant for high-energy density studies such as, e.g., in planetary physics and inertial confinement fusion. We consider here a liquid helium jet pumped with a high-intensity optical short-pulse laser that is subsequently probed with brilliant soft x-ray radiation. The optical short-pulse laser generates a strongly inhomogeneous helium plasma which is characterized with particle-in-cell simulations. We derive the respective Thomson scattering spectrum based on the Born–Mermin approximation for the dynamic structure factor considering the full density and temperature-dependent Thomson scattering cross section throughout the target. We observe plasmon modes that are generated in the interior of the target and study their temporal evolution. Such pump–probe experiments are promising tools to measure the important plasma parameters density and temperature. The method described here can be applied to various pump–probe scenarios by combining optical lasers, soft x-rays and hard x-ray sources. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyrpekl, Vaclav; Holzhäuser, Michael; Hein, Herwin; Vigier, Jean-Francois; Somers, Joseph; Svora, Petr
2014-01-01
Graphical abstract: Densification of HfO 2 –Y 2 O 3 micro-beads by Spark Plasma Sintering High density pellets with homogenous distribution of Hf and Y serve as neutron absorbers. - Abstract: Dense yttrium–stabilised hafnia pellets (91.35 wt.% HfO 2 and 8.65 wt.% Y 2 O 3 ) were prepared by spark plasma sintering consolidation of micro-beads synthesised by the “external gelation” sol–gel technique. This technique allows a preparation of HfO 2 –Y 2 O 3 beads with homogenous yttria–hafnia solid solution. A sintering time of 5 min at 1600 °C was sufficient to produce high density pellets (over 90% of the theoretical density) with significant reproducibility. The pellets have been machined in a lathe to the correct dimensions for use as neutron absorbers in an experimental test irradiation in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, Holland, in order to investigate the safety of americium based nuclear fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Young-Dae; Kato, Daiji
2009-05-01
The quantum effects on the formation of the negative hydrogen ion (H - ) by the polarization electron capture process are investigated in partially ionized dense hydrogen plasmas. It is shown that the quantum effect strongly suppresses the electron capture radius as well as the cross section for the formation of the negative hydrogen ion. In addition, it has been found that the electron capture position is receded from the center of the projectile with decreasing the quantum effect of the plasma. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Shenlin; Zhang Jiuxing; Liu Danmin; Lin Zulun; Huang Qingzhen; Bao Lihong; Ma Ruguang; Wei Yongfeng
2010-01-01
Nanostructured polycrystalline LaB 6 ceramics were prepared by the reactive spark plasma sintering method, using boron nanopowders and LaH 2 powders with a particle size of about 30 nm synthesized by hydrogen dc arc plasma. The reaction mechanism of sintering, crystal structure, microstructure, grain orientations and properties of the materials were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Neutron powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that nanostructured dense LaB 6 with a fibrous texture can be fabricated by SPS at a pressure of 80 MPa and temperature of 1300 deg. C for 5 min. Compared with the coarse polycrystalline LaB 6 prepared by traditional methods, the nanostructured LaB 6 bulk possesses both higher mechanical and higher thermionic emission properties. The Vickers hardness was 22.3 GPa, the flexural strength was 271.2 MPa and the maximum emission current density was 56.81 A cm -2 at a cathode temperature of 1600 deg. C.
Zhao, Xue-Yan; Xie, Bai-Song; Wu, Hai-Cheng; Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Aimidula, Aimierding
2012-03-01
An optimizing and alternative scheme for electron injection and acceleration in the wake bubble driven by an ultraintense laser pulse is presented. In this scheme, the dense-plasma wall with an inner diameter matching the expected bubble size is placed along laser propagation direction. Meanwhile, a dense-plasma block dense-plasma is adhered inward transversely at some certain position of the wall. Particle-in-cell simulations are performed, which demonstrate that the block plays an important role in the first electron injection and acceleration. The result shows that a collimated electron bunch with a total number of about 4.04×108μm-1 can be generated and accelerated stably to 1.61 GeV peak energy with 2.6% energy spread. The block contributes about 50% to the accelerated electron injection bunch by tracing and sorting statistically the source.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamrukov, A.S.; Kozlov, N.P.; Myshelov, E.P.; Protasov, Yu.S.
1981-01-01
Analysis of physical specific features of radiator where plasma heating is performed with tbermalization of directed kinetic energy of dense plasma flows accelerated electrodynamically up to hypersonic velocities during its shock deceleration, is given. It is shown that the plasma heating method considered has a number of principle advantages as compared with methods most disseminated now for generation of dense intensively radiating plasma (current heating exploding method) and suggests new possibilities for construction of selective high brightness radiat.ion sources of ultraviolet and far vacuum ultraviolet ranges of spectrum. Radiation gas dynamic processes of hypersonic plasma flow deceleration formed with magnetoplasma compressors have been experimentally investigated on their interaction with condenced matters in vacuum and basic thermodynamic parameters of shock compressed plasma have been determined. It is shown that the conversion process of kinetic energy of high-velocity plasma flows to radiation is accomplished at very high efficiency-integral luminescence of shock compressed plasma can reach approximately 90% of initial kinetic energy of flow [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milanese, Maria Magdalena
2006-01-01
This is a short review of the research done by the Dense Plasma Focus Group (GPDM) presently working in Tandil, Argentina, from its origin, more than three decades ago, as part of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of Buenos Aires University (the first one in Latin-America where experiments in plasma focus have been made) up to the present. The interest has been mainly experimental studies on plasma focus and, in general, fast electrical discharges. The plasma focus has extensively been studied as neutron producer, including its possibility to play a role in nuclear fusion. It was also researched not only for basic plasma studies, but also for other important applications. Conception, design, construction and study of devices and diagnostics suitable for each application have been made on basis of developed criteria
Energy of ground state of laminar electron-hole liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andryushin, E.A.
1976-01-01
The problem of a possible existence of metal electron-hole liquid in semiconductors is considered. The calculation has been carried out for the following model: two parallel planes are separated with the distance on one of the planes electrons moving, on the other holes doing. Transitions between the planes are forbidden. The density of particles for both planes is the same. The energy of the ground state and correlation functions for such electron-and hole system are calculated. It is shown that the state of a metal liquid is more advantageous against the exciton gas. For the mass ratio of electrons and holes, msub(e)/msub(h) → 0 a smooth rearrangement of the system into a state with ordered heavy particles is observed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocca, Jorge; Marconi, Mario; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Dunn, James; Moon, Stephen; Nilsen, Joseph
2007-01-01
The goal of this project is to investigate and characterize high-density converging plasma configurations using new soft x-ray laser based interferometric techniques. The results are used to verify and validate multi-dimensional hydrodynamic codes in plasma regimes which densities and size exceed those that can be probed with optical laser beams. The dynamics of converging plasmas created by laser irradiation of half-hohlraum cylindrical cavities targets was probed using a compact 46.9 nm soft x-ray laser. The results were used for comparison with extensive simulations conducted with the multi-dimensional hydrodynamic code HYDRA. As part of this study we have also investigated plasma regimes in which the index of refraction of the plasmas can not be defined solely based on the contribution of free electron, as is usually assumed for multiply ionized plasmas. Our results demonstrate the existence of plasma regimes in which the contribution of bound electrons from ions dominates the refractive index at soft x-ray wavelengths. We are also working in extending plasma interferometry to the sub 10 nm wavelength range. In the process we are advancing soft x-ray laser plasma diagnostics techniques to allow the measurement of large-scale, high-density plasmas with picosecond temporal resolution and micrometer spatial resolution, laying the foundations for future advanced diagnostics at high energy density DOE facilities. Dense plasma diagnostics, soft x-ray laser interferometry, converging plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starchyk, P.D.; Porytskyy, P.V.
2005-01-01
It is shown that the most important influence on the plasma of electrical pulse discharges in liquid have the processes in a zone of its contact with condensed medium. The investigations of growth of corrugations are conducted which arise on an interface between both the plasma channels of electrical pulse discharges and limiting it liquid. It is shown that the growth of perturbations caused by Rayleigh-Taylor instability are nonlinearly saturated. It is established the interconnection between both the pointed perturbations and the parameters of a dense plasma of discharge channel
Enhanced laser-energy coupling to dense plasmas driven by recirculating electron currents
Gray, R. J.; Wilson, R.; King, M.; Williamson, S. D. R.; Dance, R. J.; Armstrong, C.; Brabetz, C.; Wagner, F.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Neely, D.; McKenna, P.
2018-03-01
The absorption of laser energy and dynamics of energetic electrons in dense plasma is fundamental to a range of intense laser-driven particle and radiation generation mechanisms. We measure the total reflected and scattered laser energy as a function of intensity, distinguishing between the influence of pulse energy and focal spot size on total energy absorption, in the interaction with thin foils. We confirm a previously published scaling of absorption with intensity by variation of laser pulse energy, but find a slower scaling when changing the focal spot size. 2D particle-in-cell simulations show that the measured differences arise due to energetic electrons recirculating within the target and undergoing multiple interactions with the laser pulse, which enhances absorption in the case of large focal spots. This effect is also shown to be dependent on the laser pulse duration, the target thickness and the electron beam divergence. The parameter space over which this absorption enhancement occurs is explored via an analytical model. The results impact our understanding of the fundamental physics of laser energy absorption in solids and thus the development of particle and radiation sources driven by intense laser–solid interactions.
New approximation for calculating free-free absorption in hot dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perrot, F.
1996-01-01
We propose a model for calculating free-free absorption (inverse bremmstrahlung) in hot dense plasmas. This model writes the total Gaunt factor as the product of a static factor and a dynamic factor. The treatment of the static part is based on a relation between the absorption cross section and the elastic scattering cross section, which is exact for very low frequencies and becomes asymptotically correct when the Born approximation is valid. Generalizing this relation provides an expression of the absorption cross section Q(k,k'), which depends on the initial and final wave vectors k and k', as an integral of a unique function S * (k). The calculation of nondiagonal matrix elements (k ''not='' k') is thus avoided. The analytical summation of the high angular momenta in the partial wave expansion of the cross section makes possible to apply the model in the limit of weak electron screening. The collective effects are accounted for in a dynamic Gaunt factor and in an index of refraction different from unity. Numerical results for the Gaunt factor in cesium are presented and discussed. An application to the mean opacities of carbon is also shown. (Author)
Ionic structures and transport properties of hot dense W and U plasmas
Hou, Yong; Yuan, Jianmin
2016-10-01
We have combined the average-atom model with the hyper-netted chain approximation (AAHNC) to describe the electronic and ionic structure of uranium and tungsten in the hot dense matter regime. When the electronic structure is described within the average-atom model, the effects of others ions on the electronic structure are considered by the correlation functions. And the ionic structure is calculated though using the hyper-netted chain (HNC) approximation. The ion-ion pair potential is calculated using the modified Gordon-Kim model based on the electronic density distribution in the temperature-depended density functional theory. And electronic and ionic structures are determined self-consistently. On the basis of the ion-ion pair potential, we perform the classical (CMD) and Langevin (LMD) molecular dynamics to simulate the ionic transport properties, such as ionic self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients, through the ionic velocity correlation functions. Due that the free electrons become more and more with increasing the plasma temperature, the influence of the electron-ion collisions on the transport properties become more and more important.
Dense Magnetized Plasmas. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2001-2006
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2013-04-01
The IAEA strives to promote the development and utilization of nuclear technologies offering research opportunities for the growth of industrial applications in various domains. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Dense Magnetized Plasmas (DMPs) was intended to coordinate the development of compact and low cost sources for the generation of charged particle beams, neutrons, X rays and plasma streams. Intense short bursts of neutrons are required for testing and calibrating neutron based diagnostics. Intense particle beams and plasma streams from DMP sources find applications in various research fields and technology, for instance, high heat load testing of candidate materials for the first wall of future fusion reactors. On-site detection of illicit and explosive materials using high rep-rate neutron bursts from compact DMP devices is of great interest. Soft and hard X ray beams produced from such sources have potential applications in biology and enzymology. The overall objective of this CRP was to stimulate and promote investigation of DMPs through synergistic international cooperation. Specific objectives were: (i) to coordinate complementary research efforts related to DMPs by experts in developed and developing Members States, (ii) to speed up the progress in DMP applications by sharing knowledge, expertise and costs, (iii) to promote technology transfer among Member States, and (iv) to contribute to knowledge preservation by involving additional scientists from developing Member States who are not yet experts in DMPs. The three major components of DMP devices are the driver (power supply, electrode system and its associated switch), the target and the target chamber. Engineering fields related to DMP system design include vacuum technology, radiation resistant material development, ablation hydrodynamics and neutronics. In each case, the integration of the components must account for the unique interfaces and constraints of the particular application
Dense plasma focus x-ray source for sub-micron lithography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Mangano, J.; Greene, P.; Qi, Niansheng
1993-01-01
A discharge driven, dense plasma focus in neon is under development at SRL for use as a point x-ray source for sub-micron lithography. This source is presently capable of delivering ∼ 13j/pulse of neon K-shell x-rays (8--14 angstrom) into 4π steradians with 2 kj of electrical energy stored in the capacitor bank charged to 9 kV at a pulse repetition rate of 2 Hz. The discharge is produced by a ≤4 kj, ≤12 kV, capacitor bank circuit, which has a fixed inductance of 12 nH and drives ≤450 kA currents into the DPF load, with ∼1.1 μs rise-times. X-rays are produced when a dense pinch of neon is formed along the axis of the DPF electrodes. A new rail-gap switched capacitor bank and DPF have been built, designed for continuous operation at 2 Hz and burst mode operation at 20 Hz. This paper will present measurements of the x-ray output at a repetition rate of 2 Hz using the new capacitor bank. It will also describe measurements of the spot size (0.3--0.8 mm) and the spectrum (8--14 angstrom) of the DPF source. The dependence of these parameters on the DPF head geometry, bank energy and operating pressure will be discussed. The x-ray output has been measured using filtered pin diodes, x-ray diodes, and absolutely calibrated x-ray crystal spectra. Results from the source operating at 2 Hz will be presented. A novel concept of a windowless beamline has also been developed. The results of preliminary experiments to test the concept will be discussed. At a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz, this source should produce 200--400 W of x-ray power in the 8-14 angstrom wavelength band, with an input power of 40--60 kW
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kontogiannopoulos, N
2007-12-15
In this work we performed experiments of emission and absorption spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas, to provide well characterized spectral data which permit to benchmark atomic physics codes. More precisely, we produced xenon and krypton plasmas in NLTE (non local thermodynamic equilibrium) conditions and studied their emission spectra. In a second experiment, we characterized the absorption spectra of zinc sulfide and aluminium plasmas in LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) conditions.The first two chapters give an outline of the theory involved in the study of the emission and absorption plasma spectroscopy. Chapter 1 describes the different atomic processes occurring in a plasma. The LTE and the NLTE statistics ruling the equilibrium of the atomic processes are presented. Then, we give a brief description of the different codes of plasma atomic physics used in the analysis of our experimental data, namely HULLAC, SCO and TRANSPEC/AVERROES. In Chapter 2 the macroscopic theory of the radiation transport through a plasma is given. We describe also the self-similar model of Basko and the view factor approach, which permits us to calculate the heating conditions of the absorption foils achieved in the interior of the spherical gold cavity. Chapter 3 gives a description of the instruments used for realizing the two experiments, as well as the technical characteristics of the LULI2000 laser facility used to perform the experiments. Chapter 4 presents the experiment realized to characterize the emission spectra of the xenon and krypton plasmas in NLTE, as well the analysis of the experimental data with TRANSPEC/AVERROES. Finally, the experiment for measuring the absorption spectrum of the ZnS plasma mixture and the analysis of the experimental data with the code SCO are given in Chapter 5.
Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts
Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bonnell, J. W.
2017-03-01
Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify them via test particle simulations. We show that the most efficiently scattered are gyroresonant electrons (crossing EH on a time scale comparable to the local electron gyroperiod). We compute bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the EH spatial distribution (latitudinal extent and spatial filling factor) and individual EH parameters (amplitude of electrostatic potential, velocity, and spatial scales). We show that EHs can drive pitch angle scattering of ≲5 keV electrons at rates 10-2-10-4 s-1 and, hence, can contribute to electron losses and conjugated diffuse aurora brightenings. The momentum and pitch angle scattering rates can be comparable, so that EHs can also provide efficient electron heating. The scattering rates driven by EHs at L shells L ˜ 5-8 are comparable to those due to chorus waves and may exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welch, Dale Robert; MacFarlane, Joseph John; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Campbell, Robert B.
2004-01-01
We have studied the feasibility of using the 3D fully electromagnetic implicit hybrid particle code LSP (Large Scale Plasma) to study laser plasma interactions with dense, compressed plasmas like those created with Z, and which might be created with the planned ZR. We have determined that with the proper additional physics and numerical algorithms developed during the LDRD period, LSP was transformed into a unique platform for studying such interactions. Its uniqueness stems from its ability to consider realistic compressed densities and low initial target temperatures (if required), an ability that conventional PIC codes do not possess. Through several test cases, validations, and applications to next generation machines described in this report, we have established the suitability of the code to look at fast ignition issues for ZR, as well as other high-density laser plasma interaction problems relevant to the HEDP program at Sandia (e.g. backlighting)
Path integral Monte Carlo simulations of dense carbon-hydrogen plasmas
Zhang, Shuai; Militzer, Burkhard; Benedict, Lorin X.; Soubiran, François; Sterne, Philip A.; Driver, Kevin P.
2018-03-01
Carbon-hydrogen plasmas and hydrocarbon materials are of broad interest to laser shock experimentalists, high energy density physicists, and astrophysicists. Accurate equations of state (EOSs) of hydrocarbons are valuable for various studies from inertial confinement fusion to planetary science. By combining path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results at high temperatures and density functional theory molecular dynamics results at lower temperatures, we compute the EOSs for hydrocarbons from simulations performed at 1473 separate (ρ, T)-points distributed over a range of compositions. These methods accurately treat electronic excitation effects with neither adjustable parameter nor experimental input. PIMC is also an accurate simulation method that is capable of treating many-body interaction and nuclear quantum effects at finite temperatures. These methods therefore provide a benchmark-quality EOS that surpasses that of semi-empirical and Thomas-Fermi-based methods in the warm dense matter regime. By comparing our first-principles EOS to the LEOS 5112 model for CH, we validate the specific heat assumptions in this model but suggest that the Grüneisen parameter is too large at low temperatures. Based on our first-principles EOSs, we predict the principal Hugoniot curve of polystyrene to be 2%-5% softer at maximum shock compression than that predicted by orbital-free density functional theory and SESAME 7593. By investigating the atomic structure and chemical bonding of hydrocarbons, we show a drastic decrease in the lifetime of chemical bonds in the pressure interval from 0.4 to 4 megabar. We find the assumption of linear mixing to be valid for describing the EOS and the shock Hugoniot curve of hydrocarbons in the regime of partially ionized atomic liquids. We make predictions of the shock compression of glow-discharge polymers and investigate the effects of oxygen content and C:H ratio on its Hugoniot curve. Our full suite of first-principles simulation results may
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Yi; Song Lei; Liu Xiaoguang; Xiao Yanfeng; Wu Yao; Chen Jiyong; Wu Fang; Gu Zhongwei
2010-01-01
Hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by a novel plasma spraying process, the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. X-ray diffraction results showed that the coatings obtained by the LPPS process were mainly composed of hydroxyapatite. The LPPS process also showed excellent control on the coating microstructure, and both nearly fully dense and highly porous hydroxyapatite coatings were obtained by simply adjusting the solid content of the hydroxyapatite liquid precursor. Scanning electron microscope observations indicated that the porous hydroxyapatite coatings had pore size in the range of 10-200 μm and an average porosity of 48.26 ± 0.10%. The osteoblastic cell responses to the dense and porous hydroxyapatite coatings were evaluated with human osteoblastic cell MG-63, in respect of the cell morphology, proliferation and differentiation, with the hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process as control. The cell experiment results indicated that the heat-treated LPPS coatings with a porous structure showed the best cell proliferation and differentiation among all the hydroxyapatite coatings. Our results suggest that the LPPS process is a promising plasma spraying technique for fabricating hydroxyapatite coatings with a controllable microstructure, which has great potential in bone repair and replacement applications.
Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solodov, A.
2000-12-01
Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)
Dense-plasma-driven ultrafast formation of FePt organization on ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka 8208502, Japan. 2Department of Physics ... e-beam, and imprint lithography used for nano-patterning and array ... 2. Experimental. The plasma focus device (figure 1a) is a coaxial plasma gun.
The electrical conductivity of a weakly non-ideal, dense plasma
Rosado, R.J.; Leclair, J.; Schram, D.C.
1977-01-01
The electrical conductance of a non-ideal plasma was measured and compared with Spitzer's formula for ideal plasmas and a correction to this formula proposed by Rovinskii. The measured conductance proved to agree better with the Spitzer result
Barati, Fatemeh; Grossnickle, Max; Su, Shanshan; Lake, Roger; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel
Two-dimensional heterostructures composed of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides provide the opportunity to design novel devices for the study of electron-hole pair multiplication. We report on highly efficient multiplication of interlayer electron-hole pairs at the interface of a tungsten diselenide / molybdenum diselenide heterostructure. Electronic transport measurements of the interlayer current-voltage characteristics indicate that layer-indirect electron-hole pairs are generated by hot electron impact excitation. Our findings, which demonstrate an efficient energy relaxation pathway that competes with electron thermalization losses, make 2D semiconductor heterostructures viable for a new class of hot-carrier energy harvesting devices that exploit layer-indirect electron-hole excitations. SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Relation between bulk compressibility and surface energy of electron-hole liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singwi, K.S.; Tosi, M.P.
1979-08-01
Attention is drawn to the existence of an empirical relation chiσ/asup(*)sub(B) approximately 1 between the compressibility, the surface energy and the excitonic radius in electron-hole liquids. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malhotra, Yashi; Srivastava, M P; Roy, Savita
2010-01-01
Nanoparticles of zinc oxide from zinc oxide pellets in the nitrogen plasma atmosphere are deposited on n and p type silicon substrates using Dense Plasma Focus device. The hot and dense nitrogen plasma formed during the focus phase ionizes the ZnO pellet, which then move upward in a fountain like shape and gets deposited on substrates which are placed above the top of the anode. Structural and surface properties of the deposited ZnO are investigated using X-ray diffraction and Atomic force microscope (AFM). X-ray spectra shows the diffraction plane (002) of ZnO nanoparticles deposited on Si with few shots in nitrogen atmosphere. AFM investigations revealed that there are nanoparticles of size between 15-80 nm on n-Si and p-Si substrates. The deposition on n-type Si is better than the p-type Si can be seen from AFM images, this may be due to different orientation of silicon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.; Terentiev, A.R.
1995-01-01
Experimental results are presented which verify the possibility of the self-generated transformation of the magnetic field in plasma focus discharges to give a closed, spheromak-like magnetic configuration (SLMC). The energy conversion mechanism suggests a possibility of further concentrating the plasma power density by means of natural compressing the SLMC-trapped plasma by the residual magnetic field of the plasma focus discharge
Dense plasma focus PACO as a hard X-ray emitter: a study on the radiation source
Supán, L.; Guichón, S.; Milanese, Maria Magdalena; Niedbalski, Jorge Julio; Moroso, Roberto Luis; Acuña, H.; Malamud, Florencia
2016-01-01
The radiation in the X-ray range detected outside the vacuum chamber of the dense plasma focus (DPF) PACO, are produced on the anode zone. The zone of emission is studied in a shot-to-shot analysis, using pure deuterium as filling gas. We present a diagnostic method to determine the place and size of the hard X-ray source by image analysis of high density radiography plates. Fil: Supán, L.. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Insti...
Landt, J. A.
1974-01-01
The geometries of dense solar wind clouds are estimated by comparing single-location measurements of the solar wind plasma with the average of the electron density obtained by radio signal delay measurements along a radio path between earth and interplanetary spacecraft. Several of these geometries agree with the current theoretical spatial models of flare-induced shock waves. A new class of spatially limited structures that contain regions with densities greater than any observed in the broad clouds is identified. The extent of a cloud was found to be approximately inversely proportional to its density.
Soft x-ray measurements in the FN-II dense plasma focus device for different anode configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojo-Blanco, C; Castillo-Mejía, F; Rangel-Gutiérrez, J; Herrera-Velázquez, J J E
2012-01-01
A study of the soft x-ray emission is presented, for a low energy (4.8 kJ) dense plasma focus device. Three Quantrad Si PIN-diodes with differential filter combinations of Be, Al, Ti, Ni, and Mo are employed as time-resolved x-ray detectors. The x-ray flux in different energy windows is measured as function of the deuterium filling pressure. A comparison is made for three anode configurations: (a) hollow, (b) flat, and (c) 2mm diameter W needle.
Bowen, LI; Zhibin, WANG; Qiuyue, NIE; Xiaogang, WANG; Fanrong, KONG; Zhenyu, WANG
2018-01-01
Intensive collisions between electrons and neutral particles in partially ionized plasmas generated in atmospheric/sub-atmospheric pressure environments can sufficiently affect the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves, particularly in the sub-wavelength regime. To investigate the collisional effect in such plasmas, we introduce a simplified plasma slab model with a thickness on the order of the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. The scattering matrix method (SMM) is applied to solve the wave equation in the plasma slab with significant nonuniformity. Results show that the collisions between the electrons and the neutral particles, as well as the incident angle and the plasma thickness, can disturb the transmission and reduce reflection significantly.
Far infrared spectroscopy of solids. I. Impurity states in Al2O3. II. Electron-hole droplets in Ge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aurbauch, R.L.
1975-01-01
Far infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy was used to study the low lying vibronic states of Mn 3+ in Al 2 O 3 and the plasma absorption of electron-hole droplets in Ge. The transmission of Mn-doped samples of Al 2 O 3 was measured in the frequency range from 3 to 30 cm -1 in applied magnetic fields up to 50 kG. Absorption lines were observed due to both ground and excited state transitions. Polarization measurements established that these absorption lines were due to electric dipole transitions. Temperature dependence measurements were used to derive a level diagram for the low lying states of Mn 3+ . A phenomenological model based on an electronic Hamiltonian was developed which successfully describes the data. The empirically determined trigonal field and spin-orbit quenching parameters of this model are 0.7 and 0.1 respectively. This quenching is attributed to the dynamic Jahn--Teller interaction. The plasma absorption of small (α) electron-hole drops in Ge was measured in the frequency range from 30 to 300 cm -1 . The observed absorption is in good agreement with measurements by Vavilov and other workers. A theoretical model which includes both intraband and interband contributions to the dielectric constant in the Rayleigh limit of Mie theory is used to describe the observed lineshape. Measurements of plasma absorption of large (γ) drops in inhomogeneously stressed Ge were made in magnetic fields up to 50 kG. The lineshape at zero applied field was calculated in the large sphere limit of Mie theory including intraband terms and a zero-strain interband term. Qualitative agreement with experiment was obtained. The peak absorption shifted quadratically with applied magnetic field and the total plasma absorption increased. No oscillatory structure was observed in the field-dependence of the total absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferri, S.; Buescher, S.; Wrubel, Th.; Kunze, H.-J.; Calisti, A.; Stamm, R.; Talin, B.
