WorldWideScience

Sample records for dense circumstellar medium

  1. Search for Early Gamma-ray Production in Supernovae Located in a Dense Circumstellar Medium with the Fermi LAT

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) exploding in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) are hypothesized to accelerate cosmic rays in collisionless shocks and emit GeV gamma rays and TeV neutrinos on a time scale of several months. We perform the first systematic search for gamma-ray emission in Fermi LAT data in the energy range from 100 MeV to 300 GeV from the ensemble of 147 SNe Type IIn exploding in dense CSM. We search for a gamma-ray excess at each SNe location in a one year time window. In order to enhance a possible weak signal, we simultaneously study the closest and optically brightest sources of our sample in a joint-likelihood analysis in three different time windows (1 year, 6 months and 3 months). For the most promising source of the sample, SN 2010jl (PTF10aaxf), we repeat the analysis with an extended time window lasting 4.5 years. We do not find a significant excess in gamma rays for any individual source nor for the combined sources and provide model-independent flux upper limits for both cases. In addition, we de...

  2. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  3. Unifying Type II Supernova Light Curves with Dense Circumstellar Material

    CERN Document Server

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A longstanding problem in the study of supernovae (SNe) has been the relationship between the Type IIP and Type IIL subclasses. Whether they come from distinct progenitors or they are from similar stars with some property that smoothly transitions from one class to another has been the subject of much debate. Here we show using one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic SN models that the multi-band light curves of SNe IIL are well fit by ordinary red supergiants surrounded by dense circumstellar material (CSM). The inferred extent of this material, coupled with a typical wind velocity of ~10-100 km/s, suggests enhanced activity by these stars during the last ~months to ~years of their lives, which may be connected with advanced stages of nuclear burning. Furthermore, we find that even for more plateau-like SNe that dense CSM provides a better fit to the first ~20 days of their light curves, indicating that the presence of such material may be more widespread than previously appreciated. Here we choose to model t...

  4. The Circumstellar Medium of Massive Stars in Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Meyer, Dominique M -A; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Mohamed, Shazrene; Neilson, Hilding R; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The circumstellar medium around massive stars is strongly impacted by stellar winds, radiation, and explosions. We use numerical simulations of these interactions to constrain the current properties and evolutionary history of various stars by comparison with observed circumstellar structures. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of bow shocks around red supergiant stars have shown that Betelgeuse has probably only recently evolved from a blue supergiant to a red supergiant, and hence its bow shock is very young and has not yet reached a steady state. We have also for the first time investigated the magnetohydrodynamics of the photoionised H II region around the nearby runaway O star Zeta Oph. Finally, we have calculated a grid of models of bow shocks around main sequence and evolved massive stars that has general application to many observed bow shocks, and which forms the basis of future work to model the explosions of these stars into their pre-shaped circumstellar medium.

  5. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Park

    2014-01-01

    describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space.

  6. Immediate dense circumstellar environment of supernova progenitors caused by wind acceleration: its effect on supernova light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Gräfener, Götz; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2017-07-01

    Type IIP supernova progenitors are often surrounded by dense circumstellar media that may result from mass-loss enhancement of the progenitors shortly before their explosions. Previous light-curve studies suggest that the mass-loss rates are enhanced up to ∼0.1 M⊙ yr-1, assuming a constant wind velocity. However, the density of circumstellar media at the immediate stellar vicinity can be much higher than previously inferred for a given mass-loss rate if wind acceleration is taken into account. We show that the wind acceleration has a huge impact when we estimate mass-loss rates from early light curves of Type IIP supernovae by taking SN 2013fs as an example. We perform numerical calculations of the interaction between supernova ejecta and circumstellar media with a constant mass-loss rate but with a β-law wind velocity profile. We find that the mass-loss rate of the progenitor of SN 2013fs shortly before the explosion, which was inferred to be ∼0.1 M⊙ yr-1 with a constant wind velocity of 10 km s-1 by a previous light-curve modelling, can be as low as ∼10-3 M⊙ yr-1 with the same terminal wind velocity of 10 km s-1 but with a wind velocity profile with β ≃ 5. In both cases, the mass of the circumstellar medium is similar (≃0.5 M⊙). Therefore, the beginning of the progenitor's mass-loss enhancement in our interpretation is ∼100 yr before the explosion, not several years. Our result indicates that the immediate dense environment of Type II supernova progenitors may be significantly influenced by wind acceleration.

  7. Numerical models for the circumstellar medium around Betelgeuse

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Neilson, Hilding R; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M -A

    2013-01-01

    The nearby red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse has a complex circumstellar medium out to at least 0.5 parsecs from its surface, shaped by its mass-loss history within the past 0.1 Myr, its environment, and its motion through the interstellar medium (ISM). In principle its mass-loss history can be constrained by comparing hydrodynamic models with observations. Observations and numerical simulations indicate that Betelgeuse has a very young bow shock, hence the star may have only recently become a RSG. To test this possibility we calculated a stellar evolution model for a single star with properties consistent with Betelgeuse. We incorporated the resulting evolving stellar wind into 2D hydrodynamic simulations to model a runaway blue supergiant (BSG) undergoing the transition to a RSG near the end of its life. The collapsing BSG wind bubble induces a bow shock-shaped inner shell which at least superficially resembles Betelgeuse's bow shock, and has a similar mass. Surrounding this is the larger-scale retreating bow...

  8. Type Ia Supernovae Strongly Interacting with Their Circumstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Jeffrey M; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D Andrew; Filippenko, Alexei V; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Bloom, Joshua S; Cenko, S Bradley; Cao, Yi; Chornock, Ryan; Clubb, Kelsey I; Coil, Alison L; Foley, Ryan J; Graham, Melissa L; Griffith, Christopher V; Horesh, Assaf; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Leonard, Douglas C; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Miller, Adam A; Modjaz, Maryam; Ofek, Eran O; Pan, Yen-Chen; Perley, Daniel A; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; Steele, Thea N; Sternberg, Assaf; Xu, Dong; Yaron, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia show evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well-studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in-depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by H{\\alpha} emission (with widths of ~2000 km/s) and exhibit large H{\\alpha}/H{\\beta} intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They...

  9. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE STRONGLY INTERACTING WITH THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Howell, D. Andrew; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Griffith, Christopher V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: jsilverman@astro.as.utexas.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by H{alpha} emission (with widths of {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}) and exhibit large H{alpha}/H{beta} intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of H{alpha} 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag {<=} M{sub R} {<=} -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

  10. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  11. The circumstellar medium of the peculiar supernova SN1997ab

    CERN Document Server

    Salamanca, I M; Tenorio-Tagle, G; Telles, E; Terlevich, R J; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Salamanca, Isabel; Cid-Fernandes, Roberto; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto J.; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    1998-01-01

    We report the detection of the slow moving wind into which the compact supernova remnant SN 1997ab is expanding. Echelle spectroscopy provides clear evidence for a well resolved narrow (Full Width at Zero Intensity, FWZI ~ 180 km/s) P-Cygni profile, both in Ha and Hb, superimposed on the broad emission lines of this compact supernova remnant. From theoretical arguments we know that the broad and strong emission lines imply a circumstellar density (n ~ 10^7 cm^-3). This, together with our detection, implies a massive and slow stellar wind experienced by the progenitor star shortly prior to the explosion.

  12. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available availability to treat the higher grade coal (the bottom layer of coal) from the no. 2 Seam for a local and export metallurgical market. Following the path of evolution, in 2007, Leeuwpan commissioned the first double stage ultra-fines dense medium cyclone... plant in the coal industry, to form part of its overall DMS plant. It replaced the spirals to treat the -1 mm material. Spirals are still the most commonly and accepted method used by the industry, but it seems as if the pioneering cyclone process...

  13. Mid-Infrared Signatures from Type Ia Supernovae Strongly Interacting with a Circumstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori

    2016-08-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are well-known for their use as precise cosmological distance indicators due to a standardizable peak luminosity resulting from a thermonuclear explosion. A growing subset of SNe Ia, however, show evidence for interaction with a dense circumstellar medium during the first year post-explosion, and sometimes longer (SNe Ia-CSM). The origin of this dense CSM is unknown and suggests either a) the less typical single-degenerate progenitor scenario must be considered or b) the exploding star was not a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf at all (i.e., core-collapse). Mid-infrared (IR) observations, in particular, are critical for tracing the density profile of dust (and hence gas) in the surrounding CSM. Yet no Spitzer light curve exists for this subclass within the first year post-expolosion. Here we propose a 'low-impact' (>8 weeks) ToO to obtain 3 epochs of Spitzer imaging of a SN Ia-CSM within 100 Mpc over 1 year post-explosion. The strength of this program is that it will be in conjunction with pre-approved multi-wavelength programs on HST/STIS/UV (GO 13649), Chandra/ASIS-S (17500672), the Keck/LRIS optical spectrograph (U037LA), and the RATIR visible/infrared robotic imager. Requiring only 2.1 hours of observation total, this program will not only distinguish between the SN explosion mechanisms, but also trace CSM interaction, constrain the progenitor mass loss history, and identify late-time heating mechanisms of warm dust.

  14. Early-time signatures of {\\gamma}-ray emission from supernovae in dense circumstellar media

    CERN Document Server

    Kantzas, Dimitrios; Mastichiadis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    We present our results on the {\\gamma}-ray emission from interaction-powered supernovae (SNe), a recently discovered SN type that is suggested to be surrounded by a circumstellar medium (CSM) with densities 10^7-10^12~ cm^-3. Such high densities favor inelastic collisions between relativistic protons accelerated in the SN blast wave and CSM protons and the production of {\\gamma}-ray photons through neutral pion decays. Using a numerical code that includes synchrotron radiation, adiabatic losses due to the expansion of the source, photon-photon interactions, proton-proton collisions and proton-photon interactions, we calculate the multi-wavelength non-thermal photon emission soon after the shock breakout and follow its temporal evolution until 100-1000 days. Focusing on the {\\gamma}-ray emission at >100 MeV, we show that this could be detectable by the Fermi-LAT telescope for nearby (10^11 cm^-3).

  15. Supernova PTF 09UJ: A Possible Shock Breakout from a Dense Circumstellar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, E. O.; Rabinak, I.; Neill, J. D.; Arcavi, I.; Cenko, S. B.; Waxman, E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Bildsten, L.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Forster, K.; Howell, D. A.; Jacobsen, J.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Law, N.; Martin, C.; Poznanski, D.; Quimby, R. M.; Shen, K. J.; Sullivan, M.; Dekany, R.; Rahmer, G.; Hale, D.; Smith, R.; Zolkower, J.; Velur, V.; Walters, R.; Henning, J.; Bui, K.; McKenna, D.

    2010-12-01

    Type-IIn supernovae (SNe IIn), which are characterized by strong interaction of their ejecta with the surrounding circumstellar matter (CSM), provide a unique opportunity to study the mass-loss history of massive stars shortly before their explosive death. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of an SN IIn, PTF 09uj, detected by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Serendipitous observations by Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths detected the rise of the SN light curve prior to the PTF discovery. The UV light curve of the SN rose fast, with a timescale of a few days, to a UV absolute AB magnitude of about -19.5. Modeling our observations, we suggest that the fast rise of the UV light curve is due to the breakout of the SN shock through the dense CSM (n ≈ 1010 cm-3). Furthermore, we find that prior to the explosion the progenitor went through a phase of high mass-loss rate (~0.1 M sun yr-1) that lasted for a few years. The decay rate of this SN was fast relative to that of other SNe IIn.

  16. Supernova PTF 09uj: A possible shock breakout from a dense circumstellar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Ofek, E O; Neill, J D; Arcavi, I; Cenko, S B; Waxman, E; Kulkarni, S R; Yam, A Gal; Nugent, P E; Bildsten, L; Bloom, J S; Filippenko, A V; Forster, K; Howell, D A; Jacobsen, J; Kasliwal, M M; Law, N; Martin, C; Poznanski, D; Quimby, R M; Shen, K J; Sullivan, M; Dekany, R; Rahmer, G; Hale, D; Smith, R; Zolkower, J; Velur, V; Walters, R; Henning, J; Bui, K; McKenna, D

    2010-01-01

    Type-IIn supernovae (SNe), which are characterized by strong interaction of their ejecta with the surrounding circumstellar matter (CSM), provide a unique opportunity to study the mass-loss history of massive stars shortly before their explosive death. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of a Type IIn SN, PTF 09uj, detected by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Serendipitous observations by GALEX at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths detected the rise of the SN light curve prior to the PTF discovery. The UV light curve of the SN rose fast, with a time scale of a few days, to a UV absolute AB magnitude of about -19.5. Modeling our observations, we suggest that the fast rise of the UV light curve is due to the breakout of the SN shock through the dense CSM (n~10^10 cm^-3). Furthermore, we find that prior to the explosion the progenitor went through a phase of high mass-loss rate (~0.1 solar mass per year) that lasted for a few years. The decay rate of this SN was fast relative to that of other SNe I...

  17. RESEARCH ON DENSITY STABILITY OF AIR DENSE MEDIUM FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆振福; 陈清如

    1994-01-01

    In this papcr on thc basis of studying the distribution of fine coal in the dense medium fluidized bed, the optimal size range of fine coal, which constitutes a fluidized bed together with the dense medium, has been found. In the separating process the fine coal will continuously accumulate in fluidized bed, thus inevitably reducing the density of the bed. In order to keep bed density stable, the authors adopted such measures as split-flow of used medium and complement of fresh dense medium. The experiment results in both lab and pilot systems of the air-dense medium fluidized bed show that these measures are effective and satisfactory. Then authors also have established some relative dynamic mathematical models for it.

  18. X-ray Emission from Supernovae in Dense Circumstellar Matter Environments: a Search for Collisionless Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, E. O.; Fox, D.; Cenko, Stephen B.; Sullivan, M; Gnat, O.; Frail, D. A.; Horesh, A.; Corsi, A.; Quimby, R. M.; Gehrels, N.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Yaron, O.; Fillippenko, A. V; Kasliwal, M. M.; Bildsten, L.; Bloom, J. S.; Poznanski, D.; Arcavi, I.; Laher, R. R.; Levitan, D.; Sesar, B.; Surace, J..

    2013-01-01

    The optical light curve of some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the outward diffusion of the energy deposited by the explosion shock (the so-called shock breakout) in optically thick (Tau approx > 30) circumstellar matter (CSM). Recently, it was shown that the radiation-mediated and radiation-dominated shock in an optically thick wind must transform into a collisionless shock and can produce hard X-rays. The X-rays are expected to peak at late times, relative to maximum visible light. Here we report on a search, using Swift/XRT and Chandra, for X-ray emission from 28 SNe that belong to classes whose progenitors are suspected to be embedded in dense CSM. Our sample includes 19 Type IIn SNe, one Type Ibn SN, and eight hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSN-I such as SN 2005ap). Two SNe (SN 2006jc and SN 2010jl) have X-ray properties that are roughly consistent with the expectation for X-rays from a collisionless shock in optically thick CSM. However, the X-ray emission from SN 2006jc can also be explained as originating in an optically thin region. Thus, we propose that the optical light curve of SN 2010jl is powered by shock breakout in CSM. We suggest that two other events (SN 2010al and SN 2011ht) were too X-ray bright during the SN maximum optical light to be explained by the shock-breakout model.We conclude that the light curves of some, but not all, SNe IIn/Ibn are powered by shock breakout in CSM. For the rest of the SNe in our sample, including all of the SLSN-I events, our X-ray limits are not deep enough and were typically obtained too early (i.e., near the SN maximum light) for definitive conclusions about their nature. Late-time X-ray observations are required in order to further test whether these SNe are indeed embedded in dense CSM. We review the conditions required for a shock breakout in a wind profile. We argue that the timescale, relative to maximum light, for the SN to peak in X-rays is a probe of the column density and the density profile above

  19. In-plant evaluation of dense medium process performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Q. Honaker; A. Patwardhan [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-15

    The separation density and process efficiency values achieved by dense medium processes are a function of the particle size fractions being treated, hydrodynamics of the separator, and medium rheology. An in-plant evaluation of the dense medium processes being used in an operating preparation plant was conducted in an effort to develop relationships between the actual separation density and the medium density and to quantify the separation efficiency values. The results were found to correlate well with current fundamental and operating principles governing the processes, which are reviewed and discussed.

