WorldWideScience

Sample records for dense clumps mapping

  1. From gas to stars in energetic environments: dense gas clumps in the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Crystal N.; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jürgen; Hughes, Annie; Wong, Tony; Looney, Leslie; Henkel, Christian; Chen, Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Muller, Erik; Pineda, Jorge L.; Seale, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We present parsec-scale interferometric maps of HCN(1-0) and HCO + (1-0) emission from dense gas in the star-forming region 30 Doradus, obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This extreme star-forming region, located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), is characterized by a very intense ultraviolet ionizing radiation field and sub-solar metallicity, both of which are expected to impact molecular cloud structure. We detect 13 bright, dense clumps within the 30 Doradus-10 giant molecular cloud. Some of the clumps are aligned along a filamentary structure with a characteristic spacing that is consistent with formation via varicose fluid instability. Our analysis shows that the filament is gravitationally unstable and collapsing to form stars. There is a good correlation between HCO + emission in the filament and signatures of recent star formation activity including H 2 O masers and young stellar objects (YSOs). YSOs seem to continue along the same direction of the filament toward the massive compact star cluster R136 in the southwest. We present detailed comparisons of clump properties (masses, linewidths, and sizes) in 30Dor-10 to those in other star forming regions of the LMC (N159, N113, N105, and N44). Our analysis shows that the 30Dor-10 clumps have similar masses but wider linewidths and similar HCN/HCO + (1-0) line ratios as clumps detected in other LMC star-forming regions. Our results suggest that the dense molecular gas clumps in the interior of 30Dor-10 are well shielded against the intense ionizing field that is present in the 30 Doradus region.

  2. Dense molecular clumps associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud supergiant shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Kosuke; Mizuno, Norikazu [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Minamidani, Tetsuhiro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama Minamimaki-mura, Minamisaku-gun, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu; Muraoka, Kazuyuki [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Tatematsu, Ken' ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Miura, Rie E.; Ezawa, Hajime [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dawson, Joanne [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Yamayashiki-machi, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi [Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Takashi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Tanaka, Kunihiko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo, E-mail: kosuke.fujii@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H{sub 2})) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) and their kinetic temperatures (T {sub kin}) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of Hα, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H{sub 2}) and T {sub kin}, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  3. Spatially associated clump populations in Rosette from CO and dust maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltchev, Todor V.; Ossenkopf-Okada, Volker; Stanchev, Orlin; Schneider, Nicola; Donkov, Sava; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-04-01

    Spatial association of clumps from different tracers turns out to be a valuable tool to determine the physical properties of molecular clouds. It provides a reliable estimate for the X-factors, serves to trace the density of clumps seen in column densities only, and allows one to measure the velocity dispersion of clumps identified in dust emission. We study the spatial association between clump populations, extracted by use of the GAUSSCLUMPS technique from 12CO (1-0), 13CO (1-0) line maps and Herschel dust-emission maps of the star-forming region Rosette, and analyse their physical properties. All CO clumps that overlap with another CO or dust counterpart are found to be gravitationally bound and located in the massive star-forming filaments of the molecular cloud. They obey a single mass-size relation M_cl∝ R_cl^γ with γ ≃ 3 (implying constant mean density) and display virtually no velocity-size relation. We interpret their population as low-density structures formed through compression by converging flows and still not evolved under the influence of self-gravity. The high-mass parts of their clump mass functions are fitted by a power law dN_cl/d log M_cl∝ M_cl^{Γ } and display a nearly Salpeter slope Γ ˜ -1.3. On the other hand, clumps extracted from the dust-emission map exhibit a shallower mass-size relation with γ = 2.5 and mass functions with very steep slopes Γ ˜ -2.3 even if associated with CO clumps. They trace density peaks of the associated CO clumps at scales of a few tenths of pc where no single density scaling law should be expected.

  4. MALT90 Kinematic Distances to Dense Molecular Clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, J. Scott [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Jackson, James M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Stephens, Ian W. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rathborne, J. M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Foster, J. B. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 28101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Contreras, Y. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Longmore, S. N., E-mail: scott@bu.edu [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    Using molecular-line data from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90), we have estimated kinematic distances to 1905 molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μ m continuum survey over the longitude range 295° <  l  < 350°. The clump velocities were determined using a flux-weighted average of the velocities obtained from Gaussian fits to the HCO{sup +}, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1–0) transitions. The near/far kinematic distance ambiguity was addressed by searching for the presence or absence of absorption or self-absorption features in 21 cm atomic hydrogen spectra from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. Our algorithm provides an estimation of the reliability of the ambiguity resolution. The Galactic distribution of the clumps indicates positions where the clumps are bunched together, and these locations probably trace the locations of spiral arms. Several clumps fall at the predicted location of the far side of the Scutum–Centaurus arm. Moreover, a number of clumps with positive radial velocities are unambiguously located on the far side of the Milky Way at galactocentric radii beyond the solar circle. The measurement of these kinematic distances, in combination with continuum or molecular-line data, now enables the determination of fundamental parameters such as mass, size, and luminosity for each clump.

  5. MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENTS OF 51 PLANCK COLD CLUMPS IN THE ORION COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei

    2012-01-01

    A mapping survey of 51 Planck cold clumps projected on the Orion complex was performed with J = 1–0 lines of 12 CO and 13 CO with the 13.7 m telescope at the Purple Mountain Observatory. The mean column densities of the Planck gas clumps range from 0.5 to 9.5 × 10 21 cm –2 , with an average value of (2.9 ± 1.9) × 10 21 cm –2 . The mean excitation temperatures of these clumps range from 7.4 to 21.1 K, with an average value of 12.1 ± 3.0 K and the average three-dimensional velocity dispersion σ 3D in these molecular clumps is 0.66 ± 0.24 km s –1 . Most of the clumps have σ NT larger than or comparable to σ Therm . The H 2 column density of the molecular clumps calculated from molecular lines correlates with the aperture flux at 857 GHz of the dust emission. By analyzing the distributions of the physical parameters, we suggest that turbulent flows can shape the clump structure and dominate their density distribution on large scales, but not function on small scales due to local fluctuations. Eighty-two dense cores are identified in the molecular clumps. The dense cores have an average radius and local thermal equilibrium (LTE) mass of 0.34 ± 0.14 pc and 38 +5 –30 M ☉ , respectively. The structures of low column density cores are more affected by turbulence, while the structures of high column density cores are more affected by other factors, especially by gravity. The correlation of velocity dispersion versus core size is very weak for the dense cores. The dense cores are found to be most likely gravitationally bounded rather than pressure confined. The relationship between M vir and M LTE can be well fitted with a power law. The core mass function here is much flatter than the stellar initial mass function. The lognormal behavior of the core mass distribution is most likely determined by internal turbulence.

  6. DENSE CLUMPS AND CANDIDATES FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN W40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Fumitaka; Hara, Chihomi; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomohiro [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sugitani, Kouji, E-mail: ikura@u-gakugei.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan)

    2015-06-20

    We report the results of the {sup 12}CO (J = 3−2) and HCO{sup +} (J = 4−3) observations of the W40 H ii region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope (HPBW ≃ 22″) to search for molecular outflows and dense clumps. We found that the velocity field in the region is highly complex, consisting of at least four distinct velocity components at V{sub LSR} ≃ 3, 5, 7, and 10 km s{sup −1}. The ∼7 km s{sup −1} component represents the systemic velocity of cold gas surrounding the entire region, and causes heavy absorption in the {sup 12}CO spectra over the velocity range 6 ≲ V{sub LSR} ≲ 9 km s{sup −1}. The ∼5 and ∼10 km s{sup −1} components exhibit high {sup 12}CO temperature (≳40 K) and are found mostly around the H ii region, suggesting that these components are likely to be tracing dense gas interacting with the expanding shell around the H ii region. Based on the {sup 12}CO data, we identified 13 regions of high velocity gas, which we interpret as candidate outflow lobes. Using the HCO{sup +} data, we also identified six clumps and estimated their physical parameters. On the basis of the ASTE data and near-infrared images from 2MASS, we present an updated three-dimensional model of this region. In order to investigate molecular outflows in W40, the SiO (J = 1−0, v = 0) emission line and some other emission lines at 40 GHz were also observed with the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, but they were not detected at the present sensitivity.

  7. DENSE GAS IN MOLECULAR CORES ASSOCIATED WITH PLANCK GALACTIC COLD CLUMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hong-Li [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang; Chen, Ping; Hu, Runjie [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Tianwei [Peking University Health Science Center, Xueyuan Road 38th, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Meng, Fanyi [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 (Germany); Wang, Ke, E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-03-20

    We present the first survey of dense gas toward Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs). Observations in the J = 1–0 transitions of HCO{sup +} and HCN toward 621 molecular cores associated with PGCCs were performed using the Purple Mountain Observatory’s 13.7 m telescope. Among them, 250 sources were detected, including 230 cores detected in HCO{sup +} and 158 in HCN. Spectra of the J = 1–0 transitions from {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O at the centers of the 250 cores were extracted from previous mapping observations to construct a multi-line data set. The significantly low detection rate of asymmetric double-peaked profiles, together with the good consistency among central velocities of CO, HCO{sup +}, and HCN spectra, suggests that the CO-selected Planck cores are more quiescent than classical star-forming regions. The small difference between line widths of C{sup 18}O and HCN indicates that the inner regions of CO-selected Planck cores are no more turbulent than the exterior. The velocity-integrated intensities and abundances of HCO{sup +} are positively correlated with those of HCN, suggesting that these two species are well coupled and chemically connected. The detected abundances of both HCO{sup +} and HCN are significantly lower than values in other low- to high-mass star-forming regions. The low abundances may be due to beam dilution. On the basis of an inspection of the parameters given in the PGCC catalog, we suggest that there may be about 1000 PGCC objects that have a sufficient reservoir of dense gas to form stars.

  8. MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENTS OF 51 PLANCK COLD CLUMPS IN THE ORION COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com, E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2012-09-15

    A mapping survey of 51 Planck cold clumps projected on the Orion complex was performed with J = 1-0 lines of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO with the 13.7 m telescope at the Purple Mountain Observatory. The mean column densities of the Planck gas clumps range from 0.5 to 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, with an average value of (2.9 {+-} 1.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. The mean excitation temperatures of these clumps range from 7.4 to 21.1 K, with an average value of 12.1 {+-} 3.0 K and the average three-dimensional velocity dispersion {sigma}{sub 3D} in these molecular clumps is 0.66 {+-} 0.24 km s{sup -1}. Most of the clumps have {sigma}{sub NT} larger than or comparable to {sigma}{sub Therm}. The H{sub 2} column density of the molecular clumps calculated from molecular lines correlates with the aperture flux at 857 GHz of the dust emission. By analyzing the distributions of the physical parameters, we suggest that turbulent flows can shape the clump structure and dominate their density distribution on large scales, but not function on small scales due to local fluctuations. Eighty-two dense cores are identified in the molecular clumps. The dense cores have an average radius and local thermal equilibrium (LTE) mass of 0.34 {+-} 0.14 pc and 38{sup +5}{sub -30} M{sub Sun }, respectively. The structures of low column density cores are more affected by turbulence, while the structures of high column density cores are more affected by other factors, especially by gravity. The correlation of velocity dispersion versus core size is very weak for the dense cores. The dense cores are found to be most likely gravitationally bounded rather than pressure confined. The relationship between M{sub vir} and M{sub LTE} can be well fitted with a power law. The core mass function here is much flatter than the stellar initial mass function. The lognormal behavior of the core mass distribution is most likely determined by internal turbulence.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-mass starless clump candidates from ATLASGAL (Yuan+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.; Wu, Y.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Evans, N. J., II; Henkel, C.; Wang, K.; Liu, H.-L.; Liu, T.; Li, J.-Z.; Zavagno, A.

    2017-08-01

    This work is based on data from several Galactic plane surveys covering wavelengths from mid-IR to submillimeter. The sample of dense clumps from the ATLASGAL survey (Schuller+ 2009A&A...504..415S) provides the basis for our investigation. The ATLASGAL survey mapped 420 square degrees of the Galactic plane between -80°MIPS) surveys have been used to identify possible young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with ATLASGAL clumps. Far-IR data from the Hi-GAL survey (Herschel-PACS and -SPIRE) have been used to further constrain the starless clump candidates and investigate their dust properties. (2 data files).

  10. A Deuteration Survey of Starless Clumps in GemOB1 and the First Quadrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrici, Andrew; Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian

    2018-01-01

    One very strong chemical process in star-forming regions is the fractionation of deuterium in molecules, which results in an increase in the deuterium ratio many orders of magnitude over the ISM [D]/[H] ratio and provides a chemical probe of cold, dense regions. Recent maps of dust continuum emission at (sub)millimeter wavelengths have identified tens of thousands of dense clumps of gas and dust. By comparing these regions to infrared and radio surveys, we have identified starless clump candidates which have no evidence for embedded star formation. These objects represent the earliest phase of star formation throughout the Milky Way. One benefit of the Milky Way surveys is that it is also possible to study the chemistry of entire core and clump populations within a single cloud. We used the 10m Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope to survey starless clump candidates in the First Quadrant identified from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey 1.1 mm continuum in the deuterated molecular transitions of DCO+ 3-2 and N2D+ 3-2. We also survey the entire clump population of the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud. In both surveys, we compared detection statistics and compare deuteration fraction to physical properties of the clumps and their evolutionary stage. High resolution ALMA observations of 9 starless clump candidates of the same lines are used to analyze how the cold deuterated gas is spatially distributed in these clumps.

  11. MAPPING STUDY OF 71 PLANCK COLD CLUMPS IN THE TAURUS, PERSEUS, AND CALIFORNIA COMPLEXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanyi; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie

    2013-01-01

    A mapping study of 71 Planck cold clumps was made with 12 CO(1-0), 13 CO(1-0), and C 18 O(1-0) lines at the 13.7 m telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. For all the clumps, 12 CO(1-0) and 13 CO(1-0) emissions were detected, while for 55 of them, C 18 O(1-0) emissions were detected. Of the 71 Clumps, 34 are in the Taurus Complex, 24 in the California Complex, and 13 are in the Perseus Complex. In the 76 velocity components, 38 cores are found in 27 clumps; 19 of these cores are in the Taurus Complex, 16 in the California Complex, and 3 in the Perseus Complex. We acquired V lsr , T A and FWHM of lines. Physical parameters including T ex , N H 2 , σ Therm , σ NT , and σ 3D were calculated. Generally, the cores are of T ex = 2-16 K, N H 2 =10 21 --10 22 cm –2 , and σ 3D = 0.2-1.0 km s –1 . In the Taurus Complex, the cores are less dense on average and have smaller σ Therm than the cores in the Perseus and California Complexes. Two of the three cores in the Perseus Complex are revealed to have larger T ex , N H 2 , and σ 3D than the mean values in the other two regions. Most of the cores have σ NT larger than σ Therm , suggesting a dominance of turbulence in our cores. The majority of the cores have M vir /M LTE >> 1, which indicates these cores are not bound and will disperse. By comparing our results with the dust properties revealed by the Planck Early Release Cold Cores Catalog, we investigated the coupling of gas and dust components. We found that most of the cores have dust temperatures higher than their gas temperatures. The stellar objects associated with our sources were checked and 90% of the cores were found to be starless

  12. Chemistry of dense clumps near moving Herbig-Haro objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, H.; Viti, S.; Williams, D. A.; Girart, J. M.; Morata, O.

    2011-09-01

    Localized regions of enhanced emission from HCO+, NH3 and other species near Herbig-Haro objects (HHOs) have been interpreted as arising in a photochemistry stimulated by the HHO radiation on high-density quiescent clumps in molecular clouds. Static models of this process have been successful in accounting for the variety of molecular species arising ahead of the jet; however, recent observations show that the enhanced molecular emission is widespread along the jet as well as ahead. Hence, a realistic model must take into account the movement of the radiation field past the clump. It was previously unclear as to whether the short interaction time between the clump and the HHO in a moving source model would allow molecules such as HCO+ to reach high enough levels, and to survive for long enough to be observed. In this work we model a moving radiation source that approaches and passes a clump. The chemical picture is qualitatively unchanged by the addition of the moving source, strengthening the idea that enhancements are due to evaporation of molecules from dust grains. In addition, in the case of several molecules, the enhanced emission regions are longer lived. Some photochemically induced species, including methanol, are expected to maintain high abundances for ˜104 yr.

  13. Toward Measuring Galactic Dense Molecular Gas Properties and 3D Distribution with Hi-GAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterlund, Erika; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory's submillimeter dust continuum survey Hi-GAL provides a powerful new dataset for characterizing the structure of the dense interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Hi-GAL observed a 2° wide strip covering the entire 360° of the Galactic plane in broad bands centered at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm, with angular resolution ranging from 10 to 40 arcseconds. We are adapting a molecular cloud clump-finding algorithm and a distance probability density function distance-determination method developed for the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) to the Hi-GAL data. Using these methods we expect to generate a database of 105 cloud clumps, derive distance information for roughly half the clumps, and derive precise distances for approximately 20% of them. With five-color photometry and distances, we will measure the cloud clump properties, such as luminosities, physical sizes, and masses, and construct a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way's dense molecular gas distribution.The cloud clump properties and the dense gas distribution will provide critical ground truths for comparison to theoretical models of molecular cloud structure formation and galaxy evolution models that seek to emulate spiral galaxies. For example, such models cannot resolve star formation and use prescriptive recipes, such as converting a fixed fraction of interstellar gas to stars at a specified interstellar medium density threshold. The models should be compared to observed dense molecular gas properties and galactic distributions.As a pilot survey to refine the clump-finding and distance measurement algorithms developed for BGPS, we have identified molecular cloud clumps in six 2° × 2° patches of the Galactic plane, including one in the inner Galaxy along the line of sight through the Molecular Ring and the termination of the Galactic bar and one toward the outer Galaxy. Distances have been derived for the inner Galaxy clumps and compared to Bolocam Galactic Plane

  14. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. XI. TEMPERATURES AND SUBSTRUCTURE OF GALACTIC CLUMPS BASED ON 350 μM OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merello, Manuel; Evans II, Neal J. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, 4-181 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-95748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Battersby, Cara; Dunham, Michael M., E-mail: manuel@astro.as.utexas.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present 107 maps of continuum emission at 350 μm from Galactic molecular clumps. Observed sources were mainly selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) catalog, with three additional maps covering star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy. The higher resolution of the SHARC-II images (8.″5 beam) compared with the 1.1 mm images from BGPS (33″ beam) allowed us to identify a large population of smaller substructures within the clumps. A catalog is presented for the 1386 sources extracted from the 350 μm maps. The color temperature distribution of clumps based on the two wavelengths has a median of 13.3 K and mean of 16.3 ± 0.4 K, assuming an opacity law index of 1.7. For the structures with good determination of color temperatures, the mean ratio of gas temperature, determined from NH{sub 3} observations, to dust color temperature is 0.88 and the median ratio is 0.76. About half the clumps have more than 2 substructures and 22 clumps have more than 10. The fraction of the mass in dense substructures seen at 350 μm compared to the mass of their parental clump is ∼0.19, and the surface densities of these substructures are, on average, 2.2 times those seen in the clumps identified at 1.1 mm. For a well-characterized sample, 88 structures (31%) exceed a surface density of 0.2 g cm{sup −2}, and 18 (6%) exceed 1.0 g cm{sup −2}, thresholds for massive star formation suggested by theorists.

  15. HERSCHEL REVEALS MASSIVE COLD CLUMPS IN NGC 7538

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallscheer, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Sadavoy, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Reid, M. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Martin, P. G.; Nguyen-Luong, Q. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Hill, T.; Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.; Men' shchikov, A.; Andre, Ph.; Konyves, V.; Sauvage, M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Griffin, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Rygl, K. L. J.; Benedettini, M. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Ricerca di Tor Vergata, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Schneider, N. [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France); Anderson, L. D. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS/INSU, Universite de Provence, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); and others

    2013-08-20

    We present the first overview of the Herschel observations of the nearby high-mass star-forming region NGC 7538, taken as part of the Herschel imaging study of OB young stellar objects (HOBYS) Key Programme. These PACS and SPIRE maps cover an approximate area of one square degree at five submillimeter and far-infrared wavebands. We have identified 780 dense sources and classified 224 of those. With the intention of investigating the existence of cold massive starless or class 0-like clumps that would have the potential to form intermediate- to high-mass stars, we further isolate 13 clumps as the most likely candidates for follow-up studies. These 13 clumps have masses in excess of 40 M{sub Sun} and temperatures below 15 K. They range in size from 0.4 pc to 2.5 pc and have densities between 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. Spectral energy distributions are then used to characterize their energetics and evolutionary state through a luminosity-mass diagram. NGC 7538 has a highly filamentary structure, previously unseen in the dust continuum of existing submillimeter surveys. We report the most complete imaging to date of a large, evacuated ring of material in NGC 7538 which is bordered by many cool sources.

  16. Star Forming Dense Cloud Cores in the TeV -ray SNR RX J1713.7-3946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.; Sato, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Torii, K.; Moribe, N.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H.; Inoue, T.; Inutsuka, S.; Tanaka, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, H.; Stutzki, J.; Bertoldi, F.; Anderl, S.; Bronfman, L.; Koo, B.C.

    2010-10-27

    RX J1713.7-3946 is one of the TeV {gamma}-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) emitting synchrotron X rays. The SNR is associated with molecular gas located at {approx}1 kpc. We made new molecular observations toward the dense cloud cores, peaks A, C and D, in the SNR in the {sup 12}CO(J=2-1) and {sup 13}CO(J=2-1) transitions at angular resolution of 90 degrees. The most intense core in {sup 13}CO, peak C, was also mapped in the {sup 12}CO(J=4-3) transition at angular resolution of 38 degrees. Peak C shows strong signs of active star formation including bipolar outflow and a far-infrared protostellar source and has a steep gradient with a r{sup -2.2 {+-} 0.4} variation in the average density within radius r. Peak C and the other dense cloud cores are rim-brightened in synchrotron X rays, suggesting that the dense cloud cores are embedded within or on the outer boundary of the SNR shell. This confirms the earlier suggestion that the X rays are physically associated with the molecular gas (Fukui et al. 2003). We present a scenario where the densest molecular core, peak C, survived against the blast wave and is now embedded within the SNR. Numerical simulations of the shock-cloud interaction indicate that a dense clump can indeed survive shock erosion, since shock propagation speed is stalled in the dense clump. Additionally, the shock-cloud interaction induces turbulence and magnetic field amplification around the dense clump that may facilitate particle acceleration in the lower-density inter-clump space leading to the enhanced synchrotron X rays around dense cores.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic CHaMP. II. Dense gas clumps. (Ma+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, B.; Tan, J. C.; Barnes, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    A total of 303 dense gas clumps have been detected using the HCO+(1-0) line in the CHaMP survey (Paper I, Barnes et al. 2011, J/ApJS/196/12). In this article we have derived the SED for these clumps using Spitzer, MSX, and IRAS data. The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) was launched in 1996 April. It conducted a Galactic plane survey (0MSX band wavelengths are centered at 8.28, 12.13, 14.65, and 21.3um. The best image resolution is ~18" in the 8.28um band, with positional accuracy of about 2". Calibrated images of the Galactic plane were obtained from the online MSX image server at the IPAC website. The IRAS performed an all-sky survey at 12, 25, 60, and 100um. The nominal resolution is about 4' at 60um. High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) uses the maximum correlation method to produce higher resolution images, better than 1' at 60um. Sources chosen for processing with HIRES were processed at all four IRAS bands with 20 iterations. The Spitzer InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) is a four-channel camera that provides simultaneous 5.2"x5.2" images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8um with an angular resolution of about 2" at 8um. We searched the Spitzer archive at IPAC. Most of these data are from two large survey programs: PID 189 (Churchwell, E., "The SIRTF Galactic Plane Survey") and PID 40791 (Majewski, S., "Galactic Structure and Star Formation in Vela-Carina"). Hill et al. (2005, J/MNRAS/363/405) carried out a 1.2mm continuum emission survey toward 131 star-forming complexes using the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) IMaging Bolometer Array (SIMBA). Hill et al. list the 1.2mm flux for 404 sources, 15 of which are in our sample. (2 data files).

  18. MAPS OF MASSIVE CLUMPS IN THE EARLY STAGE OF CLUSTER FORMATION: TWO MODES OF CLUSTER FORMATION, COEVAL OR NON-COEVAL?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Aya E.; Saito, Masao; Mauersberger, Rainer; Kawabe, Ryohei [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Kurono, Yasutaka; Naoi, Takahiro, E-mail: ahiguchi@alma.cl [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-10

    We present maps of seven young massive molecular clumps within five target regions in C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) line emission, using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. These clumps, which are not associated with clusters, lie at distances between 0.7 and 2.1 kpc. We find C{sup 18}O clumps with radii of 0.5-1.7 pc, masses of 470-4200 M{sub Sun }, and velocity widths of 1.4-3.3 km s{sup -1}. All of the clumps are massive and approximately in virial equilibrium, suggesting they will potentially form clusters. Three of our target regions are associated with H II regions (CWHRs), while the other two are unassociated with H II regions (CWOHRs). The C{sup 18}O clumps can be classified into two morphological types: CWHRs with a filamentary or shell-like structure and spherical CWOHRs. The two CWOHRs have systematic velocity gradients. Using the publicly released WISE database, Class I and Class II protostellar candidates are identified within the C{sup 18}O clumps. The fraction of Class I candidates among all YSO candidates (Class I+Class II) is {>=}50% in CWHRs and {<=}50% in CWOHRs. We conclude that effects from the H II regions can be seen in (1) the spatial distributions of the clumps: filamentary or shell-like structure running along the H II regions; (2) the velocity structures of the clumps: large velocity dispersion along shells; and (3) the small age spreads of YSOs. The small spreads in age of the YSOs show that the presence of H II regions tends to trigger coeval cluster formation.

  19. CLUMPING AND THE INTERPRETATION OF kpc-SCALE MAPS OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: SMOOTH H I AND CLUMPY, VARIABLE H{sub 2} SURFACE DENSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observtory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Lee, Cheoljong [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute for Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Sandstrom, Karin; Schinnerer, Eva; Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pety, Jerome [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2013-05-20

    Many recent models consider the structure of individual interstellar medium (ISM) clouds as a way to explain observations of large parts of galaxies. To compare such models to observations, one must understand how to translate between surface densities observed averaging over large ({approx}kpc) scales and surface densities on the scale of individual clouds ({approx}pc scale), which are treated by models. We define a ''clumping factor'' that captures this translation as the ratio of the mass-weighted surface density, which is often the quantity of physical interest, to the area-weighted surface density, which is observed. We use high spatial resolution (sub-kpc) maps of CO and H I emission from nearby galaxies to measure the clumping factor of both atomic and molecular gas. The molecular and atomic ISM exhibit dramatically different degrees of clumping. As a result, the ratio H{sub 2}/H I measured at {approx}kpc resolution cannot be trivially interpreted as a cloud-scale ratio of surface densities. H I emission appears very smooth, with a clumping factor of only {approx}1.3. Based on the scarce and heterogeneous high-resolution data available, CO emission is far more clumped with a widely variable clumping factor, median {approx}7 for our heterogeneous data. Our measurements do not provide evidence for a universal mass-weighted surface density of molecular gas, but also cannot conclusively rule out such a scenario. We suggest that a more sophisticated treatment of molecular ISM structure, one informed by high spatial resolution CO maps, is needed to link cloud-scale models to kpc-scale observations of galaxies.

  20. Study of clumping in the Cepheus OB 3 molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A portion of the Cep OB 3 molecular cloud has been mapped in the (C-13)O (1-0) line on a completely sampled grid with a 1.5-arcmin spacing. A total of 45 individual clouds, or clumps, have been identified in the map, with masses from 3 to 300 solar mass, sizes 3 pc or smaller, and mean densities of a few hundred/cu cm. Power-law correlations are found among the clump properties, namely, M proportional to R exp 2.5 and Delta(v) exp 0.24. These exponents differ somewhat from those found for similar correlations for molecular clouds in previous studies. Determination of the virial masses for the clumps shows that the clumps are not gravitationally bound and must be expanding on a time scale of about 1 Myr. Measurements of the (C-13)O (2-1) line give volume densities of 2000-5000. Comparisons of these densities with the mean volume densities from the (C-13)O (1-0) data suggest that the gas is clumped on a small scale with a volume filling factor of 0.04-0.10. 31 references

  1. Herschel and SCUBA-2 observations of dust emission in a sample of Planck cold clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvela, Mika; He, Jinhua; Pattle, Katherine; Liu, Tie; Bendo, George; Eden, David J.; Fehér, Orsolya; Michel, Fich; Fuller, Gary; Hirano, Naomi; Kim, Kee-Tae; Li, Di; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Malinen, Johanna; Marshall, Douglas J.; Paradis, Deborah; Parsons, Harriet; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Rawlings, Mark G.; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Samal, Manash R.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Thompson, Mark; Traficante, Alessio; Wang, Ke; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wu, Yuefang; Yi, Hee-Weon; Yoo, Hyunju

    2018-04-01

    Context. Analysis of all-sky Planck submillimetre observations and the IRAS 100 μm data has led to the detection of a population of Galactic cold clumps. The clumps can be used to study star formation and dust properties in a wide range of Galactic environments. Aims: Our aim is to measure dust spectral energy distribution (SED) variations as a function of the spatial scale and the wavelength. Methods: We examined the SEDs at large scales using IRAS, Planck, and Herschel data. At smaller scales, we compared JCMT/SCUBA-2 850 μm maps with Herschel data that were filtered using the SCUBA-2 pipeline. Clumps were extracted using the Fellwalker method, and their spectra were modelled as modified blackbody functions. Results: According to IRAS and Planck data, most fields have dust colour temperatures TC 14-18 K and opacity spectral index values of β = 1.5-1.9. The clumps and cores identified in SCUBA-2 maps have T 13 K and similar β values. There are some indications of the dust emission spectrum becoming flatter at wavelengths longer than 500 μm. In fits involving Planck data, the significance is limited by the uncertainty of the corrections for CO line contamination. The fits to the SPIRE data give a median β value that is slightly above 1.8. In the joint SPIRE and SCUBA-2 850 μm fits, the value decreases to β 1.6. Most of the observed T-β anticorrelation can be explained by noise. Conclusions: The typical submillimetre opacity spectral index β of cold clumps is found to be 1.7. This is above the values of diffuse clouds, but lower than in some previous studies of dense clumps. There is only tentative evidence of a T-β anticorrelation and β decreasing at millimetre wavelengths. Planck (http://www.esa.int/Planck) is a project of the European Space Agency - ESA - with instruments provided by two scientific consortia funded by ESA member states (in particular the lead countries: France and Italy) with contributions from NASA (USA), and telescope reflectors

  2. Infall toward High-Mass Star-forming Clumps and Cores: The [O I] 63 um Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James

    Although the 63 um line has often been used as a diagnostic of photodissociation regions, toward cold, dense infrared dark cloud clumps it is often seen in absorption. We aim to exploit this high optical depth in IRDCs to probe the infall velocities and mass accretion rates of high-mass star-forming clumps and cores. We will use "blue asymmetric" self-absorbed line profiles or redshifted absorption against the protostellar dust continuum to measure infall rates. We will target 8 IRDC clumps in NGC6334 and "Nessie" to probe how the infall rates may change with evolutionary stage.

  3. SMOOTH(ER) STELLAR MASS MAPS IN CANDELS: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LONGEVITY OF CLUMPS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the resolved colors and stellar populations of a complete sample of 323 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5 10 M ☉ and have specific star formation rates (SFRs) above 1/t H . We model the seven-band optical ACS + near-IR WFC3 spectral energy distributions of individual bins of pixels, accounting simultaneously for the galaxy-integrated photometric constraints available over a longer wavelength range. We analyze variations in rest-frame color, stellar surface mass density, age, and extinction as a function of galactocentric radius and local surface brightness/density, and measure structural parameters on luminosity and stellar mass maps. We find evidence for redder colors, older stellar ages, and increased dust extinction in the nuclei of galaxies. Big star-forming clumps seen in star formation tracers are less prominent or even invisible in the inferred stellar mass distributions. Off-center clumps contribute up to ∼20% to the integrated SFR, but only 7% or less to the integrated mass of all massive SFGs at z ∼ 1 and z ∼ 2, with the fractional contributions being a decreasing function of wavelength used to select the clumps. The stellar mass profiles tend to have smaller sizes and M20 coefficients, and higher concentration and Gini coefficients than the light distribution. Our results are consistent with an inside-out disk growth scenario with brief (100-200 Myr) episodic local enhancements in star formation superposed on the underlying disk. Alternatively, the young ages of off-center clumps may signal inward clump migration, provided this happens efficiently on the order of an orbital timescale.

  4. SMOOTH(ER) STELLAR MASS MAPS IN CANDELS: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LONGEVITY OF CLUMPS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Huang, Kuang-Han [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2012-07-10

    We perform a detailed analysis of the resolved colors and stellar populations of a complete sample of 323 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5 < z < 1.5 and 326 SFGs at 1.5 < z < 2.5 in the ERS and CANDELS-Deep region of GOODS-South. Galaxies were selected to be more massive than 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and have specific star formation rates (SFRs) above 1/t{sub H} . We model the seven-band optical ACS + near-IR WFC3 spectral energy distributions of individual bins of pixels, accounting simultaneously for the galaxy-integrated photometric constraints available over a longer wavelength range. We analyze variations in rest-frame color, stellar surface mass density, age, and extinction as a function of galactocentric radius and local surface brightness/density, and measure structural parameters on luminosity and stellar mass maps. We find evidence for redder colors, older stellar ages, and increased dust extinction in the nuclei of galaxies. Big star-forming clumps seen in star formation tracers are less prominent or even invisible in the inferred stellar mass distributions. Off-center clumps contribute up to {approx}20% to the integrated SFR, but only 7% or less to the integrated mass of all massive SFGs at z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2, with the fractional contributions being a decreasing function of wavelength used to select the clumps. The stellar mass profiles tend to have smaller sizes and M20 coefficients, and higher concentration and Gini coefficients than the light distribution. Our results are consistent with an inside-out disk growth scenario with brief (100-200 Myr) episodic local enhancements in star formation superposed on the underlying disk. Alternatively, the young ages of off-center clumps may signal inward clump migration, provided this happens efficiently on the order of an orbital timescale.

  5. Kinetic temperature of massive star forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.; Yeh, C. C.; König, C.; Yuan, Y.; He, Y. X.; Li, D. L.

    2017-02-01

    Context. For a general understanding of the physics involved in the star formation process, measurements of physical parameters such as temperature and density are indispensable. The chemical and physical properties of dense clumps of molecular clouds are strongly affected by the kinetic temperature. Therefore, this parameter is essential for a better understanding of the interstellar medium. Formaldehyde, a molecule which traces the entire dense molecular gas, appears to be the most reliable tracer to directly measure the gas kinetic temperature. Aims: We aim to determine the kinetic temperature with spectral lines from formaldehyde and to compare the results with those obtained from ammonia lines for a large number of massive clumps. Methods: Three 218 GHz transitions (JKAKC = 303-202, 322-221, and 321-220) of para-H2CO were observed with the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) toward 30 massive clumps of the Galactic disk at various stages of high-mass star formation. Using the RADEX non-LTE model, we derive the gas kinetic temperature modeling the measured para-H2CO 322-221/303-202 and 321-220/303-202 ratios. Results: The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H2CO (321-220/303-202) line ratios range from 30 to 61 K with an average of 46 ± 9 K. A comparison of kinetic temperature derived from para-H2CO, NH3, and the dust emission indicates that in many cases para-H2CO traces a similar kinetic temperature to the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) transitions and the dust associated with the HII regions. Distinctly higher temperatures are probed by para-H2CO in the clumps associated with outflows/shocks. Kinetic temperatures obtained from para-H2CO trace turbulence to a higher degree than NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) in the massive clumps. The non-thermal velocity dispersions of para-H2CO lines are positively correlated with the gas kinetic temperature. The massive clumps are significantly influenced by supersonic non-thermal motions. The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only

  6. Massive Outflows Associated with ATLASGAL Clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, A. Y.; Thompson, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Tian, W. W.

    2018-03-01

    We have undertaken the largest survey for outflows within the Galactic plane using simultaneously observed {}13{CO} and {{{C}}}18{{O}} data. Out of a total of 919 ATLASGAL clumps, 325 have data suitable to identify outflows, and 225 (69% ± 3%) show high-velocity outflows. The clumps with detected outflows show significantly higher clump masses ({M}clump}), bolometric luminosities ({L}bol}), luminosity-to-mass ratios ({L}bol}/{M}clump}), and peak H2 column densities ({N}{{{H}}2}) compared to those without outflows. Outflow activity has been detected within the youngest quiescent clump (i.e., 70 μ {{m}} weak) in this sample, and we find that the outflow detection rate increases with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, {L}bol}/{M}clump}, and {N}{{{H}}2}, approaching 90% in some cases (UC H II regions = 93% ± 3%; masers = 86% ± 4%; HC H II regions = 100%). This high detection rate suggests that outflows are ubiquitous phenomena of massive star formation (MSF). The mean outflow mass entrainment rate implies a mean accretion rate of ∼ {10}-4 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, in full agreement with the accretion rate predicted by theoretical models of MSF. Outflow properties are tightly correlated with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, and {L}bol}/{M}clump} and show the strongest relation with the bolometric clump luminosity. This suggests that outflows might be driven by the most massive and luminous source within the clump. The correlations are similar for both low-mass and high-mass outflows over 7 orders of magnitude, indicating that they may share a similar outflow mechanism. Outflow energy is comparable to the turbulent energy within the clump; however, we find no evidence that outflows increase the level of clump turbulence as the clumps evolve. This implies that the origin of turbulence within clumps is fixed before the onset of star formation.

  7. Novel method for measuring a dense 3D strain map of robotic flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beiwen; Zhang, Song

    2018-04-01

    Measuring dense 3D strain maps of the inextensible membranous flapping wings of robots is of vital importance to the field of bio-inspired engineering. Conventional high-speed 3D videography methods typically reconstruct the wing geometries through measuring sparse points with fiducial markers, and thus cannot obtain the full-field mechanics of the wings in detail. In this research, we propose a novel system to measure a dense strain map of inextensible membranous flapping wings by developing a superfast 3D imaging system and a computational framework for strain analysis. Specifically, first we developed a 5000 Hz 3D imaging system based on the digital fringe projection technique using the defocused binary patterns to precisely measure the dynamic 3D geometries of rapidly flapping wings. Then, we developed a geometry-based algorithm to perform point tracking on the precisely measured 3D surface data. Finally, we developed a dense strain computational method using the Kirchhoff-Love shell theory. Experiments demonstrate that our method can effectively perform point tracking and measure a highly dense strain map of the wings without many fiducial markers.

  8. Starless Clumps and the Earliest Phases of High-mass Star Formation in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Brian

    2018-01-01

    High-mass stars are key to regulating the interstellar medium, star formation activity, and overall evolution of galaxies, but their formation remains an open problem in astrophysics. In order to understand the physical conditions during the earliest phases of high-mass star formation, I report on observational studies of dense starless clump candidates (SCCs) that show no signatures of star formation activity. I identify 2223 SCCs from the 1.1 mm Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey, systematically analyze their physical properties, and show that the starless phase is not represented by a single timescale, but evolves more rapidly with increasing clump mass. To investigate the sub-structure in SCCs at high spatial resolution, I study the 12 most high-mass SCCs within 5 kpc using ALMA. I report previously undetected low-luminosity protostars in 11 out of 12 SCCs, fragmentation equal to the thermal Jeans length of the clump, and no starless cores exceeding 30 solar masses. While uncertainties remain concerning the star formation effeciency in this sample, these observational facts are consistent with models where high-mass stars form from intially low- to intermediate-mass protostars that accrete most of their mass from the surrounding clump.

  9. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David; Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Marvil, Josh; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO + . Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO + in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO + in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO + emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction

  10. Dense gene physical maps of the non-model species Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orengo, Dorcas J; Puerma, Eva; Papaceit, Montserrat; Segarra, Carmen; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    The comparative analysis of genetic and physical maps as well as of whole genome sequences had revealed that in the Drosophila genus, most structural rearrangements occurred within chromosomal elements as a result of paracentric inversions. Genome sequence comparison would seem the best method to estimate rates of chromosomal evolution, but the high-quality reference genomes required for this endeavor are still scanty. Here, we have obtained dense physical maps for Muller elements A, C, and E of Drosophila subobscura, a species with an extensively studied rich and adaptive chromosomal polymorphism. These maps are based on 462 markers: 115, 236, and 111 markers for elements A, C, and E, respectively. The availability of these dense maps will facilitate genome assembly and will thus greatly contribute to obtaining a good reference genome, which is a required step for D. subobscura to attain the model species status. The comparative analysis of these physical maps and those obtained from the D. pseudoobscura and D. melanogaster genomes allowed us to infer the number of fixed inversions and chromosomal evolutionary rates for each pairwise comparison. For all three elements, rates inferred from the more closely related species were higher than those inferred from the more distantly related species, which together with results of relative-rate tests point to an acceleration in the D. subobscura lineage at least for elements A and E.

  11. Surveying the Dense Gas in Barnard 1 and NGC 1333 from Cloud to Core Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee; Teuben, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel; Looney, Leslie; Rosolowsky, Erik; Classy Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The CARMA Large Area Star formation Survey (CLASSy) is mapping molecular emission across large areas of the nearby Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. With an angular resolution of 7 arcsec, CLASSy probes dense gas on scales from a few thousand AU to parsecs with CARMA-23 and single-dish observations. The resulting maps of N2H+, HCN, and HCO+ J=1-0 trace the kinematics and structure of the high-density gas in regions covering a wide range of intrinsic star formation activity. This poster presents an overview of three completed CLASSy fields, NGC 1333, Barnard 1, and Serpens Main, and then focuses on the dendrogram analysis that CLASSy is using to characterize the emission structure. We have chosen a dendrogram analysis over traditional clump finding because dendrograms better encode the hierarchical nature of cloud structure and better facilitate analysis of cloud properties across the range of size scales probed by CLASSy. We present a new dendrogram methodology that allows for non-binary mergers of kernels, which results in a gas hierarchy that is more true to limitations of the S/N in the data. The resulting trees from Barnard 1 and NGC 1333 are used to derive physical parameters of the identified gas structures, and to probe the kinematic relationship between gas structures at different spatial scales and evolutionary stages. We derive a flat relation between mean internal turbulence and structure size for the dense gas in both regions, but find a difference between the magnitude of the internal turbulence in regions with and without protostars; the dense gas in the B1 main core and NGC 1333 are characterized by mostly transonic to supersonic turbulence, while the B1 filaments and clumps southwest of the main core have mostly subsonic turbulence. These initial results, along with upcoming work analyzing the completed CLASSy observations, will be used to test current theories for star formation in turbulent molecular clouds.

  12. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944-0002 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Marvil, Josh [Department of Physics, New Mexico Tech., 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Walter, Fabian, E-mail: akepley@nrao.edu [Max Planck Institute fur Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO{sup +}. Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO{sup +} in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO{sup +} in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO{sup +} emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction.

  13. Computing fixed points of nonexpansive mappings by $\\alpha$-dense curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. García

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Given a multivalued nonexpansive mapping defined on a convex and compact set of a Banach space, with values in the class of convex and compact subsets of its domain, we present an iteration scheme which (under suitable conditions converges to a fixed point of such mapping. This new iteration provides us another method to approximate the fixed points of a singlevalued nonexpansive mapping, defined on a compact and convex set into itself. Moreover, the conditions for the singlevalued case are less restrictive than for the multivalued case. Our main tool will be the so called $\\alpha$-dense curves, which will allow us to construct such iterations. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate our results.

  14. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wanggi [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm{sup –2} in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  15. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm –2 in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions

  16. Dissecting the intensely star-forming clumps in a z ~ 2 Einstein Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu

    2013-10-01

    Clumps of star formation spreading widely in galactic disks are common features of star-forming galaxies at 1 test cases to study the mechanism that drives intense star formation at z ~ 2. We propose WFC3 near-IR imaging and spatially-resolved spectroscopy of a gravitationally lensed, kinematically ordered, vigorously star-forming galaxy at z = 1.885 with physical resolutions up to 40 pc. This galaxy contains two luminous clumps that are forming stars at the rates of 100 solar mass/yr/clump. Spatially-resolved map of star formation from HST provides the most critical missing piece to interpret our existing observations of this galaxy in far-IR, CO emission lines, and radio continuum. We will probe the frontier research areas in z ~ 2 star formation, particularly the spatially-resolved star formation laws and dynamics of cold and ionized gases, which have never been probed at this spatial resolution. Our proposed observations will provide a benchmark against which to interpret the structures of vigorous star-forming clumps in general. This object can therefore have a unique impact on our understanding of the star-forming modes that dominate at z ~ 2.

  17. ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy. VI. Kinetic temperature and spatial density measured with formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Wyrowski, F.; Giannetti, A.; Menten, K. M.; Csengeri, T.; Leurini, S.; Urquhart, J. S.; König, C.; Güsten, R.; Lin, Y. X.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Formaldehyde (H2CO) is a reliable tracer to accurately measure the physical parameters of dense gas in star-forming regions. Aim. We aim to determine directly the kinetic temperature and spatial density with formaldehyde for the 100 brightest ATLASGAL-selected clumps (the TOP100 sample) at 870 μm representing various evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation. Methods: Ten transitions (J = 3-2 and 4-3) of ortho- and para-H2CO near 211, 218, 225, and 291 GHz were observed with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) 12 m telescope. Results: Using non-LTE models with RADEX, we derived the gas kinetic temperature and spatial density with the measured para-H2CO 321-220/303-202, 422-321/404-303, and 404-303/303-202 ratios. The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H2CO 321-220/303-202 and 422-321/404-303 line ratios are high, ranging from 43 to >300 K with an unweighted average of 91 ± 4 K. Deduced Tkin values from the J = 3-2 and 4-3 transitions are similar. Spatial densities of the gas derived from the para-H2CO 404-303/303-202 line ratios yield 0.6-8.3 × 106 cm-3 with an unweighted average of 1.5 (±0.1) × 106 cm-3. A comparison of kinetic temperatures derived from para-H2CO, NH3, and dust emission indicates that para-H2CO traces a distinctly higher temperature than the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) transitions and the dust, tracing heated gas more directly associated with the star formation process. The H2CO line widths are found to be correlated with bolometric luminosity and increase with the evolutionary stage of the clumps, which suggests that higher luminosities tend to be associated with a more turbulent molecular medium. It seems that the spatial densities measured with H2CO do not vary significantly with the evolutionary stage of the clumps. However, averaged gas kinetic temperatures derived from H2CO increase with time through the evolution of the clumps. The high temperature of the gas traced by H2CO may be mainly caused by radiation from

  18. Mapping topographic plant location properties using a dense matching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederheiser, Robert; Rutzinger, Martin; Lamprecht, Andrea; Bardy-Durchhalter, Manfred; Pauli, Harald; Winkler, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    Within the project MEDIALPS (Disentangling anthropogenic drivers of climate change impacts on alpine plant species: Alps vs. Mediterranean mountains) six regions in Alpine and in Mediterranean mountain regions are investigated to assess how plant species respond to climate change. The project is embedded in the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA), which is a well-established global monitoring initiative for systematic observation of changes in the plant species composition and soil temperature on mountain summits worldwide to discern accelerating climate change pressures on these fragile alpine ecosystems. Close-range sensing techniques such as terrestrial photogrammetry are well suited for mapping terrain topography of small areas with high resolution. Lightweight equipment, flexible positioning for image acquisition in the field, and independence on weather conditions (i.e. wind) make this a feasible method for in-situ data collection. New developments of dense matching approaches allow high quality 3D terrain mapping with less requirements for field set-up. However, challenges occur in post-processing and required data storage if many sites have to be mapped. Within MEDIALPS dense matching is used for mapping high resolution topography for 284 3x3 meter plots deriving information on vegetation coverage, roughness, slope, aspect and modelled solar radiation. This information helps identifying types of topography-dependent ecological growing conditions and evaluating the potential for existing refugial locations for specific plant species under climate change. This research is conducted within the project MEDIALPS - Disentangling anthropogenic drivers of climate change impacts on alpine plant species: Alps vs. Mediterranean mountains funded by the Earth System Sciences Programme of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

  19. Testing the Larson relations in massive clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traficante, A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Elia, D.; Fuller, G. A.; Merello, M.; Molinari, S.; Peretto, N.; Schisano, E.; Di Giorgio, A.

    2018-06-01

    We tested the validity of the three Larson relations in a sample of 213 massive clumps selected from the Herschel infrared Galactic Plane (Hi-GAL) survey, also using data from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey of 3-mm emission lines. The clumps are divided into five evolutionary stages so that we can also discuss the Larson relations as a function of evolution. We show that this ensemble does not follow the three Larson relations, regardless of the clump's evolutionary phase. A consequence of this breakdown is that the dependence of the virial parameter αvir on mass (and radius) is only a function of the gravitational energy, independent of the kinetic energy of the system; thus, αvir is not a good descriptor of clump dynamics. Our results suggest that clumps with clear signatures of infall motions are statistically indistinguishable from clumps with no such signatures. The observed non-thermal motions are not necessarily ascribed to turbulence acting to sustain the gravity, but they might be a result of the gravitational collapse at the clump scales. This seems to be particularly true for the most massive (M ≥ 1000 M⊙) clumps in the sample, where exceptionally high magnetic fields might not be enough to stabilize the collapse.

  20. Dense 3D Map Construction for Indoor Search and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Huang, Shoudong; Miró, Jaime Valls

    2007-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is a new simultaneous localization and mapping  SLAM algorithm for building dense three-dimensional maps using information ac- quired from a range imager and a conventional camera, for robotic search and rescue in unstructured indoor environments. A key challen...... invariant feature transformation SIFT feature detection and matching, random sampling consensus RANSAC , and least square 3D point sets ?tting. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques developed....

  1. RGB–D terrain perception and dense mapping for legged robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belter Dominik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issues of unstructured terrain modeling for the purpose of navigation with legged robots. We present an improved elevation grid concept adopted to the specific requirements of a small legged robot with limited perceptual capabilities. We propose an extension of the elevation grid update mechanism by incorporating a formal treatment of the spatial uncertainty. Moreover, this paper presents uncertainty models for a structured light RGB-D sensor and a stereo vision camera used to produce a dense depth map. The model for the uncertainty of the stereo vision camera is based on uncertainty propagation from calibration, through undistortion and rectification algorithms, allowing calculation of the uncertainty of measured 3D point coordinates. The proposed uncertainty models were used for the construction of a terrain elevation map using the Videre Design STOC stereo vision camera and Kinect-like range sensors. We provide experimental verification of the proposed mapping method, and a comparison with another recently published terrain mapping method for walking robots.

  2. FRAGMENTATION OF MOLECULAR CLUMPS AND FORMATION OF A PROTOCLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Lu, Xing; Wang, Ke; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun

    2015-01-01

    Sufficiently massive clumps of molecular gas collapse under self-gravity and fragment to spawn a cluster of stars that have a range of masses. We investigate observationally the early stages of formation of a stellar cluster in a massive filamentary infrared dark cloud, G28.34+0.06 P1, in the 1.3 mm continuum and spectral line emission using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. Sensitive continuum data reveal further fragmentation in five dusty cores at a resolution of several 10 3 AU. Spectral line emission from C 18 O, CH 3 OH, 13 CS, H 2 CO, and N 2 D + is detected for the first time toward these dense cores. We found that three cores are chemically more evolved as compared with the other two; interestingly, though, all of them are associated with collimated outflows as suggested by evidence from the CO, SiO, CH 3 OH, H 2 CO, and SO emission. The parsec-scale kinematics in exhibit velocity gradients along the filament, consistent with accretion flows toward the clumps and cores. The moderate luminosity and the chemical signatures indicate that the five cores harbor low- to intermediate-mass protostars that likely become massive ones at the end of the accretion. Despite the fact that the mass limit reached by the dust continuum sensitivity is 30 times lower than the thermal Jeans mass, there is a lack of a distributed low-mass protostellar population in the clump. Our observations indicate that in a protocluster, low-mass stars form at a later stage after the birth of more massive protostars

  3. A statistical study towards high-mass BGPS clumps with the MALT90 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Jin-Long; Ning, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Tao

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we perform a statistical investigation towards 50 high-mass clumps using data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) and Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90-GHz survey (MALT90). Eleven dense molecular lines (N2H+(1–0), HNC(1–0), HCO+(1–0), HCN(1–0), HN13C(1–0), H13CO+(1–0), C2H(1–0), HC3N(10–9), SiO(2–1), 13CS(2–1)and HNCO(44,0 ‑ 30,3)) are detected. N2H+ and HNC are shown to be good tracers for clumps in various evolutionary stages since they are detected in all the fields. The detection rates of N-bearing molecules decrease as the clumps evolve, but those of O-bearing species increase with evolution. Furthermore, the abundance ratios [N2H+]/[HCO+] and log([HC3N]/[HCO+]) decline with log([HCO+]) as two linear functions, respectively. This suggests that N2H+ and HC3N transform to HCO+ as the clumps evolve. We also find that C2H is the most abundant molecule with an order of magnitude 10‑8. In addition, three new infall candidates, G010.214–00.324, G011.121–00.128 and G012.215–00.118(a), are discovered to have large-scale infall motions and infall rates with an order of magnitude 10‑3 M ⊙ yr‑1.

  4. The Properties of Planck Galactic Cold Clumps in the L1495 Dark Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengyao; Liu, Tie; Qin, Sheng-Li; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Yuan, Jinghua; Wang, Ke; Parsons, Harriet; Koch, Patrick M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Ward-Thompson, D.; Tóth, L. Viktor; Soam, Archana; Lee, Chang Won; Eden, David; Di Francesco, James; Rawlings, Jonathan; Rawlings, Mark G.; Montillaud, Julien; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Cunningham, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs) possibly represent the early stages of star formation. To understand better the properties of PGCCs, we studied 16 PGCCs in the L1495 cloud with molecular lines and continuum data from Herschel, JCMT/SCUBA-2, and the PMO 13.7 m telescope. Thirty dense cores were identified in 16 PGCCs from 2D Gaussian fitting. The dense cores have dust temperatures of T d = 11–14 K, and H2 column densities of {N}{{{H}}2} = (0.36–2.5) × 1022 cm‑2. We found that not all PGCCs contain prestellar objects. In general, the dense cores in PGCCs are usually at their earliest evolutionary stages. All the dense cores have non-thermal velocity dispersions larger than the thermal velocity dispersions from molecular line data, suggesting that the dense cores may be turbulence-dominated. We have calculated the virial parameter α and found that 14 of the dense cores have α 2. This suggests that some of the dense cores are not bound in the absence of external pressure and magnetic fields. The column density profiles of dense cores were fitted. The sizes of the flat regions and core radii decrease with the evolution of dense cores. CO depletion was found to occur in all the dense cores, but is more significant in prestellar core candidates than in protostellar or starless cores. The protostellar cores inside the PGCCs are still at a very early evolutionary stage, sharing similar physical and chemical properties with the prestellar core candidates.

  5. Recombination clumping factor during cosmic reionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the role of recombinations in the intergalactic medium, and the related concept of the clumping factor, during cosmic reionization. The clumping factor is, in general, a local quantity that depends on both the local overdensity and the scale below which the baryon density field can be assumed smooth. That scale, called the filtering scale, depends on over-density and local thermal history. We present a method for building a self-consistent analytical model of inhomogeneous reionization, assuming the linear growth rate of the density fluctuation, which simultaneously accounts for these effects. We show that taking into account the local clumping factor introduces significant corrections to the total recombination rate, compared to the model with a globally uniform clumping factor.