2001-01-01
The standard static-ion/impact-electron theory of line broadening is assessed with calculations of hydrogen lines over a broad range of plasma conditions. In most cases, discrepancies between results from theory and experiments are explained by the neglect of ion-dynamics effects. Nevertheless, recent experiments involving high density but low temperature plasmas indicate that ion-dynamics/impact-electron models may seriously overestimate the broadening for such conditions. We show that the observed discrepancies are not due to the ion modeling but due to the impact approximation of the electrons in the Original Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM). This situation arises for plasma conditions where the interactions with the electrons are a major broadening mechanism and quasi-static, i.e. non-binary, electron effects are important. An alternative approach to a binary collision operator is therefore proposed by means of the FFM code generalized to the two components (ions and electrons) of the plasma. Accurate simulations accounting for the electron plus ion field dynamics have been used to corroborate the FFM as applied to both ion and electron perturbers, and good agreement is found with recent experiments on H α and P α for dense but relatively cold plasmas
Slowing-down of non-relativistic ions in a hot dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maynard, G.
1982-01-01
The parameter γ (action of the free-electrons of the plasma) was investigated: calculation of the mean value of γ for a great number of monokinetic incident ions and of the dispersion about this mean value, using the random phase approximation; and calculation of the dielectric function. The contribution of the plasma ions to the stopping power was studied and the description of the ion-plasma interaction improved. The slowing-down of an ion at large distance by the bound electrons of an atom was calculated. This study is applied to the ion-plasma interaction in the ion-beam inertial confinement [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thio, Francis Y.C.
2008-01-01
An overview of the U.S. program in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is given in terms of its technical rationale, scientific goals, vision, research plans, needs, and the research facilities currently available in support of the program. Magneto-inertial fusion is an emerging concept for inertial fusion and a pathway to the study of dense plasmas in ultrahigh magnetic fields (magnetic fields in excess of 500 T). The presence of magnetic field in an inertial fusion target suppresses cross-field thermal transport and potentially could enable more attractive inertial fusion energy systems. A vigorous program in magnetized high energy density laboratory plasmas (HED-LP) addressing the scientific basis of magneto-inertial fusion has been initiated by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy involving a number of universities, government laboratories and private institutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auluck, S. K. H.
2014-01-01
Experimental data compiled over five decades of dense plasma focus research are consistent with the snowplow model of sheath propagation, based on the hypothetical balance between magnetic pressure driving the plasma into neutral gas ahead and “wind pressure” resisting its motion. The resulting sheath velocity, or the numerically proportional “drive parameter,” is known to be approximately constant for devices optimized for neutron production over 8 decades of capacitor bank energy. This paper shows that the validity of the snowplow hypothesis, with some correction, as well as the non-dependence of sheath velocity on device parameters, have their roots in local conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy coupled with the ionization stability condition. Both upper and lower bounds on sheath velocity are shown to be related to material constants of the working gas and independent of the device geometry and capacitor bank impedance
Doubly excited 2s2p 1,3Po resonance states of helium in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar, Sabyasachi; Ho, Y.K.
2005-01-01
We have made an investigation on the 2s2p 1,3 P o resonance states of helium embedded in dense plasma environments. A screened Coulomb potential obtained from the Debye model is used to represent the interaction between the charge particles. A correlated wave function consisting of a generalized exponential expansion has been used to represent the correlation effect. Resonance energies and widths for the doubly excited He embedded in plasmas with various Debye lengths are determined using the stabilization method by calculating the density of resonance states. The resonance energies and widths for various Debye parameters ranging from infinity to a small value for the lowest 1,3 P o resonance states are reported
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Auluck, S. K. H., E-mail: skhauluck@gmail.com, E-mail: skauluck@barc.gov.in [Physics Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)
2014-09-15
Experimental data compiled over five decades of dense plasma focus research are consistent with the snowplow model of sheath propagation, based on the hypothetical balance between magnetic pressure driving the plasma into neutral gas ahead and “wind pressure” resisting its motion. The resulting sheath velocity, or the numerically proportional “drive parameter,” is known to be approximately constant for devices optimized for neutron production over 8 decades of capacitor bank energy. This paper shows that the validity of the snowplow hypothesis, with some correction, as well as the non-dependence of sheath velocity on device parameters, have their roots in local conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy coupled with the ionization stability condition. Both upper and lower bounds on sheath velocity are shown to be related to material constants of the working gas and independent of the device geometry and capacitor bank impedance.
Energy level broadening effect on the equation of state of hot dense Al and Au plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Yong; Jin Fengtao; Yuan Jianmin
2007-01-01
In the hot dense matter regime, the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au is calculated using an average-atom (AA) model in which the broadening of energy levels of atoms and ions are accounted for by using with a Gaussian distribution of the density of states. The distribution of bound electrons in the energy bands is determined by the continuum Fermi-Dirac distribution. With a self-consistent field average atoms scheme, it is shown that the energy-level broadening has a significant effect on the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au in the hot dense matter regime. The jumps in the equation of state (EOS) induced by pressure ionization of the one-electron orbital with the increase in density, which often occur in the normal average-atom model and have been avoided by generally introducing the pseudo-shape resonance states, disappear naturally
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2013-04-01
Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in Member States. The scientific and technical knowledge required for the construction and operation of large nuclear fusion research facilities, including ITER and the Laser Megajoule in France, and the Z machine and the National Ignition Facility in the United States of America, necessitates several accompanying research and development programmes in physics and technology. This is particularly true in the areas of materials science and fusion technology. Hence, the long standing IAEA effort to conduct coordinated research projects (CRPs) in these areas is aimed at: (i) the development of appropriate technical tools to investigate the issue of materials damage and degradation in a fusion plasma environment; and (ii) the emergence of a knowledge based understanding of the various processes underlying materials damage and degradation, thereby leading to the identification of suitable candidate materials fulfilling the stringent requirements of a fusion environment in any next step facility. Dense magnetized plasma (DMP) devices serve as a first test bench for testing of fusion relevant plasma facing materials, diagnostic development and calibration, technologies and scaling to conceptual principles of larger devices while sophisticated testing facilities such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are being designed. The CRP on Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology described herein was initiated in 2007 with the participation of 12 research institutions in 8 Member States and was concluded in 2011. It was designed with specific research objectives falling into two main categories: support to mainstream fusion research and development of DMP technology. This publication is a compilation of the individual reports submitted by the 12 CRP participants. These reports discuss
Stable solitary waves in super dense plasmas at external magnetic fields
Ghaani, Azam; Javidan, Kurosh; Sarbishaei, Mohsen
2015-07-01
Propagation of localized waves in a Fermi-Dirac distributed super dense matter at the presence of strong external magnetic fields is studied using the reductive perturbation method. We have shown that stable solitons can be created in such non-relativistic fluids in the presence of an external magnetic field. Such solitary waves are governed by the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation. Properties of solitonic solutions are studied in media with different values of background mass density and strength of magnetic field.
On the anomalous interaction of intense light fluxes with a dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'yachenko, V.F.; Imshennik, V.S.
1979-01-01
The process of interaction of a light wave with plasma is considered in the framework of the system of the Maxwell-Vlasov equations without taking accout of particle collisions. The plasma were incident onto the plasma surface is monochromatic and linearly polarized. Plasma is cold and completely ionized. The concentration of charged particles is above critical one and varies in the direction of vector of the wave electric field. The results of several numerical calculations of this problem are presented. They show that if the energy flux density of the wave exceeds some critical one, plasma absorbes light intensively. Studied is the mechanism of nonlinear interaction of oscillations which leads to arising of multiflux motion and explaining this effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.
2016-01-01
An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei, E-mail: weikang@pku.edu.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Hongwei [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); He, X. T., E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)
2016-04-15
An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.
X-ray spectroscopic characterization of laser produced hot dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kontogiannopoulos, N.
2007-12-01
In this work we performed experiments of emission and absorption spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas, to provide well characterized spectral data which permit to benchmark atomic physics codes. More precisely, we produced xenon and krypton plasmas in NLTE (non local thermodynamic equilibrium) conditions and studied their emission spectra. In a second experiment, we characterized the absorption spectra of zinc sulfide and aluminium plasmas in LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) conditions.The first two chapters give an outline of the theory involved in the study of the emission and absorption plasma spectroscopy. Chapter 1 describes the different atomic processes occurring in a plasma. The LTE and the NLTE statistics ruling the equilibrium of the atomic processes are presented. Then, we give a brief description of the different codes of plasma atomic physics used in the analysis of our experimental data, namely HULLAC, SCO and TRANSPEC/AVERROES. In Chapter 2 the macroscopic theory of the radiation transport through a plasma is given. We describe also the self-similar model of Basko and the view factor approach, which permits us to calculate the heating conditions of the absorption foils achieved in the interior of the spherical gold cavity. Chapter 3 gives a description of the instruments used for realizing the two experiments, as well as the technical characteristics of the LULI2000 laser facility used to perform the experiments. Chapter 4 presents the experiment realized to characterize the emission spectra of the xenon and krypton plasmas in NLTE, as well the analysis of the experimental data with TRANSPEC/AVERROES. Finally, the experiment for measuring the absorption spectrum of the ZnS plasma mixture and the analysis of the experimental data with the code SCO are given in Chapter 5
Amininasab, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.
2018-02-01
Shear stress effect has been often neglected in calculation of the Weibel instability growth rate in laser-plasma interactions. In the present work, the role of the shear stress in the Weibel instability growth rate in the dense plasma with density gradient is explored. By increasing the density gradient, the shear stress threshold is increasing and the range of the propagation angles of growing modes is limited. Therefore, by increasing steps of the density gradient plasma near the relativistic electron beam-emitting region, the Weibel instability occurs at a higher stress flow. Calculations show that the minimum value of the stress rate threshold for linear polarization is greater than that of circular polarization. The Wiebel instability growth rate for linear polarization is 18.3 times circular polarization. One sees that for increasing stress and density gradient effects, there are smaller maximal growth rates for the range of the propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 < θ m i n < π and /3 π 2 < θ m i n < 2 π in circular polarized plasma.
Hot and dense plasma probing by soft X-ray lasers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krůs, Miroslav; Kozlová, Michaela; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Rus, B.
2018-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 1 (2018), č. článku C01004. ISSN 1748-0221. [International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics/18./. Prague, 24.09.2017-28.09.2017] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma diagnostics - interferometry * spectroscopy and imaging * Plasma diagnostics - probes * Plasma generation (laser-produced, RF, x ray-produced) Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/C01004
A numerical simulation study on active species production in dense methane-air plasma discharge
Gui, LI; Muyang, QIAN; Sanqiu, LIU; Huaying, CHEN; Chunsheng, REN; Dezhen, WANG
2018-01-01
Recently, low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have been proposed as a potential type of ‘reaction carrier’ for the conversion of methane into value-added chemicals. In this paper, the multi-physics field coupling software of COMSOL is used to simulate the detailed discharge characteristics of atmospheric pressure methane-air plasma. A two-dimensional axisymmetric fluid model is constructed, in which 77 plasma chemical reactions and 32 different species are taken into account. The spatial density distributions of dominant charged ions and reactive radical species, such as {{{CH}}}4+, {{{CH}}}3+, {{{N}}}2+, {{{O}}}2+, H, O, CH3, and CH2, are presented, which is due to plasma chemical reactions of methane/air dissociation (or ionization) and reforming of small fragment radical species. The physicochemical mechanisms of methane dissociation and radical species recombination are also discussed and analyzed.
The study of the near-wall layer in the dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhovtyansky, V.A.; Kolesnikova, E.P.
2013-01-01
The study of the role of near-surface processes in the argon and helium electric arc plasma is presented. As is shown also the electric probes in diffusion mode are a very useful diagnostic instrument in this case.
Nonlinear processes in laser-produced dense plasma (observation of the fractional harmonics)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyu, K.S.
1988-01-01
One of the main issues of laser plasma physics interactions is harmonic generation. The harmonic emission spectrum provides clues as to which non-linear processes take place in the plasma. Several effects contribute to a given line as judged from the complexity of the actual spectra. Unfolding of them has not been done satisfactorily yet. Harmonic lines with half integer or integer orders have been observed, but the physics are far from complete. In this dissertation research, we observed the usual second harmonic generation and a set of fractional harmonics which we believe have been observed for the first time in plasma physics. The plasma was produced by a high power laser and we have characterized its properties from the analysis of the radiation spectra, including the harmonic lines, as measured using the methods of transient spectroscopy. We produced the plasma with a Nd:glass laser which had a 65 nsec pulse width (FWHM) with a total energy of up to 6 Joules. The targets were steel alloys, copper, and aluminum. The harmonic generation from the plasma with a planar metal target was not strong. But, it became stronger when we made a dead hole (cavity) at the laser spot on the target surface. The second harmonic line appears first before the time of the peak of laser pulse. The fractional harmonics, which are related to the laser wavelength by rational number other than integers or half integers, appear near or after the time of the laser peak and weaker in UV wavelength range but stronger if some atomic emission line are near by. To understand the plasma evolution better, we developed computer simulation codes. The codes contain all relevant processes necessary to compute the plasma evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friou, A.
2012-01-01
This thesis is divided in two parts: i) the laser channeling in hundreds of microns long under-dense plasmas (0.1 nc ≤ n ≤ nc, nc being the critical density) of a laser pulse of intensity 10 18-20 W/cm 2 and duration 1-10 ps; ii) the saturation mechanisms of stimulated Raman back-scattering of a laser pulse of intensity 10 14 to 10 16 W/cm 2 and duration of about 1 ps. A parametric study was performed to study the channeling of a very intense laser pulse, using a 2D PIC (Particle In Cell) code. Various kinds of channels were obtained depending on the laser and plasma parameters, thereby reproducing and enlarging previous studies. Moreover, the channeling velocity was measured and scaling laws were established for homogeneous plasmas. They are then applied to inhomogeneous plasmas, similar to those encountered in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It is then possible to estimate the energy necessary to channel to the critical density, an important step for the fast ignition scheme of ICF. Raman saturation was studied using numerical simulations, in order to determine if it is due to dephasing or to the growth of sidebands, using different approaches. The first is to study Raman simulations (electromagnetic) performed with kinetic PIC and Vlasov codes. The second, is to study the evolution of a plasma initialized with a distribution function after the adiabatic theory, using a Vlasov code (electrostatic). In this case, we observe the growth of a sideband, with dominant wave number and growth rate in good agreement with kinetic simulations. The saturation of the plasma wave can be caused by both saturation mechanisms. [fr
XFEL resonant photo-pumping of dense plasmas and dynamic evolution of autoionizing core hole states
Rosmej, F. B.; Moinard, A.; Renner, O.; Galtier, E.; Lee, J. J.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P. A.; Schlotter, W.; Turner, J. J.; Lee, R. W.; Makita, M.; Riley, D.; Seely, J.
2016-01-01
Similarly to the case of LIF (Laser-Induced Fluorescence), an equally revolutionary impact to science is expected from resonant X-ray photo-pumping. It will particularly contribute to a progress in high energy density science: pumped core hole states create X-ray transitions that can escape dense matter on a 10 fs-time scale without essential photoabsorption, thus providing a unique possibility to study matter under extreme conditions. In the first proof of principle experiment at the X-ray F...
Haxhimali, Tomorr; Rudd, Robert E.; Cabot, William H.; Graziani, Frank R.
2015-11-01
We present molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of shear viscosity for asymmetric mixed plasma for thermodynamic conditions relevant to astrophysical and inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Specifically, we consider mixtures of deuterium and argon at temperatures of 100-500 eV and a number density of 1025 ions/cc. The motion of 30 000-120 000 ions is simulated in which the ions interact via the Yukawa (screened Coulomb) potential. The electric field of the electrons is included in this effective interaction; the electrons are not simulated explicitly. Shear viscosity is calculated using the Green-Kubo approach with an integral of the shear stress autocorrelation function, a quantity calculated in the equilibrium MD simulations. We systematically study different mixtures through a series of simulations with increasing fraction of the minority high-Z element (Ar) in the D-Ar plasma mixture. In the more weakly coupled plasmas, at 500 eV and low Ar fractions, results from MD compare very well with Chapman-Enskog kinetic results. In the more strongly coupled plasmas, the kinetic theory does not agree well with the MD results. We develop a simple model that interpolates between classical kinetic theories at weak coupling and the Murillo Yukawa viscosity model at higher coupling. This hybrid kinetics-MD viscosity model agrees well with the MD results over the conditions simulated, ranging from moderately weakly coupled to moderately strongly coupled asymmetric plasma mixtures.
Absorption of CO2 laser light by a dense, high temperature plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peacock, N.J.; Forrest, M.J.; Morgan, P.D.; Offenberger, A.A.
1977-01-01
The interaction between a pulsed, CO 2 laser beam and the plasma produced in a plasma focus device is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The CO 2 laser radiation, directed orthogonal to the pinch axis and along the density gradient only weakly perturbs the focus since the radiation density of 30 J cm -3 (allowing for the Airy enhancement factor near the critical layer), is still less than the plasma thermal energy >=1 kJ cm -3 . On the contrary, the CO 2 laser beam is grossly affected by the plasma and absorption during the compressed pinch phase when the plasma frequency is much more complete than can be predicted by classical resistivity. Density fluctuations at the Langmuir frequency are measured directly for forward scattering from a probe, ruby laser beam. Since the wave numbers correspond to approximately 0.1 the Langmuir waves should appear as electron 'lines' in the scattered spectrum shifted by 427 A from the ruby laser wavelength. At low CO 2 laser pump intensity the electron wave intensity is close to the thermal level. As the pump is increased beyond a threshold of approximately 3x10 9 W/cm -2 (in vacuo) enhanced scattering is observed, reaching a factor of 30 above thermal. A WKB treatment of the electron-ion decay instability which takes into account the linear growth of waves at equal electron and ion temperatures and their convection in an inhomogeneous plasma is reasonably consistent with the observations
Haxhimali, Tomorr; Rudd, Robert; Cabot, William; Graziani, Frank
2015-11-01
We present molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of shear viscosity for asymmetric mixed plasma for thermodynamic conditions relevant to astrophysical and Inertial Confinement Fusion plasmas. Specifically, we consider mixtures of deuterium and argon at temperatures of 100-500 eV and a number density of 1025 ions/cc. The motion of 30000-120000 ions is simulated in which the ions interact via the Yukawa (screened Coulomb) potential. The electric field of the electrons is included in this effective interaction. Shear viscosity is calculated using the Green-Kubo approach with an integral of the shear stress autocorrelation function, a quantity calculated in the equilibrium MD simulations. We study different mixtures with increasing fraction of the minority high-Z element (Ar) in the D-Ar plasma mixture. In the more weakly coupled plasmas, at 500 eV and low Ar fractions, results from MD compare very well with Chapman-Enskog kinetic results. We introduce a model that interpolates between a screened-plasma kinetic theory at weak coupling and the Murillo Yukawa viscosity model at higher coupling. This hybrid kinetics-MD viscosity model agrees well with the MD results over the conditions simulated. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Spectra of neutrons and fusion charged products produced in a dense laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burtsev, V.A.; Dyatlov, V.D.; Krzhizhanovskij, R.E.; Levkovskij, A.A.
1977-01-01
The possibility of laser-produced plasma diagnostics has been investigated by measuring spectra of neutrons and alpha particles produced in the T(d,n) 4 He reaction. Using the Monte Carlo method the spectra have been calculated for nine states of the deuterium-tritium plasma with the temperature of 1;5 and 10 keV and the density of 0.2; 1 and 10 g/cm 3 respectively. The initial radius of the target was assumed to be 0.01 cm at the density of 0.2 g/cm 3 . It is shown that the neutron and alpha spectra can serve as plasma diagnostics parameters in laser fusion
Decontamination possibilities of high-toxic wastes by means of dense plasma generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutberg, P.G.; Kolikov, V.A.; Bogomaz, A.A.; Budin, A.V.
1997-01-01
In present time the idea of plasma generators application for the high-toxic agents and wastes decontamination has become very urgent. It is known that chemical bonds energy of some molecules being part of these substances is so high that it is impossible to destroy them using traditional methods. Taking into account the fact that the temperature of plasma generator's arc column may be of tens eV, and its energy of hundreds kJ, one may state that any known chemical substances taken in quite large amount, may be dissociated to the atoms. In this paper simplified construction of plasma generator and technological scheme of plasmachemical installation are presented. (author)
Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, R J; Carroll, D C; Yuan, X H; Brenner, C M; Coury, M; Quinn, M N; Tresca, O; McKenna, P; Burza, M; Wahlström, C-G; Lancaster, K L; Neely, D; Lin, X X; Li, Y T
2014-01-01
Laser energy absorption to fast electrons during the interaction of an ultra-intense (10 20 W cm −2 ), picosecond laser pulse with a solid is investigated, experimentally and numerically, as a function of the plasma density scale length at the irradiated surface. It is shown that there is an optimum density gradient for efficient energy coupling to electrons and that this arises due to strong self-focusing and channeling driving energy absorption over an extended length in the preformed plasma. At longer density gradients the laser filaments, resulting in significantly lower overall energy coupling. As the scale length is further increased, a transition to a second laser energy absorption process is observed experimentally via multiple diagnostics. The results demonstrate that it is possible to significantly enhance laser energy absorption and coupling to fast electrons by dynamically controlling the plasma density gradient. (paper)
Fokker-Planck simulations of interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drska, L.; Limpouch, J.; Liska, R.
1993-01-01
The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with fully ionized solid-state density plasmas in the regime of the normal skin effect was investigated by means of numerical simulation. For short wavelength lasers and 120 fs FWHM laser pulses the regime of normal skin effect is shown to hold for peak intensities up to 10 17 W/cm 2 . Basic characteristics of the interaction are revealed and certain departures of the electron distribution function, of the plasma dielectric constant and of laser absorption from simplistic models are pointed out. (author) 1 tab., 4 figs., 14 refs
Filamentation and networking of electric currents in dense Z-pinch plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.
2001-01-01
The results of high-resolution processing using the multilevel dynamical contrasting method of earlier experiments on linear Z-pinches are presented which illustrate formation of a dynamical percolating network woven by long-living filaments of electric current. A qualitative approach is outlined which treats long-living filaments as a classical plasma formation governed by the long-range quantum bonds provided, at the microscopical level, by nanotubes of elements of optimal valence. The self-similarity of structuring in laboratory and cosmic plasmas is shown, and examples are found of nanotube-like and/or fullerene-like structures of cosmic length scales. (author)
Filamentation and networking of electric currents in dense Z-pinch plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.
1999-01-01
The results of high-resolution processing using the multilevel dynamical contrasting method of earlier experiments on linear Z-pinches are presented which illustrate formation of a dynamical percolating network woven by long-living filaments of electric current. A qualitative approach is outlined which treats long-living filaments as a classical plasma formation governed by the long-range quantum bonds provided, at the micro-scopical level, by nanotubes of elements of optimal valence. The self-similarity of structuring in laboratory and cosmic plasmas is shown, and examples are found of nanotube-like and/or fullerene-like structures of cosmic length scales. (author)
Cross focusing of mixed mode operation in an extra dense plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soni, V S; Nayyar, V P [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics
1979-08-01
This paper presents a study of the nonlinear propagation of a mixture of two degenerate modes (TEM/sub 00/ and TEM/sub 10/) of a high power laser beam in an extradense plasma. The high irradiance inhomogeneous laser beam creates an electron density gradient region in the overdense plasma (n > nsub(c)) through which the beam can propagate. The focusing effects have been studied for different power ratios of the two modes (TEM/sub 00/ mode is considered to be stronger than the TEM/sub 10/ mode). Self-focusing of the beam in x and y directions for critical power has been extensively studied.
Interaction of heavy ions beams with hot and dense plasmas. Application to inertial fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maynard, Gilles
1987-01-01
The subject of this work is the variation with time, on one of the energy and charge state of an heavy ion beam which through a plasma, and on another side, of a target used in ion inertial confinement fusion. We take in account projectile excitation, and higher order corrections to the Born stopping power formula are calculated. Comparison with experimental results in gas and solid are good. In hot plasma case, non-equilibrium charge states are described. We present an hydrodynamic simulation code of one dimension and three temperatures. We show that the shortening of the heavy ions beams with temperature reinforces the radiative transfer importance. (author) [fr
K-α X-ray Thomson Scattering From Dense Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kritcher, Andrea L.; Neumayer, Paul; Castor, John; Doeppner, Tilo; Landen, Otto L.; Ng, Andrew; Pollaine, Steve; Price, Dwight; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Falcone, Roger W.; Ja Lee, Hae; Lee, Richard W.; Morse, Edward C.
2009-01-01
Spectrally resolved Thomson scattering using ultra-fast K-α x rays has measured the compression and heating of shocked compressed matter. The evolution and coalescence of two shock waves traveling through a solid density LiH target were characterized by the elastic scattering component. The density and temperature at shock coalescence, 2.2 eV and 1.7x10 23 cm -3 , were determined from the plasmon frequency shift and the relative intensity of the elastic and inelastic scattering features in the collective scattering regime. The observation of plasmon scattering at coalescence indicates a transition to the dense metallic state in LiH. The density and temperature regimes accessed in these experiments are relevant for inertial confinement fusion experiments and for the study of planetary formation.
K-(alpha) X-ray Thomson Scattering From Dense Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kritcher, A.L.; Neumayer, P.; Castor, J.; Doppner, T.; Falcone, R.W.; Landen, O.L.; Lee, H.J.; Lee, R.W.; Morse, E.C.; Ng, A.; Pollaine, S.; Price, D.; Glenzer, S.H.
2009-01-01
Spectrally resolved Thomson scattering using ultra-fast K-α x-rays has measured the compression and heating of shocked compressed matter. The evolution and coalescence of two shock waves traveling through a solid density LiH target were characterized by the elastic scattering component. The density and temperature at shock coalescence, 2.2 eV and 1.7 x 10 23 cm -3 , were determined from the plasmon frequency shift and the relative intensity of the elastic and inelastic scattering features in the collective scattering regime. The observation of plasmon scattering at coalescence indicates a transition to the dense metallic state in LiH. The density and temperature regimes accessed in these experiments are relevant for inertial confinement fusion experiments and for the study of planetary formation
Displacement of emission lines from the ArII ion in a dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simard, P.A.
1982-01-01
A spectroscopic study of the emission from an argon plasma produced by a small theta-pinch is described. The electron density in the plasma is very high and the temperature relatively cool. Values obtained for these quantities are Nsub(e) approxiiately equal to 6 x 10 19 cm 3 and Tsub(e) approximately equal to 3.6 eV. Wavelengths of many ArII lines have been measured between 2700 and 5000 A. Many of these lines exhibit small shifts to the blue or to the red but others show large red shifts. Particularly significant are the multiplets 4p 4 P-4d 4 P, 4p 4 P-5s 4 P and 4p 4 S-4d 4 P where the measured shifts are about 6.0 +-0.8 cm -1 . These shifts have been interpreted as plasma polarization shifts. A plasma effect on the spin-orbit coupling in ArII has also been observed for the first time. A qqalitative analysis of these phenomena is given [fr
Ionic debye screening in dense liquid plasmas observed for Li+p, d reactions with liquid Li target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasagi, J.; Yonemura, H.; Toriyabe, Y.; Nakagawa, A.; Sugawara, T.; Wang Tieshan
2009-01-01
Thick target yields of α particles emitted in the 6 Li(d,α) 4 He and 7 Li(p,α) 4 He reactions were measured for Li target in the solid and liquid phase. Observed reaction rates for the liquid Li are always larger than those for the solid. This suggests that the stopping power of hydrogen ion in the liquid Li metal might be smaller than in the solid. Using the empirically obtained stopping power for the liquid Li, we have deduced the screening potentials of the Li+p and Li+d reactions in both phases. The deduced screening potential for the liquid Li is about 500 eV larger than for the solid. This difference is attributed to the effect of liquefied Li + ions. It is concluded that the ionic screening is much stronger than the electronic screening in a low-temperature dense plasmas. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, S. B.; Colgan, J.; Abdallah, J.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Wagenaars, E.; Culfa, O.; Dance, R. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C.; Booth, N.; Lancaster, K. L.; Evans, R. G.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Kaempfer, T.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.