  20. Charmonium in a hot, dense medium

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, David

    2009-01-01

    In this lecture we apply a thermodynamic Green function formalism developed in the context of nonrelativistic plasma physics for the case of heavy quarkonia states in strongly correlated quark matter. Besides the traditional explanation of charmonium suppresion by Debye screening of the strong interaction, we discuss further effects of relevance when heavy quarkonia states propagate in a medium where strong correlations persist in the form of hadronic resonances. These effects may be absorbed in the definition of a plasma Hamiltonian, which was the main result of this work. This plasma Hamiltonian governs the in-medium modification of the bound state energy levels as well as the lowering of the continuum edge which leads not only to the traditional Mott effect for the dissociation of bound states in a plasma, but can also be applied for a consistent calculation of the in-medium modification of quarkonium dissociation rates.

  1. Charmonium in a hot, dense medium

    OpenAIRE

    Blaschke, David

    2009-01-01

    In this lecture we apply a thermodynamic Green function formalism developed in the context of nonrelativistic plasma physics for the case of heavy quarkonia states in strongly correlated quark matter. Besides the traditional explanation of charmonium suppresion by Debye screening of the strong interaction, we discuss further effects of relevance when heavy quarkonia states propagate in a medium where strong correlations persist in the form of hadronic resonances. These effects may be absorbed...

  2. Modelling the circumstellar medium in RS Ophiuchi and its link to Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, R. A.; Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.

    2016-03-01

    Recent interpretations of narrow, variable absorption lines detected in some Type Ia supernovae suggest that their progenitors are surrounded by dense, circumstellar material. Similar variations detected in the symbiotic recurrent nova system RS Oph, which undergoes thermonuclear outbursts every 20 years, making it an ideal candidate to investigate the origin of these lines. To this end, we present simulations of multiple mass transfer-nova cycles in RS Oph. We find that the quiescent mass transfer produces a dense, equatorial outflow, i.e. concentrated towards the binary orbital plane, and an accretion disc forms around the white dwarf. The interaction of a spherical nova outburst with these aspherical circumstellar structures produces a bipolar outflow, similar to that seen in Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the 2006 outburst. In order to produce an ionization structure that is consistent with observations, a mass-loss rate of 5 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1 from the red giant is required. The simulations also produce a polar accretion flow, which may explain the broad wings of the quiescent H line and hard X-rays. By comparing simulated absorption line profiles to observations of the 2006 outburst, we are able to determine which components arise in the wind and which are due to the novae. We explore the possible behaviour of absorption line profiles as they may appear should a supernova occur in a system like RS Oph. Our models show similarities to supernovae like SN 2006X, but require a high mass-loss rate, dot{M} ˜ 10^{-6}-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, to explain the variability in SN 2006X.

  3. Propagation of Light in a Hot and Dense Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina

    2016-01-01

    Photons, as quanta of electromagnetic fields, determine the electromagnetic properties of an extremely hot and dense medium. Considering the properties of photons in the interacting medium of charged particles, we explicitly calculate the electromagnetic properties such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, refractive index and the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in extremely hot and dense background in cosmos. Photons acquire dynamically generated mass in a medium. The screening mass of photon, Debye shielding length and the plasma frequency are calculated as functions of statistical parameters of the medium. We study the properties of the propagating particles in astrophysical systems of distinct statistical conditions. The modifications in the medium properties lead to the equation of state of the system. We mainly calculate all these parameters for extremely high temperatures of the early universe.

  4. Two Distinct-Absorption X-Ray Components from Type IIn Supernovae: Evidence for Asphericity in the Circumstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuda, Satoru; Bamba, Aya; Terada, Yukikatsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kawabata, Koji; Ohno, Masanori; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Tsuboi, Yohko; Immler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present multi-epoch X-ray spectral observations of three Type IIn supernovae (SNe) 2005kd, 2006jd, and 2010jl, acquired with Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Swift. Previous extensive X-ray studies of SN 2010jl have revealed that X-ray spectra are dominated by thermal emission, which likely arises from a hot plasma heated by a forward shock propagating into a massive circumstellar medium (CSM). Interestingly, an additional soft X-ray component was required to reproduce the spectra at a period of ~1-2 yr after the SN explosion. Although this component is likely associated with the SN, its origin remained an open question. We find a similar, additional soft X-ray component from the other two SNe IIn as well. Given this finding, we present a new interpretation for the origin of this component; it is thermal emission from a forward shock essentially identical to the hard X-ray component, but directly reaches us from a void of the dense CSM. Namely, the hard and soft components are responsible for the heavily- ...

  5. Electromagnetic Properties of a Hot and Dense Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina

    2016-01-01

    We study the properties of an electromagnetically interacting medium in the presence of high concentration of electrons at extremely high temperatures and chemical potentials. We show that the electromagnetic properties of a medium such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, magnetic moments and the propagation speed of electromagnetic waves as well as the corresponding particle processes depend on temperature and density of the medium. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos are significantly modified due to their interactions with electrons when they propagate through such a medium of hot and dense electrons.

  6. Physical properties of the supernova remnant expanding in a clumpy circumstellar medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳; 刘宁; 汪珍如

    1996-01-01

    Physical properties of the supernova remnant expanding in a dumpy circumstellar medium are studied. Taking into account the effect of cloud evaporation in the clumpy medium, it is found that the evolution and internal structure of supernova remnant in a clumpy medium of a power-law density distribution in the radius are generally serf-similar as long as the minus power-law index is in the range of about 0-3. In the case where the index equals -2, namely, the medium is composed of the inhomogeneous free stellar wind, based on the detailed hydrodynamic solution, the formulae, figures, and tables for describing the observable properties, such as the relative distribution of the remnant’s surface brightness, X-ray luminosity, the mass of X-ray-emitting gas, emission-measure-weighted mean temperature, infrared luminosity, and Ha luminosity, are provided. It is indicated that the evaporated matter may pile up near the center and the X-ray emission there is brighter than that near the limb when some parameters

  7. Two Distinct-absorption X-Ray Components from Type IIn Supernovae: Evidence for Asphericity in the Circumstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Bamba, Aya; Terada, Yukikatsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kawabata, Koji; Ohno, Masanori; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Tsuboi, Yohko; Immler, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    We present multi-epoch X-ray spectral observations of three Type IIn supernovae (SNe), SN 2005kd, SN 2006jd, and SN 2010jl, acquired with Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Swift. Previous extensive X-ray studies of SN 2010jl have revealed that X-ray spectra are dominated by thermal emission, which likely arises from a hot plasma heated by a forward shock propagating into a massive circumstellar medium (CSM). Interestingly, an additional soft X-ray component was required to reproduce the spectra at a period of ˜1-2 years after the SN explosion. Although this component is likely associated with the SN, its origin remained an open question. We find a similar, additional soft X-ray component from the other two SNe IIn as well. Given this finding, we present a new interpretation for the origin of this component; it is thermal emission from a forward shock essentially identical to the hard X-ray component, but directly reaches us from a void of the dense CSM. Namely, the hard and soft components are responsible for the heavily and moderately absorbed components, respectively. The co-existence of the two components with distinct absorptions as well as the delayed emergence of the moderately absorbed X-ray component could be evidence for asphericity of the CSM. We show that the X-ray spectral evolution can be qualitatively explained by considering a torus-like geometry for the dense CSM. Based on our X-ray spectral analyses, we estimate the radius of the torus-like CSM to be on the order of ˜5 × 1016 cm.

  8. Manifestation of chiral symmetry restoration in a dense medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, M; Delorme, J

    1999-01-01

    We generalize the concept of correlator mixing to the case of a dense baryonic medium. We study the subsequent modifications of the axial nucleonic coupling constant and the pion decay one. They arise from a two pion exchange current of a new type. We discuss the link to the condensate evolution.

  9. Dry processing versus dense medium processing for preparing thermal coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Korte, GJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available in the region. In addition to not requiring water, the technique is less expensive than dense medium processing - both in terms of capital cost and operating cost. An added benefit when preparing coal for use in power stations is the lower moisture content...

  10. Bursting SN 1996cr's Bubble: Hydrodynamic and X-ray Modeling of its Circumstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarkadas, Vikram V; Bauer, Franz

    2010-01-01

    SN1996cr is one of the five closest SNe to explode in the past 30 years. Due to its fortuitous location in the Circinus Galaxy at ~ 3.7 Mpc, there is a wealth of recently acquired and serendipitous archival data available to piece together its evolution over the past decade, including a recent 485 ks Chandra HETG spectrum. In order to interpret this data, we have explored hydrodynamic simulations, followed by computations of simulated spectra and light curves under non-equilibrium ionization conditions, and directly compared them to the observations. Our simulated spectra manage to fit both the X-ray continuum and lines at 4 epochs satisfactorily, while our computed light curves are in good agreement with additional flux-monitoring data sets. These calculations allow us to infer the nature and structure of the circumstellar medium, the evolution of the SN shock wave, and the abundances of the ejecta and surrounding medium. The data imply that SN 1996cr exploded in a low-density medium before interacting with ...

  11. A review of flow modeling for dense medium cyclones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Narasimha; M.S. Brennan; P.N. Holtham [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India). R& amp; D Division

    2006-06-15

    A critical assessment is presented for the existing fluid flow models used for dense medium cyclones (DMCs) and hydrocyclones. As the present discussion indicates, the understanding of dense medium cyclone flow is still far from the complete. However, its similarity to the hydrocyclone provides a basis for improved understanding of fluid flow in DMCs. The complexity of fluid flow in DMCs is basically due to the existence of medium as well as the dominance of turbulent particle size and density effects on separation. Both the theoretical and experimental analysis is done with respect to two-phase motions and solid phase flow in hydrocyclones or DMCs. A detailed discussion is presented on the empirical, semiempirical, and the numerical models based upon both the vorticity-stream function approach and Navier-Stokes equations in their primitive variables and in cylindrical coordinates available in literature. The existing equations describing turbulence and multiphase flows in cyclone are also critically reviewed.

  12. Models of the circumstellar medium of evolving, massive runaway stars moving through the Galactic plane

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, D M -A; Langer, N; Gvaramadze, V V; Mignone, A; Izzard, R G; Kaper, L

    2014-01-01

    At least 5 per cent of the massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM) and are expected to produce a stellar wind bow shock. We explore how the mass loss and space velocity of massive runaway stars affect the morphology of their bow shocks. We run two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations following the evolution of the circumstellar medium of these stars in the Galactic plane from the main sequence to the red supergiant phase. We find that thermal conduction is an important process governing the shape, size and structure of the bow shocks around hot stars, and that they have an optical luminosity mainly produced by forbidden lines, e.g. [OIII]. The Ha emission of the bow shocks around hot stars originates from near their contact discontinuity. The H$\\alpha$ emission of bow shocks around cool stars originates from their forward shock, and is too faint to be observed for the bow shocks that we simulate. The emission of optically-thin radiation mainly comes from th...

  13. Extinction Laws toward Stellar Sources within a Dusty Circumstellar Medium and Implications for Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nozawa, Takaya

    2016-06-01

    Many astronomical objects are surrounded by dusty environments. In such dusty objects, multiple scattering processes of photons by circumstellar (CS) dust grains can effectively alter extinction properties. In this paper, we systematically investigate the effects of multiple scattering on extinction laws for steady-emission sources surrounded by the dusty CS medium using a radiation transfer simulation based on the Monte Carlo technique. In particular, we focus on whether and how the extinction properties are affected by properties of CS dust grains by adopting various dust grain models. We confirm that behaviors of the (effective) extinction laws are highly dependent on the properties of CS grains, especially the total-to-selective extinction ratio R V , which characterizes the extinction law and can be either increased or decreased and compared with the case without multiple scattering. We find that the criterion for this behavior is given by a ratio of albedos in the B and V bands. We also find that either small silicate grains or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary for realizing a low value of R V as often measured toward SNe Ia if the multiple scattering by CS dust is responsible for their non-standard extinction laws. Using the derived relations between the properties of dust grains and the resulting effective extinction laws, we propose that the extinction laws toward dusty objects could be used to constrain the properties of dust grains in CS environments.

  14. Circum-stellar medium around rotating massive stars at solar metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Georgy, Cyril; Folini, Doris; Bykov, Andrei; Marcowith, Alexandre; Favre, Jean M

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Observations show nebulae around some massive stars but not around others. If observed, their chemical composition is far from homogeneous. Our goal is to put these observational features into the context of the evolution of massive stars and their circumstellar medium (CSM) and, more generally, to quantify the role of massive stars for the chemical and dynamical evolution of the ISM. Methods. Using the A-MAZE code, we perform 2d-axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of the evolution of the CSM, shaped by stellar winds, for a whole grid of massive stellar models from 15 to 120 Msun and following the stellar evolution from the zero-age main-sequence to the time of supernova explosion. In addition to the usual quantities, we also follow five chemical species: H, He, C, N, and O. Results. We show how various quantities evolve as a function of time: size of the bubble, position of the wind termination shock, chemical composition of the bubble, etc. The chemical composition of the bubble changes considerab...

  15. Parton energy loss in hot and dense QCD medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jie; MAO Yaxian; XIANG Wenchang; ZHOU Daicui

    2006-01-01

    Induced gluon radiation and energy loss of heavy quark in hot and dense QCD media are discussed. Using the light-cone path integral approach, an analytical formula of the energy loss of heavy quark is derived. The results show that the quark energy loss obviously depends on the mass of quark, i. e. a remarkable suppression occurs in the case of heavy quark comparing to a light one. The radiative energy loss of energetic quark is proportional to L2, where L is the length of the medium. The dependence of energy loss on L2 turns to L with decreasing quark energy.

  16. Extinction of Beamed Gamma-ray Burst Afterglows in a Dense Circumstellar Cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Lin Liang; Zi-Gao Dai; Yong-Feng Huang; Tan Lu

    2003-01-01

    Broadband afterglow observations provide a probe of the density structure of the circumburst medium. In the spreading jet model, prompt and intense X-ray/UV radiation from the reverse shock may destroy and clear the dust in the circumburst cloud out to about 30 pc within the initial solid angle of the jet. As the jet expands significantly, optical radiation from the high-latitude part of the jet may suffer extinction by dust outside the initial solid angle, while radiation from the part within the initial solid angle can be observed without extinction. In previous studies, it is usually assumed that the extinction is complete. We calculate the extinction effect by taking the optical depth into account. Our numerical results show that a break appears in the light curve of optical afterglow but it extends over a factor of ~ 80 in time rather than a factor of ~ 10 in time for the case of strong dust extinction and a factor of ~ 60 in time for the case without dust extinction. These results may provide a way to judge how large the number density of the circumburst cloud is. Finally, we carry out a detailed modeling for the afterglow of GRB 000926.Our model can provide a good fit to the multi-color observations of this event.

  17. Physical Cleaning of Lakhra Coal by Dense Medium Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Ali Channa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to upgrade Lakhra Lignite Coal using ?Dense Medium Separation? technique, to make it techno-environmentally acceptable product for different industries. The air-dried samples of ROM (Run of Mine coal were crushed, screened, ground and subjected to initial analysis and specific gravity based sink-float tests. The initial analysis of air-dried samples shows the average values of moisture 19%, volatile matter 22.33%, ash 27.41%, fixed carbon 31.26% and sulphur 4.98%. The investigational results of sink-float analysis indicate that physical cleaning at particle size range from -5.6 to +0.3 mm and 75% clean coal recovery can potentially reduce the ash yield and sulphur content of Lakhra coal up to 41 and 42.4% respectively. This washed coal is techno-environmentally acceptable yield and simultaneously qualifies the quality parameters set by various industries of Pakistan

  18. Tracing Physical Conditions of the Circumstellar Medium in the Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcomb, Kielan; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hughes, John Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Recent X-ray and infrared studies of the oxygen-rich supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 have shown that it is likely interacting with the circumstellar wind from the massive progenitor star (≥20 Solar Masses). Some of this material lies in a moderately dense equatorial belt stretching across the middle of G292.0+1.8. Here we present analysis of ground based optical spectra of the equatorial belt. We use forbidden line diagnostics to probe the abundances, density and temperature in the belt, where non-radiative shocks are beginning to transition to the radiative stage. We interpret our results in conjunction with existing X-ray and infrared data to improve our understanding of how a supernova remnant interacts with the outermost part of its relic red giant wind.