  6. Chemistry of the High-mass Protostellar Molecular Clump IRAS 16562–3959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Hechenleitner, Federico

    2018-06-01

    We present molecular line observations of the high-mass molecular clump IRAS 16562‑3959 taken at 3 mm using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 1.″7 angular resolution (0.014 pc spatial resolution). This clump hosts the actively accreting high-mass young stellar object (HMYSO) G345.4938+01.4677, which is associated with a hypercompact H II region. We identify and analyze emission lines from 22 molecular species (encompassing 34 isomers) and classify them into two groups, depending on their spatial distribution within the clump. One of these groups gathers shock tracers (e.g., SiO, SO, HNCO) and species formed in dust grains like methanol (CH3OH), ethenone or ketene (H2CCO), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). The second group collects species closely resembling the dust continuum emission morphology and are formed mainly in the gas phase, like hydrocarbons (CCH, c-C3H2, CH3CCH), cyanopolyynes (HC3N and HC5N), and cyanides (HCN and CH3C3N). Emission from complex organic molecules (COMs) like CH3OH, propanenitrile (CH3CH2CN), and methoxymethane (CH3OCH3) arise from gas in the vicinity of a hot molecular core (T ≳ 100 K) associated with the HMYSO. Other COMs such as propyne (CH3CCH), acrylonitrile (CH2CHCN), and acetaldehyde seem to better trace warm (T ≲ 80 K) dense gas. In addition, deuterated ammonia (NH2D) is detected mostly in the outskirts of IRAS 16562‑3959 and associated with near-infrared dark globules, probably gaseous remnants of the clump’s prestellar phase. The spatial distribution of molecules in IRAS 16562‑3959 supports the view that in protostellar clumps, chemical tracers associated with different evolutionary stages—starless to hot cores/H II regions—exist coevally.

  7. Elastic LiDAR Fusion: Dense Map-Centric Continuous-Time SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chanoh; Moghadam, Peyman; Kim, Soohwan; Elfes, Alberto; Fookes, Clinton; Sridharan, Sridha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of continuous-time trajectory representation has brought increased accuracy and efficiency to multi-modal sensor fusion in modern SLAM. However, regardless of these advantages, its offline property caused by the requirement of global batch optimization is critically hindering its relevance for real-time and life-long applications. In this paper, we present a dense map-centric SLAM method based on a continuous-time trajectory to cope with this problem. The proposed system locally f...

  8. Dendrogram Analysis of Large-Area CARMA Images in Perseus: the Dense Gas in NGC 1333, Barnard 1, and L1451

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, L. G.; Teuben, P. J.; Lee, K.; Looney, L.; Fernandez Lopez, M.; Rosolowsky, E.; Arce, H. G.; Shirley, Y. L.; Segura-Cox, D.; Isella, A.; CLASSy Team

    2014-01-01

    We present spectral line maps of the dense gas across 400 square arcminutes of the Perseus Molecular Cloud, focused on NGC 1333, Barnard 1, and L1451. We constructed these maps as part of the CARMA Large Area Star-formation Survey (CLASSy), which is a CARMA key project that connects star forming cores to their natal cloud environment. This is achieved by leveraging CARMA's high angular resolution, imaging capability, and high efficiency at mosaicing large areas of the sky. CLASSy maps capture the structure and kinematics of N2H+, HCN, and HCO+ J=1-0 emission from thousand AU to parsec scales in three evolutionarily distinct regions of Perseus (in addition to two regions in Serpens). We show results from a non-binary dendrogram analysis of the Perseus N2H+ emission, which answers questions about the turbulent properties of the dense gas across evolutionary stages and across the range of size scales probed by CLASSy. There is a flat relation between mean internal turbulence and structure size for the dense gas in NGC 1333 and Barnard 1, but the magnitude of internal turbulence increases with nearby protostellar activity; the dense gas in the B1 main core and NGC 1333, which have active young stars, are characterized by mostly transonic to supersonic turbulence, while the filaments and clumps southwest of the B1 main core, which have no active young stars, have mostly subsonic turbulence. We have recently completed the observations of L1451, and results for that region will be revealed at the meeting. Released CLASSy data products can be found on our project website.

  9. Astrochemical Properties of Planck Cold Clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Nguyễn Lu’o’ng, Quang; Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Liu, Tie; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Kim, Kee-Tae [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeokdaero 776, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ohashi, Satoshi [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Section 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Thompson, Mark A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Fuller, Gary [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871, Beijing (China); Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Francesco, James Di [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Wang, Ke [European Southern Observatory (Germany); Ristorcelli, Isabelle [IRAP, CNRS (UMR5277), Universite Paul Sabatier, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Juvela, Mika [Department of physics, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Shinnaga, Hiroko, E-mail: k.tatematsu@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35, Korimoto, Kagoshima, 890-0065 (Japan); Collaboration: JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” collaboration; TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” collaboration; and others

    2017-02-01

    We observed 13 Planck cold clumps with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 and with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} distribution obtained with the Nobeyama telescope is quite similar to SCUBA-2 dust distribution. The 82 GHz HC{sub 3}N, 82 GHz CCS, and 94 GHz CCS emission are often distributed differently with respect to the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission. The CCS emission, which is known to be abundant in starless molecular cloud cores, is often very clumpy in the observed targets. We made deep single-pointing observations in DNC, HN{sup 13}C, N{sub 2}D{sup +}, and cyclic-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} toward nine clumps. The detection rate of N{sub 2}D{sup +} is 50%. Furthermore, we observed the NH{sub 3} emission toward 15 Planck cold clumps to estimate the kinetic temperature, and confirmed that most targets are cold (≲20 K). In two of the starless clumps we observed, the CCS emission is distributed as it surrounds the N{sub 2}H{sup +} core (chemically evolved gas), which resembles the case of L1544, a prestellar core showing collapse. In addition, we detected both DNC and N{sub 2}D{sup +}. These two clumps are most likely on the verge of star formation. We introduce the chemical evolution factor (CEF) for starless cores to describe the chemical evolutionary stage, and analyze the observed Planck cold clumps.

  10. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: EVIDENCE FOR DUST GRAIN EVOLUTION IN PERSEUS STAR-FORMING CLUMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Mottram, J. C.; Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kirk, H. [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Buckle, J.; Salji, C. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Fich, M.; Tisi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nutter, D.; Quinn, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Pattle, K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Pineda, J. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-07-20

    The dust emissivity spectral index, β , is a critical parameter for deriving the mass and temperature of star-forming structures and, consequently, their gravitational stability. The β value is dependent on various dust grain properties, such as size, porosity, and surface composition, and is expected to vary as dust grains evolve. Here we present β , dust temperature, and optical depth maps of the star-forming clumps in the Perseus Molecular Cloud determined from fitting spectral energy distributions to combined Herschel and JCMT observations in the 160, 250, 350, 500, and 850 μ m bands. Most of the derived β and dust temperature values fall within the ranges of 1.0–2.7 and 8–20 K, respectively. In Perseus, we find the β distribution differs significantly from clump to clump, indicative of grain growth. Furthermore, we also see significant localized β variations within individual clumps and find low- β regions correlate with local temperature peaks, hinting at the possible origins of low- β grains. Throughout Perseus, we also see indications of heating from B stars and embedded protostars, as well evidence of outflows shaping the local landscape.

  11. BARNARD 59: NO EVIDENCE FOR FURTHER FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Zuniga, C. G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada BC 22860 (Mexico); Frau, P.; Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5p, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Alves, Joao F., E-mail: croman@astrosen.unam.mx [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-10

    The dense molecular clump at the center of the Barnard 59 (B59) complex is the only region in the Pipe Nebula that has formed a small, stellar cluster. The previous analysis of a high-resolution near-IR dust extinction map revealed that the nuclear region in B59 is a massive, mostly quiescent clump of 18.9 M{sub Sun }. The clump shows a monolithic profile, possibly indicating that the clump is on the way to collapse, with no evident fragmentation that could lead to another group of star systems. In this paper, we present new analysis that compares the dust extinction map with a new dust emission radio-continuum map of higher spatial resolution. We confirm that the clump does not show any significant evidence for prestellar fragmentation at scales smaller than those probed previously.

  12. BARNARD 59: NO EVIDENCE FOR FURTHER FRAGMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Alves, João F.

    2012-01-01

    The dense molecular clump at the center of the Barnard 59 (B59) complex is the only region in the Pipe Nebula that has formed a small, stellar cluster. The previous analysis of a high-resolution near-IR dust extinction map revealed that the nuclear region in B59 is a massive, mostly quiescent clump of 18.9 M ☉ . The clump shows a monolithic profile, possibly indicating that the clump is on the way to collapse, with no evident fragmentation that could lead to another group of star systems. In this paper, we present new analysis that compares the dust extinction map with a new dust emission radio-continuum map of higher spatial resolution. We confirm that the clump does not show any significant evidence for prestellar fragmentation at scales smaller than those probed previously.

  13. Remarks on the clump theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    Further details are provided of a soon-to-be published dialog [Phys. Fluids 29 (July, 1986)] which discussed the role of the small scales in fluid clump theory. It is argued that the approximation of the clump lifetime which is compatible with exponentially rapid separation of adjacent orbits is inappropriate for the description of the dynamically important large scales. Various other remarks are made relating to the analytic treatment of strong drift-wave-like turbulence

  14. Remarks on the clump theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Further details are provided of a recently published dialog [Phys. Fluids 29 (July, 1986)] which discussed the role of the small scales in fluid clump theory. It is argued that the approximation of the clump lifetime which is compatible with exponentially rapid separation of adjacent orbits is inappropriate for the description of the dynamically important large scales. Various other remarks are made relating to the analytic treatment of strong drift-wave-like turbulence. (author)

  15. A method for quantitative analysis of clump thickness in cervical cytology slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yilun; Bradley, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and thickness of cytology specimens is critical to the development of digital slide acquisition techniques that minimise both scan times and image file size. In this paper, we evaluate a novel method to achieve this goal utilising an exhaustive high-resolution scan, an over-complete wavelet transform across multi-focal planes and a clump segmentation of all cellular materials on the slide. The method is demonstrated with a quantitative analysis of ten normal, but difficult to scan Pap stained, Thin-prep, cervical cytology slides. We show that with this method the top and bottom of the specimen can be estimated to an accuracy of 1 μm in 88% and 97% of the fields of view respectively. Overall, cellular material can be over 30 μm thick and the distribution of cells is skewed towards the cover-slip (top of the slide). However, the median clump thickness is 10 μm and only 31% of clumps contain more than three nuclei. Therefore, by finding a focal map of the specimen the number of 1 μm spaced focal planes that are required to be scanned to acquire 95% of the in-focus material can be reduced from 25.4 to 21.4 on average. In addition, we show that by considering the thickness of the specimen, an improved focal map can be produced which further reduces the required number of 1 μm spaced focal planes to 18.6. This has the potential to reduce scan times and raw image data by over 25%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thick disk and pseudobulge formation in a clump cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bulges in spiral galaxies have been supposed to be classified into two types: classical bulges or pseudobulges. Classical bulges are thought to form by galactic merger with bursty star formation, whereas pseudobulges are suggested to form by secular evolution. Noguchi (1998,199 suggested another bulge formation scenario, ‘clump-origin bulge’ [1,2]. He demonstrated using a numerical simulation that a galactic disc suffers dynamical instability to form clumpy structures in the early stage of disc formation, then the clumps are sucked into the galactic centre by dynamical friction and merge into a single bulge at the centre. Therefore, clump-origin bulges may have their own unique properties. I perform a high-resolution N-body/SPH simulation for the formation of the clump-origin bulge in an isolated galaxy model and study the formation of the clump-origin bulge. I find that the clump-origin bulge resembles pseudobulges in dynamical properties, a nearly exponential surface density profile, a barred boxy shape and a significant rotation. I also find that this bulge consists of old and metal-rich stars. These natures, old metal-rich population but pseudobulge-like structures, mean that the clump-origin bulge can not be simply classified into classical bulges nor pseudobulges. From these results, I discuss similarities of the clump-origin bulge to the Milky Way (MW bulge.

  17. Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan; Liu, Jane; Deng, Feng; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded leaf separation proposed by Norman (1982) is an effective way to upscale from leaf to canopy in modeling vegetation photosynthesis. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) makes use of this methodology, and has been shown to be reliable in modeling the gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from CO2flux and tree ring measurements. In this study, we use BEPS to investigate the effect of canopy architecture on the global distribution of GPP. For this purpose, we use not only leaf area index (LAI) but also the first ever global map of the foliage clumping index derived from the multiangle satellite sensor POLDER at 6 km resolution. The clumping index, which characterizes the degree of the deviation of 3-dimensional leaf spatial distributions from the random case, is used to separate sunlit and shaded LAI values for a given LAI. Our model results show that global GPP in 2003 was 132 ± 22 Pg C. Relative to this baseline case, our results also show: (1) global GPP is overestimated by 12% when accurate LAI is available but clumping is ignored, and (2) global GPP is underestimated by 9% when the effective LAI is available and clumping is ignored. The clumping effects in both cases are statistically significant (p < 0.001). The effective LAI is often derived from remote sensing by inverting the measured canopy gap fraction to LAI without considering the clumping. Global GPP would therefore be generally underestimated when remotely sensed LAI (actually effective LAI by our definition) is used. This is due to the underestimation of the shaded LAI and therefore the contribution of shaded leaves to GPP. We found that shaded leaves contribute 50%, 38%, 37%, 39%, 26%, 29% and 21% to the total GPP for broadleaf evergreen forest, broadleaf deciduous forest, evergreen conifer forest, deciduous conifer forest, shrub, C4 vegetation, and other vegetation, respectively. The global average of this ratio is 35%.

  18. MAPPING ALPINE VEGETATION LOCATION PROPERTIES BY DENSE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Niederheiser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly accurate 3D micro topographic mapping in mountain research demands for light equipment and low cost solutions. Recent developments in structure from motion and dense matching techniques provide promising tools for such applications. In the following, the feasibility of terrestrial photogrammetry for mapping topographic location properties of sparsely vegetated areas in selected European mountain regions is investigated. Changes in species composition at alpine vegetation locations are indicators of climate change consequences, such as the pronounced rise of average temperatures in mountains compared to the global average. Better understanding of climate change effects on plants demand for investigations on a micro-topographic scale. We use professional and consumer grade digital single-lens reflex cameras mapping 288 plots each 3 x 3 m on 18 summits in the Alps and Mediterranean Mountains within the GLORIA (GLobal Observation Research Initiative in Alpine environments network. Image matching tests result in accuracies that are in the order of millimetres in the XY-plane and below 0.5 mm in Z-direction at the second image pyramid level. Reconstructing vegetation proves to be a challenge due to its fine and small structured architecture and its permanent movement by wind during image acquisition, which is omnipresent on mountain summits. The produced 3D point clouds are gridded to 6 mm resolution from which topographic parameters such as slope, aspect and roughness are derived. At a later project stage these parameters will be statistically linked to botanical reference data in order to conclude on relations between specific location properties and species compositions.

  19. A Robust Inversion Algorithm for Surface Leaf and Soil Temperatures Using the Vegetation Clumping Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunjian Bian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The inversion of land surface component temperatures is an essential source of information for mapping heat fluxes and the angular normalization of thermal infrared (TIR observations. Leaf and soil temperatures can be retrieved using multiple-view-angle TIR observations. In a satellite-scale pixel, the clumping effect of vegetation is usually present, but it is not completely considered during the inversion process. Therefore, we introduced a simple inversion procedure that uses gap frequency with a clumping index (GCI for leaf and soil temperatures over both crop and forest canopies. Simulated datasets corresponding to turbid vegetation, regularly planted crops and randomly distributed forest were generated using a radiosity model and were used to test the proposed inversion algorithm. The results indicated that the GCI algorithm performed well for both crop and forest canopies, with root mean squared errors of less than 1.0 °C against simulated values. The proposed inversion algorithm was also validated using measured datasets over orchard, maize and wheat canopies. Similar results were achieved, demonstrating that using the clumping index can improve inversion results. In all evaluations, we recommend using the GCI algorithm as a foundation for future satellite-based applications due to its straightforward form and robust performance for both crop and forest canopies using the vegetation clumping index.

  20. SELF-CONVERGENCE OF RADIATIVELY COOLING CLUMPS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yirak, Kristopher; Frank, Adam; Cunningham, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Isolated regions of higher density populate the interstellar medium (ISM) on all scales-from molecular clouds, to the star-forming regions known as cores, to heterogeneous ejecta found near planetary nebulae and supernova remnants. These clumps interact with winds and shocks from nearby energetic sources. Understanding the interactions of shocked clumps is vital to our understanding of the composition, morphology, and evolution of the ISM. The evolution of shocked clumps is well understood in the limiting 'adiabatic' case where physical processes such as self-gravity, heat conduction, radiative cooling, and magnetic fields are ignored. In this paper, we address the issue of evolution and convergence when one of these processes-radiative cooling-is included. Numeric convergence studies demonstrate that the evolution of an adiabatic clump is well captured by roughly 100 cells per clump radius. The presence of radiative cooling, however, imposes limits on the problem due to the removal of thermal energy. Numerical studies which include radiative cooling typically adopt the 100-200 cells per clump radius resolution. In this paper, we present the results of a convergence study for radiatively cooling clumps undertaken over a broad range of resolutions, from 12 to 1536 cells per clump radius, employing adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in a two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry (2.5 dimensions). We also provide a fully three-dimensional simulation, at 192 cells per clump radius, which supports our 2.5 dimensional results. We find no appreciable self-convergence at ∼100 cells per clump radius as small-scale differences owing to increasingly resolving the cooling length have global effects. We therefore conclude that self-convergence is an insufficient criterion to apply on its own when addressing the question of sufficient resolution for radiatively cooled shocked clump simulations. We suggest the adoption of alternate criteria to support a statement of sufficient

  1. Empirical photometric calibration of the Gaia red clump: Colours, effective temperature, and absolute magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Dern, L.; Babusiaux, C.; Arenou, F.; Turon, C.; Lallement, R.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 allows the recalibration of standard candles such as the red clump stars. To use those stars, they first need to be accurately characterised. In particular, colours are needed to derive interstellar extinction. As no filter is available for the first Gaia data release and to avoid the atmosphere model mismatch, an empirical calibration is unavoidable. Aims: The purpose of this work is to provide the first complete and robust photometric empirical calibration of the Gaia red clump stars of the solar neighbourhood through colour-colour, effective temperature-colour, and absolute magnitude-colour relations from the Gaia, Johnson, 2MASS, HIPPARCOS, Tycho-2, APASS-SLOAN, and WISE photometric systems, and the APOGEE DR13 spectroscopic temperatures. Methods: We used a 3D extinction map to select low reddening red giants. To calibrate the colour-colour and the effective temperature-colour relations, we developed a MCMC method that accounts for all variable uncertainties and selects the best model for each photometric relation. We estimated the red clump absolute magnitude through the mode of a kernel-based distribution function. Results: We provide 20 colour versus G-Ks relations and the first Teff versus G-Ks calibration. We obtained the red clump absolute magnitudes for 15 photometric bands with, in particular, MKs = (-1.606 ± 0.009) and MG = (0.495 ± 0.009) + (1.121 ± 0.128)(G-Ks-2.1). We present a dereddened Gaia-TGAS HR diagram and use the calibrations to compare its red clump and its red giant branch bump with Padova isochrones. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A116

  2. ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy. V. Temperature structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, A.; Leurini, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Urquhart, J.; Csengeri, T.; Menten, K. M.; König, C.; Güsten, R.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Observational identification of a solid evolutionary sequence for high-mass star-forming regions is still missing. Spectroscopic observations give the opportunity to test possible schemes and connect the phases identified to physical processes. Aims: We aim to use the progressive heating of the gas caused by the feedback of high-mass young stellar objects to prove the statistical validity of the most common schemes used to observationally define an evolutionary sequence for high-mass clumps, and characterise the sensitivity of different tracers to this process. Methods: From the spectroscopic follow-ups carried out towards submillimeter continuum (dust) emission-selected massive clumps (the ATLASGAL TOP100 sample) with the IRAM 30 m, Mopra, and APEX telescopes between 84 GHz and 365 GHz, we selected several multiplets of CH3CN, CH3CCH, and CH3OH emission lines to derive and compare the physical properties of the gas in the clumps along the evolutionary sequence, fitting simultaneously the large number of lines that these molecules have in the observed band. Our findings are compared with results obtained from optically thin CO isotopologues, dust, and ammonia from previous studies on the same sample. Results: The chemical properties of each species have a major role on the measured physical properties. Low temperatures are traced by ammonia, methanol, and CO (in the early phases), the warm and dense envelope can be probed with CH3CN, CH3CCH, and, in evolved sources where CO is abundant in the gas phase, via its optically thin isotopologues. CH3OH and CH3CN are also abundant in the hot cores, and we suggest that their high-excitation transitions are good tools to study the kinematics in the hot gas associated with the inner envelope surrounding the young stellar objects that these clumps are hosting. All tracers show, to different degrees according to their properties, progressive warming with evolution. The relation between gas temperature and the

  3. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for semi-constrained indoor movement, and then uses this to map raw tracking records into mapping records representing object entry and exit times in particular locations. Then, an efficient indexing structure, the Dense Location Time Index (DLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals...... of the mapping table, along with associated construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The DLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point queries, interval queries, and dense location queries. A comprehensive experimental study with real data shows that the proposed techniques can efficiently......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based model...

  4. Methane clumped isotopes: Progress and potential for a new isotopic tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Stolper, Daniel A.; Eiler, John M.; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Shuai, Yanhua; Bishop, Andrew; Podlaha, Olaf G.; Ferreira, Alexandre A.; Santos Neto, Eugenio V.; Niemann, Martin; Steen, Arne S.; Huang, Ling; Chimiak, Laura; Valentine, David L.; Fiebig, Jens; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Seyfried, William E.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Schoell, Martin; Inskeep, William P.; Moran, James J.; Kitchen, Nami

    2017-11-01

    The isotopic composition of methane is of longstanding geochemical interest, with important implications for understanding hydrocarbon systems, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the global carbon cycle, and life in extreme environments. Recent analytical developments focusing on multiply substituted isotopologues (‘clumped isotopes’) are opening a potentially valuable new window into methane geochemistry. When methane forms in internal isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotopes can provide a direct record of formation temperature, making this property particularly valuable for identifying different methane origins. However, it has also become clear that in certain settings methane clumped isotope measurements record kinetic rather than equilibrium isotope effects. Here we present a substantially expanded dataset of methane clumped isotope analyses, and provide a synthesis of the current interpretive framework for this parameter. We review different processes affecting methane clumped isotope compositions, describe the relationships between conventional isotope and clumped isotope data, and summarize the types of information that this measurement can provide in different Earth and planetary environments.

  5. Finding dense locations in symbolic indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    presents two graph-based models for constrained and semi-constrained indoor movement, respectively, and then uses the models to map raw tracking records into mapping records that represent object entry and exit times in particular locations. Subsequently, an efficient indexing structure called Hierarchical...... Dense Location Time Index (HDLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals of the mapping table, along with index construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The HDLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point, interval, and duration queries as well as dense location queries......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for many applications such as overloaded area detection, security control, crowd management, indoor navigation, and so on. Indoor tracking data can be enormous and are not immediately ready for finding dense locations. This paper...

  6. A Delaunay Triangulation Approach For Segmenting Clumps Of Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Quan; Chang, Hang; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    Cell-based fluorescence imaging assays have the potential to generate massive amount of data, which requires detailed quantitative analysis. Often, as a result of fixation, labeled nuclei overlap and create a clump of cells. However, it is important to quantify phenotypic read out on a cell-by-cell basis. In this paper, we propose a novel method for decomposing clumps of nuclei using high-level geometric constraints that are derived from low-level features of maximum curvature computed along the contour of each clump. Points of maximum curvature are used as vertices for Delaunay triangulation (DT), which provides a set of edge hypotheses for decomposing a clump of nuclei. Each hypothesis is subsequently tested against a constraint satisfaction network for a near optimum decomposition. The proposed method is compared with other traditional techniques such as the watershed method with/without markers. The experimental results show that our approach can overcome the deficiencies of the traditional methods and is very effective in separating severely touching nuclei.

  7. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. X. A COMPLETE SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS OBSERVED TOWARD 1.1 mm DUST CONTINUUM SOURCES WITH 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian; Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Ginsburg, Adam; Battersby, Cara; Stringfellow, Guy; Glenn, Jason; Bally, John; Rosolowsky, Erik; Gerner, Thomas; Mairs, Steven; Dunham, Miranda K.

    2013-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 mm continuum survey of dense clumps of dust throughout the Galaxy covering 170 deg 2 . We present spectroscopic observations using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope of the dense gas tracers, HCO + and N 2 H + 3-2, for all 6194 sources in the BGPS v1.0.1 catalog between 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°. This is the largest targeted spectroscopic survey of dense molecular gas in the Milky Way to date. We find unique velocities for 3126 (50.5%) of the BGPS v1.0.1 sources observed. Strong N 2 H + 3-2 emission (T mb > 0.5 K) without HCO + 3-2 emission does not occur in this catalog. We characterize the properties of the dense molecular gas emission toward the entire sample. HCO + is very sub-thermally populated and the 3-2 transitions are optically thick toward most BGPS clumps. The median observed line width is 3.3 km s –1 consistent with supersonic turbulence within BGPS clumps. We find strong correlations between dense molecular gas integrated intensities and 1.1 mm peak flux and the gas kinetic temperature derived from previously published NH 3 observations. These intensity correlations are driven by the sensitivity of the 3-2 transitions to excitation conditions rather than by variations in molecular column density or abundance. We identify a subset of 113 sources with stronger N 2 H + than HCO + integrated intensity, but we find no correlations between the N 2 H + /HCO + ratio and 1.1 mm continuum flux density, gas kinetic temperature, or line width. Self-absorbed profiles are rare (1.3%)

  8. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically ∼1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of ∼2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  9. A SURVEY OF MOLECULAR LINES TOWARD MASSIVE CLUMPS IN EARLY EVOLUTIONARY STAGES OF HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hirota, Tomoya

    2010-01-01

    We have observed the CH 3 OH J = 2-1, SiO J = 2-1, C 34 S J = 2-1, H 13 CO + J = 1-0, HN 13 C J = 1-0, CCH N = 1-0, OCS J = 8-7, and SO J N = 2 2 -1 1 lines toward 20 massive clumps, including Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) 8 μm dark sources (infrared dark clouds) and MSX 8 μm sources, by using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. We have found that the velocity widths of the CH 3 OH and C 34 S lines are broader than those of the H 13 CO + line in the MSX dark sources. On the other hand, they are comparable to the velocity width of the H 13 CO + line in the MSX sources. In addition, the [SiO]/[H 13 CO + ] abundance ratio is found to be enhanced in the MSX dark sources in comparison with the MSX sources. These results suggest that shocks caused by interaction between an outflow and an ambient dense gas would have substantial impact on the chemical composition of the MSX dark sources. The velocity widths of the CH 3 OH and C 34 S lines relative to that of the H 13 CO + line as well as the [SiO]/[H 13 CO + ] abundance ratio could be used as good tools for investigating evolutionary stages of massive clumps. On the basis of the results, we discuss the chemical and physical evolution of massive clumps.

  10. Photon Recollision Probability: a Useful Concept for Cross Scale Consistency Check between Leaf Area Index and Foliage Clumping Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisek, J.

    2017-12-01

    Clumping index (CI) is the measure of foliage aggregation relative to a random distribution of leaves in space. CI is an important factor for the correct quantification of true leaf area index (LAI). Global and regional scale CI maps have been generated from various multi-angle sensors based on an empirical relationship with the normalized difference between hotspot and darkspot (NDHD) index (Chen et al., 2005). Ryu et al. (2011) suggested that accurate calculation of radiative transfer in a canopy, important for controlling gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) (Baldocchi and Harley, 1995), should be possible by integrating CI with incoming solar irradiance and LAI from MODIS land and atmosphere products. It should be noted that MODIS LAI/FPAR product uses internal non-empirical, stochastic equations for parameterization of foliage clumping. This raises a question if integration of the MODIS LAI product with empirically-based CI maps does not introduce any inconsistencies. Here, the consistency is examined independently through the `recollision probability theory' or `p-theory' (Knyazikhin et al., 1998) along with raw LAI-2000/2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) data from > 30 sites, surveyed across a range of vegetation types. The theory predicts that the amount of radiation scattered by a canopy should depend only on the wavelength and the spectrally invariant canopy structural parameter p. The parameter p is linked to the foliage clumping (Stenberg et al., 2016). Results indicate that integration of the MODIS LAI product with empirically-based CI maps is feasible. Importantly, for the first time it is shown that it is possible to obtain p values for any location solely from Earth Observation data. This is very relevant for future applications of photon recollision probability concept for global and local monitoring of vegetation using Earth Observation data.

  11. COSMIC REIONIZATION ON COMPUTERS. III. THE CLUMPING FACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: kaurov@uchicago.edu, E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We use fully self-consistent numerical simulations of cosmic reionization, completed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, to explore how well the recombinations in the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM) can be quantified by the effective “clumping factor.” The density distribution in the simulations (and, presumably, in a real universe) is highly inhomogeneous and more-or-less smoothly varying in space. However, even in highly complex and dynamic environments, the concept of the IGM remains reasonably well-defined; the largest ambiguity comes from the unvirialized regions around galaxies that are over-ionized by the local enhancement in the radiation field (“proximity zones”). That ambiguity precludes computing the IGM clumping factor to better than about 20%. We also discuss a “local clumping factor,” defined over a particular spatial scale, and quantify its scatter on a given scale and its variation as a function of scale.

  12. Cosmic Reionization on Computers. III. The Clumping Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2015-09-01

    We use fully self-consistent numerical simulations of cosmic reionization, completed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, to explore how well the recombinations in the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM) can be quantified by the effective “clumping factor.” The density distribution in the simulations (and, presumably, in a real universe) is highly inhomogeneous and more-or-less smoothly varying in space. However, even in highly complex and dynamic environments, the concept of the IGM remains reasonably well-defined; the largest ambiguity comes from the unvirialized regions around galaxies that are over-ionized by the local enhancement in the radiation field (“proximity zones”). That ambiguity precludes computing the IGM clumping factor to better than about 20%. We also discuss a “local clumping factor,” defined over a particular spatial scale, and quantify its scatter on a given scale and its variation as a function of scale.

  13. TESTING THE GLOBAL STAR FORMATION RELATION: AN HCO+ (3-2) MAPPING STUDY OF RED MSX SOURCES IN THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenck, David E.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Reiter, Megan; Juneau, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and mass of dense gas in Galactic clumps and nearby galaxies. Using the bolometric luminosity as a measure of SFR and the molecular line luminosity of HCO + (3-2) as a measure of dense gas mass, we find that the relation between SFR and M dense is approximately linear. This is similar to published results derived using HCN (1-0) as a dense gas tracer. HCO + (3-2) and HCN (1-0) have similar conditions for excitation. Our work includes 16 Galactic clumps that are in both the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and the Red MSX Source Survey, 27 water maser sources from the literature, and the aforementioned HCN (1-0) data. Our results agree qualitatively with predictions of recent theoretical models which state that the nature of the relation should depend on how the critical density of the tracer compares with the mean density of the gas.

  14. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. X. A COMPLETE SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS OBSERVED TOWARD 1.1 mm DUST CONTINUUM SOURCES WITH 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Ginsburg, Adam; Battersby, Cara; Stringfellow, Guy; Glenn, Jason; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 4-181 CCIS Edmonton AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Gerner, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dunham, Miranda K. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 mm continuum survey of dense clumps of dust throughout the Galaxy covering 170 deg{sup 2}. We present spectroscopic observations using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope of the dense gas tracers, HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +} 3-2, for all 6194 sources in the BGPS v1.0.1 catalog between 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°. This is the largest targeted spectroscopic survey of dense molecular gas in the Milky Way to date. We find unique velocities for 3126 (50.5%) of the BGPS v1.0.1 sources observed. Strong N{sub 2}H{sup +} 3-2 emission (T {sub mb} > 0.5 K) without HCO{sup +} 3-2 emission does not occur in this catalog. We characterize the properties of the dense molecular gas emission toward the entire sample. HCO{sup +} is very sub-thermally populated and the 3-2 transitions are optically thick toward most BGPS clumps. The median observed line width is 3.3 km s{sup –1} consistent with supersonic turbulence within BGPS clumps. We find strong correlations between dense molecular gas integrated intensities and 1.1 mm peak flux and the gas kinetic temperature derived from previously published NH{sub 3} observations. These intensity correlations are driven by the sensitivity of the 3-2 transitions to excitation conditions rather than by variations in molecular column density or abundance. We identify a subset of 113 sources with stronger N{sub 2}H{sup +} than HCO{sup +} integrated intensity, but we find no correlations between the N{sub 2}H{sup +}/HCO{sup +} ratio and 1.1 mm continuum flux density, gas kinetic temperature, or line width. Self-absorbed profiles are rare (1.3%)

  15. MOLECULAR CLUMPS AND INFRARED CLUSTERS IN THE S247, S252, AND BFS52 REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Saito, Hiro; Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Nishimura, Atsushi; Kimura, Kimihiro; Onishi, Toshikazu; Ogawa, Hideo, E-mail: ikura@u-gakugei.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    We present results of the observations carried out toward the S247, S252, and BFS52 H II regions with various molecular lines using the 1.85 m radio telescope and the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. There are at least 11 young infrared clusters (IR clusters) within the observed region. We found that there are two velocity components in {sup 12}CO (J = 2-1), and also that their spatial distributions show an anti-correlation. The IR clusters are located at their interfaces, suggesting that two distinct clouds with different velocities are colliding with each other, which may have induced the cluster formation. Based on {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0) and C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) observations, we identified 16 clumps in and around the three H II regions. Eleven of the clumps are associated with the IR clusters and the other five clumps are not associated with any known young stellar objects. We investigated variations in the velocity dispersions of the 16 clumps as a function of the distance from the center of the clusters or the clumps. Clumps with clusters tend to have velocity dispersions that increase with distance from the cluster center, while clumps without clusters show a flat velocity dispersion over the clump extents. A {sup 12}CO outflow has been found in some of the clumps with IR clusters but not in the other clumps, supporting a strong relation of these clumps to the broader velocity dispersion region. We also estimated a mean star formation efficiency of {approx}30% for the clumps with IR clusters in the three H II regions.

  16. Spiral-arm instability: giant clump formation via fragmentation of a galactic spiral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-03-01

    Fragmentation of a spiral arm is thought to drive the formation of giant clumps in galaxies. Using linear perturbation analysis for self-gravitating spiral arms, we derive an instability parameter and define the conditions for clump formation. We extend our analysis to multicomponent systems that consist of gas and stars in an external potential. We then perform numerical simulations of isolated disc galaxies with isothermal gas, and compare the results with the prediction of our analytic model. Our model describes accurately the evolution of the spiral arms in our simulations, even when spiral arms dynamically interact with one another. We show that most of the giant clumps formed in the simulated disc galaxies satisfy the instability condition. The clump masses predicted by our model are in agreement with the simulation results, but the growth time-scale of unstable perturbations is overestimated by a factor of a few. We also apply our instability analysis to derive scaling relations of clump properties. The expected scaling relation between the clump size, velocity dispersion, and circular velocity is slightly different from that given by the Toomre instability analyses, but neither is inconsistent with currently available observations. We argue that the spiral-arm instability is a viable formation mechanism of giant clumps in gas-rich disc galaxies.

  17. Cosmic void clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lares, M.; Luparello, H. E.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Ruiz, A. N.; Ceccarelli, L.; Paz, D.

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are of great interest given their relation to the large scale distribution of mass and the way they trace cosmic flows shaping the cosmic web. Here we show that the distribution of voids has, in consonance with the distribution of mass, a characteristic scale at which void pairs are preferentially located. We identify clumps of voids with similar environments and use them to define second order underdensities. Also, we characterize its properties and analyze its impact on the cosmic microwave background.

  18. Star Formation Conditions in a Planck Galactic Cold Clump, G108.84–00.81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Tatematsu, Ken‧ichi; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” Collaboration; TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We present the results from a series of ground-based radio observations toward a Planck Galactic Cold Clump (PGCC), PGCC G108.84–00.81, which is located in one curved filamentary cloud in the vicinity of an extended H II region Sh2-152 and SNR G109.1-1.0. PGCC G108.84–00.81 is mainly composed of two clumps, “G108–N” and “G108–S”. In the 850 μm dust continuum emission map, G108–N is shown as one component while G108–S is fragmented into four components. There is no infrared source associated with G108–N, while there are two infrared sources (IRS 1 and IRS 2) associated with G108–S. The total mass of G108–N is larger than the Jeans mass, suggesting that G108–N is gravitationally unstable and a potential place for a future star formation. The clump properties of G108–N and G108–S such as the gas temperature and the column density, are not distinctly different. However, G108–S is slightly more evolved than G108–N, if considering the CO depletion factor, molecular abundances, and association with infrared sources. G108–S seems to be affected by the compression from Sh2-152, while G108–N is relatively protected from the external effect.

  19. Star Formation Conditions in a Planck Galactic Cold Clump, G108.84–00.81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Liu, Sheng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We present the results from a series of ground-based radio observations toward a Planck Galactic Cold Clump (PGCC), PGCC G108.84–00.81, which is located in one curved filamentary cloud in the vicinity of an extended H ii region Sh2-152 and SNR G109.1-1.0. PGCC G108.84–00.81 is mainly composed of two clumps, “G108–N” and “G108–S”. In the 850 μ m dust continuum emission map, G108–N is shown as one component while G108–S is fragmented into four components. There is no infrared source associated with G108–N, while there are two infrared sources (IRS 1 and IRS 2) associated with G108–S. The total mass of G108–N is larger than the Jeans mass, suggesting that G108–N is gravitationally unstable and a potential place for a future star formation. The clump properties of G108–N and G108–S such as the gas temperature and the column density, are not distinctly different. However, G108–S is slightly more evolved than G108–N, if considering the CO depletion factor, molecular abundances, and association with infrared sources. G108–S seems to be affected by the compression from Sh2-152, while G108–N is relatively protected from the external effect.

  20. Star Formation Conditions in a Planck Galactic Cold Clump, G108.84–00.81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871, Beijing (China); Tatematsu, Ken' ichi [Department of Astronomical Science, SOKENDAI - The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Liu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Collaboration: JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” Collaboration, and TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We present the results from a series of ground-based radio observations toward a Planck Galactic Cold Clump (PGCC), PGCC G108.84–00.81, which is located in one curved filamentary cloud in the vicinity of an extended H ii region Sh2-152 and SNR G109.1-1.0. PGCC G108.84–00.81 is mainly composed of two clumps, “G108–N” and “G108–S”. In the 850 μ m dust continuum emission map, G108–N is shown as one component while G108–S is fragmented into four components. There is no infrared source associated with G108–N, while there are two infrared sources (IRS 1 and IRS 2) associated with G108–S. The total mass of G108–N is larger than the Jeans mass, suggesting that G108–N is gravitationally unstable and a potential place for a future star formation. The clump properties of G108–N and G108–S such as the gas temperature and the column density, are not distinctly different. However, G108–S is slightly more evolved than G108–N, if considering the CO depletion factor, molecular abundances, and association with infrared sources. G108–S seems to be affected by the compression from Sh2-152, while G108–N is relatively protected from the external effect.

  1. Reconstruction of in-plane strain maps using hybrid dense sensor network composed of sensing skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Ubertini, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The authors have recently developed a soft-elastomeric capacitive (SEC)-based thin film sensor for monitoring strain on mesosurfaces. Arranged in a network configuration, the sensing system is analogous to a biological skin, where local strain can be monitored over a global area. Under plane stress conditions, the sensor output contains the additive measurement of the two principal strain components over the monitored surface. In applications where the evaluation of strain maps is useful, in structural health monitoring for instance, such signal must be decomposed into linear strain components along orthogonal directions. Previous work has led to an algorithm that enabled such decomposition by leveraging a dense sensor network configuration with the addition of assumed boundary conditions. Here, we significantly improve the algorithm’s accuracy by leveraging mature off-the-shelf solutions to create a hybrid dense sensor network (HDSN) to improve on the boundary condition assumptions. The system’s boundary conditions are enforced using unidirectional RSGs and assumed virtual sensors. Results from an extensive experimental investigation demonstrate the good performance of the proposed algorithm and its robustness with respect to sensors’ layout. Overall, the proposed algorithm is seen to effectively leverage the advantages of a hybrid dense network for application of the thin film sensor to reconstruct surface strain fields over large surfaces. (paper)

  2. Dense range map reconstruction from a versatile robotic sensor system with an active trinocular vision and a passive binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Lee, Hyunkee; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2008-04-10

    One major research issue associated with 3D perception by robotic systems is the creation of efficient sensor systems that can generate dense range maps reliably. A visual sensor system for robotic applications is developed that is inherently equipped with two types of sensor, an active trinocular vision and a passive stereo vision. Unlike in conventional active vision systems that use a large number of images with variations of projected patterns for dense range map acquisition or from conventional passive vision systems that work well on specific environments with sufficient feature information, a cooperative bidirectional sensor fusion method for this visual sensor system enables us to acquire a reliable dense range map using active and passive information simultaneously. The fusion algorithms are composed of two parts, one in which the passive stereo vision helps active vision and the other in which the active trinocular vision helps the passive one. The first part matches the laser patterns in stereo laser images with the help of intensity images; the second part utilizes an information fusion technique using the dynamic programming method in which image regions between laser patterns are matched pixel-by-pixel with help of the fusion results obtained in the first part. To determine how the proposed sensor system and fusion algorithms can work in real applications, the sensor system is implemented on a robotic system, and the proposed algorithms are applied. A series of experimental tests is performed for a variety of configurations of robot and environments. The performance of the sensor system is discussed in detail.

  3. Formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Anaelle

    2009-01-01

    Stars form in molecular clouds, when they collapse and fragment to produce protostellar dense cores. These dense cores are then likely to contract under their own gravity, and form young protostars, that further evolve while accreting their circumstellar mass, until they reach the main sequence. The main goal of this thesis was to study the formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores. To do so, two main studies, described in this manuscript, were carried out. First, we studied the formation of protostellar cores by quantifying the impact of protostellar outflows on clustered star formation. We carried out a study of the protostellar outflows powered by the young stellar objects currently formed in the NGc 2264-C proto-cluster, and we show that protostellar outflows seem to play a crucial role as turbulence progenitors in clustered star forming regions, although they seem unlikely to significantly modify the global infall processes at work on clump scales. Second, we investigated the formation of multiple systems by core fragmentation, by using high - resolution observations that allow to probe the multiplicity of young protostars on small scales. Our results suggest that the multiplicity rate of protostars on small scales increase while they evolve, and thus favor dynamical scenarios for the formation of multiple systems. Moreover, our results favor magnetized scenarios of core collapse to explain the small-scale properties of protostars at the earliest stages. (author) [fr

  4. Red clump stars from the LAMOST data I: identification and distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Jun-Chen; Liu, Chao; Deng, Li-Cai; Yang, Ming; Wu, Yue; Cui, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of about 120 000 red clump candidates selected from the LAMOST DR2 catalog based on the empirical distribution model in the effective temperature vs. surface gravity plane. Although, in general, red clump stars are considered as standard candles, they do not exactly stay in a narrow range of absolute magnitude, but may have a range of more than one magnitude depending on their initial mass. Consequently, conventional oversimplified distance estimations with the assumption of a fixed luminosity may lead to systematic bias related to the initial mass or age, which can potentially affect the study of the evolution of the Galaxy with red clump stars. We therefore employ an isochrone-based method to estimate the absolute magnitude of red clump stars from their observed surface gravities, effective temperatures and metallicities. We verify that the estimation removes the systematics well and provides initial mass/age estimates that are independent of distance with accuracy better than 10%. (paper)

  5. Methane cycling. Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David T; Gruen, Danielle S; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Stewart, Lucy C; Holden, James F; Hristov, Alexander N; Pohlman, John W; Morrill, Penny L; Könneke, Martin; Delwiche, Kyle B; Reeves, Eoghan P; Sutcliffe, Chelsea N; Ritter, Daniel J; Seewald, Jeffrey S; McIntosh, Jennifer C; Hemond, Harold F; Kubo, Michael D; Cardace, Dawn; Hoehler, Tori M; Ono, Shuhei

    2015-04-24

    Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle, with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its multiply substituted "clumped" isotopologues (for example, (13)CH3D) has recently emerged as a proxy for determining methane-formation temperatures. However, the effect of biological processes on methane's clumped isotopologue signature is poorly constrained. We show that methanogenesis proceeding at relatively high rates in cattle, surface environments, and laboratory cultures exerts kinetic control on (13)CH3D abundances and results in anomalously elevated formation-temperature estimates. We demonstrate quantitatively that H2 availability accounts for this effect. Clumped methane thermometry can therefore provide constraints on the generation of methane in diverse settings, including continental serpentinization sites and ancient, deep groundwaters. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Physical Properties of UV-bright Clumps in Star-forming Galaxies at 0.5 ≤ z < 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yicheng; Rafelski, Marc; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Mandelker, Nir; Primack, Joel R.; CANDELS

    2018-06-01

    Studying giant star-forming clumps in distant galaxies is important to understand galaxy formation and evolution. At present, however, observers and theorists have not reached a consensus on whether the observed “clumps” in distant galaxies are the same phenomenon that is seen in simulations. As a step to establish a benchmark of direct comparisons between observations and theories, we publish a sample of clumps constructed to represent the commonly observed “clumps” in the literature. This sample contains 3193 clumps detected from the rest-frame images of 1270 galaxies at 0.5≤zframe color, stellar mass, star formation rate, age, and dust extinction) are measured by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) to synthetic stellar population models. We carefully test the procedures of measuring clump properties, especially the method of subtracting background fluxes from the diffuse component of galaxies. With our fiducial background subtraction, we find a radial clump U-V color variation, where clumps close to galactic centers are redder than those in outskirts. The slope of the color gradient (clump color as a function of their galactocentric distance scaled by the semimajor axis of galaxies) changes with redshift and stellar mass of the host galaxies: at a fixed stellar mass, the slope becomes steeper toward low redshift, and at a fixed redshift, it becomes slightly steeper with stellar mass. Based on our SED fitting, this observed color gradient can be explained by a combination of a negative age gradient, a negative E(B-V) gradient, and a positive specific star formation rate gradient of the clumps. We also find that the color gradients of clumps are steeper than those of intra-clump regions. Correspondingly, the radial gradients of the derived physical properties of clumps are different from those of the diffuse component or intra-clump regions.

  7. Does selection for gamete dispersal and capture lead to a sex difference in clump water-holding capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan D; Kollar, Leslie M; McLetchie, D Nicholas

    2016-08-01

    Differences in male and female reproductive function can lead to selection for sex-specific gamete dispersal and capture traits. These traits have been explored from shoot to whole plant levels in wind-pollinated species. While shoot traits have been explored in water-fertilized species, little is known about how whole plant morphology affects gamete dispersal and capture. We used the dioecious, water-fertilized plant Bryum argenteum to test for differences in clump morphology and water-holding characteristics consistent with divergent selection. We hypothesized that sex-specific clump morphology, arising at maturity, produces relatively low male water-holding capacity for gamete dispersal and high female capacity for gamete capture. We measured isolated young shoot and clump water-holding capacity and clump morphological characteristics on greenhouse-grown plants. Young shoot capacity was used to predict clump capacity, which was compared with actual clump capacity. Young male shoots held more water per unit length, and male clumps had higher shoot density, which extrapolated to higher clump water-holding capacity. However, female clumps held more water and were taller with more robust shoots. Actual clump capacity correlated positively with clump height and shoot cross-sectional area. The sex difference in actual clump capacity and its unpredictability from younger shoots are consistent with our hypothesis that males should hold less water than females to facilitate sexual reproduction. These results provide conceptual connections to other plant groups and implications for connecting divergent selection to female-biased sex ratios in B. argenteum and other bryophytes. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  8. CSO BOLOCAM 1.1 mm CONTINUUM MAPPING OF THE BRAID NEBULA STAR FORMATION REGION IN CYGNUS OB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, Colin; Beck, Tracy L.; Davis, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 1.1 mm map of the Braid Nebula star formation region in Cygnus OB7 taken using Bolocam on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Within the 1 deg 2 covered by the map, we have detected 55 cold dust clumps all of which are new detections. A number of these clumps are coincident with IRAS point sources although the majority are not. Some of the previously studied optical/near-IR sources are detected at 1.1 mm. We estimate total dust/gas masses for the 55 clumps together with peak visual extinctions. We conclude that over the whole region, approximately 20% of the clumps are associated with IRAS sources suggesting that these are protostellar objects. The remaining 80% are classed as starless clumps. In addition, both FU Orionis (FUor) like objects in the field, the Braid Star and HH 381 IRS, are associated with strong millimeter emission. This implies that FUor eruptions can occur at very early stages of pre-main-sequence life. Finally, we determine that the cumulative clump mass function for the region is very similar to that found in both the Perseus and ρ Ophiuchus star-forming regions.

  9. Young Stellar Variability of GM Cephei by Circumstellar Dust Clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Ping; Hu, Chia-Ling; Burkhonov, Otabek; Ehgamberdiev, Shuhrat; Liu, Jinzhong; Naito, Hiroyuki; Pakstiene, Erika; Qvam, Jan Kare Trandem; Rätz, Stefanie; Semkov, Evgeni

    2018-04-01

    UX Orionis stars are a sub-type of Herbig Ae/be or T Tauri stars exhibiting sporadic extinction of stellar light due to circumstellar dust obscuration. GM Cep is such an UX Orionis star in the young (∼ 4 Myr) open cluster Trumpler 37 at ∼ 900 pc, showing a prominent infrared access, H-alpha emission, and flare activity. Our multi-color photometric monitoring from 2009 to 2016 showed (i) sporadic brightening on a time scale of days due to young stellar accretion, (ii) cyclic, but not strictly periodical, occultation events, each lasting for a couple months, with a probable recurrence time of about two years, (iii) normal dust reddening as the star became redder when dimmer, (iv) the unusual "blueing" phenomena near the brightness minima, during which the star appeared bluer when dimmer, and (v) a noticeable polarization, from 3 to 9 percent in g', r', and i' -bands. The occultation events may be caused by dust clumps, signifying the density inhomogeneity in a young stellar disk from grain coagulation to planetesimal formation. The level of polarization was anti-correlated with the brightness in the bright state, when the dust clump backscattered stellar light. We discussed two potential hypotheses: orbiting dust clumps versus dust clumps along a spiral arm structure.

  10. Spontaneous hole-clump pair creation in weakly unstable plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Petviashvili, N.V.

    1997-03-01

    A numerical simulation of a kinetic instability near threshold shows how a hole and clump spontaneously appear in the particle distribution function. The hole and clump support a pair of Bernstein, Greene, Kruskal (BGK) nonlinear waves that last much longer than the inverse linear damping rate while they are upshifting and downshifting in frequency. The frequency shifting allows a balance between the power nonlinearly extracted from the resonant particles and the power dissipated into the background plasma. These waves eventually decay due to phase space gradient smoothing caused by collisionality

  11. A Massive Prestellar Clump Hosting No High-mass Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhueza, Patricio; Lu, Xing; Tatematsu, Ken’ichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Jackson, James M. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Zhang, Qizhou; Stephens, Ian W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guzmán, Andrés E. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Wang, Ke, E-mail: patricio.sanhueza@nao.ac.jp [European Southern Observatory (ESO) Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G028.23-00.19 hosts a massive (1500 M {sub ⊙}), cold (12 K), and 3.6–70 μ m IR dark clump (MM1) that has the potential to form high-mass stars. We observed this prestellar clump candidate with the Submillimeter Array (∼3.″5 resolution) and Jansky Very Large Array (∼2.″1 resolution) in order to characterize the early stages of high-mass star formation and to constrain theoretical models. Dust emission at 1.3 mm wavelength reveals five cores with masses ≤15 M {sub ⊙}. None of the cores currently have the mass reservoir to form a high-mass star in the prestellar phase. If the MM1 clump will ultimately form high-mass stars, its embedded cores must gather a significant amount of additional mass over time. No molecular outflows are detected in the CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) transitions, suggesting that the SMA cores are starless. By using the NH{sub 3} (1, 1) line, the velocity dispersion of the gas is determined to be transonic or mildly supersonic (Δ V {sub nt}/Δ V {sub th} ∼ 1.1–1.8). The cores are not highly supersonic as some theories of high-mass star formation predict. The embedded cores are four to seven times more massive than the clump thermal Jeans mass and the most massive core (SMA1) is nine times less massive than the clump turbulent Jeans mass. These values indicate that neither thermal pressure nor turbulent pressure dominates the fragmentation of MM1. The low virial parameters of the cores (0.1–0.5) suggest that they are not in virial equilibrium, unless strong magnetic fields of ∼1–2 mG are present. We discuss high-mass star formation scenarios in a context based on IRDC G028.23-00.19, a study case believed to represent the initial fragmentation of molecular clouds that will form high-mass stars.

  12. The effect of clumped population structure on the variability of spreading dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andrew J; House, Thomas; Keeling, Matt J; Ross, Joshua V

    2014-10-21

    Processes that spread through local contact, including outbreaks of infectious diseases, are inherently noisy, and are frequently observed to be far noisier than predicted by standard stochastic models that assume homogeneous mixing. One way to reproduce the observed levels of noise is to introduce significant individual-level heterogeneity with respect to infection processes, such that some individuals are expected to generate more secondary cases than others. Here we consider a population where individuals can be naturally aggregated into clumps (subpopulations) with stronger interaction within clumps than between them. This clumped structure induces significant increases in the noisiness of a spreading process, such as the transmission of infection, despite complete homogeneity at the individual level. Given the ubiquity of such clumped aggregations (such as homes, schools and workplaces for humans or farms for livestock) we suggest this as a plausible explanation for noisiness of many epidemic time series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microstructures (clumps) in turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.; Misguich, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A general analysis of binary correlations in a turbulent plasma leads to a functional relation relating correlations to the one-particle distribution function. Such a relation allows to understand the mechanism of generation of the microstructures or clumps introduced by Dupree. The expressions introduced by this author appear as a lowest approximation of the general equation. The features and interpretation of these microstructures are briefly discussed [fr

  14. Metabolic adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to oxygen stress by cell-to-cell clumping and flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber N; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Hurst, Gregory B; Alexandre, Gladys

    2015-12-01

    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clumps by cell-to-cell interactions. Clumping was suggested to represent a behavior protecting motile cells from transiently elevated levels of aeration. Using the proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains affected in the extent of their clumping abilities, we show that cell-to-cell clumping represents a metabolic scavenging strategy that likely prepares the cells for further metabolic stresses. Analysis of mutants affected in carbon or nitrogen metabolism confirmed this assumption. The metabolic changes experienced as clumping progresses prime cells for flocculation, a morphological and metabolic shift of cells triggered under elevated-aeration conditions and nitrogen limitation. The analysis of various mutants during clumping and flocculation characterized an ordered set of changes in cell envelope properties accompanying the metabolic changes. These data also identify clumping and early flocculation to be behaviors compatible with the expression of nitrogen fixation genes, despite the elevated-aeration conditions. Cell-to-cell clumping may thus license diazotrophy to microaerophilic A. brasilense cells under elevated oxygen conditions and prime them for long-term survival via flocculation if metabolic stress persists. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Empirical High-Temperature Calibration for the Carbonate Clumped Isotopes Paleothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, T.; John, C. M.; Jourdan, A.; Davis, S.; Crawshaw, J.