2014-01-01
X-ray emission from hollow ions offers new diagnostic opportunities for dense, strongly coupled plasma. We present extended modeling of the x-ray emission spectrum reported by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 125001 (2013)] based on two collisional-radiative codes: the hybrid-structure Spectroscopic Collisional-Radiative Atomic Model (SCRAM) and the mixed-unresolved transition arrays (MUTA) ATOMIC model. We show that both accuracy and completeness in the modeled energy level structure are critical for reliable diagnostics, investigate how emission changes with different treatments of ionization potential depression, and discuss two approaches to handling the extensive structure required for hollow-ion models with many multiply excited configurations
Ionic Debye Screening in Dense Liquid Plasmas Observed for Li+p,d Reactions with Liquid Li Target
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.Kasagi; H.Yonemura; Y.Toriyabe; A.Nakagawa; T.Sugawara; WANG Tie-shan
2009-01-01
Thick target yields of a particles emitted in the ~6Li(d,a)~4 He and ~7Li(p,a)~4 He reactions were measured for Li target in the solid and liquid phase.Observed reaction rates for the liquid Li are always larger than those for the solid.This suggests that the stopping power of hydrogen ion in the liquid Li metal might be smaller than in the solid.Using the empirically obtained stopping power for the liquid Li,we have deduced the screening potentials of the Li+p and Li+d reactions in both phases.The deduced screening potential for the liquid Li is about 500 eV larger than for the solid.This difference is attributed to the effect of liquefied Li~+ ions.It is concluded that the ionic screening is much stronger than the electronic screening in a low-temperature dense plasmas.
Dai, Jiayu; Hou, Yong; Yuan, Jianmin
2010-06-18
Electron-ion interactions are central to numerous phenomena in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime and at higher temperature. The electron-ion collisions induced friction at high temperature is introduced in the procedure of ab initio molecular dynamics using the Langevin equation based on density functional theory. In this framework, as a test for Fe and H up to 1000 eV, the equation of state and the transition of electronic structures of the materials with very wide density and temperature can be described, which covers a full range of WDM up to high energy density physics. A unified first principles description from condensed matter to ideal ionized gas plasma is constructed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, K [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik; Popovic, M M; Popovic, S S; Radtke, R
1976-05-11
The electrical conductivity of a non-ideal hydrogen plasma at p = 10 atm and T = 14,000-21,500 K is derived from electrical measurements and the radial temperature distribution of a pulsed wall-stabilized hydrogen arc using the theoretical temperature dependence of conductivity in an ideal binary collision plasma. From the comparison of theory and experiment, a suggestion to modify the cut-off parameter for charged particle potential from rsub(D) is derived, where rsub(D) is the Debye length. An estimate of Kaklyugin and Norman (Kaklyugin, A.S. and Norman, G.E., 1973 Teplofiz. vysok. temp., vol.11, 238-244) which takes into account both particle correlation and electron localisation in the environment of ions agrees very well with the experimental results over the whole temperature range.
System for deuterium-tritium mixture filling the working chamber of a dense plasma focus device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondar', A.I.; Vyskubov, V.P.; Gerasimov, S.A.
1981-01-01
A gas-vacuum system designed for filling the gas-discharge chamber of a plasma focus device with equal-coaponent deuterium-tritium mixture is described. The system consists of a unit for gaseous mixture prepa ration and a unit for mixture absorption and device evacuation. The system provides the gaseous mixture purification of O 2 and N 2 impurities. Final tritium content in the gas-discharge chamber after tritium removal is not greater than 2x10 8 Bq/l. Tritium content in a sealed box in which the device is placed does not exceed 30 Bq/l that is less than limiting safe value. The conclusion is made that the described system design gives an opportunity to begin experimental studies at plasma focus devices with deuterium-tritium mixture [ru
Filamentary structures in dense plasma focus: Current filaments or vortex filaments?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soto, Leopoldo, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Castillo, Fermin [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, México (Mexico); Veloso, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Auluck, S. K. H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)
2014-07-15
Recent observations of an azimuthally distributed array of sub-millimeter size sources of fusion protons and correlation between extreme ultraviolet (XUV) images of filaments with neutron yield in PF-1000 plasma focus have re-kindled interest in their significance. These filaments have been described variously in literature as current filaments and vortex filaments, with very little experimental evidence in support of either nomenclature. This paper provides, for the first time, experimental observations of filaments on a table-top plasma focus device using three techniques: framing photography of visible self-luminosity from the plasma, schlieren photography, and interferometry. Quantitative evaluation of density profile of filaments from interferometry reveals that their radius closely agrees with the collision-less ion skin depth. This is a signature of relaxed state of a Hall fluid, which has significant mass flow with equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy, supporting the “vortex filament” description. This interpretation is consistent with empirical evidence of an efficient energy concentration mechanism inferred from nuclear reaction yields.
Super-transition-arrays: A model for the spectral analysis of hot, dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Shvarts, D.; Zigler, A.
1989-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the bound-bound emission from a local thermodynamic equilibrium plasma. The total transition array of a specific single-electron transition, including all possible contributing configurations, is described by only a small number of super-transition-arrays (STA's). Exact analytic expressions are given for the first few moments of an STA. The method is shown to interpolate smoothly between the average-atom (AA) results and the detailed configuration accounting that underlies the unresolved transition array (UTA) method. Each STA is calculated in its own, optimized potential, and the model achieves rapid convergence in the number of STA's included. Comparisons of predicted STA spectra with the results of the AA and UTA methods are presented. It is shown that under certain plasma conditions the contributions of low-probability transitions can accumulate into an important component of the emission. In these cases, detailed configuration accounting is impractical. On the other hand, the detailed structure of the spectrum under such conditions is not described by the AA method. The application of the STA method to laser-produced plasma experiments is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toupin, Catherine
1999-01-01
This work was aimed at characterizing the acceleration and transport of the plasma electrons and ions during the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a dense plasma. Our main tool was numerical simulation with kinetic particle-in-cell codes. During the interaction, the target surface electrons are accelerated up to high energies inward the target. The electron acceleration mechanisms are proved to strongly depend on the density profile deformation due to the ion motion. This motion has been studied as well and different acceleration mechanisms have been identified: pushing in of the target surface by the laser ponderomotive pressure, acceleration by an electrostatic shock or by breaking of an ion acoustic wave, acceleration by the space charge force induced by radial expulsion of the electrons out of a channel drilled in a slightly overcritical plasma. The electrons and ions accelerated at the target surface penetrate inward the target and interact with it. The competition between the focussing due to the self-generated magnetic field, driven by the very important electron current, and the scattering induced by collisions has been analyzed. In a homogeneous, hot plasma, the existence of an optimum current for which the propagation length without scattering is maximum, has been demonstrated. The electron drag-back effect of the axial electric field is also proved to be more significant than the friction due to collisions. By penetrating into the target, the accelerated ions can produce neutrons if the target is deuterated. A strong correlation between the ion acceleration mechanisms and the angle and energy distributions of the produced neutrons has been underlined. (author) [fr
Experiments on the interaction of intense femtosecond radiation with dense plasmas. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, C.K.
1996-01-01
An upgraded KrF * (248 nm) system producing a pulse energy of ∼ 400 mJ, a pulse width of ∼ 220 fs, and focal intensities above 10 19 W/cm 2 , has been constructed, tested, operated, and used in experimental studies. The spatial morphology of channeled radiation in plasmas has been measured with a spatial resolution of ∼ 30 μm and damage studies of fused silica indicate that femtosecond (200 - 300 fs) 248 nm radiation has a damage limit not exceeding ∼ 50 GW/cm 2 , an unfavorably low level. 2 figs
Direct measurements of the ionization potential depression in a dense plasma
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S.M.; Chung, H.-K.; Cho, B.I.; Brown, C.R.D.; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Engelhorn, K.; Falcone, R.W.; Graves, C.; Hájková, Věra; Higginbotham, A.; Juha, Libor; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, H.J.; Messerschmidt, M.; Murphy, C. D.; Ping, Y.; Rackstraw, D.S.; Scherz, A.; Schlotter, W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J.J.; Vyšín, Luděk; Wang, T.; Wu, B.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Lee, R. W.; Heimann, P.; Nagler, B.; Wark, J. S.
2012-01-01
Roč. 109, č. 6 (2012), "065002-1"-"065002-4" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046; GA ČR GAP205/11/0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : LCLS * x-ray * solid-density aluminum plasma * K-alpha fluorescence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012
X-ray spectroscopy of highly ionised atoms of Ti through Zn in a dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morita, Shiguro; Fujita, Junji
1985-01-01
X-ray spectra for several elements have been observed from a high-temperature plasma produced in a vacuum spark using a curved-crystal spectrometer. The transition wavelengths of the He-like resonance lines for Ti through Zn are determined for the first time under careful experimental treatments. The result is compared with theoretical predictions. The transition wavelengths of the Fe He-like resonance series lines up to 1s6p-1s 2 and the Kβ transition energies of Ti partially M-shell-ionised ions (Ti VI-XIII) are also determined. As a result, several satelite lines are found. (orig.)
Ponderomotive ion acceleration in dense magnetized laser-irradiated thick target plasmas
Sinha, Ujjwal; Kaw, Predhiman
2012-03-01
When a circularly polarized laser pulse falls on an overdense plasma, it displaces the electrons via ponderomotive force creating a double layer. The double layer constitutes of an ion and electron sheath with in which the electrostatic field present is responsible for ion acceleration. In this paper, we have analyzed the effect a static longitudinal magnetic field has over the ion acceleration mechanism. The longitudinal magnetic field changes the plasma dielectric constant due to cyclotron effects which in turn enhances or reduces the ponderomotive force exerted by the laser depending on whether the laser is left or right circularly polarized. Also, the analysis of the ion space charge region present behind the ion sheath of the laser piston that undergoes coulomb explosion has been explored for the first time. We have studied the interaction of an incoming ion beam with the laser piston and the ion space charge. It has been found that the exploding ion space charge has the ability to act as an energy amplifier for incoming ion beams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scholz, M.; Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E.; Chodukowski, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)] [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swiert (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swiert (Poland); Krauz, S. [RNC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mitrovanov, K. [FGUP GNC RF Triniti, Troick (Russian Federation)
2011-07-01
This document presents the diagnostics arrangements and interesting results of research on fusion pulsed plasma, which was generated within the large PF-1000 facility operated in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (Warsaw, Poland). Experimental studies were carried out with the following diagnostic techniques: 1) Rogovski coil for current measurements; 2) Four dI/dt probes in different places around the collector of PF-1000; 3) Voltage divider; 4) Mach-Zender interferometer (16 frames); 5) Fast scintillation probes for X-ray and neutron detection; 6) Silver activation counters; 7) Specially prepared current probes; 8) Thomson spectrometer for mass- and energy-analysis of deuterium beams; 9) Ion-pinhole cameras equipped with nuclear-track detectors, etc. The studies have been carried out with the pure deuterium filling, and particular attention was paid to correlations between the fast-neutron emission and an evolution of plasma parameters. The total fusion-neutron yield, as measured with four silver-activation counters, was found to be up to 7*10{sup 11} per shot, depending on the experimental conditions. Correlations of the neutron pulses with interferometric frame-pictures of the PF pinch column were studied. From time-of-flight (ToF) measurements of the fusion neutrons it was possible to estimate a CM velocity of deuterons involved in the D-D reactions. The fast fusion-produced protons have also been recorded and analyzed by means pinhole cameras and shielded track detectors. The document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)
Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Boehly, T R; Kress, J D; Goncharov, V N; Skupsky, S
2014-04-01
Thermal conductivity (κ) of both the ablator materials and deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel plays an important role in understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. The extensively used Spitzer model for thermal conduction in ideal plasmas breaks down for high-density, low-temperature shells that are compressed by shocks and spherical convergence in imploding targets. A variety of thermal-conductivity models have been proposed for ICF hydrodynamic simulations of such coupled and degenerate plasmas. The accuracy of these κ models for DT plasmas has recently been tested against first-principles calculations using the quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) method; although mainly for high densities (ρ > 100 g/cm3), large discrepancies in κ have been identified for the peak-compression conditions in ICF. To cover the wide range of density-temperature conditions undergone by ICF imploding fuel shells, we have performed QMD calculations of κ for a variety of deuterium densities of ρ = 1.0 to 673.518 g/cm3, at temperatures varying from T = 5 × 103 K to T = 8 × 106 K. The resulting κQMD of deuterium is fitted with a polynomial function of the coupling and degeneracy parameters Γ and θ, which can then be used in hydrodynamic simulation codes. Compared with the "hybrid" Spitzer-Lee-More model currently adopted in our hydrocode lilac, the hydrosimulations using the fitted κQMD have shown up to ∼20% variations in predicting target performance for different ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The lower the adiabat of an imploding shell, the more variations in predicting target performance using κQMD. Moreover, the use of κQMD also modifies the shock conditions and the density-temperature profiles of the imploding shell at early implosion stage, which predominantly affects the final target performance. This is in contrast to the previous speculation that κQMD changes mainly the
Statistical properties of the dense hydrogen plasma: An ab initio molecular dynamics investigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohanoff, J.; Hansen, J.P.
1995-12-01
The hydrogen plasma is studied in the very high density (atomic and metallic) regime by extensive ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations. Protons are treated classically, and electrons in the Born-Oppenheimer framework, within the local density approximation (LDA). Densities and temperatures studied fall within the strong coupling regime of the protons. We address the question of the validity of linear screening, and we find it to yield a reasonably good description up to r s approx. 0.5, but already too crude for r s = 1 (with r s = (3/4πρ) 1/3 the ion sphere radius). Finite-size and Brillouin zone sampling effects in metallic systems are studied and shown to be very delicate also in the fluid (liquid metal) phase. We analyse the low-temperature phase diagram and the melting transition. A remarkably fast decrease of the melting temperature with decreasing density is found, up to a point when it becomes comparable to the Fermi temperature of the protons. The possible vicinity of a triple point bcc-hcp(fcc)- liquid is discussed in the region of r s approx. 1.1 and T approx. 100 - 200K. The fluid phase is studied in detail for several temperatures. Proton-electron correlations show a weak temperature dependence, and proton-proton correlations exhibit a well-defined first coordination shell, thus characterizing fluid H in this regime as an atomic liquid. Diffusion coefficients are compared to the values for the one-component plasma. Vibrational densities of states (VDOS) show a plasmon renormalization due to electron screening, and the presence of a plasmon-coupled single-particle mode up to very high temperatures. Collective modes are studied through dynamical structure factors. In close relationship with the VDOS, the simulations reveal the remarkable persistent of a weakly damped high-frequency ion acoustic mode, even under conditions of strong electron screening. The possibility of using this observation as a diagnostic for the plasma phase transition to the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ellis Susanti
2009-08-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP, ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM. METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001 increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004, odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 in uncontrolled T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM. KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP.
Electron-hole pair effects in methane dissociative chemisorption on Ni(111)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Xuan; Jiang, Bin, E-mail: bjiangch@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Juaristi, J. Iñaki [Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC(CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastián (Spain); Alducin, Maite [Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC(CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Guo, Hua [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2016-07-28
The dissociative chemisorption of methane on metal surfaces has attracted much attention in recent years as a prototype of gas-surface reactions in understanding the mode specific and bond selective chemistry. In this work, we systematically investigate the influence of electron-hole pair excitations on the dissociative chemisorption of CH{sub 4}/CH{sub 3}D/CHD{sub 3} on Ni(111). The energy dissipation induced by surface electron-hole pair excitations is modeled as a friction force introduced in the generalized Langevin equation, in which the independent atomic friction coefficients are determined within the local-density friction approximation. Quasi-classical trajectory calculations for CH{sub 4}/CH{sub 3}D/CHD{sub 3} have been carried out on a recently developed twelve-dimensional potential energy surface. Comparing the dissociation probabilities obtained with and without friction, our results clearly indicate that the electron-hole pair effects are generally small, both on absolute reactivity of each vibrational state and on the mode specificity and bond selectivity. Given similar observations in both water and methane dissociation processes, we conclude that electron-hole pair excitations would not play an important role as long as the reaction is direct and the interaction time between the molecule and metal electrons is relatively short.
Observation of preformed electron-hole Cooper pairs in highly excited ZnO
Versteegh, M.A.M.; van Lange, A.J.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Dijkhuis, J.I.
2012-01-01
Electrons and holes in a semiconductor form hydrogen-atom-like bound states, called excitons. At high electron-hole densities the attractive Coulomb force becomes screened and excitons can no longer exist. Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory predicts that at such high densities co-operative many-body
The effect of line-broadening on the overall width of transition arrays in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoarty, D.J.; Bentley, C.D.; Crowley, B.J.B.; Davidson, S.J.; Gales, S.G.; Graham, P.; Harris, J.W.O.; Iglesias, C.A.; James, S.F.; Smith, C.C.
2006-01-01
Experiments have been performed, using the HELEN laser, to measure absorption spectra in the temperature range 20-60 eV and density range 0.5-3 g/cm 3 . K-shell spectra of aluminium were studied to investigate the effect of the plasma environment on the absorption spectrum. The experiments show the effect, at high-density, of array broadening and the merging of high series lines. Comparisons of the experimental absorption data to different opacity models are discussed. The experimental data are compared to calculations of the CASSANDRA opacity model, with and without the inclusion of electron impact broadening. The CASSANDRA code is in better agreement with experiment with electron impact broadening included. The data were also compared to the OPAL detailed term accounting model with reasonable agreement
Pandey, Mukesh Kumar; Lin, Yen-Chang; Ho, Yew Kam
2017-02-01
The effects of weakly coupled or classical and dense quantum plasmas environment on charge exchange and ionization processes in Na+ + Rb(5s) atom collision at keV energy range have been investigated using classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method. The interaction of three charged particles are described by the Debye-Hückel screen potential for weakly coupled plasma, whereas exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potential have been used for dense quantum plasma environment and the effects of both conditions on the cross sections are compared. It is found that screening effects on cross sections in high Debye length condition is quite small in both plasma environments. However, enhanced screening effects on cross sections are observed in dense quantum plasmas for low Debye length condition, which becomes more effective while decreasing the Debye length. Also, we have found that our calculated results for plasma-free case are comparable with the available theoretical results. These results are analyzed in light of available theoretical data with the choice of model potentials.
Conductivity study of dense BaZr0.9Y0.1O(3 − δ) obtained by spark plasma sintering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ricote, Sandrine; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Wang, Hsiang-Jen
2012-01-01
10% yttrium doped barium zirconate (BZY10) was synthesized by solid state reaction and a 99.8% dense and transparent sample was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1700 °C for 5 minutes. A single phase compound was obtained, with no evaporation of barium. High-Resolution Transmission...
Neon dense plasma focus point x-ray source for ≤ 0.25 μm lithography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Berg, K.; Conlon, D.; Mangano, J.
1994-01-01
A discharge driven, dense plasma focus (DPF) in neon has been developed at SRL as a point x-ray source for sub-micron lithography. This source is presently capable of delivering ∼25 J/pulse of neon K-shell x-rays (8--14 angstrom) into 4 π steradians with a ∼1.4% wall plug efficiency at a 20 Hz repetition rate. The discharge is produced by a capacitor bank circuit (8 kV, 1.8 kJ) which has a fixed inductance of 11 nH and drives ∼ 320 kA currents into the DPF load, with ∼1 μs rise-times. X-rays are produced when a dense pinch of neon is formed along the axis of the DPF electrodes. The dense neon pinch has been found to be a cigar shaped object, ∼0.3 mm in diameter at the waist and ∼8 mm long on a singe shot. This source wanders slightly from shot to shot in an overall envelope which is ∼0.5--0.75 mm in diameter and ∼8 mm long. The spectrum of x-rays emitted by the pinch has been extensively studied. It has been found that 60% of the total x-ray output is radiated in the H-like and He-like lines centered at 12.9 angstrom and 40% of the output is radiated in the H-like and He-like continuum, centered at 9.8 angstrom. More than 4 x 10 5 discharges using a cooled DPF head have been fired producing x-rays. The variation in the measured x-ray output, over several hundreds of thousands of shots, corresponds to a variation in the dose delivered to a resist 40 cm from the source, of less than 1%. Data showing the measurement of the x-ray output, dose delivered to a resist, spectra of the source output, novel beam line concepts and potential lithographic applications will be presented
Self-focusing of a non-Gaussian laser mode in a dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nayyar, V.P.
1978-01-01
This paper presents a study of the self-focusing of a high-power non-Gaussian laser beam operating in TEM 01 mode in a strongly ionized plasma. The nonlinearity in the dielectric constant is caused by the nonuniform redistribution of carriers due to their inhomogeneous heating by the laser beam having transverse variation of intensity along its wave front. It is found that when the power of the beam exceeds the critical power, focusing effects are observed in the Y direction, whereas divergence of the beam takes place in the X direction. In the reverse case (when P 2 first increases in the Y direction, after penetrating a certain depth it reaches a broadened maxima and then starts decreasing with the distance of propagation inside the medium. The beam continues diverging in the X direction. It has also been found that absorption brings about a reduction in the extent of self-focusing. When the absorption length is less than the self-focusing length appreciable self-focusing does not take place
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Thomas, Robert E.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David
2006-01-01
The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, ηprop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and ηprop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosmej, F B [University of Provence et CNRS, Centre St. Jerome, PIIM-DGP, case 232, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Lee, R W [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Riley, D [Queens University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Meyer-ter-Vehn, J [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Krenz, A [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tschentscher, T [HASYLAB at DESY, Nothkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Tauschwitz, An [University of Frankfurt, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt (Germany); Tauschwitz, A [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lisitsa, V S [Russian Research Center Kurchatov, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Faenov, A Ya [VNIIFTRI, Multi Charged Ion Spectra Data Center, 141570 Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)
2007-06-15
High density plasma physics, radiation emission/scattering and related atomic physics, spectroscopy and diagnostics are going to make large steps forward due to new experimental facilities providing beams of intense heavy ions and X/XUV free electron laser radiation. These facilities are currently being established at GSI-Darmstadt and DESY-Hamburg in Germany to access new and complementary parameter regimes for basic research which have never been obtained in laboratories so far: homogenous benchmark samples near solid density and temperatures from eV up to keV. This will provide important impact to many disciplines like astrophysics, atomic physics in dense environments, dense and strongly coupled plasma effects, radiation emission, equation of state. The spectroscopic analysis of the radiation emission plays a key role in this research to investigate the dynamics of electric fields in multi-particle coupled Coulomb systems and the modification of plasma statistics.
Self-consistent average-atom scheme for electronic structure of hot and dense plasmas of mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Jianmin
2002-01-01
An average-atom model is proposed to treat the electronic structures of hot and dense plasmas of mixture. It is assumed that the electron density consists of two parts. The first one is a uniform distribution with a constant value, which is equal to the electron density at the boundaries between the atoms. The second one is the total electron density minus the first constant distribution. The volume of each kind of atom is proportional to the sum of the charges of the second electron part and of the nucleus within each atomic sphere. By this way, one can make sure that electrical neutrality is satisfied within each atomic sphere. Because the integration of the electron charge within each atom needs the size of that atom in advance, the calculation is carried out in a usual self-consistent way. The occupation numbers of electron on the orbitals of each kind of atom are determined by the Fermi-Dirac distribution with the same chemical potential for all kinds of atoms. The wave functions and the orbital energies are calculated with the Dirac-Slater equations. As examples, the electronic structures of the mixture of Au and Cd, water (H 2 O), and CO 2 at a few temperatures and densities are presented
Self-consistent average-atom scheme for electronic structure of hot and dense plasmas of mixture.
Yuan, Jianmin
2002-10-01
An average-atom model is proposed to treat the electronic structures of hot and dense plasmas of mixture. It is assumed that the electron density consists of two parts. The first one is a uniform distribution with a constant value, which is equal to the electron density at the boundaries between the atoms. The second one is the total electron density minus the first constant distribution. The volume of each kind of atom is proportional to the sum of the charges of the second electron part and of the nucleus within each atomic sphere. By this way, one can make sure that electrical neutrality is satisfied within each atomic sphere. Because the integration of the electron charge within each atom needs the size of that atom in advance, the calculation is carried out in a usual self-consistent way. The occupation numbers of electron on the orbitals of each kind of atom are determined by the Fermi-Dirac distribution with the same chemical potential for all kinds of atoms. The wave functions and the orbital energies are calculated with the Dirac-Slater equations. As examples, the electronic structures of the mixture of Au and Cd, water (H2O), and CO2 at a few temperatures and densities are presented.
Knowing the dense plasma focus - The coming of age (of the PF) with broad-ranging scaling laws
Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.
2017-03-01
The dense plasma focus is blessed not only with copious multi-radiations ranging from electron and ion beams, x-rays both soft and hard, fusion neutrons D-D and D-T but also with the property of enhanced compression from radiative collapse leading to HED (high energy density) states. The Lee code has been used in extensive systematic numerical experiments tied to reality through fitting with measured current waveforms and verified through comparison of measured and computed yields and measurements of multi-radiation. The studies have led to establishment of scaling laws with respect to storage energy, discharge current and pinch currents for fusion neutrons, characteristic soft x-rays, all-line radiation and ion beams. These are summarized here together with a first-time presentation of a scaling law of radiatively enhanced compression as a function of atomic number of operational gas. This paper emphasizes that such a broad range of scaling laws signals the coming of age of the DPF and presents a reference platform for planning the many potential applications such as in advanced SXR lithography, materials synthesizing and testing, medical isotopes, imaging and energy and high energy density (HED).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Physics and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: ruishengzheng@sdu.edu.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China)
2017-05-01
The cold-dense plasma is occasionally detected in the solar wind with in situ data, but the source of the cold-dense plasma remains illusive. Interchange reconnections (IRs) between closed fields and nearby open fields are known to contribute to the formation of solar winds. We present a confined filament eruption associated with a puff-like coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2014 December 24. The filament underwent successive activations and finally erupted, due to continuous magnetic flux cancelations and emergences. The confined erupting filament showed a clear untwist motion, and most of the filament material fell back. During the eruption, some tiny blobs escaped from the confined filament body, along newly formed open field lines rooted around the south end of the filament, and some bright plasma flowed from the north end of the filament to remote sites at nearby open fields. The newly formed open field lines shifted southward with multiple branches. The puff-like CME also showed multiple bright fronts and a clear southward shift. All the results indicate an intermittent IR existed between closed fields of the confined erupting filament and nearby open fields, which released a portion of filament material (blobs) to form the puff-like CME. We suggest that the IR provides a possible source of cold-dense plasma in the solar wind.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang; Xiang, Yongyuan
2017-01-01
The cold-dense plasma is occasionally detected in the solar wind with in situ data, but the source of the cold-dense plasma remains illusive. Interchange reconnections (IRs) between closed fields and nearby open fields are known to contribute to the formation of solar winds. We present a confined filament eruption associated with a puff-like coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2014 December 24. The filament underwent successive activations and finally erupted, due to continuous magnetic flux cancelations and emergences. The confined erupting filament showed a clear untwist motion, and most of the filament material fell back. During the eruption, some tiny blobs escaped from the confined filament body, along newly formed open field lines rooted around the south end of the filament, and some bright plasma flowed from the north end of the filament to remote sites at nearby open fields. The newly formed open field lines shifted southward with multiple branches. The puff-like CME also showed multiple bright fronts and a clear southward shift. All the results indicate an intermittent IR existed between closed fields of the confined erupting filament and nearby open fields, which released a portion of filament material (blobs) to form the puff-like CME. We suggest that the IR provides a possible source of cold-dense plasma in the solar wind.