  19. Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor (DMP WaPR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor offers significant improvements over existing water purification technologies used in Advanced Life Support...

  20. Radiation-Hydrodynamic Models of the evolving Circumstellar Medium around Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Toalá, J A

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of the interstellar and circumstellar media around massive stars (M > 40M_{\\odot}) from the main sequence through to the Wolf-Rayet stage by means of radiationhydrodynamic simulations. We use publicly available stellar evolution models to investigate the different possible structures that can form in the stellar wind bubbles around Wolf-Rayet stars. We find significant differences between models with and without stellar rotation, and between models from different authors. More specifically, we find that the main ingredients in the formation of structures in the Wolf-Rayet wind bubbles are the duration of the Red Supergiant (or Luminous Blue Variable) phase, the amount of mass lost, and the wind velocity during this phase, in agreement with previous authors. Thermal conduction is also included in our models. We find that main-sequence bubbles with thermal conduction are slightly smaller, due to extra cooling which reduces the pressure in the hot, shocked bubble, but that thermal conducti...

  1. Chiral symmetry in a hot and dense magnetic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Gabriel N.; Pinto, Marcus B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We consider the Linear Sigma Model (LSM) in the Mean Field Approximation (MFA) in order to analyze hot and dense two flavor quark matter subject to strong magnetic fields. We pay especial attention to the case of a finite chemical potential, which has not yet been fully explored. Here, we investigate the strength of the chiral transition and the behavior of the sigma meson mass for {mu}= 0 and {mu}{ne} 0 under strong magnetic fields, as well as its effects over the T-{mu} plane.

  2. Kepler's Supernova: An Overluminous Type Ia Event Interacting with a Massive Circumstellar Medium at a Very Late Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuda, Satoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ozaki, Masanobu; Petre, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Suzaku observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (SNR) to investigate the properties of both the SN ejecta and the circumstellar medium (CSM). For comparison, we have also analyzed two similarly-aged, ejecta-dominated SNRs: Tycho's SNR, thought to be the remnant of a typical Type Ia SN, and SNR 0509-67.5 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, thought to be the remnant of an overluminous Type Ia SN. By simply comparing the X-ray spectra, we find that line intensity ratios of iron-group elements (IGE) to intermediate-mass elements (IME) for Kepler's SNR and SNR 0509-67.5 are much higher than those for Tycho's SNR. We therefore argue that Kepler is the product of an overluminous Type Ia SN. This inference is supported by our spectral modeling, which reveals the IGE and IME masses respectively to be ~0.95 M_sun and ~0.12 M_sun (Kepler's SNR), ~0.75 M_sun and ~0.34 M_sun (SNR 0509-67.5), and ~0.35 M_sun and ~0.70 M_sun (Tycho's SNR). We find that the CSM component in Kepler's SNR...

  3. Sulfur depletion in dense clouds and circumstellar regions I. H2S ice abundance and UV-photochemical reactions in the H2O-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Escobar, A

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to study the unexplained sulfur depletion observed toward dense clouds and protostars. We made simulation experiments of the UV-photoprocessing and sublimation of H2S and H2S:H2O ice in dense clouds and circumstellar regions, using the Interstellar Astrochemistry Chamber (ISAC), a state-of-the-art ultra-high-vacuum setup. The ice was monitored in situ by mid-infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of the ice was performed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) to detect the volatiles desorbing from the ice. Comparing our laboratory data to infrared observations of protostars we obtained a more accurate upper limit of the abundance of H2S ice toward these objects. We determined the desorption temperature of H2S ice, which depends on the initial H2S:H2O ratio. UV-photoprocessing of H2S:H2O ice led to the formation of several species. Among them, H2S2 was found to photodissociate forming S2 and, by elongation, other species up to S8, which are refractory...

  4. THE ENERGETIC ENVIRONMENT AND THE DENSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN ULIRGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We t the near-infrared to radio spectral energy distributions of a sample of 30 luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies with models that include both starburst and AGN components. The aim of the work was to determine important physical parameters for this kind of objects such as the optical depth towards the luminosity source, the star formation rate, the star formation efficiency and the AGN fraction. We found that although about half of our sample have best- t models that include an AGN component, only 30% have an AGN which accounts for more than 10% of the infrared luminosity whereas all have an energetically dominant starburst. Our models also determine the mass of dense molecular gas. Assuming that this mass is that traced by the HCN molecule, we reproduce the observed linear relation between HCN luminosity and infrared luminosity found by Gao & Solomon (2004. However, our derived conversion factor between HCN luminosity and the mass of dense molecular gas is a factor of 2 smaller than that assumed by these authors. Finally, we nd that the star formation efficiency falls as the starburst ages.

  5. The energetic environment and the dense interstellar medium in ULIRGs

    CERN Document Server

    Vega, O; Bressan, A; Granato, G L; Silva, L; Panuzzo, P

    2009-01-01

    We fit the near-infrared to radio spectral energy distributions of a sample of 30 luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies with models that include both starburst and AGN components. The aim of the work was to determine important physical parameters for this kind of objects such as the optical depth towards the luminosity source, the star formation rate, the star formation efficiency and the AGN fraction. We found that although about half of our sample have best-fit models that include an AGN component, only 30 % have an AGN which accounts for more than 10 % of the infrared luminosity whereas all have an energetically dominant starburst. Our models also determine the mass of dense molecular gas. Assuming that this mass is that traced by the HCN molecule, we reproduce the observed linear relation between HCN luminosity and infrared luminosity found by Gao and Solomon (2004). However, our derived conversion factor between HCN luminosity and the mass of dense molecular gas is a factor of 2 smaller than that...

  6. Using numerical models of bow shocks to investigate the circumstellar medium of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, A. J.; Decin, L.; Cox, N. L. J.; Meliani, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Many massive stars travel through the interstellar medium at supersonic speeds. As a result they form bow shocks at the interface between the stellar wind. We use numerical hydrodynamics to reproduce such bow shocks numerically, creating models that can be compared to observations. In this paper we discuss the influence of two physical phenomena, interstellar magnetic fields and the presence of interstellar dust grains on the observable shape of the bow shocks of massive stars. We find that the interstellar magnetic field, though too weak to restrict the general shape of the bow shock, reduces the size of the instabilities that would otherwise be observed in the bow shock of a red supergiant. The interstellar dust grains, due to their inertia can penetrate deep into the bow shock structure of a main sequence O-supergiant, crossing over from the ISM into the stellar wind. Therefore, the dust distribution may not always reflect the morphology of the gas. This is an important consideration for infrared observations, which are dominated by dust emission. Our models clearly show, that the bow shocks of massive stars are useful diagnostic tools that can used to investigate the properties of both the stellar wind as well as the interstellar medium.

  7. Dissecting a SN impostor's circumstellar medium: MUSEing about the SHAPE of eta Car's outer ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Mehner, A; Groh, J H; Vogt, F P A; Baade, D; Boffin, H M J; Davidson, K; de Wit, W J; Humphreys, R M; Martayan, C; Oudmaijer, R D; Rivinius, T; Selman, F

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The structural inhomogeneities and kinematics of massive star nebulae are tracers of their mass-loss history. We conduct a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic analysis of the ejecta of eta Car outside its famous Homunculus nebula. Methods. We carried out the first large-scale integral field unit observations of eta Car in the optical, covering a field of view of 1'x1' centered on the star. Observations with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) reveal the detailed three-dimensional structure of eta Car's outer ejecta. Morpho-kinematic modeling of these ejecta is conducted with the code SHAPE. Results. The largest coherent structure in eta Car's outer ejecta can be described as a bent cylinder with roughly the same symmetry axis as the Homunculus nebula. This large outer shell is interacting with the surrounding medium, creating soft X-ray emission. We establish the shape and extent of the ghost shell in front of the southern Homunculus lobe and confirm that the NN...

  8. Dense cultures of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, R; Hedén, C G

    1967-03-01

    Cultivation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was effected in a conical glass culture vessel surrounded by a constant-temperature water jacket, and with facilities for stirring, aeration, and pH measurement and control. With the use of an aerated peptone-based medium, containing polypropylene glycol to prevent foam build-up, the yields obtained over the pH range from 5.8 to 7.4 were determined. The greatest yield was obtained at pH 6.4 when the dry weight was 1.5 g/liter. At pH 7.2 to 7.6, lysis was extensive.

  9. The Arecibo Fast Radio Burst: Dense Circum-burst Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, S R; Neill, J D

    2015-01-01

    The nature of fast radio bursts (FRB) has been extensively debated. Here we investigate FRB121102, detected at Arecibo telescope and remarkable for its unusually large spectral index. After extensive study we conclude that the spectral index is caused by a nebula with free-free absorption. We find that putative nebula must lie beyond the Milky Way. We conclude that FRBs are of extra-galactic origin and that they arise in dense star-forming regions. The challenge with extra-galactic models is the the high volumetric rate of FRBs. This high rate allows us to eliminate all models of catastrophic stellar deaths. Hyper-giant flares from young magnetars emerge as the most likely progenitors. Some of the consequences are: (i) Intergalactic FRB models can be safely ignored. (ii) The rich ISM environment of young magnetars can result in significant contribution to DM, Rotation Measure (RM) and in some cases to significant free-free optical depth. (iii) The star-forming regions in the host galaxies can contribute signi...

  10. Dissecting a supernova impostor's circumstellar medium: MUSEing about the SHAPE of η Carinae's outer ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehner, A.; Steffen, W.; Groh, J. H.; Vogt, F. P. A.; Baade, D.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Davidson, K.; de Wit, W. J.; Humphreys, R. M.; Martayan, C.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Rivinius, T.; Selman, F.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: The role of episodic mass loss is one of the outstanding questions in massive star evolution. The structural inhomogeneities and kinematics of their nebulae are tracers of their mass-loss history. We conduct a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic analysis of the ejecta of η Car outside its famous Homunculus nebula. Methods: We carried out the first large-scale integral field unit observations of η Car in the optical, covering a field of view of 1'× 1' centered on the star. Observations with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) reveal the detailed three-dimensional structure of η Car's outer ejecta. Morpho-kinematic modeling of these ejecta is conducted with the code SHAPE. Results: The largest coherent structure in η Car's outer ejecta can be described as a bent cylinder with roughly the same symmetry axis as the Homunculus nebula. This large outer shell is interacting with the surrounding medium, creating soft X-ray emission. Doppler velocities of up to 3000 km s-1 are observed. We establish the shape and extent of the ghost shell in front of the southern Homunculus lobe and confirm that the NN condensation can best be modeled as a bowshock in the orbital/equatorial plane. Conclusions: The SHAPE modeling of the MUSE observations provides a significant gain in the study of the three-dimensional structure of η Car's outer ejecta. Our SHAPE modeling indicates that the kinematics of the outer ejecta measured with MUSE can be described by a spatially coherent structure, and that this structure also correlates with the extended soft X-ray emission associated with the outer debris field. The ghost shell immediately outside the southern Homunculus lobe hints at a sequence of eruptions within the time frame of the Great Eruption from 1837-1858 or possibly a later shock/reverse shock velocity separation. Our 3D morpho-kinematic modeling and the MUSE observations constitute an invaluable dataset to be confronted with future

  11. The features of a quantum description of radiation in an optically dense medium

    CERN Document Server

    Tokman, M D; Vdovin, V V

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the theory of quantum electromagnetic field in an optically dense medium. Self-consistent equations describing interaction between a quantum field and a quantum dielectric medium are obtained from the first principles, i.e., outside a phenomenological description. Using these equations, we found a transformation (of the Bogoliubov transformation type) that converts the operators of the "vacuum" field into operators of collective perturbations of the field and an ensemble of atoms, that is, photons in the medium. Transformation parameter is the refractive index of the wave mode considered. It is shown that besides the energy of the collective electromagnetic field, the energy of photons in the medium includes the energy of the internal degrees of freedom of the substance and the energy of near-field dipole interaction between atoms in the polarized medium. The concept of negative energy photons is introduced on the basis of self-consistent equations.

  12. Effects of sintered metal distributor on fluidization quality of the air dense medium fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuliang; Zhao Yuemin; Luo Zhenfu; Chen Zengqiang; Song Shulei

    2011-01-01

    Dry coal beneficiation using an air dense medium fluidized bed (ADMFB) requires the formation of a stable and uniform bed from the dense medium.Others have shown that the structure and geometric parameters of the air distributor have a significant influence on the experimentally observed fluidization quality.In this study we used a sintered metal distributor (SMD) in the ADMFB separator and study its effect on the fluidization quality.The results show that for the same open area ratio (OAR),a smaller aperture in the SMD will provide improved fluidization quality.If aperture size is held constant bigger open area ratios result in improved fluidization quality.And,the fluidization quality also improves when the pressure drop across the SMD increases.A model relating distributor pressure drop and the geometric parameters of the SMD is also proposed.

  13. Stability of the pion string in a thermal and dense medium

    CERN Document Server

    Berera, Arjun; Mabillard, Joel; Ramos, Rudnei O

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the stability of the pion string in a thermal bath and a dense medium. We find that stability is dependent on the order of the chiral transition. String core stability within the experimentally allowed regime is found only if the chiral transition is second order, and even there the stable region is small, i.e., the temperature below which the core is unstable is close to the critical temperature of the phase transition. We also find that the presence of a dense medium, in addition to the thermal bath, enhances the experimentally accessible region with stable strings. We also argue that once the string core decays, the "effective winding" of the string persists at large distances from the string core.

  14. Coherence effects between the initial and final state radiation in a dense QCD medium

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In these proceedings contribution we review our recent results of medium modifications to the coherence pattern between the initial and final state radiation. We study single gluon production off a highly energetic parton that undergoes a hard scattering and subsequently crosses a dense QCD medium of finite size. Multiple scatterings lead to a partial suppression of the interferences between different emitters that opens the phase space for large angle emissions. We briefly discuss the generalization of this setup to describe gluon production in the case of pA collisions by including finite length and energy corrections. The configuration studied here may have phenomenological consequences in high-energy nuclear collisions.

  15. Coherence effects between the initial and final state radiation in a dense QCD medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Mauricio [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    In these proceedings contribution we review our recent results of medium modifications to the coherence pattern between the initial and final state radiation. We study single gluon production off a highly energetic parton that undergoes a hard scattering and subsequently crosses a dense QCD medium of finite size. Multiple scatterings lead to a partial suppression of the interferences between different emitters that opens the phase space for large angle emissions. We briefly discuss the generalization of this setup to describe gluon production in the case of pA collisions by including finite length and energy corrections. The configuration studied here may have phenomenological consequences in high-energy nuclear collisions.

  16. Low Density Dry Coal Beneficiation Using an Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhen-fu; ZHU Jian-feng; FAN Mao-ming; ZHAO Yue-min; TAO Xiu-xiang

    2007-01-01

    For the production of low ash content clean coal, separation at low density is required for some raw coals. Based on analyzing the fluidizing characteristics of magnetic pearls with a specific size distribution and formation mechanism of a microbubble fluidized bed, optimal technological and operating parameters suitable for low density coal separation were determined. The experimental results show that an air dense medium fluidized bed with low density can be formed using magnetic pearls as medium solids, which can efficiently beneficiate coal of 6-50 mm size with a probable error Ep value of 0.05 at a separating density of 1.44 g/cm3.