    2013-12-01

    The clumped isotope paleothermometer is being used in a wide range of applications related to carbonate mineral formation, focusing on temperature and fluid δ18O reconstruction. Whereas the range of typical Earth surface temperatures has been the focus of several studies based on laboratory experiments and biogenic carbonates of known growth temperatures, the clumped isotope-temperature relationship above 70 °C has not been assessed by direct precipitation of carbonates. We investigated the clumped isotope-temperature relationship by precipitating carbonates between 20 and 200°C in the laboratory. The setup consists of a pressurized vessel in which carbonate minerals are precipitated from the mixture of two solutions (CaCl2, NaHCO3). Both solutions are thermally and isotopically equilibrated before injection in the pressure vessel. Minerals precipitated in this setup generally consist of calcite. Samples were reacted with 105% orthophosphoric acid for 10 min at 90°C. The evolved CO2 was continuously collected and subsequently purified with a Porapak trap held at -35°C. Measurements were performed on a MAT 253 using the protocol of Huntington et al. (2009) and Dennis et al. (2011). Clumped isotope values from 20-90°C are consistent with carbonates that were precipitated from a CaCO3 super-saturated solution using the method of McCrea (1950). This demonstrates that the experimental setup does not induce any kinetic fractionation, and can be used for high-temperature carbonate precipitation. The new clumped isotope calibration at high temperature follows the theoretical calculations of Schauble et al. (2006) adjusted for phosphoric acid digestion at 90°C. We gratefully acknowledge funding from Qatar Petroleum, Shell and the Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  16. Detecting Stems in Dense and Homogeneous Forest Using Single-Scan TLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Xia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem characteristics of plants are of great importance to both ecology study and forest management. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS may provide an effective way to characterize the fine-scale structures of vegetation. However, clumping plants, dense foliage and thin structure could intensify the shadowing effect and pose a series of problems in identifying stems, distinguishing neighboring stems, and merging disconnected stem parts in point clouds. This paper presents a new method to automatically detect stems in dense and homogeneous forest using single-scan TLS data. Stem points are first identified with a two-scale classification method. Then a clustering approach is used to group the candidate stem points. Finally, a direction-growing algorithm based on a simple stem curve model is applied to merge stem points. Field experiments were carried out in two different bamboo plots with a stem density of about 7500 stems/ha. Overall accuracy of the stem detection is 88% and the quality of detected stems is mainly affected by the shadowing effect. Results indicate that the proposed method is feasible and effective in detection of bamboo stems using TLS data, and can be applied to other species of single-stem plants in dense forests.

  17. Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David T.; Gruen, Danielle S.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Stewart, Lucy C.; Holden, James F.; Hristov, Alexander N.; Pohlman, John W.; Morrill, Penny L.; Könneke, Martin; Delwiche, Kyle B.; Reeves, Eoghan P.; Sutcliffe, Chelsea N.; Ritter, Daniel J.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hemond, Harold F.; Kubo, Michael D.; Cardace, Dawn; Hoehler, Tori M.; Ono, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its multiply-substituted “clumped” isotopologues, e.g., 13CH3D, has recently emerged as a proxy for determining methane-formation temperatures; however, the impact of biological processes on methane’s clumped isotopologue signature is poorly constrained. We show that methanogenesis proceeding at relatively high rates in cattle, surface environments, and laboratory cultures exerts kinetic control on 13CH3D abundances and results in anomalously elevated formation temperature estimates. We demonstrate quantitatively that H2 availability accounts for this effect. Clumped methane thermometry can therefore provide constraints on the generation of methane in diverse settings, including continental serpentinization sites and ancient, deep groundwaters.

  18. Charge neutralization of small ion beam clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, D R [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olson, C L; Hanson, D L [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The mega-ampere currents associated with light ion fusion (LIF) require excellent charge neutralization to prevent divergence growth. As the size and space-charge potential of a beam clump or `beamlet` become small (submillimeter size and kilovolt potentials), the neutralization becomes increasingly difficult. Linear theory predicts that plasma electrons cannot neutralize potentials < {phi}{sub crit} = (1/2)m{sub e}v{sub i}{sup 2}/e, where m{sub e} is the electron mass and v{sub i} is the ion beam velocity. A non-uniform beam would, therefore, have regions with potentials sufficient to add divergence to beam clumps. The neutralization of small beamlets produced on the SABLE accelerator and in numerical simulation has supported the theory, showing a plateau in divergence growths as the potential in the beamlet exceeds {phi}{sub crit}. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  19. The Azospirillum brasilense Che1 chemotaxis pathway controls swimming velocity, which affects transient cell-to-cell clumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber; Russell, Matthew H; Alexandre, Gladys

    2012-07-01

    The Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway of Azospirillum brasilense contributes to chemotaxis and aerotaxis, and it has also been found to contribute to regulating changes in cell surface adhesive properties that affect the propensity of cells to clump and to flocculate. The exact contribution of Che1 to the control of chemotaxis and flocculation in A. brasilense remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Che1 affects reversible cell-to-cell clumping, a cellular behavior in which motile cells transiently interact by adhering to one another at their nonflagellated poles before swimming apart. Clumping precedes and is required for flocculation, and both processes appear to be independently regulated. The phenotypes of a ΔaerC receptor mutant and of mutant strains lacking cheA1, cheY1, cheB1, or cheR1 (alone or in combination) or with che1 deleted show that Che1 directly mediates changes in the flagellar swimming velocity and that this behavior directly modulates the transient nature of clumping. Our results also suggest that an additional receptor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are implicated in mediating other Che1-independent changes in clumping identified in the present study. Transient clumping precedes the transition to stable clump formation, which involves the production of specific extracellular polysaccharides (EPS); however, production of these clumping-specific EPS is not directly controlled by Che1 activity. Che1-dependent clumping may antagonize motility and prevent chemotaxis, thereby maintaining cells in a metabolically favorable niche.

  20. Relationship between spectral reflectance and leaf area index in needleleaf forest: The effect of three-dimensional forest structure and clumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Toward the reliable estimation of leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR), the relationship between LAI/FAPAR and bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) at the top of canopy should be accurately modeled by the radiation transfer models. These relationships vary with the forest landscape due to its horizontal heterogeneity and needles clumping within shoot. In this study, the effect of the forest heterogeneity on the relationships between BRF and LAI, and NDVI and LAI/FAPAR were examined through the three-dimensional radiative transfer simulation, and were compared with the results from one-dimensional radiative transfer simulation. In addition to the simulation, limitation of one-dimensional radiative transfer simulation was evaluated. The results showed that BRF at red and near infrared, and NDVI had large variations with different forest landscape under the same LAI conditions. However the relationship between NDVI and LAI, and NDVI and FAPAR derived from dense canopy condition were quite similar to the results from one-dimensional model. If we add the shoot clumping effect in one dimensional radiative transfer model as a universal parameter for three-dimensional effect of the forest, one dimensional radiative transfer model can work well for the BRF simulation in spatially heterogeneous landscape except higher LAI conditions

  1. Clumping of labeled leukocyte suspension. A simple measure for avoiding it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedemans, W.T.; Hardeman, M.R.; State Univ., Amsterdam

    1988-01-01

    Leukocytes in mixed suspensions can clump together, resulting in cell clusters which are responsible for false positive hot spots in lungs of patients, in the case of abscess localization studies using 111 In labeled leukocytes. Addition of extra ACD (acid-citrate-dextrose) in those labeled leukocyte suspensions prevented cell clumping and avoided occurrence of focal radioactivity accumulation in lungs. The acidification did not interfere in leukocyte migration under agar. (author)

  2. Influence of water on clumped-isotope bond reordering kinetics in calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Dana C.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Stolper, Daniel A.

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen self-diffusion in calcite and many other minerals is considerably faster under wet conditions relative to dry conditions. Here we investigate whether this "water effect" also holds true for solid-state isotope exchange reactions that alter the abundance of carbonate groups with multiple rare isotopes ('clumped' isotope groups) via the process of solid-state bond reordering. We present clumped-isotope reordering rates for optical calcite heated under wet, high-pressure (100 MPa) conditions. We observe only modest increases in reordering rates under such conditions compared with rates for the same material reacted in dry CO2 under low-pressure conditions. Activation energies under wet, high-pressure conditions are indistinguishable from those for dry, low-pressure conditions, while rate constants are resolvably higher (up to ∼3 times) for wet, high-pressure relative to dry, low-pressure conditions in most of our interpretations of experimental results. This contrasts with the water effect for oxygen self-diffusion in calcite, which is associated with lower activation energies, and diffusion coefficients that are ≥103 times higher compared with dry (pure CO2) conditions in the temperature range of this study (385-450 °C). The water effect for clumped-isotopes leads to calculated apparent equilibrium temperatures ("blocking temperatures") for typical geological cooling rates that are only a few degrees higher than those for dry conditions, while O self-diffusion blocking temperatures in calcite grains are ∼150-200 °C lower in wet conditions compared with dry conditions. Since clumped-isotope reordering is a distributed process that occurs throughout the mineral volume, our clumped-isotope results support the suggestion of Labotka et al. (2011) that the water effect in calcite does not involve major changes in bulk (volume) diffusivity, but rather is primarily a surface phenomenon that facilitates oxygen exchange between the calcite surface and external

  3. CHALLENGES IN FORMING PLANETS BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY: DISK IRRADIATION AND CLUMP MIGRATION, ACCRETION, AND TIDAL DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Hartmann, Lee; Nelson, Richard P.; Gammie, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating protostellar disks subject to axisymmetric, continuing mass loading from an infalling envelope and irradiation from the central star to explore the growth of gravitational instability (GI) and disk fragmentation. We assume that the disk is built gradually and smoothly by the infall, resulting in good numerical convergence. We confirm that for disks around solar-mass stars, infall at high rates at radii beyond ∼50 AU leads to disk fragmentation. At lower infall rates, however, irradiation suppresses fragmentation. We find that, once formed, the fragments or clumps migrate inward on typical type I timescales of ∼2 × 10 3 yr initially, but with a stochastic component superimposed due to their interaction with the GI-induced spiral arms. Migration begins to deviate from the type I timescale when the clump becomes more massive than the local disk mass, and/or when the clump begins to form a gap in the disk. As they migrate, clumps accrete from the disk at a rate between 10 –3 and 10 –1 M J yr –1 , consistent with analytic estimates that assume a 1-2 Hill radii cross section. The eventual fates of these clumps, however, diverge depending on the migration speed: 3 out of 13 clumps in our simulations become massive enough (brown dwarf mass range) to open gaps in the disk and essentially stop migrating; 4 out of 13 are tidally destroyed during inward migration; and 6 out of 13 migrate across the inner boundary of the simulated disks. A simple analytic model for clump evolution explains the different fates of the clumps and reveals some limitations of two-dimensional simulations. Overall, our results indicate that fast migration, accretion, and tidal destruction of the clumps pose challenges to the scenario of giant planet formation by GI in situ, although we cannot address whether or not remnant solid cores can survive after tidal stripping. The models where the massive clumps are not

  4. INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PROCESSING IN THE INNER 20 pc IN GALACTIC CENTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Sun, Ai-Lei; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Minh, Young Chol

    2013-01-01

    We present the Submillimeter Array 157 pointing mosaic in 0.86 mm dust continuum emission with 5.''1 × 4.''2 angular resolution, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Green Bank 100 m Telescope (GBT) observations of the CS/C 34 S/ 13 CS 1-0 and SiO 1-0 emission with ≤20'' × 18'' angular resolution. The dust continuum image marginally resolves at least several tens of 10-10 2 M ☉ dense clumps in the 5' field including the circumnuclear disk (CND) and the exterior gas streamers. There is very good agreement between the high resolution dust continuum map of the CND and all previous molecular line observations. As the dust emission is the most reliable optically thin tracer of the mass, free from most chemical and excitation effects, we demonstrate the reality of the abundant localized structures within the CND, and their connection to external gas structures. From the spectral line data, the velocity dispersions of the dense clumps and their parent molecular clouds are ∼10-20 times higher than their virial velocity dispersions. This supports the idea that the CND and its immediate environment may not be stationary or stable structures. Some of the dense gas clumps are associated with 22 GHz water masers and 36.2 GHz and 44.1 GHz CH 3 OH masers. However, we do not find clumps that are bound by the gravity of the enclosed molecular gas. Hence, the CH 3 OH or H 2 O maser emission may be due to strong (proto)stellar feedback, which may be dispersing some of the gas clumps.

  5. The nature of giant clumps in distant galaxies probed by the anatomy of the cosmic snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Antonio; Schaerer, Daniel; Richard, Johan; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Mayer, Lucio; Tamburello, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    Giant stellar clumps are ubiquitous in high-redshift galaxies1,2. They are thought to play an important role in the build-up of galactic bulges3 and as diagnostics of star formation feedback in galactic discs4. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) blank field imaging surveys have estimated that these clumps have masses of up to 109.5 M⊙ and linear sizes of ≳1 kpc5,6. Recently, gravitational lensing has also been used to get higher spatial resolution7-9. However, both recent lensed observations10,11 and models12,13 suggest that the clumps' properties may be overestimated by the limited resolution of standard imaging techniques. A definitive proof of this observational bias is nevertheless still missing. Here we investigate directly the effect of resolution on clump properties by analysing multiple gravitationally lensed images of the same galaxy at different spatial resolutions, down to 30 pc. We show that the typical mass and size of giant clumps, generally observed at 1 kpc resolution in high-redshift galaxies, are systematically overestimated. The high spatial resolution data, only enabled by strong gravitational lensing using currently available facilities, support smaller scales of clump formation by fragmentation of the galactic gas disk via gravitational instabilities.

  6. LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD DISTANCE AND STRUCTURE FROM NEAR-INFRARED RED CLUMP OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerwer, Joel F.

    2009-01-01

    We have applied the Infrared Survey Facility Magellanic Clouds Point-Source Catalog to the mapping of the red clump (RC) distance modulus across the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using the J- (1.25 μm) and H- (1.63 μm) band data to derive a reddening free luminosity function and a theoretical RC absolute magnitude from stellar evolution libraries, we estimate a distance modulus to the LMC of μ = 18.54 ± 0.06. The best fitting plane inclination, i, and the position angle of the line of nodes, φ, have little dependence on the assumed RC absolute magnitude; we find i = 23. 0 5 ± 0. 0 4 and φ = 154. 0 6 ± 1. 0 2. It was also noted that many fields included a significant asymptotic giant branch bump population that must be accounted for.

  7. Large Magellanic Cloud Distance and Structure from Near-Infrared Red Clump Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerwer, Joel F.

    2009-07-01

    We have applied the Infrared Survey Facility Magellanic Clouds Point-Source Catalog to the mapping of the red clump (RC) distance modulus across the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using the J- (1.25 μm) and H- (1.63 μm) band data to derive a reddening free luminosity function and a theoretical RC absolute magnitude from stellar evolution libraries, we estimate a distance modulus to the LMC of μ = 18.54 ± 0.06. The best fitting plane inclination, i, and the position angle of the line of nodes, phi, have little dependence on the assumed RC absolute magnitude; we find i = 23fdg5 ± 0fdg4 and phi = 154fdg6 ± 1fdg2. It was also noted that many fields included a significant asymptotic giant branch bump population that must be accounted for.

  8. Clumped isotope effects during OH and Cl oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehill, Andrew R.; Joelsson, Lars Magnus T.; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to determine the clumped (13CH3D) methane kinetic isotope effects during oxidation of methane by OH and Cl radicals, the major sink reactions for atmospheric methane. Experiments were performed in a 100 L quartz photochemical reactor, in which OH was produ......A series of experiments were carried out to determine the clumped (13CH3D) methane kinetic isotope effects during oxidation of methane by OH and Cl radicals, the major sink reactions for atmospheric methane. Experiments were performed in a 100 L quartz photochemical reactor, in which OH...... effects for singly substituted species were consistent with previous experimental studies. For doubly substituted methane, 13CH3D, the observed kinetic isotope effects closely follow the product of the kinetic isotope effects for the 13C and deuterium substituted species (i.e., 13,2KIE = 13KIE × 2KIE...... reactions. In a closed system, however, this effect is overtaken by the large D/H isotope effect, which causes the residual methane to become anti-clumped relative to the initial methane. Based on these results, we demonstrate that oxidation of methane by OH, the predominant oxidant for tropospheric methane...

  9. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  10. Swimming motility plays a key role in the stochastic dynamics of cell clumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xianghong; Nellas, Ricky B; Byrn, Matthew W; Russell, Matthew H; Bible, Amber N; Alexandre, Gladys; Shen, Tongye

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic cell-to-cell interactions are a prerequisite to many biological processes, including development and biofilm formation. Flagellum induced motility has been shown to modulate the initial cell–cell or cell–surface interaction and to contribute to the emergence of macroscopic patterns. While the role of swimming motility in surface colonization has been analyzed in some detail, a quantitative physical analysis of transient interactions between motile cells is lacking. We examined the Brownian dynamics of swimming cells in a crowded environment using a model of motorized adhesive tandem particles. Focusing on the motility and geometry of an exemplary motile bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, which is capable of transient cell–cell association (clumping), we constructed a physical model with proper parameters for the computer simulation of the clumping dynamics. By modulating mechanical interaction (‘stickiness’) between cells and swimming speed, we investigated how equilibrium and active features affect the clumping dynamics. We found that the modulation of active motion is required for the initial aggregation of cells to occur at a realistic time scale. Slowing down the rotation of flagellar motors (and thus swimming speeds) is correlated to the degree of clumping, which is consistent with the experimental results obtained for A. brasilense. (paper)

  11. Swimming motility plays a key role in the stochastic dynamics of cell clumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xianghong; Nellas, Ricky B.; Byrn, Matthew W.; Russell, Matthew H.; Bible, Amber N.; Alexandre, Gladys; Shen, Tongye

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic cell-to-cell interactions are a prerequisite to many biological processes, including development and biofilm formation. Flagellum induced motility has been shown to modulate the initial cell-cell or cell-surface interaction and to contribute to the emergence of macroscopic patterns. While the role of swimming motility in surface colonization has been analyzed in some detail, a quantitative physical analysis of transient interactions between motile cells is lacking. We examined the Brownian dynamics of swimming cells in a crowded environment using a model of motorized adhesive tandem particles. Focusing on the motility and geometry of an exemplary motile bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, which is capable of transient cell-cell association (clumping), we constructed a physical model with proper parameters for the computer simulation of the clumping dynamics. By modulating mechanical interaction (‘stickiness’) between cells and swimming speed, we investigated how equilibrium and active features affect the clumping dynamics. We found that the modulation of active motion is required for the initial aggregation of cells to occur at a realistic time scale. Slowing down the rotation of flagellar motors (and thus swimming speeds) is correlated to the degree of clumping, which is consistent with the experimental results obtained for A. brasilense.

  12. Planck 2015 results: XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic cold clumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (E...

  13. KINETIC TEMPERATURES OF THE DENSE GAS CLUMPS IN THE ORION KL MOLECULAR CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.-S.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Liu, S.-Y.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    High angular-resolution images of the J = 18 K -17 K emission of CH 3 CN in the Orion KL molecular core were observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Our high-resolution observations clearly reveal that CH 3 CN emission originates mainly from the Orion Hot Core and the Compact Ridge, both within ∼15'' of the warm and dense part of Orion KL. The clumpy nature of the molecular gas in Orion KL can also be readily seen from our high-resolution SMA images. In addition, a semi-open cavity-like kinematic structure is evident at the location between the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. We performed excitation analysis with the 'population diagram' method toward the Hot Core, IRc7, and the northern part of the Compact Ridge. Our results disclose a non-uniform temperature structure on small scales in Orion KL, with a range of temperatures from 190-620 K in the Hot Core. Near the Compact Ridge, the temperatures are found to be 170-280 K. Comparable CH 3 CN fractional abundances of 10 -8 to 10 -7 are found around both in the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. Such high abundances require that a hot gas phase chemistry, probably involving ammonia released from grain mantles, plays an important role in forming these CH 3 CN molecules.

  14. The Isotopologue Record of Repeat Vital Effect Offenders: Tracking (Dis)equilibrium Effects in Sea Urchins and Nannofossil Using Clumped Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, C. M.; Davies, A.; Drury, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vital effects vary between species and affect various isotopic systems in unequal proportion. The magnitude of the response of different isotopic systems might thus be key in understanding biologically-mediated disequilibrium, especially in groups that show a tendency to be "repeat offenders" with regards to vital effects. Here we present carbon, oxygen, and clumped isotope data from echinoderm calcite and nannofossil ooze, both of which exhibit strong vital effects in bulk isotopes. Our study is the first to investigate the clumped isotope (dis)equilibrium of echinoids. Results from two echinoids, three marine gastropods and a bivalve mollusk from modern beach deposits of Bali, Indonesia, highlight a significant offset in clumped isotopes of a regular echinoid test from expected values, interpreted as evidence of a similar "vital effect" as observed in surface corals. This is in contrast to the test of an irregular "sand dollar" echinoid, with clumped isotope values within error of expected sea surface temperature. Furthermore, data on the inter-skeletal variability in the clumped isotopic composition of two regular echinoid species shows that the spines of the echinoids are in equilibrium with seawater with respect to clumped isotopes, but the test is not. For the nannofossil material, no clumped isotope vital effects are observed, consistent with previously published studies but at odds with strong vital effects in carbon and oxygen isotopes, often correlated with cell-size. In addition, we reveal that the <63 micron fraction of deep-sea ooze could constitute useful material for clumped isotope studies. An intriguing result of our study is that vital effects are mostly absent in clumped isotopes, even in phylums known for important isotopic effects. It remains to be explained why some parts of the echinoids show clear vital effects, notably enrichment in clumped isotopes of urchin tests. Mechanisms that could explain this include pH effects during calcification

  15. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournaud, Frédéric; Renaud, Florent; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Le Floch' , Emeric [CEA, IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Perret, Valentin; Amram, Philippe; Epinat, Benoit [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), F-13388 Marseille (France); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Teyssier, Romain [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (≤50 Myr), like the molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (≈300 Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7 pc resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of high-redshift disks including photoionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback. Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape the galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by tidal stripping, and the stellar populations contained in the clumps hence remain relatively young (≤200 Myr), as observed. The clumps survive gaseous outflows and stellar loss, because they are wandering in gas-rich turbulent disks from which they can reaccrete gas at high rates compensating for outflows and tidal stripping, overall keeping realistic and self-regulated gaseous and stellar masses. The outflow and accretion rates have specific timescales of a few 10{sup 8} yr, as opposed to rapid and repeated dispersion and reformation of clumps. Our simulations produce gaseous outflows with velocities, densities, and mass loading consistent with observations, and at the same time suggest that the giant clumps survive for hundreds of Myr and complete their migration to the center of high-redshift galaxies. These long-lived clumps are gas-dominated and contain a moderate mass fraction of stars; they drive inside-out disk evolution, thickening, spheroid growth, and fueling of the central

  16. Clumpy Galaxies in CANDELS. II. Physical Properties of UV-bright Clumps at 0.5 ≤ z < 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yicheng; Rafelski, Marc; Bell, Eric F.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, S. M.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Lu, Yu; Mandelker, Nir; Primack, Joel R.; Ceverino, Daniel; de Mello, Duilia F.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hathi, Nimish; Kocevski, Dale; Lucas, Ray A.; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Ravindranath, Swara; Soto, Emmaris; Straughn, Amber; Wang, Weichen

    2018-02-01

    Studying giant star-forming clumps in distant galaxies is important to understand galaxy formation and evolution. At present, however, observers and theorists have not reached a consensus on whether the observed “clumps” in distant galaxies are the same phenomenon that is seen in simulations. In this paper, as a step to establish a benchmark of direct comparisons between observations and theories, we publish a sample of clumps constructed to represent the commonly observed “clumps” in the literature. This sample contains 3193 clumps detected from 1270 galaxies at 0.5≤slant zframe UV images, as described in our previous paper. Their physical properties (e.g., rest-frame color, stellar mass ({M}* ), star formation rate (SFR), age, and dust extinction) are measured by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) to synthetic stellar population models. We carefully test the procedures of measuring clump properties, especially the method of subtracting background fluxes from the diffuse component of galaxies. With our fiducial background subtraction, we find a radial clump U ‑ V color variation, where clumps close to galactic centers are redder than those in outskirts. The slope of the color gradient (clump color as a function of their galactocentric distance scaled by the semimajor axis of galaxies) changes with redshift and {M}* of the host galaxies: at a fixed {M}* , the slope becomes steeper toward low redshift, and at a fixed redshift, it becomes slightly steeper with {M}* . Based on our SED fitting, this observed color gradient can be explained by a combination of a negative age gradient, a negative E(B ‑ V) gradient, and a positive specific SFR gradient of the clumps. We also find that the color gradients of clumps are steeper than those of intra-clump regions. Correspondingly, the radial gradients of the derived physical properties of clumps are different from those of the diffuse component or intra-clump regions.

  17. Periodic Spacing of Protocluster Clumps in a Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Finn, S.; Rathborne, J. M.; Simon, R.

    2010-05-01

    The ''Nessie'' nebula is an extremely filamentary infrared dark cloud, with an aspect ratio of over 300:1. HNC 1-0 observations with the Australia Telescope National Facility's Mopra Telescope demonstrate that Nessie is a single, coherent cloud with high densities (n > 105 cm-3). The filamentary cloud contains a number of protocluster clumps with a nearly regular, periodic spacing of 5 pc. Such clumps naturally arise from the ''varicose'' fluid instability of a self-gravitating fluid cylinder. Because of the ubiquitous association between massive clusters and filamentary molecular clouds (e.g., Orion, NGC 6334, etc.), we speculate that clusters naturally arise from filamentary infrared dark clouds via fluid instabilities.

  18. Planar simplification and texturing of dense point cloud maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.; Whelan, T.; Bondarau, Y.; With, de P.H.N.; McDonald, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dense RGB-D based SLAM techniques and highfidelity LIDAR scanners are examples from an abundant set of systems capable of providing multi-million point datasets. These large datasets quickly become difficult to process and work with due to the sheer volume of data, which typically contains

  19. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for

  20. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for

  1. Clumped-isotope geochemistry of carbonates: A new tool for the reconstruction of temperature and oxygen isotope composition of seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernasconi, Stefano M., E-mail: Stefano.bernasconi@erdw.ethz.ch [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmid, Thomas W.; Grauel, Anna-Lena [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mutterlose, Joerg [Institut fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Clumped-isotope thermometry of carbonates is discussed. > Clumped isotopes of Belemnites show higher sea surface temperatures than commonly assumed for the lower Cretaceous. > The potential of clumped-isotope measurement on foraminifera is discussed. - Abstract: Clumped-isotope geochemistry deals with State of ordering of rare isotopes in molecules, in particular with their tendency to form bonds with other rare isotopes rather than with the most abundant ones. Among its possible applications, carbonate clumped-isotope thermometry is the one that has gained most attention because of the wide potential of applications in many disciplines of the earth sciences. In particular, it allows reconstructing the temperature of formation of carbonate minerals without knowledge of the isotopic composition of the water from which they were formed. In addition, the O isotope composition of the waters from which they were formed can be calculated using the {delta}{sup 18}O of the same carbonate sample. This feature offers new approaches in paleoclimatology for reconstructing past global geochemical cycles. In this contribution two applications of this method are presented. First the potential of a new analytical method of measurement of clumped isotopes on small samples of foraminifera, for high-resolution SST and seawater {delta}{sup 18}O reconstructions from marine sediments is shown. Furthermore the potential of clumped isotope analysis of belemnites, for reconstructing seawater {delta}{sup 18}O and temperatures in the Cretaceous is shown.

  2. Calibration of the clumped isotope thermometer for planktic foraminifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinicke, N.; Ho, S. L.; Nürnberg, D.; Tripati, A. K.; Jansen, E.; Dokken, T.; Schiebel, R.; Meckler, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Many proxies for past ocean temperature suffer from secondary influences or require species-specific calibrations that might not be applicable on longer time scales. Being thermodynamically based and thus independent of seawater composition, clumped isotopes in carbonates (Δ47) have the potential to circumvent such issues affecting other proxies and provide reliable temperature reconstructions far back in time and in unknown settings. Although foraminifers are commonly used for paleoclimate reconstructions, their use for clumped isotope thermometry has been hindered so far by large sample-size requirements. Existing calibration studies suggest that data from a variety of foraminifer species agree with synthetic carbonate calibrations (Tripati, et al., GCA, 2010; Grauel, et al., GCA, 2013). However, these studies did not include a sufficient number of samples to fully assess the existence of species-specific effects, and data coverage was especially sparse in the low temperature range (analysis of smaller sample sizes (3-5 mg), hence also the measurement of multiple species from the same samples. We analyzed surface-dwelling ( 0-50 m) species and deep-dwelling (habitat depth up to several hundred meters) planktic foraminifers from the same sites to evaluate species-specific effects and to assess the feasibility of temperature reconstructions for different water depths. We also assess the effects of different techniques in estimating foraminifer calcification temperature on the calibration. Finally, we compare our calibration to existing clumped isotope calibrations. Our results confirm previous findings that indicate no species-specific effects on the Δ47-temperature relationship measured in planktic foraminifers.

  3. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS: RESULTS FROM THE MALT90 SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoq, Sadia; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Guzmán, Andrés [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Whitaker, J. Scott [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rathborne, Jill M. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW (Australia); Vasyunina, Tatiana; Vasyunin, Anton, E-mail: shoq@bu.edu, E-mail: jackson@bu.edu, E-mail: patricio@bu.edu, E-mail: claysmit@bu.edu, E-mail: jonathan.b.foster@yale.edu, E-mail: aguzmanf@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: scott@bu.edu, E-mail: rathborne@csiro.au, E-mail: tv3h@virginia.edu, E-mail: aiv3f@virginia.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    The chemical changes of high-mass star-forming regions provide a potential method for classifying their evolutionary stages and, ultimately, ages. In this study, we search for correlations between molecular abundances and the evolutionary stages of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. We use the molecular line maps from Year 1 of the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey. The survey mapped several hundred individual star-forming clumps chosen from the ATLASGAL survey to span the complete range of evolution, from prestellar to protostellar to H II regions. The evolutionary stage of each clump is classified using the Spitzer GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL mid-IR surveys. Where possible, we determine the dust temperatures and H{sub 2} column densities for each clump from Herschel/Hi-GAL continuum data. From MALT90 data, we measure the integrated intensities of the N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, HCN and HNC (1-0) lines, and derive the column densities and abundances of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +}. The Herschel dust temperatures increase as a function of the IR-based Spitzer evolutionary classification scheme, with the youngest clumps being the coldest, which gives confidence that this classification method provides a reliable way to assign evolutionary stages to clumps. Both N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +} abundances increase as a function of evolutionary stage, whereas the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1-0) to HCO{sup +} (1-0) integrated intensity ratios show no discernable trend. The HCN (1-0) to HNC(1-0) integrated intensity ratios show marginal evidence of an increase as the clumps evolve.

  4. On the formation and evolution of clumps of galaxies in an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C. A.; Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are derived for the development of phase-space clumps of mass points in a background spectrum of gravitational-potential fluctuations. The Vlasov equation and the pair correlation equation (in the weak coupling limit) are solved exactly in an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology, and the plasma-clumping theory is used to identify terms that yield important collective effects. Various astrophysical implications are discussed, including the formation of large-scale inhomogeneity and the enhanced generation of correlations in the distribution of galaxies.

  5. The Staphylococcus aureus Global Regulator MgrA Modulates Clumping and Virulence by Controlling Surface Protein Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi A Crosby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that causes devastating infections in a wide range of locations within the body. One of the defining characteristics of S. aureus is its ability to form clumps in the presence of soluble fibrinogen, which likely has a protective benefit and facilitates adhesion to host tissue. We have previously shown that the ArlRS two-component regulatory system controls clumping, in part by repressing production of the large surface protein Ebh. In this work we show that ArlRS does not directly regulate Ebh, but instead ArlRS activates expression of the global regulator MgrA. Strains lacking mgrA fail to clump in the presence of fibrinogen, and clumping can be restored to an arlRS mutant by overexpressing either arlRS or mgrA, indicating that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory pathway. We used RNA-seq to show that MgrA represses ebh, as well as seven cell wall-associated proteins (SraP, Spa, FnbB, SasG, SasC, FmtB, and SdrD. EMSA analysis showed that MgrA directly represses expression of ebh and sraP. Clumping can be restored to an mgrA mutant by deleting the genes for Ebh, SraP and SasG, suggesting that increased expression of these proteins blocks clumping by steric hindrance. We show that mgrA mutants are less virulent in a rabbit model of endocarditis, and virulence can be partially restored by deleting the genes for the surface proteins ebh, sraP, and sasG. While mgrA mutants are unable to clump, they are known to have enhanced biofilm capacity. We demonstrate that this increase in biofilm formation is partially due to up-regulation of SasG, a surface protein known to promote intercellular interactions. These results confirm that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory cascade, and that they control expression of a number of genes important for virulence, including those for eight large surface proteins.

  6. Parallel Access of Out-Of-Core Dense Extendible Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoo, Ekow J; Rotem, Doron

    2007-07-26

    Datasets used in scientific and engineering applications are often modeled as dense multi-dimensional arrays. For very large datasets, the corresponding array models are typically stored out-of-core as array files. The array elements are mapped onto linear consecutive locations that correspond to the linear ordering of the multi-dimensional indices. Two conventional mappings used are the row-major order and the column-major order of multi-dimensional arrays. Such conventional mappings of dense array files highly limit the performance of applications and the extendibility of the dataset. Firstly, an array file that is organized in say row-major order causes applications that subsequently access the data in column-major order, to have abysmal performance. Secondly, any subsequent expansion of the array file is limited to only one dimension. Expansions of such out-of-core conventional arrays along arbitrary dimensions, require storage reorganization that can be very expensive. Wepresent a solution for storing out-of-core dense extendible arrays that resolve the two limitations. The method uses a mapping function F*(), together with information maintained in axial vectors, to compute the linear address of an extendible array element when passed its k-dimensional index. We also give the inverse function, F-1*() for deriving the k-dimensional index when given the linear address. We show how the mapping function, in combination with MPI-IO and a parallel file system, allows for the growth of the extendible array without reorganization and no significant performance degradation of applications accessing elements in any desired order. We give methods for reading and writing sub-arrays into and out of parallel applications that run on a cluster of workstations. The axial-vectors are replicated and maintained in each node that accesses sub-array elements.

  7. Planck early results. XXIII. The first all-sky survey of Galactic cold clumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present the statistical properties of the Cold Clump Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO), the first all-sky catalogue of cold objects, in terms of their spatial distribution, dust temperature, distance, mass, and morphology. We have combined Planck and IRAS data to extract 10342 cold sources...... dark clouds where the latter have been catalogued. These cold clumps are not isolated but clustered in groups. Dust temperature and emissivity spectral index values are derived from their spectral energy distributions using both Planck and IRAS data. The temperatures range from 7K to 19K...

  8. Construction and comparative analyses of highly dense linkage maps of two sweet cherry intra-specific progenies of commercial cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Klagges

    Full Text Available Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between 'Black Tartarian' × 'Kordia' (BT×K and 'Regina' × 'Lapins'(R×L, high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F(1 plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1-LG8. These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of beta-Ga2O3 nanorod array clumps by chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wei, Xiaofeng

    2012-11-01

    beta-Ga2O3 nanorod array clumps were successfully synthesized on Si (111) substrates by chemical vapor deposition. The composition, microstructure, morphology, and light-emitting property of these clumps were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The results demonstrate that the sample synthesized at 1050 degrees C for 15 min was composed of monoclinic beta-Ga2O3 nanorod array clumps, where each single nanorod was about 300 nm in diameter with some nano-droplets on its tip. These results reveal that the growth mechanism agrees with the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the Ga2O3 nanorods have a blue emission at 438 nm, which may be attributed to defects, such as oxygen vacancies and gallium-oxygen vacancy pairs. Defect-energy aggregation confinement growth theory was proposed to explain the growth mechanism of Ga2O3 nanorod array clumps collaborated with the VLS mechanism.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATLASGAL massive clumps H2CO data (Tang+,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Wyrowski, F.; Giannetti, A.; Menten, K. M.; Csengeri, T.; Leurini, S.; Urquhart, J. S.; Koenig, C.; Guesten, R.; Lin, Y. X.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    We selected the 110 brightest clumps from the ATLASGAL survey (the TOP100 sample) obeying simple IR criteria to cover a range in evolutionary stages as described in Giannetti et al. (2014, Cat. J/A+A/570/A65, Paper I) and Koenig et al. (2017, Cat. J/A+A/599/A139, Paper III). These clumps consist almost entirely of clumps that have the potential to form, or are forming, massive stars. Our observations were carried out on 2013 July and December, 2014 September and November, and 2015 April, June, July, and October with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) 12m telescope located on Chajnantor (Chile). Five transitions of H2CO (J=3-2) were observed with the new MPIfR 1-mm receiver (PI230) with a beam size from 27.6" to 29.5" and integration times of 1 to 3 minutes. Five H2CO (J=4-3) transitions were observed with the FLASH receiver with a beam size ~21.4" and integration times of 2 to 4 minutes. (7 data files).

  11. DEEP HE ii AND C iv SPECTROSCOPY OF A GIANT LYα NEBULA: DENSE COMPACT GAS CLUMPS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z ∼ 2 QUASAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano, E-mail: arrigoni@mpia.de [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The recent discovery by Cantalupo et al. of the largest (∼500 kpc) luminous (L ≃ 1.43 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup −1}) Lyα nebula associated with the quasar UM287 (z = 2.279) poses a great challenge to our current understanding of the astrophysics of the halos hosting massive z ∼ 2 galaxies. Either an enormous reservoir of cool gas is required M ≃ 10{sup 12} M{sub ⊙}, exceeding the expected baryonic mass available, or one must invoke extreme gas clumping factors not present in high-resolution cosmological simulations. However, observations of Lyα emission alone cannot distinguish between these two scenarios. We have obtained the deepest ever spectroscopic integrations in the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 emission lines with the goal of detecting extended line emission, but detect neither line to a 3σ limiting SB ≃ 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2}. We construct simple models of the expected emission spectrum in the highly probable scenario that the nebula is powered by photoionization from the central hyper-luminous quasar. The non-detection of He ii implies that the nebular emission arises from a mass M{sub c} ≲ 6.4 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙} of cool gas on ∼200 kpc scales, distributed in a population of remarkably dense (n{sub H} ≳ 3 cm{sup −3}) and compact (R ≲ 20 pc) clouds, which would clearly be unresolved by current cosmological simulations. Given the large gas motions suggested by the Lyα line (v ≃ 500 km s{sup −1}), it is unclear how these clouds survive without being disrupted by hydrodynamic instabilities. Our work serves as a benchmark for future deep integrations with current and planned wide-field IFU spectrographs such as MUSE, KCWI, and KMOS. Our observations and models suggest that a ≃10 hr exposure would likely detect ∼10 rest-frame UV/optical emission lines, opening up the possibility of conducting detailed photoionization modeling to infer the physical state of gas in the circumgalactic

  12. DEEP HE ii AND C iv SPECTROSCOPY OF A GIANT LYα NEBULA: DENSE COMPACT GAS CLUMPS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z ∼ 2 QUASAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery by Cantalupo et al. of the largest (∼500 kpc) luminous (L ≃ 1.43 × 10 45 erg s −1 ) Lyα nebula associated with the quasar UM287 (z = 2.279) poses a great challenge to our current understanding of the astrophysics of the halos hosting massive z ∼ 2 galaxies. Either an enormous reservoir of cool gas is required M ≃ 10 12 M ⊙ , exceeding the expected baryonic mass available, or one must invoke extreme gas clumping factors not present in high-resolution cosmological simulations. However, observations of Lyα emission alone cannot distinguish between these two scenarios. We have obtained the deepest ever spectroscopic integrations in the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 emission lines with the goal of detecting extended line emission, but detect neither line to a 3σ limiting SB ≃ 10 −18 erg s −1 cm −2 arcsec −2 . We construct simple models of the expected emission spectrum in the highly probable scenario that the nebula is powered by photoionization from the central hyper-luminous quasar. The non-detection of He ii implies that the nebular emission arises from a mass M c ≲ 6.4 × 10 10 M ⊙ of cool gas on ∼200 kpc scales, distributed in a population of remarkably dense (n H ≳ 3 cm −3 ) and compact (R ≲ 20 pc) clouds, which would clearly be unresolved by current cosmological simulations. Given the large gas motions suggested by the Lyα line (v ≃ 500 km s −1 ), it is unclear how these clouds survive without being disrupted by hydrodynamic instabilities. Our work serves as a benchmark for future deep integrations with current and planned wide-field IFU spectrographs such as MUSE, KCWI, and KMOS. Our observations and models suggest that a ≃10 hr exposure would likely detect ∼10 rest-frame UV/optical emission lines, opening up the possibility of conducting detailed photoionization modeling to infer the physical state of gas in the circumgalactic medium

  13. On optical detection of densely labeled synapses in neuropil and mapping connectivity with combinatorially multiplexed fluorescent synaptic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Mishchenko

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for mapping neural connectivity optically, by utilizing Cre/Lox system Brainbow to tag synapses of different neurons with random mixtures of different fluorophores, such as GFP, YFP, etc., and then detecting patterns of fluorophores at different synapses using light microscopy (LM. Such patterns will immediately report the pre- and post-synaptic cells at each synaptic connection, without tracing neural projections from individual synapses to corresponding cell bodies. We simulate fluorescence from a population of densely labeled synapses in a block of hippocampal neuropil, completely reconstructed from electron microscopy data, and show that high-end LM is able to detect such patterns with over 95% accuracy. We conclude, therefore, that with the described approach neural connectivity in macroscopically large neural circuits can be mapped with great accuracy, in scalable manner, using fast optical tools, and straightforward image processing. Relying on an electron microscopy dataset, we also derive and explicitly enumerate the conditions that should be met to allow synaptic connectivity studies with high-resolution optical tools.

  14. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  15. Incremental and batch planar simplification of dense point cloud maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whelan, T.; Ma, L.; Bondarev, E.; With, de P.H.N.; McDonald, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dense RGB-D SLAM techniques and high-fidelity LIDAR scanners are examples from an abundant set of systems capable of providing multi-million point datasets. These datasets quickly become difficult to process due to the sheer volume of data, typically containing significant redundant information,

  16. THE HERSCHEL AND JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEYS: CONSTRAINING DUST PROPERTIES IN THE PERSEUS B1 CLUMP WITH PACS, SPIRE, AND SCUBA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Fallscheer, C.; Matthews, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Drabek, E.; Hatchell, J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Nutter, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Andre, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Koenyves, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arzoumanian, D. [IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Universite Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France); Benedettini, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernard, J.-P. [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Duarte-Cabral, A. [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Friesen, R. [Dunlap Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Greaves, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Survey teams; and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Herschel observations from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and SCUBA-2 science verification observations from the JCMT Gould Belt Survey of the B1 clump in the Perseus molecular cloud. We determined the dust emissivity index using four different techniques to combine the Herschel PACS+SPIRE data at 160-500 {mu}m with the SCUBA-2 data at 450 {mu}m and 850 {mu}m. Of our four techniques, we found that the most robust method was filtering out the large-scale emission in the Herschel bands to match the spatial scales recovered by the SCUBA-2 reduction pipeline. Using this method, we find {beta} Almost-Equal-To 2 toward the filament region and moderately dense material and lower {beta} values ({beta} {approx}> 1.6) toward the dense protostellar cores, possibly due to dust grain growth. We find that {beta} and temperature are more robust with the inclusion of the SCUBA-2 data, improving estimates from Herschel data alone by factors of {approx}2 for {beta} and by {approx}40% for temperature. Furthermore, we find core mass differences of {approx}< 30% compared to Herschel-only estimates with an adopted {beta} = 2, highlighting the necessity of long-wavelength submillimeter data for deriving accurate masses of prestellar and protostellar cores.

  17. Defining an absolute reference frame for 'clumped' isotope studies of CO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Kate J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Eiler, John M.

    2011-11-01

    We present a revised approach for standardizing and reporting analyses of multiply substituted isotopologues of CO 2 (i.e., 'clumped' isotopic species, especially the mass-47 isotopologues). Our approach standardizes such data to an absolute reference frame based on theoretical predictions of the abundances of multiply-substituted isotopologues in gaseous CO 2 at thermodynamic equilibrium. This reference frame is preferred over an inter-laboratory calibration of carbonates because it enables all laboratories measuring mass 47 CO 2 to use a common scale that is tied directly to theoretical predictions of clumping in CO 2, regardless of the laboratory's primary research field (carbonate thermometry or CO 2 biogeochemistry); it explicitly accounts for mass spectrometric artifacts rather than convolving (and potentially confusing) them with chemical fractionations associated with sample preparation; and it is based on a thermodynamic equilibrium that can be experimentally established in any suitably equipped laboratory using commonly available materials. By analyzing CO 2 gases that have been subjected to established laboratory procedures known to promote isotopic equilibrium (i.e., heated gases and water-equilibrated CO 2), and by reference to thermodynamic predictions of equilibrium isotopic distributions, it is possible to construct an empirical transfer function that is applicable to data with unknown clumped isotope signatures. This transfer function empirically accounts for the fragmentation and recombination reactions that occur in electron impact ionization sources and other mass spectrometric artifacts. We describe the protocol necessary to construct such a reference frame, the method for converting gases with unknown clumped isotope compositions to this reference frame, and suggest a protocol for ensuring that all reported isotopic compositions (e.g., Δ 47 values; Eiler and Schauble, 2004; Eiler, 2007) can be compared among different laboratories and

  18. Kinetic isotope effects in the OH and Cl reactions of the clumped methane species 13CH3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joelsson, Magnus

    . As is proven in the current research project, the clumped isotopes are removed by oxidation mechanisms at a slower rate. The residual methane pool is therefore enriched in clumped isotopes compared to the methane from the sources. In order to construct a top-down budget of methane, the clumped kinetic effect...... of the sinkmechanisms must be taken into account. The clumped kinetic effect in atmospheric oxidation of methane has been studied experimentally and theoretically in the three current papers: In Paper I the effect of oxidation by the chlorine radical at roomtemperature (25 ±C) was studied, in Paper II the effect...... of oxidation by the hydroxyl radical over a range of temperatures (5 ±C–40 ±C) was studied, and in Paper III the effect of both the chlorine and the hydroxyl radical at room temperature was studied. All the experiments were conducted in the smog chamber of the Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen...

  19. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Project Overview with Analysis of Dense Gas Structure and Kinematics in Barnard 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Lee, Katherine I.; Looney, Leslie W.; Teuben, Peter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor G.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao; Plunkett, Adele L.; Tobin, John J.; Kwon, Woojin; Isella, Andrea; Kauffmann, Jens; Tassis, Konstantinos; Crutcher, Richard M.; Gammie, Charles F.; Testi, Leonardo

    2014-10-01

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N2H+, HCO+, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s-1. We imaged ~150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N2H+ shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO+ and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N2H+ velocity dispersions ranging from ~0.05 to 0.50 km s-1 across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N2H+ position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  20. The dynamical state of the Serpens South filamentary infrared dark cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Awazu, Yuya; Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1805 (Japan); Sugitani, Koji [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan); Yoshida, Hiroshige [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Higuchi, Aya E., E-mail: fumitaka.nakamura@nao.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107 OFC 129, Vitacura (Chile)

    2013-11-20

    We present the results of N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1-0) observations toward Serpens South, the nearest cluster-forming, infrared dark cloud. The physical quantities are derived by fitting the hyperfine structure of N{sub 2}H{sup +}. The Herschel and 1.1 mm continuum maps show that a parsec-scale filament fragments into three clumps with radii of 0.1-0.2 pc and masses of 40-230 M {sub ☉}. We find that the clumps contain smaller-scale (∼0.04 pc) structures, i.e., dense cores. We identify 70 cores by applying CLUMPFIND to the N{sub 2}H{sup +} data cube. In the central cluster-forming clump, the excitation temperature and line-width tend to be large, presumably due to protostellar outflow feedback and stellar radiation. However, for all the clumps, the virial ratios are evaluated to be 0.1-0.3, indicating that the internal motions play only a minor role in the clump support. The clumps exhibit no free fall but exhibit low-velocity infall, and thus the clumps should be supported by additional forces. The most promising force is the globally ordered magnetic field observed toward this region. We propose that the Serpens South filament was close to magnetically critical and ambipolar diffusion triggered the cluster formation. We find that the northern clump, which shows no active star formation, has a mass and radius comparable to the central cluster-forming clump and is therefore a likely candidate of a pre-protocluster clump. The initial condition for cluster formation is likely to be a magnetically supported clump of cold, quiescent gas. This appears to contradict the accretion-driven turbulence scenario, for which the turbulence in the clumps is maintained by the accretion flow.

  1. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ASSEMBLY AND DYNAMICS OF GALAXIES. II. PROPERTIES OF KILOPARSEC-SCALE CLUMPS IN REST-FRAME OPTICAL EMISSION OF z ∼ 2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Davies, R.; Genel, S.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Shapley, A. E.; Bouche, N.; Cresci, G.; Erb, D. K.; Newman, S.; Shapiro, K. L.; Steidel, C. C.; Sternberg, A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of luminous stellar 'clumps' identified in deep, high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope NIC2/F160W imaging at 1.6 μm of six z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies with existing near-infrared integral field spectroscopy from SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope. Individual clumps contribute ∼0.5%-15% of the galaxy-integrated rest-frame ∼5000 A emission, with median of ∼2%; the total contribution of clump light ranges from 10% to 25%. The median intrinsic clump size and stellar mass are ∼1 kpc and ∼10 9 M sun , in the ranges for clumps identified in rest-UV or line emission in other studies. The clump sizes and masses in the subset of disks are broadly consistent with expectations for clump formation through gravitational instabilities in gas-rich, turbulent disks given the host galaxies' global properties. By combining the NIC2 data with Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)/F814W imaging available for one source, and adaptive-optics-assisted SINFONI Hα data for another, we infer modest color, M/L, and stellar age variations within each galaxy. In these two objects, sets of clumps identified at different wavelengths do not fully overlap; NIC2-identified clumps tend to be redder/older than ACS- or Hα-identified clumps without rest-frame optical counterparts. There is evidence for a systematic trend of older ages at smaller galactocentric radii among the clumps, consistent with scenarios where inward migration of clumps transports material toward the central regions. From constraints on a bulge-like component at radii ∼< 1-3 kpc, none of the five disks in our sample appears to contain a compact massive stellar core, and we do not discern a trend of bulge stellar mass fraction with stellar age of the galaxy. Further observations are necessary to probe the buildup of stellar bulges and the role of clumps in this process.

  2. Mapping the three-dimensional dust extinction towards the supernova remnant S147 - the S147 dust cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.-Q.; Liu, X.-W.; Ren, J.-J.; Yuan, H.-B.; Huang, Y.; Yu, B.; Xiang, M.-S.; Wang, C.; Tian, Z.-J.; Zhang, H.-W.

    2017-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) extinction analysis in the region towards the supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0-1.7) using multiband photometric data from the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (XSTPS-GAC), 2MASS and WISE. We isolate a previously unrecognized dust structure likely to be associated with SNR S147. The structure, which we term as 'S147 dust cloud', is estimated to have a distance d = 1.22 ± 0.21 kpc, consistent with the conjecture that S147 is associated with pulsar PSR J0538 + 2817. The cloud includes several dense clumps of relatively high extinction that locate on the radio shell of S147 and coincide spatially with the CO and gamma-ray emission features. We conclude that the usage of CO measurements to trace the SNR associated MCs is unavoidably limited by the detection threshold, dust depletion and the difficulty of distance estimates in the outer Galaxy. 3D dust extinction mapping may provide a better way to identify and study SNR-MC interactions.

  3. Structural transitions and hysteresis in clump- and stripe-forming systems under dynamic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Danielle; Reichhardt, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In using numerical simulations, we study the dynamical evolution of particles interacting via competing long-range repulsion and short-range attraction in two dimensions. The particles are compressed using a time-dependent quasi-one dimensional trough potential that controls the local density, causing the system to undergo a series of structural phase transitions from a low density clump lattice to stripes, voids, and a high density uniform state. The compression proceeds via slow elastic motion that is interrupted with avalanche-like bursts of activity as the system collapses to progressively higher densities via plastic rearrangements. The plastic events vary in magnitude from small rearrangements of particles, including the formation of quadrupole-like defects, to large-scale vorticity and structural phase transitions. In the dense uniform phase, the system compresses through row reduction transitions mediated by a disorder-order process. We also characterize the rearrangement events by measuring changes in the potential energy, the fraction of sixfold coordinated particles, the local density, and the velocity distribution. At high confinements, we find power law scaling of the velocity distribution during row reduction transitions. We observe hysteresis under a reversal of the compression when relatively few plastic rearrangements occur. The decompressing system exhibits distinct phase morphologies, and the phase transitions occur at lower compression forces as the system expands compared to when it is compressed.

  4. Efficient dense blur map estimation for automatic 2D-to-3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosters, L. P. J.; de Haan, G.

    2012-03-01

    Focus is an important depth cue for 2D-to-3D conversion of low depth-of-field images and video. However, focus can be only reliably estimated on edges. Therefore, Bea et al. [1] first proposed an optimization based approach to propagate focus to non-edge image portions, for single image focus editing. While their approach produces accurate dense blur maps, the computational complexity and memory requirements for solving the resulting sparse linear system with standard multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques, are infeasible within the stringent requirements of the consumer electronics and broadcast industry. In this paper we propose fast, efficient, low latency, line scanning based focus propagation, which mitigates the need for complex multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques. In addition we propose facial blur compensation to compensate for false shading edges that cause incorrect blur estimates in people's faces. In general shading leads to incorrect focus estimates, which may lead to unnatural 3D and visual discomfort. Since visual attention mostly tends to faces, our solution solves the most distracting errors. A subjective assessment by paired comparison on a set of challenging low-depth-of-field images shows that the proposed approach achieves equal 3D image quality as optimization based approaches, and that facial blur compensation results in a significant improvement.

  5. Mapping burned areas using dense time-series of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Takacs, Joshua; Schmidt, Gail L.; Falgout, Jeff T.; Williams, Brad; Brunner, Nicole M.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Picotte, Joshua J.; Howard, Stephen M.; Stitt, Susan; Dwyer, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Complete and accurate burned area data are needed to document patterns of fires, to quantify relationships between the patterns and drivers of fire occurrence, and to assess the impacts of fires on human and natural systems. Unfortunately, in many areas existing fire occurrence datasets are known to be incomplete. Consequently, the need to systematically collect burned area information has been recognized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which have both called for the production of essential climate variables (ECVs), including information about burned area. In this paper, we present an algorithm that identifies burned areas in dense time-series of Landsat data to produce the Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) products. The algorithm uses gradient boosted regression models to generate burn probability surfaces using band values and spectral indices from individual Landsat scenes, lagged reference conditions, and change metrics between the scene and reference predictors. Burn classifications are generated from the burn probability surfaces using pixel-level thresholding in combination with a region growing process. The algorithm can be applied anywhere Landsat and training data are available. For this study, BAECV products were generated for the conterminous United States from 1984 through 2015. These products consist of pixel-level burn probabilities for each Landsat scene, in addition to, annual composites including: the maximum burn probability and a burn classification. We compared the BAECV burn classification products to the existing Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED; 1997–2015) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS; 1984–2013) data. We found that the BAECV products mapped 36% more burned area than the GFED and 116% more burned area than MTBS. Differences between the BAECV products and the GFED were especially high in the West and East where the

  6. Improved Culture Medium (TiKa) for Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP) Matches qPCR Sensitivity and Reveals Significant Proportions of Non-viable MAP in Lymphoid Tissue of Vaccinated MAP Challenged Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Tim J.; Munshil, Tulika; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative detection of viable pathogen load is an important tool in determining the degree of infection in animals and contamination of foodstuffs. Current conventional culture methods are limited in their ability to determine these levels in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis......Ka culture equates well with qPCR and provides important evidence that accuracy in estimating viable MAP load using DNA tests alone may vary significantly between samples of mucosal and lymphatic origin....... (MAP) due to slow growth, clumping and low recoverability issues. The principle goal of this study was to evaluate a novel culturing process (TiKa) with unique ability to stimulate MAP growth from low sample loads and dilutions. We demonstrate it was able to stimulate a mean 29-fold increase...

  7. Connecting the small scale to the large scale: young massive stars and their environments from the Red MSX Source Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.; Morgan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength investigation of a variety of massive star forming regions in order to characterise the impact of the interactions between the substructure of the dense protostellar clumps and their local environment, including feedback from the embedded proto-cluster.A selection of 70 MYSOs and HII regions identified by the RMS survey have been followed up with observations of the ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the KFPA on the GBT. These maps have been combined with archival CO data to investigate the thermal and kinematic structure of the extended envelopes down to the dense clumps. We complement this larger-scale picture with high resolution near- and mid-infrared images to probe the properties of the embedded objects themselves.We present an overview of several sources from this sample that illustrate some of the the interactions that we observe. We find that high molecular column densities and kinetic temperatures are coincident with embedded sources and with shocks and outflows as exhibited in gas kinematics.