Electrostatics of electron-hole interactions in van der Waals heterostructures
Cavalcante, L. S. R.; Chaves, A.; Van Duppen, B.; Peeters, F. M.; Reichman, D. R.
2018-03-01
The role of dielectric screening of electron-hole interaction in van der Waals heterostructures is theoretically investigated. A comparison between models available in the literature for describing these interactions is made and the limitations of these approaches are discussed. A simple numerical solution of Poisson's equation for a stack of dielectric slabs based on a transfer matrix method is developed, enabling the calculation of the electron-hole interaction potential at very low computational cost and with reasonable accuracy. Using different potential models, direct and indirect exciton binding energies in these systems are calculated within Wannier-Mott theory, and a comparison of theoretical results with recent experiments on excitons in two-dimensional materials is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuramoto, Y.
1982-01-01
The giant quantum attenuation of ultrasound in bismuth and other semimetals is noticeably enhanced when certain pair of Landau subbands of electrons and holes participate simultaneously in an attenuation peak. A theoretical analysis is presented which emphasizes importance of dynamical effects of the electron-hole correlation. In the temperature range between 1K and 4K covered by most experiments, the correlation effect is found to be weak on the real part of the relevant response function which gives change in sound velocity. This implies that equilibrium properties of the system are not much influenced by the correlation effect. Nonetheless, the electron-hole correlation is shown to have a drastic consequence on the imaginary part of the response function probed by the ultrasonic attenuation. Proposal for experiment is advanced to discriminate relative importance of this exciton-like correlation from that of repulsive correlation between carriers with the same charge. (orig.)
Coulomb drag in electron-hole bilayer: Mass-asymmetry and exchange correlation effects
Arora, Priya; Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.
2018-04-01
Motivated by a recent experiment by Zheng et al. [App. Phys. Lett. 108, 062102 (2016)] on coulomb drag in electron-hole and hole-hole bilayers based on GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructure, we investigate theoretically the influence of mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations on the drag rate. The correlation effects are dealt with using the Vignale-Singwi effective inter-layer interaction model which includes correlations through local-field corrections to the bare coulomb interactions. However, in this work, we have incorporated only the intra-layer correlations using the temperature-dependent Hubbard approximation. Our results display a reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. However, it is crucial to include both the electron-hole mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations. Mass-asymmetry and correlations are found to result in a substantial enhancement of drag resistivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carpene, E; Mancini, E; Dallera, C; Schwen, D; Ronning, C; Silvestri, S De
2007-01-01
We report the investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by means of femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity. We estimated the electron-phonon relaxation time of a few hundred femtoseconds and we observed that under low optical excitation photo-generated carriers decay according to two distinct mechanisms attributed to trapping by defect states and direct electron-hole recombination. With high excitation, when photo-carrier and trap densities are comparable, a unique temporal evolution develops, as the time dependence of the trapping process becomes degenerate with the electron-hole recombination. This experimental evidence highlights the role of defects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics and is not specific to this particular form of carbon, but has general validity for amorphous and disordered semiconductors
Saberi-Pouya, S.; Zarenia, M.; Perali, A.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Peeters, F. M.
2018-05-01
Excitonic superfluidity in double phosphorene monolayers is investigated using the BCS mean-field equations. Highly anisotropic superfluidity is predicted where we found that the maximum superfluid gap is in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) regime along the armchair direction and in the BCS-BEC crossover regime along the zigzag direction. We estimate the highest Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature with maximum value up to ˜90 K with onset carrier densities as high as 4 ×1012cm-2 . This transition temperature is significantly larger than what is found in double electron-hole few-layers graphene. Our results can guide experimental research toward the realization of anisotropic condensate states in electron-hole phosphorene monolayers.
Electron-hole liquid in semiconductors and low-dimensional structures
Sibeldin, N. N.
2017-11-01
The condensation of excitons into an electron-hole liquid (EHL) and the main EHL properties in bulk semiconductors and low-dimensional structures are considered. The EHL properties in bulk materials are discussed primarily in qualitative terms based on the experimental results obtained for germanium and silicon. Some of the experiments in which the main EHL thermodynamic parameters (density and binding energy) have been obtained are described and the basic factors that determine these parameters are considered. Topics covered include the effect of external perturbations (uniaxial strain and magnetic field) on EHL stability; phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium exciton-gas-EHL system; information on the size and concentration of electron-hole drops (EHDs) under various experimental conditions; the kinetics of exciton condensation and of recombination in the exciton-gas-EHD system; dynamic EHD properties and the motion of EHDs under the action of external forces; the properties of giant EHDs that form in potential wells produced by applying an inhomogeneous strain to the crystal; and effects associated with the drag of EHDs by nonequilibrium phonons (phonon wind), including the dynamics and formation of an anisotropic spatial structure of the EHD cloud. In discussing EHLs in low-dimensional structures, a number of studies are reviewed on the observation and experimental investigation of phenomena such as spatially indirect (dipolar) electron-hole and exciton (dielectric) liquids in GaAs/AlGaAs structures with double quantum wells (QWs), EHDs containing only a few electron-hole pairs (dropletons), EHLs in type-I silicon QWs, and spatially direct and dipolar EHLs in type-II silicon-germanium heterostructures.
Stability of Sarma phases in density imbalanced electron-hole bilayer systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subasi, A. L.; Tanatar, B.; Pieri, P.; Senatore, G.
2010-01-01
We study excitonic condensation in an electron-hole bilayer system with unequal layer densities at zero temperature. Using mean-field theory we solve the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap equations numerically and investigate the effects of intralayer interactions. The electron-hole system evolves from BCS in the weak coupling limit to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in the strong coupling limit. We analyze the stability of the Sarma phase with k,-k pairing by calculating the superfluid mass density and also by checking the compressibility matrix. We find that with bare Coulomb interactions the superfluid density is always positive in the Sarma phase, due to a peculiar momentum structure of the gap function originating from the singular behavior of the Coulomb potential at zero momentum and the presence of a sharp Fermi surface. Introducing a simple model for screening, we find that the superfluid density becomes negative in some regions of the phase diagram, corresponding to an instability toward a Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov-type superfluid phase. Thus, intralayer interaction and screening together can lead to a rich phase diagram in the BCS-BEC crossover regime in electron-hole bilayer systems.
The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prades, J D; Hernandez-Ramirez, F; Jimenez-Diaz, R; Manzanares, M; Andreu, T; Cirera, A; Romano-Rodriguez, A; Morante, J R
2008-01-01
The responses of individual ZnO nanowires to UV light demonstrate that the persistent photoconductivity (PPC) state is directly related to the electron-hole separation near the surface. Our results demonstrate that the electrical transport in these nanomaterials is influenced by the surface in two different ways. On the one hand, the effective mobility and the density of free carriers are determined by recombination mechanisms assisted by the oxidizing molecules in air. This phenomenon can also be blocked by surface passivation. On the other hand, the surface built-in potential separates the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and accumulates holes at the surface. After illumination, the charge separation makes the electron-hole recombination difficult and originates PPC. This effect is quickly reverted after increasing either the probing current (self-heating by Joule dissipation) or the oxygen content in air (favouring the surface recombination mechanisms). The model for PPC in individual nanowires presented here illustrates the intrinsic potential of metal oxide nanowires to develop optoelectronic devices or optochemical sensors with better and new performances.
Coherent electron - hole state and femtosecond cooperative emission in bulk GaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'ev, Petr P; Kan, H; Ohta, H; Hiruma, T
2002-01-01
The conditions for obtaining a collective coherent electron - hole state in semiconductors are discussed. The results of the experimental study of the regime of cooperative recombination of high-density electrons and holes (more than 3 x 10 18 cm -3 ) in bulk GaAs at room temperature are presented. It is shown that the collective pairing of electrons and holes and their condensation cause the formation of a short-living coherent electron - hole BCS-like state, which exhibits radiative recombination in the form of high-power femtosecond optical pulses. It is experimentally demonstrated that almost all of the electrons and holes available are condensed at the very bottoms of the bands and are at the cooperative state. The average lifetime of this state is measured to be of about 300 fs. The dependences of the order parameter (the energy gap of the spectrum of electrons and holes) and the Fermi energy of the coherent BCS state on the electron - hole concentration are obtained. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)
Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas
Kim, Ji-Hee; , G. Timothy Noe, II; McGill, Stephen A.; Wang, Yongrui; Wójcik, Aleksander K.; Belyanin, Alexey A.; Kono, Junichiro
2013-11-01
Nonequilibrium can be a source of order. This rather counterintuitive statement has been proven to be true through a variety of fluctuation-driven, self-organization behaviors exhibited by out-of-equilibrium, many-body systems in nature (physical, chemical, and biological), resulting in the spontaneous appearance of macroscopic coherence. Here, we report on the observation of spontaneous bursts of coherent radiation from a quantum-degenerate gas of nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs in semiconductor quantum wells. Unlike typical spontaneous emission from semiconductors, which occurs at the band edge, the observed emission occurs at the quasi-Fermi edge of the carrier distribution. As the carriers are consumed by recombination, the quasi-Fermi energy goes down toward the band edge, and we observe a continuously red-shifting streak. We interpret this emission as cooperative spontaneous recombination of electron-hole pairs, or superfluorescence (SF), which is enhanced by Coulomb interactions near the Fermi edge. This novel many-body enhancement allows the magnitude of the spontaneously developed macroscopic polarization to exceed the maximum value for ordinary SF, making electron-hole SF even more ``super'' than atomic SF.
Bayne, Michael G; Scher, Jeremy A; Ellis, Benjamin H; Chakraborty, Arindam
2018-05-21
Electron-hole or quasiparticle representation plays a central role in describing electronic excitations in many-electron systems. For charge-neutral excitation, the electron-hole interaction kernel is the quantity of interest for calculating important excitation properties such as optical gap, optical spectra, electron-hole recombination and electron-hole binding energies. The electron-hole interaction kernel can be formally derived from the density-density correlation function using both Green's function and TDDFT formalism. The accurate determination of the electron-hole interaction kernel remains a significant challenge for precise calculations of optical properties in the GW+BSE formalism. From the TDDFT perspective, the electron-hole interaction kernel has been viewed as a path to systematic development of frequency-dependent exchange-correlation functionals. Traditional approaches, such as MBPT formalism, use unoccupied states (which are defined with respect to Fermi vacuum) to construct the electron-hole interaction kernel. However, the inclusion of unoccupied states has long been recognized as the leading computational bottleneck that limits the application of this approach for larger finite systems. In this work, an alternative derivation that avoids using unoccupied states to construct the electron-hole interaction kernel is presented. The central idea of this approach is to use explicitly correlated geminal functions for treating electron-electron correlation for both ground and excited state wave functions. Using this ansatz, it is derived using both diagrammatic and algebraic techniques that the electron-hole interaction kernel can be expressed only in terms of linked closed-loop diagrams. It is proved that the cancellation of unlinked diagrams is a consequence of linked-cluster theorem in real-space representation. The electron-hole interaction kernel derived in this work was used to calculate excitation energies in many-electron systems and results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-07-10
Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics in a DPF and the associated instabilities and neutron production.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, I.A.; Hassan, M.; Hussain, T. [Department of Physics, GC University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Ahmad, R., E-mail: ahriaz@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GC University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Rawat, R.S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)
2009-04-01
Zirconium aluminium oxynitride multiphase composite film is deposited on zirconium substrate using energetic nitrogen ions delivered from dense plasma Focus device. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) results show that five Focus shots are sufficient to initiate the nucleation of ZrN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas 10 Focus shots are sufficient to initiate the nucleation of AlN. XRD results reveal that crystal growth of nitrides/oxides increases by increasing Focus shots (up to 30 Focus shots) and resputtering of the previously deposited film is taken place by further increase in Focus shots (40 Focus shots). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results indicate the uniform distribution of spherical grains ({approx}35 nm). A smoother surface is observed for 20 Focus shots at 0 deg. angular position. SEM results also show a net-type microstructure (thread like features) of the sample treated for 30 Focus shots whereas rough surface morphology is observed for 40 Focus shots. Energy dispersive spectroscopic profiles show the distribution of different elements present in the deposited composite films. A typical microhardness value of the deposited composite films is 5255 {+-} 10 MPa for 10 grams imposed load which is 3.3 times than the microhardness values of unexposed sample. The microhardness values of the exposed samples increases with increasing Focus shots (up to 30 Focus shots) and decreases for 40 Focus shots treatment due to resputtering of the previously deposited composite film. The microhardness values of the composite films decreases by increasing the sample's angular position.
Wang, Zhigang; Fu, Zhenguo; He, Bin; Hu, Zehua; Zhang, Ping
2016-09-01
The nuclear plus interference scattering (NIS) effect on the stopping power of hot dense beryllium (Be) plasma for multi-MeV protons is theoretically investigated by using the generalized Brown-Preston-Singleton (BPS) model, in which a NIS term is taken into account. The analytical formula of the NIS term is detailedly derived. By using this formula, the density and temperature dependence of the NIS effect is numerically studied, and the results show that the NIS effect becomes more and more important with increasing the plasma temperature or density. Different from the cases of protons traveling through the deuterium-tritium plasmas, for a Be plasma, a prominent oscillation valley structure is observed in the NIS term when the proton's energy is close to E_{p}=7MeV. Furthermore, the penetration distance is remarkably reduced when the NIS term is considered.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solodov, A
2000-12-15
Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, F.F.; Joshi, C.
1983-10-01
The work includes studies of four topics: (1) Thomson scattering from short wavelength density fluctuations from laser excited plasmas from solid targets; (2) studies of SBS driven ion acoustic waves and it's harmonics in underdense plasmas; (3) studies of optical mixing excitation of electron plasma waves (high frequency density fluctuations) in theta pinch plasma; and (4) computational studies of high frequency wave excitation by intense laser beams in plasmas
Effects of density imbalance on the BCS-BEC crossover in semiconductor electron-hole bilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pieri, P.; Strinati, G. C.; Neilson, D.
2007-01-01
We study the occurrence of excitonic superfluidity in electron-hole bilayers at zero temperature. We not only identify the crossover in the phase diagram from the BCS limit of overlapping pairs to the BEC limit of nonoverlapping tightly bound pairs but also, by varying the electron and hole densities independently, we can analyze a number of phases that occur mainly in the crossover region. With different electron and hole effective masses, the phase diagram is asymmetric with respect to excess electron or hole densities. We propose, as the criterion for the onset of superfluidity, the jump of the electron and hole chemical potentials when their densities cross
Electron-Hole Asymmetry of Spin Injection and Transport in Single-Layer Graphene
Han, Wei; Wang, W. H.; Pi, K.; McCreary, K. M.; Bao, W.; Li, Yan; Miao, F.; Lau, C. N.; Kawakami, R. K.
2009-01-01
Spin-dependent properties of single-layer graphene (SLG) have been studied by non-local spin valve measurements at room temperature. Gate voltage dependence shows that the non-local magnetoresistance (MR) is proportional to the conductivity of the SLG, which is the predicted behavior for transparent ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic contacts. While the electron and hole bands in SLG are symmetric, gate voltage and bias dependence of the non-local MR reveal an electron-hole asymmetry in which the non-...
BEC-BCS-laser crossover in Coulomb-correlated electron-hole-photon systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, M; Kamide, K; Ogawa, T; Yamamoto, Y
2012-01-01
Many-body features caused by Coulomb correlations are of great importance for understanding phenomena pertaining to polariton systems in semiconductor microcavities, i.e. electron-hole-photon systems. Remarkable many-body effects are shown to exist in both thermal-equilibrium phases and non-equilibrium lasing states. We then show a unified framework for connecting the thermal-equilibrium and the non-equilibrium steady states based on a non-equilibrium Green's function approach. Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-laser crossovers are investigated by using this approach. (paper)
Theory of Weak Bipolar Fields and Electron Holes with Applications to Space Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, Martin V.; Newman, David L.; Mangeney, Andre
2007-01-01
A theoretical model of weak electron phase-space holes is used to interpret bipolar field structures observed in space. In the limit eφ max /T e max sech 4 (x/α), where φ max depends on the derivative of the trapped distribution at the separatrix, while α depends only on a screening integral over the untrapped distribution. Idealized trapped and passing electron distributions are inferred from the speed, amplitude, and shape of satellite waveform measurements of weak bipolar field structures
Carrier drift transport of freezed-to-electron-hole-plasma indium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopylov, V.N.; Yanchenko, S.S.
1985-01-01
Observation of galvanomagnetic waves in indium caused by carrier drift in a superposed electric field is reported. Experiments have shown the wave propagation to be of a unidirectional character. Characteristic ime of attenuation for the investigated sample (a approximately 4 cm, rho sub(300)/rho sub(T→0) approximately 4x10 5 ) is about 5s. Increase in temperature from 1.4 K to 4.2 K resulted in a higher wave attenuation, which is associated with growth (25 fold) of resistance for both the life time of excitations and drift current induced in the sample decrease. Thus, the presence of direct current can essentially change the electrodynamic properties of specific metal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danel, J.-F.; Blottiau, P.; Kazandjian, L.; Piron, R.; Torrent, M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)
2014-10-15
The applicability of quantum molecular dynamics to the calculation of the equation of state of a dense plasma is limited at high temperature by computational cost. Orbital-free molecular dynamics, based on a semiclassical approximation and possibly on a gradient correction, is a simulation method available at high temperature. For a high-Z element such as lutetium, we examine how orbital-free molecular dynamics applied to the equation of state of a dense plasma can be regarded as the limit of quantum molecular dynamics at high temperature. For the normal mass density and twice the normal mass density, we show that the pressures calculated with the quantum approach converge monotonically towards those calculated with the orbital-free approach; we observe a faster convergence when the orbital-free approach includes the gradient correction. We propose a method to obtain an equation of state reproducing quantum molecular dynamics results up to high temperatures where this approach cannot be directly implemented. With the results already obtained for low-Z plasmas, the present study opens the way for reproducing the quantum molecular dynamics pressure for all elements up to high temperatures.
Correlation effects on spin-polarized electron-hole quantum bilayer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saini, L. K., E-mail: drlalitsaini75@gmail.com; Sharma, R. O., E-mail: sharmarajesh0387@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat – 395 007 (India); Nayak, Mukesh G. [Department of Physics, Silvassa College (Silvassa Institute of Higher Learning), Silvassa 396 230 (India)
2016-05-06
We present a numerical calculation for the intra- and interlayer pair-correlation functions, g{sub ll’}(r), of spin-polarized electron-hole quantum bilayers at zero temperature. The calculations of g{sub ll’}(r) are performed by including electron correlations within the dynamical version of the self-consistent mean-field approximation of Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjölander (qSTLS). Our study reveals that the critical layer density decreases (increases) due to the inclusion of finite width (mass-asymmetry) effect during the phase-transition from charge-density wave to Wigner crystal ground-state by yielding the pronounced oscillatory behavior ing{sub ll}(r). The results are compared with recent findings of spin-polarized electron-hole quantum bilayers with mass-symmetry and zero width effects. To highlight the importance of dynamical character of correlations, we have also compared our results with the STLS results.
Transport Properties of an Electron-Hole Bilayer in Contact with a Superconductor Hybrid Junction
Bercioux, D.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Bergeret, F. S.
2017-08-01
We investigate the transport properties of a junction consisting of an electron-hole bilayer in contact with normal and superconducting leads. The electron-hole bilayer is considered as a semimetal with two electronic bands. We assume that in the region between the contacts the system hosts an exciton condensate described by a BCS-like model with a gap Γ in the quasiparticle density of states. We first discuss how the subgap electronic transport through the junction is mainly governed by the interplay between two kinds of reflection processes at the interfaces: the standard Andreev reflection at the interface between the superconductor and the exciton condensate, and a coherent crossed reflection at the semimetal-exciton-condensate interface that converts electrons from one layer into the other. We show that the differential conductance of the junction shows a minimum at voltages of the order of Γ /e . Such a minimum can be seen as a direct hallmark of the existence of the gapped excitonic state.
Helical edge states and fractional quantum Hall effect in a graphene electron-hole bilayer.
Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier D; Luo, Jason Y; Young, Andrea F; Hunt, Benjamin M; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ashoori, Raymond C; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo
2017-02-01
Helical 1D electronic systems are a promising route towards realizing circuits of topological quantum states that exhibit non-Abelian statistics. Here, we demonstrate a versatile platform to realize 1D systems made by combining quantum Hall (QH) edge states of opposite chiralities in a graphene electron-hole bilayer at moderate magnetic fields. Using this approach, we engineer helical 1D edge conductors where the counterpropagating modes are localized in separate electron and hole layers by a tunable electric field. These helical conductors exhibit strong non-local transport signals and suppressed backscattering due to the opposite spin polarizations of the counterpropagating modes. Unlike other approaches used for realizing helical states, the graphene electron-hole bilayer can be used to build new 1D systems incorporating fractional edge states. Indeed, we are able to tune the bilayer devices into a regime hosting fractional and integer edge states of opposite chiralities, paving the way towards 1D helical conductors with fractional quantum statistics.
Combined UMC- DFT prediction of electron-hole coupling in unit cells of pentacene crystals.
Leal, Luciano Almeida; de Souza Júnior, Rafael Timóteo; de Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ribeiro Junior, Luiz Antonio; Blawid, Stefan; da Silva Filho, Demetrio Antonio; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira
2017-05-01
Pentacene is an organic semiconductor that draws special attention from the scientific community due to the high mobility of its charge carriers. As electron-hole interactions are important aspects in the regard of such property, a computationally inexpensive method to predict the coupling between these quasi-particles is highly desired. In this work, we propose a hybrid methodology of combining Uncoupled Monte Carlo Simulations (UMC) and Density functional Theory (DFT) methodologies to obtain a good compromise between computational feasibility and accuracy. As a first step in considering a Pentacene crystal, we describe its unit cell: the Pentacene Dimer. Because many conformations can be encountered for the dimer and considering the complexity of the system, we make use of UMC in order to find the most probable structures and relative orientations for the Pentacene-Pentacene complex. Following, we carry out electronic structure calculations in the scope of DFT with the goal of describing the electron-hole coupling on the most probable configurations obtained by UMC. The comparison of our results with previously reported data on the literature suggests that the methodology is well suited for describing transfer integrals of organic semiconductors. The observed accuracy together with the smaller computational cost required by our approach allows us to conclude that such methodology might be an important tool towards the description of systems with higher complexity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Najmudin, Z.; Krushelnick, K.; Clark, E.L.; Salvati, M.; Santala, M.I.K.; Tatarakis, M.; Dangor, A.E.
2000-01-01
Previous studies of high-intensity short-pulse laser beams propagating in under-dense plasma have relied on spectrally integrated Thomson scattering images. Though interesting, many significant features of the interaction cannot be diagnosed by this method. We report on shadow-graphy and spectrally resolved Thomson scattering of such an interaction. These images reveal many processes previously predicted but unseen, such as the Raman side-scatter and filamentation instabilities. Also the interaction is shown to clearly demonstrate many propagation instabilities such as 'sausaging' and 'hosing' for the first time. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Godunov, A.L.; Zemtsov, Yu.K.
1985-01-01
A theory of the contour of the Lsub(α) line of hydrogen-like ions in a dense plasma is developed by taking into account the hyperfine structure and Lamb and density shifts of levels. The effects of the ion microfield on the impact electron contribution to the widths and the radiative transition probabilities are taken into account. The ion microfield distribution function is found by taking into account the ion correlations. Results are presented of numerical calculations of the line contours for the Ne10, Al13 and Ar18 ions in a wide range of electron concentration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arzate P, N.
1994-01-01
Based on the fundamental theory of cylindrical waveguides and resonant cavities, the main characteristic parameters of the microwave plasma source reported in [1] are calculated. The absorption coefficient of an electromagnetic wave which is excited in H 11 mode in a cylindrical waveguide that contains a cold, inhomogeneous and magnetized plasma column is determined by using the perturbative method describe in [2]. In similar way, due to the presence of the plasma column, the shifts of the resonant frequency and of the inverse of the quality of a cylindrical resonant cavity where a TE 111 mode is oscilating are obtained. Finally, based on the linear theory, an analysis of the penetration of electromagnetic fields in a semi-bounded plasma and a plasma layer is done. The reflexion, transmission and absorption coefficients of H waves for the cases of an isotropic homogeneous and weak inhomogeneous plasma are calculated. (Author)
Hot electron spatial distribution under presence of laser light self-focusing in over-dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanimoto, T; Yabuuchi, T; Habara, H; Kondo, K; Kodama, R; Mima, K; Tanaka, K A; Lei, A L
2008-01-01
In fast ignition for laser thermonuclear fusion, an ultra intense laser (UIL) pulse irradiates an imploded plasma in order to fast-heat a high-density core with hot electrons generated in laser-plasma interactions. An UIL pulse needs to make plasma channel via laser self-focusing and to propagate through the corona plasma to reach close enough to the core. Hot electrons are used for heating the core. Therefore the propagation of laser light in the high-density plasma region and spatial distribution of hot electron are important in issues in order to study the feasibility of this scheme. We measure the spatial distribution of hot electron when the laser light propagates into the high-density plasma region by self-focusing
Gribkov, V. A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Chernyshova, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pimenov, V. N.; Demina, E. V.; Niemela, J.; Crespo, M.-L.; Cicuttin, A.; Tomaszewski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Pytel, K.; Zawadka, A.; Giannini, G.; Longo, F.; Talab, A.; Ul'yanenko, S. E.
2015-03-01
The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project "Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses". The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.
1988-01-01
The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peter, T.
1985-11-01
This work investigates the effective charge Zsub(eff) of heavy ion beams when passing through hot, dense matter. Major new results concern the temperature and high density effects on Zsub(eff), the importance of dielectronic recombination in the process where free electrons are captured by the projectile, and the corresponding shell oscillations in Zsub(eff), as well as the derivation of approximate scaling relations for Zsub(eff). (orig./GG) [de
Maximum material thickness for extreme ultra-violet and X-ray backlighter probing of dense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, H.; Tallents, G.J.