  17. The effective electromagnetic interaction in a dense fermionic medium in QED$_{2+1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Skalozub, V V

    1995-01-01

    Basing upon properties of polarization operator and three-fotonic vertex the effective Lagrangian of the electromagnetic field in a dense fermionic medium in QED_{2+1} is constructed. As an application the modification of magnetic field generation by static electric charge is considered. It is shown a possibility of attraction between planar equally charged fermions in a presence of external magnetic field for certain range of values of H and chemical potential.

  18. The features of a quantum description of radiation in an optically dense medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokman, M.D., E-mail: tokman@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Erukhimova, M.A., E-mail: eruhmary@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Vdovin, V.V.

    2015-09-15

    This paper is devoted to the theory of quantum electromagnetic field in an optically dense medium. Self-consistent equations describing interaction between a quantum field and a quantum dielectric medium are obtained from the first principles, i.e., outside a phenomenological description. Using these equations, we found a transformation (of the Bogoliubov transformation type) that converts the operators of the “vacuum” field into operators of collective perturbations of the field and an ensemble of atoms, that is, photons in the medium. Transformation parameter is the refractive index of the wave mode considered. It is shown that besides the energy of the collective electromagnetic field, the energy of photons in the medium includes the energy of the internal degrees of freedom of the substance and the energy of near-field dipole interaction between atoms in the polarized medium. The concept of negative energy photons is introduced on the basis of self-consistent equations. - Highlights: • Quantum equations of field–medium interaction are obtained from the first principles. • Transformation of field operators from vacuum to medium is of Bogoliubov type. • The concept of negative energy photons is introduced.

  19. AKARI Infrared Observations of the Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8: Unveiling Circumstellar Medium and Supernova Ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ho-Gyu; Moon, Dae-Sik; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nozawa, Takaya; Kozasa, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of AKARI observations of the O-rich supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 using six IRC and four FIS bands covering 2.7-26.5 um and 50-180 um, respectively. The AKARI images show two prominent structures; a bright equatorial ring structure and an outer elliptical shell structure. The equatorial ring structure is clumpy and incomplete with its western end opened. The outer shell is almost complete and slightly squeezed along the north-south direction. The central position of the outer shell is ~ 1' northwest from the embedded pulsar and coincides with the center of the equatorial ring structure. The equatorial ring and the elliptical shell structures were partly visible in optical and/or X-rays, but they are much more clearly revealed in our AKARI images. There is no evident difference in infrared colors of the two prominent structures, which is consistent with the previous proposition that both structures are of circumstellar origin. However, we have detected faint infrared emission of a conside...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF COAL DRY BENEFICIATION WITH AIR-DENSE MEDIUM FLUIDIZED BED IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingru Chen; Lubin Wei

    2005-01-01

    In China more than two-thirds of available coal reserves are in arid areas, where, to beneficiate the run-of-mine coal,there is not enough water resource required by conventional processing. Developing efficient dry beneficiation technology is of great significance for efficient coal utilization in China, notably the clean coal technology (CCT). The dry coal beneficiation technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed utilizes air-solid suspension as beneficiating medium whose density is consistent for beneficiation, similar in principle to the wet dense medium beneficiation using liquid-solid suspension as separating medium. The heavy portion in feedstock whose density is higher than the density of the fluidized bed will sink, whereas the lighter portion will float, thus stratifying the feed materials according to their density.In order to obtain efficient dry separation in air-dense medium fluidized bed, stable fluidization with well dispersed micro-bubbles must be achieved to ensure low viscosity and high fluidity. The pure buoyancy of beneficiation materials plays a main role in fluidized bed, and the displaced distribution effect should be restrained. The displaced distribution effects include viscosity displaced distribution effect and movement displaced distribution effect. The former is caused by viscosity of the fluidized bed. It decreases with increasing air flow velocity. Movement displaced distribution effect will be large when air flow rate is too low or too high. If medium particle size distribution and air flow are well controlled, both displaced distribution effects could be controlled effectively. A beneficiation displaced distribution model may be used to optimize beneficiation of feedstock with a wide particle size distribution and multiple components in the fluidized bed. The rheological characteristics of fluidized beds were studied using the falling sphere method. Experimental results indicated that the fluidized bed behaves as a Bingham fluid

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF COAL DRY BENEFICIATION WITH AIR-DENSE MEDIUM FLUIDIZED BED IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingru; Chen; Lubin; Wei

    2005-01-01

    In China more than two-thirds of available coal reserves are in arid areas, where, to beneficiate the run-of-mine coal,there is not enough water resource required by conventional processing. Developing efficient dry beneficiation technology is of great significance for efficient coal utilization in China, notably the clean coal technology (CCT). The dry coal beneficiation technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed utilizes air-solid suspension as beneficiating medium whose density is consistent for beneficiation, similar in principle to the wet dense medium beneficiation using liquid-solid suspension as separating medium. The heavy portion in feedstock whose density is higher than the density of the fluidized bed will sink, whereas the lighter portion will float, thus stratifying the feed materials according to their density.In order to obtain efficient dry separation in air-dense medium fluidized bed, stable fluidization with well dispersed micro-bubbles must be achieved to ensure low viscosity and high fluidity. The pure buoyancy of beneficiation materials plays a main role in fluidized bed, and the displaced distribution effect should be restrained. The displaced distribution effects include viscosity displaced distribution effect and movement displaced distribution effect. The former is caused by viscosity of the fluidized bed. It decreases with increasing air flow velocity. Movement displaced distribution effect will be large when air flow rate is too low or too high. If medium particle size distribution and air flow are well controlled, both displaced distribution effects could be controlled effectively. A beneficiation displaced distribution model may be used to optimize beneficiation of feedstock with a wide particle size distribution and multiple components in the fluidized bed. The rheological characteristics of fluidized beds were studied using the falling sphere method. Experimental results indicated that the fluidized bed behaves as a Bingham fluid

  2. Experimental investigation into the application of a magnetic dense medium cyclone in a production environment / Ilana Katinka Myburgh

    OpenAIRE

    Myburgh, Ilana Katinka

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic dense medium cyclone project was undertaken at Koingnaas Mine on a 250 mm diameter cyclone during 1998 and a 510 mm cyclone during 2000. The aim of the project was to evaluate the performance of a magnetic DM cyclone in a production environment. Previous test work on magnetic DM cyclones were conducted during 1995 and 1996 on small (100 mm) cyclones in a laboratory environment, with medium feed only. Solenoid position, magnetic field strength and medium inlet de...

  3. Retrieval of Dry Snow Parameters from Radiometric Data Using a Dense Medium Model and Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Marco; Kim, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, GA-based techniques are used to invert the equations of an electromagnetic model based on Dense Medium Radiative Transfer Theory (DMRT) under the Quasi Crystalline Approximation with Coherent Potential to retrieve snow depth, mean grain size and fractional volume from microwave brightness temperatures. The technique is initially tested on both noisy and not-noisy simulated data. During this phase, different configurations of genetic algorithm parameters are considered to quantify how their change can affect the algorithm performance. A configuration of GA parameters is then selected and the algorithm is applied to experimental data acquired during the NASA Cold Land Process Experiment. Snow parameters retrieved with the GA-DMRT technique are then compared with snow parameters measured on field.

  4. From ATLASGAL to SEDIGISM: Towards a Complete 3D View of the Dense Galactic Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, F.; Urquhart, J.; Bronfman, L.; Csengeri, T.; Bontemps, S.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Henning, T.; Immer, K.; Leurini, S.; Mattern, M.; Menten, K.; Molinari, S.; Muller, E.; Sánchez-Monge, A.; Schisano, E.; Suri, S.; Testi, L.; Wang, K.; Wyrowski, F.; Zavagno, A.

    2016-09-01

    The ATLASGAL survey has provided the first unbiased view of the inner Galactic Plane at sub-millimetre wavelengths. This is the largest ground-based survey of its kind to date, covering 420 square degrees at a wavelength of 870 µm. The reduced data, consisting of images and a catalogue of > 104 compact sources, are available from the ESO Science Archive Facility through the Phase 3 infrastructure. The extremely rich statistics of this survey initiated several follow-up projects, including spectroscopic observations to explore molecular complexity and high angular resolution imaging with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), aimed at resolving individual protostars. The most extensive follow-up project is SEDIGISM, a 3D mapping of the dense interstellar medium over a large fraction of the inner Galaxy. Some notable results of these surveys are highlighted.

  5. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2016-01-01

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H$^{13}$CO$^+$ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH$_3$OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the syne...

  6. Ice and Dust in the Quiescent Medium of Isolated Dense Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Huard, T. L.; Cook, A. M.; Chiar, J. E.; Knez, C.; Decin, L.; Blake, G. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2011-03-01

    The relation between ices in the envelopes and disks surrounding young stellar objects (YSOs) and those in the quiescent interstellar medium (ISM) is investigated. For a sample of 31 stars behind isolated dense cores, ground-based and Spitzer spectra and photometry in the 1-25 μm wavelength range are combined. The baseline for the broad and overlapping ice features is modeled, using calculated spectra of giants, H2O ice and silicates. The adopted extinction curve is derived empirically. Its high resolution allows for the separation of continuum and feature extinction. The extinction between 13 and 25 μm is ~50% relative to that at 2.2 μm. The strengths of the 6.0 and 6.85 μm absorption bands are in line with those of YSOs. Thus, their carriers, which, besides H2O and CH3OH, may include NH+ 4, HCOOH, H2CO, and NH3, are readily formed in the dense core phase, before stars form. The 3.53 μm C-H stretching mode of solid CH3OH was discovered. The CH3OH/H2O abundance ratios of 5%-12% are larger than upper limits in the Taurus molecular cloud. The initial ice composition, before star formation occurs, therefore depends on the environment. Signs of thermal and energetic processing that were found toward some YSOs are absent in the ices toward background stars. Finally, the peak optical depth of the 9.7 μm band of silicates relative to the continuum extinction at 2.2 μm is significantly shallower than in the diffuse ISM. This extends the results of Chiar et al. to a larger sample and higher extinctions. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Recovery of Heavy Minerals by Means of Ferrosilicon Dense Medium Separation Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waanders, F. B.; Rabatho, J. P.

    2005-02-01

    The diamond-bearing gravels found along South Africa's West Coast are being beneficiated by means of dense medium separation (DMS) to reclaim the alluvial diamonds. Granular ferrosilicon (Fe Si) is used as the DMS material and at the end of each operation the Fe Si is reclaimed from the process stream using a magnetic separator and is then recycled but losses of Fe Si due to attrition, adhesion to the separation products, density changes and changes to the magnetic properties can occur. The gravel obtained from the mining operation is washed and screened before heavy mineral separation. The concentrate, tailings and Fe Si samples were investigated by means of SEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy to determine where changes to the Fe Si, or contamination could occur. The composition of the Fe Si was determined to be Fe (76.1 at.%), Si (20.3 at.%), Mn (1.5 at.%), Al (1.5 at.%) and Cr (0.6 at.%) resulting in a more or less ordered DO3 phase with a calculated composition of Fe3Si for this Fe Si, consistent with the Mössbauer results where two sextets with hyperfine magnetic fields of 18.6 T and 28.4 T were observed. After DMS, magnetite and ilmenite, the minerals found in the gravel, were still present in the concentrate. In the tailings virtually no magnetite or ilmenite was found and only a doublet, identified as an oxihydroxide, due to the abrasion of the Fe Si, was found. After magnetic separation, to wash and clean the Fe Si for re-use, it was found that magnetite and ilmenite were still present in the Fe Si, which results in a change in density of the Fe Si, resulting in a higher density and loss of valuable diamonds.

  8. Interstellar and circumstellar fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard-Salas, J; Jones, A P; Peeters, E; Micelotta, E R; Otsuka, M; Sloan, G C; Kemper, F; Groenewegen, M

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are a particularly stable class of carbon molecules in the shape of a hollow sphere or ellipsoid that might be formed in the outflows of carbon stars. Once injected into the interstellar medium (ISM), these stable species survive and are thus likely to be widespread in the Galaxy where they contribute to interstellar extinction, heating processes, and complex chemical reactions. In recent years, the fullerene species C60 (and to a lesser extent C70) have been detected in a wide variety of circumstellar and interstellar environments showing that when conditions are favourable, fullerenes are formed efficiently. Fullerenes are the first and only large aromatics firmly identified in space. The detection of fullerenes is thus crucial to provide clues as to the key chemical pathways leading to the formation of large complex organic molecules in space, and offers a great diagnostic tool to describe the environment in which they reside. Since fullerenes share many physical properties with PAHs, understand...

  9. Pseudoscalar D and B mesons in the hot dense and nonstrange symmetric medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Rahul; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of temperature and density on the shift in the masses and decay constants of the pseudoscalar D and B mesons in the nonstrange symmetric medium. We use chiral SU(3) model to calculate the medium modified scalar and isoscalar fields σ, ζ, δ and χ. We use these modified fields to calculate the in-medium quark and gluon condensates by solving the coupled equations of motions in the chiral SU(3) model. We obtain the medium modified mass and decay constant through these medium modified condensates using the QCD sum rules. Further we use the 3P0 model by taking the internal structure of the mesons to calculate the in-medium decay width of the higher charmonium states χ(3556) , ψ(3686) and ψ(3770) to the D D pairs, through the in-medium mass of D meson and neglecting the mass modification of higher charmonium states. We also compare the present data with the previous results. These results of present investigation may be important to explain the possible outcomes of the experiments like CBM, Panda at GSI. I am not getting any financial support from my institute to attend this meeting. Please provide me financial support so that I may not deprive to attend the meeting.

  10. Dense transient pinches and pulsed power technology: research and applications using medium and small devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Cardenas, Miguel; Zambra, Marcelo [Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Tarifeno, Ariel; Huerta, Luis; Tenreiro, Claudio; Giordano, Jose Luis; Lagos, Miguel; Escobar, Rodrigo; Ramos, Jorge; Altamirano, Luis [P4-Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, Santiago and Curico (Chile); Retamal, Cesar [Facultad de IngenierIa de la Universidad de Talca, Curico (Chile); Silva, Patricio, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl

    2008-10-15

    The Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) has, since about ten years ago, used plasma production devices to study dense hot plasmas, particularly Z-pinches and plasma foci (PFs). In the case of Z-pinches, the studies include studies on the dynamics and stability of gas-embedded Z-pinches at currents of thermonuclear interest, and preliminary studies on wire arrays. For PF research, the aim of the work has been to characterize the physics of these plasmas and also to carry out the design and construction of smaller devices-in terms of both input energy and size-capable of providing dense hot plasmas. In addition, taking advantage of the experience in pulsed power technology obtained from experimental researches in dense transient plasmas, an exploratory line of pulsed power applications is being developed. In this paper, a brief review listing the most important results achieved by the Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the CCHEN is presented, including the scaling studies, PF miniaturization and diagnostics and research on Z-pinches at currents of thermonuclear interest. Then, exploratory applications of pulsed power are presented, including nanoflashes of radiation for radiography and substances detection, high pulsed magnetic fields generation and rock fragmentation.

  11. Dense bubble flow in a silo: An unusual flow of a dispersed medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertho, Yann; Becco, Christophe; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2006-05-01

    The dense flow of air bubbles in a two-dimensional silo (through an aperture D ) filled with a liquid is studied experimentally. A particle tracking technique has been used to bring out the main properties of the flow: displacements of the bubbles, transverse, and axial velocities. The behavior of the air bubbles is observed to present similarities with nondeformable solid grains in a granular flow. Nevertheless, a correlation between the bubble velocities and their deformations has been evidenced. Moreover, a new discharge law (Beverloo like) must be considered for such a system, where the flow rate is observed to vary as D1/2 and depends on the deformability of the particles.