  8. HectoMAPping the Universe. Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2015-06-01

    During the last three decades progress in mapping the Universe from an age of 400 000 years to the present has been stunning. Instrument/telescope combinations have naturally determined the sampling of various redshift ranges. Here we outline the impact of the Hectospec on the MMT on exploration of the Universe in the redshift range 0.2 ⪉ z ⪉ 0.8. We focus on dense redshift surveys, SHELS and HectoMAP. SHELS is a complete magnitude limited survey covering 8 square degrees. The HectoMAP survey combines a red-selected dense redshift survey and a weak lensing map covering 50 square degrees. Combining the dense redshift survey with a Subaru HyperSuprimeCam (HSC) weak lensing map will provide a powerful probe of the way galaxies trace the distribution of dark matter on a wide range of physical scales.

  9. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanyong

    2014-01-01

    The holographic renormalization of a charged black brane with or without a dilaton field, whose dual field theory describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space

  10. M3: Matrix Multiplication on MapReduce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, Francesco; Ceccarello, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    M3 is an Hadoop library for performing dense and sparse matrix multiplication in MapReduce. The library is based on multi-round algorithms exploiting the 3D decomposition of the problem.......M3 is an Hadoop library for performing dense and sparse matrix multiplication in MapReduce. The library is based on multi-round algorithms exploiting the 3D decomposition of the problem....

  11. Evaluating Bayesian spatial methods for modelling species distributions with clumped and restricted occurrence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Redding

    Full Text Available Statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of taxa (Species Distribution Models, SDMs commonly rely on available occurrence data, which is often clumped and geographically restricted. Although available SDM methods address some of these factors, they could be more directly and accurately modelled using a spatially-explicit approach. Software to fit models with spatial autocorrelation parameters in SDMs are now widely available, but whether such approaches for inferring SDMs aid predictions compared to other methodologies is unknown. Here, within a simulated environment using 1000 generated species' ranges, we compared the performance of two commonly used non-spatial SDM methods (Maximum Entropy Modelling, MAXENT and boosted regression trees, BRT, to a spatial Bayesian SDM method (fitted using R-INLA, when the underlying data exhibit varying combinations of clumping and geographic restriction. Finally, we tested how any recommended methodological settings designed to account for spatially non-random patterns in the data impact inference. Spatial Bayesian SDM method was the most consistently accurate method, being in the top 2 most accurate methods in 7 out of 8 data sampling scenarios. Within high-coverage sample datasets, all methods performed fairly similarly. When sampling points were randomly spread, BRT had a 1-3% greater accuracy over the other methods and when samples were clumped, the spatial Bayesian SDM method had a 4%-8% better AUC score. Alternatively, when sampling points were restricted to a small section of the true range all methods were on average 10-12% less accurate, with greater variation among the methods. Model inference under the recommended settings to account for autocorrelation was not impacted by clumping or restriction of data, except for the complexity of the spatial regression term in the spatial Bayesian model. Methods, such as those made available by R-INLA, can be successfully used to account

  12. Evaluating Bayesian spatial methods for modelling species distributions with clumped and restricted occurrence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, David W; Lucas, Tim C D; Blackburn, Tim M; Jones, Kate E

    2017-01-01

    Statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of taxa (Species Distribution Models, SDMs) commonly rely on available occurrence data, which is often clumped and geographically restricted. Although available SDM methods address some of these factors, they could be more directly and accurately modelled using a spatially-explicit approach. Software to fit models with spatial autocorrelation parameters in SDMs are now widely available, but whether such approaches for inferring SDMs aid predictions compared to other methodologies is unknown. Here, within a simulated environment using 1000 generated species' ranges, we compared the performance of two commonly used non-spatial SDM methods (Maximum Entropy Modelling, MAXENT and boosted regression trees, BRT), to a spatial Bayesian SDM method (fitted using R-INLA), when the underlying data exhibit varying combinations of clumping and geographic restriction. Finally, we tested how any recommended methodological settings designed to account for spatially non-random patterns in the data impact inference. Spatial Bayesian SDM method was the most consistently accurate method, being in the top 2 most accurate methods in 7 out of 8 data sampling scenarios. Within high-coverage sample datasets, all methods performed fairly similarly. When sampling points were randomly spread, BRT had a 1-3% greater accuracy over the other methods and when samples were clumped, the spatial Bayesian SDM method had a 4%-8% better AUC score. Alternatively, when sampling points were restricted to a small section of the true range all methods were on average 10-12% less accurate, with greater variation among the methods. Model inference under the recommended settings to account for autocorrelation was not impacted by clumping or restriction of data, except for the complexity of the spatial regression term in the spatial Bayesian model. Methods, such as those made available by R-INLA, can be successfully used to account for spatial

  13. Modeling the effects of diagenesis on carbonate clumped-isotope values in deep- and shallow-water settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Daniel A.; Eiler, John M.; Higgins, John A.

    2018-04-01

    The measurement of multiply isotopically substituted ('clumped isotope') carbonate groups provides a way to reconstruct past mineral formation temperatures. However, dissolution-reprecipitation (i.e., recrystallization) reactions, which commonly occur during sedimentary burial, can alter a sample's clumped-isotope composition such that it partially or wholly reflects deeper burial temperatures. Here we derive a quantitative model of diagenesis to explore how diagenesis alters carbonate clumped-isotope values. We apply the model to a new dataset from deep-sea sediments taken from Ocean Drilling Project site 807 in the equatorial Pacific. This dataset is used to ground truth the model. We demonstrate that the use of the model with accompanying carbonate clumped-isotope and carbonate δ18O values provides new constraints on both the diagenetic history of deep-sea settings as well as past equatorial sea-surface temperatures. Specifically, the combination of the diagenetic model and data support previous work that indicates equatorial sea-surface temperatures were warmer in the Paleogene as compared to today. We then explore whether the model is applicable to shallow-water settings commonly preserved in the rock record. Using a previously published dataset from the Bahamas, we demonstrate that the model captures the main trends of the data as a function of burial depth and thus appears applicable to a range of depositional settings.

  14. Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC so...

  15. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  16. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S. [East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ward-Thompson, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-12-10

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  17. ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy. II. Characterisation of different evolutionary stages and their SiO emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, T.; Leurini, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Urquhart, J. S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, M.; Bontemps, S.; Wienen, M.; Beuther, H.; Motte, F.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Schilke, P.; Schuller, F.; Zavagno, A.; Sanna, C.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The processes leading to the birth of high-mass stars are poorly understood. The key first step to reveal their formation processes is characterising the clumps and cores from which they form. Aims: We define a representative sample of massive clumps in different evolutionary stages selected from the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL), from which we aim to establish a census of molecular tracers of their evolution. As a first step, we study the shock tracer, SiO, mainly associated with shocks from jets probing accretion processes. In low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs), outflow and jet activity decreases with time during the star formation processes. Recently, a similar scenario was suggested for massive clumps based on SiO observations. Here we analyse observations of the SiO (2-1) and (5-4) lines in a statistically significant sample to constrain the change of SiO abundance and the excitation conditions as a function of evolutionary stage of massive star-forming clumps. Methods: We performed an unbiased spectral line survey covering the 3-mm atmospheric window between 84-117 GHz with the IRAM 30 m telescope of a sample of 430 sources of the ATLASGAL survey, covering various evolutionary stages of massive clumps. A smaller sample of 128 clumps has been observed in the SiO (5-4) transition with the APEX telescope to complement the (2-1) line and probe the excitation conditions of the emitting gas. We derived detection rates to assess the star formation activity of the sample, and we estimated the column density and abundance using both an LTE approximation and non-LTE calculations for a smaller subsample, where both transitions have been observed. Results: We characterise the physical properties of the selected sources, which greatly supersedes the largest samples studied so far, and show that they are representative of different evolutionary stages. We report a high detection rate of >75% of the SiO (2-1) line and a >90% detection

  18. Uncountably many maximizing measures for a dense subset of continuous functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Mao

    2018-05-01

    Ergodic optimization aims to single out dynamically invariant Borel probability measures which maximize the integral of a given ‘performance’ function. For a continuous self-map of a compact metric space and a dense set of continuous functions, we show the existence of uncountably many ergodic maximizing measures. We also show that, for a topologically mixing subshift of finite type and a dense set of continuous functions there exist uncountably many ergodic maximizing measures with full support and positive entropy.

  19. Deep convolutional neural networks for dense non-uniform motion deblurring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cronje, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available to form a dense non-uniform motion estimation map. Furthermore, a second CNN is trained to perform deblurring given a blurry image patch and the estimated motion vector. Combining the two trained networks result in a deep learning approach that can enhance...

  20. Constraining the Thermal History of the Midcontinent Rift System with Clumped Isotopes and Organic Thermal Maturity Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T. M.; Sheldon, N. D.; Mauk, J. L.; Gueneli, N.; Brocks, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic (~1.1 Ga) North American Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) has been of widespread interest to researchers studying its economic mineral deposits, continental rifting processes, and the evolution of early terrestrial life and environments. For their age, the MRS rocks are well preserved and have not been deeply buried, yet a thorough understanding of the regional thermal history is necessary to constrain the processes that emplaced the mineral deposits and how post-burial alteration may have affected various paleo-records. To understand the thermal history of the MRS better, this study presents carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperatures from deposits on the north and south sides of the rift. Due to the age of these deposits and known post-depositional processes, uncertainties exist about whether the clumped isotope signature has been reset. To test this, three generations of calcite were analyzed from the Nonesuch Fm. from the White Pine mine in Michigan including: sedimentary limestone beds, early diagenetic carbonate nodules, and hydrothermal calcite veins associated with the emplacement of copper mineralization. Clumped isotope temperatures from the White Pine mine range from 84 to 131°C, with a hydrothermal vein producing the hottest temperature. The clumped isotope temperature range for samples throughout the rift expands to 41-134°C. The hottest temperatures are associated with areas of known copper mineralization, whereas the coolest temperatures are found on the northern arm of the rift in Minnesota, far from known basin-bounding faults. Our hottest temperatures are broadly consistent with preexisting maximum thermal temperature estimates based on clay mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and organic geochemistry data. Clumped isotope results will also be compared to new hydrocarbon maturity data from the Nonesuch Fm., which suggest that bitumen maturities consistently fall within the early oil window across Michigan and Wisconsin.

  1. Modelling the Galactic bar using OGLE-II red clump giant stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rattenbury, Nicholas J.; Mao, Shude; Sumi, Takahiro; Smith, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    Red clump giant (RCG) stars can be used as distance indicators to trace the mass distribution of the Galactic bar. We use RCG stars from 44 bulge fields from the OGLE-II microlensing collaboration data base to constrain analytic triaxial models for the Galactic bar. We find the bar major-axis is

  2. Object-Based Dense Matching Method for Maintaining Structure Characteristics of Linear Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nan; Yan, Yiming; Qiu, Mingjie; Zhao, Chunhui; Wang, Liguo

    2018-03-29

    In this paper, we proposed a novel object-based dense matching method specially for the high-precision disparity map of building objects in urban areas, which can maintain accurate object structure characteristics. The proposed framework mainly includes three stages. Firstly, an improved edge line extraction method is proposed for the edge segments to fit closely to building outlines. Secondly, a fusion method is proposed for the outlines under the constraint of straight lines, which can maintain the building structural attribute with parallel or vertical edges, which is very useful for the dense matching method. Finally, we proposed an edge constraint and outline compensation (ECAOC) dense matching method to maintain building object structural characteristics in the disparity map. In the proposed method, the improved edge lines are used to optimize matching search scope and matching template window, and the high-precision building outlines are used to compensate the shape feature of building objects. Our method can greatly increase the matching accuracy of building objects in urban areas, especially at building edges. For the outline extraction experiments, our fusion method verifies the superiority and robustness on panchromatic images of different satellites and different resolutions. For the dense matching experiments, our ECOAC method shows great advantages for matching accuracy of building objects in urban areas compared with three other methods.

  3. Object-Based Dense Matching Method for Maintaining Structure Characteristics of Linear Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a novel object-based dense matching method specially for the high-precision disparity map of building objects in urban areas, which can maintain accurate object structure characteristics. The proposed framework mainly includes three stages. Firstly, an improved edge line extraction method is proposed for the edge segments to fit closely to building outlines. Secondly, a fusion method is proposed for the outlines under the constraint of straight lines, which can maintain the building structural attribute with parallel or vertical edges, which is very useful for the dense matching method. Finally, we proposed an edge constraint and outline compensation (ECAOC dense matching method to maintain building object structural characteristics in the disparity map. In the proposed method, the improved edge lines are used to optimize matching search scope and matching template window, and the high-precision building outlines are used to compensate the shape feature of building objects. Our method can greatly increase the matching accuracy of building objects in urban areas, especially at building edges. For the outline extraction experiments, our fusion method verifies the superiority and robustness on panchromatic images of different satellites and different resolutions. For the dense matching experiments, our ECOAC method shows great advantages for matching accuracy of building objects in urban areas compared with three other methods.

  4. Using Clumped Isotopes to Understand Early Diagenetic Processes in Carbonate Microbialites of Mid-Cretaceous Codó Formation, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahniuk, A. M.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.; Franca, A. B.; Matsuda, N.; Eiler, J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the sedimentological, stratigraphic and geochemical aspects of carbonate microbialites have been carried out to characterize the paleoenvironmental and hydrological conditions of deposition for the Aptian Codó Formation (Parnaíba Basin) and the time-equivalent Santana Formation (Araripe Basin). This environmental interpretation is of interest because these sediments record the early stages of the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, as well as being potentially important reservoir rock. Specifically, clumped isotope thermometry has been applied to evaluate the growth temperatures of carbonate components in selected samples from both outcrop and drill core. Preliminary results of clumped isotope measurements provide paleotemperatures derived for dense stromatolitic fabrics drilled from outcrop samples of the Codó Formation which vary between 29 and 33°C. In contrast, the micritic matrix of the drill core samples of the Codó Formation indicates a temperature range from 30 to 48°C. The lower values for the outcrop samples may represent a primary or early diagenetic temperature signal preserved in the rock. Moreover, the micritic matrix from the Santana Formation drill core samples indicates paleotemperatures ranging from 40 to 68°C, which are slightly higher than those for all measured samples of the Codó Formation. We propose that the higher paleotemperatures for all drill core samples denote a diagenetic effect that occurred with sediment lithification processes during burial; that is, isotopic reequilibration at depth is reflected in the higher measured paleotemperatures. Increased paleotemperatures are probably present in some carbonate fabrics of the outcrop samples of the Codo Formation, which also underwent lithification, but this signal was missed by our inability to micro-sample primary or early diagenetic stromatolitic fabrics. Assuming that the outcrop samples of the Codó Formation preserve an original stable isotope signal

  5. A mysterious dust clump in a disk around an evolved binary star system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M; Turner, J

    1998-09-10

    The discovery of planets in orbit around the pulsar PSR1257+12 shows that planets may form around post-main-sequence stars. Other evolved stars, such as HD44179 (an evolved star which is part of the binary system that has expelled the gas and dust that make the Red Rectangle nebula), possess gravitationally bound orbiting dust disks. It is possible that planets might form from gravitational collapse in such disks. Here we report high-angular-resolution observations at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths of the dusk disk associated with the Red Rectangle. We find a dust clump with an estimated mass near that of Jupiter in the outer region of the disk. The clump is larger than our Solar System, and far beyond where planet formation would normally be expected, so its nature is at present unclear.

  6. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: project overview with analysis of dense gas structure and kinematics in Barnard 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Lee, Katherine I.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fernández-López, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [Owens Valley Radio Observatory, MC 105-24 OVRO, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kwon, Woojin [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Isella, Andrea, E-mail: sstorm@astro.umd.edu [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s{sup –1}. We imaged ∼150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N{sub 2}H{sup +} shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO{sup +} and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity dispersions ranging from ∼0.05 to 0.50 km s{sup –1} across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N{sub 2}H{sup +} position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc; this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  7. Constraining the thermal history of the North American Midcontinent Rift System using carbonate clumped isotopes and organic thermal maturity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Gueneli, Nur; Brocks, Jochen J.

    2017-01-01

    The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) is a Late Mesoproterozoic (∼1.1 Ga) sequence of volcanic and sedimentary rocks exposed in the Lake Superior Region of North America. The MRS continues to be the focus of much research due to its economic mineral deposits as well as its archive of Precambrian life and tectonic processes. In order to constrain the post-depositional thermal history of the MRS, samples were analyzed for carbonate clumped isotope composition and organic thermal maturity. Clumped isotope values from sedimentary/early-diagenetic samples were partially reset during burial to temperatures between 68 and 75 °C. Solid-state reordering models indicate that maximum burial temperatures of 125–155 °C would reset the clumped isotope values to the observed temperature range prior to the onset of regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope results from late-stage veins in the White Pine Mine encompass a greater temperature range (49–116 °C), indicative of spatially variable hydrothermal activity and vein emplacement after burial temperatures fell below 100 °C during regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope and organic thermal maturity data do not indicate significant spatial differences in thermal history along the MRS. Observed variability in bulk organic matter composition and biomarker indices are therefore more likely a result of shifts in primary productivity or early-degradation processes. These results demonstrate that the MRS experienced a spatially consistent, relatively mild thermal history (125–155 °C) and is therefore a valuable archive for understanding the Late Mesoproterozoic environment.

  8. Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the

  9. Reconstruction of limnology and microbialite formation conditions from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, V A; Lim, D; Laval, B L; Brady, A; Slater, G; Tripati, A K

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative tools for deciphering the environment of microbialite formation are relatively limited. For example, the oxygen isotope carbonate-water geothermometer requires assumptions about the isotopic composition of the water of formation. We explored the utility of using 'clumped' isotope thermometry as a tool to study the temperatures of microbialite formation. We studied microbialites recovered from water depths of 10-55 m in Pavilion Lake, and 10-25 m in Kelly Lake, spanning the thermocline in both lakes. We determined the temperature of carbonate growth and the (18)O/(16)O ratio of the waters that microbialites grew in. Results were then compared to current limnological data from the lakes to reconstruct the history of microbialite formation. Modern microbialites collected at shallow depths (11.7 m) in both lakes yield clumped isotope-based temperatures of formation that are within error of summer water temperatures, suggesting that clumped isotope analyses may be used to reconstruct past climates and to probe the environments in which microbialites formed. The deepest microbialites (21.7-55 m) were recovered from below the present-day thermoclines in both lakes and yield radioisotope ages indicating they primarily formed earlier in the Holocene. During this time, pollen data and our reconstructed water (18)O/(16)O ratios indicate a period of aridity, with lower lake levels. At present, there is a close association between both photosynthetic and heterotrophic communities, and carbonate precipitation/microbialite formation, with biosignatures of photosynthetic influences on carbonate detected in microbialites from the photic zone and above the thermocline (i.e., depths of generally <20 m). Given the deeper microbialites are receiving <1% of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), it is likely these microbialites primarily formed when lower lake levels resulted in microbialites being located higher in the photic zone, in warm surface waters. © 2014 John

  10. Geometrical optics of dense aerosols: forming dense plasma slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael J; Valeo, Ernest J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2013-11-01

    Assembling a freestanding, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rarefied than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed field, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the finite particle density reduces the effective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing.

  11. Molecular Gas Clumps from the Destruction of Icy Bodies in the beta Pictoris Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, W. R. F.; Wyatt, M. C.; Roberge, A.; Augereau, J. -C.; Casassus, S.; Corder, S.; Greaves, J. S.; DeGregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Hales, A.; Jackson, A. P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Many stars are surrounded by disks of dusty debris formed in the collisions of asteroids, comets and dwarf planets. But is gas also released in such events? Observations at sub-mm wavelengths of the archetypal debris disk around ß Pictoris show that 0.3% of a Moon mass of carbon monoxide orbits in its debris belt. The gas distribution is highly asymmetric, with 30% found in a single clump 85 AU from the star, in a plane closely aligned with the orbit of the inner planet, beta Pic b. This gas clump delineates a region of enhanced collisions, either from a mean motion resonance with an unseen giant planet, or from the remnants of a collision of Mars-mass planets.

  12. Existence and density theorems for stochastic maps on commutative C*-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, P.M.; Uhlmann, A.

    1979-06-01

    Theorems are presented on the structure of stochastic and normalized positive linear maps over commutative C*-algebras. It is shown how strongly the solution of the n-tupel problem for stochastic maps relates to the fact that stochastic maps of finite rank are weakly dense within stochastic maps in case of a commutative C*-algebra. A new proof of the density theorem is given and (besides the solution of the n-tupel problem) results are derived concerning the extremal maps of certain convex subsets which are weakly dense. All stated facts suggest application in statistical physics (algebraic approach), especially concerning questions around evolution of classical systems. (author)

  13. The NGC 7538 region: the distribution and dynamics of molecules compared with those of HI and H+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickel, H.R.; Dickel, J.R.; Wilson, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    CO maps and preliminary H 2 S and H 2 CO data for the molecular cloud associated with the HII region NGC 7538 are compared with the distributions of ionized and neutral hydrogen. South of the optical HII region is a ridge of high 13 CO column density with cold, self-absorbed HI gas just beyond it. A dense clump within the ridge is found adjacent to the HII region in the southeast. The percentage of the hydrogen in atomic form varies from approximately 0.1% in the dense region to approximately 0.8% in the outskirts. The lower-density region of expanding gas seen next to the HII region in the southwest is attributed to the passage of a molecular dissociation wave. (Auth.)

  14. Why the dark matter of galaxies is clumps of micro­ brown­dwarfs and not Cold Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    Observations of quasar microlensing by Schild 1996 show the baryonic dark matter BDM of galaxies is micro-brown-dwarfs, primordial hydrogen-helium planets formed at the plasma to gas transition 10^13 seconds, in trillion-planet clumps termed proto-globular-star-clusters PGCs. Large photon-viscosity {nu} of the plasma permits supercluster-mass gravitational fragmentation at 10^12 seconds when the horizon scale L_H = ct is matched by the Schwarz viscous scale L_SV of Gibson 1996. Voids begin expansion at sonic speeds c/ 3^1/2, where c is light speed and t is time, explaining 10^25 meter size regions observed to be devoid of all matter, either BDM or non-baryonic NBDM. Most of the NBDM is weakly-collisional, strongly-diffusive, neutrino-like particles. If cold NBDM (CDM) is assumed, it must soon become warm and diffuse because it is weakly-collisional. It cannot clump and its clumps cannot clump. CDM is ruled out with 99% confidence by local-group satellite observations of Kroupa et al. 2010. The satellites are clusters of PGCs. PGCs are recaptured by the Galaxy on an accretion disk as they freeze and diffuse from its core to form its BDM halo. Stars form by viscous mergers of primordial gas planets within PGCs. Stars die by overeating mBDs, making the first chemicals, oceans and life at 2-8 Myr.

  15. The Shock Dynamics of Heterogeneous YSO Jets: 3D Simulations Meet Multi-epoch Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Lebedev, S. V. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-10

    High-resolution observations of young stellar object (YSO) jets show them to be composed of many small-scale knots or clumps. In this paper, we report results of 3D numerical simulations designed to study how such clumps interact and create morphologies and kinematic patterns seen in emission line observations. Our simulations focus on clump scale dynamics by imposing velocity differences between spherical, over-dense regions, which then lead to the formation of bow shocks as faster clumps overtake slower material. We show that much of the spatial structure apparent in emission line images of jets arises from the dynamics and interactions of these bow shocks. Our simulations show a variety of time-dependent features, including bright knots associated with Mach stems where the shocks intersect, a “frothy” emission structure that arises from the presence of the Nonlinear Thin Shell Instability along the surfaces of the bow shocks, and the merging and fragmentation of clumps. Our simulations use a new non-equilibrium cooling method to produce synthetic emission maps in H α and [S ii]. These are directly compared to multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope observations of Herbig–Haro jets. We find excellent agreement between features seen in the simulations and the observations in terms of both proper motion and morphologies. Thus we conclude that YSO jets may be dominated by heterogeneous structures and that interactions between these structures and the shocks they produce can account for many details of YSO jet evolution.

  16. Assessing Past Fracture Connectivity in Geothermal Reservoirs Using Clumped Isotopes: Proof of Concept in the Blue Mountain Geothermal Field, Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, K. W.; Sumner, K. K.; Camp, E. R.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Uddenberg, M.; Swyer, M.; Garrison, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface fluid flow is strongly influenced by faults and fractures, yet the transmissivity of faults and fractures changes through time due to deformation and cement precipitation, making flow paths difficult to predict. Here we assess past fracture connectivity in an active hydrothermal system in the Basin and Range, Nevada, USA, using clumped isotope geochemistry and cold cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of fracture filling cements from the Blue Mountain geothermal field. Calcite cements were sampled from drill cuttings and two cores at varying distances from faults. CL microscopy of some of the cements shows banding parallel to the fracture walls as well as brecciation, indicating that the cements record variations in the composition and source of fluids that moved through the fractures as they opened episodically. CL microscopy, δ13C and δ18O values were used to screen homogeneous samples for clumped isotope analysis. Clumped isotope thermometry of most samples indicates paleofluid temperatures of around 150°C, with several wells peaking at above 200°C. We suggest that the consistency of these temperatures is related to upwelling of fluids in the convective hydrothermal system, and interpret the similarity of the clumped isotope temperatures to modern geothermal fluid temperatures of ~160-180°C as evidence that average reservoir temperatures have changed little since precipitation of the calcite cements. In contrast, two samples, one of which was associated with fault gauge observed in drill logs, record significantly cooler temperatures of 19 and 73°C and anomalous δ13C and δ18Owater values, which point to fault-controlled pathways for downwelling meteoric fluid. Finally, we interpret correspondence of paleofluid temperatures and δ18Owater values constrained by clumped isotope thermometry of calcite from different wells to suggest past connectivity of fractures among wells within the geothermal field. Results show the ability of clumped isotope

  17. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  18. Graph Quasicontinuous Functions and Densely Continuous Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica Hola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let $X, Y$ be topological spaces. A function $f: X \\to Y$ is said to be graph quasicontinuous if there is a quasicontinuous function $g: X \\to Y$ with the graph of $g$ contained in the closure of the graph of $f$. There is a close relation between the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and minimal usco maps as well as the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and densely continuous forms. Every function with values in a compact Hausdorff space is graph quasicontinuous; more generally every locally compact function is graph quasicontinuous.

  19. Unexpectedly high genetic variation in large unisexual clumps of the subdioecious plant Honckenya peploides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Vilas, Julia; Philipp, Marianne; Retuerto, Rubén

    2010-01-01

    Honckenya peploides is a subdioecious dune plant that reproduces both sexually and by clonal growth. In northwest Spain this species was found to exhibit an extreme spatial segregation of the sexes, and our objective was to investigate genetic variation in unisexual clumps. Genetic variation was ...

  20. The Merging Galaxy Cluster A520 - A Broken-Up Cool Core, A Dark Subcluster, and an X-Ray Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian H.S.; Markevitch, Maxim; Giacintucci, Simona

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a deep Chandra X-ray observation of a merging galaxy cluster A520. A high-resolution gas temperature map reveals a long trail of dense, cool clumpsapparently the fragments of a cool core that has been stripped from the infalling subcluster by ram pressure. The clumps should still be connected by the stretched magnetic field lines. The observed temperature variations imply that thermal conductivity is suppressed by a factor greater than 100 across the presumed direction of the magnetic field (as found in other clusters), and is also suppressed along the field lines by a factor of several. Two massive clumps in the periphery of A520, visible in the weak-lensing mass map and the X-ray image, have apparently been completely stripped of gas during the merger, but then re-accreted the surrounding high-entropy gas upon exit from the cluster. The mass clump that hosted the stripped cool core is also re-accreting hotter gas. An X-ray hydrostatic mass estimate for the clump that has the simplest geometry agrees with the lensing mass. Its current gas mass to total mass ratio is very low, 1.5 percent to 3 percent, which makes it a "dark subcluster." We also found a curious low X-ray brightness channel (likely a low-density sheet in projection) going across the cluster along the direction of an apparent secondary merger. The channel may be caused by plasma depletion in a region of an amplified magnetic field (with plasma Beta approximately equal to 10-20). The shock in A520 will be studied in a separate paper.

  1. Chaos caused by a topologically mixing map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jincheng; Yang Zhongguo

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper we show that for a topologically mixing map there exists a subset consisting of considerably many points in its domain, called chaotic subset, for which orbits of all points display time dependence greatly more erratic than for a scrambled subset, i.e., if a continuous map f : X → X is topologically mixing, where X is a separable locally compact metric space containing at least two points, then for any increasing sequence {p i } of positive integers there exists a c-dense subset C of X satisfying the condition for any continuous map F : A → X, where A is a subset of C, there is a subsequence {q i } of the sequence {p i } such that i→∞ lim f qi (x)=F(x) for every x is an element of A. As an application we show that the interval maps having a chaotic (or scrambled) subset with full Lebesgue measure is dense in the space consisting of all topologically mixing (transitive, respectively) maps. (author). 11 refs

  2. An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, D.M. [SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O`Rourke, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Andrews, M.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.

  3. Non-thermal X-rays and interstellar gas toward the γ-ray supernova remnant RX J1713.7–3946: evidence for X-ray enhancement around CO and H I clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.; Torii, K.; Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; Sato, J.; Horachi, H.; Kuwahara, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Inutsuka, S.; Kawamura, A.; Tachihara, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Inoue, T.; Yamazaki, R. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: sano@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); and others

    2013-11-20

    RX J1713.7–3946 is the most remarkable very high energy γ-ray supernova remnant that emits synchrotron X-rays without thermal features. We made a comparative study of CO, H I, and X-rays in order to better understand the relationship between the X-rays, and the molecular and atomic gas. The results indicate that the X-rays are enhanced around the CO and H I clumps on a pc scale, but are decreased inside the clumps on a 0.1 pc scale. Magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the shock interaction with molecular and atomic gas indicate that the interaction between the shock waves and the clumps excite turbulence, which amplifies the magnetic field around the clumps. We suggest that the amplified magnetic field around the CO and H I clumps enhances the synchrotron X-rays and possibly the acceleration of cosmic-ray electrons.

  4. Preclinical Efficacy of Clumping Factor A in Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaogang; Thompson, Christopher D.; Park, Saeyoung; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Development of a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections remains a priority. To determine whether clumping factor A (ClfA) is a good target protein for inclusion in a multivalent vaccine, we evaluated its efficacy in a variety of relevant staphylococcal infection models, challenging with different S. aureus strains. ClfA adsorbed to Alhydrogel...

  5. Memory-Efficient Analysis of Dense Functional Connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Kristian; Donohue, Sarah E; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Kruse, Rudolf; Borgelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The functioning of the human brain relies on the interplay and integration of numerous individual units within a complex network. To identify network configurations characteristic of specific cognitive tasks or mental illnesses, functional connectomes can be constructed based on the assessment of synchronous fMRI activity at separate brain sites, and then analyzed using graph-theoretical concepts. In most previous studies, relatively coarse parcellations of the brain were used to define regions as graphical nodes. Such parcellated connectomes are highly dependent on parcellation quality because regional and functional boundaries need to be relatively consistent for the results to be interpretable. In contrast, dense connectomes are not subject to this limitation, since the parcellation inherent to the data is used to define graphical nodes, also allowing for a more detailed spatial mapping of connectivity patterns. However, dense connectomes are associated with considerable computational demands in terms of both time and memory requirements. The memory required to explicitly store dense connectomes in main memory can render their analysis infeasible, especially when considering high-resolution data or analyses across multiple subjects or conditions. Here, we present an object-based matrix representation that achieves a very low memory footprint by computing matrix elements on demand instead of explicitly storing them. In doing so, memory required for a dense connectome is reduced to the amount needed to store the underlying time series data. Based on theoretical considerations and benchmarks, different matrix object implementations and additional programs (based on available Matlab functions and Matlab-based third-party software) are compared with regard to their computational efficiency. The matrix implementation based on on-demand computations has very low memory requirements, thus enabling analyses that would be otherwise infeasible to conduct due to

  6. The Effects of UV Radiation on Chloroplast Clumping and Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Halophila stipulacea Grown under High-PAR Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm and high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm are present in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Aqaba where part of the seagrass Halophila stipulacea's population thrives, we examined the effects of high PAR with and without UVR on its photosynthesis and midday chloroplast “clumping phenomenon” (Sharon and Beer 2008. It was found that midday clumping occurred only under high PAR in the presence of UVR, which resulted in a 44% reduction in the absorption cross section (or absorption factor, AF of the leaves and, accordingly, a parallel lowering of midday electron transport rates (ETR. In addition, UVR had a direct effect on the photosynthetic apparatus by lowering quantum yields and, thus, ETRs, while pigment relations remained unaltered. We conclude that the potentially harmful effects of UVR and high PAR on the photosynthetic apparatus of Halophila stipulacea are mitigated by their activation of chloroplast clumping, which functions as a means of protecting most chloroplasts from high irradiances, including UVR.

  7. FORMATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT: COLD STREAMS, CLUMPY DISKS, AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Sari, Re'em; Ceverino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple theoretical framework for massive galaxies at high redshift, where the main assembly and star formation occurred, and report on the first cosmological simulations that reveal clumpy disks consistent with our analysis. The evolution is governed by the interplay between smooth and clumpy cold streams, disk instability, and bulge formation. Intense, relatively smooth streams maintain an unstable dense gas-rich disk. Instability with high turbulence and giant clumps, each a few percent of the disk mass, is self-regulated by gravitational interactions within the disk. The clumps migrate into a bulge in ∼ sun yr -1 , and each clump converts into stars in ∼0.5 Gyr. While the clumps coalesce dissipatively to a compact bulge, the star-forming disk is extended because the incoming streams keep the outer disk dense and susceptible to instability and because of angular momentum transport. Passive spheroid-dominated galaxies form when the streams are more clumpy: the external clumps merge into a massive bulge and stir up disk turbulence that stabilize the disk and suppress in situ clump and star formation. We predict a bimodality in galaxy type by z ∼ 3, involving giant-clump star-forming disks and spheroid-dominated galaxies of suppressed star formation. After z ∼ 1, the disks tend to be stabilized by the dominant stellar disks and bulges. Most of the high-z massive disks are likely to end up as today's early-type galaxies.

  8. KILOPARSEC-SCALE SIMULATIONS OF STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. I. THE UNMAGNETIZED AND ZERO-FEEDBACK LIMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loo, Sven; Butler, Michael J.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2013-01-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of self-gravitating dense gas on scales of 1 kpc down to ∼< parsec in a galactic disk, designed to study dense clump formation from giant molecular clouds (GMCs). These structures are expected to be the precursors to star clusters and this process may be the rate limiting step controlling star formation rates in galactic systems as described by the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We follow the thermal evolution of the gas down to ∼5 K using extinction-dependent heating and cooling functions. We do not yet include magnetic fields or localized stellar feedback, so the evolution of the GMCs and clumps is determined solely by self-gravity balanced by thermal and turbulent pressure support and the large-scale galactic shear. While cloud structures and densities change significantly during the simulation, GMC virial parameters remain mostly above unity for timescales exceeding the free-fall time of GMCs indicating that energy from galactic shear and large-scale cloud motions continuously cascades down to and within the GMCs. We implement star formation at a slow, inefficient rate of 2% per local free-fall time, but even this yields global star formation rates that are about two orders of magnitude larger than the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation due to overproduction of dense gas clumps. We expect a combination of magnetic support and localized stellar feedback is required to inhibit dense clump formation to ∼1% of the rate that results from the nonmagnetic, zero-feedback limit.

  9. Vehicle license plate recognition in dense fog based on improved atmospheric scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunming; Lin, Jun; Chen, Chunkai; Dong, Yancheng

    2018-04-01

    An effective method based on improved atmospheric scattering model is proposed in this paper to handle the problem of the vehicle license plate location and recognition in dense fog. Dense fog detection is performed firstly by the top-hat transformation and the vertical edge detection, and the moving vehicle image is separated from the traffic video image. After the vehicle image is decomposed into two layers: structure and texture layers, the glow layer is separated from the structure layer to get the background layer. Followed by performing the mean-pooling and the bicubic interpolation algorithm, the atmospheric light map of the background layer can be predicted, meanwhile the transmission of the background layer is estimated through the grayed glow layer, whose gray value is altered by linear mapping. Then, according to the improved atmospheric scattering model, the final restored image can be obtained by fusing the restored background layer and the optimized texture layer. License plate location is performed secondly by a series of morphological operations, connected domain analysis and various validations. Characters extraction is achieved according to the projection. Finally, an offline trained pattern classifier of hybrid discriminative restricted boltzmann machines (HDRBM) is applied to recognize the characters. Experimental results on thorough data sets are reported to demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high recognition accuracy and works robustly in the dense fog traffic environment during 24h or one day.

  10. WARM EXTENDED DENSE GAS AT THE HEART OF A COLD COLLAPSING DENSE CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Phillips, Thomas G.; Furuya, Ray S.; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate when and how the birth of a protostellar core occurs, we made survey observations of four well-studied dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud using CO transitions in submillimeter bands. We report here the detection of unexpectedly warm (∼30-70 K), extended (radius of ∼2400 AU), dense (a few times 10 5 cm -3 ) gas at the heart of one of the dense cores, L1521F (MC27), within the cold dynamically collapsing components. We argue that the detected warm, extended, dense gas may originate from shock regions caused by collisions between the dynamically collapsing components and outflowing/rotating components within the dense core. We propose a new stage of star formation, 'warm-in-cold core stage (WICCS)', i.e., the cold collapsing envelope encases the warm extended dense gas at the center due to the formation of a protostellar core. WICCS would constitute a missing link in evolution between a cold quiescent starless core and a young protostar in class 0 stage that has a large-scale bipolar outflow.

  11. Memory-efficient analysis of dense functional connectomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Loewe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the human brain relies on the interplay and integration of numerous individual units within a complex network. To identify network configurations characteristic of specific cognitive tasks or mental illnesses, functional connectomes can be constructed based on the assessment of synchronous fMRI activity at separate brain sites, and then analyzed using graph-theoretical concepts. In most previous studies, relatively coarse parcellations of the brain were used to define regions as graphical nodes. Such parcellated connectomes are highly dependent on parcellation quality because regional and functional boundaries need to be relatively consistent for the results to be interpretable. In contrast, dense connectomes are not subject to this limitation, since the parcellation inherent to the data is used to define graphical nodes, also allowing for a more detailed spatial mapping of connectivity patterns. However, dense connectomes are associated with considerable computational demands in terms of both time and memory requirements. The memory required to explicitly store dense connectomes in main memory can render their analysis infeasible, especially when considering high-resolution data or analyses across multiple subjects or conditions. Here, we present an object-based matrix representation that achieves a very low memory footprint by computing matrix elements on demand instead of explicitly storing them. In doing so, memory required for a dense connectome is reduced to the amount needed to store the underlying time series data. Based on theoretical considerations and benchmarks, different matrix object implementations and additional programs (based on available Matlab functions and Matlab-based third-party software are compared with regard to their computational efficiency in terms of memory requirements and computation time. The matrix implementation based on on-demand computations has very low memory requirements thus enabling

  12. Seeing the Forest Through the Trees: The Distribution and Properties of Dense Molecular Gas in the Milky Way Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.

    cloud structures. This distance catalog of 1,802 objects across the Galactic plane represents the first large-scale analysis of clump-scale objects in a variety of Galactic environments. The Galactocentric positions of these objects begin to trace out the spiral structure of the Milky Way, and suggest that dense molecular gas settles nearer the Galactic midplane than tracers of less-dense gas such as CO. Physical properties computed from the DPDFs reveal that BGPS objects trace a continuum of scales within giant molecular clouds, and extend the scaling relationships known as Larson's Laws to lower-mass substructures. The results presented here represent the first step on the road to seeing the molecular content of the Milky Way as a forest rather than individual nearby trees.

  13. Oblique Multi-Camera Systems - Orientation and Dense Matching Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.

    2014-03-01

    The use of oblique imagery has become a standard for many civil and mapping applications, thanks to the development of airborne digital multi-camera systems, as proposed by many companies (Blomoblique, IGI, Leica, Midas, Pictometry, Vexcel/Microsoft, VisionMap, etc.). The indisputable virtue of oblique photography lies in its simplicity of interpretation and understanding for inexperienced users allowing their use of oblique images in very different applications, such as building detection and reconstruction, building structural damage classification, road land updating and administration services, etc. The paper reports an overview of the actual oblique commercial systems and presents a workflow for the automated orientation and dense matching of large image blocks. Perspectives, potentialities, pitfalls and suggestions for achieving satisfactory results are given. Tests performed on two datasets acquired with two multi-camera systems over urban areas are also reported.

  14. Molecules and dust in Cassiopeia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biscaro, Chiara; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    We study the dust evolution in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. We follow the processing of dust grains that formed in the Type II-b supernova ejecta by modelling the sputtering of grains. The dust is located in dense ejecta clumps that are crossed by the reverse shock. We also investigate......-rich clumps that correspond to the outermost carbon-rich ejecta zone. We consider the various dust components that form in the supernova, several reverse shock velocities and inter-clump gas temperatures, and derive grain-size distributions and masses for the dust as a function of time. Both non...... and size, and the shock velocity in the clump. A Type II-b SN forms small grains that are sputtered within the clumps and in the inter-clump medium. For Cas A, silicate grains do not survive thermal sputtering in the inter-clump medium, while alumina, silicon carbide, and carbon dust may survive...

  15. Modeling hemispherical and directional radiative fluxes in regular-clumped canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begue, A.

    1992-01-01

    A model of radiative transfer in regular-clumped canopies is presented. The canopy is approximated by an array of porous cylinders located at the vertices of equilateral triangles. The model is split into two submodels, each describing a different level of structure: 1) The macrostructure submodel is based on Brown and Pandolfo (1969), who applied geometrical optics theory to an array of opaque cylinders. This model is adapted for porous cylinders and is used to derive expressions for directional interception efficiency as a function of height, radius, spacing and porosity of the cylinders. 2) The microstructure submodel makes use of the average canopy transmittance theory, applied to a cylinder, to compute the porosity of the clumps as a function of the leaf area density, the leaf inclination distribution function, the dimensions of the cylinder (height and radius), and the transmittance of green leaves in the appropriate spectral band. It is shown that, in the case of erectophile plant stands, the daily porosity of the cylinder can be approximated by the porosity calculated using the extinction coefficient of diffuse radiation. Directional interception efficiency, geometric conditions (incidence/viewing), and landscape component reflectances are used to compute hemispherical (interception, absorption, and reflectance) and directional (reflectance) radiative fluxes from simple analytical formulae. This model is validated against a data set of biological, radiative (PAR region) and radiometric (SPOT channels) measurements, collected in Niger on pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides). The model fits the data quite well in terms of hourly and daily single-band or combined (NDVI) radiative fluxes. Close correspondence to measured fluxes, using few parameters, and the possibility of inversion makes the present model a valuable tool for the study of radiative transfer in discontinuous canopies. (author)

  16. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-10-01

    ;Clumped-isotope; thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope ;clumps;). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals. We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect. Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3- and CO32-. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many natural systems. The two

  17. Laboratory calibration of the calcium carbonate clumped isotope thermometer in the 25-250 °C temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Tobias; John, Cédric M.; Jourdan, Anne-Lise; Davis, Simon; Crawshaw, John

    2015-05-01

    Many fields of Earth sciences benefit from the knowledge of mineral formation temperatures. For example, carbonates are extensively used for reconstruction of the Earth's past climatic variations by determining ocean, lake, and soil paleotemperatures. Furthermore, diagenetic minerals and their formation or alteration temperature may provide information about the burial history of important geological units and can have practical applications, for instance, for reconstructing the geochemical and thermal histories of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is a relatively new technique that can provide the formation temperature of carbonate minerals without requiring a priori knowledge of the isotopic composition of the initial solution. It is based on the temperature-dependent abundance of the rare 13C-18O bonds in carbonate minerals, specified as a Δ47 value. The clumped isotope thermometer has been calibrated experimentally from 1 °C to 70 °C. However, higher temperatures that are relevant to geological processes have so far not been directly calibrated in the laboratory. In order to close this calibration gap and to provide a robust basis for the application of clumped isotopes to high-temperature geological processes we precipitated CaCO3 (mainly calcite) in the laboratory between 23 and 250 °C. We used two different precipitation techniques: first, minerals were precipitated from a CaCO3 supersaturated solution at atmospheric pressure (23-91 °C), and, second, from a solution resulting from the mixing of CaCl2 and NaHCO3 in a pressurized reaction vessel at a pressure of up to 80 bar (25-250 °C).

  18. Exploring the potential of clumped isotope thermometry on coccolith-rich sediments as a sea surface temperature proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Anna Joy; John, Cédric M.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding past changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is crucial; however, existing proxies for reconstructing past SSTs are hindered by unknown ancient seawater composition (foraminiferal Mg/Ca and δ18O) or reflect subsurface temperatures (TEX86) or have a limited applicable temperature range (U37k'). We examine clumped isotope (Δ47) thermometry to fossil coccolith-rich material as an SST proxy, as clumped isotopes are independent of original seawater composition and applicable to a wide temperature range and coccolithophores are widespread and dissolution resistant. The Δ47-derived temperatures from 63 μm fraction removes most nonmixed layer components; however, the Δ47-derived temperatures display an unexpected slight decreasing trend with decreasing size fraction. This unexpected trend could partly arise because larger coccoliths (5-12 μm) are removed during the size fraction separation process. The c1 and <63 μm c2 Δ47-derived temperatures are comparable to concurrent U37k' SSTs. The <20, <10, and 2-5 μm c2 Δ47-derived temperatures are consistently cooler than expected. The Δ47-U37k' temperature offset is probably caused by abiotic/diagenetic calcite present in the c2 2-5 μm fraction (˜53% by area), which potentially precipitated at bottom water temperatures of ˜6°C. Our results indicate that clumped isotopes on coccolith-rich sediment fractions have potential as an SST proxy, particularly in tropical regions, providing that careful investigation of the appropriate size fraction for the region and time scale is undertaken.

  19. The Formation and Early Evolution of Embedded Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter

    We propose to combine Spitzer, WISE, Herschel, and other archival spacecraft data with an existing ground- and space-based mm-wave to near-IR survey of molecular clouds over a large portion of the Milky Way, in order to systematically study the formation and early evolution of massive stars and star clusters, and provide new observational calibrations for a theoretical paradigm of this key astrophysical problem. Central Objectives: The Galactic Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP) is a large, unbiased, uniform, and panchromatic survey of massive star and cluster formation and early evolution, covering 20°x6° of the Galactic Plane. Its uniqueness lies in the comprehensive molecular spectroscopy of 303 massive dense clumps, which have also been included in several archival spacecraft surveys. Our objective is a systematic demographic analysis of massive star and cluster formation, one which has not been possible without knowledge of our CHaMP cloud sample, including all clouds with embedded clusters as well as those that have not yet formed massive stars. For proto-clusters deeply embedded within dense molecular clouds, analysis of these space-based data will: 1. Yield a complete census of Young Stellar Objects in each cluster. 2. Allow systematic measurements of embedded cluster properties: spectral energy distributions, luminosity functions, protostellar and disk fractions, and how these vary with cluster mass, age, and density. Combined with other, similarly complete and unbiased infrared and mm data, CHaMP's goals include: 3. A detailed comparison of the embedded stellar populations with their natal dense gas to derive extinction maps, star formation efficiencies and feedback effects, and the kinematics, physics, and chemistry of the gas in and around the clusters. 4. Tying the demographics, age spreads, and timescales of the clusters, based on pre-Main Sequence evolution, to that of the dense gas clumps and Giant Molecular Clouds. 5. A

  20. The clumped-isotope geochemistry of exhumed marbles from Naxos, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, U.; Lloyd, M. K.; Stolper, D. A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Exhumation and accompanying retrograde metamorphism alter the compositions and textures of metamorphic rocks through deformation, mineral-mineral reactions, water-rock reactions, and diffusion-controlled intra- and inter-mineral atomic mobility. Here, we demonstrate that these processes are recorded in the clumped- and single-isotope (δ13 C and δ18 O) compositions of marbles, which can be used to constrain retrograde metamorphic histories. We collected 27 calcite and dolomite marbles along a transect from the rim to the center of the metamorphic core-complex of Naxos (Greece), and analyzed their carbonate single- and clumped-isotope compositions. The majority of Δ47 values of whole-rock samples are consistent with exhumation- controlled cooling of the metamorphic complex. However, the data also reveal that water-rock interaction, deformation driven recrystallization and thermal shock associated with hydrothermal alteration may considerably impact the overall distribution of Δ47 values. We analyzed specific carbonate fabrics influenced by deformation and fluid-rock reaction to study how these processes register in the carbonate clumped-isotope system. Δ47 values of domains drilled from a calcite marble show a bimodal distribution. Low Δ47 values correspond to an apparent temperature of 260 °C and are common in static fabrics; high Δ47 values correspond to an apparent temperature of 200 °C and are common in dynamically recrystallized fabrics. We suggest that the low Δ47 values reflect diffusion-controlled isotopic reordering during cooling, whereas high Δ47 values reflect isotopic reordering driven by dynamic recrystallization. We further studied the mechanism by which dynamic recrystallization may alter Δ47 values by controlled heating experiments. Results show no significant difference between laboratory reactions rates in the static and dynamic fabrics, consistent with a mineral-extrinsic mechanism, in which slip along crystal planes was associated

  1. Radio and infrared study of southern H II regions G346.056-0.021 and G346.077-0.056

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. R.; Tej, A.; Vig, S.; Liu, T.; Ghosh, S. K.; Chandra, C. H. I.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. We present a multiwavelength study of two southern Galactic H II regions G346.056-0.021 and G346.077-0.056 which are located at a distance of 10.9 kpc. The distribution of ionized gas, cold and warm dust, and the stellar population associated with the two H II regions are studied in detail using measurements at near-infrared, mid-infrared, far-infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths. Methods: The radio continuum maps at 1280 and 610 MHz were obtained using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope to probe the ionized gas. The dust temperature, column density, and dust emissivity maps were generated using modified blackbody fits in the far-infrared wavelength range 160-500 μm. Various near- and mid-infrared color and magnitude criteria were adopted to identify candidate ionizing star(s) and the population of young stellar objects in the associated field. Results: The radio maps reveal the presence of diffuse ionized emission displaying distinct cometary morphologies. The 1280 MHz flux densities translate to zero age main sequence spectral types in the range O7.5V-O7V and O8.5V-O8V for the ionizing stars of G346.056-0.021 and G346.077-0.056, respectively. A few promising candidate ionizing star(s) are identified using near-infrared photometric data. The column density map shows the presence of a large, dense dust clump enveloping G346.077-0.056. The dust temperature map shows peaks towards the two H II regions. The submillimeter image shows the presence of two additional clumps, one being associated with G346.056-0.021. The masses of the clumps are estimated to range between 1400 and 15250 M⊙. Based on simple analytic calculations and the correlation seen between the ionized gas distribution and the local density structure, the observed cometary morphology in the radio maps is better explained invoking the champagne-flow model. GMRT data (FITS format) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via

  2. The Split Red Clump of the Galactic Bulge from OGLE-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, D. M.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Fouqué, P.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2010-09-01

    The red clump (RC) is found to be split into two components along several sightlines toward the Galactic bulge. This split is detected with high significance toward the areas (-3.5 plane. The fainter (hereafter "main") component is the one that more closely follows the distance-longitude relation of the bulge RC. The main component is ~0.5 mag fainter than the secondary component and with an overall approximately equal population. For sightlines further from the plane, the difference in brightness increases, and more stars are found in the secondary component than in the main component. The two components have very nearly equal (V - I) color.

  3. CLUSTER FORMATION TRIGGERED BY FILAMENT COLLISIONS IN SERPENS SOUTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kawabe, Ryohei; Shinnaga, Hiroko [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sugitani, Koji [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Kimihiko; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kozu, Minato; Okada, Nozomi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Ogawa, Hideo [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Nishitani, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Izumi [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Yonekura, Yoshinori [Center for Astronomy, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Kameno, Seiji [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Crdova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Momose, Munetake [Institute of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Nakajima, Taku, E-mail: fumitaka.nakamura@nao.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); and others

    2014-08-20

    The Serpens South infrared dark cloud consists of several filamentary ridges, some of which fragment into dense clumps. On the basis of CCS (J{sub N} = 4{sub 3}-3{sub 2}), HC{sub 3}N (J = 5-4), N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1-0), and SiO (J = 2-1, v = 0) observations, we investigated the kinematics and chemical evolution of these filamentary ridges. We find that CCS is extremely abundant along the main filament in the protocluster clump. We emphasize that Serpens South is the first cluster-forming region where extremely strong CCS emission is detected. The CCS-to-N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance ratio is estimated to be about 0.5 toward the protocluster clump, whereas it is about 3 in the other parts of the main filament. We identify six dense ridges with different V {sub LSR}. These ridges appear to converge toward the protocluster clump, suggesting that the collisions of these ridges may have triggered cluster formation. The collisions presumably happened within a few × 10{sup 5} yr because CCS is abundant only for a short time. The short lifetime agrees with the fact that the number fraction of Class I objects, whose typical lifetime is 0.4 × 10{sup 5} yr, is extremely high, about 70% in the protocluster clump. In the northern part, two ridges appear to have partially collided, forming a V-shape clump. In addition, we detected strong bipolar SiO emission that is due to the molecular outflow blowing out of the protostellar clump, as well as extended weak SiO emission that may originate from the filament collisions.

  4. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORMING STARS AND DENSE GAS IN THE SMALL LOW-MASS CLUSTER CEDERBLAD 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Wong, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thompson, K. L., E-mail: ladd@bucknell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud complex. The region contains nine forming low-mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density ({Sigma}{sub YSO} {approx} 150 pc{sup -2}). The analysis of our N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1{yields}0) maps indicates the presence of 13 {+-} 3 solar masses of dense (n {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS-1, which is almost certainly actively accreting material from its dense core. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources, IRS 4, 11, and 6. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS-1. The molecular component of the outflow, measured in the (J = 1{yields}0) line of {sup 12}CO, appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it appears to plow through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface between the head of the outflow lobe and the dense core material can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. IRS 2, the Class III source that produces the optical reflection nebula that gives the Cederblad 110 region its name, may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the MMS-1 dense core is consistent with warming from IRS 2, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star

  5. Clumpy molecular clouds: A dynamic model self-consistently regulated by T Tauri star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.; Silk, J.

    1980-01-01

    A new model is proposed which can account for the longevity, energetics, and dynamical structure of dark molecular clouds. It seems clear that the kinetic and gravitational energy in macroscopic cloud motions cannot account for the energetic of many molecular clouds. A stellar energy source must evidently be tapped, and infrared observations indicate that one cannot utilize massive stars in dark clouds. Recent observations of a high space density of T Tauri stars in some dark clouds provide the basis for our assertion that high-velocity winds from these low-mass pre--main-sequence stars provide a continuous dynamic input into molecular clouds. The T Tauri winds sweep up shells of gas, the intersections or collisions of which form dense clumps embedded in a more rarefied interclump medium. Observations constrain the clumps to be ram-pressure confined, but at the relatively low Mach numbers, continuous leakage occurs. This mass input into the interclump medium leads to the existence of two phases; a dense, cold phase (clumps of density approx.10 4 --10 5 cm -3 and temperature approx.10 K) and a warm, more diffuse, interclump medium (ICM, of density approx.10 3 --10 4 cm -3 and temperature approx.30 K). Clump collisions lead to coalescence, and the evolution of the mass spectrum of clumps is studied

  6. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

    OpenAIRE

    Homolova, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Hanus, J.; Tomaskova, I.; Dvoráková, M.; Pokorny, R.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of three monocultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), different in age and structure, was measured by means of two indirect optical techniques of LAI field mapping: 1/ plant canopy analyser LAI-2000, and 2/ digital hemispherical photographs (DHP). The supportive measurements with the TRAC instrument were conducted to produce mainly the element clumping index. The aim of the study was to compare the performances of LAI-2000 and DHP and to evaluate effect of...

  7. OBLIQUE MULTI-CAMERA SYSTEMS – ORIENTATION AND DENSE MATCHING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rupnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of oblique imagery has become a standard for many civil and mapping applications, thanks to the development of airborne digital multi-camera systems, as proposed by many companies (Blomoblique, IGI, Leica, Midas, Pictometry, Vexcel/Microsoft, VisionMap, etc.. The indisputable virtue of oblique photography lies in its simplicity of interpretation and understanding for inexperienced users allowing their use of oblique images in very different applications, such as building detection and reconstruction, building structural damage classification, road land updating and administration services, etc. The paper reports an overview of the actual oblique commercial systems and presents a workflow for the automated orientation and dense matching of large image blocks. Perspectives, potentialities, pitfalls and suggestions for achieving satisfactory results are given. Tests performed on two datasets acquired with two multi-camera systems over urban areas are also reported.