2008-01-01
Extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lasers, X-ray lasers and other backlighter sources can be used to probe high-energy density materials if their brightness can overcome self-emission from the material. We investigate the maximum plasma thickness of aluminum, silicon and iron that can be probed with EUV or X-ray photons of energy 89-1243 eV before self-emission from the plasma overwhelms the backlighter output. For a uniform plasma, backlighter transmission decreases exponentially with increasing thickness of the material following Beer's law at a rate dependent on the plasma opacity. We evaluate the plasma opacity with the Los Alamos TOPS opacity data. The self-emission is assumed to be either that of a black body to arise from a plasma in LTE or to only consist of free-free and free-bound emission. It is shown that at higher plasma temperature (≥40 eV), EUV radiation (e.g. photon energy=89 eV) can probe a greater thickness of plasma than X-ray radiation (e.g. photon energy=1243 eV)
Colvin, J. D.; Matsukuma, H.; Brown, K. C.; Davis, J. F.; Kemp, G. E.; Koga, K.; Tanaka, N.; Yogo, A.; Zhang, Z.; Nishimura, H.; Fournier, K. B.
2018-03-01
This work was motivated by previous findings that the measured laser-driven heat front propagation velocity in under-dense TiO2/SiO2 foams is slower than the simulated one [Pérez et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 023102 (2014)]. In attempting to test the hypothesis that these differences result from effects of the foam microstructure, we designed and conducted an experiment on the GEKKO laser using an x-ray streak camera to compare the heat front propagation velocity in "equivalent" gas and foam targets, that is, targets that have the same initial density, atomic weight, and average ionization state. We first discuss the design and the results of this comparison experiment. To supplement the x-ray streak camera data, we designed and conducted an experiment on the Trident laser using a new high-resolution, time-integrated, spatially resolved crystal spectrometer to image the Ti K-shell spectrum along the laser-propagation axis in an under-dense TiO2/SiO2 foam cylinder. We discuss the details of the design of this experiment, and present the measured Ti K-shell spectra compared to the spectra simulated with a detailed superconfiguration non-LTE atomic model for Ti incorporated into a 2D radiation hydrodynamic code. We show that there is indeed a microstructure effect on heat front propagation in under-dense foams, and that the measured heat front velocities in the TiO2/SiO2 foams are consistent with the analytical model of Gus'kov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 18, 103114 (2011)].
Uncorrelated electron-hole transition energy in GaN|InGaN|GaN spherical QDQW nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddou El Ghazi; Anouar Jorio and Izeddine Zorkani
2013-01-01
The electron (hole) energy and uncorrelated 1S e - 1S h electron-hole transition in Core(GaN)|well(In x Ga 1-x N)|shell(GaN) spherical QDQW nanoparticles is investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii. The calculations are performed within the framework of the effective-mass approximation and the finite parabolic potential confinement barrier in which two confined parameters are taking account. The Indium composition effect is also investigated. A critical value of the outer and the inner ratio is obtained which constitutes the turning point of two indium composition behaviors. (author)
Tricritical behaviour in the phase transition induced by electron-hole pairing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crisan, M.
1980-01-01
The electron-hole pairing, which is possible in metals or semiconductors, can give condensed phases with two order parameters. If the coupling between the two order parameters is considered, the free energy functional is similar with the free energy of a n-component spin system with cubic anisotropy. Using the Wagner hypothesis (tricritical scaling) the non-linear scaling fields have been calculated. In order to perform the calculation of the nonlinear fields we used the method given by Rudnick and Nelson to solve the recursion relations for the 4-epsilon-dimensional system with n=6 components. The present calculation in the frame-work of the renormalization-group approach confirms the result obtained in the mean-field theory that the coupling of the two order parameters induces a first order phase transition. (author)
Electron-phonon contribution to the phonon and excited electron (hole) linewidths in bulk Pd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sklyadneva, I Yu; Leonardo, A; Echenique, P M; Eremeev, S V; Chulkov, E V
2006-01-01
We present an ab initio study of the electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and its contribution to the phonon linewidths and to the lifetime broadening of excited electron and hole states in bulk Pd. The calculations, based on density-functional theory, were carried out using a linear-response approach in the plane-wave pseudopotential representation. The obtained results for the Eliashberg spectral function α 2 F(ω), e-ph coupling constant λ, and the contribution to the lifetime broadening, Γ e-ph , show strong dependence on both the energy and momentum of an electron (hole) state. The calculation of phonon linewidths gives, in agreement with experimental observations, an anomalously large broadening for the transverse phonon mode T 1 in the Σ direction. In addition, this mode is found to contribute most strongly to the electron-phonon scattering processes on the Fermi surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Li
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2On after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects.
Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol
2016-01-01
The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects. PMID:26798842
The fate of electron-hole pairs in polymer:fullerene blends for organic photovoltaics
Causa', Martina; de Jonghe-Risse, Jelissa; Scarongella, Mariateresa; Brauer, Jan C.; Buchaca-Domingo, Ester; Moser, Jacques-E.; Stingelin, Natalie; Banerji, Natalie
2016-09-01
There has been long-standing debate on how free charges are generated in donor:acceptor blends that are used in organic solar cells, and which are generally comprised of a complex phase morphology, where intermixed and neat phases of the donor and acceptor material co-exist. Here we resolve this question, basing our conclusions on Stark effect spectroscopy data obtained in the absence and presence of externally applied electric fields. Reconciling opposing views found in literature, we unambiguously demonstrate that the fate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs--whether they will dissociate to free charges or geminately recombine--is determined at ultrafast times, despite the fact that their actual spatial separation can be much slower. Our insights are important to further develop rational approaches towards material design and processing of organic solar cells, assisting to realize their purported promise as lead-free, third-generation energy technology that can reach efficiencies over 10%.
Alekseev, P. S.; Dmitriev, A. P.; Gornyi, I. V.; Kachorovskii, V. Yu.; Narozhny, B. N.; Titov, M.
2018-02-01
Ultrapure conductors may exhibit hydrodynamic transport where the collective motion of charge carriers resembles the flow of a viscous fluid. In a confined geometry (e.g., in ultra-high-quality nanostructures), the electronic fluid assumes a Poiseuille-type flow. Applying an external magnetic field tends to diminish viscous effects leading to large negative magnetoresistance. In two-component systems near charge neutrality, the hydrodynamic flow of charge carriers is strongly affected by the mutual friction between the two constituents. At low fields, the magnetoresistance is negative, however, at high fields the interplay between electron-hole scattering, recombination, and viscosity results in a dramatic change of the flow profile: the magnetoresistance changes its sign and eventually becomes linear in very high fields. This nonmonotonic magnetoresistance can be used as a fingerprint to detect viscous flow in two-component conducting systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bielecki, J., E-mail: jakub.bielecki@ifj.edu.edu; Wójcik-Gargula, A.; Scholz, M.
2016-11-15
The article presents a new approach for investigation of spatial distributions of soft and hard X-rays emitted from dense magnetized plasma. The approach is based on the application of tomographic methods to the X-ray emission reconstruction in a plasma focus (PF) device. Quantitative investigation of the anisotropy of the reconstructed X–ray plasma emissivity may help to explain the nature of fusion reaction mechanisms in a PF device. The aim of this work is to present a conceptual design of a novel dual-energy X-ray emission tomographic system dedicated to the PF-24 plasma focus device. The system, which enables the simultaneous registration of soft and hard X-rays, is composed of three X‐ray pinhole cameras. Each camera is equipped with a pair of 16-element Si photodiode arrays arranged in two layers separated by an aluminum attenuator. The Geant4 code was used to optimize the layout and parameters of the applied detectors. In addition, a method of tomographic reconstruction from a sparse data set provided by the experimental setup has been presented.
Heating of a dense plasma by an ultrashort laser pulse in the anomalous skin-effect regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, A.A.; Gamalii, E.G.; Novikov, V.N.; Semakhin, A.N.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.
1992-01-01
The absorption of laser light in an overdense plasma with a sharp boundary and the heating of the plasma under conditions corresponding to the anomalous skin effect are studied. Heat transfer from the absorption region near the surface into the interior of the plasma is studied in the kinetic approximation. At high intensities of the laser pulse, the electron distribution function is deformed, and the plasma is heated at a rate tens of times that predicted by classical heat-transfer theory, because of the severe limitation on thermal conductivity. The anisotropy of the electron distribution function in the skin layer leads to an increase in the absorption coefficient. The angular distribution and the polarization dependence of the absorption coefficient are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de
2003-03-15
Collisional excitation cross-sections are essential for the modeling of the properties of non equilibrium plasmas. There has been a lot of work on electron impact excitation of isolated ions, but in dense plasmas, neighboring particles are expected to widely disturb these electron transitions in atoms. Plasma modeling through a radially perturbed potential has already been done but is not satisfactory as it does not account for levels degeneracy breaking and its consequences. Introduction of a quasistatic electric micro-field of neighboring ions allows us to break spherical symmetry. Our original theoretical study has given birth to a numerical code that accurately computes collisional strengths and rates (in the Distorted Waves approach) in atoms submitted to a realistic micro-field. Hydrogen- and helium-like aluminium is studied. Stark mixing widely increases rates of transitions from high l levels and forbidden transitions are field-enhanced by many orders of magnitude until they reach allowed ones. Eventually, we conduct an elementary stationary collisional radiative study to investigate field-enhancement effects on corresponding line shapes. In cases we study (aluminium, hydrogen- and helium-like) we find a relatively weak increase of K-shell line broadening.
Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro
2018-02-01
Metal oxide nanoparticle resists have attracted much attention as the next-generation resist used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices. However, the sensitization mechanism of the metal oxide nanoparticle resists is unknown. Understanding the sensitization mechanism is important for the efficient development of resist materials. In this study, the energy deposition in a zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticle resist was investigated. The numbers of electron-hole pairs generated in a ZrO2 core and an methacrylic acid (MAA) ligand shell upon exposure to 1 mJ cm-2 (exposure dose) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations were theoretically estimated to be 0.16 at most and 0.04-0.17 cm2 mJ-1, respectively. By comparing the calculated distribution of electron-hole pairs with the line-and-space patterns of the ZrO2 nanoparticle resist fabricated by an EUV exposure tool, the number of electron-hole pairs required for the solubility change of the resist films was estimated to be 1.3-2.2 per NP. NP denotes a nanoparticle consisting of a metal oxide core with a ligand shell. In the material design of metal oxide nanoparticle resists, it is important to efficiently use the electron-hole pairs generated in the metal oxide core for the chemical change of ligand molecules.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zawadzki, Pawel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Rossmeisl, Jan
2011-01-01
We study electronic hole localization in rutile and anatase titanium dioxide by means of Δ-Self-Consistent Field Density Functional Theory. In order to compare stabilities of the localized and the delocalized hole states we introduce a simple correction to the wrong description of the localizatio...
G-factors and diamagnetic coefficients of electrons, holes, and excitons in InAs/InP quantum dots
Bree, van J.; Silov, A.Yu.; Koenraad, P.M.; Flatté, M.E.; Pryor, C.E.
2012-01-01
The electron, hole, and exciton g factors and diamagnetic coefficients have been calculated using envelope-function theory for cylindrical InAs/InP quantum dots in the presence of a magnetic field parallel to the dot symmetry axis. A clear connection is established between the electron g factor and
Bhatia, A. K.; Sinha, C.
2012-01-01
The free-free transition is studied for an electron-hydrogen in the ground state at low incident energies in the presence of an external homogenous, monochromatic, and linearly polarized laser-field inside a hot dense plasma.The effect of plasma screening is considered in the Debye-Huckel approximation. The calculations are performed in the soft photon limit, assuming that the plasma frequency is much higher than the laser frequency. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser field in a nonperturbative manner by choosing the Volkov solutions in both the initial and final channels. The space part of the scattering wave function for the electron is solved numerically by taking into account the electron exchange. The laser-assisted differential and total cross sections are calculated for single-photon absorption /emission and no photon exchange in the soft photon limit, the laser intensity being much less than the atomic field intensity. The calculations have been carried out for various values of Debye parameter, ranging from 0.005 to 0.12. A strong suppression is noted in the laser-assisted cross sections as compared to the field-free situation. A significant difference is noted for the singlet and triplet cross sections. The suppression is much more in the triplet states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Zuwei; Sassolini, Simone; Olynick, Deirdre L; Gu, Xiaodan; Hwu, Justin
2014-01-01
The combination of block copolymer (BCP) lithography and plasma etching offers a gateway to densely packed sub-10 nm features for advanced nanotechnology. Despite the advances in BCP lithography, plasma pattern transfer remains a major challenge. We use controlled and low substrate temperatures during plasma etching of a chromium hard mask and then the underlying substrate as a route to high aspect ratio sub-10 nm silicon features derived from BCP lithography. Siloxane masks were fabricated using poly(styrene-b-siloxane) (PS-PDMS) BCP to create either line-type masks or, with the addition of low molecular weight PS-OH homopolymer, dot-type masks. Temperature control was essential for preventing mask migration and controlling the etched feature’s shape. Vertical silicon wire features (15 nm with feature-to-feature spacing of 26 nm) were etched with aspect ratios up to 17 : 1; higher aspect ratios were limited by the collapse of nanoscale silicon structures. Sub-10 nm fin structures were etched with aspect ratios greater than 10 : 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of the wires reveal a crystalline silicon core with an amorphous surface layer, just slightly thicker than a native oxide. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petr, Rodney; Bykanov, Alexander; Freshman, Jay; Reilly, Dennis; Mangano, Joseph; Roche, Maureen; Dickenson, Jason; Burte, Mitchell; Heaton, John
2004-01-01
A high average power dense plasma focus (DPF), x-ray point source has been used to produce ∼70 nm line features in AlGaAs-based monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs). The DPF source has produced up to 12 J per pulse of x-ray energy into 4π steradians at ∼1 keV effective wavelength in ∼2 Torr neon at pulse repetition rates up to 60 Hz, with an effective x-ray yield efficiency of ∼0.8%. Plasma temperature and electron concentration are estimated from the x-ray spectrum to be ∼170 eV and ∼5·10 19 cm -3 , respectively. The x-ray point source utilizes solid-state pulse power technology to extend the operating lifetime of electrodes and insulators in the DPF discharge. By eliminating current reversals in the DPF head, an anode electrode has demonstrated a lifetime of more than 5 million shots. The x-ray point source has also been operated continuously for 8 h run times at 27 Hz average pulse recurrent frequency. Measurements of shock waves produced by the plasma discharge indicate that overpressure pulses must be attenuated before a collimator can be integrated with the DPF point source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tucker, J.E.; Brake, M.L.; Gilgenbach, R.M.
1986-01-01
The authors present the results of axial and radial time resolved visible emission spectroscopy from the afterglow of a dense helium Z-pinch. These results show that the visible emissions in the pinch afterglow are dominated by line emissions from molecular helium and He II. Axial spectroscopy measurements show the occurrence of several absorption bands which cannot be identified as molecular or atomic helium nor impurities from the discharge chamber materials. The authors believe that these absorption bands are attributable to the molecular helium ion which is present in the discharge. The molecular ion has been observed by others in low pressure and temperature helium discharges directly by means of mass spectrometry and indirectly by the presence of helium atoms in the 2/sup 3/S state, (the He 2/sup 3/S state is believed to result from molecular helium ion recombination). However, the molecular helium ion has not previously been observed spectroscopically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepherd, R.L.
1987-01-01
Plasmas were created by discharging a 600-kV Marx bank across a 20μ-diameter capillary in polyurethane. The current generated by the Marx bank accretes material from the capillary wall and fills the initial void to form a plasma. Various diagnostics were fielded to help characterize the plasma. The diagnostics consist of: (1) a four channel x-ray diode array to measure the temperature, (2) schlieren photography to measure the time dependent radial size, (3) two capacitively coupled voltage probes to measure the time-dependent voltage generated by the pulse-power system and the voltage delivered across the capillary, (4) a localized Rogowski coil to measure the current through the capillary, (5) four inductive shunts to measure the return current, (6) and end-on framing and side-on visible streak photography to measure time dependent size of the visible emission. The plasmas were characterized as having densities on the order of 6 x 10 22 and temperatures of ≅ 10 eV. The peak current is reached in 270 ns at 550 kA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pochelon, A.; Mueck, A.; Curchod, L.; Camenen, Y.; Coda, S.; Duval, B.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Klimanov, I.; Laqua, H.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Porte, L.; Sushkov, A.; Udintsev, V.S.; Volpe, F.
2007-01-01
This paper reports on the first demonstration of electron Bernstein wave heating (EBWH) by double mode conversion from ordinary (O-) to Bernstein (B-) via the extraordinary (X-) mode in an over-dense tokamak plasma, using low field side launch, achieved in the TCV tokamak H-mode, making use of its naturally generated steep density gradient. This technique offers the possibility of overcoming the upper density limit of conventional EC microwave heating. The sensitive dependence of the O-X mode conversion on the microwave launching direction has been verified experimentally. Localized power deposition, consistent with theoretical predictions, has been observed at densities well above the conventional cut-off. Central heating has been achieved, at powers up to two megawatts. This demonstrates the potential of EBW in tokamak H-modes, the intended mode of operation for a reactor such as ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortner, Alex
2015-07-15
In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furukawa, H.; Nishihara, K.
1992-01-01
The spherical-cell model [F. Perrot, Phys. Rev. A 25, 489 (1982); M. W. C. Dharma-wardana and F. Perrot, ibid. 26, 2096 (1982)] is improved to investigate laser-produced hot, dense plasmas. The free-electron distribution function around a test free electron is calculated by using the Fermi integral in order that the free-electron--free-electron correlation function includes Fermi-degeneracy effects, and also that the calculation includes the discrete-ion effect. The free-electron--free-electron, free-electron--ion, and ion-ion correlation effects are coupled, within the framework of the hypernetted-chain approximation, through the Ornstein-Zernike relation. The effective ion-ion potential includes the effect of a spatial distribution of bound electrons. The interparticle correlation functions and the effective potential acting on either an electron or an ion in hot, dense plasmas are calculated numerically. The Fermi-degeneracy effect on the correlation functions between free electrons becomes clear for the degeneracy parameter θ approx-lt 1. The discrete-ion effect in the calculation of the correlation functions between free electrons affects the electron-ion pair distribution functions for r s approx-gt 3. As an application of the proposed model, the strong-coupling effect on the stopping power of charged particles [Xin-Zhong Yan, S. Tanaka, S. Mitake, and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. A 32, 1785 (1985)] is estimated. While the free-electron--ion strong-coupling effect and the Fermi-degeneracy effect incorporated in the calculation of the free-electron distribution function around a test free electron enhance the stopping number, the quantum-diffraction effect incorporated in the quantal hypernetted-chain equations [J. Chihara, Prog. Theor. Phys. 72, 940 (1984); Phys. Rev. A 44, 1247 (1991); J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8715 (1991)] reduces the stopping number substantially
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Tamer, M.
1986-09-01
The work presented in this thesis concerns the magnetic fields generated in laser produced plasma. A summary of the theoretical and experimental studies concerning the toroidal magnetic fields and realised by different groups of research is presented. Then, we present our original contribution on the generation of axial magnetic fields by the dynamo effect. The experimental work for the detection of magnetic field is based on the Faraday rotation and Zeeman effects. The experimental diagrams are detailed and discussed. The experimental results are presented and compared to the theory. Finaly, we present some consequences of the generation of the axial magnetic fields in laser produced plasma as a discussion of the thermal conductivity [fr
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pisarczyk, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Renner, Oldřich; Demchenko, N. N.; Kalinowska, Z.; Chodukowski, T.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; Šmíd, Michal; Dostál, Jan; Badziak, J.; Batani, D.; Volpe, L.; Krouský, Eduard; Dudžák, Roman; Ullschmied, Jiří; Turčičová, Hana; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Antonelli, L.; Maheut, Y.; Borodziuk, S.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, P.
2015-01-01
Roč. 33, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-236 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014; GA ČR GPP205/11/P712 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; AVČR(CZ) M100101208; FP7(XE) 284464 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : energy transport * fast electrons * femtosecond interferometry * laser-produced plasma * shock ignition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UFP-V) Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2015
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krupnik, L.I.; Chmyga, A.A.; Komarov, A.D.; Kozachok, A.S.; Zhezhera, A.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 310108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melnikov, A.V.; Eliseev, L.G.; Lysenko, S.E.; Mavrin, V.A.; Perfilov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Hidalgo, C.; Ascasibar, E.; Estrada, T.; Liniers, M.; Ochando, M.A.; Pablos, J.L. de; Pedrosa, M.A.; Tabares, F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain)
2011-07-01
One of essential achievements of the Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostics is the possibility to use it for investigation of plasma confinement by measuring the fluctuations of electric field and plasma density; the method is based on the important role of the plasma electric fields. Both edge and core transport barriers are related to a large increase in the E*B sheared flows in a fusion device. In the TJ-II stellarator the HIBP diagnostics has recently been upgraded for two-point measurements with a good spatial (1 cm) and temporal (10 {mu}s) resolution of the plasma electric potential and density, as well as their fluctuations and poloidal component of electric field, E{sub p} equals ({phi}1 - {phi}2)/{Delta}r [V/cm]; these data give chance to extract the radial turbulent particle flux: {Gamma}(r) equals {Gamma}(Epol*Btor) equals {Gamma}(E*B). (authors)
Excitonic and electron-hole mechanisms of the creation of Frenkel defect in alkali halides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lushchik, A.; Kirm, M.; Lushchik, Ch.; Vasil'chenko, E.
2000-01-01
Excitonic and electron-hole (e-h) mechanisms of stable F centre creation by VUV radiation in alkali halide crystals are discussed. In KCl at 4.2 K, the efficiency of stable F-H pair creation is especially high at the direct optical formation of triplet excitons with n=1. At 200-400 K, the creation processes of stable F centres in KCl are especially efficient at the formation of one-halide exciton in the Urbach tail of an exciton absorption. In KCl and KBr, the decay of a cation exciton (∼20 eV) causes the formation of two e-h pairs, while in NaCl a cation exciton (33.5 eV) decays into two e-h and an anion exciton. An elastic uniaxial stress of a crystal excited by VUV radiation decreases the mean free path of excitons before their self-trapping (KI) and increases the mean free path of hot holes before self-trapping (NaCl)
Menke, S. Matthew
2018-01-12
Donor–acceptor organic solar cells often show low open-circuit voltages (VOC) relative to their optical energy gap (Eg) that limit power conversion efficiencies to ~12%. This energy loss is partly attributed to the offset between Eg and that of intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the donor–acceptor interface. Here we study charge generation occurring in PIPCP:PC61BM, a system with a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (Eg−ECT ~ 50 meV) and a high internal quantum efficiency (ηIQE ~ 80%). We track the strength of the electric field generated between the separating electron-hole pair by following the transient electroabsorption optical response, and find that while localised CT states are formed rapidly (<100 fs) after photoexcitation, free charges are not generated until 5 ps after photogeneration. In PIPCP:PC61BM, electronic disorder is low (Urbach energy <27 meV) and we consider that free charge separation is able to outcompete trap-assisted non-radiative recombination of the CT state.
Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao
2013-03-01
Quantum evolution of particles under strong fields can be approximated by the quantum trajectories that satisfy the stationary phase condition in the Dirac-Feynmann path integrals. The quantum trajectories are the key concept to understand strong-field optics phenomena, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG), above-threshold ionization (ATI), and high-order terahertz siedeband generation (HSG). The HSG in semiconductors may have a wealth of physics due to the possible nontrivial ``vacuum'' states of band materials. We find that in a spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor, the cyclic quantum trajectories of an electron-hole pair under a strong terahertz field accumulates nontrivial Berry phases. We study the monolayer MoS2 as a model system and find that the Berry phases are given by the Faraday rotation angles of the pulse emission from the material under short-pulse excitation. This result demonstrates an interesting Berry phase dependent effect in the extremely nonlinear optics of semiconductors. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF 401512 and the CUHK Focused Investments Scheme.
Harvesting multiple electron-hole pairs generated through plasmonic excitation of Au nanoparticles.
Kim, Youngsoo; Smith, Jeremy G; Jain, Prashant K
2018-05-07
Multi-electron redox reactions, although central to artificial photosynthesis, are kinetically sluggish. Amidst the search for synthetic catalysts for such processes, plasmonic nanoparticles have been found to catalyse multi-electron reduction of CO 2 under visible light. This example motivates the need for a general, insight-driven framework for plasmonic catalysis of such multi-electron chemistry. Here, we elucidate the principles underlying the extraction of multiple redox equivalents from a plasmonic photocatalyst. We measure the kinetics of electron harvesting from a gold nanoparticle photocatalyst as a function of photon flux. Our measurements, supported by theoretical modelling, reveal a regime where two-electron transfer from the excited gold nanoparticle becomes prevalent. Multiple electron harvesting becomes possible under continuous-wave, visible-light excitation of moderate intensity due to strong interband transitions in gold and electron-hole separation accomplished using a hole scavenger. These insights will help expand the utility of plasmonic photocatalysis beyond CO 2 reduction to other challenging multi-electron, multi-proton transformations such as N 2 fixation.
Modulating the Electron-Hole Interaction in a Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskite with an Electric Field.
Leijtens, Tomas; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Eperon, Giles E; Grancini, Giulia; D'Innocenzo, Valerio; Ball, James M; Stranks, Samuel D; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria
2015-12-16
Despite rapid developments in both photovoltaic and light-emitting device performance, the understanding of the optoelectronic properties of hybrid lead halide perovskites is still incomplete. In particular, the polarizability of the material, the presence of molecular dipoles, and their influence on the dynamics of the photoexcitations remain an open issue to be clarified. Here, we investigate the effect of an applied external electric field on the photoexcited species of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films, both at room temperature and at low temperature, by monitoring the photoluminescence (PL) yield and PL decays. At room temperature we find evidence for electric-field-induced reduction of radiative bimolecular carrier recombination together with motion of charged defects that affects the nonradiative decay rate of the photoexcited species. At low temperature (190 K), we observe a field-induced enhancement of radiative free carrier recombination rates that lasts even after the removal of the field. We assign this to field-induced alignment of the molecular dipoles, which reduces the vibrational freedom of the lattice and the associated local screening and hence results in a stronger electron-hole interaction.
Menke, S. Matthew; Cheminal, Alexandre; Conaghan, Patrick; Ran, Niva A.; Greehnam, Neil C.; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.
2018-01-01
Donor–acceptor organic solar cells often show low open-circuit voltages (VOC) relative to their optical energy gap (Eg) that limit power conversion efficiencies to ~12%. This energy loss is partly attributed to the offset between Eg and that of intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the donor–acceptor interface. Here we study charge generation occurring in PIPCP:PC61BM, a system with a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (Eg−ECT ~ 50 meV) and a high internal quantum efficiency (ηIQE ~ 80%). We track the strength of the electric field generated between the separating electron-hole pair by following the transient electroabsorption optical response, and find that while localised CT states are formed rapidly (<100 fs) after photoexcitation, free charges are not generated until 5 ps after photogeneration. In PIPCP:PC61BM, electronic disorder is low (Urbach energy <27 meV) and we consider that free charge separation is able to outcompete trap-assisted non-radiative recombination of the CT state.