  12. On the Ubiquity of Molecular Anions in the Dense Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Wirstroem, E. S.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Charnley, S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from a survey for molecular anions in seven nearby Galactic star-forming cores and molecular clouds. The hydrocarbon anion C6H(-) is detected in all seven target sources, including four sources where no anions have been previously detected: L1172, L1389, L1495B, and TMC-1C. The C6H(-) /C6H column density ratio is approx. > 1.0% in every source, with a mean value of 3.0% (and standard deviation 0.92%). Combined with previous detections, our results show that anions are ubiquitous in dense clouds wherever C6H is present. The C6H(-)/C6H ratio is found to show a positive correlation with molecular hydrogen number density, and with the apparent age of the cloud.We also report the first detection of C4H(-) in TMC-1 (at 4.8 sigma confidence), and derive an anion-to-neutral ratio C4H(-) /C4H = (1.2 +/- 0.4)×10(exp -5)(= 0.0012% +/- 0.0004%). Such a low value compared with C6H(-) highlights the need for a revised radiative electron attachment rate for C4H. Chemical model calculations show that the observed C4H(-) could be produced as a result of reactions of oxygen atoms with C5H(-) and C6H(-).

  13. CFD-DP Modeling of Multiphase Flow in Dense Medium Cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Topcu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of the gas-liquid-solid multi-phase flow in a hydrocyclone is summarized in this paper. The turbulent flow of the gas and the liquid is modelled using the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model, the interface between the liquid and the air core is modelled using the Eulerian multi-phase model and the simulation of the particle flow described by the dense discrete phase model in which the data of the multi-phase flow are used. Separation efficiency, particle trajectories, split ratios, flow field and pressure drop are the examined flow features. The results show that the flow fields in the hydrocyclones are possible to simulate by realizable k-epsilon model which is a fast solver for turbulent flows. The cut size is achieved between 3 and 15 µm. The air-core development is observed to be a transport effect due to the velocity of surrounding fluid rather than a pressure effect. The approach offers a useful method to observe the flow of a hydrocyclone in relation to design of the system and operational conditions.

  14. A dense medium electromagnetic scattering model for the InSAR correlation of snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yang; Siqueira, Paul; Treuhaft, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Snow characteristics, such as snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow grain size, are important characteristics for the monitoring of the global hydrological cycle and as indicators of climate change. This paper derives an interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) scattering model for dense media, such as snow, which takes into account multiple scattering effects through the Quasi-Crystalline Approximation. The result of this derivation is a simplified version of the InSAR correlation model derived for relating the InSAR correlation measurements to the snowpack characteristics of grain size, volume fraction, and layer depth as well as those aspects of the volume-ground interaction that affects the interferometric observation (i.e., the surface topography and the ratio of ground-to-volume scattering). Based on the model, the sensitivity of the InSAR correlation measurements to the snow characteristics is explored by simulation. Through this process, it is shown that Ka-band InSAR phase has a good sensitivity to snow grain size and volume fraction, while for lower frequency signals (Ku-band to L-band), the InSAR correlation magnitude and phase have a sensitivity to snow depth. Since the formulation depends, in part, on the pair distribution function, three functional forms of the pair distribution function are implemented and their effects on InSAR phase measurements compared. The InSAR scattering model described in this paper is intended to be an observational prototype for future Ka-band and L-band InSAR missions, such as NASA's Surface Water and Ocean Topography and NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar missions, planned for launch in the 2020-2021 time frame. This formulation also enables further investigation of the InSAR-based snow retrieval approaches.

  15. ON THE UBIQUITY OF MOLECULAR ANIONS IN THE DENSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Wirstroem, E. S.; Charnley, S. B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Buckle, J. V. [Cavendish Astrophysics Group and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Olofsson, A. O. H., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden)

    2013-06-10

    Results are presented from a survey for molecular anions in seven nearby Galactic star-forming cores and molecular clouds. The hydrocarbon anion C{sub 6}H{sup -} is detected in all seven target sources, including four sources where no anions have been previously detected: L1172, L1389, L1495B, and TMC-1C. The C{sub 6}H{sup -}/C{sub 6}H column density ratio is {approx}> 1.0% in every source, with a mean value of 3.0% (and standard deviation 0.92%). Combined with previous detections, our results show that anions are ubiquitous in dense clouds wherever C{sub 6}H is present. The C{sub 6}H{sup -}/C{sub 6}H ratio is found to show a positive correlation with molecular hydrogen number density, and with the apparent age of the cloud. We also report the first detection of C{sub 4}H{sup -} in TMC-1 (at 4.8{sigma} confidence), and derive an anion-to-neutral ratio C{sub 4}H{sup -}/C{sub 4}H =(1.2 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}(= 0.0012% {+-} 0.0004%). Such a low value compared with C{sub 6}H{sup -} highlights the need for a revised radiative electron attachment rate for C{sub 4}H. Chemical model calculations show that the observed C{sub 4}H{sup -} could be produced as a result of reactions of oxygen atoms with C{sub 5}H{sup -} and C{sub 6}H{sup -}.

  16. The composition of circumstellar and interstellar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Woodward, CE; Biscay, MD; Shull, JM

    2001-01-01

    A large number of solid dust components have been identified through analysis of stardust recovered from meteorites, and analysis of IR observations of circumstellar shells and the interstellar medium. These include graphite, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, diamond, PAHs, silicon-, iron-, and titanin

  17. The composition of circumstellar and interstellar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Woodward, CE; Biscay, MD; Shull, JM

    2001-01-01

    A large number of solid dust components have been identified through analysis of stardust recovered from meteorites, and analysis of IR observations of circumstellar shells and the interstellar medium. These include graphite, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, diamond, PAHs, silicon-, iron-, and titanin

  18. The origin of the Redshift Spikes in the reflection spectrum of a Few-cycle Pulse in a Dense Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Xu, Zhi-Zhan; Liu, Chengpu

    2015-01-01

    We give a detailed description about the reflected spectrum of a few-cycle pulse propagating through a resonant dense medium. An unexpected low-frequency spike appeared in the red edge of the spectrum. To figure out the origin of this redshift spike, we analysis the mechanisms responsible for the redshift of the reflected field. So far, the redshift has not been well studied for few-cycle pulses except a brief explanation made by the previous study [Kaloshan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 544 (1999).], which attributed the origin of the redshift to the so-called intrapulse four-wave mixing. However, we demonstrate numerically that the redshift consists of two separated spikes is actually produced by the Doppler effect of backpropagation waves, which is an analogue effect of dynamic nonlinear optical skin effect. Our study elucidates the underlying physics of the dynamic nonlinear optical effects responsible for the redshift spikes. Moreover, the dependency of the their frequency on the laser and medium parameter...

  19. The Forming-Mechanism and Role of Creativity Thinking in Dry Coal Beneficiation ofCoal with Air-Dense Medium Fl uidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the authors point out that the Creativity is an inevitable request in solving engineering andtechnological problems and that the coal beneficiation technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed is a result ofreversal-thinking, and its forming-mechanism is the use of other things for reference and the transplantation.

  20. An effective theory for jet propagation in dense QCD matter: jet broadening and medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Ovanesyan, Grigory

    2011-01-01

    Two effects, jet broadening and gluon bremsstrahlung induced by the propagation of a highly energetic quark in dense QCD matter, are reconsidered from effective theory point of view. We modify the standard Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) Lagrangian to include Glauber modes, which are needed to implement the interactions between the medium and the collinear fields. We derive the Feynman rules for this Lagrangian and show that it is invariant under soft and collinear gauge transformations. We find that the newly constructed theory SCET$_{\\rm G}$ recovers exactly the general result for the transverse momentum broadening of jets. In the limit where the radiated gluons are significantly less energetic than the parent quark, we obtain a jet energy-loss kernel identical to the one discussed in the reaction operator approach to parton propagation in matter. In the framework of SCET$_{\\rm G}$ we present results for the fully-differential bremsstrahlung spectrum for both the incoherent and the Landau-Pomeranchun...

  1. The Young Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant G11.2-0.3: An Asymmetric Circumstellar Medium and a Variable Pulsar Wind Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Moseby, A.; Reynolds, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    G11.2-0.3 is a young supernova remnant (SNR) that has been suggested to be associated with a historical supernova of 386 AD. In addition to a bright radio and X-ray shell, it contains a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and a 65 ms pulsar. We present first results from new deep (about 400 ks in duration) Chandra observations from 2013 May and September. Ahead of the main shell, there are a number of outlying X-ray protrusions surrounded by bow shocks, presumably produced by dense ejecta knots. Pronounced spectral variations are seen in thermal X-ray spectra of the main shell, indicating the presence of shocks with a wide range in shock speeds and large spatial variations in intervening absorption. A band of soft X-ray emission is clearly seen at the remnant's center. We interpret this band as a result of the interaction of supernova ejecta with the strongly asymmetric wind produced by a red supergiant SN progenitor shortly before its explosion. We study interstellar absorption in the central region of the remnant, finding high absorption everywhere. This rules out the association of G11.2-0.3 with SN 386. The PWN is dominated by a bright "jet" whose spatial morphology is markedly different between our May and September observations.

  2. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  3. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  4. The Galactic Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars. III $^{12}$CO Maps and Physical Properties of Dense Clump Envelopes and their Embedding GMCs

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Peter J; O'Dougherty, Stefan N; Schap, William J; Muller, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We report the second complete molecular line data release from the {\\em Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars} (CHaMP), a large-scale, unbiased, uniform mapping survey at sub-parsec resolution, of mm-wave line emission from 303 massive, dense molecular clumps in the Milky Way. This release is for all $^{12}$CO $J$=1$\\rightarrow$0 emission associated with the dense gas, the first from Phase II of the survey, which includes $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O. The observed clump emission traced by both $^{12}$CO and HCO$^+$ (from Phase I) shows very similar morphology, indicating that, for dense molecular clouds and complexes of all sizes, parsec-scale clumps contain $\\Xi$ ~ 75% of the mass, while only 25% of the mass lies in extended (>~ 10 pc) or "low density" components in these same areas. The mass fraction of all gas above a density 10$^9$ m$^{-3}$ is $\\xi_9$ >~ 50%. This suggests that parsec-scale clumps may be the basic building blocks of the molecular ISM, rather than the standard GMC concept. Usin...

  5. The Galactic Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars. III. 12CO Maps and Physical Properties of Dense Clump Envelopes and Their Embedding GMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Hernandez, Audra K.; O'Dougherty, Stefan N.; Schap, William J., III; Muller, Erik

    2016-11-01

    We report the second complete molecular line data release from the Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP), a large-scale, unbiased, uniform mapping survey at sub-parsec resolution, of millimeter-wave line emission from 303 massive, dense molecular clumps in the Milky Way. This release is for all 12CO J = 1 \\to 0 emission associated with the dense gas, the first from Phase II of the survey, which includes 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. The observed clump emission traced by both 12CO and HCO+ (from Phase I) shows very similar morphology, indicating that, for dense molecular clouds and complexes of all sizes, parsec-scale clumps contain Ξ ˜ 75% of the mass, while only 25% of the mass lies in extended (≳10 pc) or “low density” components in these same areas. The mass fraction of all gas above a density of 109 m-3 is {ξ }9 ≳ 50%. This suggests that parsec-scale clumps may be the basic building blocks of the molecular interstellar medium, rather than the standard GMC concept. Using 12CO emission, we derive physical properties of these clumps in their entirety, and compare them to properties from HCO+, tracing their denser interiors. We compare the standard X-factor converting {I}{12{CO}} to {N}{{{H}}2} with alternative conversions, and show that only the latter give whole-clump properties that are physically consistent with those of their interiors. We infer that the clump population is systematically closer to virial equilibrium than when considering only their interiors, with perhaps half being long-lived (10s of Myr), pressure-confined entities that only terminally engage in vigorous massive star formation, supporting other evidence along these lines that was previously published.

  6. Strange meson-baryon interaction in hot and dense medium: recent progress for a road to GSI/FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, Daniel; Aichelin, Jörg; bratkovskaya, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We report recent results on the dynamics of strange hadrons in two-body reactions relevant for near-threshold production in heavy-ion collisions at GSI/FAIR and NICA-Dubna. In particular, $\\bar K N$ scattering in hot and dense nuclear matter is studied within a chiral unitary framework in coupled channels, setting up the starting point for implementations in microscopic off-shell transport approaches. We focus on the calculation of transition rates with special attention to the excitation of hyperon resonances and isospin effects. Additionally, we explore "unconventional" strangeness generation by meson-meson and meson-baryon interactions in connection with recent HADES observations of deep sub-threshold $\\phi$ and $\\Xi$ production.

  7. Dynamical evolution, hadronization and angular de-correlation of heavy flavor in a hot and dense QCD medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shanshan [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Qin, Guang-You [Institute of Particle Physics and Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE), Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Bass, Steffen A. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We study heavy flavor evolution and hadronization in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium evolution of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin framework that incorporates both collisional and radiative energy loss mechanisms. The subsequent hadronization process for heavy quarks is calculated with a fragmentation plus recombination model. We find significant contribution from gluon radiation to heavy quark energy loss at high p{sub T}; the recombination mechanism can greatly enhance the D meson production at medium p{sub T}. Our calculation provides a good description of the D meson nuclear modification at the LHC. In addition, we explore the angular correlation functions of heavy flavor pairs which may provide us a potential candidate for distinguishing different energy loss mechanisms of heavy quarks inside the QGP.

  8. CONFIRMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR PHOSPHINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain); Decin, L. [Sterrenkundig Instituut Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam (Netherlands); Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Teyssier, D. [European Space Astronomy Centre, Urb. Villafranca del Castillo, P.O. Box 50727, E-28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC +10216 and CRL 2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J = 1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J = 2-1 rotational transition of PH{sub 3} in IRC +10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH{sub 3}. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping in excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH{sub 3} in the envelope of IRC +10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R {sub *} from the star, with an abundance of 10{sup –8} relative to H{sub 2}. The detection of PH{sub 3} challenges chemical models, none of which offer a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH{sub 3} holds just 2% of the total available phosphorus in IRC +10216, it is, together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggesting that it could also be an important phosphorus species in other astronomical environments. This is the first unambiguous detection of PH{sub 3} outside the solar system, and is a further step toward a better understanding of the chemistry of phosphorus in space.

  9. Confirmation of circumstellar phosphine

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Decin, L; Encrenaz, P; Teyssier, D

    2014-01-01

    Phosphine (PH3) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC+10216 and CRL2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J=1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J=2-1 rotational transition of PH3 in IRC+10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH3. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping to excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH3 in the envelope of IRC+10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R* from the star, with an abundance of 1e-8 relative to H2. The detection of PH3 challenges chemical models, none of which offers a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH3 locks just 2 % of the total available phosphorus in IRC+10216, it is together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggest...

  10. Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas; Youdin, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The bou...

  11. Applicability of a dense-medium cyclone and Vorsyl separator for upgrading non-coking coal fines for use as a blast furnace injection fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.K. Majumder; H. Shah; S. Choubey; J.P. Barnwal; A.K. Kundu; P.S. Dhillon [Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India)

    2009-01-15

    Replacement of metallurgical coke by high injection rates of thermal coal into the blast furnace is an important technology as it reduces the cost of hot metals significantly. However, one of the main problems that prevents the use of thermal coals is their high mineral-matter contents. Although, the ash content of coals to be injected in a blast furnace should be as low as possible, a maximum of 16% ash is acceptable. A non-coking coal sample from Chhattisgarh area, India, having a feed ash content of around 27% was collected for beneficiation studies to a grade acceptable for the injection purposes. A series of experiments were conducted in a 76-mm diameter dense-medium cyclone (DMC) and a Vorsyl separator (VS). It is observed that a clean coal having around 16% ash can be produced using both the cyclones if the variables are properly optimized. Further, it is observed that at the same ash level the yield of clean coal was 5%-6% more in VS than in DMC. It has also been demonstrated that at the same ash level, the magnetite medium stability in a VS was better than a DMC. 4 refs.