  8. Annihilation and gravitational clumping of monopoles in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Mizuo; Sato, Katsuhiko.

    1983-01-01

    In order to avoid the overproduction of magnetic monopoles in the early Universe, we investigate how monopoles evolve in the Big Bang Universe for arbitrary mass of monopoles and the arbitrary initial abundance. First, we calculate pair annihilation of monopoles by taking into account the entropy production due to the annihilations. Second, we investigate the formation of monopole stars and black holes due to gravitational clumping of monopoles. In particular, we take into account the entropy and baryon number generation by black hole evaporation. It is shown, however, that the burning of monopole stars or the evaporation of black holes cannot dilute the monopole abundance sufficiently without conflicts with present baryon/entropy ratio and primordial nucleosynthesis regardless of monopole mass. (author)

  9. Pseudothrombocytopenia or platelet clumping as a possible cause of low platelet count in patients with viral infection: a case series from single institution focusing on hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, W-H; Cho, Y-U; Chae, J-D; Kim, S-H

    2013-02-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the phenomenon of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulant-activated platelet clumping, which results in artificially low platelet counts. Other investigators have reported a few cases of PTCP associated with viral infections. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the association of viral infection with PTCP. Medical records of patients with thrombocytopenia who were tested for peripheral blood smear examination between March 2009 and February 2011 were reviewed for platelet clumping and viral infection. Thrombocytopenic patients with viral infection had a higher frequency of platelet clumping than those with other diseases, which was statistically significant (13.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively: P = 0.003). Among the 18 cases where PTCP or platelet clumping was related to viral infection, hepatitis A virus infection (72.2%) was most common, followed by cytomegalovirus (11.1%) and influenza A H1N1 infections (5.6%). A third (33.3%) of the patients had platelet counts viral infection, particularly if the platelet count is unexpectedly low, because failure to recognize PTCP may lead to unnecessary diagnostic tests and patient mismanagement. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A paired apatite and calcite clumped isotope thermometry approach to estimating Cambro-Ordovician seawater temperatures and isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Kristin D.; Finnegan, Seth; Creel, Roger; Eiler, John M.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Popov, Leonid E.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2018-03-01

    The secular increase in δ18O values of both calcitic and phosphatic marine fossils through early Phanerozoic time suggests either that (1) early Paleozoic surface temperatures were high, in excess of 40 °C (tropical MAT), (2) the δ18O value of seawater has increased by 7-8‰ VSMOW through Paleozoic time, or (3) diagenesis has altered secular trends in early Paleozoic samples. Carbonate clumped isotope analysis, in combination with petrographic and elemental analysis, can deconvolve fluid composition from temperature effects and therefore determine which of these hypotheses best explain the secular δ18O increase. Clumped isotope measurements of a suite of calcitic and phosphatic marine fossils from late Cambrian- to Middle-late Ordovician-aged strata-the first paired fossil study of its kind-document tropical sea surface temperatures near modern temperatures (26-38 °C) and seawater oxygen isotope ratios similar to today's ratios.

  11. Dense Matching Comparison Between Census and a Convolutional Neural Network Algorithm for Plant Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Y.; Tian, J.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2018-05-01

    3D reconstruction of plants is hard to implement, as the complex leaf distribution highly increases the difficulty level in dense matching. Semi-Global Matching has been successfully applied to recover the depth information of a scene, but may perform variably when different matching cost algorithms are used. In this paper two matching cost computation algorithms, Census transform and an algorithm using a convolutional neural network, are tested for plant reconstruction based on Semi-Global Matching. High resolution close-range photogrammetric images from a handheld camera are used for the experiment. The disparity maps generated based on the two selected matching cost methods are comparable with acceptable quality, which shows the good performance of Census and the potential of neural networks to improve the dense matching.

  12. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium controls on the abundances of clumped isotopologues of methane during thermogenic formation in laboratory experiments: Implications for the chemistry of pyrolysis and the origins of natural gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Zhang, Shuichang; Stolper, Daniel A.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lawson, Michael; Lewan, Michael D.; Formolo, Michael; Mi, Jingkui; He, Kun; Hu, Guoyi; Eiler, John M.

    2018-02-01

    Multiply isotopically substituted molecules ('clumped' isotopologues) can be used as geothermometers because their proportions at isotopic equilibrium relative to a random distribution of isotopes amongst all isotopologues are functions of temperature. This has allowed measurements of clumped-isotope abundances to be used to constrain formation temperatures of several natural materials. However, kinetic processes during generation, modification, or transport of natural materials can also affect their clumped-isotope compositions. Herein, we show that methane generated experimentally by closed-system hydrous pyrolysis of shale or nonhydrous pyrolysis of coal yields clumped-isotope compositions consistent with an equilibrium distribution of isotopologues under some experimental conditions (temperature-time conditions corresponding to 'low,' 'mature,' and 'over-mature' stages of catagenesis), but can have non-equilibrium (i.e., kinetically controlled) distributions under other experimental conditions ('high' to 'over-mature' stages), particularly for pyrolysis of coal. Non-equilibrium compositions, when present, lead the measured proportions of clumped species to be lower than expected for equilibrium at the experimental temperature, and in some cases to be lower than a random distribution of isotopes (i.e., negative Δ18 values). We propose that the consistency with equilibrium for methane formed by relatively low temperature pyrolysis reflects local reversibility of isotope exchange reactions involving a reactant or transition state species during demethylation of one or more components of kerogen. Non-equilibrium clumped-isotope compositions occur under conditions where 'secondary' cracking of retained oil in shale or wet gas hydrocarbons (C2-5, especially ethane) in coal is prominent. We suggest these non-equilibrium isotopic compositions are the result of the expression of kinetic isotope effects during the irreversible generation of methane from an alkyl

  13. Preconditioner-free Wiener filtering with a dense noise matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffenberger, Kevin M.

    2018-05-01

    This work extends the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) iterative method for efficient, preconditioner-free Wiener filtering to cases in which the noise covariance matrix is dense, but can be decomposed into a sum whose parts are sparse in convenient bases. The new method, which uses multiple messenger fields, reproduces Wiener-filter solutions for test problems, and we apply it to a case beyond the reach of the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) method. We compute the Wiener-filter solution for a simulated Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) map that contains spatially varying, uncorrelated noise, isotropic 1/f noise, and large-scale horizontal stripes (like those caused by atmospheric noise). We discuss simple extensions that can filter contaminated modes or inverse-noise-filter the data. These techniques help to address complications in the noise properties of maps from current and future generations of ground-based Microwave Background experiments, like Advanced ACTPol, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4.

  14. Clumped isotope paleothermometry of eggshells as an indicator of vertebrate endothermy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, R. R.; Field, D. J.; Therrien, F.; Zelenitsky, D.; Affek, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Isotopic analyses of the calcite or aragonite shells of aquatic organisms are often used in the study of the environmental conditions in which they grow; however, this approach is less straightforward in the terrestrial realm, where environments may be more heterogeneous. In such terrestrial localities, the bioapatite of vertebrate teeth comprises the typical archival material for isotopic analyses. The calcitic eggshells of birds and other reptiles may provide suitable material for isotopic analyses that are aimed at studying their physiology and ecology. Here we apply a novel thermometer, carbonate clumped isotopes (Δ47), to test for endothermy in extinct non-avian dinosaurs in the context provided by eggs of modern reptiles and birds. These Δ47-derived temperatures should reflect the temperature of shell formation, which in endothermic animals such as birds should represent the mother's internal body temperature. In ectothermic animals, the same is true although their body temperatures are more affected by the external environment and thus Δ47 temperatures could more accurately describe local environmental temperatures during eggshell formation. Fossil eggshells represent appropriate material for reconstructing internal body temperatures of extinct non-avian dinosaurs since they mineralized within the mother's body, and fragments of eggshell are commonly recovered from dinosaur-bearing fossil deposits. The dimensions of these fragments provide sufficient material for the relatively large sample required for clumped isotope analysis (~20mg). Fossil eggshell samples from several taxa of Late Cretaceous non-avian dinosaurs were analyzed using Δ47 paleothermometry. Textural inspection was used as a first test for diagenetic alteration of the original calcite, and histological indicators were used for broad taxonomic identifications. Preliminary results of Δ47-derived body temperature estimates from eggshells are consistent with previous body temperatures

  15. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: A FIRST LOOK AT DENSE CORES IN ORION B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, H.; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hatchell, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Salji, C.; Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Fich, M.; Tisi, S.; Nutter, D.; Quinn, C.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Hogerheijde, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1–2 × 10 23 cm −2 , most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 10 23 cm −2 , this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars

  16. The soil water balance in a mosaic of clumped vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolla, Teresa; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caylor, Kelly; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito

    2014-05-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture influences the plant growth and the distribution of terrestrial vegetation. This effect is more evident in arid and semiarid ecosystems where the interaction between individuals and the water limited conditions play a fundamental role, providing environmental conditions which drive a variety of non-linear ecohydrological response functions (such as transpiration, photosynthesis, leakage). In this context, modeling vegetation patterns at multiple spatial aggregation scales is important to understand how different vegetation structures can modify the soil water distribution and the exchanged fluxes between soil and atmosphere. In the present paper, the effect of different spatial vegetation patterns, under different climatic scenarios, is investigated in a patchy vegetation mosaic generated by a random process of individual tree canopies and their accompanying root system. Vegetation pattern are generated using the mathematical framework proposed by Caylor et al. (2006) characterized by a three dimensional stochastic vegetation structure, based on the density, dispersion, size distribution, and allometry of individuals within a landscape. A Poisson distribution is applied to generate different distribution of individuals paying particular attention on the role of clumping on water distribution dynamics. The soil water balance is evaluated using the analytical expression proposed by Laio et al. (2001) to explore the influence of climate and vegetation patterns on soil water balance steady-state components (such as the average rates of evaporation, the root water uptake and leakage) and on the stress-weighted plant water uptake. Results of numerical simulations show that clumping may be beneficial for water use efficiency at the landscape scale. References Caylor, Kelly K., P. D'Odorico and I. Rodriguez Iturbe: On the ecohydrology of structurally heterogeneous semiarid landscape. Water Resour. Res., 28, W07424, 2006

  17. CLASS 0 PROTOSTARS IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD: A CORRELATION BETWEEN THE YOUNGEST PROTOSTARS AND THE DENSE GAS DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); André, Ph.; Maury, A.; Men' shchikov, A.; Motte, F.; Hennemann, M.; Könyves, V.; Louvet, F.; Roy, A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service dAstrophysique, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pezzuto, S.; Benedettini, M.; Elia, D. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernard, J.-P. [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Nguyên-Lu' o' ng, Q. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S. [Université de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Arzoumanian, D. [IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France); Hill, T. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago (Chile); Peretto, N., E-mail: sadavoy@mpia.de [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-06-01

    We use PACS and SPIRE continuum data at 160 μm, 250 μm, 350 μm, and 500 μm from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey to sample seven clumps in Perseus: B1, B1-E, B5, IC 348, L1448, L1455, and NGC 1333. Additionally, we identify and characterize the embedded Class 0 protostars using detections of compact Herschel sources at 70 μm as well as archival Spitzer catalogs and SCUBA 850 μm photometric data. We identify 28 candidate Class 0 protostars, four of which are newly discovered sources not identified with Spitzer. We find that the star formation efficiency of clumps, as traced by Class 0 protostars, correlates strongly with the flatness of their respective column density distributions at high values. This correlation suggests that the fraction of high column density material in a clump reflects only its youngest protostellar population rather than its entire source population. We propose that feedback from either the formation or evolution of protostars changes the local density structure of clumps.

  18. Harmonic analysis of dense time series of landsat imagery for modeling change in forest conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry Tyler. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of dense time series of Landsat imagery for small area estimation and mapping of change in forest conditions over time. The study area was a region in north central Wisconsin for which Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery and field measurements from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program are available for the decade of 2003 to 2012. For the periods...

  19. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs

  20. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  1. On relative spatial diffusion in plasma and fluid turbulences: clumps, Richardson's law and intrinsic stochasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.

    1981-02-01

    Three different time regimes are presented for relative spatial diffusion of charged particles in fluctuating electric fields, which behave like tau 3 , exp (tau) and tau 3 , respectively. The first regime, corresponding to a quasi-linear description of the trajectories, is analogous to the one observed in fluid turbulence and is valid in the limit of a small amplitude turbulent spectrum, or for not too small initial separation of the particles. The third regime, appearing for long times, describes the diffusion of independent particles at very large separations. Its existence is ensured by the nonlinear renormalization of the propagators. The second, intermediate, regime appears in a stochastic treatment of the renormalization effect for particles with a very small spatial and velocity difference, and describes Dupree's clumps diffusion. The appearance of the corresponding regime is similar to that of the Suzuki scaling regime of non-linear Langevin equations. It is also shown that the clumps have a behaviour similar to an intrinsic stochasticity, but which is of extrinsic nature. Similar failure of the quasi-linear approximation for spacific velocity domains has been previously studied and solved for classical Landau collisions, as well as for pitch angle diffusion where renormalization effects have been proved also to be important

  2. Dense-gas dispersion advection-diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    A dense-gas version of the ADPIC particle-in-cell, advection- diffusion model was developed to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of denser-than-air releases. In developing the model, it was assumed that the dense-gas effects could be described in terms of the vertically-averaged thermodynamic properties and the local height of the cloud. The dense-gas effects were treated as a perturbation to the ambient thermodynamic properties (density and temperature), ground level heat flux, turbulence level (diffusivity), and windfield (gravity flow) within the local region of the dense-gas cloud. These perturbations were calculated from conservation of energy and conservation of momentum principles along with the ideal gas law equation of state for a mixture of gases. ADPIC, which is generally run in conjunction with a mass-conserving wind flow model to provide the advection field, contains all the dense-gas modifications within it. This feature provides the versatility of coupling the new dense-gas ADPIC with alternative wind flow models. The new dense-gas ADPIC has been used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of ground-level, colder-than-ambient, denser-than-air releases and has compared favorably with the results of field-scale experiments

  3. DENSE MATCHING COMPARISON BETWEEN CENSUS AND A CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHM FOR PLANT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction of plants is hard to implement, as the complex leaf distribution highly increases the difficulty level in dense matching. Semi-Global Matching has been successfully applied to recover the depth information of a scene, but may perform variably when different matching cost algorithms are used. In this paper two matching cost computation algorithms, Census transform and an algorithm using a convolutional neural network, are tested for plant reconstruction based on Semi-Global Matching. High resolution close-range photogrammetric images from a handheld camera are used for the experiment. The disparity maps generated based on the two selected matching cost methods are comparable with acceptable quality, which shows the good performance of Census and the potential of neural networks to improve the dense matching.

  4. Quantized Arnold cat maps can be entropic K systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1991-01-01

    Automorphisms on the irrational rotation algebra with respect to their ergodic properties are studied. Especially it is shown that for a dense set of the rotation parameter θ cat maps are entropic K systems. (Author)

  5. Methane clumped isotopes in the Songliao Basin (China): New insights into abiotic vs. biotic hydrocarbon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Etiope, Giuseppe; Zhang, Shuichang; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Huang, Ling; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Abiotic hydrocarbon gas, typically generated in serpentinized ultramafic rocks and crystalline shields, has important implications for the deep biosphere, petroleum systems, the carbon cycle and astrobiology. Distinguishing abiotic gas (produced by chemical reactions like Sabatier synthesis) from biotic gas (produced from degradation of organic matter or microbial activity) is sometimes challenging because their isotopic and molecular composition may overlap. Abiotic gas has been recognized in numerous locations on the Earth, although there are no confirmed instances where it is the dominant source of commercially valuable quantities in reservoir rocks. The deep hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Xujiaweizi Depression in the Songliao Basin (China) have been considered to host significant amounts of abiotic methane. Here we report methane clumped-isotope values (Δ18) and the isotopic composition of C1-C3 alkanes, CO2 and helium of five gas samples collected from those Xujiaweizi deep reservoirs. Some geochemical features of these samples resemble previously suggested identifiers of abiotic gas (13C-enriched CH4; decrease in 13C/12C ratio with increasing carbon number for the C1-C4 alkanes; abundant, apparently non-biogenic CO2; and mantle-derived helium). However, combining these constraints with new measurements of the clumped-isotope composition of methane and careful consideration of the geological context, suggests that the Xujiaweizi depression gas is dominantly, if not exclusively, thermogenic and derived from over-mature source rocks, i.e., from catagenesis of buried organic matter at high temperatures. Methane formation temperatures suggested by clumped-isotopes (167-213 °C) are lower than magmatic gas generation processes and consistent with the maturity of local source rocks. Also, there are no geological conditions (e.g., serpentinized ultramafic rocks) that may lead to high production of H2 and thus abiotic production of CH4 via CO2 reduction. We propose

  6. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: A FIRST LOOK AT DENSE CORES IN ORION B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, H.; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D. [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Sadavoy, S.; Mottram, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Buckle, J.; Salji, C. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fich, M.; Tisi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nutter, D.; Quinn, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Pattle, K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Pineda, J. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching (Germany); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); and others

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1–2 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  7. Nonparametric functional mapping of quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Rongling; Casella, George

    2009-03-01

    Functional mapping is a useful tool for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control dynamic traits. It incorporates mathematical aspects of biological processes into the mixture model-based likelihood setting for QTL mapping, thus increasing the power of QTL detection and the precision of parameter estimation. However, in many situations there is no obvious functional form and, in such cases, this strategy will not be optimal. Here we propose to use nonparametric function estimation, typically implemented with B-splines, to estimate the underlying functional form of phenotypic trajectories, and then construct a nonparametric test to find evidence of existing QTL. Using the representation of a nonparametric regression as a mixed model, the final test statistic is a likelihood ratio test. We consider two types of genetic maps: dense maps and general maps, and the power of nonparametric functional mapping is investigated through simulation studies and demonstrated by examples.

  8. Optimising the Number of Replicate- Versus Standard Measurements for Carbonate Clumped Isotope Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, I.; Ziegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Clumped isotope measurements on carbonates are a quickly developing and promising palaeothermometry proxy1-3. Developments in the field have brought down the necessary sample amount and improved the precision and accuracy of the measurements. The developments have included inter-laboratory comparison and the introduction of an absolute reference frame4, determination of acid fractionation effects5, correction for the pressure baseline6, as well as improved temperature calibrations2, and most recently new approaches to improve efficiency in terms of sample gas usage7. However, a large-scale application of clumped isotope thermometry is still hampered by required large sample amounts, but also the time-consuming analysis. In general, a lot of time is goes into the measurement of standards. Here we present a study on the optimal ratio between standard- and sample measurements using the Kiel Carbonate Device method. We also consider the optimal initial signal intensity. We analyse ETH-standard measurements from several months to determine the measurement regime with the highest precision and optimised measurement time management.References 1. Eiler, J. M. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 262, 309-327 (2007).2. Kelson, J. R., et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 197, 104-131 (2017).3. Kele, S. et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 168, 172-192 (2015).4. Dennis, K. J. et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 7117-7131 (2011).5. Müller, I. A. et al. Chem. Geol. 449, 1-14 (2017).6. Meckler, A. N. et al. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28, 1705-1715 (2014).7. Hu, B. et al. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28, 1413-1425 (2014).

  9. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Clumped-isotope” thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope “clumps”). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals.We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect.Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3− and CO32−. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many

  10. FttC-Based Fronthaul for 5G Dense/Ultra-Dense Access Network: Performance and Costs in Realistic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mazzenga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to terminals. However, the deployment of dense/ultra-dense networks is slowed down by the cost of the fiber-based infrastructure required to connect radio nodes to the central processing units and then to the core network. In this paper, we investigate the possibility for existing FttC access networks to provide fronthaul capabilities for dense/ultra-dense 5G wireless networks. The analysis is realistic in that it is carried out considering an actual access network scenario, i.e., the Italian FttC deployment. It is assumed that access nodes are connected to the Cabinets and to the corresponding distributors by a number of copper pairs. Different types of cities grouped in terms of population have been considered. Results focus on fronthaul transport capacity provided by the FttC network and have been expressed in terms of the available fronthaul bit rate per node and of the achievable coverage.

  11. An ultra-dense integrated linkage map for hexaploid chrysanthemum enables multi-allelic QTL analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert; Bourke, Peter M.; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Marasek-Ciolakowska, Agnieszka; Liao, Yanlin; Post, Aike; Meeteren, van Uulke; Visser, Richard G.F.; Maliepaard, Chris; Arens, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Key message: We constructed the first integrated genetic linkage map in a polysomic hexaploid. This enabled us to estimate inheritance of parental haplotypes in the offspring and detect multi-allelic QTL.Abstract: Construction and use of linkage maps are challenging in hexaploids with polysomic

  12. Astronomer's new guide to the galaxy: largest map of cold dust revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    -wave camera on the ESO-operated APEX telescope. APEX is located at an altitude of 5100 m on the arid plateau of Chajnantor in the Chilean Andes -- a site that allows optimal viewing in the submillimetre range. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimetre wavelengths, as extremely dry atmospheric conditions and advanced detector technology are required for such observations. The interstellar medium -- the material between the stars -- is composed of gas and grains of cosmic dust, rather like fine sand or soot. However, the gas is mostly hydrogen and relatively difficult to detect, so astronomers often search for these dense regions by looking for the faint heat glow of the cosmic dust grains. Submillimetre light allows astronomers to see these dust clouds shining, even though they obscure our view of the Universe at visible light wavelengths. Accordingly, the ATLASGAL map includes the denser central regions of our galaxy, in the direction of the constellation of Sagittarius -- home to a supermassive black hole (ESO 46/08) -- that are otherwise hidden behind a dark shroud of dust clouds. The newly released map also reveals thousands of dense dust clumps, many never seen before, which mark the future birthplaces of massive stars. The clumps are typically a couple of light-years in size, and have masses of between ten and a few thousand times the mass of our Sun. In addition, ATLASGAL has captured images of beautiful filamentary structures and bubbles in the interstellar medium, blown by supernovae and the winds of bright stars. Some striking highlights of the map include the centre of the Milky Way, the nearby massive and dense cloud of molecular gas called Sagittarius B2, and a bubble of expanding gas called RCW120, where the interstellar medium around the bubble is collapsing and forming new stars (see ESO 40/08). "It's exciting to get our first look at ATLASGAL, and we will be increasing the size of the map over the next year to cover all of the galactic plane

  13. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  14. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  15. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  16. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  17. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  18. Unified approach to dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N c limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons

  19. Heat conduction boundary layers of condensed clumps in cooling flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, H.; Fabian, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    The structure of heat conduction boundary layers of gaseous condensations embedded in the hot intergalactic gas in clusters of galaxies is investigated by means of steady, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic models. It is assumed that heat conduction is effective only on scales much smaller than the total region of the cooling flow. Models are calculated for an arbitrary scaling factor, accounting for the reduction in heat conduction efficiency compared to the classical Spitzer case. The results imply a lower limit to the size spectrum of the condensations. The enhancement of cooling in the ambient medium due to heat conduction losses is calculated for a range of clump parameters. The luminosity of several observable emission lines, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray emission spectrum, and the column density of some important ions are determined for the model boundary layers and compared with observations. (author)

  20. ALMA constraints on star-forming gas in a prototypical z = 1.5 clumpy galaxy: the dearth of CO(5-4) emission from UV-bright clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibinel, A.; Daddi, E.; Bournaud, F.; Sargent, M. T.; le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G. E.; Pannella, M.; Rujopakarn, W.; Juneau, S.; Zanella, A.; Duc, P.-A.; Oesch, P. A.; Elbaz, D.; Jagannathan, P.; Nyland, K.; Wang, T.

    2017-08-01

    We present deep ALMA CO(5-4) observations of a main-sequence, clumpy galaxy at z = 1.5 in the HUDF. Thanks to the ˜0{^''.}5 resolution of the ALMA data, we can link stellar population properties to the CO(5-4) emission on scales of a few kiloparsec. We detect strong CO(5-4) emission from the nuclear region of the galaxy, consistent with the observed LIR-L^' }_CO(5-4) correlation and indicating ongoing nuclear star formation. The CO(5-4) gas component appears more concentrated than other star formation tracers or the dust distribution in this galaxy. We discuss possible implications of this difference in terms of star formation efficiency and mass build-up at the galaxy centre. Conversely, we do not detect any CO(5-4) emission from the UV-bright clumps. This might imply that clumps have a high star formation efficiency (although they do not display unusually high specific star formation rates) and are not entirely gas dominated, with gas fractions no larger than that of their host galaxy (˜50 per cent). Stellar feedback and disc instability torques funnelling gas towards the galaxy centre could contribute to the relatively low gas content. Alternatively, clumps could fall in a more standard star formation efficiency regime if their actual star formation rates are lower than generally assumed. We find that clump star formation rates derived with several different, plausible methods can vary by up to an order of magnitude. The lowest estimates would be compatible with a CO(5-4) non-detection even for main-sequence like values of star formation efficiency and gas content.

  1. THE SPLIT RED CLUMP OF THE GALACTIC BULGE FROM OGLE-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataf, D. M.; Gould, A.; Stanek, K. Z.; Udalski, A.; Fouque, P.

    2010-01-01

    The red clump (RC) is found to be split into two components along several sightlines toward the Galactic bulge. This split is detected with high significance toward the areas (-3.5 < l < 1, b < -5) and (l, b) = (0, + 5.2), i.e., along the bulge minor axis and at least 5 deg off the plane. The fainter (hereafter 'main') component is the one that more closely follows the distance-longitude relation of the bulge RC. The main component is ∼0.5 mag fainter than the secondary component and with an overall approximately equal population. For sightlines further from the plane, the difference in brightness increases, and more stars are found in the secondary component than in the main component. The two components have very nearly equal (V - I) color.

  2. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yinghe [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Gao Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Werf, Paul van der [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zhang Zhi-Yu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zhaoyinghe@ynao.ac.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2017-08-10

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ∼34 pc) observations of the CO (6−5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μ m dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6−5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6−5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ∼10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa- α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ∼ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ∼34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s{sup −1} (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel .

  3. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  4. Outflows, dusty cores, and a burst of star formation in the North America and Pelican nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Probst, Ron [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stringfellow, Guy S., E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: aginsburg@eso.org, E-mail: probst@noao.edu, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: yshirley@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: Guy.Stringfellow@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The 'Gulf of Mexico', located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M {sub ☉} BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An 'activity index' formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  5. Efficient generation of 3D surfel maps using RGB–D sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkowski Artur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of building dense 3D occupancy maps using commercial RGB-D sensors and the SLAM approach. In particular, it addresses the problem of 3D map representations, which must be able both to store millions of points and to offer efficient update mechanisms. The proposed solution consists of two such key elements, visual odometry and surfel-based mapping, but it contains substantial improvements: storing the surfel maps in octree form and utilizing a frustum culling-based method to accelerate the map update step. The performed experiments verify the usefulness and efficiency of the developed system.

  6. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  7. Power Generation from Concentration Gradient by Reverse Electrodialysis in Dense Silica Membranes for Microfluidic and Nanofluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate power generation by reverse electrodialysis in a dense silica membrane that is between two NaCl solutions with various combinations of concentrations. Each silica membrane is fabricated by depositing a silica layer on a porous alumina substrate via chemical vapor deposition. The measured potential-current (V-I characteristics of the silica membrane are used to obtain the transference number, diffusion potential, and electrical resistance. We develop empirical correlations for the transference number and the area-specific resistance, and present the results of power generation by reverse electrodialysis using the fabricated silica membranes. The highest measured power density is 0.98 mW/m2. In addition, we develop a contour map of the power density as a function of NaCl concentrations on the basis of the empirical correlations. The contour map shows that a power output density of 1.2 mW/m2 is achievable with the use of silica membranes and is sufficient to drive nanofluidic and microfluidic systems. The dense silica membrane has the potential for use in micro power generators in nanofluidic and microfluidic systems.

  8. System and method for image mapping and visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, II, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method is described for mapping dense sensory data to a Sensory Ego Sphere (SES). Methods are also described for finding and ranking areas of interest in the images that form a complete visual scene on an SES. Further, attentional processing of image data is best done by performing attentional processing on individual full-size images from the image sequence, mapping each attentional location to the nearest node, and then summing all attentional locations at each node.

  9. Hadrons in dense matter. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buballa, M.; Noerenberg, W.; Schaefer, B.J.; Wambach, J.

    2000-03-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Elementary hadronic reactions, Delta dynamics in nuclei, in-medium s-wave ππ-correlations, strangeness in hot and dense matter, medium modifications of vector mesons and dilepton production, medium modifications of charmonium, thermal properties of hot and dense hadronic matter, nuclear matter, spectral functions and QCD sum rules

  10. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Charmandaris, Vassilis; van der Werf, Paul; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Cao, Chen

    2017-08-01

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ˜34 pc) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6-5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6-5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ˜10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa-α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ˜ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ˜34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s-1 (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic Mapping in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Phan, Alexander C.; Naeemuddin, Mohammed; Mapa, Felipa A.; Ruddy, David A.; Ryan, Jessica J.; Young, Lynn M.; Wells, Trent; Kopczynski, Casey; Ellis, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly a century, genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool for analyzing gene function, yet Drosophila lacks the molecular genetic mapping tools that recently have revolutionized human, mouse, and plant genetics. Here, we describe the systematic characterization of a dense set of molecular markers in Drosophila by using a sequence tagged site-based physical map of the genome. We identify 474 biallelic markers in standard laboratory strains of Drosophila that sp...

  12. Dolomite clumped isotope constraints on the oxygen isotope composition of the Phanerozoic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, U.; Eiler, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The δ18O value of the Phanerozoic Sea has been debated several decades, largely motivated by an 8‰ increase in δ18O of sedimentary carbonates between the Cambrian and the present. Some previous studies have interpreted this increase to be a primary depositional signal, resulting from an increase in the 18O content of ocean water over time, or from a decrease in ocean temperature increasing the oxygen isotope fractionation between seawater and carbonates. In contrast, other studies have interpreted lower δ18O compositions as the products of diagenetic alteration at elevated burial temperatures. Here, we show that the Phanerozoic dolomite δ18O record overlaps with that of well-preserved calcite fossils, and use carbonate clumped isotope measurements of Cambrian to Pleistocene dolomites to calculate their formation temperatures and the isotopic compositions of their parent-waters. The observed variation in dolomite δ18O is largely explained by dolomite formation at burial temperatures of up to 158°C. The δ18O values of dolomite parent-waters range -2 to +12‰ and are correlated with formation temperatures. Such correlation is consistent with the modification of seawater (0±2‰, VSMOW) toward isotopically heavier compositions through water-rock reactions at elevated burial temperatures. The similarity between the dolomite and calcite δ18O records, and published clumped isotope-based calculations of water compositions, suggests that like dolomite, temporal variations of the calcite δ18O record may also be largely driven by diagenetic alteration. Finally, the relationship we observe between temperature of dolomitization and d18O of dolomite suggests platform carbonates generally undergo dolomitization through reaction with modified marine waters, and that there is no evidence those waters were ever significantly lower in d18O than the modern ocean.

  13. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium controls on the abundances of clumped isotopologues of methane during thermogenic formation in laboratory experiments: Implications for the chemistry of pyrolysis and the origins of natural gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Douglas, Peter M.J.; Zhang, Shuichang; Stolper, Daniel A.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lawson, Michael; Lewan, Michael; Formolo, Michael; Mi, Jingkui; He, Kun; Hu, Guoyi; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Multiply isotopically substituted molecules (‘clumped’ isotopologues) can be used as geothermometers because their proportions at isotopic equilibrium relative to a random distribution of isotopes amongst all isotopologues are functions of temperature. This has allowed measurements of clumped-isotope abundances to be used to constrain formation temperatures of several natural materials. However, kinetic processes during generation, modification, or transport of natural materials can also affect their clumped-isotope compositions. Herein, we show that methane generated experimentally by closed-system hydrous pyrolysis of shale or nonhydrous pyrolysis of coal yields clumped-isotope compositions consistent with an equilibrium distribution of isotopologues under some experimental conditions (temperature–time conditions corresponding to ‘low,’ ‘mature,’ and ‘over-mature’ stages of catagenesis), but can have non-equilibrium (i.e., kinetically controlled) distributions under other experimental conditions (‘high’ to ‘over-mature’ stages), particularly for pyrolysis of coal. Non-equilibrium compositions, when present, lead the measured proportions of clumped species to be lower than expected for equilibrium at the experimental temperature, and in some cases to be lower than a random distribution of isotopes (i.e., negative Δ18 values). We propose that the consistency with equilibrium for methane formed by relatively low temperature pyrolysis reflects local reversibility of isotope exchange reactions involving a reactant or transition state species during demethylation of one or more components of kerogen. Non-equilibrium clumped-isotope compositions occur under conditions where ‘secondary’ cracking of retained oil in shale or wet gas hydrocarbons (C2-5, especially ethane) in coal is prominent. We suggest these non-equilibrium isotopic compositions are the result of the expression of kinetic isotope effects during the irreversible generation

  14. A novel in vitro model for hematogenous spreading of S. aureus device biofilms demonstrating clumping dispersal as an advantageous dissemination mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnemose, Rasmus Birkholm; Lindhardt Sæderup (Madsen), Kirstine; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is able to disseminate from vascular device biofilms to the blood and organs, resulting in life-threatening infections such as endocarditis. The mechanisms behind spreading are largely unknown, especially how the bacterium escapes immune effectors and antibiotics in the proc......Staphylococcus aureus is able to disseminate from vascular device biofilms to the blood and organs, resulting in life-threatening infections such as endocarditis. The mechanisms behind spreading are largely unknown, especially how the bacterium escapes immune effectors and antibiotics...... the ability to adhere to and initiate colonization of endothelial cell layers under flow. In vivo experiments showed that the released biofilm material reached the heart similarly as ordinary broth-grown bacteria, but also that clumps to some extend were trapped in the lungs. The clumping dispersal of S....... aureus from in vivo-like vascular biofilms and their specific properties demonstrated here help explain the pathophysiology associated with S. aureus bloodstream infections....

  15. Interference Coordination for Dense Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2015-01-01

    and dense deployment in Tokyo are compared. Evolution to DenseNets offers new opportunities for further development of downlink interference cooperation techniques. Various mechanisms in LTE and LTE-Advanced are revisited. Some techniques try to anticipate the future in a proactive way, whereas others......The promise of ubiquitous and super-fast connectivity for the upcoming years will be in large part fulfilled by the addition of base stations and spectral aggregation. The resulting very dense networks (DenseNets) will face a number of technical challenges. Among others, the interference emerges...... as an old acquaintance with new significance. As a matter of fact, the interference conditions and the role of aggressor and victim depend to a large extent on the density and the scenario. To illustrate this, downlink interference statistics for different 3GPP simulation scenarios and a more irregular...

  16. Mapping of traditional settlements by unmanned airborne vehicles towards architectural restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Skoutelis, Nikolaos; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Tsatsarounos, Stelios; Tsitonaki, Anna; Zervos, Panagiotis

    2015-06-01

    Conservation and restoration of traditional settlements are amongst the actions that international directives proclaim in order to protect our cultural heritage. Towards this end, a mandatory base step in all archaeological and historical practices includes the surveying and mapping of the study area. Often, new, unexplored or abandoned settlements are considered, where dense vegetation, damaged structures and ruins, incorporation of newer structures and renovation characteristics make the precise surveying procedure a labor intensive and time consuming procedure. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) have been effectively incorporated into several cultural heritage projects mainly for mapping archeological sites. However, the majority of relevant publications lack of quantitative evaluation of their results and when such a validation is provided it is rather a procedural error estimation readily available from the software used, without independent ground truth verification. In this study, a low-cost custom-built hexacopter prototype was employed to deliver accurate mapping of the traditional settlement of Kamariotis in east Crete, Greece. The case of Kamariotis settlement included highly dense urban structures with continuous building forms, curved walls and missing terraces, while wild vegetation made classic geodetic surveying unfeasible. The resulting maps were qualitatively compared against the ones derived using Google Earth and the Greek Cadastral Orthophoto Viewing platforms to evaluate their applicability for architectural mapping. Moreover, the overall precision of the photogrammetric procedure was compared against geodetic surveying.

  17. Clumped isotopologue constraints on the origin of methane at seafloor hot springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David T.; Reeves, Eoghan P.; McDermott, Jill M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Ono, Shuhei

    2018-02-01

    Hot-spring fluids emanating from deep-sea vents hosted in unsedimented ultramafic and mafic rock commonly contain high concentrations of methane. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed for the origin(s) of this methane, ranging from synthesis via reduction of aqueous inorganic carbon (∑CO2) during active fluid circulation to leaching of methane-rich fluid inclusions from plutonic rocks of the oceanic crust. To further resolve the process(es) responsible for methane generation in these systems, we determined the relative abundances of several methane isotopologues (including 13CH3D, a "clumped" isotopologue containing two rare isotope substitutions) in hot-spring source fluids sampled from four geochemically-distinct hydrothermal vent fields (Rainbow, Von Damm, Lost City, and Lucky Strike). Apparent equilibrium temperatures retrieved from methane clumped isotopologue analyses average 310-42+53 °C, with no apparent relation to the wide range of fluid temperatures (96-370 °C) and chemical compositions (pH, [H2], [∑CO2], [CH4]) represented. Combined with very similar bulk stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and D/H) of methane across the suite of hydrothermal fluids, all available geochemical and isotopic data suggest a common mechanism of methane generation at depth that is disconnected from active fluid circulation. Attainment of equilibrium amongst methane isotopologues at temperatures of ca. 270-360 °C is compatible with the thermodynamically-favorable reduction of CO2 to CH4 at temperatures at or below ca. 400 °C under redox conditions characterizing intrusive rocks derived from sub-ridge melts. Collectively, the observations support a model where methane-rich aqueous fluids, known to be trapped in rocks of the oceanic lithosphere, are liberated from host rocks during hydrothermal circulation and perhaps represent the major source of methane venting with thermal waters at unsedimented hydrothermal fields. The results also provide further evidence that water

  18. 95 GHz methanol masers near DR 21 and DR 21(OH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plambeck, R.L.; Menten, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    The BIMA array is used to map the 95-GHz 8(0) to 7 1A(+) transition of methanol and the 98-GHz J = 2-1 transition of CS toward the DR 21(OH) and DR 21 star-forming regions. Several strong methanol masers were found. The positions of the two brightest masers were measured with an accuracy of about + or - 0.3 arcsec. Toward DR 21(OH), the positions, velocities, and line shapes of the 95 GHz masers are in excellent agreement with those of the 84-GHz 5(-1) to 4 () methanol masers previously mapped by Batrla and Menten (1988), demonstrating that maser emission in both transitions originates from the same clumps of gas. The methanol masers are offset from CS emission peaks and from other known infrared and maser sources; they may possibly be clustered along the interface between outflows, traced by shock-excited H2 emission, and dense ambient gas, traced by CS emission. 25 refs

  19. In-vitro morphogenesis of corn (Zea mays L.) : I. Differentiation of multiple shoot clumps and somatic embryos from shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H; Srinivasan, C; Sticklen, M B

    1992-07-01

    In-vitro methods have been developed to regenerate clumps of multiple shoots and somatic embryos at high frequency from shoot tips of aseptically-grown seedlings as well as from shoot apices of precociously-germinated immature zygotic embryos of corn (Zea mays L.). About 500 shoots were produced from a shoot tip after eight weeks of culture (primary culture and one subculture of four weeks) in darkness on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (MS) supplemented with 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate (CH) and 9 μM N(6)-benzyladenine (BA). In this medium, shoots formed in shoot tips as tightly packed "multiple shoot clumps" (MSC), which were composed of some axillary shoots and many adventitious shoots. When the shoot tips were cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 9 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), most of the shoots in the clumps were adventitious in origin. Similar shoot tips cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 4.5 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-D regenerated many somatic embryos within eight weeks of culture. Somatic embryos were produced either directly from the shoot apical meristems or from calli derived from the shoots apices. Both the MSC and the embryos produced normal shoots on MS medium containing 2.25 μM BA and 1.8 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). These shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 3.6 μM IBA, and fertile corn plants were grown in the greenhouse. The sweet-corn genotype, Honey N Pearl, was used for the experiments described above, but shoot-tip cultures from all of 19 other corn genotypes tested also formed MSC on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH and 9 μM BA.

  20. Infrared extinction in the inner Milky Way through red clump giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Fernández, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Garzón, F.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Hammersley, P. L.

    2014-01-01

    While the shape of the extinction curve in the infrared is considered to be set and the extinction ratios between infrared bands are usually taken to be approximately constant, a number of recent studies point to either a spatially variable behavior of the exponent of the power law or a different extinction law altogether. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze the overall behavior of the interstellar extinction by means of the red-clump population, and we apply it to those areas of the Milky Way where the presence of interstellar matter is heavily felt: areas located in 5° < l < 30° and b = 0°. We show that the extinction ratios traditionally used for the near infrared could be inappropriate for the inner Galaxy and we analyze the behavior of the extinction law from 1 μm to 8 μm.

  1. Infrared extinction in the inner Milky Way through red clump giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Fernández, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Garzón, F.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Hammersley, P. L., E-mail: carlos.gonzalez@ua.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-02-20

    While the shape of the extinction curve in the infrared is considered to be set and the extinction ratios between infrared bands are usually taken to be approximately constant, a number of recent studies point to either a spatially variable behavior of the exponent of the power law or a different extinction law altogether. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze the overall behavior of the interstellar extinction by means of the red-clump population, and we apply it to those areas of the Milky Way where the presence of interstellar matter is heavily felt: areas located in 5° < l < 30° and b = 0°. We show that the extinction ratios traditionally used for the near infrared could be inappropriate for the inner Galaxy and we analyze the behavior of the extinction law from 1 μm to 8 μm.

  2. Kepler red-clump stars in the field and in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossini, D.; Miglio, A.; Salaris, M.

    2017-01-01

    Convective mixing in helium-core-burning (HeCB) stars is one of the outstanding issues in stellar modelling. The precise asteroseismic measurements of gravity-mode period spacing (Delta Pi(1)) have opened the door to detailed studies of the near-core structure of such stars, which had not been...... possible before. Here, we provide stringent tests of various core-mixing scenarios against the largely unbiased population of red-clump stars belonging to the old-open clusters monitored by Kepler, and by coupling the updated precise inference on Delta Pi(1) in thousands of field stars with spectroscopic...... constraints. We find that models with moderate overshooting successfully reproduce the range observed of Delta Pi(1) in clusters. In particular, we show that there is no evidence for the need to extend the size of the adiabatically stratified core, at least at the beginning of the HeCB phase. This conclusion...

  3. Red Clump stars in Kepler open cluster NGC 6819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedigamba O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the large frequency separation, Δν, and the frequency of maximum amplitude, νmax, for 10 Red Clump (RC single member (SM stars in the Kepler open cluster NGC 6819. We derive luminosities and masses for each individual RC star. A comparison of the observations with an isochrone of Age = 2.5 Gyr, Z = 0.017 with no mass loss using a statistical techniques is made. A fractional mass loss of 5 ± 3 percent is obtained if we assume that no correction to Δν between RC and red-giant branch (RGB is necessary. However, models suggest that an effective correction of about 1.9 percent in Δν is required to obtain the correct mass of RC stars owing to the different internal structures of stars in the two evolutionary stages. In this case we find that the mass loss in the red giant branch is not significantly different from zero. This finding confirms that of [6]. It is clear that the mass estimate obtained by asteroseismology is not sufficient to deduce the mass loss on the red giant branch. However, it is clearly only a few percent at most.

  4. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  5. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  6. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Observations of Hierarchical Dense Gas Structures in Cepheus-L1251

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Jared; Di Francesco, James; Kirk, Helen; Friesen, Rachel K.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Ginsburg, Adam; Offner, Stella S. R.; Caselli, Paola; Alves, Felipe; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Punanova, Anna; Redaelli, Elena; Seo, Young Min; Matzner, Christopher D.; Chun-Yuan Chen, Michael; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Chen, How-Huan; Shirley, Yancy; Singh, Ayushi; Arce, Hector G.; Martin, Peter; Myers, Philip C.

    2017-11-01

    We use Green Bank Ammonia Survey observations of NH3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) emission with 32″ FWHM resolution from a ˜10 pc2 portion of the Cepheus-L1251 molecular cloud to identify hierarchical dense gas structures. Our dendrogram analysis of the NH3 data results in 22 top-level structures, which reside within 13 lower-level parent structures. The structures are compact (0.01 {pc}≲ {R}{eff}≲ 0.1 {pc}) and are spatially correlated with the highest H2 column density portions of the cloud. We also compare the ammonia data to a catalog of dense cores identified by higher-resolution (18.″2 FWHM) Herschel Space Observatory observations of dust continuum emission from Cepheus-L1251. Maps of kinetic gas temperature, velocity dispersion, and NH3 column density, derived from detailed modeling of the NH3 data, are used to investigate the stability and chemistry of the ammonia-identified and Herschel-identified structures. We show that the dust and dense gas in the structures have similar temperatures, with median T dust and T K measurements of 11.7 ± 1.1 K and 10.3 ± 2.0 K, respectively. Based on a virial analysis, we find that the ammonia-identified structures are gravitationally dominated, yet may be in or near a state of virial equilibrium. Meanwhile, the majority of the Herschel-identified dense cores appear to be not bound by their own gravity and instead confined by external pressure. CCS (20 - 10) and HC5N (9-8) emission from the region reveal broader line widths and centroid velocity offsets when compared to the NH3 (1, 1) emission in some cases, likely due to these carbon-based molecules tracing the turbulent outer layers of the dense cores.

  7. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  8. Recessive NRL mutations in patients with clumped pigmentary retinal degeneration and relative preservation of blue cone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Koji M; Friedman, James S; Sandberg, Michael A; Swaroop, Anand; Berson, Eliot L; Dryja, Thaddeus P

    2004-12-21

    Mice lacking the transcription factor Nrl have no rod photoreceptors and an increased number of short-wavelength-sensitive cones. Missense mutations in NRL are associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa; however, the phenotype associated with the loss of NRL function in humans has not been reported. We identified two siblings who carried two allelic mutations: a predicted null allele (L75fs) and a missense mutation (L160P) altering a highly conserved residue in the domain involved in DNA-binding-site recognition. In vitro luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the NRL-L160P mutant had severely reduced transcriptional activity compared with the WT NRL protein, consistent with a severe loss of function. The affected patients had night blindness since early childhood, consistent with a severe reduction in rod function. Color vision was normal, suggesting the presence of all cone color types; nevertheless, a comparison of central visual fields evaluated with white-on-white and blue-on-yellow light stimuli was consistent with a relatively enhanced function of short-wavelength-sensitive cones in the macula. The fundi had signs of retinal degeneration (such as vascular attenuation) and clusters of large, clumped, pigment deposits in the peripheral fundus at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium (clumped pigmentary retinal degeneration). Our report presents an unusual clinical phenotype in humans with loss-of-function mutations in NRL.

  9. Automated CO2 extraction from air for clumped isotope analysis in the atmo- and biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Magdalena; Ziegler, Martin; Pons, Thijs; Lourens, Lucas; Röckmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The conventional stable isotope ratios 13C/12C and 18O/16O in atmospheric CO2 are a powerful tool for unraveling the global carbon cycle. In recent years, it has been suggested that the abundance of the very rare isotopologue 13C18O16O on m/z 47 might be a promising tracer to complement conventional stable isotope analysis of atmospheric CO2 [Affek and Eiler, 2006; Affek et al. 2007; Eiler and Schauble, 2004; Yeung et al., 2009]. Here we present an automated analytical system that is designed for clumped isotope analysis of atmo- and biospheric CO2. The carbon dioxide gas is quantitatively extracted from about 1.5L of air (ATP). The automated stainless steel extraction and purification line consists of three main components: (i) a drying unit (a magnesium perchlorate unit and a cryogenic water trap), (ii) two CO2 traps cooled with liquid nitrogen [Werner et al., 2001] and (iii) a GC column packed with Porapak Q that can be cooled with liquid nitrogen to -30°C during purification and heated up to 230°C in-between two extraction runs. After CO2 extraction and purification, the CO2 is automatically transferred to the mass spectrometer. Mass spectrometric analysis of the 13C18O16O abundance is carried out in dual inlet mode on a MAT 253 mass spectrometer. Each analysis generally consists of 80 change-over-cycles. Three additional Faraday cups were added to the mass spectrometer for simultaneous analysis of the mass-to-charge ratios 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 and 49. The reproducibility for δ13C, δ18O and Δ47 for repeated CO2 extractions from air is in the range of 0.11o (SD), 0.18o (SD) and 0.02 (SD)o respectively. This automated CO2 extraction and purification system will be used to analyse the clumped isotopic signature in atmospheric CO2 (tall tower, Cabauw, Netherlands) and to study the clumped isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis (leaf chamber experiments) and soil respiration. References Affek, H. P., Xu, X. & Eiler, J. M., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 5033

  10. Testing the universality of the star-formation efficiency in dense molecular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimajiri, Y.; André, Ph.; Braine, J.; Könyves, V.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Ladjelate, B.; Roy, A.; Gao, Y.; Chen, H.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Recent studies with, for example, Spitzer and Herschel have suggested that star formation in dense molecular gas may be governed by essentially the same "law" in Galactic clouds and external galaxies. This conclusion remains controversial, however, in large part because different tracers have been used to probe the mass of dense molecular gas in Galactic and extragalactic studies. Aims: We aimed to calibrate the HCN and HCO+ lines commonly used as dense gas tracers in extragalactic studies and to test the possible universality of the star-formation efficiency in dense gas (≳104 cm-3), SFEdense. Methods: We conducted wide-field mapping of the Aquila, Ophiuchus, and Orion B clouds at 0.04 pc resolution in the J = 1 - 0 transition of HCN, HCO+, and their isotopomers. For each cloud, we derived a reference estimate of the dense gas mass MHerschelAV > 8, as well as the strength of the local far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, using Herschel Gould Belt survey data products, and estimated the star-formation rate from direct counting of the number of Spitzer young stellar objects. Results: The H13CO+(1-0) and H13CN(1-0) lines were observed to be good tracers of the dense star-forming filaments detected with Herschel. Comparing the luminosities LHCN and LHCO+ measured in the HCN and HCO+ lines with the reference masses MHerschelAV > 8, the empirical conversion factors αHerschel - HCN (=MHerschelAV > 8/LHCN) and αHerschel - HCO+ (=MHerschelAV > 8/LHCO+) were found to be significantly anti-correlated with the local FUV strength. In agreement with a recent independent study of Orion B by Pety et al., the HCN and HCO+ lines were found to trace gas down to AV ≳ 2. As a result, published extragalactic HCN studies must be tracing all of the moderate density gas down to nH2 ≲ 103 cm-3. Estimating the contribution of this moderate density gas from the typical column density probability distribution functions in nearby clouds, we obtained the following G0

  11. RED CLUMP STARS IN THE SAGITTARIUS TIDAL STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Wilhelm, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    We have probed a section (l ∼ 150, b ∼ –60) of the trailing tidal arm of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy by identifying a sample of Red Clump (RC) stream stars. RC stars are not generally found in the halo field, but are found in significant numbers in both the Sagittarius galaxy and its tidal streams, making them excellent probes of stream characteristics. Our target sample was selected using photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 6, which was constrained in color to match the Sagittarius RC stars. Spectroscopic observations of the target stars were conducted at Kitt Peak National Observatory using the WIYN telescope. The resulting spectroscopic sample is magnitude limited and contains both main-sequence disk stars and evolved RC stars. We have developed a method to systematically separate these two stellar classes using kinematic information and a Bayesian approach for surface gravity determination. The resulting RC sample allows us to determine an absolute stellar density of ρ = 2.7 ± 0.5 RC stars kpc –3 at this location in the stream. Future measurements of stellar densities for a variety of populations and at various locations along the streams will lead to a much improved understanding of the original nature of the Sagittarius galaxy and the physical processes controlling its disruption and subsequent stream generation.

  12. TREMOR: A wireless MEMS accelerograph for dense arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.R.; Hamstra, R.H.; Kundig, C.; Camina, P.; Rogers, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a strong-motion network to resolve wavefields can be described on three axes: frequency, amplitude, and space. While the need for spatial resolution is apparent, for practical reasons that axis is often neglected. TREMOR is a MEMS-based accelerograph using wireless Internet to minimize lifecycle cost. TREMOR instruments can economically augment traditional ones, residing between them to improve spatial resolution. The TREMOR instrument described here has dynamic range of 96 dB between ??2 g, or 102 dB between ??4 g. It is linear to ???1% of full scale (FS), with a response function effectively shaped electronically. We developed an economical, very low noise, accurate (???1%FS) temperature compensation method. Displacement is easily recovered to 10-cm accuracy at full bandwidth, and better with care. We deployed prototype instruments in Oakland, California, beginning in 1998, with 13 now at mean spacing of ???3 km - one of the most densely instrumented urban centers in the United States. This array is among the quickest in returning (PGA, PGV, Sa) vectors to ShakeMap, ???75 to 100 s. Some 13 events have been recorded. A ShakeMap and an example of spatial variability are shown. Extensive tests of the prototypes for a commercial instrument are described here and in a companion paper. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  13. RESONANT CLUMPING AND SUBSTRUCTURE IN GALACTIC DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Matthew; Smith, Martin C.; Shen, Juntai; Evans, N. Wyn

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method to extract resonant orbits from N-body simulations, exploiting the fact that they close in frames rotating with a constant pattern speed. Our method is applied to the N-body simulation of the Milky Way by Shen et al. This simulation hosts a massive bar, which drives strong resonances and persistent angular momentum exchange. Resonant orbits are found throughout the disk, both close to the bar and out to the very edges of the disk. Using Fourier spectrograms, we demonstrate that the bar is driving kinematic substructure even in the very outer parts of the disk. We identify two major orbit families in the outskirts of the disk, one of which makes significant contributions to the kinematic landscape, namely, the m:l = 3:−2 family, resonating with the bar. A mechanism is described that produces bimodal distributions of Galactocentric radial velocities at selected azimuths in the outer disk. It occurs as a result of the temporal coherence of particles on the 3:−2 resonant orbits, which causes them to arrive simultaneously at pericenter or apocenter. This resonant clumping, due to the in-phase motion of the particles through their epicycle, leads to both inward and outward moving groups that belong to the same orbital family and consequently produce bimodal radial velocity distributions. This is a possible explanation of the bimodal velocity distributions observed toward the Galactic anticenter by Liu et al. Another consequence is that transient overdensities appear and dissipate (in a symmetric fashion), resulting in a periodic pulsing of the disk’s surface density

  14. RESONANT CLUMPING AND SUBSTRUCTURE IN GALACTIC DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, Matthew [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Smith, Martin C.; Shen, Juntai [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Evans, N. Wyn, E-mail: matthewmolloy@gmail.com, E-mail: msmith@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: jshen@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: nwe@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We describe a method to extract resonant orbits from N-body simulations, exploiting the fact that they close in frames rotating with a constant pattern speed. Our method is applied to the N-body simulation of the Milky Way by Shen et al. This simulation hosts a massive bar, which drives strong resonances and persistent angular momentum exchange. Resonant orbits are found throughout the disk, both close to the bar and out to the very edges of the disk. Using Fourier spectrograms, we demonstrate that the bar is driving kinematic substructure even in the very outer parts of the disk. We identify two major orbit families in the outskirts of the disk, one of which makes significant contributions to the kinematic landscape, namely, the m:l = 3:−2 family, resonating with the bar. A mechanism is described that produces bimodal distributions of Galactocentric radial velocities at selected azimuths in the outer disk. It occurs as a result of the temporal coherence of particles on the 3:−2 resonant orbits, which causes them to arrive simultaneously at pericenter or apocenter. This resonant clumping, due to the in-phase motion of the particles through their epicycle, leads to both inward and outward moving groups that belong to the same orbital family and consequently produce bimodal radial velocity distributions. This is a possible explanation of the bimodal velocity distributions observed toward the Galactic anticenter by Liu et al. Another consequence is that transient overdensities appear and dissipate (in a symmetric fashion), resulting in a periodic pulsing of the disk’s surface density.