Giant electron-hole transport asymmetry in ultra-short quantum transistors
McRae, A. C.; Tayari, V.; Porter, J. M.; Champagne, A. R.
2017-01-01
Making use of bipolar transport in single-wall carbon nanotube quantum transistors would permit a single device to operate as both a quantum dot and a ballistic conductor or as two quantum dots with different charging energies. Here we report ultra-clean 10 to 100 nm scale suspended nanotube transistors with a large electron-hole transport asymmetry. The devices consist of naked nanotube channels contacted with sections of tube under annealed gold. The annealed gold acts as an n-doping top gate, allowing coherent quantum transport, and can create nanometre-sharp barriers. These tunnel barriers define a single quantum dot whose charging energies to add an electron or a hole are vastly different (e−h charging energy asymmetry). We parameterize the e−h transport asymmetry by the ratio of the hole and electron charging energies ηe−h. This asymmetry is maximized for short channels and small band gap tubes. In a small band gap device, we demonstrate the fabrication of a dual functionality quantum device acting as a quantum dot for holes and a much longer quantum bus for electrons. In a 14 nm-long channel, ηe−h reaches up to 2.6 for a device with a band gap of 270 meV. The charging energies in this device exceed 100 meV. PMID:28561024
Correlation induced electron-hole asymmetry in quasi- two-dimensional iridates.
Pärschke, Ekaterina M; Wohlfeld, Krzysztof; Foyevtsova, Kateryna; van den Brink, Jeroen
2017-09-25
The resemblance of crystallographic and magnetic structures of the quasi-two-dimensional iridates Ba 2 IrO 4 and Sr 2 IrO 4 to La 2 CuO 4 points at an analogy to cuprate high-Tc superconductors, even if spin-orbit coupling is very strong in iridates. Here we examine this analogy for the motion of a charge (hole or electron) added to the antiferromagnetic ground state. We show that correlation effects render the hole and electron case in iridates very different. An added electron forms a spin polaron, similar to the cuprates, but the situation of a removed electron is far more complex. Many-body 5d 4 configurations form which can be singlet and triplet states of total angular momentum that strongly affect the hole motion. This not only has ramifications for the interpretation of (inverse-)photoemission experiments but also demonstrates that correlation physics renders electron- and hole-doped iridates fundamentally different.Some iridate compounds such as Sr 2 IrO 4 have electronic and atomic structures similar to quasi-2D copper oxides, raising the prospect of high temperature superconductivity. Here, the authors show that there is significant electron-hole asymmetry in iridates, contrary to expectations from the cuprates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribkov, V A; Miklaszewski, R; Paduch, M; Zielinska, E; Chernyshova, M; Pisarczyk, T; Sadowski, M J; Pimenov, V N; Demina, E V; Niemela, J; Crespo, M-L; Cicuttin, A; Tomaszewski, K; Skladnik-Sadowska, E; Pytel, K; Zawadka, A; Giannini, G; Longo, F; Talab, A; Ul'yanenko, S E
2015-01-01
The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project 'Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses'. The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samal, Nigamananda; Du Hui; Luberoff, Russell; Chetry, Krishna; Bubber, Randhir; Hayes, Alan; Devasahayam, Adrian [Veeco Instruments, 1 Terminal Drive, Plainview, New York 11803 (United States)
2013-01-15
Titanium nitride (TiN) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry for its diffusion barrier and seed layer properties. However, it has seen limited adoption in other industries in which low temperature (<200 Degree-Sign C) deposition is a requirement. Examples of applications which require low temperature deposition are seed layers for magnetic materials in the data storage (DS) industry and seed and diffusion barrier layers for through-silicon-vias (TSV) in the MEMS industry. This paper describes a low temperature TiN process with appropriate electrical, chemical, and structural properties based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition method that is suitable for the DS and MEMS industries. It uses tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-titanium as an organometallic precursor and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as co-reactant. This process was developed in a Veeco NEXUS Trade-Mark-Sign chemical vapor deposition tool. The tool uses a substrate rf-biased configuration with a grounded gas shower head. In this paper, the complimentary and self-limiting character of this process is demonstrated. The effects of key processing parameters including temperature, pulse time, and plasma power are investigated in terms of growth rate, stress, crystal morphology, chemical, electrical, and optical properties. Stoichiometric thin films with growth rates of 0.4-0.5 A/cycle were achieved. Low electrical resistivity (<300 {mu}{Omega} cm), high mass density (>4 g/cm{sup 3}), low stress (<250 MPa), and >85% step coverage for aspect ratio of 10:1 were realized. Wet chemical etch data show robust chemical stability of the film. The properties of the film have been optimized to satisfy industrial viability as a Ruthenium (Ru) preseed liner in potential data storage and TSV applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassani Nia, Iman; Fathipour, Vala; Mohseni, Hooman, E-mail: hmohseni@ece.northwestern.edu [Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory (BISOL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)
2015-08-15
We report the first observation of non-threshold Auger mechanism for a quantum well structure with Type-I band alignment. Excitation-dependent photoluminescence measurements were used to extract the Auger recombination coefficients from 77 K up to room temperature. The results verify the role of interface mediated momentum exchange as well as suppression of Auger recombination for delocalized electron-hole wavefunctions.
Electron-hole pairing and anomalous properties of layered high-Tc compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efetov, K.B.
1991-01-01
Band-structure pictures for layered high-T c materials available in the literature show that, besides the dispersive broad band responsible for metallic properties, there are at least two additional bands having minima and maxima near the Fermi surface. These additional bands belong to different planes (for example, CuO planes and BiO planes in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 ) or to planes and chains (in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ). Provided the Coulomb repulsion is not very weak, pairing of electrons and holes belonging to these additional bands in different planes or planes and chains is possible. It is shown that, if this possibility is realized, a transition in the additional bands into a state of an excitonic dielectric occurs. The spin of an electron-hole pair can be both 0 and 1. Due to the fact that the electron and the hole of the pair belong to different planes, there are no charge- or spin-density waves. This excitonic insulator can serve as a polarizing substance and give a strong attraction between electrons of the metallic band even if the bare interaction is repulsive. It is also shown that some interesting gapless excitations exist. Provided there are impurities in the system that scatter from plane to plane, these excitations are coupled to the electrons of the metallic band. This effective interaction can be described in terms of an effective mode P(ω) with ImP(ω)∼-sgnω. As a result, one can obtain such properties of the normal state as a linear dependence of the resistivity on temperature, linear dependence of the density of states on energy, constant background in the Raman-scattering intensity, large nuclear relaxation rate, etc., which are very well known from experiments
Phase diagram of a symmetric electron-hole bilayer system: a variational Monte Carlo study.
Sharma, Rajesh O; Saini, L K; Bahuguna, Bhagwati Prasad
2018-05-10
We study the phase diagram of a symmetric electron-hole bilayer system at absolute zero temperature and in zero magnetic field within the quantum Monte Carlo approach. In particular, we conduct variational Monte Carlo simulations for various phases, i.e. the paramagnetic fluid phase, the ferromagnetic fluid phase, the anti-ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase, the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase and the excitonic phase, to estimate the ground-state energy at different values of in-layer density and inter-layer spacing. Slater-Jastrow style trial wave functions, with single-particle orbitals appropriate for different phases, are used to construct the phase diagram in the (r s , d) plane by finding the relative stability of trial wave functions. At very small layer separations, we find that the fluid phases are stable, with the paramagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at [Formula: see text] and the ferromagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at [Formula: see text]. As the layer spacing increases, we first find that there is a phase transition from the ferromagnetic fluid phase to the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase when d reaches 0.4 a.u. at r s = 20, and before there is a return to the ferromagnetic fluid phase when d approaches 1 a.u. However, for r s Wigner crystal is stable over the considered range of r s and d. We also find that as r s increases, the critical layer separations for Wigner crystallization increase.
Kumar, Krishan; Moudgil, R K
2012-10-17
We have studied symmetric electron-electron and electron-hole bilayers to explore the stable homogeneous spin phase and the feasibility of inhomogeneous charge-/spin-density ground states. The former is resolved by comparing the ground-state energies in states of different spin polarizations, while the latter is resolved by searching for a divergence in the wavevector-dependent static charge/spin susceptibility. For this endeavour, we have used the dielectric approach within the self-consistent mean-field theory of Singwi et al. We find that the inter-layer interactions tend to change an abrupt spin-polarization transition of an isolated layer into a nearly gradual one, even though the partially spin-polarized phases are not clearly stable within the accuracy of our calculation. The transition density is seen to decrease with a reduction in layer spacing, implying a suppression of spin polarization by inter-layer interactions. Indeed, the suppression shows up distinctly in the spin susceptibility computed from the spin-polarization dependence of the ground-state energy. However, below a critical layer spacing, the unpolarized liquid becomes unstable against a charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state at a density preceding full spin polarization, with the transition density for the CDW state increasing on further reduction in the layer spacing. Due to attractive e-h correlations, the CDW state is found to be more pronounced in the e-h bilayer. On the other hand, the static spin susceptibility diverges only in the long-wavelength limit, which simply represents a transition to the homogeneous spin-polarized phase.
Nitishinskiy, M.; Yanuka, D.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.
2017-12-01
Time- and space-resolved evolution of the density (down to 0.07 of solid state density) of a copper wire during its microsecond timescale electrical explosion in water was obtained by X-ray backlighting. In the present research, a flash X-ray source of 20 ns pulse-width and >60 keV photon energy was used. The conductivity of copper was evaluated for a temperature of 10 kK and found to be in good agreement with the data obtained in earlier experiments [DeSilva and Katsouros, Phys. Rev. E 57, 5945 (1998) and Sheftman and Krasik, Phys. Plasmas 18, 092704 (2011)] where only electrical and optical diagnostics were applied. Magneto-hydrodynamic simulation shows a good agreement between the simulated and experimental waveforms of the current and voltage and measured the radial expansion of the exploding wire. Also, the radial density distribution obtained by an inverse Abel transform analysis agrees with the results of these simulations. Thus, the validity of the equations of state for copper and the conductivity model used in the simulations was confirmed for the parameters of the exploding wire realized in the present research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Yasushi; Katoh, Yuji; Okigawa, Mitsuru; Samukawa, Seiji
2005-01-01
We measured electron-hole pairs generated in dielectric film using our developed on-wafer monitoring technique to detect electrical currents in the film during the plasma etching processes. The electron-hole pairs were generated by plasma induced ultraviolet (UV) photons, and the number of electron-hole pairs depends on the UV wavelength. In SiO 2 film, UV light, which has a wavelength of less than 140 nm, generates electron-hole pairs, because the band gap energy of the film is 8.8 eV. On the other hand, in Si 3 N 4 film, which has a band gap energy level of 5.0 eV, UV light below 250 nm induces the electron-hole pairs. Additionally, we evaluated the fluorocarbon gas plasma process that induces UV radiation damage using multilayer sensors that consisted of both SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 stacked films. In these cases, electron-hole pair generation depended on the dielectric film structure. There were more electron-hole pairs generated in the SiO 2 deposited on the Si 3 N 4 film than in the Si 3 N 4 deposited on the SiO 2 film. As a result, our developed on-wafer monitoring sensor was able to predict electron-hole pair generation and the device characteristics
Mao, Dan
available, there is no alternative source. The official OPAL tables, however, have disadvantages. First, they are inflexible regarding the chemical mix, which is set once and for all by the producers of the tables. Our equation of state will allow the user to choose, in principle, an arbitrary mix. Second, the OPAL tables by their very nature are limited by the errors of interpolation within tables. The second equation of state model is a density expansion based on the Feynman-Kac path-integral formalism. By making use of the equivalence of quantum Hamiltonian matrix and the classical action of closed and open filaments (paths), an analytic formalism of equation of state. Although the character of density expansion limits its application, the formalism can still be valid in most region in the Sun. Our work provides the link between the abstract theoretical formalism that was developed in the 1990s and a numerically smooth realization that can be used in solar and stellar models. Since it is so far the most exact and systematic approach for an EOS, it provides another way to study the influence of different very fine physical effects, despite considerable limitations in its domain of applicability. In the nuclear-reaction part of the thesis, we have used a molecular-dynamics method to simulate the motion of protons in a hydrogen plasma (which is a good approximation for this purpose). Quantum tunneling explains why nuclear fusion can occur in the first place, considering the "low" temperature in the solar core. It is well known that this tunneling is enhanced (which leads to higher nuclear reaction rates) in the presence of Coulomb screening. In the 1950, Salpeter formulated a theory based on the static-screened Coulomb potential, as derived by Debye and H=FCckel in the 1920s. As expected, Salpeter obtained enhanced reaction rates. But from our simulation, we confirmed the results of a recent controversy about the existence of a dynamic effect. Since the bulk of fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moskalenko, S.A.; Podlesny, I.V.; Lelyakov, I.A.; Novikov, B.V.; Kiselyova, E.S.; Gherciu, L.
2011-01-01
The Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) in the case of two-dimensional (2D) electrons and holes in a strong perpendicular magnetic field was studied. The spinor-type wave functions are characterized by different numbers of Landau levels in different spin projections. For electrons they differ by 1 as was established earlier by Rashba, whereas for holes they differ by 3. Two lowest electron states and four lowest hole states of Landau quantization give rise to eight 2D magnetoexciton states. The exchange electron-hole interaction in the frame of these states is investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clayton, Dan [National Security Technol., LLC, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berninger, M; Meidinger, A; Stutman, Dan; Valdivia, Maria Pia
2015-05-01
For the first time an x-ray Talbot-Lau moire deflectometer is being developed that will use a flash tube source and fast detector for dynamic density gradient measurements. In Talbot-Lau moire deflectometry, an x-ray grating makes an image of itself on a second grating (the Talbot effect) to produce a moire pattern on a detector. The test object is placed between these gratings, with variations in index of refraction changing the pattern. A third grating in front of an incoherent x-ray source produces an array of coherent sources. With a 150 kV x-ray flash tube as the source, the gratings are placed in a glancing angle setup for performance at ~60 keV. The detector is a gated CCD with a fast scintillator for x-ray conversion. This diagnostic, designed for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, measures the density profile of dense plasma plumes ejected from beam-target interactions. DARHT has two high-current, pulsed, inductive linear electron accelerators with bremsstrahlung targets at the end of each beam line to create 2-D radiographic images of hydrodynamic tests. One multi-pulse accelerator has up to four beam pulses striking the same target within 2 μs. Computer simulations that model target evolution and ejected material between pulses are used to design these targets for optimal radiographic performance; the x-ray deflectometer will directly measure density gradients in the ejected plumes and provide the first experimental constraints to these models. During the first year, currently underway, the diagnostic systems are being designed. In year two, the flash tube and fast detector will be deployed at DARHT for radiographic imaging while the deflectometer is built and tested on the bench with a continuous source. Finally, in year three, the fast deflectometer will be installed on DARHT and density measurements will be performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribkov, V A; Latyshev, S V; Miklaszewski, R A; Chernyshova, M; Drozdowicz, K; Wiacek, U; Tomaszewski, K; Lemeshko, B D
2010-01-01
Recent progress in a single-pulse Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects by means of measuring elastically scattered neutrons is presented in this paper. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having duration of the order of 10 ns only, which are generated by dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with pure deuterium or DT mixture as a working gas. The small size occupied by the neutron bunch in space, number of neutrons per pulse and mono-chromaticity (ΔE/E∼1%) of the neutron spectrum provides the opportunity to use a time-of-flight (TOF) technique with flying bases of about a few metres. In our researches we used DPF devices having bank energy in the range 2-7 kJ. The devices generate a neutron yield of the level of 10 8 -10 9 2.45 MeV and 10 10 -10 11 14 MeV neutrons per pulse with pulse duration ∼10-20 ns. TOF base in the tests was 2.2-18.5 m. We have demonstrated the possibility of registering of neutrons scattered by the substances under investigation-1 litre bottles with methanol (CH 3 OH), phosphoric (H 2 PO 4 ) and nitric (HNO 3 ) acids as well as a long object-a 1 m gas tank filled with deuterium at high pressure. It is shown that the above mentioned short TOF bases and relatively low neutron yields are enough to distinguish different elements' nuclei composing the substance under interrogation and to characterize the geometry of lengthy objects in some cases. The wavelet technique was employed to 'clean' the experimental data registered. The advantages and restrictions of the proposed and tested NINIS technique in comparison with other methods are discussed.
Feng, Yefeng; He, Cheng-En; Xu, Zhichao; Hu, Jianbing; Peng, Cheng
2018-01-01
Interface induced polarization has been found to have a significant impact on dielectric properties of 2-2 type polymer composites bearing Si based semi-conducting ceramic sheets. Inherent overall polarity of polymer layers in 2-2 composites has been verified to be closely connected with interface effect and achieved permittivity in composites. In present work, conducting performances of monocrystalline Si sheets coated by varied high polarity material layers were deeply researched. The positive results inspired us to propose a novel strategy to improve separated electron-hole dipoles in commercial Si based solar cell panel for assisting photovoltaic effect, based on strong interface induced polarization. Conducting features of solar panels coated by two different high polarity polymer layers were detected to be greatly elevated compared with solar panel standalone, thanks to interface induced polarization between panel and polymer. Polymer coating with higher polarity would lead to more separated electron-hole dipole pairs in solar panel contributing to higher conductivity of panel. Valid synergy of interface effect and photovoltaic effect was based on their unidirectional traits of electron transfer. Dielectric properties of solar panels in composites further confirmed that strategy. This work might provide a facile route to prepare promising Si based solar panels with higher photoelectric conversion efficiency by enhancing interface induced polarization between panel and polymer coating.
Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tiphoton and tunneling ionization, the physics of plasma formed in dense matter is .... A typical Gaussian laser pulse of 100 fs dura- .... J range) – and finally it is compressed back to its .... bond-hardening, molecular orientation and reori-.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar
2013-01-01
Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential confinement barrier in which two confinement parameters are taking account, the electron (hole) energy and the ground-state electron-hole (e−h) transition in Core∣well∣shell (GaN|In x Ga 1−x N|GaN) spherical QD-QW nanoparticles are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii under externally applied hydrostatic pressure. The pressure dependencies of the effective-mass and the QD radius are taking into account. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the theoretical and the experimental findings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE Kénitra, Chakib Arsalane Street (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)
2013-11-15
Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential confinement barrier in which two confinement parameters are taking account, the electron (hole) energy and the ground-state electron-hole (e−h) transition in Core∣well∣shell (GaN|In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N|GaN) spherical QD-QW nanoparticles are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii under externally applied hydrostatic pressure. The pressure dependencies of the effective-mass and the QD radius are taking into account. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the theoretical and the experimental findings.
Jiang, J.; Schröter, N. B. M.; Wu, S.-C.; Kumar, N.; Shekhar, C.; Peng, H.; Xu, X.; Chen, C.; Yang, H. F.; Hwang, C.-C.; Mo, S.-K.; Felser, C.; Yan, B. H.; Liu, Z. K.; Yang, L. X.; Chen, Y. L.
2018-02-01
The recent discovery of the extreme magnetoresistance (XMR) in the nonmagnetic rare-earth monopnictides La X (X = P, As, Sb, Bi,), a recently proposed new topological semimetal family, has inspired intensive research effort in the exploration of the correlation between the XMR and their electronic structures. In this work, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to investigate the three-dimensional band structure of LaBi, we unraveled its topologically nontrivial nature with the observation of multiple topological surface Dirac fermions, as supported by our ab initio calculations. Furthermore, we observed substantial imbalance between the volume of electron and hole pockets, which rules out the electron-hole compensation as the primary cause of the XMR in LaBi.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isakov, Vladimir A; Kanavin, Andrey P; Uryupin, Sergey A
2005-01-01
The flux density is determined for radiation emitted by a plasma at the tripled frequency of an ultrashort laser pulse, which produces weak high-frequency modulations of the electron temperature in the plasma skin layer. It is shown that heat removal from the skin layer can reduce high-frequency temperature modulations and decrease the nonlinear plasma response. The optimum conditions for the third harmonic generation are found. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.D.
1990-01-01
Plasma spraying methods of forming exoergic structures and coatings, as well as exoergic structures produced by such methods, are presented. The methods include the plasma spraying of reactive exoergic materials that are capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction onto a flat substrate or into molds of arbitrary shape and igniting the plasma sprayed materials, either under an inert gas pressure or not, to form refractory materials of varying densities and of varying shapes
Auluck, S. K. H.
2017-11-01
This paper continues earlier discussion [S. K. H. Auluck, Phys. Plasmas 21, 102515 (2014)] concerning the formulation of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in a local curvilinear coordinate system in the dense plasma focus. This formulation makes use of the revised Gratton-Vargas snowplow model [S. K. H. Auluck, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112501 (2013)], which provides an analytically defined imaginary surface in three dimensions which resembles the experimentally determined shape of the plasma. Unit vectors along the local tangent to this surface, along the azimuth, and along the local normal define a right-handed orthogonal local curvilinear coordinate system. The simplifying assumption that physical quantities have significant variation only along the normal enables writing laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in the form of effectively one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations using expressions for various differential operators derived for this coordinate system. This formulation demonstrates the highly non-trivial result that the axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions, experimentally observed by multiple prestigious laboratories, are natural consequences of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in the curved geometry of the dense plasma focus current sheath. The present paper continues the discussion in the context of a 3-region shock structure similar to the one experimentally observed: an unperturbed region followed by a hydrodynamic shock containing some current followed by a magnetic piston. Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are derived, and expressions are obtained for the specific volumes and pressures using the mass-flux between the hydrodynamic shock and the magnetic piston and current fraction in the hydrodynamic shock as unknown parameters. For the special case of a magnetic piston that remains continuously in contact with the fluid being pushed, the theory gives closed form algebraic results for the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lalousis, P.
1984-01-01
Nonthermal direct electrodynamic interaction between laser energy and a fully ionized plasma was studied. The particular emphasis is on the action of nonlinear forces, in which the optical electromagnetic fields act on the plasma electrons which then transfer their energy to the ions electrostatically. Instead of the usual single fluid model, the plasma is treated as two separate conducting fluids for electrons and ions, coupled by momentum and Coulomb interactions. The equations governing the two fluids are derived from first principles, and numerical algorithms for computing these equations are developed, enabling the plasma oscillatons to be resolved and studied. Fully ionized plasma expansion without laser irradiation is studied first numerically. Remarkable damping mechanisms by coupling to ion oscillations have been observed. Inhomogeneities in densities of the two fluids result in large electrostatic fields and double layers are generated. There is quite close agreement between numerically calculated electrostatic fields and analytical solutions. Laser interaction with fully ionized plasma is also studied numerically. The generation of cavitons is numerically observed, and it is inferred that laser plasma interactions produce very high electrostatic fields in the vicinity of cavitons. It is further shown that charge neutrality is not necessarily maintained in a caviton
Scholze, F; Kuschnerus, P; Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G
2000-01-01
Ionizing radiation can be detected by the measurement of the charge carriers produced in a detector. The improved semiconductor technology now allows detectors operating near the physical limits of the detector materials to be designed. The mean energy required for producing an electron-hole pair, W, is a material property of the semiconductor. Here, the determination of W from the spectral responsivity of photodiodes is demonstrated. Using spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation, different types of semiconductor photodiodes have been examined in the UV-, VUV-, and soft X-ray spectral range. Their spectral responsivity was determined with relative uncertainties between 0.4% and 1% using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as primary detector standard. Results are presented for silicon n-on-p junction photodiodes and for GaAsP/Au Schottky diodes at room temperature. The investigations for silicon covered the complete spectral range from 3 to 1500 eV, yielding a constant value W=(3.66+-0.03) eV fo...
Liu, Lihong; Fang, Wei-Hai; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2018-03-01
Nonradiative electron-hole recombination plays a key role in determining photon conversion efficiencies in solar cells. Experiments demonstrate significant reduction in the recombination rate upon passivation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite with Lewis base molecules. Using nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory, we find that the nonradiative charge recombination is decelerated by an order of magnitude upon adsorption of the molecules. Thiophene acts by the traditional passivation mechanism, forcing electron density away from the surface. In contrast, pyridine localizes the electron at the surface while leaving it energetically near the conduction band edge. This is because pyridine creates a stronger coordinative bond with a lead atom of the perovskite and has a lower energy unoccupied orbital compared with thiophene due to the more electronegative nitrogen atom relative to thiophene's sulfur. Both molecules reduce two-fold the nonadiabatic coupling and electronic coherence time. A broad range of vibrational modes couple to the electronic subsystem, arising from inorganic and organic components. The simulations reveal the atomistic mechanisms underlying the enhancement of the excited-state lifetime achieved by the perovskite passivation, rationalize the experimental results, and advance our understanding of charge-phonon dynamics in perovskite solar cells.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogura, Daisuke; Kuroki, Kazuhiko [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka (Japan)
2017-06-15
In the hole-doped type cuprate superconductors, it is well-known that the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} exhibits a dome-like structure against doping. On the other hand, recent experiments unveil that T{sub c} in the electron-doped compounds shows a monotonic increase with decreasing the doping, at least down to a very small doping rate. Our recent study for the three-band d-p model has unveiled that this asymmetric behavior can be explained as a combined effect of the intrinsic electron-hole asymmetry in systems comprising Cu3 d and O2 p orbitals and the band-filling-dependent vertex correction. In the present study, we study another compound Tl{sub 2} Ba{sub 2} CuO{sub 6} to show that this explanation can be applied to other cuprate superconductors with the small d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital mixture. By varying the d-p offset, we also study how the strength of the d-p hybridization controls the spin fluctuation and hence the pairing interaction. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Nemati Aram, Tahereh; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Asgari, Asghar; Mayou, Didier
2017-01-01
We discuss the effects of charge carrier interaction and recombination on the operation of molecular photocells. Molecular photocells are devices where the energy conversion process takes place in a single molecular donor-acceptor complex attached to electrodes. Our investigation is based on the quantum scattering theory, in particular on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation; this minimizes the complexity of the problem while providing useful and non-trivial insight into the mechanism governing photocell operation. In this study, both exciton pair creation and dissociation are treated in the energy domain, and therefore there is access to detailed spectral information, which can be used as a framework to interpret the charge separation yield. We demonstrate that the charge carrier separation is a complex process that is affected by different parameters, such as the strength of the electron-hole interaction and the non-radiative recombination rate. Our analysis helps to optimize the charge separation process and the energy transfer in organic solar cells and in molecular photocells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Jincheng; Rene Corrales, L.; Tsemekhman, Kiril; Bylaska, Eric J.