  12. External Shaping of Circumstellar Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2015-08-01

    The circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and red supergiants (RSGs) are complex chemical and physical environments, and the specifics of their mass-loss history are important for both stellar and galactic evolution. One key aspect in this is to understand how the circumstellar medium of these stars can be shaped and affected by both internal and external mechanisms. These influences can skew our view on the (dust) chemistry and mass-loss history of these stars, and hence their role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. This contribution focuses on the external mechanism related to the interaction between the slow dusty stellar wind and the local ambient medium. I will discuss what recent observations and hydrodynamical simulations have revealed and how these can help us learn more about AGB stars and RSGs, as well as the interstellar medium (ISM).

  13. AN EXPLANATION FOR THE DIFFERENT X-RAY TO OPTICAL COLUMN DENSITIES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF GAMMA RAY BURSTS: A PROGENITOR EMBEDDED IN A DENSE MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krongold, Yair [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: xavier@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    We study the {approx}> 10 ratios in the X-ray to optical column densities inferred from afterglow spectra of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) due to gas surrounding their progenitors. We present time-evolving photoionization calculations for these afterglows and explore different conditions of their environment. We find that homogenous models of the environment (constant density) predict X-ray columns similar to those found in the optical spectra, with the bulk of the opacity being produced by neutral material at large distances from the burst. This result is independent of gas density or metallicity. Only models assuming a progenitor immersed in a dense ({approx}10{sup 2-4} cm{sup -3}) cloud of gas (with radius {approx}10 pc), with a strong, declining gradient of density for the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) are able to account for the large X-ray to optical column density ratios. However, to avoid an unphysical correlation between the size of this cloud and the size of the ionization front produced by the GRB, the models also require that the circumburst medium is already ionized prior to the burst. The inferred cloud masses are {approx}< 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, even if low metallicities in the medium are assumed (Z {approx} 0.1 Z{sub Sun }). These cloud properties are consistent with those found in giant molecular clouds and our results support a scenario in which the progenitors reside within intense star formation regions of galaxies. Finally, we show that modeling over large samples of GRB afterglows may offer strong constraints on the range of properties in these clouds, and the host galaxy ISM.

  14. Comparison of Local Scale Measured and Modeled Brightness Temperatures and Snow Parameters from the CLPX 2003 by Means of a Dense Medium Radiative Transfer Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedescol, Marco; Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Graf, Tobias; Koike, Toshio; Armstrong, Richard; Brodzik, Mary J.; Hardy, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing offers distinct advantages for observing the cryosphere. Solar illumination is not required, and spatial and temporal coverage are excellent from polar-orbiting satellites. Passive microwave measurements are sensitive to the two most useful physical quantities for many hydrological applications: physical temperature and water content/state. Sensitivity to the latter is a direct result of the microwave sensitivity to the dielectric properties of natural media, including snow, ice, soil (frozen or thawed), and vegetation. These considerations are factors motivating the development of future cryospheric satellite remote sensing missions, continuing and improving on a 26-year microwave measurement legacy. Perhaps the biggest issues regarding the use of such satellite measurements involve how to relate parameter values at spatial scales as small as a hectare to observations with sensor footprints that may be up to 25 x 25 km. The NASA Cold-land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) generated a dataset designed to enhance understanding of such scaling issues. CLPX observations were made in February (dry snow) and March (wet snow), 2003 in Colorado, USA, at scales ranging from plot scale to 25 x 25 km satellite footprints. Of interest here are passive microwave observations from ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors, as well as meteorological and snowpack measurements that will enable studies of the effects of spatial heterogeneity of surface conditions on the observations. Prior to performing such scaling studies, an evaluation of snowpack forward modelling at the plot scale (least heterogeneous scale) is in order. This is the focus of this paper. Many forward models of snow signatures (brightness temperatures) have been developed over the years. It is now recognized that a dense medium radiative transfer (DMRT) treatment represents a high degree of physical fidelity for snow modeling, yet dense medium models are particularly sensitive to

  15. Spectroscopic diagnostics for circumstellar disks of B[e] supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are emission-line objects, presumably in a short-lived phase in the post-main sequence evolution of massive stars. Their intense infrared excess emission indicates large amounts of warm circumstellar dust, and the stars were longtime assumed to possess an aspherical wind consisting of a classical line-driven wind in polar direction and a dense, slow equatorial wind dubbed outflowing disk. The general properties obtained for these disks are in line with this scenario, although current theories have considerable difficulties reproducing the observed quantities. Therefore, more sophisticated observational constraints are needed. These follow from combined optical and infrared spectroscopic studies, which delivered the surprising result that the circumstellar material of B[e]SGs is concentrated in multiple rings revolving the stars on stable Keplerian orbits. Such a scenario requires new ideas for the formation mechanism, in which pulsations might play an important role.

  16. Influence of four-wave mixing in short- and medium-range 1310  nm dense wavelength division multiplexing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, Konrad; Chorchos, Łukasz; Turkiewicz, Jarosław Piotr

    2016-04-10

    In this paper, we demonstrate a comprehensive analysis of the impact of four-wave mixing (FWM) on the quality of transmission in short- and medium-range dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems in the 1310 nm wavelength domain. The presented analysis proves that, for the system with uniform power per channel assignment, setting proper input channel power can substantially reduce the influence of the FWM effect on bit error rate in low channel spaced short-range systems, despite the position of the DWDM grid around the zero-dispersion wavelength. Simulations and experimental analysis of the possibility of FWM suppression have been provided. The power penalty measurements show that the influence of FWM on system performance may be as low as 0.3 dB with reasonable input power (i.e., -11  dBm per channel), making possible the transmission of data by fiber over distances of 25 km. Finally, we demonstrate that, for channel spacing as low as 120 GHz, error-free transmission in the 1310 nm wavelength domain is possible, despite high efficiency of FWM generation. The results prove that utilization of the 1310 nm wavelength domain in a system with low channel spacing, i.e., with better bandwidth allocation, is an interesting solution for data storage and processing center applications.

  17. An Explanation for the Different X-ray to Optical Column Densities in the Environments of Gamma Ray Bursts: A Progenitor Embedded in a Dense Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Krongold, Yair

    2013-01-01

    We study the > 10 ratios in the X-ray to optical column densities inferred from afterglow spectra of Gamma Ray Bursts due to gas surrounding their progenitors. We present time-evolving photoionization calculations for these afterglows and explore different conditions for their environment. We find that homogenous models of the environment (constant density) predict X-ray columns similar to those found in the optical spectra, with the bulk of the opacity being produced by neutral material at large distances from the burst. This result is independent of gas density or metallicity. Only models assuming a progenitor immersed in a dense (10^(2-4) cm-3) cloud of gas (with radius ~10 pc), with a strong, declining gradient of density for the surrounding interstellar medium are able to account for the large X-ray to optical column density ratios. However, to avoid an unphysical correlation between the size of this cloud, and the size of the ionization front produced by the GRB, the models also require that the circumb...

  18. CIRCUMSTELLAR ABSORPTION IN DOUBLE DETONATION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ken J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Guillochon, James [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: kenshen@astro.berkeley.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Upon formation, degenerate He core white dwarfs are surrounded by a radiative H-rich layer primarily supported by ideal gas pressure. In this Letter, we examine the effect of this H-rich layer on mass transfer in He+C/O double white dwarf binaries that will eventually merge and possibly yield a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in the double detonation scenario. Because its thermal profile and equation of state differ from the underlying He core, the H-rich layer is transferred stably onto the C/O white dwarf prior to the He core's tidal disruption. We find that this material is ejected from the binary system and sweeps up the surrounding interstellar medium hundreds to thousands of years before the SN Ia. The close match between the resulting circumstellar medium profiles and values inferred from recent observations of circumstellar absorption in SNe Ia gives further credence to the resurgent double detonation scenario.

  19. The Circumstellar Disk of the Butterfly Star in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, S; Stapelfeldt, K R; Wolf, Sebastian; Padgett, Deborah L.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of the circumstellar environment of the so-called ``Butterfly Star'' in Taurus (IRAS 04302+2247). The appearance of this young stellar object is dominated by a large circumstellar disk seen edge-on and the light scattering lobes above the disk. The model is based on multi-wavelength continuum observations: Millimeter maps and high-resolution near-infrared images obtained with HST/NICMOS. It was found that the disk and envelope parameters are comparable with those of the circumstellar environment of other young stellar objects. A main result is that the dust properties must be different in the circumstellar disk and in the envelope: While a grain size distribution with grain radii up to 100 micron is required to reproduce the millimeter observations of the disk, the envelope is dominated by smaller grains similar to those of the interstellar medium. Preprint with high figure quality available at: http://spider.ipac.caltech.edu/staff/swolf/homepage/public/preprints/i04302.ps

  20. The circumstellar material around SN IIn 1997eg Another detection of Very Narrow P Cygni profile

    CERN Document Server

    Salamanca, I M; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2002-01-01

    We report the detection of a very narrow P Cygni profile on top of the broad emission Ha and Hb lines of the Type IIn Supernova 1997eg. A similar feature has been detected in SN 1997ab (Salamanca et al. 1998), SN 1998S (Meikle & Geballe 1998, Fassia et al. 2001) and SN 1995G (Filippenko & Schlegel 1995). The detection of the narrow P Cygni profile indicates the existence of a dense circumstellar material (CSM) into which the ejecta of the supernova is expanding. From the analysis of the spectra of SN 1997eg we deduce (a) that such CSM is very dense (n ~ 5x10^7 cm^-3), (b) that has a low expanding velocity of about 160 \\kms. The origin of such dense CSM can be either a very dense progenitor wind (dotM ~ 10^-2 solar masses per year) or a circumstellar shell product of the progenitor wind expanding into a high pressure environment.

  1. Polarimetric microlensing of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    We study the benefits of polarimetry observations of microlensing events to detect and characterize circumstellar disks around the microlensed stars located at the Galactic bulge. These disks which are unresolvable from their host stars make a net polarization effect due to their projected elliptical shapes. Gravitational microlensing can magnify these signals and make them be resolved. The main aim of this work is to determine what extra information about these disks can be extracted from polarimetry observations of microlensing events in addition to those given by photometry ones. Hot disks which are closer to their host stars are more likely to be detected by microlensing, owing to more contributions in the total flux. By considering this kind of disks, we show that although the polarimetric efficiency for detecting disks is similar to the photometric observation, but polarimetry observations can help to constraint the disk geometrical parameters e.g. the disk inner radius and the lens trajectory with resp...

  2. Heavy mesons in dense matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Gamermann, Daniel; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; LlanesEstrada, FJ; Pelaez,

    2011-01-01

    Charmed mesons in dense matter are studied within a unitary coupled-channel approach which takes into account Pauli-blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We obtain the open-charm meson spectral functions in this dense medium, and discuss their implications on hidden c

  3. Small carbon chains in circumstellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, R J; Bernath, P F

    2014-01-01

    Observations were made for a number of carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes using the Phoenix spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope to determine the abundance of small carbon chain molecules. Vibration-rotation lines of the $\

  4. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  5. Circumstellar Molecular Spectra towards Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of, and possible scientific gains which can be acquired from studying circumstellar molecular spectra toward evolved stars. Where can we expect circumstellar molecular spectra, why would we want to study these spectra, which molecules might be present, and what can we learn from these studies? We present an overview of reported detections, and discuss some of the results.

  6. Tracing Planets in Circumstellar Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Ana L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Planets are assumed to form in circumstellar discs around young stellar objects. The additional gravitational potential of a planet perturbs the disc and leads to characteristic structures, i.e. spiral waves and gaps, in the disc density profile. We perform a large-scale parameter study on the observability of these planet-induced structures in circumstellar discs in the (submm wavelength range for the Atacama Large (SubMillimeter Array (ALMA. On the basis of hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of star-disc-planet models we calculate the disc temperature structure and (submm images of these systems. These are used to derive simulated ALMA maps. Because appropriate objects are frequent in the Taurus-Auriga region, we focus on a distance of 140 pc and a declination of ≈ 20°. The explored range of star-disc-planet configurations consists of six hydrodynamical simulations (including magnetic fields and different planet masses, nine disc sizes with outer radii ranging from 9 AU to 225 AU, 15 total disc masses in the range between 2.67·10-7 M⊙ and 4.10·10-2 M⊙, six different central stars and two different grain size distributions, resulting in 10 000 disc models. At almost all scales and in particular down to a scale of a few AU, ALMA is able to trace disc structures induced by planet-disc interaction or the influence of magnetic fields in the wavelength range between 0.4...2.0 mm. In most cases, the optimum angular resolution is limited by the sensitivity of ALMA. However, within the range of typical masses of protoplane tary discs (0.1 M⊙...0.001 M⊙ the disc mass has a minor impact on the observability. At the distance of 140 pc it is possible to resolve discs down to 2.67·10-6 M⊙ and trace gaps in discs with 2.67·10-4 M⊙ with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three. In general, it is more likely to trace planet-induced gaps in magneto-hydrodynamical disc models, because gaps are wider in the presence of

  7. Dense Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also appear white on mammography, they can be hidden by or within dense breast tissue. Other imaging ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  8. The Evolution of Circumstellar Medium around Rotating Massive Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chitã

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Una estrella rotante de 12 M , despu es de su evoluci on de secuencia principal, se convierte en una supergigante roja cuando empieza el quemado de helio en el n ucleo. Durante el quemado de helio en el n ucleo, y como consecuencia de la variaci on en la e cacia del quemado de hidr ogeno en capa, la estrella pasa por el llamado \\lazo azul", i.e., esta evoluciona hacia una fase de supergigante azul, donde agota el quemado del helio en el n ucleo para convertirse de nuevo en una supergigante roja, antes de explotar como supernova. Nosotros intentamos explicar las estructuras en Sher 25 y SN 1987A a trav es de la asimetr a en el viento debida a la rotaci on. Usamos un modelo de evoluci on estelar que nos provee de los par ametros del viento dependientes del tiempo, tales como la velocidad del viento y su raz on de p erdida de masa. Estos par ametros sirven como entradas para simulaciones hidrodin amicas del medio circunestelar. El lazo azul causa una estructura muy asf erica debido a la rotaci on, mientras que las fases de secuencia principal y supergigante roja son b asicamente esf ericas. Se concluye que la asimetr a de Sher 25 puede ser explicada mediante la rotaci on estelar

  9. The evolution of circumstellar medium around rotating massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chita, S.M.; Marle, A.J.; Langer, N.; García-Segura, G.

    2007-01-01

    A rotating 12Mȯ star, after its main-sequence evolution, becomes a redsupergiant when it starts core He burning. During core helium burning, as consequence of a variation of the hydrogen shell burning efficiency, the star undergoes a so called ``blue loop'', i.e. it evolves into a blue supergiant st

  10. Thin shell morphology in the circumstellar medium of massive binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marle, A. -J; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Context. In massive binaries, the powerful stellar winds of the two stars collide, leading to the formation of shock-dominated environments that can be modeled only in 3D. Aims. We investigate the morphology of the collision-front shell between the stellar winds of binary components in two long-peri

  11. The photodissociation of CO in circumstellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, G. A.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The CO photodissociation rate for the unshielded ISM is calculated using recent laboratory results which confirm that photodissociation occurs by way of line absorption. A value of 2.0 x 10 to the -10th/s, an order of magnitude higher than the rate used in the past, is obtained. The new rate and a treatment of the radiative transfer and shielding are used to develop a theory for the CO abundance in the circumstellar envelopes of cool, evolved stars, and results are presented on the spatial variation of CO, C, and C(+). It is shown that these distributions play important roles in determining the observational properties of circumstellar envelopes.