  15. Mining connected global and local dense subgraphs for bigdata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Shen, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The problem of discovering connected dense subgraphs of natural graphs is important in data analysis. Discovering dense subgraphs that do not contain denser subgraphs or are not contained in denser subgraphs (called significant dense subgraphs) is also critical for wide-ranging applications. In spite of many works on discovering dense subgraphs, there are no algorithms that can guarantee the connectivity of the returned subgraphs or discover significant dense subgraphs. Hence, in this paper, we define two subgraph discovery problems to discover connected and significant dense subgraphs, propose polynomial-time algorithms and theoretically prove their validity. We also propose an algorithm to further improve the time and space efficiency of our basic algorithm for discovering significant dense subgraphs in big data by taking advantage of the unique features of large natural graphs. In the experiments, we use massive natural graphs to evaluate our algorithms in comparison with previous algorithms. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our algorithms for the two problems and their efficiency. This work is also the first that reveals the physical significance of significant dense subgraphs in natural graphs from different domains.

  16. Transport properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Naoki; Mitake, Shinichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ichimaru, Setsuo

    1983-01-01

    Transport coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities in particular, are essential physical quantities for the theories of stellar structure. Since the discoveries of pulsars and X-ray stars, an accurate evaluation of the transport coefficients in the dense matter has become indispensable to the quantitative understanding of the observed neutron stars. The authors present improved calculations of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the dense matter in the liquid metal phase, appropriate to white dwarfs and neutron stars. (Auth.)

  17. DENSE MOLECULAR CORES BEING EXTERNALLY HEATED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwanjeong; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Mi-Ryang [Radio Astronomy division, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Gopinathan, Maheswar [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital 263129 (India); Jeong, Woong-Seob, E-mail: archer81@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajungro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-20

    We present results of our study of eight dense cores, previously classified as starless, using infrared (3–160 μ m) imaging observations with the AKARI telescope and molecular line (HCN and N{sub 2}H{sup +}) mapping observations with the KVN telescope. Combining our results with the archival IR to millimeter continuum data, we examined the starless nature of these eight cores. Two of the eight cores are found to harbor faint protostars having luminosities of ∼0.3–4.4 L {sub ⊙}. The other six cores are found to remain starless and probably are in a dynamically transitional state. The temperature maps produced using multi-wavelength images show an enhancement of about 3–6 K toward the outer boundary of these cores, suggesting that they are most likely being heated externally by nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields. Large virial parameters and an overdominance of red asymmetric line profiles over the cores may indicate that the cores are set into either an expansion or an oscillatory motion, probably due to the external heating. Most of the starless cores show a coreshine effect due to the scattering of light by the micron-sized dust grains. This may imply that the age of the cores is of the order of ∼10{sup 5} years, which is consistent with the timescale required for the cores to evolve into an oscillatory stage due to external perturbation. Our observational results support the idea that the external feedback from nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of the cores.

  18. Temperature evolution and the oxygen isotope composition of Phanerozoic oceans from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Gregory A.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Shenton, Brock J.; Yancey, Thomas E.; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Surface temperature is among the most important parameters describing planetary climate and habitability, and yet there remains considerable debate about the temperature evolution of the Earth's oceans during the Phanerozoic Eon (541 million years ago to present), the time during which complex metazoan life radiated on Earth. Here we critically assess the emerging record of Phanerozoic ocean temperatures based on carbonate clumped isotope thermometry of fossil brachiopod and mollusk shells, and we present new data that fill important gaps in the Late Paleozoic record. We evaluate and reject the hypothesis that solid-state reordering of 13C-18O bonds has destroyed the primary clumped isotope temperature signal of most fossils during sedimentary burial at elevated temperatures. The resulting Phanerozoic record, which shows a general coupling between tropical seawater temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels since the Paleozoic, indicates that tropical temperatures during the icehouse climate of the Carboniferous period were broadly similar to present (∼25-30 °C), and suggests that benthic metazoans were able to thrive at temperatures of 35-40 °C during intervals of the early and possibly the latest Paleozoic when CO2 levels were likely 5-10× higher than present-day values. Equally important, there is no resolvable trend in seawater oxygen isotope ratios (δ18 O) over the past ∼500 million years, indicating that the average temperature of oxygen exchange between seawater and the oceanic crust has been high (∼270 °C) since at least the early Paleozoic, which points to mid-ocean ridges as the dominant locus of water-rock interaction over the past half-billion years.

  19. Fully polarimetric ALOS PALSAR data to aid geological mapping in densely vegetated areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of image data from space-borne or airborne sensors has been widely used to aid geological mapping. The advantages of using remotely sensed data are numerous and include the fact that large areas can be observed in a single observation...

  20. Construction of a dense genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci for economic traits of a doubled haploid population of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Huang, Long; Ji, Dehua; Chen, Changsheng; Zheng, Hongkun; Xie, Chaotian

    2015-09-21

    Pyropia haitanensis is one of the most economically important mariculture crops in China. A high-density genetic map has not been published yet and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has not been undertaken for P. haitanensis because of a lack of sufficient molecular markers. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was developed recently for large-scale, high resolution de novo marker discovery and genotyping. In this study, SLAF-seq was used to obtain mass length polymorphic markers to construct a high-density genetic map for P. haitanensis. In total, 120.33 Gb of data containing 75.21 M pair-end reads was obtained after sequencing. The average coverage for each SLAF marker was 75.50-fold in the male parent, 74.02-fold in the female parent, and 6.14-fold average in each double haploid individual. In total, 188,982 SLAFs were detected, of which 6731 were length polymorphic SLAFs that could be used to construct a genetic map. The final map included 4550 length polymorphic markers that were combined into 740 bins on five linkage groups, with a length of 874.33 cM and an average distance of 1.18 cM between adjacent bins. This map was used for QTL mapping to identify chromosomal regions associated with six economically important traits: frond length, width, thickness, fresh weight, growth rates of frond length and growth rates of fresh weight. Fifteen QTLs were identified for these traits. The value of phenotypic variance explained by an individual QTL ranged from 9.59 to 16.61 %, and the confidence interval of each QTL ranged from 0.97 cM to 16.51 cM. The first high-density genetic linkage map for P. haitanensis was constructed, and fifteen QTLs associated with six economically important traits were identified. The results of this study not only provide a platform for gene and QTL fine mapping, map-based gene isolation, and molecular breeding for P. haitanensis, but will also serve as a reference for positioning sequence scaffolds on a physical

  1. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  2. Identification of fine scale and landscape scale drivers of urban aboveground carbon stocks using high-resolution modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Johansen, Kasper; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive A; Wu, Dan; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2018-05-01

    Urban areas are sources of land use change and CO 2 emissions that contribute to global climate change. Despite this, assessments of urban vegetation carbon stocks often fail to identify important landscape-scale drivers of variation in urban carbon, especially the potential effects of landscape structure variables at different spatial scales. We combined field measurements with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data to build high-resolution models of woody plant aboveground carbon across the urban portion of Brisbane, Australia, and then identified landscape scale drivers of these carbon stocks. First, we used LiDAR data to quantify the extent and vertical structure of vegetation across the city at high resolution (5×5m). Next, we paired this data with aboveground carbon measurements at 219 sites to create boosted regression tree models and map aboveground carbon across the city. We then used these maps to determine how spatial variation in land cover/land use and landscape structure affects these carbon stocks. Foliage densities above 5m height, tree canopy height, and the presence of ground openings had the strongest relationships with aboveground carbon. Using these fine-scale relationships, we estimate that 2.2±0.4 TgC are stored aboveground in the urban portion of Brisbane, with mean densities of 32.6±5.8MgCha -1 calculated across the entire urban land area, and 110.9±19.7MgCha -1 calculated within treed areas. Predicted carbon densities within treed areas showed strong positive relationships with the proportion of surrounding tree cover and how clumped that tree cover was at both 1km 2 and 1ha resolutions. Our models predict that even dense urban areas with low tree cover can have high carbon densities at fine scales. We conclude that actions and policies aimed at increasing urban carbon should focus on those areas where urban tree cover is most fragmented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient retrieval of vegetation leaf area index and canopy clumping factor from satellite data to support pollutant deposition assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of the vegetation controlling pollutant uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy clumping factor from satellite data using observed Simple Ratios (SR) of near-infrared to red reflectance. The method employs numerical inversion of a physics-based analytical canopy radiative transfer model that simulates the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The algorithm is independent of ecosystem type. The method is applied to 1-km resolution AVHRR satellite images to retrieve a geo-referenced data set of monthly LAI values for the conterminous USA. Satellite-based LAI estimates are compared against independent ground LAI measurements over a range of ecosystem types. Verification results suggest that the new algorithm represents a viable approach to LAI retrieval at continental scale, and can facilitate spatially explicit studies of regional pollutant deposition and trace gas exchange. - The paper presents a physics-based algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy-clumping factor from satellite data to assist research of pollutant deposition and trace-gas exchange. The method is employed to derive a monthly LAI dataset for the conterminous USA and verified at a continental scale

  4. Efficient retrieval of vegetation leaf area index and canopy clumping factor from satellite data to support pollutant deposition assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, Ned [Natural Resource Research Center, 2150 Centre Avenue, Building A, Room 368, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (United States)]. E-mail: nnikolov@fs.fed.us; Zeller, Karl [USDA FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240 W. Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (United States)]. E-mail: kzeller@fs.fed.us

    2006-06-15

    Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of the vegetation controlling pollutant uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy clumping factor from satellite data using observed Simple Ratios (SR) of near-infrared to red reflectance. The method employs numerical inversion of a physics-based analytical canopy radiative transfer model that simulates the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The algorithm is independent of ecosystem type. The method is applied to 1-km resolution AVHRR satellite images to retrieve a geo-referenced data set of monthly LAI values for the conterminous USA. Satellite-based LAI estimates are compared against independent ground LAI measurements over a range of ecosystem types. Verification results suggest that the new algorithm represents a viable approach to LAI retrieval at continental scale, and can facilitate spatially explicit studies of regional pollutant deposition and trace gas exchange. - The paper presents a physics-based algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy-clumping factor from satellite data to assist research of pollutant deposition and trace-gas exchange. The method is employed to derive a monthly LAI dataset for the conterminous USA and verified at a continental scale.

  5. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  6. Survival of density subpopulations of rabbit platelets: use of 51Cr-or 111In-labeled platelets to measure survival of least dense and most dense platelets concurrently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.L.; Packham, M.A.; Mustard, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The origin of the density heterogeneity of platelets was studied by measuring the survival of density subpopulations of rabbit platelets separated by discontinuous Stractan density gradient centrifugation. When a total population of 51 Cr-labelled platelets was injected into recipient rabbits, the relative specific radioactivity of the most dense platelets decreased rapidly. In contrast, that of the least dense platelets had not changed 24 hr after injection, and then decreased slowly. To distinguish between the possibilities that most dense platelets are cleared from the circulation more quickly than least dense platelets or that platelets decrease in density as they age in the circulation, the concurrent survival of least dense and most dense platelets, labelled with either 51 Cr or 111 In-labelled total platelet populations, determined concurrently in the same rabbits, are identical, calculated from 1 hr values as 100%. However, the 1-hr recovery of 111 In-labelled platelets was slightly but significantly less than that of 51 Cr-labelled platelets. Therefore, researchers studied the survival of 51 Cr-labelled least dense and 111 In-labelled most dense platelets as well as that of 111 In-labelled least dense and 51 Cr-labelled most dense platelets. Mean 1-hr recovery of least dense platelets, labelled with either isotope (78% +/- 7%, SD) was similar to that of most dense platelets, labelled with either isotope (77% +/- 8%; SD). Mean survival of least dense platelets was 47.3 +/- 18.7 hr (SD), which was significantly less than that of most dense platelets (76.1 +/- 21.6 hr; SD) (p less than 0.0025). These results indicate that platelets decrease in buoyant density as they age in the circulation and that most dense platelets are enriched in young platelets, and least dense in old

  7. STAR FORMATION IN THE TAURUS FILAMENT L 1495: FROM DENSE CORES TO STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalzl, Markus; Kainulainen, Jouni; Henning, Thomas; Launhardt, Ralf; Quanz, Sascha P.; Alves, Joao; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of dense structures in the L 1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud and examine its star-forming properties. In particular, we construct a dust extinction map of the filament using deep near-infrared observations, exposing its small-scale structure in unprecedented detail. The filament shows highly fragmented substructures and a high mass-per-length value of M line = 17 M sun pc -1 , reflecting star-forming potential in all parts of it. However, a part of the filament, namely B 211, is remarkably devoid of young stellar objects. We argue that in this region the initial filament collapse and fragmentation is still taking place and star formation is yet to occur. In the star-forming part of the filament, we identify 39 cores with masses from 0.4 to 10 M sun and preferred separations in agreement with the local Jeans length. Most of these cores exceed the Bonnor-Ebert critical mass, and are therefore likely to collapse and form stars. The dense core mass function follows a power law with exponent Γ = 1.2 ± 0.2, a form commonly observed in star-forming regions.

  8. Dense Deposit Disease Mimicking a Renal Small Vessel Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lavleen; Bhardwaj, Swati; Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind; Dinda, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Dense deposit disease is caused by fluid-phase dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway and frequently deviates from the classic membranoproliferative pattern of injury on light microscopy. Other patterns of injury described for dense deposit disease include mesangioproliferative, acute proliferative/exudative, and crescentic GN. Regardless of the histologic pattern, C3 glomerulopathy, which includes dense deposit disease and C3 GN, is defined by immunofluorescence intensity of C3c two or more orders of magnitude greater than any other immune reactant (on a 0–3 scale). Ultrastructural appearances distinguish dense deposit disease and C3 GN. Focal and segmental necrotizing glomerular lesions with crescents, mimicking a small vessel vasculitis such as ANCA-associated GN, are a very rare manifestation of dense deposit disease. We describe our experience with this unusual histologic presentation and distinct clinical course of dense deposit disease, discuss the pitfalls in diagnosis, examine differential diagnoses, and review the relevant literature. PMID:26361799

  9. A global interaction network maps a wiring diagram of cellular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Michael; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Koch, Elizabeth N.; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Pons, Carles; Tan, Guihong; Wang, Wen; Usaj, Matej; Hanchard, Julia; Lee, Susan D.; Pelechano, Vicent; Styles, Erin B.; Billmann, Maximilian; van Leeuwen, Jolanda; van Dyk, Nydia; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Kuzmin, Elena; Nelson, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Srikumar, Tharan; Bahr, Sondra; Chen, Yiqun; Deshpande, Raamesh; Kurat, Christoph F.; Li, Sheena C.; Li, Zhijian; Usaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Okada, Hiroki; Pascoe, Natasha; Luis, Bryan-Joseph San; Sharifpoor, Sara; Shuteriqi, Emira; Simpkins, Scott W.; Snider, Jamie; Suresh, Harsha Garadi; Tan, Yizhao; Zhu, Hongwei; Malod-Dognin, Noel; Janjic, Vuk; Przulj, Natasa; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Stagljar, Igor; Xia, Tian; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Raught, Brian; Boutros, Michael; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Moore, Claire L.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Caudy, Amy A.; Myers, Chad L.; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles

    2017-01-01

    We generated a global genetic interaction network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, constructing over 23 million double mutants, identifying ~550,000 negative and ~350,000 positive genetic interactions. This comprehensive network maps genetic interactions for essential gene pairs, highlighting essential genes as densely connected hubs. Genetic interaction profiles enabled assembly of a hierarchical model of cell function, including modules corresponding to protein complexes and pathways, biological processes, and cellular compartments. Negative interactions connected functionally related genes, mapped core bioprocesses, and identified pleiotropic genes, whereas positive interactions often mapped general regulatory connections among gene pairs, rather than shared functionality. The global network illustrates how coherent sets of genetic interactions connect protein complex and pathway modules to map a functional wiring diagram of the cell. PMID:27708008

  10. An Online Solution of LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System for Indoor Mobile Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Xiaoji; Yu, Tong; Tang, Jian; Chang, Le

    2017-01-01

    Multisensors (LiDAR/IMU/CAMERA) integrated Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) technology for navigation and mobile mapping in a GNSS-denied environment, such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons, becomes a promising solution. An online (real-time) version of such system can extremely extend its applications, especially for indoor mobile mapping. However, the real-time response issue of multisensors is a big challenge for an online SLAM system, due to the different sampling f...

  11. Composite systems of dilute and dense couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J R; Saad, D

    2008-01-01

    Composite systems, where couplings are of two types, a combination of strong dilute and weak dense couplings of Ising spins, are examined through the replica method. The dilute and dense parts are considered to have independent canonical disordered or uniform bond distributions; mixing the models by variation of a parameter γ alongside inverse temperature β we analyse the respective thermodynamic solutions. We describe the variation in high temperature transitions as mixing occurs; in the vicinity of these transitions we exactly analyse the competing effects of the dense and sparse models. By using the replica symmetric ansatz and population dynamics we described the low temperature behaviour of mixed systems

  12. Constitutive law of dense granular matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of dense granular matter under steady shear flow are investigated using numerical simulation. Shear flow tends to localize near the driving boundary unless the coefficient of restitution is close to zero and the driving velocity is small. The bulk friction coefficient is independent of shear rate in dense and slow flow, whereas it is an increasing function of shear rate in rapid flow. The coefficient of restitution affects the friction coefficient only in such rapid flow. Contrastingly, in dense and slow regime, the friction coefficient is independent of the coefficient of restitution and mainly determined by the elementary friction coefficient and the rotation of grains. It is found that the mismatch between the vorticity of flow and the angular frequency of grains plays a key role to the frictional properties of sheared granular matter.

  13. Dynamics of dense particle disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, S.; Tremaine, S.; Toronto Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation of mechanical equilibrium and collisional transport processes in dense, differentially rotating particle disks is based on the Enskog (1922) theory of dense, hard sphere gases, with the single exception that the spheres are inelastic. The viscous instability suggested as a source of Saturn B ring structure does not arise in the models presented, although the ring may be subject to a phase transition analogous to the liquid-solid transition observed in molecular dynamics simulations of elastic hard spheres. In such a case, the ring would alternately exhibit zero-shear, or solid, and high shear, or liquid, zones. 29 references

  14. Clumped Isotope Thermometry Reveals Variations in Soil Carbonate Seasonal Biases Over >4 km of Relief in the Semi-Arid Andes of Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener, L. K.; Huntington, K. W.; Hoke, G. D.; Schauer, A. J.; Ringham, M. C.; Latorre Hidalgo, C.; Díaz, F.

    2015-12-01

    The application of carbonate clumped isotope thermometry to soil carbonates has the potential to shed new light on questions regarding terrestrial paleoclimate. In order to better utilize this paleoclimate tool, outstanding questions regarding seasonal biases in soil carbonate formation and the relationship between soil carbonate formation temperatures (T(Δ47)) and surface temperatures must be resolved. We address these questions by comparing C, O, and clumped isotope data from Holocene/modern soil carbonates to modern meteorological data. The data were collected along a 170 km transect with >4 km of relief in central Chile (~30°S). Previous studies have suggested that soil carbonates should record a warm season bias and form in isotopic equilibrium with soil water and soil CO2. We identify two discrete climate zones separated by the local winter snow line (~3200 m). Below this boundary, precipitation falls as rain and soil carbonate T(Δ47) values at depths >40 cm resemble summer soil temperatures; at higher elevations, precipitation falls as snow and T(Δ47) values resemble mean annual soil temperatures. Soil carbonates from the highest sample site (4700 m), which is devoid of vegetation and located near perennial snow fields, yield anomalous δ18O, δ13C, and T(Δ47) values, indicative of kinetic isotope effects that we attribute to cryogenic carbonate formation. Our results suggest that soil carbonates from depths temperature and precipitation, and should not be used as paleotemperature proxies. These findings (1) highlight the role of soil moisture in modulating soil carbonate formation and the resulting T(Δ47) values, (2) underscore the importance of understanding past soil moisture conditions when attempting to reconstruct paleotemperatures using carbonate clumped isotope thermometry, and (3) suggest that soil carbonates from high elevation or high latitude sites may form under non-equilibrium conditions.

  15. A Participatory Evacuation Map Making Towards Sustainable Urban Heritage Kotagede, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah R Hizbaron

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at development of Participatory Evacuation Map Making (PEMM for Kotagede, Yogyakarta – Indonesia. The research area is one of an important cultural heritage sites in Indonesia which is subjected towards earthquake hazard. The preliminary observation revealed that the area is a densely populated area, which characterized by dense wooden building structure, narrow street and minimum information of evacuation route which increase their vulnerability potentials. This leads to the idea of developing the PEMM to improve their awareness and preparedness during disaster events and creates sustainable condition for local livelihood security. The method develops within this research is actually a lesson learn from Ritsumeikan University, that has developed CSR for integration disaster management into heritage sites at Kyoto Prefecture. Their CSR covers several activities such as developing disaster information via vending machine and tourism map. Since Yogyakarta and Kyoto are engaged in “Sister City Development Program”, hereafter Universitas Gadjah Mada tries to do similar thing. Map making is an alternative prior to community experience in map making is rather frequent compare to vending machine habit. The preliminary finding of this research indicates that the Kotagede community has been involved in several map making activity, such as “Green Map” and “Rehabilitation Sites Map”.  However, they have not yet any experience to create any map which includes information such as evacuation route, fire extinguisher, shelter information center and important meeting points. An improved critics from this research is to include meeting points level. As we all aware off, each meeting point have significant carrying capacity, thereby in the future a research on similar topics should add level and or category of meeting points. This is an important steppingstone for the research to conduct further research.

  16. Kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graedel, T.E.; Langer, W.D.; Frerking, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds has been developed to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature, and other topics of interest. The full computation involves 328 individual reactions (expanded to 1067 to study carbon and oxygen isotope chemistry); photodegradation processes are unimportant in these dense clouds and are excluded

  17. Geophysical mapping of the subsurface to support climate adaption in development areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou

    ha is high-densely mapped with multi-configuration Ground Conductivity Meter (DualEM421) and supplemented with Airborne Electro Magnetic surveys, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and boreholes. The depth of investigation for the DUALEM421 system is between 5 to 8 m and the horizontal...... correlation between the deposits’ electric resistivity and the infiltration capabilities. Based on the soil types’ different infiltration capabilities, it will be possible to produce a detailed infiltration potential map for the development areas. The project is conducted in collaboration with Horsens...

  18. Matching Cost Filtering for Dense Stereo Correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense stereo correspondence enabling reconstruction of depth information in a scene is of great importance in the field of computer vision. Recently, some local solutions based on matching cost filtering with an edge-preserving filter have been proved to be capable of achieving more accuracy than global approaches. Unfortunately, the computational complexity of these algorithms is quadratically related to the window size used to aggregate the matching costs. The recent trend has been to pursue higher accuracy with greater efficiency in execution. Therefore, this paper proposes a new cost-aggregation module to compute the matching responses for all the image pixels at a set of sampling points generated by a hierarchical clustering algorithm. The complexity of this implementation is linear both in the number of image pixels and the number of clusters. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art local methods in terms of both accuracy and speed. Moreover, performance tests indicate that parameters such as the height of the hierarchical binary tree and the spatial and range standard deviations have a significant influence on time consumption and the accuracy of disparity maps.

  19. Chaoticity of interval self-maps with positive entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jincheng.

    1988-12-01

    Li and Yorke originally introduced the notion of chaos for continuous self-map of the interval I = (0,1). In the present paper we show that an interval self-map with positive topological entropy has a chaoticity more complicated than the chaoticity in the sense of Li and Yorke. The main result is that if f:I → I is continuous and has a periodic point with odd period > 1 then there exists a closed subset K of I invariant with respect to f such that the periodic points are dense in K, the periods of periodic points in K form an infinite set and f|K is topologically mixing. (author). 9 refs

  20. Prediction of a Densely Loaded Particle-Laden Jet using a Euler-Lagrange Dense Spray Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakseresht, Pedram; Apte, Sourabh V.

    2017-11-01

    Modeling of a dense spray regime using an Euler-Lagrange discrete-element approach is challenging because of local high volume loading. A subgrid cluster of droplets can lead to locally high void fractions for the disperse phase. Under these conditions, spatio-temporal changes in the carrier phase volume fractions, which are commonly neglected in spray simulations in an Euler-Lagrange two-way coupling model, could become important. Accounting for the carrier phase volume fraction variations, leads to zero-Mach number, variable density governing equations. Using pressure-based solvers, this gives rise to a source term in the pressure Poisson equation and a non-divergence free velocity field. To test the validity and predictive capability of such an approach, a round jet laden with solid particles is investigated using Direct Numerical Simulation and compared with available experimental data for different loadings. Various volume fractions spanning from dilute to dense regimes are investigated with and without taking into account the volume displacement effects. The predictions of the two approaches are compared and analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the dense spray model. Financial support was provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  1. Ultra High Intensity laser produced fast electron transport in under-dense and over-dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manclossi, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is related to inertial fusion research, and particularly concerns the approach to fast ignition, which is based on the use of ultra-intense laser pulses to ignite the thermonuclear fuel. Until now, the feasibility of this scheme has not been proven and depends on many fundamental aspects of the underlying physics, which are not yet fully understood and which are also very far from controls. The main purpose of this thesis is the experimental study of transport processes in the material over-dense (solid) and under-dense (gas jet) of a beam of fast electrons produced by pulse laser at a intensity of some 10 19 Wcm -2 . (author)

  2. GMC Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation. II. 3D Turbulent, Magnetized Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Benjamin; Tan, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Loo, Sven Van [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Christie, Duncan [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Collins, David [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate giant molecular cloud collisions and their ability to induce gravitational instability and thus star formation. This mechanism may be a major driver of star formation activity in galactic disks. We carry out a series of 3D, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study how cloud collisions trigger formation of dense filaments and clumps. Heating and cooling functions are implemented based on photo-dissociation region models that span the atomic-to-molecular transition and can return detailed diagnostic information. The clouds are initialized with supersonic turbulence and a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations. Collisions at various velocities and impact parameters are investigated. Comparing and contrasting colliding and non-colliding cases, we characterize morphologies of dense gas, magnetic field structure, cloud kinematic signatures, and cloud dynamics. We present key observational diagnostics of cloud collisions, especially: relative orientations between magnetic fields and density structures, like filaments; {sup 13}CO( J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO( J = 3-2), and {sup 12}CO( J = 8-7) integrated intensity maps and spectra; and cloud virial parameters. We compare these results to observed Galactic clouds.

  3. Routing in Dense Human Crowds Using Smartphone Movement Data and Optical Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hillen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a navigation approach for smartphones that enables visitors of major events to avoid crowded areas or narrow streets and to navigate out of dense crowds quickly. Two types of sensor data are integrated. Real-time optical images acquired and transmitted by an airborne camera system are used to compute an estimation of a crowd density map. For this purpose, a patch-based approach with a Gabor filter bank for texture classification in combination with an interest point detector and a smoothing function is applied. Furthermore, the crowd density is estimated based on location and movement speed of in situ smartphone measurements. This information allows for the enhancement of the overall crowd density layer. The composed density information is input to a least-cost routing workflow. Two possible use cases are presented, namely (i an emergency application and (ii a basic routing application. A prototypical implementation of the system is conducted as proof of concept. Our approach is capable of increasing the security level for major events. Visitors are able to avoid dense crowds by routing around them, while security and rescue forces are able to find the fastest way into the crowd.

  4. Influence of galactic arm scale dynamics on the molecular composition of the cold and dense ISM. I. Observed abundance gradients in dense clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaud, M.; Wakelam, V.; Gratier, P.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. We study the effect of large scale dynamics on the molecular composition of the dense interstellar medium during the transition between diffuse to dense clouds. Methods: We followed the formation of dense clouds (on sub-parsec scales) through the dynamics of the interstellar medium at galactic scales. We used results from smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations from which we extracted physical parameters that are used as inputs for our full gas-grain chemical model. In these simulations, the evolution of the interstellar matter is followed for 50 Myr. The warm low-density interstellar medium gas flows into spiral arms where orbit crowding produces the shock formation of dense clouds, which are held together temporarily by the external pressure. Results: We show that depending on the physical history of each SPH particle, the molecular composition of the modeled dense clouds presents a high dispersion in the computed abundances even if the local physical properties are similar. We find that carbon chains are the most affected species and show that these differences are directly connected to differences in (1) the electronic fraction, (2) the C/O ratio, and (3) the local physical conditions. We argue that differences in the dynamical evolution of the gas that formed dense clouds could account for the molecular diversity observed between and within these clouds. Conclusions: This study shows the importance of past physical conditions in establishing the chemical composition of the dense medium.

  5. Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, K.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Pankow,J.F. & Cherry,J.A.: Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater. Waterloo Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996......Anmeldelse af Pankow,J.F. & Cherry,J.A.: Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater. Waterloo Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996...

  6. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.

    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  7. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, S.; Tajima, T.

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas

  8. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadhri, Comandur [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account for overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.

  9. A Submillimetre Study of Massive Star Formation Within the W51 Complex and Infrared Dark Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Harriet Alice Louise

    Despite its importance the fundamental question of how massive stars form remains unanswered, with improvements to both models and observations having crucial roles to play. To quote Bate et al. (2003) computational models of star formation are limited because "conditions in molecular clouds are not sufficiently well understood to be able to select a representative sample of cloud cores for the initial conditions". It is this notion that motivates the study of the environments within Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) and Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), known sites of massive star formation, at the clump and core level. By studying large populations of these objects, it is possible to make conclusions based on global properties. With this in mind I study the dense molecular clumps within one of the most massive GMCs in the Galaxy: the W51 GMC. New observations of the W51 GMC in the 12CO, 13CO and C18O (3-2) transitions using the HARP instrument on the JCMT are presented. With the help of the clump finding algorithm CLUMPFIND a total of 1575 dense clumps are identified of which 1130 are associated with the W51 GMC, yielding a dense mass reservoir of 1.5 × 10^5 M contained within these clumps. Of these clumps only 1% by number are found to be super-critical, yielding a super-critical clump formation efficiency of 0.5%, below current SFE estimates of the region. This indicates star formation within the W51 GMC will diminish over time although evidence from the first search for molecular outflows presents the W51 GMC in an active light with a lower limit of 14 outflows. The distribution of the outflows within the region searched found them concentrated towards the W51A region. Having much smaller sizes and masses, obtaining global properties of clumps and cores within IRDCs required studying a large sample of these objects. To do this pre-existing data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue was utilised to study IRDCs within a catalogues based on 8 μm data. This data identified

  10. Dense ceramic articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockbain, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the manufacture of articles of substantially pure dense ceramic materials, for use in severe environments. Si N is very suitable for use in such environments, but suffers from the disadvantage that it is not amenable to sintering. Some disadvantages of the methods normally used for making articles of Si N are mentioned. The method described comprises mixing a powder of the substantially pure ceramic material with an additive that promotes densification, and which is capable of nuclear transmutation into a gas when exposed to radiation, and hot pressing the mixture to form a billet. The billet is then irradiated to convert the additive into a gas which is held captive in the billet, and it is then subjected to a hot forging operation, during which the captive gas escapes and an article of substantially pure dense ceramic material is forged. The method is intended primarily for use for Si N, but may be applied to other ceramic materials. The additive may be Li or Be or their compounds, to the extent of at least 5 ppm and not more than 5% by weight. Irradiation is effected by proton or neutron bombardment. (UK)

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor/gravitational instability in dense magnetoplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S., E-mail: shahid.ali@ncp.edu.p [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ahmed, Z. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Wah Campus (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ahmad, I. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Islamabad Campus (Pakistan)

    2009-08-10

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated in a nonuniform dense quantum magnetoplasma. For this purpose, a quantum hydrodynamical model is used for the electrons whereas the ions are assumed to be cold and classical. The dispersion relation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes modified with the quantum corrections associated with the Fermi pressure law and the quantum Bohm potential force. Numerically, it is found that the quantum speed and density gradient significantly modify the growth rate of RT instability. In a dense quantum magnetoplasma case, the linear growth rate of RT instability becomes significantly higher than its classical value and the modes are found to be highly localized. The present investigation should be useful in the studies of dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas as well as in laser-produced plasmas.

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor/gravitational instability in dense magnetoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Ahmad, I.

    2009-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated in a nonuniform dense quantum magnetoplasma. For this purpose, a quantum hydrodynamical model is used for the electrons whereas the ions are assumed to be cold and classical. The dispersion relation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes modified with the quantum corrections associated with the Fermi pressure law and the quantum Bohm potential force. Numerically, it is found that the quantum speed and density gradient significantly modify the growth rate of RT instability. In a dense quantum magnetoplasma case, the linear growth rate of RT instability becomes significantly higher than its classical value and the modes are found to be highly localized. The present investigation should be useful in the studies of dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas as well as in laser-produced plasmas.

  13. Fast Solvers for Dense Linear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauers, Manuel [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Altenbergerstrasse 69, A4040 Linz (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    It appears that large scale calculations in particle physics often require to solve systems of linear equations with rational number coefficients exactly. If classical Gaussian elimination is applied to a dense system, the time needed to solve such a system grows exponentially in the size of the system. In this tutorial paper, we present a standard technique from computer algebra that avoids this exponential growth: homomorphic images. Using this technique, big dense linear systems can be solved in a much more reasonable time than using Gaussian elimination over the rationals.

  14. Molecular Line Studies of Ballistic Stellar Interlopers Burrowing through Dense Interstellar Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anna; Sahai, R.; Claussen, M.; Morris, M.

    2010-01-01

    When an intermediate-mass star speeds through a dense interstellar cloud at a high velocity, it can produce a cometary or bow shock structure due to the cloud being impacted by the intense stellar wind. This class of objects, recently discovered in an HST imaging survey, has been dubbed "ballistic stellar interlopers" (Sahai et al. 2009). Using the ARO's 12m and SMT 10m millimeter-wave dishes, we have obtained molecular line emission data towards 10 stellar interloper sources, in order to identify and characterize the dense clouds with which the interlopers are interacting. We have made small "on-the-fly" maps in the 12CO (J=2-1) and 13CO (J=2-1) lines for each cloud, and obtained spectra of high-density tracers such as N2H+ (J=3-2), HCO+ (J=3-2), CN(N=2-1), and SO(J=5-4), which probe a range of physical conditions in the interstellar clouds being impacted by the interlopers. The data have been reduced and analyzed, and preliminary estimates of the cloud temperatures (9-22 K) and 13CO optical depths (0.18-0.37) have been made. The maps, which show the emission as a function of radial velocity and spatial offset from the location of the interlopers, have helped us distinguish between the clouds interacting with the interlopers, and those which are unrelated but happen to lie along the line of sight. These data will now enable us to carry out high-resolution mm-wave interferometric observations of the interlopers in the future. This research was performed at JPL under the Minority Education Initiatives program. RS and MM were funded by a Long Term Space Astrophysics award from NASA for this work. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Special thanks goes to John Bieging and Bill Peters of the Arizona Radio Observatory.

  15. OH megamasers: dense gas & the infrared radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, JiangShui; Liu, Wei; Xu, Jie

    2018-06-01

    To investigate possible factors related to OH megamaser formation (OH MM, L_{H2O}>10L_{⊙}), we compiled a large HCN sample from all well-sampled HCN measurements so far in local galaxies and identified with the OH MM, OH kilomasers (L_{H2O}gas and the dense gas, respectively), we found that OH MM galaxies tend to have stronger HCN emission and no obvious difference on CO luminosity exists between OH MM and non-OH MM. This implies that OH MM formation should be related to the dense molecular gas, instead of the low-density molecular gas. It can be also supported by other facts: (1) OH MMs are confirmed to have higher mean molecular gas density and higher dense gas fraction (L_{HCN}/L_{CO}) than non-OH MMs. (2) After taking the distance effect into account, the apparent maser luminosity is still correlated with the HCN luminosity, while no significant correlation can be found at all between the maser luminosity and the CO luminosity. (3) The OH kMs tend to have lower values than those of OH MMs, including the dense gas luminosity and the dense gas fraction. (4) From analysis of known data of another dense gas tracer HCO^+, similar results can also be obtained. However, from our analysis, the infrared radiation field can not be ruled out for the OH MM trigger, which was proposed by previous works on one small sample (Darling in ApJ 669:L9, 2007). On the contrary, the infrared radiation field should play one more important role. The dense gas (good tracers of the star formation) and its surrounding dust are heated by the ultra-violet (UV) radiation generated by the star formation and the heating of the high-density gas raises the emission of the molecules. The infrared radiation field produced by the re-radiation of the heated dust in turn serves for the pumping of the OH MM.

  16. A global genetic interaction network maps a wiring diagram of cellular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Michael; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Koch, Elizabeth N; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Pons, Carles; Tan, Guihong; Wang, Wen; Usaj, Matej; Hanchard, Julia; Lee, Susan D; Pelechano, Vicent; Styles, Erin B; Billmann, Maximilian; van Leeuwen, Jolanda; van Dyk, Nydia; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Kuzmin, Elena; Nelson, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S; Srikumar, Tharan; Bahr, Sondra; Chen, Yiqun; Deshpande, Raamesh; Kurat, Christoph F; Li, Sheena C; Li, Zhijian; Usaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Okada, Hiroki; Pascoe, Natasha; San Luis, Bryan-Joseph; Sharifpoor, Sara; Shuteriqi, Emira; Simpkins, Scott W; Snider, Jamie; Suresh, Harsha Garadi; Tan, Yizhao; Zhu, Hongwei; Malod-Dognin, Noel; Janjic, Vuk; Przulj, Natasa; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Stagljar, Igor; Xia, Tian; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Raught, Brian; Boutros, Michael; Steinmetz, Lars M; Moore, Claire L; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Myers, Chad L; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles

    2016-09-23

    We generated a global genetic interaction network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, constructing more than 23 million double mutants, identifying about 550,000 negative and about 350,000 positive genetic interactions. This comprehensive network maps genetic interactions for essential gene pairs, highlighting essential genes as densely connected hubs. Genetic interaction profiles enabled assembly of a hierarchical model of cell function, including modules corresponding to protein complexes and pathways, biological processes, and cellular compartments. Negative interactions connected functionally related genes, mapped core bioprocesses, and identified pleiotropic genes, whereas positive interactions often mapped general regulatory connections among gene pairs, rather than shared functionality. The global network illustrates how coherent sets of genetic interactions connect protein complex and pathway modules to map a functional wiring diagram of the cell. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Novel data sources for women's health research: mapping breast screening online information seeking through Google trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Carlos, Ruth C; Hall, Kelli S; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2014-09-01

    Millions of people use online search engines everyday to find health-related information and voluntarily share their personal health status and behaviors in various Web sites. Thus, data from tracking of online information seeker's behavior offer potential opportunities for use in public health surveillance and research. Google Trends is a feature of Google which allows Internet users to graph the frequency of searches for a single term or phrase over time or by geographic region. We used Google Trends to describe patterns of information-seeking behavior in the subject of dense breasts and to examine their correlation with the passage or introduction of dense breast notification legislation. To capture the temporal variations of information seeking about dense breasts, the Web search query "dense breast" was entered in the Google Trends tool. We then mapped the dates of legislative actions regarding dense breasts that received widespread coverage in the lay media to information-seeking trends about dense breasts over time. Newsworthy events and legislative actions appear to correlate well with peaks in search volume of "dense breast". Geographic regions with the highest search volumes have passed, denied, or are currently considering the dense breast legislation. Our study demonstrated that any legislative action and respective news coverage correlate with increase in information seeking for "dense breast" on Google, suggesting that Google Trends has the potential to serve as a data source for policy-relevant research. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated Motion Estimation for 2D Cine DENSE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Andrew D.; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2013-01-01

    Cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) is a magnetic resonance (MR) method that directly encodes tissue displacement into MR phase images. This technique has successfully interrogated many forms of tissue motion, but is most commonly used to evaluate cardiac mechanics. Currently, motion analysis from cine DENSE images requires manually delineated anatomical structures. An automated analysis would improve measurement throughput, simplify data interpretation, and potentially access important physiological information during the MR exam. In this article, we present the first fully automated solution for the estimation of tissue motion and strain from 2D cine DENSE data. Results using both simulated and human cardiac cine DENSE data indicate good agreement between the automated algorithm and the standard semi-manual analysis method. PMID:22575669

  19. The star-forming content of the W3 giant molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. J. T.; Bretherton, D. E.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Ridge, N. A.; Allsopp, J.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Richer, J. S.

    2007-08-01

    We have surveyed a ˜0.9 square degree area of the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC) and star-forming region in the 850-μm continuum, using the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. A complete sample of 316 dense clumps were detected with a mass range from around 13 to 2500 M⊙. Part of the W3 GMC is subject to an interaction with the H ii region and fast stellar winds generated by the nearby W4 OB association. We find that the fraction of total gas mass in dense, 850-μm traced structures is significantly altered by this interaction, being around 5-13 per cent in the undisturbed cloud but ˜25-37 per cent in the feedback-affected region. The mass distribution in the detected clump sample depends somewhat on assumptions of dust temperature and is not a simple, single power law but contains significant structure at intermediate masses. This structure is likely to be due to crowding of sources near or below the spatial resolution of the observations. There is little evidence of any difference between the index of the high-mass end of the clump mass function in the compressed region and in the unaffected cloud. The consequences of these results are discussed in terms of current models of triggered star formation.

  20. Quantum Dense Coding About a Two-Qubit Heisenberg XYZ Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Yun; Yang, Guo-Hui

    2017-09-01

    By taking into account the nonuniform magnetic field, the quantum dense coding with thermal entangled states of a two-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg XYZ chain are investigated in detail. We mainly show the different properties about the dense coding capacity ( χ) with the changes of different parameters. It is found that dense coding capacity χ can be enhanced by decreasing the magnetic field B, the degree of inhomogeneity b and temperature T, or increasing the coupling constant along z-axis J z . In addition, we also find χ remains the stable value as the change of the anisotropy of the XY plane Δ in a certain temperature condition. Through studying different parameters effect on χ, it presents that we can properly turn the values of B, b, J z , Δ or adjust the temperature T to obtain a valid dense coding capacity ( χ satisfies χ > 1). Moreover, the temperature plays a key role in adjusting the value of dense coding capacity χ. The valid dense coding capacity could be always obtained in the lower temperature-limit case.

  1. Mapping with Small UAS: A Point Cloud Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Charles; Jozkow, Grzegorz; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Interest in using inexpensive Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology for topographic mapping has recently significantly increased. Small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade cameras can easily acquire high-resolution aerial imagery allowing for dense point cloud generation, followed by surface model creation and orthophoto production. In contrast to conventional airborne mapping systems, UAS has limited ground coverage due to low flying height and limited flying time, yet it offers an attractive alternative to high performance airborne systems, as the cost of the sensors and platform, and the flight logistics, is relatively low. In addition, UAS is better suited for small area data acquisitions and to acquire data in difficult to access areas, such as urban canyons or densely built-up environments. The main question with respect to the use of UAS is whether the inexpensive consumer sensors installed in UAS platforms can provide the geospatial data quality comparable to that provided by conventional systems. This study aims at the performance evaluation of the current practice of UAS-based topographic mapping by reviewing the practical aspects of sensor configuration, georeferencing and point cloud generation, including comparisons between sensor types and processing tools. The main objective is to provide accuracy characterization and practical information for selecting and using UAS solutions in general mapping applications. The analysis is based on statistical evaluation as well as visual examination of experimental data acquired by a Bergen octocopter with three different image sensor configurations, including a GoPro HERO3+ Black Edition, a Nikon D800 DSLR and a Velodyne HDL-32. In addition, georeferencing data of varying quality were acquired and evaluated. The optical imagery was processed by using three commercial point cloud generation tools. Comparing point clouds created by active and passive sensors by using different quality sensors, and finally

  2. Evaluation of the Use of Sub-Pixel Offset Tracking Techniques to Monitor Landslides in Densely Vegetated Steeply Sloped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyi Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Pixel Offset Tracking (sPOT is applied to derive high-resolution centimetre-level landslide rates in the Three Gorges Region of China using TerraSAR-X Hi-resolution Spotlight (TSX HS space-borne SAR images. These results contrast sharply with previous use of conventional differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR techniques in areas with steep slopes, dense vegetation and large variability in water vapour which indicated around 12% phase coherent coverage. By contrast, sPOT is capable of measuring two dimensional deformation of large gradient over steeply sloped areas covered in dense vegetation. Previous applications of sPOT in this region relies on corner reflectors (CRs, (high coherence features to obtain reliable measurements. However, CRs are expensive and difficult to install, especially in remote areas; and other potential high coherence features comparable with CRs are very few and outside the landslide boundary. The resultant sub-pixel level deformation field can be statistically analysed to yield multi-modal maps of deformation regions. This approach is shown to have a significant impact when compared with previous offset tracking measurements of landslide deformation, as it is demonstrated that sPOT can be applied even in densely vegetated terrain without relying on high-contrast surface features or requiring any de-noising process.

  3. Photons in dense nuclear matter: Random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, Stephan; Rrapaj, Ermal; Reddy, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    We present a comprehensive and pedagogic discussion of the properties of photons in cold and dense nuclear matter based on the resummed one-loop photon self-energy. Correlations among electrons, muons, protons, and neutrons in β equilibrium that arise as a result of electromagnetic and strong interactions are consistently taken into account within the random phase approximation. Screening effects, damping, and collective excitations are systematically studied in a fully relativistic setup. Our study is relevant to the linear response theory of dense nuclear matter, calculations of transport properties of cold dense matter, and investigations of the production and propagation of hypothetical vector bosons such as the dark photons.

  4. Collective dynamics in dense fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short wavelength collective dynamics of dense binary fluid mixtures. The analysis shows that at the level of linearized generalized hydrodynamics, the longitudinal modes of the system separates essentially into two parts - one involves the coupling of partial density fluctuations of the two species and the other involves coupling of longitudinal momentum and temperature fluctuations. The authors have shown that the coupling of longitudinal momentum and temperature fluctuations leads to an adequate description of sound propagation in such systems. In particular, they show that structural disorder controls the trapping of sound waves in dense mixtures. The coupling of the partial density fluctuations of the two species leads to a simple description of the partial dynamic structure factors. The results are in agreement with the molecular dynamics simulations of soft sphere mixtures. The partial density fluctuations are the slowest decaying fluctuations on molecular length scales and it turns out that nonlinear coupling of these slow modes leads to important corrections to the long time behavior of the time correlation functions determining the shear viscosity in dense mixtures

  5. Simulation of dense colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, H.J.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hecht, M.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2008-01-01

    We present in this proceeding recent large scale simulations of dense colloids. On one hand we simulate model clay consisting of nanometric aluminum oxide spheres in water using realistic DLVO potentials and a combination of MD and SRD. We find pronounced cluster formation and retrieve the shear

  6. The L1495-B218 filaments in Taurus seen in NH3 & CCS and Dynamical Stability of Filaments and Dense Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    We present deep NH3 map of L1495-B218 filaments and the dense cores embedded within the filaments in Taurus. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending 8 pc. We observed the filaments in NH3 (1,1) & (2,2) and CCS 21-10 with spectral resolution of 0.038 km/s and spatial resolution of 31". The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithm, identifies 39 leaves and 16 branches in NH3 (1,1). Applying a virial analysis for the 39 NH3 leaves, we find only 9 out of 39 leaves are gravitationally bound, and 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure-confined. Our analysis suggests that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and then undergo collapse to form a protostar (Seo et al. 2015).We also present more realistic dynamic stability conditions for dense cores with converging motions and under the influence of radiation pressure. The critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere and the isothermal cylinder have been widely used to test stability of dense cores and filaments; however, these assume a quiescent environment while actual star forming regions are turbulent and illuminated by radiation. In a new analysis of stability conditions we account for converging motions which have been modeled toward starless cores (Seo et al. 2011) and the effect of radiation fields into account. We find that the critical size of a dense core having a homologous converging motion with its peak speed being the sound speed is roughly half of the critical size of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere (Seo et al. 2013). We also find that the critical mass/line density of a dense core/filament irradiated by radiation are considerably smaller than that of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder when the radiation pressure is stronger than the central gas pressure of dense core/isothermal cylinder. For inner Galactic regions and regions near OB associations, the critical

  7. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers some aspects of the theory of atomic processes in dense plasmas. Because the topic is very broad, a few general rules which give useful guidance about the typical behavior of dense plasmas have been selected. These rules are illustrated by semiclassical estimates, scaling laws and appeals to more elaborate calculations. Included in the paper are several previously unpublished results including a new mechanism for electron-ion heat exchange (section II), and an approximate expression for oscillator-strengths of highly charged ions (section V). However the main emphasis is not upon practical formulas but rather on questions of fundamental theory, the structural ingredients which must be used in building a model for plasma events. What are the density effects and how does one represent them? Which are most important? How does one identify an incorrect theory? The general rules help to answer these questions. 106 references, 23 figures, 2 tables

  8. Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.

  9. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  10. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  11. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos; Jangabylova, Aliya; Kusmanov, Adil

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step

  12. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  13. The Seahorse Nebula: New views of the filamentary infrared dark cloud G304.74+01.32 from SABOCA, Herschel, and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, O.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Filamentary molecular clouds, such as many of the infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), can undergo hierarchical fragmentation into substructures (clumps and cores) that can eventually collapse to form stars. Aims: We aim to determine the occurrence of fragmentation into cores in the clumps of the filamentary IRDC G304.74+01.32 (hereafter, G304.74). We also aim to determine the basic physical characteristics (e.g. mass, density, and young stellar object (YSO) content) of the clumps and cores in G304.74. Methods: We mapped the G304.74 filament at 350 μm using the Submillimetre APEX Bolometer Camera (SABOCA) bolometer. The new SABOCA data have a factor of 2.2 times higher resolution than our previous Large APEX BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) 870 μm map of the cloud (9″ vs. 19\\farcs86). We also employed the Herschel far-infrared (IR) and submillimetre, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) IR imaging data available for G304.74. The WISE data allowed us to trace the IR emission of the YSOs associated with the cloud. Results: The SABOCA 350 μm data show that G304.74 is composed of a dense filamentary structure with a mean width of only 0.18 ± 0.05 pc. The percentage of LABOCA clumps that are found to be fragmented into SABOCA cores is 36% ± 16%, but the irregular morphology of some of the cores suggests that this multiplicity fraction could be higher. The WISE data suggest that 65% ± 18% of the SABOCA cores host YSOs. The mean dust temperature of the clumps, derived by comparing the Herschel 250, 350, and 500 μm flux densities, was found to be 15.0 ± 0.8 K. The mean mass, beam-averaged H2 column density, and H2 number density of the LABOCA clumps are estimated to be 55 ± 10M⊙, (2.0 ± 0.2) × 1022 cm-2, and (3.1 ± 0.2) × 104 cm-3. The corresponding values for the SABOCA cores are 29 ± 3M⊙, (2.9 ± 0.3) × 1022 cm-2, and (7.9 ± 1.2) × 104 cm-3. The G304.74 filament is estimated to be thermally supercritical by a factor of ≳ 3.5 on the scale

  14. A system for household enumeration and re-identification in densely populated slums to facilitate community research, education, and advocacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana R Thomson

    Full Text Available We devised and implemented an innovative Location-Based Household Coding System (LBHCS appropriate to a densely populated informal settlement in Mumbai, India.LBHCS codes were designed to double as unique household identifiers and as walking directions; when an entire community is enumerated, LBHCS codes can be used to identify the number of households located per road (or lane segment. LBHCS was used in community-wide biometric, mental health, diarrheal disease, and water poverty studies. It also facilitated targeted health interventions by a research team of youth from Mumbai, including intensive door-to-door education of residents, targeted follow-up meetings, and a full census. In addition, LBHCS permitted rapid and low-cost preparation of GIS mapping of all households in the slum, and spatial summation and spatial analysis of survey data.LBHCS was an effective, easy-to-use, affordable approach to household enumeration and re-identification in a densely populated informal settlement where alternative satellite imagery and GPS technologies could not be used.

  15. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  16. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  17. Arbitrary electron acoustic waves in degenerate dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ata-ur; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.; Neelam, S.

    2017-05-01

    A theoretical investigation is carried out of the nonlinear dynamics of electron-acoustic waves in a collisionless and unmagnetized plasma whose constituents are non-degenerate cold electrons, ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons, and stationary ions. A dispersion relation is derived for linear EAWs. An energy integral equation involving the Sagdeev potential is derived, and basic properties of the large amplitude solitary structures are investigated in such a degenerate dense plasma. It is shown that only negative large amplitude EA solitary waves can exist in such a plasma system. The present analysis may be important to understand the collective interactions in degenerate dense plasmas, occurring in dense astrophysical environments as well as in laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments.

  18. Two Novel Rab2 Interactors Regulate Dense-core Vesicle Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailion, Michael; Hannemann, Mandy; Dalton, Susan; Pappas, Andrea; Watanabe, Shigeki; Hegermann, Jan; Liu, Qiang; Han, Hsiao-Fen; Gu, Mingyu; Goulding, Morgan Q.; Sasidharan, Nikhil; Schuske, Kim; Hullett, Patrick; Eimer, Stefan; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Peptide neuromodulators are released from a unique organelle: the dense-core vesicle. Dense-core vesicles are generated at the trans-Golgi, and then sort cargo during maturation before being secreted. To identify proteins that act in this pathway, we performed a genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We identified two conserved Rab2-binding proteins: RUND-1, a RUN domain protein, and CCCP-1, a coiled-coil protein. RUND-1 and CCCP-1 colocalize with RAB-2 at the Golgi, and rab-2, rund-1 and cccp-1 mutants have similar defects in sorting soluble and transmembrane dense-core vesicle cargos. RUND-1 also interacts with the Rab2 GAP protein TBC-8 and the BAR domain protein RIC-19, a RAB-2 effector. In summary, a new pathway of conserved proteins controls the maturation of dense-core vesicles at the trans-Golgi network. PMID:24698274

  19. Automatic Ship Detection in Remote Sensing Images from Google Earth of Complex Scenes Based on Multiscale Rotation Dense Feature Pyramid Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ship detection has been playing a significant role in the field of remote sensing for a long time, but it is still full of challenges. The main limitations of traditional ship detection methods usually lie in the complexity of application scenarios, the difficulty of intensive object detection, and the redundancy of the detection region. In order to solve these problems above, we propose a framework called Rotation Dense Feature Pyramid Networks (R-DFPN which can effectively detect ships in different scenes including ocean and port. Specifically, we put forward the Dense Feature Pyramid Network (DFPN, which is aimed at solving problems resulting from the narrow width of the ship. Compared with previous multiscale detectors such as Feature Pyramid Network (FPN, DFPN builds high-level semantic feature-maps for all scales by means of dense connections, through which feature propagation is enhanced and feature reuse is encouraged. Additionally, in the case of ship rotation and dense arrangement, we design a rotation anchor strategy to predict the minimum circumscribed rectangle of the object so as to reduce the redundant detection region and improve the recall. Furthermore, we also propose multiscale region of interest (ROI Align for the purpose of maintaining the completeness of the semantic and spatial information. Experiments based on remote sensing images from Google Earth for ship detection show that our detection method based on R-DFPN representation has state-of-the-art performance.

  20. Dense power-law networks and simplicial complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Owen T.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that dense networks occur in on-line social networks, recommendation networks and in the brain. In addition to being dense, these networks are often also scale-free, i.e., their degree distributions follow P (k ) ∝k-γ with γ ∈(1 ,2 ] . Models of growing networks have been successfully employed to produce scale-free networks using preferential attachment, however these models can only produce sparse networks as the numbers of links and nodes being added at each time step is constant. Here we present a modeling framework which produces networks that are both dense and scale-free. The mechanism by which the networks grow in this model is based on the Pitman-Yor process. Variations on the model are able to produce undirected scale-free networks with exponent γ =2 or directed networks with power-law out-degree distribution with tunable exponent γ ∈(1 ,2 ) . We also extend the model to that of directed two-dimensional simplicial complexes. Simplicial complexes are generalization of networks that can encode the many body interactions between the parts of a complex system and as such are becoming increasingly popular to characterize different data sets ranging from social interacting systems to the brain. Our model produces dense directed simplicial complexes with power-law distribution of the generalized out-degrees of the nodes.