2007-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to understand the refractive index change in germanium doped silica glasses for the trapped states of electronic excitations induced by UV irradiation. Local structure relaxation and excess electron density distribution were calculated upon self-trapping of an excess electron, hole, and exciton in germanium doped silica glass. The results show that both the trapped exciton and excess electron are highly localized on germanium ion and, to some extent, on its oxygen neighbors. Exciton self-trapping is found to lead to the formation of a Ge E' center and a non-bridging hole center. Electron trapping changes the GeO 4 tetrahedron structure into trigonal bi-pyramid with the majority of the excess electron density located along the equatorial line. The self-trapped hole is localized on bridging oxygen ions that are not coordinated to germanium atoms that lead to elongation of the Si-O bonds and change of the Si-O-Si bond angles. We carried out a comparative study of standard DFT versus DFT with a hybrid PBE0 exchange and correlation functional. The results show that the two methods give qualitatively similar relaxed structure and charge distribution for electron and exciton trapping in germanium doped silica glass; however, only the PBE0 functional produces the self-trapped hole
Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek
2018-02-01
Monte Carlo method is applied to the study of relaxation of excited electron-hole (e-h) pairs in graphene. The presence of background of spin-polarized electrons, with high density imposing degeneracy conditions, is assumed. To such system, a number of e-h pairs with spin polarization parallel or antiparallel to the background is injected. Two stages of relaxation: thermalization and cooling are clearly distinguished when average particles energy and its standard deviation σ _E are examined. At the very beginning of thermalization phase, holes loose energy to electrons, and after this process is substantially completed, particle distributions reorganize to take a Fermi-Dirac shape. To describe the evolution of and σ _E during thermalization, we define characteristic times τ _ {th} and values at the end of thermalization E_ {th} and σ _ {th}. The dependence of these parameters on various conditions, such as temperature and background density, is presented. It is shown that among the considered parameters, only the standard deviation of electrons energy allows to distinguish between different cases of relative spin polarizations of background and excited electrons.
Najafi, M N; Nezhadhaghighi, M Ghasemi
2017-03-01
We characterize the carrier density profile of the ground state of graphene in the presence of particle-particle interaction and random charged impurity in zero gate voltage. We provide detailed analysis on the resulting spatially inhomogeneous electron gas, taking into account the particle-particle interaction and the remote Coulomb disorder on an equal footing within the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory. We present some general features of the carrier density probability measure of the graphene sheet. We also show that, when viewed as a random surface, the electron-hole puddles at zero chemical potential show peculiar self-similar statistical properties. Although the disorder potential is chosen to be Gaussian, we show that the charge field is non-Gaussian with unusual Kondev relations, which can be regarded as a new class of two-dimensional random-field surfaces. Using Schramm-Loewner (SLE) evolution, we numerically demonstrate that the ungated graphene has conformal invariance and the random zero-charge density contours are SLE_{κ} with κ=1.8±0.2, consistent with c=-3 conformal field theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padilla, J. L.; Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M.; Medina-Bailón, C.; Gámiz, F.
2015-01-01
We investigate the effect of pseudo-bilayer configurations at low operating voltages (≤0.5 V) in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor (HG-EHBTFET) compared to the traditional bilayer structures of EHBTFETs arising from semiclassical simulations where the inversion layers for electrons and holes featured very symmetric profiles with similar concentration levels at the ON-state. Pseudo-bilayer layouts are attained by inducing a certain asymmetry between the top and the bottom gates so that even though the hole inversion layer is formed at the bottom of the channel, the top gate voltage remains below the required value to trigger the formation of the inversion layer for electrons. Resulting benefits from this setup are improved electrostatic control on the channel, enhanced gate-to-gate efficiency, and higher I ON levels. Furthermore, pseudo-bilayer configurations alleviate the difficulties derived from confining very high opposite carrier concentrations in very thin structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padilla, J. L., E-mail: jose.padilladelatorre@epfl.ch; Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M. [Nanoelectronic Devices Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Medina-Bailón, C.; Gámiz, F. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)
2015-06-29
We investigate the effect of pseudo-bilayer configurations at low operating voltages (≤0.5 V) in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor (HG-EHBTFET) compared to the traditional bilayer structures of EHBTFETs arising from semiclassical simulations where the inversion layers for electrons and holes featured very symmetric profiles with similar concentration levels at the ON-state. Pseudo-bilayer layouts are attained by inducing a certain asymmetry between the top and the bottom gates so that even though the hole inversion layer is formed at the bottom of the channel, the top gate voltage remains below the required value to trigger the formation of the inversion layer for electrons. Resulting benefits from this setup are improved electrostatic control on the channel, enhanced gate-to-gate efficiency, and higher I{sub ON} levels. Furthermore, pseudo-bilayer configurations alleviate the difficulties derived from confining very high opposite carrier concentrations in very thin structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kyuregyan, A. S.
2010-01-01
Numerical simulation of origination and evolution of streamers in Si is performed for the first time. It is assumed that an external electric field E 0 is constant and uniform, the avalanche and streamer are axially symmetric, and background electrons and holes are absent. The calculations have been performed in the context of the diffusion-drift approximation with impact and tunneling ionization, Auger recombination, and electron-hole scattering taken into account. The most realistic values of the ionization and recombination rates, diffusion coefficients, and drift mobilities of electrons and holes have been used. It is shown that the features of evolution of avalanches and streamers are generally consistent with the result obtained previously for a hypothetic semiconductor with equal kinetic coefficients for electrons and holes. Asymmetry of these coefficients (mostly, the impact-ionization coefficients) manifests itself only at the initial stage of evolution. However, with time, two exponentially self-similar streamers are formed, differing only in the sign of charge of fronts and directions of their propagation. Empirical dependences of the main parameters of streamers on E 0 in the range of 0.34-0.75 MV/cm have been derived for this most important stage of evolution.
Chung, B H; Segrest, J P; Franklin, F
1998-12-01
As a model for the formation of beta-very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and small, dense LDL by the intraplasma metabolic activities in vivo, lipoproteins in fresh plasma were interacted in vitro with endogenous lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterylester transfer proteins (CETP) and subsequently with purified lipoprotein lipase (LpL). The LCAT and CETP reactions in a mildly hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) plasma at 37 degrees C for 18 h resulted in (1) esterification of about 45% plasma unesterified cholesterol (UC), (2) a marked increase in cholesterylester (CE) (+129%) and a decrease in triglyceride (TG) (-45%) in VLDL, and (3) a marked increase of TG (+ 341%) with a small net decrease of CE (-3.6%) in LDL, causing a significant alteration in the TG/CE of VLDL (from 8.0 to 1.9) and of LDL (from 0.20 to 0.93). The LDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma is larger and more buoyant than that in control plasma. In vitro lipolysis of control and LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma by LpL, which hydrolyzed >90% of VLDL-TG and about 50-60% of LDL-TG, converted most of VLDL in control plasma (>85%) but less than half (40%) of VLDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into the IDL-LDL density fraction and transformed the large, buoyant LDL in the LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into particles smaller and denser than those in the control plasma. The remnants that accumulated in the VLDL density region of the postlipolysis LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma contained apo B-100 and E but little or no detectable apo Cs and consisted of particles having pre-beta and beta-electrophoretic mobilities. The inhibition of LCAT during incubation of plasma, which lessened the extent of alteration in VLDL and LDL core lipids, increased the extent of lipolytic removal of VLDL from the VLDL density region but lowered the extent of alteration in the size and density of LDL. The LCAT, CETP and/or LpL-mediated alterations in the density of LDL in normolipidemic fasting plasma were less pronounced
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hubert, S.
2001-01-01
After having recalled some aspects related to the physics of plasmas produced by interaction between laser and matter, and related to inertial confinement fusion or ICF (discussion of laser energy absorption, X conversion, parametric and hydrodynamic instabilities, and so on), this research thesis presents various techniques used for plasma diagnosis in order to justify the use of interferometry for the investigation of the electronic density distribution of these plasmas. The physical principle of this diagnosis technique is described and two types of X-UV interferometer are presented, one of them being chosen as more suitable for the study of ICF-type plasmas. The author then describes and reports the experimental investigation performed with a two-mirror Fresnel interferometer and a 21.2 nm zinc X-UV laser: description of the interferometer operation and characteristics, of the specifically designed image system, discussion of plasma interferogram simulations. Then, he reports the development of a Michelson-type X-UV interferometer at 13.9 nm. The operation principle is recalled, and the preliminary modelling phase is reported. The imaging system is presented and results of the interferogram modelling phase are presented [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Lu; Liang, WanZhen; Zhao, Yi; Zhong, Xinxin
2014-01-01
The time-dependent wavepacket diffusive method [X. Zhong and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014111 (2013)] is extended to investigate the energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates with incorporation of Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling. The pair initial condition generated by laser pulse is represented by a Gaussian wavepacket with a central momentum. The results reveal that the hot electron energy relaxation is very well described by two rate processes with the fast rate much larger than the slow one, consistent with experimental observations, and an efficient electron-hole separation is accomplished accompanying the fast energy relaxation. Furthermore, although the extra energy indeed helps the separation by overcoming the Coulomb interaction, the width of initial wavepacket is much sensitive to the separation efficiency and the narrower wavepacket generates the more separated charges. This behavior may be useful to understand the experimental controversy of the hot carrier effect on charge separation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duque, C. M.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.
2011-01-01
The combined effects of electron-hole correlation, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the third harmonic generation in disk-shaped parabolic GaAs quantum dots are studied under the density matrix formalism and the effective mass approximation. Two well-defined regimes are discussed: (1) the strong-confinement regime, where the Coulomb interaction between the electron and hole is neglected and (2) the weak-confinement regime where the parabolic confinement term is neglected and the system reaches the limit of a hydrogenic problem. The results show that the third harmonic-generation coefficient is strongly dependent on the localization of the electron-hole pair. Also, that by using external perturbations like hydrostatic pressure or by considering the temperature effects it is possible to induce a blue-shift and/or red-shift on the resonant peaks of the third harmonic generation coefficient.
The dynamics of electron and ion holes in a collisionless plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Eliasson
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We present a review of recent analytical and numerical studies of the dynamics of electron and ion holes in a collisionless plasma. The new results are based on the class of analytic solutions which were found by Schamel more than three decades ago, and which here work as initial conditions to numerical simulations of the dynamics of ion and electron holes and their interaction with radiation and the background plasma. Our analytic and numerical studies reveal that ion holes in an electron-ion plasma can trap Langmuir waves, due the local electron density depletion associated with the negative ion hole potential. Since the scale-length of the ion holes are on a relatively small Debye scale, the trapped Langmuir waves are Landau damped. We also find that colliding ion holes accelerate electron streams by the negative ion hole potentials, and that these streams of electrons excite Langmuir waves due to a streaming instability. In our Vlasov simulation of two colliding ion holes, the holes survive the collision and after the collision, the electron distribution becomes flat-topped between the two ion holes due to the ion hole potentials which work as potential barriers for low-energy electrons. Our study of the dynamics between electron holes and the ion background reveals that standing electron holes can be accelerated by the self-created ion cavity owing to the positive electron hole potential. Vlasov simulations show that electron holes are repelled by ion density minima and attracted by ion density maxima. We also present an extension of Schamel's theory to relativistically hot plasmas, where the relativistic mass increase of the accelerated electrons have a dramatic effect on the electron hole, with an increase in the electron hole potential and in the width of the electron hole. A study of the interaction between electromagnetic waves with relativistic electron holes shows that electromagnetic waves can be both linearly and nonlinearly
Luo, Xuan; Zhou, Xueyao; Jiang, Bin
2018-05-01
The energy transfer between different channels is an important aspect in chemical reactions at surfaces. We investigate here in detail the energy transfer dynamics in a prototypical system, i.e., reactive and nonreactive scattering of CO2 on Ni(100), which is related to heterogeneous catalytic processes with Ni-based catalysts for CO2 reduction. On the basis of our earlier nine-dimensional potential energy surface for CO2/Ni(100), dynamical calculations have been done using the generalized Langevin oscillator (GLO) model combined with local density friction approximation (LDFA), in which the former accounts for the surface motion and the latter accounts for the low-energy electron-hole pair (EHP) excitation. In spite of its simplicity, it is found that the GLO model yields quite satisfactory results, including the significant energy loss and product energy disposal, trapping, and steering dynamics, all of which agree well with the ab initio molecular dynamics ones where many surface atoms are explicitly involved with high computational cost. However, the GLO model fails to describe the reactivity enhancement due to the lattice motion because it intrinsically does not incorporate the variance of barrier height on the surface atom displacement. On the other hand, in LDFA, the energy transferred to EHPs is found to play a minor role and barely alter the dynamics, except for slightly reducing the dissociation probabilities. In addition, vibrational state-selected dissociative sticking probabilities are calculated and previously observed strong mode specificity is confirmed. Our work suggests that further improvement of the GLO model is needed to consider the lattice-induced barrier lowering.
Ramade, Julien; Andriambariarijaona, Léon Marcel; Steinmetz, Violette; Goubet, Nicolas; Legrand, Laurent; Barisien, Thierry; Bernardot, Frédérick; Testelin, Christophe; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Bramati, Alberto; Chamarro, Maria
2018-04-05
All inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) nanocrystals (NCs) belong to the novel class of confined metal-halide perovskites which are currently arousing enthusiasm and stimulating huge activity across several fields of optoelectronics due to outstanding properties. A deep knowledge of the band-edge excitonic properties of these materials is thus crucial to further optimize their performances. Here, high-resolution photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of single bromide-based NCs reveals the exciton fine structure in the form of sharp peaks that are linearly polarized and grouped in doublets or triplets, which directly mirror the adopted crystalline structure, tetragonal (D4h symmetry) or orthorhombic (D2h symmetry). Intelligible equations are found that show how the fundamental parameters (spin-orbit coupling, ΔSO, crystal field term, T, and electron-hole exchange energy, J) rule the energy spacings in doublets and triplets. From experimental data, fine estimations of each parameter are obtained. The analysis of the absorption spectra of an ensemble of NCs with a "quasi-bulk" behavior leads to ΔSO = 1.20 ± 0.06 eV and T = -0.34 ± 0.05 eV in CsPbBr3. The study of individual luminescence responses of NCs having sizes comparable to the exciton Bohr diameter, 7 nm, allows us to estimate the value of J to be around ≈3 meV in both tetragonal and orthorhombic phases. This value is already enhanced by confinement.
Nurhuda, Maryam; Aziz Majidi, Muhammad
2018-04-01
The role of excitons in semiconducting materials carries potential applications. Experimental results show that excitonic signals also appear in optical absorption spectra of semiconductor system with narrow gap, such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). While on the theoretical side, calculation of optical spectra based purely on Density Functional Theory (DFT) without taking electron-hole (e-h) interactions into account does not lead to the appearance of any excitonic signal. Meanwhile, existing DFT-based algorithms that include a full vertex correction through Bethe-Salpeter equation may reveal an excitonic signal, but the algorithm has not provided a way to analyze the excitonic signal further. Motivated to provide a way to isolate the excitonic effect in the optical response theoretically, we develop a method of calculation for the optical conductivity of a narrow band-gap semiconductor GaAs within the 8-band k.p model that includes electron-hole interactions through first-order electron-hole vertex correction. Our calculation confirms that the first-order e-h vertex correction reveals excitonic signal around 1.5 eV (the band gap edge), consistent with the experimental data.
Bhatia, A. K.; Sinha, C.
2012-01-01
The free-free transition is studied for an electron-hydrogen atom in ground state when a low-energy electron (external) is injected into hydrogenic plasma in the presence of an external homogenous, monochromatic, and linearly polarized laser field. The effect of plasma screening is considered in the Debye-Huckel approximation. The calculations are performed in the soft photon limit. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser field in a nonperturbative manner by choosing the Volkov solutions in both the initial and final channels. The space part of the scattering wave function for the electron is solved numerically by taking into account the electron exchange. The laser-assisted differential and total cross sections are calculated for single-photon absorption or emission and no-photon exchange in the soft photon limit, the laser intensity being much less than the atomic field intensity. The calculations have been carried out for various values of Debye parameter, ranging from 0.005 to 0.12. A strong suppression is noted in the laser-assisted cross sections as compared to the field-free situation. A significant difference is noted for the singlet and triplet cross sections. The suppression is much more in the triplet states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, K.A.; Moritz, N.; Tahir, N.A.
1983-11-01
The computer code GORGON, which calculates the energy deposition and slowing down of ions in cold materials and hot plasmas is described, and analyzed in this report. This code is in a state of continuous development but an intermediate stage has been reached where it is considered useful to document the 'state of the art' at the present time. The GORGON code is an improved version of a code developed by Zinamon et al. as part of a more complex program system for studying the hydrodynamic motion of plane metal targets irradiated by intense beams of protons. The improvements made in the code were necessary to improve its usefulness for problems related to the design and burn of heavy ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion targets. (orig./GG) [de
Warm Dense Matter: An Overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D
2004-01-01
This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this
Quantum dense key distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.
2004-01-01
This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilles, D
2005-07-01
This report is devoted to illustrate the power of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code to study the thermodynamical properties of a plasma, composed of classical point particles at thermodynamical equilibrium. Such simulations can help us to manage successfully the challenge of taking into account 'exactly' all classical correlations between particles due to density effects, unlike analytical or semi-analytical approaches, often restricted to low dense plasmas. MC simulations results allow to cover, for laser or astrophysical applications, a wide range of thermodynamical conditions from more dense (and correlated) to less dense ones (where potentials are long ranged type). Therefore Yukawa potentials, with a Thomas-Fermi temperature- and density-dependent screening length, are used to describe the effective ion-ion potentials. In this report we present two MC codes ('PDE' and 'PUCE') and applications performed with these codes in different fields (spectroscopy, opacity, equation of state). Some examples of them are discussed and illustrated at the end of the report. (author)
Luo, Kun; Roberts, Matthew R; Hao, Rong; Guerrini, Niccoló; Pickup, David M; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Edström, Kristina; Guo, Jinghua; Chadwick, Alan V; Duda, Laurent C; Bruce, Peter G
2016-07-01
During the charging and discharging of lithium-ion-battery cathodes through the de- and reintercalation of lithium ions, electroneutrality is maintained by transition-metal redox chemistry, which limits the charge that can be stored. However, for some transition-metal oxides this limit can be broken and oxygen loss and/or oxygen redox reactions have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. We present operando mass spectrometry of (18)O-labelled Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2, which demonstrates that oxygen is extracted from the lattice on charging a Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2 cathode, although we detected no O2 evolution. Combined soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that, in addition to oxygen loss, Li(+) removal is charge compensated by the formation of localized electron holes on O atoms coordinated by Mn(4+) and Li(+) ions, which serve to promote the localization, and not the formation, of true O2(2-) (peroxide, O-O ~1.45 Å) species. The quantity of charge compensated by oxygen removal and by the formation of electron holes on the O atoms is estimated, and for the case described here the latter dominates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tetsu, Miyamoto
1999-01-01
The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)
Modelling dense relational data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard
2012-01-01
they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....
Is dense codeswitching complex?
Dorleijn, M.
In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In
Herrmann, H.J.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hecht, M.; Ben-Naim, E.
2008-01-01
We present in this proceeding recent large scale simulations of dense colloids. On one hand we simulate model clay consisting of nanometric aluminum oxide spheres in water using realistic DLVO potentials and a combination of MD and SRD. We find pronounced cluster formation and retrieve the shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glinec, Y
2006-09-15
This experimental study concerns the generation of electron beams with original properties. These electrons beams originate from the interaction of an ultra-intense and short laser pulse with a gas jet. Previously, these electron beams had a large divergence and a broad spectrum. A major improvement in this field was achieved when an electron beam with low divergence (10 mrad) and a peaked spectrum (170 MeV) was observed during this thesis, using a new single shot electron spectrometer. A parametric study of the interaction allowed to observe the evolution of the electron beam. Experiments have been carried out to deepen the characterization of the electron beam. The observation of transition radiation generated by the electrons at an interface shows that the electron beam interacts with the laser pulse during the acceleration. Radial oscillations of the electron beam around the laser axis, named betatron oscillations, were also observed on the electron spectra. Such a quasi-monoenergetic spectrum is essential for many applications. In order to justify the interest of this electron beam, several applications are presented: a sub-milli-metric gamma-ray radiography of dense objects, a dose profile of the electron beam comparable to present capabilities of photon sources for radiotherapy, a very short temporal profile useful for water radiolysis and the generation of a bright X-ray source with low divergence. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glinec, Y
2006-09-15
This experimental study concerns the generation of electron beams with original properties. These electrons beams originate from the interaction of an ultra-intense and short laser pulse with a gas jet. Previously, these electron beams had a large divergence and a broad spectrum. A major improvement in this field was achieved when an electron beam with low divergence (10 mrad) and a peaked spectrum (170 MeV) was observed during this thesis, using a new single shot electron spectrometer. A parametric study of the interaction allowed to observe the evolution of the electron beam. Experiments have been carried out to deepen the characterization of the electron beam. The observation of transition radiation generated by the electrons at an interface shows that the electron beam interacts with the laser pulse during the acceleration. Radial oscillations of the electron beam around the laser axis, named betatron oscillations, were also observed on the electron spectra. Such a quasi-monoenergetic spectrum is essential for many applications. In order to justify the interest of this electron beam, several applications are presented: a sub-milli-metric gamma-ray radiography of dense objects, a dose profile of the electron beam comparable to present capabilities of photon sources for radiotherapy, a very short temporal profile useful for water radiolysis and the generation of a bright X-ray source with low divergence. (author)
Geometrical optimization of the dense plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.; Chen, Y.H.
1982-01-01
A 12 kJ DPF device with a periodic time of 12μsec, UMDPF1 has been optimized geometrically to produce a higher neutron yield of 1.5x10 9 at 10 torr filling pressure than from the same device before optimization. With the same optimization procedure a faster DPF device with a periodic time of 3.7μsec, UMDPF2, of the same energy has also been optimized to give a peak neutron yield of 6.3x10 9 at 16 torr filling pressure. Experimental evidence shows that over and above the increase in neutron production due to an increase in current according to the Isup(3.3) scaling law, a faster current rise time may have an additional effect of enhancement in neutron production. The outcome of this project is that a new high pressure regime of 16 torr with an enhanced neutron yield of 6.3x10 9 and improved yield reproducibility for an input energy of 12 kJ has thus been established. There is every reason to believe that this optimization procedure can be extended to other DPF devices. (author)
Autoionization spectral line shapes in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosmej, F.B.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Suess, W.; Geissel, M.
2001-01-01
The distortion of resonance line shapes due to the accumulation of a large number of satellite transitions is discovered by means of X-ray optical methods with simultaneous high spectral (λ/δλ≅8000) and spatial resolution (δx≅7 μm). Disappearance of the He α resonance line emission near the target surface is observed while Rydberg satellite intensity accumulates near the resonance line position. He β and He γ resonance line shapes are also shown to be seriously affected by opacity, higher-order line emissions from autoionizing states and inhomogeneous spatial emission. Opposite to resonance line emissions the He β satellites originate only from a very narrow spatial interval. New temperature and density diagnostics employing the 1s2131' and 1s3131'-satellites are developed. Moreover, even-J components of the satellite line emissions were resolved in the present high resolution experiments. Line transitions from the autoionizing states 1s2131' are therefore also proposed for space resolved Stark broadening analysis and local high density probing. Theorists are encouraged to provide accurate Stark broadening data for the transitions 1s2131 ' →1s 2 21+hv
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juo, J.W.; Franceschetti, A.; Zunger, A.
2009-01-01
Excitons in quantum dots manifest a lower-energy spin-forbidden 'dark' state below a spin-allowed 'bright' state; this splitting originates from electron-hole (e-h) exchange interactions, which are strongly enhanced by quantum confinement. The e-h exchange interaction may have both a short-range and a long-range component. Calculating numerically the e-h exchange energies from atomistic pseudopotential wave functions, we show here that in direct-gap quantum dots (such as InAs) the e-h exchange interaction is dominated by the long-range component, whereas in indirect-gap quantum dots (such as Si) only the short-range component survives. As a result, the exciton dark/bright splitting scales as 1/R 2 in InAs dots and 1/R 3 in Si dots, where R is the quantum-dot radius.
Keister, Jeffrey W; Cibik, Levent; Schreiber, Swenja; Krumrey, Michael
2018-03-01
Precise monitoring of the incoming photon flux is crucial for many experiments using synchrotron radiation. For photon energies above a few keV, thin semiconductor photodiodes can be operated in transmission for this purpose. Diamond is a particularly attractive material as a result of its low absorption. The responsivity of a state-of-the art diamond quadrant transmission detector has been determined, with relative uncertainties below 1% by direct calibration against an electrical substitution radiometer. From these data and the measured transmittance, the thickness of the involved layers as well as the mean electron-hole pair creation energy were determined, the latter with an unprecedented relative uncertainty of 1%. The linearity and X-ray scattering properties of the device are also described.
Long, Mingce; Brame, Jonathon; Qin, Fan; Bao, Jiming; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J
2017-01-03
A major challenge for photocatalytic water purification with TiO 2 is the strong inhibitory effect of natural organic matter (NOM), which can scavenge photogenerated holes and radicals and occlude ROS generation sites upon adsorption. This study shows that phosphate counteracts the inhibitory effect of humic acids (HA) by decreasing HA adsorption and mitigating electron-hole recombination. As a measure of the inhibitory effect of HA, the ratios of first-order reaction rate constants between photocatalytic phenol degradation in the absence versus presence of HA were calculated. This ratio was very high, up to 5.72 at 30 mg/L HA and pH 4.8 without phosphate, but was decreased to 0.76 (5 mg/L HA, pH 8.4) with 2 mM phosphate. The latter ratio indicates a surprising favorable effect of HA on TiO 2 photocatalysis. FTIR analyses suggest that this favorable effect is likely due to a change in the conformation of adsorbed HA, from a multiligand exchange arrangement to a complexation predominantly between COOH groups in HA and the TiO 2 surface in the presence of phosphate. This configuration can reduce hole consumption and facilitate electron transfer to O 2 by the adsorbed HA (indicated by linear sweep voltammetry), which mitigates electron-hole recombination and enhances contaminant degradation. A decrease in HA surface adsorption and hole scavenging (the predominant inhibitory mechanisms of HA) by phosphate (2 mM) was indicated by a 50% decrease in the photocatalytic degradation rate of HA and 80% decrease in the decay rate coefficient of interfacial-related photooxidation in photocurrent transients. These results, which were validated with other compounds (FFA and cimetidine), indicate that anchoring phosphate - or anions that exert similar effects on the TiO 2 surface - might be a feasible strategy to counteract the inhibitory effect of NOM during photocatalytic water treatment.
Kim, Sung Yoon; Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Seong Min; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man
2015-10-01
In this work, we design and analyze complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible III-V compound electron-hole bilayer (EHB) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) by using two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. A recently proposed EHB TFET exploits a bias-induced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the electron-hole bilayer by an electric field from the top and bottom gates. This is in contrast to conventional planar p(+)-p(-)-n TFETs, which utilize BTBT across the source-to-channel junction. We applied III-V compound semiconductor materials to the EHB TFETs in order to enhance the current drivability and switching performance. Devices based on various compound semiconductor materials have been designed and analyzed in terms of their primary DC characteristics. In addition, the operational principles were validated by close examination of the electron concentrations and energy-band diagrams under various operation conditions. The simulation results of the optimally designed In0.533Ga0.47As EHB TFET show outstanding performance, with an on-state current (Ion) of 249.5 μA/μm, subthreshold swing (S) of 11.4 mV/dec, and threshold voltage (Vth) of 50 mV at VDS = 0.5 V. Based on the DC-optimized InGaAs EHB TFET, the CMOS inverter circuit was simulated in views of static and dynamic behaviors of the p-channel device with exchanges between top and bottom gates or between source and drain electrodes maintaining the device structure.
The Magpie dense z-pinch project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chittenden, J.; Choi, P.; Mitchell, I.; Dangor, A.E.; Haines, M.G.