  12. Circumstellar Habitable Zones to Ecodynamic Domains: A Preliminary Review and Suggested Future Directions

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the Circumstellar Habitable Zone has served the scientific community well for some decades. It slips easily off the tongue, and it would be hard to replace. Recently, however, several workers have postulated types of habitable bodies which might exist outside the classic circumstellar habitable zone (HZ). These include not only bodies which orbit at substantial distances from their parent stars, but also snowball worlds with geothermally-maintained internal oceans and even densely-atmosphered worlds with geothermally-maintained surface oceans, which have been ejected from unstable planetary systems into interstellar space. If habitability is not a unique and diagnostic property of the HZ, then the value of the term has been compromised in a fundamental way. At the same time, it has become evident that multiple environmental states, differing in important ways in their habitability, are possible even for geophysically similar planets subject to similar levels of insolation, within the classic HZ...

  13. Isothermal Circumstellar Dust Shell Model for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G.; Towers, I. N.; Jovanoski, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of radiative transfer in circumstellar dust shells. By assuming that the shell is both isothermal and its thickness is small compared to its radius, the model is simple enough for students to grasp and yet still provides a quantitative description of the relevant physical features. The isothermal model can be used in a…

  14. The complex circumstellar environment of HD 142527

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A.P.; Min, M.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Honda, M.; Fujiwara, H.; Bouwman, J.; van Boekel, R.; Dougherty, S.M.; de Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD 142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of

  15. The complex circumstellar environment of HD 142527

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A. P.; Min, M.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Honda, M.; Fujiwara, H.; Bouwman, J.; Van Boekel, R.; Dougherty, S.M.; de Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of i

  16. The complex circumstellar environment of HD142527

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A. P.; Min, M.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Honda, M.; Fujiwara, H.; Bouwman, J.; van Boekel, R.; Dougherty, S. M.; de Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of i

  17. HaerWuSu Dense Medium Washing System Shunt Adjusting Device Applications%重介浅槽洗选系统分流调整装置的研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦平

    2011-01-01

    介绍了哈尔乌素露天煤矿选煤厂重介浅槽洗选工艺,针对该生产系统中重介质密度调整存在诸多问题,提出技术革新方案。设计了一套适合现场环境、空间使用要求的分流装置,对其工作原理、结构特点以及在生产实践过程中的应用和使用效果进行科学阐述。%this paper introduces open-pit coal WuSu Haer dense medium shallow groove wash process,according to the production systems exist heavy medium density adjusted can not control in effective limits,design of a suitable site environment,space requirements of the use of distributary equipment,its working principle,structural characteristics,in the production practice process application and use effects scientifically elaboration.

  18. Six White Dwarfs with Circumstellar Silicates

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M; Zuckerman, B

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope spectra reveal 10 micron silicate emission from circumstellar dust orbiting six externally-polluted white dwarfs. Micron-size glasses with an olivine stoichiometry can account for the distinctively broad wings that extend to 12 microns; these particles likely are produced by tidal-disruption of asteroids. The absence of infrared PAH features is consistent with a scenario where extrasolar rocky planets are assembled from carbon-poor solids.

  19. HST Spectroscopy of Spot 1 on the Circumstellar Ring of SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, E; Pun, C S J; Garnavich, P M; Challis, P M; Kirshner, R P; Raymond, J; Borkowski, K J; Chevalier, R A; Filippenko, A V; Fransson, C; Lundqvist, P; Panagia, N; Phillips, M M; Sonneborn, G; Suntzeff, N B; Wang, L; Wheeler, J C; Michael, Eli; Cray, Richard Mc; Garnavich, Peter; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Raymond, John; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Chevalier, Roger; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Sonneborn, George; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Wang, Lifan

    2000-01-01

    We present ultraviolet and optical spectra of the first bright spot (PA = 29 degrees) on Supernova 1987A's equatorial circumstellar ring taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We interpret this spot as the emission produced by radiative shocks that occur where the supernova blast wave strikes an inward protrusion of the ring. The observed line widths and intensity ratios indicate the presence of radiative shocks with velocities ranging from 100 to 250 km s^-1 entering dense (> 10^4 cm^-3) gas. These observations, and future observations of the development of the spectra and line profiles, provide a unique opportunity to study the hydrodynamics of radiative shocks.

  20. Absorption by XeCl* excimer molecules of their own emission of the B-X transition (λ = 308 nm) in a dense Ar-Xe-CCl4 medium upon pumping by fast electrons and uranium-235 fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mis'kevich, A. I.; Dyuzhov, Yu. A.; Suvorov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Luminescence of dense Ar-Xe-CCl4 gas mixtures with a low CCl4 content upon pumping by fast electrons and uranium-235 fission fragments is studied by spectroscopic methods. It is found that, in a cell with a resonator tuned to the B-X transition of the XeCl* molecule (λ = 308 nm), the D-state population of the XeCl* excimer molecule (the D-X transition, λ = 235 nm) depends on the B-state population and increases by many times with increasing B-state population of the XeCl* molecule. The stimulated absorption coefficient k = 1.2 × 10-16 of B-X transition emission of the XeCl* molecule (λmax = 308 nm), which leads to population of the D-state of this molecule, and the coefficient of amplification μ = 2.5 × 10-4 cm-1 of B-X transition emission of the Xe Cl* molecule (λ = 308 nm) are measured upon pumping by uranium- 235 fission fragments with the specific energy input into the gas medium of ~60 mJ/cm3 and a specific power of energy input of about 240 W/cm3.

  1. Heavy meson production in hot dense matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Gamermann, Daniel; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Nieves, JM; Oset, E; Vacas, MJV

    2010-01-01

    The properties of charmed mesons in dense matter are studied using a unitary coupled-channel approach in the nuclear medium which takes into account Pauli-blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We obtain the open-charm meson spectral functions in this dense nuclear env

  2. Kinematic Dynamo In Turbulent Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Many circumstellar disks associated with objects ranging from protoplanetary nebulae, to accretion disks around compact stars allow for the generation of magnetic fields by an (alpha)omega dynamo. We have applied kinematic dynamo formalism to geometrically thin accretion disks. We calculate, in the framework of an adiabatic approximation, the normal mode solutions for dynamos operating in disks around compact stars. We then describe the criteria for a viable dynamo in protoplanetary nebulae, and discuss the particular features that make accretion disk dynamos different from planetary, stellar, and galactic dynamos.

  3. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  4. Imaging polarimetry of circumstellar environments with the Extreme Polarimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325801843; Canovas, H.; Jeffers, S.V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326052658; Min, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/277318416; Keller, C.U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824550

    2010-01-01

    Three successful observation campaigns have been conducted with the Extreme Polarimeter, an imaging polarimeter for the study of circumstellar environments in scattered light at visible wavelengths. A contrast ratio between the central star and the circumstellar source of 10-5 can be achieved with p

  5. Sub-Keplerian accretion onto circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, R

    2010-01-01

    Models of the formation, evolution and photoevaporation of circumstellar disks are an essential ingredient in many theories of the formation of planetary systems. The ratio of disk mass over stellar mass in the circumstellar phase of a disk is largely determined by the angular momentum of the original cloud core from which the system was formed. While full 3D or 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamical models of accretion onto the disk automatically treat all aspects of angular momentum, this is not so trivial for 1D and semi-2D viscous disk models. Since 1D and semi-2D disk models are still very useful for long-term evolutionary modelling of disks with relatively little numerical effort, we investigate how the 2D nature of accretion affects the formation and evolution of the disk in such models. A proper treatment of this problem requires a correction for the sub-Keplerian velocity at which accretion takes place. We develop an update of our semi-2D time-dependent disk evolution model to properly treat the effects of s...

  6. The infrared spectral features of circumstellar envelope of evolved low-and intermediate-mass stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke; JIANG BiWei

    2008-01-01

    The circumstellar envelope of evolved stars of low-and intermediate-mass is an important site for dust formation. In comparison with the interstellar medium, they have more types of organics and different types of inorganics. Various infrared features in the circumstellar envelope can reveal the composition and abundance of dust, as well as the chemical and physical conditions of the circumstellar shell. Infrared features and their carriers are different in the C-rich or O-rich environment, and the mixed-environment where the C-rich and O-rich circumstellar materials co-exist. The C-rich sources exhibit a series of spectral features which are attrib-uted to organic molecules. They also show two prominent features at 21 μm and 30 μm which emit a large portion of infrared radiation. The O-rich sources exhibit the strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm features attributed to the Si-O bending and O-Si-O stretching modes of amorphous silicate dust. With the ISO/SWS spectrometer, about 50 narrow bands are identified with the crystalline silicate grains, mainly forsterite and enstatite. In addition, a series of features, at 13 μm, 16.8 μm, 19.5 μm and 31.8 μm, appearing to be correlated with each other, are attributed to oxides. Some objects simultaneously show the C-rich and O-rich features, e.g. some C-rich sources have silicate features. There is no well-accepted interpretation for such mixed appearance, though a binary model is suggested.

  7. The infrared spectral features of circumstellar envelope of evolved low- and intermediate-mass stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The circumstellar envelope of evolved stars of low- and intermediate-mass is an important site for dust formation. In comparison with the interstellar medium, they have more types of organics and different types of inorganics. Various infrared features in the circumstellar envelope can reveal the composition and abundance of dust, as well as the chemical and physical conditions of the circumstellar shell. Infrared features and their carriers are different in the C-rich or O-rich environment, and the mixed-environment where the C-rich and O-rich circumstellar materials co-exist. The C-rich sources exhibit a series of spectral features which are attrib- uted to organic molecules. They also show two prominent features at 21 μm and 30 μm which emit a large portion of infrared radiation. The O-rich sources exhibit the strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm features attributed to the Si-O bending and O-Si-O stretching modes of amorphous silicate dust. With the ISO/SWS spectrometer, about 50 narrow bands are identified with the crystalline silicate grains, mainly forsterite and enstatite. In addition, a series of features, at 13 μm, 16.8 μm, 19.5 μm and 31.8 μm, appearing to be correlated with each other, are attributed to oxides. Some objects simultaneously show the C-rich and O-rich features, e.g. some C-rich sources have silicate features. There is no well-accepted interpretation for such mixed appearance, though a binary model is suggested.

  8. The ionization structure of the circumstellar envelope of Alpha Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The physical processes which affect the ionization of the outer circumstellar envelope of Alpha Ori are analyzed and evaluated. The ultraviolet radiation fields of the chromosphere and the interstellar medium dominate the envelope, and the most common forms of all species are neutral atoms and first ions. Hydrogen recombines just outside the chromosphere, where atoms with smaller ionization potential are essentially fully ionized. The heavier ions gradually recombine with increasing distance from the star, until the interstellar radiation field reverses this trend. The electron fraction in the outer envelope is approximately equal to the abundance of all such heavy atoms, i.e., of the order of 0.0001. The analysis is applied to the case of neutral K, whose density in the envelope has been determined by scattering experiments. The theory predicts that the slope of the K I density distribution should decrease from -1.5 to -3.5 in the outer envelope. The mass loss rate of Alpha Ori implied by the K I scattering experiments is 4 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr.

  9. On the Industrial Test and Analysis of Dense Medium Separation of Slack Coal in Lijiahao Coal Mine%李家壕煤矿末煤重介分选工业试验与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建光

    2012-01-01

    The raw coal being washed in coal preparation plant of Lijiahao coal mine is non-caking coal and jet coal. As the coal preparation technology is only designed for discharging the gangne with shallow slot of lump coal, -13mm slack coal is directly blended and compounded for sale without being separated. However, it is found in production practice that with low heat value, -13mm slack coal has negative effect on the heat value of coal while being directly blended and compounded. By setting the workshop 2 of Shuiquan coal preparation plant as the industrial testing site, continuous industrial production tests have been done to -13mm raw coal in Lijiahao coal mine of Wanh mining area, which shows that salable coal that meets heat value requirement can be separated with three-product dense medium cyclone while some problems do exist in the cleaning process. The paper analyzes the causes of the problems and puts forward some corresponding solutions.%李家壕煤矿选煤厂入洗原煤为不黏煤和长焰煤,设计的选煤工艺只针对块煤进行浅槽排矸,-13mm末煤不分选直接掺配销售,但是生产实践发现,-13mm末煤热值较低,直接掺配影响了销售产品的热值。针对这种情况,以水泉选煤厂二车间为工业试验场地,对万利矿区李家壕煤矿-13mm原煤进行了连续工业生产试验。结果表明:采用三产品重介旋流器,可以分选出符合产品热值要求的商品煤,但入洗过程中也存在一定问题,本文分析了问题产生的原因,并提出了一些解决方案。

  10. Hydrogen sulfide in a circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukita, N.; Morris, M.

    1983-01-01

    A search for hydrogen sulfide in the cool circumstellar envelopes of 25 stars was made using the 1(10)-1(01) rotational line at 1.8 mm. It was detected in the bipolar nebula/OH maser OH231.8+4.2, an object having a high rate of mass loss. An approximate analysis indicates that 1/60 of the sulfur in this outflowing envelope is in the form of H2S, a fraction which may be similar to that in the atmosphere of the central star. In addition, the shape of the observed line profile is discussed in terms of a possible variation of the outflow velocity with latitude above the system's equatorial plane.

  11. Composite grains: Application to circumstellar dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Vaidya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA we calculate the absorption efficiency of the composite grain, made up of a host silicate spheroid and inclusions of graphite, in the spectral region 5.0-25.0μm. We study the absorption as a function of the voulume fraction of the inclusions. In particular, we study the variation in the 10.0μm and 18.0μm emission features with the volume fraction of the inclusions. Using the extinction efficiencies, of the composite grains we calculate the infrared fluxes at several dust temperatures and compare the model curves with the observed infrared emission curves (IRAS-LRS, obtained for circumstellar dust shells around oxygen rich M-type stars.

  12. Dust Stratification in Young Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Rettig, T; Simon, T; Gibb, E; Balsara, D S; Tilley, D A; Kulesa, C; Simon, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    We present high-resolution infrared spectra of four YSOs (T Tau N, T Tau S, RNO 91, and HL Tau). The spectra exhibit narrow absorption lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O as well as broad emission lines of gas phase12CO. The narrow absorption lines of CO are shown to originate from the colder circumstellar gas. We find that the line of sight gas column densities resulting from the CO absorption lines are much higher than expected for the measured extinction for each source and suggest the gas to dust ratio is measuring the dust settling and/or grain coagulation in these extended disks. We provide a model of turbulence, dust settling and grain growth to explain the results. The techniques presented here allow us to provide some observationally-motivated bounds on accretion disk alpha in protostellar systems.

  13. ALMA view of the circumstellar environment of the post-common-envelope-evolution binary system HD101584

    CERN Document Server

    Olofsson, H; Maercker, M; Humphreys, E M L; Lindqvist, M; Nyman, L; Ramstedt, S

    2015-01-01

    We study the circumstellar evolution of the binary HD101584, consisting of a post-AGB star and a low-mass companion, which is most likely a post-common-envelope-evolution system. We used ALMA observations of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J=2-1 lines and the 1.3mm continuum to determine the morphology, kinematics, masses, and energetics of the circumstellar environment. The circumstellar medium has a bipolar hour-glass structure, seen almost pole-on, formed by an energetic jet, about 150 km/s. We conjecture that the circumstellar morphology is related to an event that took place about 500 year ago, possibly a capture event where the companion spiraled in towards the AGB star. However, the kinetic energy of the accelerated gas exceeds the released orbital energy, and, taking into account the expected energy transfer efficiency of the process, the observed phenomenon does not match current common-envelope scenarios. This suggests that another process must augment, or even dominate, the ejection process. A significant...

  14. Fermion dispersion in axion medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of a fermion with the dense axion medium is investigated for the purpose of finding an axion medium effect on the fermion dispersion. It is shown that axion medium influence on the fermion dispersion under astrophysical conditions is negligible small if the correct Lagrangian of the axion-fermion interaction is used.

  15. Dense topological spaces and dense continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwoah, Khaled A.

    2013-09-01

    There are several attempts to generalize (or "widen") the concept of topological space. This paper uses equivalence relations to generalize the concept of topological space via the concept of equivalence relations. By the generalization, we can introduce from particular topology on a nonempty set X many new topologies, we call anyone of these new topologies a dense topology. In addition, we formulate some simple properties of dense topologies and study suitable generalizations of the concepts of limit points, closeness and continuity, as well as Jackson, Nörlund and Hahn dense topologies.