  1. Ambient noise tomography across Mount St. Helens using a dense seismic array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yadong

    2017-05-08

    We investigated upper crustal structure with data from a dense seismic array deployed around Mount St. Helens for 2 weeks in the summer of 2014. Interstation cross correlations of ambient seismic noise data from the array were obtained, and clear fundamental mode Rayleigh waves were observed between 2.5 and 5 s periods. In addition, higher-mode signals were observed around 2 s period. Frequency-time analysis was applied to measure fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities, which were used to invert for 2-D phase velocity maps. An azimuth-dependent traveltime correction was implemented to mitigate potential biases introduced due to an inhomogeneous noise source distribution. Reliable phase velocity maps were only obtained between 3 and 4 s periods due to limitations imposed by the array aperture and higher-mode contamination. The phase velocity tomography results, which are sensitive to structure shallower than 6 km depth, reveal an ~10–15% low-velocity anomaly centered beneath the volcanic edifice and peripheral high-velocity anomalies that likely correspond to cooled igneous intrusions. We suggest that the low-velocity anomaly reflects the high-porosity mixture of lava and ash deposits near the surface of the edifice, a highly fractured magmatic conduit and hydrothermal system beneath the volcano, and possibly a small contribution from silicate melt.

  2. Further studies of the role of dense molecular clouds around outflow sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Torrelles, J.M.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Anglada, G.; Lopez, R.

    1989-01-01

    The (J,K) = (1,1) and (2,2) ammonia inversion transitions toward six regions with active star formation and evidence of gas outflows have been observed. Ammonia emission has been detected and mapped in five of these regions: AFGL 5142, AFGL 5157, AFGL 6366S, HHL 73, and S140N. NH3 (2,2) emission was detected toward the peak of the NH3 (1,1) core of AFGL 5157 and S140N. A rotational temperature of T(R) (2,2;1,1) = about 16 K was estimated for the two regions. Two new H2O masers of intense emission, S(nu) greater or equal 40 Jy, were detected toward the ammonia cores of AFGL 5142 and AFGL 5157. It is clear that the dense NH3 gas is closely associated with the star formation activities, since the ammonia cores in all peak close to the centers of activity. In particular, the AFGL 5157 ammonia condensation coincides with the geometrical center of a bipolar molecular outflow, suggesting that the exciting source is embedded in the ammonia core. In contrast, the molecular outflow in the AFGL 6366S region is located at the southeast edge of the NH3 condensation, suggesting that the exciting source is outside the ammonia core and that the morphology of the outflow may be influenced by the interaction with the dense ambient gas. 52 refs

  3. Parametric Dense Stereovision Implementation on a System-on Chip (SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Montejo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel hardware implementation of a dense recovery of stereovision 3D measurements. Traditionally 3D stereo systems have imposed the maximum number of stereo correspondences, introducing a large restriction on artificial vision algorithms. The proposed system-on-chip (SoC provides great performance and efficiency, with a scalable architecture available for many different situations, addressing real time processing of stereo image flow. Using double buffering techniques properly combined with pipelined processing, the use of reconfigurable hardware achieves a parametrisable SoC which gives the designer the opportunity to decide its right dimension and features. The proposed architecture does not need any external memory because the processing is done as image flow arrives. Our SoC provides 3D data directly without the storage of whole stereo images. Our goal is to obtain high processing speed while maintaining the accuracy of 3D data using minimum resources. Configurable parameters may be controlled by later/parallel stages of the vision algorithm executed on an embedded processor. Considering hardware FPGA clock of 100 MHz, image flows up to 50 frames per second (fps of dense stereo maps of more than 30,000 depth points could be obtained considering 2 Mpix images, with a minimum initial latency. The implementation of computer vision algorithms on reconfigurable hardware, explicitly low level processing, opens up the prospect of its use in autonomous systems, and they can act as a coprocessor to reconstruct 3D images with high density information in real time.

  4. Parametric dense stereovision implementation on a system-on chip (SoC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, Alfredo; Montejo, Pablo; García, Jorge; Bravo, Ignacio; Lázaro, José L

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hardware implementation of a dense recovery of stereovision 3D measurements. Traditionally 3D stereo systems have imposed the maximum number of stereo correspondences, introducing a large restriction on artificial vision algorithms. The proposed system-on-chip (SoC) provides great performance and efficiency, with a scalable architecture available for many different situations, addressing real time processing of stereo image flow. Using double buffering techniques properly combined with pipelined processing, the use of reconfigurable hardware achieves a parametrisable SoC which gives the designer the opportunity to decide its right dimension and features. The proposed architecture does not need any external memory because the processing is done as image flow arrives. Our SoC provides 3D data directly without the storage of whole stereo images. Our goal is to obtain high processing speed while maintaining the accuracy of 3D data using minimum resources. Configurable parameters may be controlled by later/parallel stages of the vision algorithm executed on an embedded processor. Considering hardware FPGA clock of 100 MHz, image flows up to 50 frames per second (fps) of dense stereo maps of more than 30,000 depth points could be obtained considering 2 Mpix images, with a minimum initial latency. The implementation of computer vision algorithms on reconfigurable hardware, explicitly low level processing, opens up the prospect of its use in autonomous systems, and they can act as a coprocessor to reconstruct 3D images with high density information in real time.

  5. Temporal clumping of prey and coexistence of unequal interferers: experiments on social forager groups of brown trout feeding on invertebrate drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Mikael; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations have been proposed to enhance the coexistence of competing phenotypes. Evaluations are here presented on the effects of prey density and short-term temporal clumping of prey availability on the relative foraging success of unequal interferers in social forager groups...... of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta feeding on drifting invertebrate prey (frozen chironomids). Groups of three trout with established linear dominance hierarchies (dominant, intermediate and subordinate) were subjected to three different total numbers of prey, combined with three different levels...

  6. Eculizumab for dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Smith, Richard J; Barile, Gaetano R; Zhang, Yuzhou; Heher, Eliot C; Herlitz, Leal; Stokes, M Barry; Markowitz, Glen S; D'Agati, Vivette D; Canetta, Pietro A; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B

    2012-05-01

    The principle defect in dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis is hyperactivity of the alternative complement pathway. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to C5 to prevent formation of the membrane attack complex, may prove beneficial. In this open-label, proof of concept efficacy and safety study, six subjects with dense deposit disease or C3 glomerulonephritis were treated with eculizumab every other week for 1 year. All had proteinuria >1 g/d and/or AKI at enrollment. Subjects underwent biopsy before enrollment and repeat biopsy at the 1-year mark. The subjects included three patients with dense deposit disease (including one patient with recurrent dense deposit disease in allograft) and three patients with C3 glomerulonephritis (including two patients with recurrent C3 glomerulonephritis in allograft). Genetic and complement function testing revealed a mutation in CFH and MCP in one subject each, C3 nephritic factor in three subjects, and elevated levels of serum membrane attack complex in three subjects. After 12 months, two subjects showed significantly reduced serum creatinine, one subject achieved marked reduction in proteinuria, and one subject had stable laboratory parameters but histopathologic improvements. Elevated serum membrane attack complex levels normalized on therapy and paralleled improvements in creatinine and proteinuria. Clinical and histopathologic data suggest a response to eculizumab in some but not all subjects with dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis. Elevation of serum membrane attack complex before treatment may predict response. Additional research is needed to define the subgroup of dense deposit disease/C3 glomerulonephritis patients in whom eculizumab therapy can be considered.

  7. 3D Tomographic SAR Imaging in Densely Vegetated Mountainous Rural Areas in China and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L.; Muller, J. P., , Prof

    2017-12-01

    3D SAR Tomography (TomoSAR) and 4D SAR Differential Tomography (Diff-TomoSAR) exploit multi-baseline SAR data stacks to create an important new innovation of SAR Interferometry, to unscramble complex scenes with multiple scatterers mapped into the same SAR cell. In addition to this 3-D shape reconstruction and deformation solution in complex urban/infrastructure areas, and recent cryospheric ice investigations, emerging tomographic remote sensing applications include forest applications, e.g. tree height and biomass estimation, sub-canopy topographic mapping, and even search, rescue and surveillance. However, these scenes are characterized by temporal decorrelation of scatterers, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion and an open issue regarding possible height blurring and accuracy losses for TomoSAR applications particularly in densely vegetated mountainous rural areas. Thus, it is important to develop solutions for temporal decorrelation, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion.We report here on 3D imaging (especially in vertical layers) over densely vegetated mountainous rural areas using 3-D SAR imaging (SAR tomography) derived from data stacks of X-band COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight and L band ALOS-1 PALSAR data stacks over Dujiangyan Dam, Sichuan, China and L and P band airborne SAR data (BioSAR 2008 - ESA) in the Krycklan river catchment, Northern Sweden. The new TanDEM-X 12m DEM is used to assist co - registration of all the data stacks over China first. Then, atmospheric correction is being assessed using weather model data such as ERA-I, MERRA, MERRA-2, WRF; linear phase-topography correction and MODIS spectrometer correction will be compared and ionospheric correction methods are discussed to remove tropospheric and ionospheric delay. Then the new TomoSAR method with the TanDEM-X 12m DEM is described to obtain the number of scatterers inside each pixel, the scattering amplitude and phase of each scatterer and finally extract

  8. Mapping of landslides under dense vegetation cover using object - oriented analysis and LiDAR derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Eeckhout, Miet; Kerle, N.; Hervas, Javier; Supper, Robert; Margottini, C.; Canuti, P.; Sassa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and its wide range of derivative products have become a powerful tool in landslide research, particularly for landslide identification and landslide inventory mapping. In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives to identify

  9. Dilute and dense axion stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visinelli, Luca; Baum, Sebastian; Redondo, Javier; Freese, Katherine; Wilczek, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Axion stars are hypothetical objects formed of axions, obtained as localized and coherently oscillating solutions to their classical equation of motion. Depending on the value of the field amplitude at the core |θ0 | ≡ | θ (r = 0) |, the equilibrium of the system arises from the balance of the kinetic pressure and either self-gravity or axion self-interactions. Starting from a general relativistic framework, we obtain the set of equations describing the configuration of the axion star, which we solve as a function of |θ0 |. For small |θ0 | ≲ 1, we reproduce results previously obtained in the literature, and we provide arguments for the stability of such configurations in terms of first principles. We compare qualitative analytical results with a numerical calculation. For large amplitudes |θ0 | ≳ 1, the axion field probes the full non-harmonic QCD chiral potential and the axion star enters the dense branch. Our numerical solutions show that in this latter regime the axions are relativistic, and that one should not use a single frequency approximation, as previously applied in the literature. We employ a multi-harmonic expansion to solve the relativistic equation for the axion field in the star, and demonstrate that higher modes cannot be neglected in the dense regime. We interpret the solutions in the dense regime as pseudo-breathers, and show that the life-time of such configurations is much smaller than any cosmological time scale.

  10. Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, George [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-01-14

    The Topical Collaboration for Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense matter brought together researchers from a variety of nuclear science specialties and a number of institutions to address nuclear physics and neutrino physics problems associated with dense matter and the origin of the elements. See attached final technical reports for (1) the UCSD award and (2) a copy of the report for the whole TC

  11. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2015-01-01

    In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes. PMID:26703750

  12. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Prakasam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes.

  13. Hugoniot measurements of double-shocked precompressed dense xenon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Chen, Q. F.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Z. Y.

    2012-12-01

    The current partially ionized plasmas models for xenon show substantial differences since the description of pressure and thermal ionization region becomes a formidable task, prompting the need for an improved understanding of dense xenon plasmas behavior at above 100 GPa. We performed double-shock compression experiments on dense xenon to determine accurately the Hugoniot up to 172 GPa using a time-resolved optical radiation method. The planar strong shock wave was produced using a flyer plate impactor accelerated up to ˜6 km/s with a two-stage light-gas gun. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were acquired by using a multiwavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Shock velocity was measured and mass velocity was determined by the impedance-matching methods. The experimental equation of state of dense xenon plasmas are compared with the self-consistent fluid variational calculations of dense xenon in the region of partial ionization over a wide range of pressures and temperatures.

  14. CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS AT 350 MICRONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT MOLECULAR EMISSION LINE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingwen; Evans, Neal J.; Dunham, Michael M.; Vanden Bout, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    We report observations of 15 high-redshift (z = 1 - 5) galaxies at 350 μm using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II array detector. Emission was detected from eight galaxies, for which far-infrared luminosities, star formation rates (SFRs), total dust masses, and minimum source size estimates are derived. These galaxies have SFRs and star formation efficiencies comparable to other high-redshift molecular emission line galaxies. The results are used to test the idea that star formation in these galaxies occurs in a large number of basic units, the units being similar to star-forming clumps in the Milky Way. The luminosity of these extreme galaxies can be reproduced in a simple model with (0.9-30)x10 6 dense clumps, each with a luminosity of 5 x 10 5 L sun , the mean value for such clumps in the Milky Way. Radiative transfer models of such clumps can provide reasonable matches to the overall spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the galaxies. They indicate that the individual clumps are quite opaque in the far-infrared. Luminosity-to-mass ratios vary over two orders of magnitude, correlating strongly with the dust temperature derived from simple fits to the SED. The gas masses derived from the dust modeling are in remarkable agreement with those from CO luminosities, suggesting that the assumptions going into both calculations are reasonable.

  15. Mapping the X-shaped Milky Way Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, R. K.; Zoccali, M.; McWilliam, A.; Minniti, D.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Hill, V.

    2011-09-01

    We analyzed the distribution of the red clump (RC) stars throughout the Galactic bulge using Two Micron All Sky Survey data. We mapped the position of the RC in 1 deg2 fields within the area |l| RC seen in the central area splits into two components at high Galactic longitudes in both hemispheres, produced by two structures at different distances along the same line of sight. The X-shape is clearly visible in the Z-X plane for longitudes close to the l = 0° axis. Crude measurements of the space densities of RC stars in the bright and faint RC populations are consistent with the adopted RC distances, providing further supporting evidence that the X-structure is real, and that there is approximate front-back symmetry in our bulge fields. We conclude that the Milky Way bulge has an X-shaped structure within |l| <~ 2°, seen almost edge-on with respect to the line of sight. Additional deep near-infrared photometry extending into the innermost bulge regions combined with spectroscopic data is needed in order to discriminate among the different possibilities that can cause the observed X-shaped structure.

  16. Formation and internal structure of superdense dark matter clumps and ultracompact minihaloes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezinsky, V.S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Center for Astroparticle Physics at LNGS (CFA), I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Dokuchaev, V.I.; Eroshenko, Yu.N., E-mail: berezinsky@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: dokuchaev@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: eroshenko@inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the formation mechanisms and structure of the superdense dark matter clumps (SDMC) and ultracompact minihaloes (UCMH), outlining the differences between these types of DM objects. We define as SDMC the gravitationally bounded DM objects which have come into virial equilibrium at the radiation-dominated (RD) stage of the universe evolution. Such objects can be formed from the isocurvature (entropy) density perturbations or from the peaks in the spectrum of curvature (adiabatic) perturbation. The axion miniclusters (Kolb and Tkachev 1994) are the example of the former model. The system of central compact mass (e.g. in the form of SDMC or primordial black hole (PBH)) with the outer DM envelope formed in the process of secondary accretion we refer to as UCMH. Therefore, the SDMC can serve as the seed for the UCMH in some scenarios. Recently, the SDMC and UCMH were considered in the many works, and we try to systematize them here. We consider also the effect of asphericity of the initial density perturbation in the gravitational evolution, which decreases the SDMC amount and, as the result, suppresses the gamma-ray signal from DM annihilation.

  17. ALMA Reveals Sequential High-mass Star Formation in the G9.62+0.19 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lacy, John [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Li, Pak Shing [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, Ke [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str.2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Qin, Sheng-Li [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, and Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650091 (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Qingfeng [Astronomy Department, University of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 210008 (China); Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ren, Zhiyuan; Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Huei-Ru; Su, Yu-Nung, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2017-11-01

    Stellar feedback from high-mass stars (e.g., H ii regions) can strongly influence the surrounding interstellar medium and regulate star formation. Our new ALMA observations reveal sequential high-mass star formation taking place within one subvirial filamentary clump (the G9.62 clump) in the G9.62+0.19 complex. The 12 dense cores (MM1–MM12) detected by ALMA are at very different evolutionary stages, from the starless core phase to the UC H ii region phase. Three dense cores (MM6, MM7/G, MM8/F) are associated with outflows. The mass–velocity diagrams of the outflows associated with MM7/G and MM8/F can be well-fit by broken power laws. The mass–velocity diagram of the SiO outflow associated with MM8/F breaks much earlier than other outflow tracers (e.g., CO, SO, CS, HCN), suggesting that SiO traces newly shocked gas, while the other molecular lines (e.g., CO, SO, CS, HCN) mainly trace the ambient gas continuously entrained by outflow jets. Five cores (MM1, MM3, MM5, MM9, MM10) are massive starless core candidates whose masses are estimated to be larger than 25 M {sub ☉}, assuming a dust temperature of ≤20 K. The shocks from the expanding H ii regions (“B” and “C”) to the west may have a great impact on the G9.62 clump by compressing it into a filament and inducing core collapse successively, leading to sequential star formation. Our findings suggest that stellar feedback from H ii regions may enhance the star formation efficiency and suppress low-mass star formation in adjacent pre-existing massive clumps.

  18. Novel Data Sources for Women’s Health Research: Mapping Breast Screening Online Information Seeking Through Google Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordy, Soudabeh Fazeli; Carlos, Ruth C.; Hall, Kelli S.; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Millions of people use online search engines every day to find health-related information and voluntarily share their personal health status and behaviors in various Web sites. Thus, data from tracking of online information seeker’s behavior offer potential opportunities for use in public health surveillance and research. Google Trends is a feature of Google which allows internet users to graph the frequency of searches for a single term or phrase over time or by geographic region. We used Google Trends to describe patterns of information seeking behavior in the subject of dense breasts and to examine their correlation with the passage or introduction of dense breast notification legislation. Materials and Methods In order to capture the temporal variations of information seeking about dense breasts, the web search query “dense breast” was entered in the Google Trends tool. We then mapped the dates of legislative actions regarding dense breasts that received widespread coverage in the lay media to information seeking trends about dense breasts over time. Results Newsworthy events and legislative actions appear to correlate well with peaks in search volume of “dense breast”. Geographic regions with the highest search volumes have either passed, denied, or are currently considering the dense breast legislation. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that any legislative action and respective news coverage correlate with increase in information seeking for “dense breast” on Google, suggesting that Google Trends has the potential to serve as a data source for policy-relevant research. PMID:24998689

  19. Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanaviciute, Laima; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Jansen, Johannes; Banchi, Elisa; Evans, Katherine M; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Dunwell, Jim M; Troggio, Michela; Sargent, Daniel J

    2012-05-25

    A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2%) were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8%) were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2 cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7 cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8 cM/marker to 0.5 cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10 cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers) mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been

  20. Physical mapping in highly heterozygous genomes: a physical contig map of the Pinot Noir grapevine cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurman Irena

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown today are those selected centuries ago, even though grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. Grapevine has therefore not benefited from the advances in modern plant breeding nor more recently from those in molecular genetics and genomics: genes controlling important agronomic traits are practically unknown. A physical map is essential to positionally clone such genes and instrumental in a genome sequencing project. Results We report on the first whole genome physical map of grapevine built using high information content fingerprinting of 49,104 BAC clones from the cultivar Pinot Noir. Pinot Noir, as most grape varieties, is highly heterozygous at the sequence level. This resulted in the two allelic haplotypes sometimes assembling into separate contigs that had to be accommodated in the map framework or in local expansions of contig maps. We performed computer simulations to assess the effects of increasing levels of sequence heterozygosity on BAC fingerprint assembly and showed that the experimental assembly results are in full agreement with the theoretical expectations, given the heterozygosity levels reported for grape. The map is anchored to a dense linkage map consisting of 994 markers. 436 contigs are anchored to the genetic map, covering 342 of the 475 Mb that make up the grape haploid genome. Conclusions We have developed a resource that makes it possible to access the grapevine genome, opening the way to a new era both in grape genetics and breeding and in wine making. The effects of heterozygosity on the assembly have been analyzed and characterized by using several complementary approaches which could be easily transferred to the study of other genomes which present the same features.

  1. Mapping invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR satellite imagery for decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Scarbrough, Kirk A.; Powell, Richard B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Huberty, Brian; Jenkins, Liza K.; Banda, Elizabeth C.; Galbraith, David M.; Laubach, Zachary M.; Riordan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The invasive variety of Phragmites australis (common reed) forms dense stands that can cause negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands including habitat degradation and reduced biological diversity. Early treatment is key to controlling Phragmites, therefore a map of the current distribution is needed. ALOS PALSAR imagery was used to produce the first basin-wide distribution map showing the extent of large, dense invasive Phragmites-dominated habitats in wetlands and other coastal ecosystems along the U.S. shore of the Great Lakes. PALSAR is a satellite imaging radar sensor that is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the detection and delineation of these tall (up to 5 m), high density, high biomass invasive Phragmites stands. Classification was based on multi-season ALOS PALSAR L-band (23 cm wavelength) HH and HV polarization data. Seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) datasets were used to improve discrimination of Phragmites by taking advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Extensive field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in 2010–2011 to aid in mapping and for accuracy assessments. Overall basin-wide map accuracy was 87%, with 86% producer's accuracy and 43% user's accuracy for invasive Phragmites. The invasive Phragmites maps are being used to identify major environmental drivers of this invader's distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool.

  2. Dense time discretization technique for verification of real time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makackas, Dalius; Miseviciene, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Verifying the real-time system there are two different models to control the time: discrete and dense time based models. This paper argues a novel verification technique, which calculates discrete time intervals from dense time in order to create all the system states that can be reached from the initial system state. The technique is designed for real-time systems specified by a piece-linear aggregate approach. Key words: real-time system, dense time, verification, model checking, piece-linear aggregate

  3. Unified framework for recognition, localization and mapping using wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Martín, Ricardo; Bandera, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Monocular approaches to simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) have recently addressed with success the challenging problem of the fast computation of dense reconstructions from a single, moving camera. Thus, if these approaches initially relied on the detection of a reduced set of interest points to estimate the camera position and the map, they are currently able to reconstruct dense maps from a handheld camera while the camera coordinates are simultaneously computed. However, these maps of 3-dimensional points usually remain meaningless, that is, with no memorable items and without providing a way of encoding spatial relationships between objects and paths. In humans and mobile robotics, landmarks play a key role in the internalization of a spatial representation of an environment. They are memorable cues that can serve to define a region of the space or the location of other objects. In a topological representation of the space, landmarks can be identified and located according to its structural, perceptive or semantic significance and distinctiveness. But on the other hand, landmarks may be difficult to be located in a metric representation of the space. Restricted to the domain of visual landmarks, this work describes an approach where the map resulting from a point-based, monocular SLAM is annotated with the semantic information provided by a set of distinguished landmarks. Both features are obtained from the image. Hence, they can be linked by associating to each landmark all those point-based features that are superimposed to the landmark in a given image (key-frame). Visual landmarks will be obtained by means of an object-based, bottom-up attention mechanism, which will extract from the image a set of proto-objects. These proto-objects could not be always associated with natural objects, but they will typically constitute significant parts of these scene objects and can be appropriately annotated with semantic information. Moreover, they will be

  4. Kinetic temperature of massive star-forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde. III. The Orion molecular cloud 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Brinkmann, N.; Zheng, X. W.; Gong, Y.; Lin, Y. X.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.; Yuan, Y.; Li, D. L.; He, Y. X.

    2018-01-01

    We mapped the kinetic temperature structure of the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC-1) with para-H2CO (JKaKc = 303-202, 322-221, and 321-220) using the APEX 12 m telescope. This is compared with the temperatures derived from the ratio of the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) inversion lines and the dust emission. Using the RADEX non-LTE model, we derive the gas kinetic temperature modeling the measured averaged line ratios of para-H2CO 322-221/303-202 and 321-220/303-202. The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H2CO line ratios are warm, ranging from 30 to >200 K with an average of 62 ± 2 K at a spatial density of 105 cm-3. These temperatures are higher than those obtained from NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) and CH3CCH (6-5) in the OMC-1 region. The gas kinetic temperatures derived from para-H2CO agree with those obtained from warm dust components measured in the mid infrared (MIR), which indicates that the para-H2CO (3-2) ratios trace dense and warm gas. The cold dust components measured in the far infrared (FIR) are consistent with those measured with NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) and the CH3CCH (6-5) line series. With dust at MIR wavelengths and para-H2CO (3-2) on one side, and dust at FIR wavelengths, NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1), and CH3CCH (6-5) on the other, dust and gas temperatures appear to be equivalent in the dense gas (n(H2) ≳ 104 cm-3) of the OMC-1 region, but provide a bimodal distribution, one more directly related to star formation than the other. The non-thermal velocity dispersions of para-H2CO are positively correlated with the gas kinetic temperatures in regions of strong non-thermal motion (Mach number ≳ 2.5) of the OMC-1, implying that the higher temperature traced by para-H2CO is related to turbulence on a 0.06 pc scale. Combining the temperature measurements with para-H2CO and NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) line ratios, we find direct evidence for the dense gas along the northern part of the OMC-1 10 km s-1 filament heated by radiation from the central Orion nebula. The reduced datacubes are

  5. About chiral models of dense matter and its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.

    1990-12-01

    The chiral models of dense nucleon matter are discussed. The quark matter with broken chiral symmetry is described. The magnetic properties of dense matter are presented and conclusions are given. 37 refs. (A.S.)

  6. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli , Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liq...

  7. High Resolution Decision Maps for Urban Planning: A Combined Analysis of Urban Flooding and Thermal Stress Potential In Asia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boogaard Floris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding and thermal stress have become key issues for many cities around the world. With the continuing effects of climate change, these two issues will become more acute and will add to the serious problems already experienced in dense urban areas. Therefore, the sectors of public health and disaster management are in the need of tools that can assess the vulnerability to floods and thermal stress. The present paper deals with the combination of innovative tools to address this challenge. Three cities in different climatic regions with various urban contexts have been selected as the pilot areas to demonstrate these tools. These cities are Tainan (Taiwan, Ayutthaya (Thailand and Groningen (Netherlands. For these cities, flood maps and heat stress maps were developed and used for the comparison analysis. The flood maps produced indicate vulnerable low-lying areas, whereas thermal stress maps indicate open, unshaded areas where high Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET values (thermal comfort can be expected. The work to date indicates the potential of combining two different kinds of maps to identify and analyse the problem areas. These maps could be further improved and used by urban planners and other stakeholders to assess the resilience and well-being of cities. The work presented shows that the combined analysis of such maps also has a strong potential to be used for the analysis of other challenges in urban dense areas such as air and water pollution, immobility and noise disturbance.

  8. Molecular line observations of infrared dark clouds in the galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Susanna C.

    Although massive stars play many important roles in the universe, their formation is poorly understood. Recently, a class of interstellar clouds known as Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) has been identified as likely progenitors of massive stars and clusters. These clouds are dense (nH 2 > 105 cm--3), cold (T Nessie Nebula," an extreme case of a filamentary IRDC, with predictions from the theory of the fluid instability and then expand the sample to other filamentary IRDCs. The observations are consistent with theoretical predictions of clump spacing, clump masses, and linear mass density. Fragmentation of filaments due to the sausage instability might be the dominant mode of star formation in the Universe.

  9. The numerical simulation study of hemodynamics of the new dense-mesh stent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiali; Yuan, Zhishan; Yu, Xuebao; Feng, Zhaowei; Miao, Weidong; Xu, Xueli; Li, Juntao

    2017-09-01

    The treatment of aortic aneurysm in new dense mesh stent is based on the principle of hemodynamic changes. But the mechanism is not yet very clear. This paper analyzed and calculated the hemodynamic situation before and after the new dense mesh stent implanting by the method of numerical simulation. The results show the dense mesh stent changed and impacted the blood flow in the aortic aneurysm. The changes include significant decrement of blood velocity, pressure and shear forces, while ensuring blood can supply branches, which means the new dense mesh stent's hemodynamic mechanism in the treatment of aortic aneurysm is clearer. It has very important significance in developing new dense mesh stent in order to cure aortic aneurysm.

  10. Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeustlin, Roland Rainer

    2010-05-01

    X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)

  11. Warm dense matter and Thomson scattering at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeustlin, Roland Rainer

    2010-05-15

    X-ray free electron lasers are powerful tools to investigate moderately to strongly correlated solid density low temperature plasmas, named warm dense matter. These plasmas are of most interest for astrophysics and laser plasma interaction, particularly inertial confinement fusion. This work utilizes the ultrashort soft x-ray pulse duration and high brilliance of the free electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH, to generate warm dense matter and to study its ultrafast processes. The techniques applied are absorption measurement, emission spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. Radiative hydrodynamics and Thomson scattering simulations are used to investigate the impact of temperature and density gradients in the sample and to fit the experimental data. The measurements result in a comprehensive picture of soft x-ray matter interaction related to warm dense matter and yield insight into ultrafast equilibration and relaxation mechanisms, in particular impact ionization and radiative recombination. (orig.)

  12. RANDOMNESS of Numbers DEFINITION(QUERY:WHAT? V HOW?) ONLY Via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-Statistics(MBCS) Hot-Plasma VS. Digits-Clumping Log-Law NON-Randomness Inversion ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-Statistics(BEQS) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Z.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    RANDOMNESS of Numbers cognitive-semantics DEFINITION VIA Cognition QUERY: WHAT???, NOT HOW?) VS. computer-``science" mindLESS number-crunching (Harrel-Sipser-...) algorithmics Goldreich "PSEUDO-randomness"[Not.AMS(02)] mea-culpa is ONLY via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-STATISTICS(NOT FDQS!!!) "hot-plasma" REPULSION VERSUS Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914;1916)-Benford(1938) "NeWBe" logarithmic-law digit-CLUMPING/ CLUSTERING NON-Randomness simple Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs. # 973-60-124] algebraic-inversion to THE QUANTUM and ONLY BEQS preferentially SEQUENTIALLY lower-DIGITS CLUMPING/CLUSTERING with d = 0 BEC, is ONLY VIA Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (SON OF TRIZ)/"Category-Semantics"(C-S), latter intersection/union of Lawvere(1964)-Siegel(1964)] category-theory (matrix: MORPHISMS V FUNCTORS) "+" cognitive-semantics'' (matrix: ANTONYMS V SYNONYMS) yields Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/C-S tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics: MBCS RANDOMNESS TRUTH/EMET!!!

  13. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical co...

  14. Evaluation of a simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm in a dynamic environment using a red green blue - depth camera

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pancham, Ardhisha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ., Tardos, J.: Probabilistic Semi-Dense Mapping from Highly Accurate Feature-Based Monocular SLAM. In: Robotics: Science and Systems, p.2015 10. Bove, C., Wald, A., Michalson, W., Donahue, M., LaPenta, J.: Collaborative Robotics Heads-Up Display Major...

  15. Dense Descriptors for Optical Flow Estimation: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Baghaie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the displacements of intensity patterns between sequential frames is a very well-studied problem, which is usually referred to as optical flow estimation. The first assumption among many of the methods in the field is the brightness constancy during movements of pixels between frames. This assumption is proven to be not true in general, and therefore, the use of photometric invariant constraints has been studied in the past. One other solution can be sought by use of structural descriptors rather than pixels for estimating the optical flow. Unlike sparse feature detection/description techniques and since the problem of optical flow estimation tries to find a dense flow field, a dense structural representation of individual pixels and their neighbors is computed and then used for matching and optical flow estimation. Here, a comparative study is carried out by extending the framework of SIFT-flow to include more dense descriptors, and comprehensive comparisons are given. Overall, the work can be considered as a baseline for stimulating more interest in the use of dense descriptors for optical flow estimation.

  16. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  17. AFM topographies of densely packed nanoparticles: a quick way to determine the lateral size distribution by autocorrelation function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekete, L.; Kůsová, K.; Petrák, V.; Kratochvílová, I.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of sizes is one of the basic characteristics of nanoparticles. Here, we propose a novel way to determine the lateral distribution of sizes from AFM topographies. Our algorithm is based on the autocorrelation function and can be applied both on topographies containing spatially separated and densely packed nanoparticles as well as on topographies of polycrystalline films. As no manual treatment is required, this algorithm can be easily automatable for batch processing. The algorithm works in principle with any kind of spatially mapped information (AFM current maps, optical microscope images, etc.), and as such has no size limitations. However, in the case of AFM topographies, the tip/sample convolution effects will be the factor limiting the smallest size to which the algorithm is applicable. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of this algorithm on objects with sizes ranging between 20 nm and 1.5 μm.

  18. Battlespace Awareness: Heterogeneous Sensor Maps of Large Scale, Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    intelligence , machine learning, mapping, autonomous vehicles, optimization 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS...M. Tanner, P. Piniés, L. M. Paz, and P. Newman. “DENSER Cities: A System for Dense Efficient Reconstructions of Cities”. In: ArXiv e- prints (Apr...Efficient Reconstructions of Cities”. In: ArXiv e- prints (Apr. 2016). arXiv: arXiv:1604.03734 [cs.CV]. [8] Michael Tanner et al. “Keep Geometry in

  19. Eocene greenhouse climate revealed by coupled clumped isotope-Mg/Ca thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Sagoo, Navjit; Renema, Willem; Cotton, Laura J; Müller, Wolfgang; Todd, Jonathan A; Saraswati, Pratul Kumar; Stassen, Peter; Ziegler, Martin; Pearson, Paul N; Valdes, Paul J; Affek, Hagit P

    2018-02-06

    Past greenhouse periods with elevated atmospheric CO 2 were characterized by globally warmer sea-surface temperatures (SST). However, the extent to which the high latitudes warmed to a greater degree than the tropics (polar amplification) remains poorly constrained, in particular because there are only a few temperature reconstructions from the tropics. Consequently, the relationship between increased CO 2 , the degree of tropical warming, and the resulting latitudinal SST gradient is not well known. Here, we present coupled clumped isotope (Δ 47 )-Mg/Ca measurements of foraminifera from a set of globally distributed sites in the tropics and midlatitudes. Δ 47 is insensitive to seawater chemistry and therefore provides a robust constraint on tropical SST. Crucially, coupling these data with Mg/Ca measurements allows the precise reconstruction of Mg/Ca sw throughout the Eocene, enabling the reinterpretation of all planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca data. The combined dataset constrains the range in Eocene tropical SST to 30-36 °C (from sites in all basins). We compare these accurate tropical SST to deep-ocean temperatures, serving as a minimum constraint on high-latitude SST. This results in a robust conservative reconstruction of the early Eocene latitudinal gradient, which was reduced by at least 32 ± 10% compared with present day, demonstrating greater polar amplification than captured by most climate models.

  20. Clumped isotopes reveal the influence of deformation style on fluid flow and cementation along the Moab Fault, Paradox Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, K. W.; Bergman, S.; Crider, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Brittle fault systems can serve as either conduits or barriers to fluid flow, impacting mass and heat transfer in the crust and influencing the potential storage and migration of hydrocarbons and geothermal fluids. For fault systems in porous sandstones, different classes of structures control both hydrological and mechanical behavior during fault evolution: while cataclastic deformation bands form zones of localized deformation and crushed grains that reduce permeability within and across fault zones, joints can act as significant conduits for fluid. We investigate the relationship between structures and fluid flow in porous sandstones by studying calcite cements along the Moab Fault, a large normal fault system in the Paradox Basin, Utah. We use clumped isotope thermometry of fault cements to independently determine both the temperature and δ18O of the water from which the cements grew, placing new constraints on the source and path of diagenetic fluids in the basin. Based on fluid inclusion micro-thermometry and stable isotopic analysis of calcite cements from the Moab Fault, previous workers have hypothesized that joints served as conduits for the ascension of warm (84-125 °C) basinal fluids and deeply circulating meteoric waters. At the minor joint-dominated fault segment from which these data were collected, clumped isotope temperatures range from 57±10 to 101±2°C (2 SE), consistent with this hypothesis. However, at the nearby intersection of two major fault segments - in a zone characterized by both deformation bands and abundant joints - we find a broad range of temperatures (12±4 to 78±4°C) that vary spatially with distance from the fault and correlate with variations in secondary deformation structures (joints and deformation bands). These data provide the first evidence for cement growth from Earth surface-temperature fluids along the Moab Fault and suggests that the Fault served as a conduit for both ascending and descending fluids. The spatial

  1. Skyrmions, dense matter and nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethick, C.J.

    1984-12-01

    A simple introduction to a number of properties of Skyrme's chiral soliton model of baryons is given. Some implications of the model for dense matter and for nuclear interactions are discussed. (orig.)

  2. MAPPING GNSS RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS WITH A DRONE TANDEM AND INDIRECT POSITION CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cledat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of autonomously mapping highly cluttered environments, such as urban and natural canyons, is intractable with the current UAV technology. The reason lies in the absence or unreliability of GNSS signals due to partial sky occlusion or multi-path effects. High quality carrier-phase observations are also required in efficient mapping paradigms, such as Assisted Aerial Triangulation, to achieve high ground accuracy without the need of dense networks of ground control points. In this work we consider a drone tandem in which the first drone flies outside the canyon, where GNSS constellation is ideal, visually tracks the second drone and provides an indirect position control for it. This enables both autonomous guidance and accurate mapping of GNSS restricted environments without the need of ground control points. We address the technical feasibility of this concept considering preliminary real-world experiments in comparable conditions and we perform a mapping accuracy prediction based on a simulation scenario.

  3. Hyperons in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-01

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V low k ) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V low k can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V low k one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V low k potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three-body force with a density-dependent interaction. This

  4. Probabilistic Hazard Estimation at a Densely Urbanised Area: the Neaples Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Natale, G.; Mastrolorenzo, G.; Panizza, A.; Pappalardo, L.; Claudia, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Neaples volcanic area (Southern Italy), including Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei caldera and Ischia island, is the highest risk one in the World, where more than 2 million people live within about 10 km from an active volcanic vent. Such an extreme risk calls for accurate methodologies aimed to quantify it, in a probabilistic way, considering all the available volcanological information as well as modelling results. In fact, simple hazard maps based on the observation of deposits from past eruptions have the major problem that eruptive history generally samples a very limited number of possible outcomes, thus resulting almost meaningless to get the event probability in the area. This work describes a methodology making the best use (from a Bayesian point of view) of volcanological data and modelling results, to compute probabilistic hazard maps from multi-vent explosive eruptions. The method, which follows an approach recently developed by the same authors for pyroclastic flows hazard, has been here improved and extended to compute also fall-out hazard. The application of the method to the Neapolitan volcanic area, including the densely populated city of Naples, allows, for the first time, to get a global picture of the areal distribution for the main hazards from multi-vent explosive eruptions. From a joint consideration of the hazard contributions from all the three volcanic areas, new insight on the volcanic hazard distribution emerges, which will have strong implications for urban and emergency planning in the area.

  5. Dense Crowds of Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stüvel, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel crowd simulation method `Torso Crowds', aimed at the simulation of dense crowds. The method is based on the results of user studies and a motion capture experiment, which are also described in this thesis. Torso Crowds introduces a capsule shape to represent people in

  6. Spatio Temporal Detection and Virtual Mapping of Landslide Using High-Resolution Airborne Laser Altimetry (lidar) in Densely Vegetated Areas of Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, T.; Azahari Razak, K.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Latif, A.

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are an inescapable natural disaster, resulting in massive social, environmental and economic impacts all over the world. The tropical, mountainous landscape in generally all over Malaysia especially in eastern peninsula (Borneo) is highly susceptible to landslides because of heavy rainfall and tectonic disturbances. The purpose of the Landslide hazard mapping is to identify the hazardous regions for the execution of mitigation plans which can reduce the loss of life and property from future landslide incidences. Currently, the Malaysian research bodies e.g. academic institutions and government agencies are trying to develop a landslide hazard and risk database for susceptible areas to backing the prevention, mitigation, and evacuation plan. However, there is a lack of devotion towards landslide inventory mapping as an elementary input of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk mapping. The developing techniques based on remote sensing technologies (satellite, terrestrial and airborne) are promising techniques to accelerate the production of landslide maps, shrinking the time and resources essential for their compilation and orderly updates. The aim of the study is to provide a better perception regarding the use of virtual mapping of landslides with the help of LiDAR technology. The focus of the study is spatio temporal detection and virtual mapping of landslide inventory via visualization and interpretation of very high-resolution data (VHR) in forested terrain of Mesilau river, Kundasang. However, to cope with the challenges of virtual inventory mapping on in forested terrain high resolution LiDAR derivatives are used. This study specifies that the airborne LiDAR technology can be an effective tool for mapping landslide inventories in a complex climatic and geological conditions, and a quick way of mapping regional hazards in the tropics.

  7. Breast cancer detection using sonography in women with mammographically dense breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Jimmy; Kisembo, Harriet; Bugeza, Sam; Galukande, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Mammography, the gold standard for breast cancer screening misses some cancers, especially in women with dense breasts. Breast ultrasonography as a supplementary imaging tool for further evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts may improve the detection of mass lesions otherwise missed at mammography. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental breast cancer detection rate using US scanning in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts in a resource poor environment. A cross sectional descriptive study. Women referred for mammography underwent bilateral breast ultrasound, and mammography for symptom evaluation. The lesions seen by both modalities were described using sonographic BI-RADS lexicon and categorized. Ultrasound guided core biopsies were performed. IRB approval was obtained and all participants provided informed written consent. In total 148 women with mammographically dense breasts were recruited over six months. The prevalence of breast cancer in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts was 22/148 (15%). Mammography detected 16/22 (73%) of these cases and missed 6/22 (27%). The six breast cancer cases missed were correctly diagnosed on breast ultrasonography. Sonographic features typical of breast malignancy were irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, non circumscribed margin, echogenic halo, and increased lesion vascularity (p values < 0.005). Typical sonofeatures of benign mass lesions were: oval shape, parallel orientation and circumscribed margin (p values <0.005). Breast ultrasound scan as a supplementary imaging tool detected 27% more malignant mass lesions otherwise missed by mammography among these symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts. We recommend that ultra sound scanning in routine evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts

  8. Interparticle interaction and transport processes in dense semiclassical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baimbetov, F.B.; Giniyatova, Sh.G.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the density response formalism an expression for the pseudopotential of dense semiclassical plasma, which takes account of quantum-mechanical effects, local field corrections, and electronic screening effects is obtained. The static structure factors taking into account both local fields and quantum-mechanical effects are calculated. An electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity of dense semiclassical plasma are studied

  9. Dense interstellar cloud chemistry: Basic issues and possible dynamical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.S.; Heere, K.R.; Tarafdar, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Standing at crossroad of enthusiasm and frustration, dense intertellar cloud chemistry has a squarely posed fundamental problem: Why do the grains appear to play at best a minor role in the chemistry? Grain surface chemistry creates considerable difficulties when the authors treat dense clouds as static objects and ignore the implications of the processes by which the clouds became dense in the first place. A new generation of models which treat chemical and dynamical evolutions concurrently are therefore presented as possible solution to the current frustrations. The proposed modeling philosophy and agenda could make the next decade quite exciting for interstellar chemistry

  10. Molecular hydrogen mapping of Herbig-Haro 7-11; a filamentary bullet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoot, J.F.; Glencross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    A map is presented of the Q-branch H 2 line emission associated with Herbig-Haro 7-11. The molecules are shock-excited and the emitting area stretches 4 arcmin north-west from HH7-11 in a fairly sharp and straight line. The evidence suggests that the emission occurs where a spine of dense molecular gas is being struck by a jet from the young star SVS13. The origin of the Herbig-Haro objects is discussed. It is suggested that HH7-11 are the bow-shocks formed around a helical filament of dense gas moving at 200 km s -1 through the molecular cloud. The filament could be produced by a well-collimated precessing jet from SVS13. HH2. HH12 and HH101 may be explained in a similar way. (author)

  11. Dietary intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor and nutrient-dense food sources in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rosie; Katz, Tamarah; Liu, Victoria; Quintano, Justine; Brunner, Rebecca; Tong, Chai Wei; Collins, Clare E; Ooi, Chee Y

    2018-04-30

    Prescription of a high-energy, high-fat diet is a mainstay of nutrition management in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, families may be relying on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods rather than nutrient-dense (ND) foods to meet dietary targets. We aimed to evaluate the relative contribution of EDNP and ND foods to the usual diets of children with CF and identify sociodemographic factors associated with higher EDNP intakes. This is a cross-sectional comparison of children with CF aged 2-18 years and age- and gender-matched controls. Dietary intake was assessed using the Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) food frequency questionnaire. Children with CF (n = 80: 37 males; mean age 9.3 years) consumed significantly more EDNP foods than controls (mean age 9.8 years) in terms of both total energy (median [IQR]: 1301 kcal/day (843-1860) vs. 686 kcal/day (480-1032); p energy intake (median [IQR]: 44% (34-51) vs. 31% (24-43); p energy requirements (median [IQR]: 158% (124-187) vs. 112% (90-137); p energy- and fat-dense CF diet is primarily achieved by overconsumption of EDNP foods, rather than ND sources. This dietary pattern may not be optimal for the future health of children with CF, who are now expected to survive well into adulthood. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The HectoMAP Cluster Survey. I. redMaPPer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jubee; Geller, Margaret J.; Rines, Kenneth J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Utsumi, Yousuke; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2018-04-01

    We use the dense HectoMAP redshift survey to explore the properties of 104 redMaPPer cluster candidates. The redMaPPer systems in HectoMAP cover the full range of richness and redshift (0.08 systems included in the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam public data release are bona fide clusters. The median number of spectroscopic members per cluster is ∼20. We include redshifts of 3547 member candidates listed in the redMaPPer catalog whether they are cluster members or not. We evaluate the redMaPPer membership probability spectroscopically. The purity (number of real systems) in redMaPPer exceeds 90% even at the lowest richness. Three massive galaxy clusters (M ∼ 2 × 1013 M ⊙) associated with X-ray emission in the HectoMAP region are not included in the public redMaPPer catalog with λ rich > 20, because they lie outside the cuts for this catalog.

  13. PHOTOCHEMICAL HEATING OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassgold, A. E. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Najita, J. R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    Photochemical heating is analyzed with an emphasis on the heating generated by chemical reactions initiated by the products of photodissociation and photoionization. The immediate products are slowed down by collisions with the ambient gas and then heat the gas. In addition to this direct process, heating is also produced by the subsequent chemical reactions initiated by these products. Some of this chemical heating comes from the kinetic energy of the reaction products and the rest from collisional de-excitation of the product atoms and molecules. In considering dense gas dominated by molecular hydrogen, we find that the chemical heating is sometimes as large, if not much larger than, the direct heating. In very dense gas, the total photochemical heating approaches 10 eV per photodissociation (or photoionization), competitive with other ways of heating molecular gas.

  14. A new all-sky map of Galactic high-velocity clouds from the 21-cm HI4PI survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmeier, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) are neutral or ionized gas clouds in the vicinity of the Milky Way that are characterized by high radial velocities inconsistent with participation in the regular rotation of the Galactic disc. Previous attempts to create a homogeneous all-sky H I map of HVCs have been hampered by a combination of poor angular resolution, limited surface brightness sensitivity and suboptimal sampling. Here, a new and improved H I map of Galactic HVCs based on the all-sky HI4PI survey is presented. The new map is fully sampled and provides significantly better angular resolution (16.2 versus 36 arcmin) and column density sensitivity (2.3 versus 3.7 × 1018 cm-2 at the native resolution) than the previously available LAB survey. The new HVC map resolves many of the major HVC complexes in the sky into an intricate network of narrow H I filaments and clumps that were not previously resolved by the LAB survey. The resulting sky coverage fraction of high-velocity H I emission above a column density level of 2 × 1018 cm-2 is approximately 15 per cent, which reduces to about 13 per cent when the Magellanic Clouds and other non-HVC emission are removed. The differential sky coverage fraction as a function of column density obeys a truncated power law with an exponent of -0.93 and a turnover point at about 5 × 1019 cm-2. H I column density and velocity maps of the HVC sky are made publicly available as FITS images for scientific use by the community.

  15. First Results from the Dense Extragalactic GBT+ARGUS Survey (DEGAS): A Direct, Quantitative Test of the Role of Gas Density in Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Amanda; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Church, Sarah; Cleary, Kieran; Frayer, David; Gallagher, Molly; Gundersen, Joshua; Harris, Andrew; Hughes, Annie; Jimenez-Donaire, Maria Jesus; Kessler, Sarah; Lee, Cheoljong; Leroy, Adam; Li, Jialu; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Rosolowsky, Erik; Sandstrom, Karin; Schinnener, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Sieth, Matt; Usero, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Gas density plays a central role in all modern theories of star formation. A key test of these theories involves quantifying the resolved gas density distribution and its relationship to star formation within a wide range of galactic environments. Until recently, this experiment has been difficult to perform owing to the faint nature of key molecular gas tracers like HCN and HCO+, but the superior sensitivity of modern millimeter instruments like ALMA and the IRAM 30m make these types of experiments feasible. In particular, the sensitivity and resolution provided by large aperture of the GBT combined with fast mapping speeds made possible by its new 16-pixel, 3mm focal plane array (Argus) make the GBT an almost-ideal instrument for this type of study. The Dense Extragalactic GBT+Argus Survey (DEGAS) will leverage these capabilities to perform the largest, resolved survey of molecular gas tracers in nearby galaxies, ultimately mapping a suite of four molecular gas tracers in the inner 2’ by 2’ of 36 nearby galaxies. When complete in 2020, DEGAS will be the largest resolved survey of dense molecular gas tracers in nearby galaxies. This talk will present early results from the first observations for this Green Bank Telescope large survey and highlight some exciting future possibilities for this survey.

  16. Nucleon structure and properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Pethick, C.J.; Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL

    1988-01-01

    We consider the properties of dense matter in a framework of the Skyrme soliton model and the chiral bag model. The influence of the nucleon structure on the equation of state of dense matter is emphasized. We find that in both models the energy per unit volume is proportional to n 4/3 , n being the baryon number density. We discuss the properties of neutron stars with a derived equation of state. The role of many-body effects is investigated. The effect of including higher order terms in the chiral lagrangian is examined. The phase transition to quark matter is studied. 29 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  17. Estimates of Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures During the Pliocene From Carbonate 'Clumped Isotope' Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, N.; Tripati, A.; Eiler, J.

    2007-12-01

    The early Pliocene (5 to 3 Ma) was an interval in Earth history that was globally warmer than the present; thus, study of the details of Pliocene climate can provide insights into the dynamics of warm climates. There are two competing models of the temperature structure of the tropical Pacific upper-ocean during the early Pliocene: the dynamical 'ocean thermostat' model [1,2] and the 'El Padre' (or permanent 'El Nino') model [3], each of which predict zonal temperature gradients and mean conditions in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP), and which differ markedly from one another in these predictions. The dynamical 'ocean thermostat' model predicts an increased temperature contrast between the Western Equatorial Pacific (WEP) and EEP, enhanced thermocline tilt and intensified upwelling under warmer conditions. In contrast, the 'El Padre' model postulates a collapse of the zonal temperature gradient, reduced thermocline tilt and a reduction in upwelling and/or warmer temperatures of upwelled waters. Existing reconstructions of tropical temperatures produce WEP sea surface temperatures which agree with each other, but yield very different results in the EEP [4,5]. We have reconstructed EEP sea surface temperatures at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 847 using a few samples spanning key intervals of the last 6 million years using carbonate clumped isotope thermometer [6,7,8]. This technique is based on the temperature dependence of the abundances of 13C-18O bonds in carbonate minerals. Initial measurements of planktonic foraminifera and coccoliths from ODP Site 847 indicate cool EEP sea surface temperatures, supporting models of Pliocene climate that have enhanced zonal temperature gradients, relative to modern. Analyses of Globigerinoides sacculifer (with sac) from sediments indicate calcification temperatures of 20.3°C ± 0.1°C and seawater δ18O values of -0.8‰ ± 0.1‰ from ~6.1 to 5.1 million years ago. Measurements of a mixed coccolith assemblage from the

  18. Dense genetic linkage maps of three Populus species (Populus deltoides, P. nigra and P. trichocarpa) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M T; Storme, V; Ivens, B; Gusmão, J; Liu, B H; Hostyn, V; Van Slycken, J; Van Montagu, M; Boerjan, W

    2001-06-01

    Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. trichocarpa are the most important species for poplar breeding programs worldwide. In addition, Populus has become a model for fundamental research on trees. Linkage maps were constructed for these three species by analyzing progeny of two controlled crosses sharing the same female parent, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24. The two-way pseudotestcross mapping strategy was used to construct the maps. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers that segregated 1:1 were used to form the four parental maps. Microsatellites and sequence-tagged sites were used to align homoeologous groups between the maps and to merge linkage groups within the individual maps. Linkage analysis and alignment of the homoeologous groups resulted in 566 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. deltoides covering 86% of the genome, 339 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. trichocarpa covering 73%, and 369 markers distributed over 28 groups for P. nigra covering 61%. Several tests for randomness showed that the AFLP markers were randomly distributed over the genome.

  19. Color maps of X-ray globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.; Grindlay, J.E.; Cohn, H.; Lugger, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a search for optical counterparts to X-ray sources in six globular clusters, 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, NGC 6441, NGC 6624, NGC 6712, and M15, are reported. Maps of the U-B color of the central regions of the clusters were prepared. A candidate for the optical counterpart of the source in NGC 6712 was found, along with a blue region near the X-ray source in 47 Tuc. Upper limits on the colors and magnitudes of possible optical counterparts are reported for the other three clusters. The use of color maps to determine color gradients in globular clusters is explored. It is found that, while such gradients do exist and vary from cluster to cluster, they can be explained by crowding effects. Crude limits are placed on the excess populations of blue objects such as CVs, which have been postulated to be concentrated in the centers of dense clusters. 32 references

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Massive star forming molecular clumps Tkin (Tang+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.; Yeh, C. C.; Konig, C.; Yuan, Y.; He, Y. X.; Li, D. L.

    2016-10-01

    We have selected 30 massive clumps of the Galactic disk at various stages of high-mass star formation and with strong NH3 emission from the ATLASGAL survey (see Table 1). Our observations were carried out in 2015 April, July, and October with the 15m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea. The beam size is ~23" and the main-beam efficiency is {eta}mb=Ta*/Tmb~=0.7 at 218GHz. The para-H2CO JKAKC =303-202, 322-221, and 321-220 transitions have rest frequencies of 218.222, 218.475, and 218.760GHz, respectively, which are measured simultaneously by employing the ACSIS digital autocorrelation spectrometer with the special backend configuration RxAH2CO250x3 allowing for three windows, each with a bandwidth of 250MHz. This provides a velocity resolution of 0.084km/s for para-H2CO (303-202 and 322-221) and 0.042km/s for para-H2CO (321-220); CH3OH (422-312) at 218.440GHz is also observed together with para-H2CO (322-221). (6 data files).

  1. Dry processing versus dense medium processing for preparing thermal coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Korte, GJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available of the final product. The separation efficiency of dry processes is, however, not nearly as good as that of dense medium and, as a result, it is difficult to effectively beneficiate coals with a high near-dense content. The product yield obtained from some raw...

  2. THE GALACTIC CENTER CLOUD G0.253+0.016: A MASSIVE DENSE CLOUD WITH LOW STAR FORMATION POTENTIAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zhang Qizhou, E-mail: jens.kauffmann@astro.caltech.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present the first interferometric molecular line and dust emission maps for the Galactic Center (GC) cloud G0.253+0.016, observed using CARMA and the SMA. This cloud is very dense, and concentrates a mass exceeding the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex (2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }) into a radius of only 3 pc, but it is essentially starless. G0.253+0.016 therefore violates ''star formation laws'' presently used to explain trends in galactic and extragalactic star formation by a factor {approx}45. Our observations show a lack of dense cores of significant mass and density, thus explaining the low star formation activity. Instead, cores with low densities and line widths {approx}< 1 km s{sup -1}-probably the narrowest lines reported for the GC region to date-are found. Evolution over several 10{sup 5} yr is needed before more massive cores, and possibly an Arches-like stellar cluster, could form. Given the disruptive dynamics of the GC region, and the potentially unbound nature of G0.253+0.016, it is not clear that this evolution will happen.