1990-01-01
The authors present a design study on the Mega Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE), a project currently under construction at Imperial College London, to study radiative collapse of a dense Z-pinch plasma created from a 20 um diameter cryogenic hydrogen fiber. The 2 TW generator is composed of four individual 2.4 MV Marx banks of the HERMES III type design with a maximum stored energy of 336 kJ. They drive four 5 ohm Pulse Forming Lines which are combined into a single 1.25 MA in 150 ns to a 150 nH load
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cockbain, A.G.
1976-01-01
A method is described for the manufacture of articles of substantially pure dense ceramic materials, for use in severe environments. Si N is very suitable for use in such environments, but suffers from the disadvantage that it is not amenable to sintering. Some disadvantages of the methods normally used for making articles of Si N are mentioned. The method described comprises mixing a powder of the substantially pure ceramic material with an additive that promotes densification, and which is capable of nuclear transmutation into a gas when exposed to radiation, and hot pressing the mixture to form a billet. The billet is then irradiated to convert the additive into a gas which is held captive in the billet, and it is then subjected to a hot forging operation, during which the captive gas escapes and an article of substantially pure dense ceramic material is forged. The method is intended primarily for use for Si N, but may be applied to other ceramic materials. The additive may be Li or Be or their compounds, to the extent of at least 5 ppm and not more than 5% by weight. Irradiation is effected by proton or neutron bombardment. (UK)
DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood
2005-06-30
Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncharov, A.F.; Denisov, V.N.; Mavrin, B.N.; Podobedov, V.B.
1988-01-01
The Raman spectra of tetragonal YBa 2 Cu 3 O x crystals in the region of ∼500 cm -1 were determined using different power densities I 0 of the exciting radiation of wavelengths 4,880, 5,145, 5,321, and 6,471 angstrom at temperatures 80-300 K. An increase in I 0 revealed changes in the spectra due to interference of the electron continuum with a 470 cm -1 phonon and also due to activation of 560-590 cm -1 dipole vibrations because of interaction of photocarriers with the crystal lattice. An analysis of the spectra yielded the electron-phonon interaction constant. The changes in the spectra were of resonant nature, but they were absent in the case of the excitation wavelengths 5,321 and 6,471 angstrom. A triple multichannel Raman spectrometer, developed by the authors, made it possible to record simultaneously a spectral interval of 500 cm -1 in the range ≥ 25 cm -1 on excitation with cw laser radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J; Park, S; Lee, H; Kim, H; Choi, C; Park, J
2016-01-01
Purpose: This work evaluated the characteristics of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) with fully filled deep electron/hole traps (OSLDfull) with the bleaching conditions according to the accumulated dose. Methods: The OSLDs were first pre-irradiated with a Co-60 gamma ray at more than 5 kGy, so as to fill the deep electron and hole traps. Using a 6-MV beam, the OSLDfull characteristics were investigated in terms of the full bleaching, fading, dose linearity, and dose sensitivity obtained in response to the accumulated dose values. To facilitate a comparison of the dose sensitivity, OSLDs with un-filled deep electron/hole traps (OSLDempty) were investigated in the same manner. A long-pass filter was used to exclude bleaching-source wavelengths of less than 520 nm. Various bleaching time and wavelength combinations were used in order to determine the optimal bleaching conditions for the OSLD full. Results: The fading for the OSLDfull exhibited stable signals after 8 min, for both 1- and 10-Gy. For 4-h bleaching time and an unfiltered bleaching device, the supralinear index values for the OSLDfull were 1.003, 1.002, 0.999, and 1.001 for doses of 2, 4, 7, and 10 Gy, respectively. For a 65-Gy accumulated dose with a 5-Gy fraction, no variation in dose sensitivity was obtained for the OSLDfull, within a standard deviation of 0.85%, whereas the OSLDempty dose sensitivity decreased by approximately 2.3% per 10 Gy. The filtered bleaching device yielded a highly stable sensitivity for OSLDfull, independent of bleaching time and within a standard deviation of 0.71%, whereas the OSLDempty dose sensitivity decreased by approximately 4.2% per 10 Gy for an accumulated dose of 25 Gy with a 5-Gy fraction. Conclusion: Under the bleaching conditions determined in this study, clinical dosimetry with OSLDfull is highly stable, having an accuracy of 1% with no change in dose sensitivity or linearity at clinical doses. This work was supported by a National Research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shvets, O. M.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Ovchinnikov, S. S.; Tolok, V. T. [Fiziko-Tehnicheskij Institut AN USSR, Khar' kov, USSR (Ukraine)
1966-04-15
The authors report experiments in the HF heating of a plasma in an installation consisting of a copper vacuum chamber into which aluminium-tipped feed electrodes are inserted from both ends along the axis. The electrodes are coupled to an HF generator across an isolating capacitor. The chamber is located within a solenoid magnet that can be regulated smoothly within the range 0 to 2500 Oe. The field configuration was selected to meet the conditions necessary for generating and absorbing the ion-cyclotron waves (the region of maximum magnetic field gradient is at the centre of the solenoid). A controlled leak maintains the hydrogen gas at a constant pressure in the range 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} Torr. To produce a plasma which is detached from the chamber walls, an HF discharge is used-, because of the properties of the plasma the discharge creates a constant potential difference between the electrodes and the chamber. This leads to the appearance between the electrodes of electrons which oscillate along the force lines of the magnetic field and produce a high degree of ionization in the gas between the electrodes. A shaft of dense plasma, with diameter determined by the diameter of the electrodes, is formed on the axis of the vacuum chamber. The authors investigated the spectrum of the discharge radiation and estimated the plasma density by the Stark broadening of the H{sub {beta}} line, the temperature of the plasma electrons was found from the intensity ratio of the singlet and triplet helium lines. The authors measured the fluxes of fast neutron atoms formed during the charge-exchange of the hydrogen ions on the neutral gas and, with special probes, the transverse energies of the ions as a function of the magnetic field intensity and of other properties. (author) [French] Le memoire porte sur des experiences de chauffage a haute frequence d'un plasma dans une chambre a vide en cuivre, dans l'axe de laquelle sont introduites par les deux extremites des electrodes
Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faeustlin, Roland Rainer
2010-05-01
X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)
Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faeustlin, Roland Rainer
2010-05-15
X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dapo, Haris
2009-01-28
The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dapo, Haris
2009-01-01
The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V low k ) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V low k can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V low k one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V low k potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three-body force with a density-dependent interaction. This
Du, Aijun; Sanvito, Stefano; Li, Zhen; Wang, Dawei; Jiao, Yan; Liao, Ting; Sun, Qiao; Ng, Yun Hau; Zhu, Zhonghua; Amal, Rose; Smith, Sean C
2012-03-07
Opening up a band gap and finding a suitable substrate material are two big challenges for building graphene-based nanodevices. Using state-of-the-art hybrid density functional theory incorporating long-range dispersion corrections, we investigate the interface between optically active graphitic carbon nitride (g-C(3)N(4)) and electronically active graphene. We find an inhomogeneous planar substrate (g-C(3)N(4)) promotes electron-rich and hole-rich regions, i.e., forming a well-defined electron-hole puddle, on the supported graphene layer. The composite displays significant charge transfer from graphene to the g-C(3)N(4) substrate, which alters the electronic properties of both components. In particular, the strong electronic coupling at the graphene/g-C(3)N(4) interface opens a 70 meV gap in g-C(3)N(4)-supported graphene, a feature that can potentially allow overcoming the graphene's band gap hurdle in constructing field effect transistors. Additionally, the 2-D planar structure of g-C(3)N(4) is free of dangling bonds, providing an ideal substrate for graphene to sit on. Furthermore, when compared to a pure g-C(3)N(4) monolayer, the hybrid graphene/g-C(3)N(4) complex displays an enhanced optical absorption in the visible region, a promising feature for novel photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bubon, O.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Kasap, S. O.; Reznik, A.
2016-01-01
Although amorphous selenium (a-Se) has a long and successful history of application in optical and X-ray imaging, some of its fundamental properties are still puzzling. In particularly, the mechanism of carrier recombination following x-ray excitation and electric field and temperature dependences of the electron-hole pair creation energy (W_e_h_p) remain unclear. Using the combination of X-ray photocurrent and pulse height spectroscopy measurements, we measure W_e_h_p in a wide range of temperatures (218–320 K) and electric fields (10–100 V/µm) and show that the conventional columnar recombination model which assumes Langevin recombination within a column (a primary electron track) fails to explain experimental results in a wide range of electric fields and temperatures. The reason for the failure of the conventional model is revealed in this work, and the theory of the columnar recombination is modified to include the saturation of the recombination rate at high electric field in order to account for the experimental results in the entire range of fields and temperatures.
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmit, P.F.; Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.
2011-01-01
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size Δ during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches Δ. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch
2011-05-27
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface
1974-01-01
Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University
Hadrons in dense matter. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buballa, M.; Noerenberg, W.; Schaefer, B.J.; Wambach, J.
2000-03-01
The following topics were dealt with: Elementary hadronic reactions, Delta dynamics in nuclei, in-medium s-wave ππ-correlations, strangeness in hot and dense matter, medium modifications of vector mesons and dilepton production, medium modifications of charmonium, thermal properties of hot and dense hadronic matter, nuclear matter, spectral functions and QCD sum rules
Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)
2014-12-01
There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouzazi, Boussairi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi
2011-01-01
A nitrogen-related electron trap (E1), located approximately 0.33 eV from the conduction band minimum of GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy, was confirmed by investigating the dependence of its density with N concentration. This level exhibits a high capture cross section compared with that of native defects in GaAs. Its density increases significantly with N concentration, persists following post-thermal annealing, and was found to be quasi-uniformly distributed. These results indicate that E1 is a stable defect that is formed during growth to compensate for the tensile strain caused by N. Furthermore, E1 was confirmed to act as a recombination center by comparing its activation energy with that of the recombination current in the depletion region of the alloy. However, this technique cannot characterize the electron-hole (e-h) recombination process. For that, double carrier pulse deep level transient spectroscopy is used to confirm the non-radiative e-h recombination process through E1, to estimate the capture cross section of holes, and to evaluate the energy of multi-phonon emission. Furthermore, a configuration coordinate diagram is modeled based on the physical parameters of E1. -- Research Highlights: → Double carrier pulse DLTS method confirms the existence of SRH center. → The recombination center in GaAsN depends on nitrogen concentration. → Minority carrier lifetime in GaAsN is less than 1 ns. → A non-radiative recombination center exits in GaAsN.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Limpens, Rens [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neale, Nathan R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fujii, Minoru [Kobe University; Gregorkiewicz, Tom [University of Amsterdam
2018-03-05
Phosphorus (P) and boron (B) co-doped Si nanocrystals (NCs) have raised interest in the optoelectronic industry due to their electronic tunability, optimal carrier multiplication properties, and straightforward dispersibility in polar solvents. Yet a basic understanding of the interaction of photoexcited electron-hole (e-h) pairs with new physical features that are introduced by the co-doping process (free carriers, defect states, and surface chemistry) is missing. Here, we present the first study of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in SiO2-embedded P-B co-doped Si NC ensembles using induced absorption spectroscopy through a two-step approach. First, the induced absorption data show that the large fraction of the dopants residing on the NC surface slows down carrier relaxation dynamics within the first 20 ps relative to intrinsic (undoped) Si NCs, which we interpret as enhanced surface passivation. On longer time-scales (picosecond to nanosecond regime), we observe a speeding up of the carrier relaxation dynamics and ascribe it to doping-induced trap states. This argument is deduced from the second part of the study, where we investigate multiexciton interactions. From a stochastic modeling approach we show that localized carriers, which are introduced by the P or B dopants, have minor electronic interactions with the photoexcited e-h pairs. This is understood in light of the strong localization of the introduced carriers on their original P- or B-dopant atoms, due to the strong quantum confinement regime in these relatively small NCs (<6 nm).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Worasak Sukkabot
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the atomistic tight-binding theory (TB and a configuration interaction (CI description, the electron-hole exchange interaction in the morphological transformation of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanodisk to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanorod is described with the aim of understanding the impact of the structural shapes on the change of the electron-hole exchange interaction. Normally, the ground hole states confined in typical CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals are of heavy hole-like character. However, the atomistic tight-binding theory shows that a transition of the ground hole states from heavy hole-like to light hole-like contribution with the increasing aspect ratios of the CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanostructures is recognized. According to the change in the ground-state hole characters, the electron-hole exchange interaction is also significantly altered. To do so, optical band gaps, ground-state electron character, ground-state hole character, oscillation strengths, ground-state coulomb energies, ground-state exchange energies, and dark-bright (DB excitonic splitting (stoke shift are numerically demonstrated. These atomistic computations obviously show the sensitivity with the aspect ratios. Finally, the alteration in the hole character has a prominent effect on dark-bright (DB excitonic splitting.
Unified approach to dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque
2005-01-01
We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N c limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons
Transport properties of dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Naoki; Mitake, Shinichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ichimaru, Setsuo
1983-01-01
Transport coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities in particular, are essential physical quantities for the theories of stellar structure. Since the discoveries of pulsars and X-ray stars, an accurate evaluation of the transport coefficients in the dense matter has become indispensable to the quantitative understanding of the observed neutron stars. The authors present improved calculations of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the dense matter in the liquid metal phase, appropriate to white dwarfs and neutron stars. (Auth.)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kovaleski, Scott D; Kemp, Mark A
2008-01-01
.... When radiofrequency high voltage is applied between the electrodes, through the thickness of the crystal, a combination of triple point and piezoelectric effects produce dense plasma on the crystal surface...
Probes, Moons, and Kinetic Plasma Wakes
Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.
2017-10-01
Nonmagnetic objects as varied as probes in tokamaks or moons in space give rise to flowing plasma wakes in which strong distortions of the ion and electron velocity distributions cause electrostatic instabilities. Non-linear phenomena such as electron holes are then produced. Historic probe theory largely ignores the resulting unstable character of the wake, but since we can now simulate computationally the non-linear wake phenomena, a timely challenge is to reassess the influence of these instabilities both on probe measurements and on the wakes themselves. Because the electron instability wavelengths are very short (typically a few Debye-lengths), controlled laboratory experiments face serious challenges in diagnosing them. That is one reason why they have long been neglected as an influence in probe interpretation. Space-craft plasma observations, by contrast, easily obtain sub-Debye-length resolution, but have difficulty with larger-scale reconstruction of the plasma spatial variation. In addition to surveying our developing understanding of wakes in magnetized plasmas, ongoing analysis of Artemis data concerning electron holes observed in the solar-wind lunar wake will be featured. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.
Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter
Desjarlais, Michael; Redmer, Ronald; Trickey, Samuel
2014-01-01
Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent...
Dynamics of dense particle disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araki, S.; Tremaine, S.; Toronto Univ., Canada)
1986-01-01
The present investigation of mechanical equilibrium and collisional transport processes in dense, differentially rotating particle disks is based on the Enskog (1922) theory of dense, hard sphere gases, with the single exception that the spheres are inelastic. The viscous instability suggested as a source of Saturn B ring structure does not arise in the models presented, although the ring may be subject to a phase transition analogous to the liquid-solid transition observed in molecular dynamics simulations of elastic hard spheres. In such a case, the ring would alternately exhibit zero-shear, or solid, and high shear, or liquid, zones. 29 references
Rayleigh-Taylor/gravitational instability in dense magnetoplasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, S., E-mail: shahid.ali@ncp.edu.p [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ahmed, Z. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Wah Campus (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ahmad, I. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Islamabad Campus (Pakistan)
2009-08-10
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated in a nonuniform dense quantum magnetoplasma. For this purpose, a quantum hydrodynamical model is used for the electrons whereas the ions are assumed to be cold and classical. The dispersion relation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes modified with the quantum corrections associated with the Fermi pressure law and the quantum Bohm potential force. Numerically, it is found that the quantum speed and density gradient significantly modify the growth rate of RT instability. In a dense quantum magnetoplasma case, the linear growth rate of RT instability becomes significantly higher than its classical value and the modes are found to be highly localized. The present investigation should be useful in the studies of dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas as well as in laser-produced plasmas.
Rayleigh-Taylor/gravitational instability in dense magnetoplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Ahmad, I.
2009-01-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated in a nonuniform dense quantum magnetoplasma. For this purpose, a quantum hydrodynamical model is used for the electrons whereas the ions are assumed to be cold and classical. The dispersion relation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes modified with the quantum corrections associated with the Fermi pressure law and the quantum Bohm potential force. Numerically, it is found that the quantum speed and density gradient significantly modify the growth rate of RT instability. In a dense quantum magnetoplasma case, the linear growth rate of RT instability becomes significantly higher than its classical value and the modes are found to be highly localized. The present investigation should be useful in the studies of dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas as well as in laser-produced plasmas.
Dense Crowds of Virtual Humans
Stüvel, S.A.
2016-01-01
This thesis presents a novel crowd simulation method `Torso Crowds', aimed at the simulation of dense crowds. The method is based on the results of user studies and a motion capture experiment, which are also described in this thesis. Torso Crowds introduces a capsule shape to represent people in
Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1979-07-01
A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhagyashree, K. S.; Bhat, S. V.
2015-01-01
We study and compare magnetic and electron paramagnetic resonance behaviors of bulk and nanoparticles of Nd 1−x Ca x MnO 3 in hole doped (x=0.4;NCMOH) and electron doped (x=0.6;NCMOE) samples. NCMOH in bulk form shows a complex temperature dependence of magnetization M(T), with a charge ordering transition at ∼250 K, an antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at ∼150 K, and a transition to a canted AFM phase/mixed phase at ∼80 K. Bulk NCMOE behaves quite differently with just a charge ordering transition at ∼280 K, thus providing a striking example of the so called electron-hole asymmetry. While our magnetization data on bulk samples are consistent with the earlier reports, the new results on the nanoparticles bring out drastic effects of size reduction. They show that M(T) behaviors of the two nanosamples are essentially similar in addition to the absence of the charge order in them thus providing strong evidence for vanishing of the electron-hole asymmetry in nanomanganites. This conclusion is further corroborated by electron paramagnetic resonance studies which show that the large difference in the “g” values and their temperature dependences found for the two bulk samples disappears as they approach a common behavior in the corresponding nanosamples
Ultra-dense hot low Z line transition opacity simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauvan, P.; Minguez, E.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Martel, P.; Angelo, P.; Schott, R.; Philippe, F.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Mancini, R.; Calisti, A.
2002-01-01
In this work two atomic physics models (the IDEFIX code using the dicenter model and the code based on parametric potentials ANALOP) have been used to calculate the opacities for bound-bound transitions in hot ultra-dense, low Z plasmas. These simulations are in connection with experiments carried out at LULI during the last two years, focused on bound-bound radiation. In this paper H-like opacities for aluminum and fluorine plasmas have been simulated, using both theoretical models, in a wide range of densities and temperatures higher than 200 eV
Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chanyong
2014-01-01
The holographic renormalization of a charged black brane with or without a dilaton field, whose dual field theory describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space
Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai
2010-01-01
Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.
Visinelli, Luca; Baum, Sebastian; Redondo, Javier; Freese, Katherine; Wilczek, Frank
2018-02-01
Axion stars are hypothetical objects formed of axions, obtained as localized and coherently oscillating solutions to their classical equation of motion. Depending on the value of the field amplitude at the core |θ0 | ≡ | θ (r = 0) |, the equilibrium of the system arises from the balance of the kinetic pressure and either self-gravity or axion self-interactions. Starting from a general relativistic framework, we obtain the set of equations describing the configuration of the axion star, which we solve as a function of |θ0 |. For small |θ0 | ≲ 1, we reproduce results previously obtained in the literature, and we provide arguments for the stability of such configurations in terms of first principles. We compare qualitative analytical results with a numerical calculation. For large amplitudes |θ0 | ≳ 1, the axion field probes the full non-harmonic QCD chiral potential and the axion star enters the dense branch. Our numerical solutions show that in this latter regime the axions are relativistic, and that one should not use a single frequency approximation, as previously applied in the literature. We employ a multi-harmonic expansion to solve the relativistic equation for the axion field in the star, and demonstrate that higher modes cannot be neglected in the dense regime. We interpret the solutions in the dense regime as pseudo-breathers, and show that the life-time of such configurations is much smaller than any cosmological time scale.
Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions
... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Cardenas, Miguel; Zambra, Marcelo; Tarifeno, Ariel; Huerta, Luis; Tenreiro, Claudio; Giordano, Jose Luis; Lagos, Miguel; Escobar, Rodrigo; Ramos, Jorge; Altamirano, Luis; Retamal, Cesar; Silva, Patricio
2008-01-01
The Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) has, since about ten years ago, used plasma production devices to study dense hot plasmas, particularly Z-pinches and plasma foci (PFs). In the case of Z-pinches, the studies include studies on the dynamics and stability of gas-embedded Z-pinches at currents of thermonuclear interest, and preliminary studies on wire arrays. For PF research, the aim of the work has been to characterize the physics of these plasmas and also to carry out the design and construction of smaller devices-in terms of both input energy and size-capable of providing dense hot plasmas. In addition, taking advantage of the experience in pulsed power technology obtained from experimental researches in dense transient plasmas, an exploratory line of pulsed power applications is being developed. In this paper, a brief review listing the most important results achieved by the Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the CCHEN is presented, including the scaling studies, PF miniaturization and diagnostics and research on Z-pinches at currents of thermonuclear interest. Then, exploratory applications of pulsed power are presented, including nanoflashes of radiation for radiography and substances detection, high pulsed magnetic fields generation and rock fragmentation.
Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles
Lynch, Mark A. M.
2012-01-01
It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…
Screening in dense ionic fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tosi, M.P.
1991-01-01
There has been great progress in recent years in determining and understanding the structure of molten salts. I focus on molten alkali halides and discuss two main points concerning their liquid structure and its relationship with static electrical response in these dense ionic conductors. These are (i) the nature of screening and the related definitions and properties of the screening length and of the dielectric function, and (ii) developments in integral equations techniques for the evaluation of molten salt structure and static screening from given pair potentials. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon.
Chen, Q F; Zheng, J; Gu, Y J; Chen, Y L; Cai, L C; Shen, Z J
2014-02-21
In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.
Solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynov, J.-P.
1980-08-01
Investigations of two different types of nonlinear, solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide are presented. One of the wavetypes is a localized, compressional pulse identified as a Trivelpiece-Gould soliton. The modification of this soliton by the resonant electrons is studied theoretically, by direct numerical solution of the model equation, experimentally, and by numerical simulation of the experiment. The other wave is a localized, rarefactive pulse called an electron hole. It is a positive pulse consisting of a large number of trapped electrons and is a purely kinetic phenomenon. A simple waterbag model for the electron hole is derived and compared with the results from the experiment and the numerical simulation. Finally, interactions between the solitary waves are investigated. (Auth.)
Astrophysical Nuclear Reaction Rates in the Dense Metallic Environments
Kilic, Ali Ihsan
2017-09-01
Nuclear reaction rates can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude in dense and relatively cold astrophysical plasmas such as in white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, and giant planets. Similar conditions are also present in supernova explosions where the ignition conditions are vital for cosmological models. White dwarfs are compact objects that have both extremely high interior densities and very strong local magnetic fields. For the first time, a new formula has been developed to explain cross section and reaction rate quantities for light elements that includes not only the nuclear component but also the material dependence, magnetic field, and crystal structure dependency in dense metallic environments. I will present the impact of the developed formula on the cross section and reaction rates for light elements. This could have possible technological applications in energy production using nuclear fusion reactions.
Propagation of monochromatic light in a hot and dense medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masood, Samina S. [University of Houston Clear Lake, Department of Physical and Applied Sciences, Houston, TX (United States)
2017-12-15
Photons, as quanta of electromagnetic fields, determine the electromagnetic properties of an extremely hot and dense medium. Considering the properties of the photons in the interacting medium of charged particles, we explicitly calculate the electromagnetic properties such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, refractive index and the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in an extremely hot and dense background. Photons acquire a dynamically generated mass in such a medium. The screening mass of the photon, the Debye shielding length and the plasma frequency are calculated as functions of the statistical parameters of the medium. We study the properties of the propagating particles in astrophysical systems of distinct statistical conditions. The modifications in the properties of the medium lead to the equation of state of the system. We mainly calculate all these parameters for extremely high temperatures of the early universe. (orig.)
Dynamic conductivity and partial ionization in dense fluid hydrogen
Zaghoo, Mohamed
2018-04-01
A theoretical description for optical conduction experiments in dense fluid hydrogen is presented. Different quantum statistical approaches are used to describe the mechanism of electronic transport in hydrogen's high-temperature dense phase. We show that at the onset of the metallic transition, optical conduction could be described by a strong rise in atomic polarizability, due to increased ionization, whereas in the highly degenerate limit, the Ziman weak scattering model better accounts for the observed saturation of reflectance. The inclusion of effects of partial ionization in the highly degenerate region provides great agreement with experimental results. Hydrogen's fluid metallic state is revealed to be a partially ionized free-electron plasma. Our results provide some of the first theoretical transport models that are experimentally benchmarked, as well as an important guide for future studies.
Propagation of monochromatic light in a hot and dense medium
Masood, Samina S.
2017-12-01
Photons, as quanta of electromagnetic fields, determine the electromagnetic properties of an extremely hot and dense medium. Considering the properties of the photons in the interacting medium of charged particles, we explicitly calculate the electromagnetic properties such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, refractive index and the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in an extremely hot and dense background. Photons acquire a dynamically generated mass in such a medium. The screening mass of the photon, the Debye shielding length and the plasma frequency are calculated as functions of the statistical parameters of the medium. We study the properties of the propagating particles in astrophysical systems of distinct statistical conditions. The modifications in the properties of the medium lead to the equation of state of the system. We mainly calculate all these parameters for extremely high temperatures of the early universe.
Deterministic and unambiguous dense coding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Shengjun; Cohen, Scott M.; Sun Yuqing; Griffiths, Robert B.
2006-01-01
Optimal dense coding using a partially-entangled pure state of Schmidt rank D and a noiseless quantum channel of dimension D is studied both in the deterministic case where at most L d messages can be transmitted with perfect fidelity, and in the unambiguous case where when the protocol succeeds (probability τ x ) Bob knows for sure that Alice sent message x, and when it fails (probability 1-τ x ) he knows it has failed. Alice is allowed any single-shot (one use) encoding procedure, and Bob any single-shot measurement. For D≤D a bound is obtained for L d in terms of the largest Schmidt coefficient of the entangled state, and is compared with published results by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A71, 012311 (2005)]. For D>D it is shown that L d is strictly less than D 2 unless D is an integer multiple of D, in which case uniform (maximal) entanglement is not needed to achieve the optimal protocol. The unambiguous case is studied for D≤D, assuming τ x >0 for a set of DD messages, and a bound is obtained for the average . A bound on the average requires an additional assumption of encoding by isometries (unitaries when D=D) that are orthogonal for different messages. Both bounds are saturated when τ x is a constant independent of x, by a protocol based on one-shot entanglement concentration. For D>D it is shown that (at least) D 2 messages can be sent unambiguously. Whether unitary (isometric) encoding suffices for optimal protocols remains a major unanswered question, both for our work and for previous studies of dense coding using partially-entangled states, including noisy (mixed) states