  3. The development of flood map in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Fairus; Zin, Rosli Mohamad; Mohamad, Ismail; Balubaid, Saeed; Mydin, Shaik Hussein; MDR, E. M. Roodienyanto

    2017-11-01

    In Malaysia, flash floods are common occurrences throughout the year in flood prone areas. In terms of flood extent, flash floods affect smaller areas but because of its tendency to occur in densely urbanized areas, the value of damaged property is high and disruption to traffic flow and businesses are substantial. However, in river floods especially the river floods of Kelantan and Pahang, the flood extent is widespread and can extend over 1,000 square kilometers. Although the value of property and density of affected population is lower, the damage inflicted by these floods can also be high because the area affected is large. In order to combat these floods, various flood mitigation measures have been carried out. Structural flood mitigation alone can only provide protection levels from 10 to 100 years Average Recurrence Intervals (ARI). One of the economically effective non-structural approaches in flood mitigation and flood management is using a geospatial technology which involves flood forecasting and warning services to the flood prone areas. This approach which involves the use of Geographical Information Flood Forecasting system also includes the generation of a series of flood maps. There are three types of flood maps namely Flood Hazard Map, Flood Risk Map and Flood Evacuation Map. Flood Hazard Map is used to determine areas susceptible to flooding when discharge from a stream exceeds the bank-full stage. Early warnings of incoming flood events will enable the flood victims to prepare themselves before flooding occurs. Properties and life's can be saved by keeping their movable properties above the flood levels and if necessary, an early evacuation from the area. With respect to flood fighting, an early warning with reference through a series of flood maps including flood hazard map, flood risk map and flood evacuation map of the approaching flood should be able to alert the organization in charge of the flood fighting actions and the authority to

  4. Efficient Online Aggregates in Dense-Region-Based Data Cube Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadin, Kais; Lauer, Tobias

    In-memory OLAP systems require a space-efficient representation of sparse data cubes in order to accommodate large data sets. On the other hand, most efficient online aggregation techniques, such as prefix sums, are built on dense array-based representations. These are often not applicable to real-world data due to the size of the arrays which usually cannot be compressed well, as most sparsity is removed during pre-processing. A possible solution is to identify dense regions in a sparse cube and only represent those using arrays, while storing sparse data separately, e.g. in a spatial index structure. Previous dense-region-based approaches have concentrated mainly on the effectiveness of the dense-region detection (i.e. on the space-efficiency of the result). However, especially in higher-dimensional cubes, data is usually more cluttered, resulting in a potentially large number of small dense regions, which negatively affects query performance on such a structure. In this paper, our focus is not only on space-efficiency but also on time-efficiency, both for the initial dense-region extraction and for queries carried out in the resulting hybrid data structure. We describe two methods to trade available memory for increased aggregate query performance. In addition, optimizations in our approach significantly reduce the time to build the initial data structure compared to former systems. Also, we present a straightforward adaptation of our approach to support multi-core or multi-processor architectures, which can further enhance query performance. Experiments with different real-world data sets show how various parameter settings can be used to adjust the efficiency and effectiveness of our algorithms.

  5. Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Studying the distribution of parasitic helminth body size across a population of definitive hosts can advance our understanding of parasite population biology. Body size is typically correlated with egg production. Consequently, inequalities in body size have been frequently measured to infer variation in reproductive success (VRS). Body size is also related to parasite age (time since entering the definitive host) and potentially provides valuable information on the mode of acquisition and establishment of immature (larval) parasites within the host: whether parasites tend to establish singly or in aggregates. The mode of acquisition of soil-transmitted helminths has been a theoretical consideration in the parasitological literature but has eluded data-driven investigation. In this paper, we analyse individual Ascaris lumbricoides weight data collected from a cohort of human hosts before and after re-infection following curative treatment, and explore its distribution within and among individuals in the population. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients indicate that levels of weight inequality (a proxy for VRS) in A.lumbricoides are lower than other published estimates from animal-helminth systems. We explore levels of intra-host weight aggregation using statistical models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) while adjusting for covariates using a flexible fractional polynomial transformation approach capable of handling non-linear functional relationships. The estimated ICCs indicate that weights are aggregated within hosts both at equilibrium and after re-infection, suggesting that parasites may establish within the host in clumps. The implications of a clumped infection process are discussed in terms of ascariasis transmission dynamics, control and anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Dense Cores under Pressure in Orion A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Helen; Di Francesco, James [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Friesen, Rachel K. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Pineda, Jaime E.; Caselli, Paola; Alves, Felipe O.; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Punanova, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Matzner, Christopher D.; Singh, Ayushi [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Myers, Philip C.; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Keown, Jared [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Rd., Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Seo, Young Min [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Shirley, Yancy [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Hall, Christine [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); and others

    2017-09-10

    We use data on gas temperature and velocity dispersion from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and core masses and sizes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey to estimate the virial states of dense cores within the Orion A molecular cloud. Surprisingly, we find that almost none of the dense cores are sufficiently massive to be bound when considering only the balance between self-gravity and the thermal and non-thermal motions present in the dense gas. Including the additional pressure binding imposed by the weight of the ambient molecular cloud material and additional smaller pressure terms, however, suggests that most of the dense cores are pressure-confined.

  7. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Dense Cores under Pressure in Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Helen; Di Francesco, James; Friesen, Rachel K.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Caselli, Paola; Alves, Felipe O.; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Punanova, Anna; Rosolowsky, Erik; Offner, Stella S. R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Singh, Ayushi; Myers, Philip C.; Chen, How-Huan; Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Keown, Jared; Seo, Young Min; Shirley, Yancy; Ginsburg, Adam; Hall, Christine

    2017-01-01

    We use data on gas temperature and velocity dispersion from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and core masses and sizes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey to estimate the virial states of dense cores within the Orion A molecular cloud. Surprisingly, we find that almost none of the dense cores are sufficiently massive to be bound when considering only the balance between self-gravity and the thermal and non-thermal motions present in the dense gas. Including the additional pressure binding imposed by the weight of the ambient molecular cloud material and additional smaller pressure terms, however, suggests that most of the dense cores are pressure-confined.

  8. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  9. Point-Cloud Compression for Vehicle-Based Mobile Mapping Systems Using Portable Network Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohira, K.; Masuda, H.

    2017-09-01

    A mobile mapping system is effective for capturing dense point-clouds of roads and roadside objects Point-clouds of urban areas, residential areas, and arterial roads are useful for maintenance of infrastructure, map creation, and automatic driving. However, the data size of point-clouds measured in large areas is enormously large. A large storage capacity is required to store such point-clouds, and heavy loads will be taken on network if point-clouds are transferred through the network. Therefore, it is desirable to reduce data sizes of point-clouds without deterioration of quality. In this research, we propose a novel point-cloud compression method for vehicle-based mobile mapping systems. In our compression method, point-clouds are mapped onto 2D pixels using GPS time and the parameters of the laser scanner. Then, the images are encoded in the Portable Networking Graphics (PNG) format and compressed using the PNG algorithm. In our experiments, our method could efficiently compress point-clouds without deteriorating the quality.

  10. POINT-CLOUD COMPRESSION FOR VEHICLE-BASED MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEMS USING PORTABLE NETWORK GRAPHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kohira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobile mapping system is effective for capturing dense point-clouds of roads and roadside objects.Point-clouds of urban areas, residential areas, and arterial roads are useful for maintenance of infrastructure, map creation, and automatic driving. However, the data size of point-clouds measured in large areas is enormously large. A large storage capacity is required to store such point-clouds, and heavy loads will be taken on network if point-clouds are transferred through the network. Therefore, it is desirable to reduce data sizes of point-clouds without deterioration of quality. In this research, we propose a novel point-cloud compression method for vehicle-based mobile mapping systems. In our compression method, point-clouds are mapped onto 2D pixels using GPS time and the parameters of the laser scanner. Then, the images are encoded in the Portable Networking Graphics (PNG format and compressed using the PNG algorithm. In our experiments, our method could efficiently compress point-clouds without deteriorating the quality.

  11. Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn; Li, Song; Zhang, Chi [China University of Mining and Technology, School of Sciences (China); Ye, Bin [China University of Mining and Technology, School of Information and Electrical Engineering (China)

    2015-01-15

    We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained.

  12. Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang; Li, Song; Zhang, Chi; Ye, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained

  13. Evaluation of sound extinction and echo interference in densely aggregated zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gorska

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of sound extinction and echo interference is important as regards the accurate assessment of the abundance of densely aggregated zooplankton. To study these effects,the analytical model describing sound backscattering by an aggregation of isotropic scatterers (Rytov et al. 1978, Sun & Gimenez 1992 has been extended to the case of densely aggregated elongated zooplankton. The evaluation of the effects in the case of a dense krill aggregation demonstrates that they can be significant and should be taken into account.

  14. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  15. THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AROUND IRAS 17599–2148: INFRARED DARK CLOUD AND BIPOLAR NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Janardhan, P. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Ojha, D. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Zinchenko, I. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov st., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ghosh, S. K. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Luna, A., E-mail: lokeshd@prl.res.in [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro # 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, C.P. 72840 (Mexico)

    2016-12-20

    We present a multiscale and multiwavelength study to investigate the star formation process around IRAS 17599–2148, which is part of an elongated filamentary structure (EFS) (extension ∼21 pc) seen in the Herschel maps. Using the Herschel data analysis, at least six massive clumps (M {sub clump} ∼ 777–7024 M {sub ⊙}) are found in the EFS with a range of temperature and column density of ∼16–39 K and ∼(0.6–11) × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2} (A {sub V}  ∼ 7–117 mag), respectively. The EFS hosts cold gas regions (i.e., infrared dark cloud) without any radio detection and a bipolar nebula (BN) linked with the H ii region IRAS 17599–2148, tracing two distinct environments inferred through the temperature distribution and ionized emission. Based on virial analysis and higher values of self-gravitating pressure, the clumps are found unstable against gravitational collapse. We find 474 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the selected region, and ∼72% of these YSOs are found in the clusters distributed mainly toward the clumps in the EFS. These YSOs might have spontaneously formed due to processes not related to the expanding H ii region. At the edges of BN, four additional clumps are also associated with YSO clusters, which appear to be influenced by the expanding H ii region. The most massive clump in the EFS contains two compact radio sources traced in the Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope 1.28 GHz map and a massive protostar candidate, IRS 1, prior to an ultracompact H ii phase. Using the Very Large Telescope/NACO near-infrared images, IRS 1 is resolved with a jet-like feature within a 4200 au scale.

  16. The capture of attention by entirely irrelevant pictures of calorie-dense foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Egeth, Howard E

    2018-04-01

    Inborn preference for palatable energy-dense food is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation. One way this preference manifests itself is through the control of visual attention. In the present study, we investigated how attentional capture is influenced by changes in naturally occurring goal-states, in this case desire for energy-dense foods (typically high fat and/or high sugar). We demonstrate that even when distractors are entirely irrelevant, participants were significantly more distracted by energy-dense foods compared with non-food objects and even low-energy foods. Additionally, we show the lability of these goal-states by having a separate set of participants consume a small amount of calorie-dense food prior to the task. The amount of distraction by the energy-dense food images in this case was significantly reduced and no different than distraction by images of low-energy foods and images of non-food objects. While naturally occurring goal-states can be difficult to ignore, they also are highly flexible.

  17. A quasi-dense matching approach and its calibration application with Internet photos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanli; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wu, Q M Jonathan; Wang, Xifu; Tang, Zhen; Wang, Zhifei

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a quasi-dense matching approach to the automatic acquisition of camera parameters, which is required for recovering 3-D information from 2-D images. An affine transformation-based optimization model and a new matching cost function are used to acquire quasi-dense correspondences with high accuracy in each pair of views. These correspondences can be effectively detected and tracked at the sub-pixel level in multiviews with our neighboring view selection strategy. A two-layer iteration algorithm is proposed to optimize 3-D quasi-dense points and camera parameters. In the inner layer, different optimization strategies based on local photometric consistency and a global objective function are employed to optimize the 3-D quasi-dense points and camera parameters, respectively. In the outer layer, quasi-dense correspondences are resampled to guide a new estimation and optimization process of the camera parameters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm with several experiments.

  18. DENSE GAS FRACTION AND STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY VARIATIONS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigiel, F. [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, A. K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Street, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Blitz, L. [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Da Cunha, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rosolowsky, E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Sandstrom, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Usero, A., E-mail: bigiel@uni-heidelberg.de [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Alfonso XII 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-20

    We use the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the {sup 12}CO(1–0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1–0), HCO{sup +}(1–0), CS(2–1), and HNC(1–0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified “supergiant molecular clouds.” We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (star formation rate/H{sub 2} ∝ IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of six within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in millimeter-wave line emission, while the overlap region is the brightest part of the system in the IR. We combine the CARMA and Herschel data with ALMA CO data to report line ratio patterns for each bright point. CO shows a declining spectral line energy distribution, consistent with previous studies. HCO{sup +} (1–0) emission is stronger than HCN (1–0) emission, perhaps indicating either more gas at moderate densities or higher optical depth than is commonly seen in more advanced mergers.

  19. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...... receptors (AMY) are a heterodimer formed by the coexpression of CTR with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CTR with RAMP1 responds potently to both amylin and CGRP. The brain stem is a major site of action for circulating amylin and is a rich site of CGRP binding. This study aimed to enhance our...

  20. Developing Cost-Effective Dense Continuous SDC Barrier Layers for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Hoang Viet P.; Hardy, John S.; Coyle, Christopher A.; LU, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2017-12-04

    Significantly improved performance during electrochemical testing of a cell with a dense continuous pulsed laser deposited (PLD) samarium doped ceria (SDC) layer spurred investigations into the fabrication of dense continuous SDC barrier layers by means of cost-effective deposition using screen printing which is amenable to industrial production of SOFCs. Many approaches to improve the SDC density have been explored including the use of powder with reduced particle sizes, inks with increased solids loading, and doping with sintering aids (1). In terms of sintering aids, dopants like Mo or binary systems of Mo+Cu or Fe+Co greatly enhance SDC sinterability. In fact, adding dopants to a screen printed, prefired, porous SDC layer made it possible to achieve a dense continuous barrier layer atop the YSZ electrolyte without sintering above 1200°C. Although the objective of fabricating a dense continuous layer was achieved, additional studies have been initiated to improve the cell performance. Underlying issues with constrained sintering and dopant-enhanced ceria-zirconia solid solubility are also addressed in this paper.

  1. Mapping long-term wetland response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Gallant, A.; Rover, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands provide unique feeding and breeding habitat for numerous waterfowl species. The distribution of wetlands has been considerably changed due to agricultural land conversion and hydrologic modification. Climate change may further impact wetlands through altered moisture regimes. This study characterized long-term variation in wetland conditions by using dense time series from all available Landsat data from 1985 to 2014. We extracted harmonic frequencies from 30 years to two years to delineate the long-term variation in all seven Landsat bands. A cluster analysis and unsupervised classification then enabled us to map different classes of wetland response. We demonstrated the method in the Prairie Pothole Region in North Dakota.

  2. IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. V. [Ne ii], MULTIPLE CLUSTERS, HIGH EFFICIENCY STAR FORMATION, AND BLUE FLOWS IN HE 2–10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Sara; Turner, Jean; Lacy, John; Greathouse, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We measured the 12.8 μm [Ne ii] line in the dwarf starburst galaxy He 2–10 with the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the NASA IRTF. The data cube has a diffraction-limited spatial resolution of ∼1″ and a total velocity resolution, including thermal broadening, of ∼5 km s −1 . This makes it possible to compare the kinematics of individual star-forming clumps and molecular clouds in the three dimensions of space and velocity, and allows us to determine star formation efficiencies. The kinematics of the ionized gas confirm that the starburst contains multiple dense clusters. From the M/R of the clusters and the ≃30%–40% star formation efficiencies, the clusters are likely to be bound and long lived, like globulars. Non-gravitational features in the line profiles show how the ionized gas flows through the ambient molecular material, as well as a narrow velocity feature, which we identify with the interface of the H ii region and a cold dense clump. These data offer an unprecedented view of the interaction of embedded H ii regions with their environment

  3. An extended GS method for dense linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hiroshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Abe, Kuniyoshi

    2009-09-01

    Davey and Rosindale [K. Davey, I. Rosindale, An iterative solution scheme for systems of boundary element equations, Internat. J. Numer. Methods Engrg. 37 (1994) 1399-1411] derived the GSOR method, which uses an upper triangular matrix [Omega] in order to solve dense linear systems. By applying functional analysis, the authors presented an expression for the optimum [Omega]. Moreover, Davey and Bounds [K. Davey, S. Bounds, A generalized SOR method for dense linear systems of boundary element equations, SIAM J. Comput. 19 (1998) 953-967] also introduced further interesting results. In this note, we employ a matrix analysis approach to investigate these schemes, and derive theorems that compare these schemes with existing preconditioners for dense linear systems. We show that the convergence rate of the Gauss-Seidel method with preconditioner PG is superior to that of the GSOR method. Moreover, we define some splittings associated with the iterative schemes. Some numerical examples are reported to confirm the theoretical analysis. We show that the EGS method with preconditioner produces an extremely small spectral radius in comparison with the other schemes considered.

  4. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers) or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with a Clumpy Interstellar Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahina, Yuta; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composed of an arc-shaped cloud on one side of the TeV γ -ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) on the other side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with clumps of interstellar neutral hydrogen (H i). By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of H i clumps, we found that the density distribution of H i clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet–cloud interaction: arc clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with a Clumpy Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, Yuta; Kawashima, Tomohisa [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsumoto, Ryoji, E-mail: asahina@cfca.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2017-02-20

    The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composed of an arc-shaped cloud on one side of the TeV γ -ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) on the other side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with clumps of interstellar neutral hydrogen (H i). By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of H i clumps, we found that the density distribution of H i clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet–cloud interaction: arc clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

  7. DIRECT DETECTION OF PRECURSORS OF GAS GIANTS FORMED BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY WITH THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Lucio [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Peters, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pineda, Jaime E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wadsley James; Rogers, Patrick, E-mail: p.rogers@marianopolis.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Phases of gravitational instability are expected in the early phases of disk evolution, when the disk mass is still a substantial fraction of the mass of the star. Disk fragmentation into sub-stellar objects could occur in the cold exterior part of the disk. Direct detection of massive gaseous clumps on their way to collapse into gas giant planets would offer an unprecedented test of the disk instability model. Here we use state-of-the-art 3D radiation-hydro simulations of disks undergoing fragmentation into massive gas giants, post-processed with RADMC-3D to produce dust continuum emission maps. These are then fed into the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) ALMA simulator. The synthetic maps show that both overdense spiral arms and actual clumps at different stages of collapse can be detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the full configuration at the distance of the Ophiuchus star forming region (125 pc). The detection of clumps is particularly effective at shorter wavelengths (690 GHz) combining two resolutions with multi-scale clean. Furthermore, we show that a flux-based estimate of the mass of a protoplanetary clump can be comparable to a factor of three higher than the gravitationally bound clump mass. The estimated mass depends on the assumed opacity, and on the gas temperature, which should be set using the input of radiation-hydro simulations. We conclude that ALMA has the capability to detect “smoking gun” systems that are a signpost of the disk instability model for gas giant planet formation.

  8. The electronic pressure in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozwolski, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermodynamic calculation of the electronic pressure in a dense plasma is given. Approximations involved by the use of the Debye length are avoided, so the above theory remains valid even if the Debye length is smaller than the interionic distance. (author)

  9. Dense Alternating Sign Matrices and Extensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.; Stroev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 444, 1 March (2014), s. 219-226 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : alternating sign matrix * dense matrix * totally unimodular matrix * combined matrix * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  10. Dense plasma focus - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendys, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)

  11. Two Red Clumps and the X-shaped Milky Way Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Andrew; Zoccali, Manuela

    2010-12-01

    From Two Micron All Sky Survey infrared photometry, we find two red clump (RC) populations coexisting in fields toward the Galactic bulge at latitudes |b|>5fdg5, ranging over ~13° in longitude and 20° in latitude. These RC peaks indicate two stellar populations separated by ~2.3 kpc at (l, b) = (+1, - 8) the two RCs are located at 6.5 and 8.8 ± 0.2 kpc. The double-peaked RC is inconsistent with a tilted bar morphology. Most of our fields show the two RCs at roughly constant distance with longitude, also inconsistent with a tilted bar; however, an underlying bar may be present. Stellar densities in the two RCs change dramatically with longitude: on the positive longitude side the foreground RC is dominant, while the background RC dominates negative longitudes. A line connecting the maxima of the foreground and background populations is tilted to the line of sight by ~20°±4°, similar to claims for the tilt of a Galactic bar. The distance between the two RCs decreases toward the Galactic plane; seen edge-on the bulge is X-shaped, resembling some extragalactic bulges and the results of N-body simulations. The center of this X is consistent with the distance to the Galactic center, although better agreement would occur if the bulge is 2-3 Gyr younger than 47 Tuc. Our observations may be understood if the two RC populations emanate, nearly tangentially, from the Galactic bar ends, in a funnel shape. Alternatively, the X, or double funnel, may continue to the Galactic center. From the Sun, this would appear peanut/box shaped, but X-shaped when viewed tangentially.

  12. Scale-chiral symmetry, ω meson, and dense baryonic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Liang; Rho, Mannque

    2018-05-01

    It is shown that explicitly broken scale symmetry is essential for dense skyrmion matter in hidden local symmetry theory. Consistency with the vector manifestation fixed point for the hidden local symmetry of the lowest-lying vector mesons and the dilaton limit fixed point for scale symmetry in dense matter is found to require that the anomalous dimension (|γG2| ) of the gluon field strength tensor squared (G2 ) that represents the quantum trace anomaly should be 1.0 ≲|γG2|≲3.5 . The magnitude of |γG2| estimated here will be useful for studying hadron and nuclear physics based on the scale-chiral effective theory. More significantly, that the dilaton limit fixed point can be arrived at with γG2≠0 at some high density signals that scale symmetry can arise in dense medium as an "emergent" symmetry.

  13. Probing dense matter with strange hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann; Rafelski, Johann; Letessier, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of hadron production experimental data allows to understand the properties of the dense matter fireball produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We interpret the analysis results and argue that color deconfined state has been formed at highest CERN-SPS energies and at BNL-RHIC.

  14. High-Density LiDAR Mapping of the Ancient City of Mayapán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Hare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2013 survey of a 40 square kilometer area surrounding Mayapán, Yucatan, Mexico used high-density LiDAR data to map prehispanic architecture and related natural features. Most of the area is covered by low canopy dense forest vegetation over karstic hilly terrain that impedes full coverage archaeological survey. We used LiDAR at 40 laser points per square meter to generate a bare earth digital elevation model (DEM. Results were evaluated with comparisons to previously mapped areas and with traditional archaeological survey methods for 38 settlement clusters outside of the city wall. Ground checking employed full coverage survey of selected 500 m grid squares, as well as documentation of the chronology and detail of new public and domestic settlement features and cenotes. Results identify the full extent of continued, contemporary Postclassic settlement (A.D. 1150–1450 outside of the city wall to at least 500 meters to the east, north, and west. New data also reveal an extensive modified landscape of terraformed residential hills, rejolladas, and dense settlement dating from Preclassic through Classic Periods. The LiDAR data also allow for the identification of rooms, benches, and stone property walls and lanes within the city.

  15. Temperature response of the neuronal cytoskeleton mapped via atomic force and fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spedden, Elise; Staii, Cristian; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal cells change their growth properties in response to external physical stimuli such as variations in external temperature, stiffness of the growth substrate, or topographical guidance cues. Detailed knowledge of the mechanisms that control these biomechanical responses is necessary for understanding the basic principles that underlie neuronal growth and regeneration. Here, we present elasticity maps of living cortical neurons (embryonic rat) as a function of temperature, and correlate these maps to the locations of internal structural components of the cytoskeleton. Neurons display a significant increase in the average elastic modulus upon a decrease in ambient temperature from 37 to 25 °C. We demonstrate that the dominant mechanism by which the elasticity of the neurons changes in response to temperature is the stiffening of the actin components of the cytoskeleton induced by myosin II. We also report a reversible shift in the location and composition of the high-stiffness areas of the neuron cytoskeleton with temperature. At 37 °C the areas of the cell displaying high elastic modulus overlap with the tubulin-dense regions, while at 25 °C these high-stiffness areas correspond to the actin-dense regions of the cytoskeleton. These results demonstrate the importance of considering temperature effects when investigating cytoskeletal dynamics in cells. (paper)

  16. An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Valerio; Herold, Martin; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Lewis, Simon L; Phillips, Oliver L; Asner, Gregory P; Armston, John; Ashton, Peter S; Banin, Lindsay; Bayol, Nicolas; Berry, Nicholas J; Boeckx, Pascal; de Jong, Bernardus H J; DeVries, Ben; Girardin, Cecile A J; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Lindsell, Jeremy A; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Lucas, Richard; Malhi, Yadvinder; Morel, Alexandra; Mitchard, Edward T A; Nagy, Laszlo; Qie, Lan; Quinones, Marcela J; Ryan, Casey M; Ferry, Slik J W; Sunderland, Terry; Laurin, Gaia Vaglio; Gatti, Roberto Cazzolla; Valentini, Riccardo; Verbeeck, Hans; Wijaya, Arief; Willcock, Simon

    2016-04-01

    We combined two existing datasets of vegetation aboveground biomass (AGB) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2011, 9899; Nature Climate Change, 2, 2012, 182) into a pan-tropical AGB map at 1-km resolution using an independent reference dataset of field observations and locally calibrated high-resolution biomass maps, harmonized and upscaled to 14 477 1-km AGB estimates. Our data fusion approach uses bias removal and weighted linear averaging that incorporates and spatializes the biomass patterns indicated by the reference data. The method was applied independently in areas (strata) with homogeneous error patterns of the input (Saatchi and Baccini) maps, which were estimated from the reference data and additional covariates. Based on the fused map, we estimated AGB stock for the tropics (23.4 N-23.4 S) of 375 Pg dry mass, 9-18% lower than the Saatchi and Baccini estimates. The fused map also showed differing spatial patterns of AGB over large areas, with higher AGB density in the dense forest areas in the Congo basin, Eastern Amazon and South-East Asia, and lower values in Central America and in most dry vegetation areas of Africa than either of the input maps. The validation exercise, based on 2118 estimates from the reference dataset not used in the fusion process, showed that the fused map had a RMSE 15-21% lower than that of the input maps and, most importantly, nearly unbiased estimates (mean bias 5 Mg dry mass ha(-1) vs. 21 and 28 Mg ha(-1) for the input maps). The fusion method can be applied at any scale including the policy-relevant national level, where it can provide improved biomass estimates by integrating existing regional biomass maps as input maps and additional, country-specific reference datasets. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Validation of in vivo 2D displacements from spiral cine DENSE at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Gregory J; Suever, Jonathan D; Haggerty, Christopher M; Jing, Linyuan; Powell, David K; Hamlet, Sean M; Grabau, Jonathan D; Mojsejenko, Walter Dimitri; Zhong, Xiaodong; Epstein, Frederick H; Fornwalt, Brandon K

    2015-01-30

    Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) encodes displacement into the phase of the magnetic resonance signal. Due to the stimulated echo, the signal is inherently low and fades through the cardiac cycle. To compensate, a spiral acquisition has been used at 1.5T. This spiral sequence has not been validated at 3T, where the increased signal would be valuable, but field inhomogeneities may result in measurement errors. We hypothesized that spiral cine DENSE is valid at 3T and tested this hypothesis by measuring displacement errors at both 1.5T and 3T in vivo. Two-dimensional spiral cine DENSE and tagged imaging of the left ventricle were performed on ten healthy subjects at 3T and six healthy subjects at 1.5T. Intersection points were identified on tagged images near end-systole. Displacements from the DENSE images were used to project those points back to their origins. The deviation from a perfect grid was used as a measure of accuracy and quantified as root-mean-squared error. This measure was compared between 3T and 1.5T with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Inter-observer variability of strains and torsion quantified by DENSE and agreement between DENSE and harmonic phase (HARP) were assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) at each cardiac phase was compared between 3T and 1.5T with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The displacement accuracy of spiral cine DENSE was not different between 3T and 1.5T (1.2 ± 0.3 mm and 1.2 ± 0.4 mm, respectively). Both values were lower than the DENSE pixel spacing of 2.8 mm. There were no substantial differences in inter-observer variability of DENSE or agreement of DENSE and HARP between 3T and 1.5T. Relative to 1.5T, the SNR at 3T was greater by a factor of 1.4 ± 0.3. The spiral cine DENSE acquisition that has been used at 1.5T to measure cardiac displacements can be applied at 3T with equivalent accuracy. The inter-observer variability and agreement of DENSE-derived peak strains and

  18. Nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, D.; Mosher, D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a 2d envelope model is described for the nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches. Numerical solutions for various cases of interest are provided which lay the foundation for a quantitative model of nonthermal neutron emission in dense Z-pinches by determining the induced electric fields associated with the development of the instability

  19. Evaluating Unmanned Aerial Platforms for Cultural Heritage Large Scale Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, C.; Adamopoulos, E.; Stathopoulou, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  20. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, MIS3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS3: −8.6 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 ka: −9.7 ± 0.2‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.6 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  1. Laboratory-grown coccoliths exhibit no vital effect in clumped isotope (Δ47) composition on a range of geologically relevant temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Amandine; Bonifacie, Magali; Hermoso, Michaël; Cartigny, Pierre; Calmels, Damien

    2017-07-01

    The carbonate clumped isotope (or Δ47) thermometer relies on the temperature dependence of the abundance of 13C18O16O22- ion groups within the mineral lattice. This proxy shows tremendous promise to reconstruct past sea surface temperatures (SSTs), but requires calibration of the relationship between Δ47 and calcification temperatures. Specifically, it is important to determine whether biologically-driven fractionation (the so-called "vital effect") overprints Δ47 values, as reported in some biominerals such as the foraminifera and the coccoliths for the carbon and oxygen isotope systems. Despite their abundance in the pelagic environment, coccolithophores have not been comprehensively investigated to test the reliability of coccolith Δ47-inferred temperatures. In this study, we cultured three geologically-relevant coccolith species (Emiliania huxleyi, Coccolithus pelagicus, and Calcidiscus leptoporus) at controlled temperatures between 7 and 25 ± 0.2 °C. Other variables such as pCO2, pH, alkalinity, nutrient concentrations and salinity were kept constant at mean present-day oceanic conditions. Although cultured coccoliths exhibit substantial species-specific oxygen and carbon isotope vital effects, we found that their Δ47 composition follows a statistically indistinguishable relationship with 1/T2 for all three species, indicating a lack of interspecific vital effects in coccoliths. Further, the Δ47 composition of coccolith calcite is identical to inorganic calcite precipitated at the same temperature, indicating an overall absence of clumped isotope vital effect in coccolith biominerals. From a paleoceanographic perspective, this study indicates that the Δ47 values of sedimentary coccoliths - even from highly diverse/mixed assemblages - can be analyzed to reconstruct SSTs with confidence, as such temperature estimates are not biased by taxonomic content or changing interspecies vital effects through time.

  2. Effect of Particle Shape on Mechanical Behaviors of Rocks: A Numerical Study Using Clumped Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guan; Liu, Guang; Zhou, Chuang-bing

    2013-01-01

    Since rocks are aggregates of mineral particles, the effect of mineral microstructure on macroscopic mechanical behaviors of rocks is inneglectable. Rock samples of four different particle shapes are established in this study based on clumped particle model, and a sphericity index is used to quantify particle shape. Model parameters for simulation in PFC are obtained by triaxial compression test of quartz sandstone, and simulation of triaxial compression test is then conducted on four rock samples with different particle shapes. It is seen from the results that stress thresholds of rock samples such as crack initiation stress, crack damage stress, and peak stress decrease with the increasing of the sphericity index. The increase of sphericity leads to a drop of elastic modulus and a rise in Poisson ratio, while the decreasing sphericity usually results in the increase of cohesion and internal friction angle. Based on volume change of rock samples during simulation of triaxial compression test, variation of dilation angle with plastic strain is also studied. PMID:23997677

  3. Effect of particle shape on mechanical behaviors of rocks: a numerical study using clumped particle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guan; Liu, Guang; Hou, Di; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Since rocks are aggregates of mineral particles, the effect of mineral microstructure on macroscopic mechanical behaviors of rocks is inneglectable. Rock samples of four different particle shapes are established in this study based on clumped particle model, and a sphericity index is used to quantify particle shape. Model parameters for simulation in PFC are obtained by triaxial compression test of quartz sandstone, and simulation of triaxial compression test is then conducted on four rock samples with different particle shapes. It is seen from the results that stress thresholds of rock samples such as crack initiation stress, crack damage stress, and peak stress decrease with the increasing of the sphericity index. The increase of sphericity leads to a drop of elastic modulus and a rise in Poisson ratio, while the decreasing sphericity usually results in the increase of cohesion and internal friction angle. Based on volume change of rock samples during simulation of triaxial compression test, variation of dilation angle with plastic strain is also studied.

  4. A Large and Pristine Sample of Standard Candles across the Milky Way: ∼100,000 Red Clump Stars with 3% Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Hawkins, Keith; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2018-05-01

    Core helium-burning red clump (RC) stars are excellent standard candles in the Milky Way. These stars may have more precise distance estimates from spectrophotometry than from Gaia parallaxes beyond 3 kpc. However, RC stars have values of T eff and {log}g that are very similar to some red giant branch (RGB) stars. Especially for low-resolution spectroscopic studies where T eff, {log}g, and [Fe/H] can only be estimated with limited precision, separating RC stars from RGB through established methods can incur ∼20% contamination. Recently, Hawkins et al. demonstrated that the additional information in single-epoch spectra, such as the C/N ratio, can be exploited to cleanly differentiate RC and RGB stars. In this second paper of the series, we establish a data-driven mapping from spectral flux space to independently determined asteroseismic parameters, the frequency and the period spacing. From this, we identify 210,371 RC stars from the publicly available LAMOST DR3 and APOGEE DR14 data, with ∼9% of contamination. We provide an RC sample of 92249 stars with a contamination of only ∼3%, by restricting the combined analysis to LAMOST stars with S/Npix ≥ 75. This demonstrates that high-signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), low-resolution spectra covering a broad wavelength range can identify RC samples at least as pristine as their high-resolution counterparts. As coming and ongoing surveys such as TESS, DESI, and LAMOST will continue to improve the overlapping training spectroscopic-asteroseismic sample, the method presented in this study provides an efficient and straightforward way to derive a vast yet pristine sample of RC stars to reveal the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Milky Way.

  5. Matching of dense plasma focus devices with fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.; Heindler, M.

    1978-01-01

    The potential role of dense plasma focus devices as compact neutron sources for fissile fuel breeding in conjunction with existing fission reactors is considered. It is found that advanced plasma focus devices can be used effectively in conjunction with neutronically efficient fission reactors to constitute ''self-sufficient'' breeders. Correlations among the various parameters such as the power output and conversion ratio of the fission reactor with the neutron yield and capacitor bank energy of the dense plasma focus device are presented and discussed

  6. Collective dynamics in dense Hg vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, D; Inui, M; Matsuda, K; Tamura, K; Baron, A Q R; Tsutsui, S; Tanaka, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic structure factor, S(Q,ο), of dense Hg vapour has been measured by high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering for densities of 3.0, 2.1 and 1.0 g cm -3 corresponding to 0.52, 0.36 and 0.17 times the critical density, respectively, and for momentum transfers between 2.0 and 48 nm -1 . Analysis of the longitudinal current-current correlation function in the framework of generalized hydrodynamics reveals that the frequencies of the collective excitations increase faster with Q than estimated from the macroscopic speed of sound. The ratios of the frequencies were found to be 1.27 at 3.0 g cm -3 , 1.12 at 2.1 g cm -3 and 1.10 at 1.0 g cm -3 . The sound velocity obtained from the present experiments is well reproduced by a wavenumber dependent adiabatic sound velocity, which means that the collective modes remain in the spectra of dense Hg vapour. (letter to the editor)

  7. Classification of LIDAR Data for Generating a High-Precision Roadway Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    Generating of a highly precise map grows up with development of autonomous driving vehicles. The highly precise map includes a precision of centimetres level unlike an existing commercial map with the precision of meters level. It is important to understand road environments and make a decision for autonomous driving since a robust localization is one of the critical challenges for the autonomous driving car. The one of source data is from a Lidar because it provides highly dense point cloud data with three dimensional position, intensities and ranges from the sensor to target. In this paper, we focus on how to segment point cloud data from a Lidar on a vehicle and classify objects on the road for the highly precise map. In particular, we propose the combination with a feature descriptor and a classification algorithm in machine learning. Objects can be distinguish by geometrical features based on a surface normal of each point. To achieve correct classification using limited point cloud data sets, a Support Vector Machine algorithm in machine learning are used. Final step is to evaluate accuracies of obtained results by comparing them to reference data The results show sufficient accuracy and it will be utilized to generate a highly precise road map.

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF LIDAR DATA FOR GENERATING A HIGH-PRECISION ROADWAY MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jeong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating of a highly precise map grows up with development of autonomous driving vehicles. The highly precise map includes a precision of centimetres level unlike an existing commercial map with the precision of meters level. It is important to understand road environments and make a decision for autonomous driving since a robust localization is one of the critical challenges for the autonomous driving car. The one of source data is from a Lidar because it provides highly dense point cloud data with three dimensional position, intensities and ranges from the sensor to target. In this paper, we focus on how to segment point cloud data from a Lidar on a vehicle and classify objects on the road for the highly precise map. In particular, we propose the combination with a feature descriptor and a classification algorithm in machine learning. Objects can be distinguish by geometrical features based on a surface normal of each point. To achieve correct classification using limited point cloud data sets, a Support Vector Machine algorithm in machine learning are used. Final step is to evaluate accuracies of obtained results by comparing them to reference data The results show sufficient accuracy and it will be utilized to generate a highly precise road map.

  9. The structure of protostellar dense cores: a millimeter continuum study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, Frederique

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical scenario explains low-mass star formation and describes the gravitational collapse of an isolated 'ideal' dense core. The major aim of this thesis is to check the standard model predictions on the structure of protostellar dense cores (or envelopes). The earliest stages of star formation remain poorly known because the protostars are still deeply embedded in massive, opaque circumstellar cocoons. On the one hand, sensitive bolometer arrays very recently allow us to measure the millimeter continuum emission arising from dense cores. Such observations are a powerful tool to constrain the density structure of proto-stellar dense cores (on large length scale). In particular, we studied the structure of isolated proto-stellar envelopes in Taurus and protostars in the ρ Ophiuchi cluster. In order to accurately derive their envelope density power law, we simulated the observation of several envelope models. Then we show that most of the Taurus protostars present a density structure consistent with the standard model predictions. In contrast, dense cores in ρ Ophiuchi main cloud are highly fragmented and protostellar envelope have finite size. Moreover fragmentation appears to be essential in determining the final stellar mass of ρ Oph forming stars. In clusters, fragmentation may thus be at the origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). On the other hand, our interferometric millimeter continuum observations are tracing (with higher angular resolution) the inner part of protostellar envelopes. Our study show that disks during protostellar stages are not yet massive and thus do not perturb the analysis of envelope density structure. (author) [fr

  10. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Saiz, E; Riley, D [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gregori, G; Clarke, R J; Neely, D; Notley, M M; Spindloe, C [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX (United Kingdom); Gericke, D O; Vorberger, J; Wunsch, K [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Barbrel, B; Koenig, M [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Laser Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique - Universite Paris-6, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Freeman, R R; Weber, R L; Van Woerkom, L [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Price, D [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Khattak, F Y [Department of Physics, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat-26000, NWFP (Pakistan); Pelka, A; Roth, M; Schollmeier, M [Institut fur Kernphysik, Technische Universitat Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    One of the grand challenges of contemporary physics is understanding strongly interacting quantum systems comprising such diverse examples as ultracold atoms in traps, electrons in high-temperature superconductors and nuclear matter. Warm dense matter, defined by temperatures of a few electron volts and densities comparable with solids, is a complex state of such interacting matter. Moreover, the study of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where it is encountered during the implosion phase, and it also represents laboratory analogues of astrophysical environments found in the core of planets and the crusts of old stars. Here we demonstrate how warm dense matter states can be diagnosed and structural properties can be obtained by inelastic X-ray scattering measurements on a compressed lithium sample. Combining experiments and ab initio simulations enables us to determine its microscopic state and to evaluate more approximate theoretical models for the ionic structure. (authors)

  11. Studying dense plasmas with coherent XUV pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabile, H.

    2006-12-01

    The investigation of dense plasma dynamic requires the development of diagnostics able to ensure the measurement of electronic density with micro-metric space resolution and sub-nanosecond, or even subpicosecond, time resolution (indeed this must be at least comparable with the characteristic tune scale of plasma evolution). In contrast with low-density plasmas, dense plasmas cannot be studied using optical probes in the visible domain, the density range accessible being limited to the critical density (N c equals 1.1*10 21 λ -2 (μm) ∼ 10 21 cm -3 for infrared). In addition, light is reflected even at smaller densities if the medium exhibits sharp density gradients. Hence probing of dense plasmas, for instance those produced by laser irradiation of solids, requires using shorter wavelength radiation. Thanks to their physical properties, high order harmonics generated in rare gases are particularly adapted to the study of dense plasmas. Indeed, they can naturally be synchronized with the generating laser and their pulse duration is very short, which makes it possible to use them in pump-probe experiments. Moreover, they exhibit good spatial and temporal coherencies. Two types of diagnostics were developed during this thesis. The first one was used to study the instantaneous creation of hot-solid-density plasma generated by focusing a femtosecond high-contrast laser on an ultra-thin foil (100 nm) in the 10 18 W/cm 2 intensity regime. The use of high order harmonics, providing a probe beam of sufficiently short wavelengths to penetrate such a medium, enables the study of its dynamics on the 100 fs time scale. The second one uses the harmonics beam as probe beam (λ equals 32 nm) within an interferometric device. This diagnostic was designed to ensure a micro-metric spatial resolution and a temporal resolution in the femtosecond range. The first results in presence of plasma created by irradiation of an aluminum target underline the potentialities of this new

  12. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava. Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  13. Isotopologues of dense gas tracers in NGC 1068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junzhi; Qiu, Jianjie [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, 200030, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Shi, Yong [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Zhang, Jiangshui [Center For Astrophysics, GuangZhou University, 510006, GuangZhou (China); Fang, Min, E-mail: jzwang@shao.ac.cn [ESO, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munich (Germany)

    2014-11-20

    We present observations of isotopic lines of dense gas tracers toward the nuclear region of nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with the IRAM 30 m telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) 12 m telescope. We detected four isotopic lines (H{sup 13}CN 1-0, H{sup 13}CO{sup +} 1-0, HN{sup 13}C 1-0, and HC{sup 18}O{sup +} 1-0) at the 3 mm band with the IRAM 30 m telescope and obtained upper limits of other lines. We calculated optical depths of dense gas tracers with the detected isotopic lines of HCN 1-0, HCO{sup +} 1-0, and HNC 1-0. We find that the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N abundance ratio is greater than 420 if we adopt the upper limit of HC{sup 15}N(1-0) emission. Combining this with fluxes of 1-0 lines from IRAM 30 m observations and the upper limit of 3-2 lines from APEX 12 m observations, we also estimated the excitation condition of molecular gas in the nuclear region of NGC 1068, which is less dense than that in the extreme starburst regions of galaxies.

  14. Radiative-Transfer Modeling of Spectra of Densely Packed Particulate Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, G.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Glotch, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing measurements over a wide range of wavelengths from both ground- and space-based platforms have provided a wealth of data regarding the surfaces and atmospheres of various solar system bodies. With proper interpretations, important properties, such as composition and particle size, can be inferred. However, proper interpretation of such datasets can often be difficult, especially for densely packed particulate media with particle sizes on the order of wavelength of light being used for remote sensing. Radiative transfer theory has often been applied to the study of densely packed particulate media like planetary regoliths and snow, but with difficulty, and here we continue to investigate radiative transfer modeling of spectra of densely packed media. We use the superposition T-matrix method to compute scattering properties of clusters of particles and capture the near-field effects important for dense packing. Then, the scattering parameters from the T-matrix computations are modified with the static structure factor correction, accounting for the dense packing of the clusters themselves. Using these corrected scattering parameters, reflectance (or emissivity via Kirchhoff's Law) is computed with the method of invariance imbedding solution to the radiative transfer equation. For this work we modeled the emissivity spectrum of the 3.3 µm particle size fraction of enstatite, representing some common mineralogical and particle size components of regoliths, in the mid-infrared wavelengths (5 - 50 µm). The modeled spectrum from the T-matrix method with static structure factor correction using moderate packing densities (filling factors of 0.1 - 0.2) produced better fits to the laboratory measurement of corresponding spectrum than the spectrum modeled by the equivalent method without static structure factor correction. Future work will test the method of the superposition T-matrix and static structure factor correction combination for larger particles

  15. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  16. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    -ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation......Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X...

  17. High density genetic mapping identifies new susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Diogo, Dorothée; Lee, Annette; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Stahl, Eli; Viatte, Sebastien; McAllister, Kate; Amos, Christopher I.; Padyukov, Leonid; Toes, Rene E.M.; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Westra, Harm-Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Hu, Xinli; Sandor, Cynthia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Davila, Sonia; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Heng, Khai Koon; Andrews, Robert; Edkins, Sarah; Hunt, Sarah E; Langford, Cordelia; Symmons, Deborah; Concannon, Pat; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S; Deloukas, Panos; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlsetig, Lisbeth; Martin, Javier; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Plenge, Robert; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Summary Using the Immunochip custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, designed for dense genotyping of 186 genome wide association study (GWAS) confirmed loci we analysed 11,475 rheumatoid arthritis cases of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. The data were combined in meta-analysis with GWAS data from additional independent cases (n=2,363) and controls (n=17,872). We identified fourteen novel loci; nine were associated with rheumatoid arthritis overall and 5 specifically in anti-citrillunated peptide antibody positive disease, bringing the number of confirmed European ancestry rheumatoid arthritis loci to 46. We refined the peak of association to a single gene for 19 loci, identified secondary independent effects at six loci and association to low frequency variants (minor allele frequency <0.05) at 4 loci. Bioinformatic analysis of the data generated strong hypotheses for the causal SNP at seven loci. This study illustrates the advantages of dense SNP mapping analysis to inform subsequent functional investigations. PMID:23143596

  18. The human hippocampus beyond the cognitive map: evidence from a densely amnesic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela A; Colombo, Françoise; Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We tested a densely amnesic patient (P9), with bilateral hippocampal damage resulting from an autoimmune disorder, and 12 age- and sex-matched controls on a series of memory tasks designed to characterize allocentric spatial learning and memory abilities. We compared P9's ability to perform spatial memory tasks with her ability to perform non-spatial, color memory tasks. First, P9's performance was impaired as compared to controls even in the simplest versions of an allocentric spatial memory task, in which she had to find repeatedly over 10 trials the same location(s) of one, two or three illuminating foot pad(s) among 23 pads distributed in an open-field arena. In contrast, she performed as well as controls when she had to find repeatedly over 10 trials the same one, two or three pad(s) marked by color cue(s), whose locations varied between trials. Second, P9's performance was severely impaired in working memory tasks, when she had to learn on a trial-unique basis and remember the location(s) or the color(s) of one, two or three pad(s), while performing an interfering task during the 1-min interval separating encoding and retrieval. Without interference during the retention interval of the trial-unique tasks, P9's performance was partially preserved in the color tasks, whereas it remained severely impaired in the allocentric spatial tasks. Detailed behavioral analyses indicate that P9's memory representations are more limited than those of controls both in their precision (metric coding) and in the number of items that can be maintained in memory (capacity). These findings are consistent with the theory that the hippocampus contributes to the integration or binding of multiple items, in order to produce high-resolution/high-capacity representations of spatial and non-spatial information in the service of short-term/working and long-term memory.

  19. The human hippocampus beyond the cognitive map: Evidence from a densely amnesic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A Banta Lavenex

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested a densely amnesic patient (P9, with bilateral hippocampal damage resulting from an autoimmune disorder, and 12 age- and sex-matched controls on a series of memory tasks designed to characterize allocentric spatial learning and memory abilities. We compared P9’s ability to perform spatial memory tasks with her ability to perform non-spatial, color memory tasks. First, P9’s performance was impaired as compared to controls even in the simplest versions of an allocentric spatial memory task, in which she had to find repeatedly over ten trials the same location(s of one, two or three illuminating foot pad(s among 23 pads distributed in an open-field arena. In contrast, she performed as well as controls when she had to find repeatedly over ten trials the same one, two or three pad(s marked by color cue(s, whose locations varied between trials. Second, P9’s performance was severely impaired in working memory tasks, when she had to learn on a trial-unique basis and remember the location(s or the color(s of one, two or three pad(s, while performing an interfering task during the one-minute interval separating encoding and retrieval. Without interference during the retention interval of the trial-unique tasks, P9’s performance was partially preserved in the color tasks, whereas it remained severely impaired in the allocentric spatial tasks. Detailed behavioral analyses indicate that P9’s memory representations are more limited than those of controls both in their precision (metric coding and in the number of items that can be maintained in memory (capacity. These findings are consistent with the theory that the hippocampus contributes to the integration or binding of multiple items, in order to produce high-resolution/high-capacity representations of spatial and non-spatial information in the service of short-term/working and long-term memory.

  20. Pion condensation in cold dense matter and neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, P.; Proszynski, M.

    1982-01-01

    We study possible influence, on the neutron star structure, of a pion condensation occurring in cold dense matter. Several equations of state with pion-condensed phase are considered. The models of neutron stars are calculated and confronted with existing observational data on pulsars. Such a confrontation appears to rule out the models of dense matter with an abnormal self-bound state, and therefore it seems to exclude the possibility of the existence of abnormal superheavy neutron nuclei and abnormal neutron stars with a liquid pion-condensed surface

  1. Some Recent Progress on Quark Pairings in Dense Quark and Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Jinyi; Wang Jincheng; Wang Qun

    2012-01-01

    In this review article we give a brief overview on some recent progress in quark pairings in dense quark/nuclear matter mostly developed in the past five years. We focus on following aspects in particular: the BCS-BEC crossover in the CSC phase, the baryon formation and dissociation in dense quark/nuclear matter, the Ginzburg-Landau theory for three-flavor dense matter with U A (1) anomaly, and the collective and Nambu-Goldstone modes for the spin-one CSC. (physics of elementary particles and fields)

  2. Properties of Dense Cores Embedded in Musca Derived from Extinction Maps and {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O, and NH{sub 3} Emission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaieie, Dinelsa A.; Vilas-Boas, José W.; Wuensche, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos Astronautas 1.758—Jardim da Granja, CEP-12227-010, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Racca, Germán A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Naturais/Depto. de Física, Campus Universitário Central, Setor II BR 110, KM 48, Rua Prof. António Campos, Costa e Silva 59610-090—Mossoró-RN (Brazil); Myers, Philip C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hickel, Gabriel R., E-mail: dinelsa.machaieie@inpe.br [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Departamento de Física, Av. BPS, 1303, Pinheirinho, Itajubá, MG (Brazil)

    2017-02-10

    Using near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and the Near Infrared Color Excess method, we studied the extinction distribution in five dense cores of Musca, which show visual extinction greater than 10 mag and are potential sites of star formation. We analyzed the stability in four of them, fitting their radial extinction profiles with Bonnor–Ebert isothermal spheres, and explored their properties using the J = 1–0 transition of {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O and the J = K = 1 transition of NH{sub 3}. One core is not well described by the model. The stability parameter of the fitted cores ranges from 4.5 to 5.7 and suggests that all cores are stable, including Mu13, which harbors one young stellar object (YSO), the IRAS 12322-7023 source. However, the analysis of the physical parameters shows that Mu13 tends to have larger A {sub V}, n {sub c}, and P {sub ext} than the remaining starless cores. The other physical parameters do not show any trend. It is possible that those are the main parameters to explore in active star-forming cores. Mu13 also shows the most intense emission of NH{sub 3}. Its {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O lines have double peaks, whose integrated intensity maps suggest that they are due to the superposition of clouds with different radial velocities seen in the line of sight. It is not possible to state whether these clouds are colliding and inducing star formation or are related to a physical process associated with the formation of the YSO.

  3. TWO RED CLUMPS AND THE X-SHAPED MILKY WAY BULGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, Andrew; Zoccali, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    From Two Micron All Sky Survey infrared photometry, we find two red clump (RC) populations coexisting in fields toward the Galactic bulge at latitudes |b|>5. 0 5, ranging over ∼13 0 in longitude and 20 0 in latitude. These RC peaks indicate two stellar populations separated by ∼2.3 kpc; at (l, b) = (+1, - 8) the two RCs are located at 6.5 and 8.8 ± 0.2 kpc. The double-peaked RC is inconsistent with a tilted bar morphology. Most of our fields show the two RCs at roughly constant distance with longitude, also inconsistent with a tilted bar; however, an underlying bar may be present. Stellar densities in the two RCs change dramatically with longitude: on the positive longitude side the foreground RC is dominant, while the background RC dominates negative longitudes. A line connecting the maxima of the foreground and background populations is tilted to the line of sight by ∼20 0 ±4 0 , similar to claims for the tilt of a Galactic bar. The distance between the two RCs decreases toward the Galactic plane; seen edge-on the bulge is X-shaped, resembling some extragalactic bulges and the results of N-body simulations. The center of this X is consistent with the distance to the Galactic center, although better agreement would occur if the bulge is 2-3 Gyr younger than 47 Tuc. Our observations may be understood if the two RC populations emanate, nearly tangentially, from the Galactic bar ends, in a funnel shape. Alternatively, the X, or double funnel, may continue to the Galactic center. From the Sun, this would appear peanut/box shaped, but X-shaped when viewed tangentially.

  4. High-resolution precipitation mapping in a mountainous watershed: ground truth for evaluating uncertainty in a national precipitation dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Daly; Melissa E. Slater; Joshua A. Roberti; Stephanie H. Laseter; Lloyd W. Swift

    2017-01-01

    A 69-station, densely spaced rain gauge network was maintained over the period 1951–1958 in the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, located in the southern Appalachians in western North Carolina, USA. This unique dataset was used to develop the first digital seasonal and annual precipitation maps for the Coweeta basin, using elevation regression functions and...

  5. Kinetic theory of the interdiffusion coefficient in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boercker, D.B.

    1986-08-01

    Naive applications of Spitzer's theory to very dense plasmas can lead to negative diffusion coefficients. The interdiffusion coefficients in Binary Ionic Mixtures (two species of point ions in a uniform neutralizing background) have been calculated recently using molecular dynamics techniques. These calculations can provide useful benchmarks for theoretical evaluations of the diffusion coefficient in dense plasma mixtures. This paper gives a brief description of a kinetic theoretic approximation to the diffusion coefficient which generalizes Spitzer to high density and is in excellent agreement with the computer simulations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Adopting the FAB-MAP algorithm for indoor localization with WiFi fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Wietrzykowski, Jan; Nowicki, Michał; Skrzypczyński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Personal indoor localization is usually accomplished by fusing information from various sensors. A common choice is to use the WiFi adapter that provides information about Access Points that can be found in the vicinity. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches to WiFi-based localization often employ very dense maps of the WiFi signal distribution, and require a time-consuming process of parameter selection. On the other hand, camera images are commonly used for visual place recognition, de...

  7. High core count single-mode multicore fiber for dense space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aikawa, K.; Sasaki, Y.; Amma, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Multicore fibers and few-mode fibers have the potential to realize dense-space-division multiplexing systems. Several dense-space-division multiplexing system transmission experiments over multicore fibers and few-mode fibers have been demonstrated so far. Multicore fibers, including recent resul...

  8. Quantum-Mechanical Calculation of Ionization-Potential Lowering in Dense Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kil Son (손상길

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The charged environment within a dense plasma leads to the phenomenon of ionization-potential depression (IPD for ions embedded in the plasma. Accurate predictions of the IPD effect are of crucial importance for modeling atomic processes occurring within dense plasmas. Several theoretical m