  16. A white dwarf explodes inside a dense circumstellar disk peeking at a puzzling supernova with spectropolarimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "By measuring polarized light from an unusual exploding star, an international team of astrophysicists and astronomers has worked out the first detailed picture of a Type Ia supernova and the distinctive star system in which it exploded" (2 pages)

  17. Circumstellar Debris Disks: Diagnosing the Unseen Perturber

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvold, Erika R; Vican, Laura; Farr, Will M

    2016-01-01

    The first indication of the presence of a circumstellar debris disk is usually the detection of excess infrared emission from the population of small dust grains orbiting the star. This dust is short-lived, requiring continual replenishment, and indicating that the disk must be excited by an unseen perturber. Previous theoretical studies have demonstrated that an eccentric planet orbiting interior to the disk will stir the larger bodies in the belt and produce dust via interparticle collisions. However, motivated by recent observations, we explore another possible mechanism for heating a debris disk: a stellar-mass perturber orbiting exterior to and inclined to the disk and exciting the disk particles' eccentricities and inclinations via the Kozai-Lidov mechanism. We explore the consequences of an exterior perturber on the evolution of a debris disk using secular analysis and collisional N-body simulations. We demonstrate that a Kozai-Lidov excited disk can generate a dust disk via collisions and we compare t...

  18. An MCMC Circumstellar Disks Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Schuyler; Perrin, Marshall D.; Mazoyer, Johan; Choquet, Elodie; Soummer, Remi; Ren, Bin; Pueyo, Laurent; Debes, John H.; Duchene, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We present an enhanced software framework for the Monte Carlo Markov Chain modeling of circumstellar disk observations, including spectral energy distributions and multi wavelength images from a variety of instruments (e.g. GPI, NICI, HST, WFIRST). The goal is to self-consistently and simultaneously fit a wide variety of observables in order to place constraints on the physical properties of a given disk, while also rigorously assessing the uncertainties in the derived properties. This modular code is designed to work with a collection of existing modeling tools, ranging from simple scripts to define the geometry for optically thin debris disks, to full radiative transfer modeling of complex grain structures in protoplanetary disks (using the MCFOST radiative transfer modeling code). The MCMC chain relies on direct chi squared comparison of model images/spectra to observations. We will include a discussion of how best to weight different observations in the modeling of a single disk and how to incorporate forward modeling from PCA PSF subtraction techniques. The code is open source, python, and available from github. Results for several disks at various evolutionary stages will be discussed.

  19. Circumstellar disks around Herbig Be stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Albi, T; Bachiller, R; Neri, R; Planesas, P; Testi, L; Berne, O; Joblin, C

    2008-01-01

    We have carried out a search for circumstellar disks around Herbig Be stars using the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) and the IRAM Plateau de Bure (PdB) interferometers. In this Paper, we present our new VLA and PdBI data on the three objects MWC 297, Z CMa and LKHa 215. We have constructed the SED from near-IR to centimeter wavelengths by adding our millimeter and centimeter data to the available data at other wavelengths, mainly Spitzer images. The whole SED has been fitted using a disk+envelope model. In addition, we have compiled all the disk millimeter observations in the literature and made some statistics. We show that the disk mass is usually only a small percentage (less than 10%) of the mass of the whole envelope in HBe stars. Concerning the disks, there are large source to source variations. Two disks of our sample, R Mon and Z CMa, have similar sizes and masses to those found in T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. The disks around MWC 1080 and MWC 297 are, however, smaller (rout<100 AU). We have not detec...

  20. An Infrared Diffuse Circumstellar Band? The Unusual 1.5272 Micron DIB In the Red Square Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Zasowski, G; Whelan, D G; Miroshnichenko, A S; Hernández, D A García; Majewski, S R

    2015-01-01

    The molecular carriers of the ubiquitous absorption features called the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) have eluded identification for many decades, in part because of the enormous parameter space spanned by the candidates and the limited set of empirical constraints afforded by observations in the diffuse interstellar medium. Detection of these features in circumstellar regions, where the environmental properties are more easily measured, is thus a promising approach to understanding the chemical nature of the carriers themselves. Here, using high resolution spectra from the APOGEE survey, we present an analysis of the unusually asymmetric 1.5272 micron DIB feature along the sightline to the Red Square Nebula and demonstrate the likely circumstellar origin of about half of the DIB absorption in this line of sight. This interpretation is supported both by the velocities of the feature components and by the ratio of foreground to total reddening along the line of sight. The Red Square Nebula sightline offers...

  1. The Circumstellar Environments of Exoplanet Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christine

    The WFIRST-AFTA mission currently includes the provision for a high contrast imaging instrument with a primary goal of discovering new, low mass exoplanets and characterizing their atmospheres. To date, eight exoplanetary systems have been discovered via direct imaging using the current generation of ground-based high-contrast facilities. Five of those systems, including the iconic beta Pictoris and HR 8799 systems, possess infrared excesses, indicative of the presence of circumstellar dust. Detailed studies of dust and gas morphology in the beta Pictoris disk provided the impetus for searching for, and eventually imaging the planet. These studies further suggest that additional planets orbit the star, but are below current detection thresholds. Such systems will be prime targets for WFIRST-AFTA, which will obtain visual spectroscopy of several spectral features from molecules in the exoplanet atmospheres including CH4, H2O, and CO2. We propose to: (1) model the dust in exoplanetary systems with well characterized planets and infrared excesses to better constrain the dust geometry and particle properties; (2) generate synthetic WFIRST-AFTA images of these disks with embedded known and putative planets using point-spread-functions generated by JPL, and run our simulations though a WFIRST-AFTA pipeline; and (3) evaluate the sensitivity of WFIRST-AFTA to known and putative planets that have a range of masses and distances from their host stars. The proposed simulations will also assist the community in understanding how WFIRST-AFTA will contribute to our knowledge of debris disks and the role that minor bodies play in the delivery of water into the terrestrial planet zone. The proposed project is complementary to the efforts currently being carried out by the Science Definition Team (SDT), which focus on simulating planets embedded in tenuous disks, analogous to the Zodiacal dust system in our Solar System, the Earth s resonant dust ring, and the HR 4796 dust ring

  2. Dense with Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Ingkanisorn, W. Patricia; Mancini, Christine; Arai, Andrew E.

    2005-09-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) with a low encoding strength phase-cycled meta-DENSE readout and a two fold SENSE acceleration ( R = 2) is described. This combination reduces total breath-hold times for increased patient comfort during cardiac regional myocardial contractility studies. Images from phantoms, normal volunteers, and a patient are provided to demonstrate the SENSE-DENSE combination of methods. The overall breath-hold time is halved while preserving strain map quality.

  3. The EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE)

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Tenerelli, Domenick J

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE), selected by NASA for technology development and maturation. EXCEDE will study the formation, evolution and architectures of exoplanetary systems, and characterize circumstellar environments into stellar habitable zones. EXCEDE provides contrast-limited scattered-light detection sensitivities ~ 1000x greater than HST or JWST coronagraphs at a much smaller effective inner working angle (IWA), thus enabling the exploration and characterization of exoplanetary circumstellar disks in currently inaccessible domains. EXCEDE will utilize a laboratory demonstrated high-performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodized Coronagraph (PIAA-C) integrated with a 70 cm diameter unobscured aperture visible light telescope. The EXCEDE PIAA-C will deliver star-to-disk augmented image contrasts of < 10E-8 and a 1.2 L/D IWA or 140 mas with a wavefront control system utilizing a 2000-element MEMS DM and fast steering mirror. EXCEDE will...

  4. The Origin and Formation of the Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2010-01-01

    The formation and evolution of the circumstellar disk in the collapsing molecular cloud is investigated from the prestellar stage resolving both the molecular cloud core and the protostar itself. In the collapsing cloud, the first adiabatic core appears prior to the protostar formation. Reflecting the thermodynamics of the collapsing gas, the first core is much more massive than the protostar. When the molecular cloud has no angular momentum, the first core falls onto the protostar and disappears a few years after the protostar formation. On the other hand, when the molecular cloud has an angular momentum, the first core does not disappear even after the protostar formation, and directly evolves into the circumstellar disk with a Keplerian rotation. There are two paths for the formation of the circumstellar disk. When the initial cloud has a considerably small rotational energy, two nested disks appear just after the protostar formation. During the early main accretion phase, the inner disk increases its size...

  5. Photochemistry and molecular ions in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.; Omont, A.; Lucas, R.

    1987-01-01

    An earlier theory of ionization of C-rich circumstellar envelopes based on the photochemical model is extended to include the temperature dependence of ion-molecule reactions with polar molecules, particularly HCN, and line self-shielding of CO dissociating radiation. The results are applied to the abundances of HCO(+) and HNC in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. With standard parameters for IRC + 10216, the model is found to be consistent with the new upper limit to the antenna temperature of the J = 1-0 line of HCO(+) obtained with the IRAM 30-m telescope. The photochemical model provides a natural explanation of the relatively large ratio of HCN to HNC observed for C-rich circumstellar envelopes, and good agreement is obtained for the H(C-13)N/HNC antenna temperature ratio measured for IRC + 10216.

  6. Dense Molecular Gas Around Protostars and in Galactic Nuclei European Workshop on Astronomical Molecules 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Baan, W A; Langevelde, H J

    2004-01-01

    The phenomena observed in young stellar objects (YSO), circumstellar regions and extra-galactic nuclei show some similarity in their morphology, dynamical and physical processes, though they may differ in scale and energy. The European Workshop on Astronomical Molecules 2004 gave astronomers a unique opportunity to discuss the links among the observational results and to generate common interpretations of the phenomena in stars and galaxies, using the available diagnostic tools such as masers and dense molecular gas. Their theoretical understanding involves physics, numerical simulations and chemistry. Including a dozen introductory reviews, topics of papers in this book also cover: maser and dense gas diagnostics and related phenomena, evolution of circumstellar regions around protostars, evolution of circumnuclear regions of active galaxies, diagnostics of the circumnuclear gas in stars and galactic nuclei. This book summarizes our present knowledge in these topics, highlights major problems to be addressed...

  7. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  8. Gas phase chemical kinetics at high temperature of carbonaceous molecules: application to circumstellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biennier, L.; Gardez, A.; Saidani, G.; Georges, R.; Rowe, B.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2011-05-01

    Circumstellar shells of evolved stars are a theater of extremely rich physical and chemical processes. More than seventy molecules of varied nature have been identified in the envelopes through their spectral fingerprints in the microwave or far infrared regions. Many of them are carbon chain molecules and radicals and a significant number are unique to the circumstellar medium. However, observational data remain scarce and more than half of the detected species have been observed in only one object, the nearby carbon star IRC + 10216. Chemical kinetic models are needed to describe the formation of molecules in evolved circumstellar outflows. Upcoming terrestrial telescopes such as ALMA will increase the spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude and provide a wealth of data. The determination of relevant laboratory kinetics data is critical to keep up with the development of the observations and of the refinement of chemical models. Today, the majority of reactions studied in the laboratory are the ones involved in combustion and concerning light hydrocarbons. Our objective is to provide the scientific community with rate coefficients of reactions between abundant species in these warm environments. Cyanopolyynes from HC_2N to HC_9N have all been detected in carbon rich circumstellar envelopes in up to 10 sources for HC_3N. Neutral-neutral reactions of the CN radical with unsaturated hydrocarbons could be a dominant route in the formation of cyanopolyynes, even at low temperatures. Our approach aims to bridge the temperature gap between resistively heated flow tubes and shock tubes. The present kinetic measurements are obtained using a new reactor combining a high enthalpy source (Moudens et al. 2011) with a flow tube and a pulsed laser photolysis and laser induced fluorescence system to probe the undergoing chemical reactions. The high enthalpy flow tube has been used to measure the rate constant of the reaction of the CN radical with propane, propene

  9. A Deep Chandra Observation of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: A Type Ia Event with Circumstellar Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, S P; Hwang, U; Hughes, J P; Badenes, C; Laming, J M; Blondin, J M

    2007-01-01

    We present initial results of a 750 ks Chandra observation of the remnant of Kepler's supernova of AD 1604. The strength and prominence of iron emission, together with the absence of O-rich ejecta, demonstrate that Kepler resulted from a thermonuclear supernova, even though evidence for circumstellar interaction is also strong. We have analyzed spectra of over 100 small regions, and find that they fall into three classes. (1) The vast majority show Fe L emission between 0.7 and 1 keV and Si and S K alpha emission; we associate these with shocked ejecta. A few of these are found at or beyond the mean blast wave radius. (2) A very few regions show solar O/Fe abundance rations; these we associate with shocked circumstellar medium (CSM). Otherwise O is scarce. (3) A few regions are dominated by continuum, probably synchrotron radiation. Finally, we find no central point source, with a limit about 100 times fainter than the central object in Cas A. The evidence that the blast wave is interacting with CSM may indic...

  10. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2005gj: Another TypeIa Supernova in a Massive Circumstellar Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bauer, A.; Blanc, N.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Kocevski, D.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.

    2006-06-01

    We report the independent discovery and follow-up observations of supernova 2005gj by the Nearby Supernova Factory. This is the second confirmed case of a ''hybrid'' Type Ia/IIn supernova, which like the prototype SN 2002ic, we interpret as the explosion of a white dwarf interacting with a circumstellar medium. Our early-phase photometry of SN 2005gj shows that the strength of the interaction between the supernova ejecta and circumstellar material is much stronger than for SN 2002ic. Our .rst spectrum shows a hot continuum with broad and narrow H{alpha} emission. Later spectra, spanning over 4 months from outburst, show clear Type Ia features combined with broad and narrow H{gamma}, H{beta},H{alpha} and He I {lambda}{lambda}5876,7065 in emission. At higher resolution, P Cygni profiles are apparent. Surprisingly, we also observe an inverted P Cygni profile for [O III] {lambda}5007. We find that the lightcurve and measured velocity of the unshocked circumstellar material imply mass loss as recently as 8 years ago. This is in contrast to SN 2002ic, for which an inner cavity in the circumstellar material was inferred. Within the context of the thin-shell approximation, the early lightcurve is well-described by a flat radial density profile for the circumstellar material. However, our decomposition of the spectra into Type Ia and shock emission components allows for little obscuration of the supernova, suggesting an aspherical or clumpy distribution for the circumstellar material. We suggest that the emission line velocity profiles arise from electron scattering rather than the kinematics of the shock. This is supported by the inferred high densities, and the lack of evidence for evolution in the line widths. Ground- and space-based photometry, and Keck spectroscopy, of the host galaxy are used to ascertain that the host galaxy has low metallicity (Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}} < 0.3; 95% confidence) and that this galaxy is undergoing a significant star

  11. Discovery of a Circumstellar Disk in the Lagoon Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    light reaches us directly without suffering a high degree of absorption. They subsequently obtained a series of high-resolution, near-infrared images using the adaptive optics camera ADONIS at the ESO 3.6-m telescope and the speckle camera SHARP at the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope, both at the La Silla observatory. These observing techniques revealed a star which is slightly offset from the extended optical image of G5.97-1.17 seen on the HST-WFPC frames [3]. This star is found to radiate strongly in the near-infrared spectral region, quite similar to the reddest central stars of the Orion proplyds . This is a clear sign of the presence of circumstellar dust. In addition, the star is intrinsically not as bright as Her 36; it is therefore less massive and exercises less influence on its immediate surroundings. Thus, it cannot be responsible for the observed ionisation of G5.97-1.17. Caption to ESO PR Photo 09/97 [JPEG, 296k] ESO Press Photo 09/97 shows a true-colour, composite mosaic of several ADONIS near-infrared frames, covering a 35 x 26 arcsec area around the newly found star. The colour coding corresponds to the three wavelength regions of the frames used to make the mosaic, i.e. blue represents the J-filter (at 1.2 microns), green the H-filter (1.6 microns) and red the K-filter (2.2 microns). In this image, hot stars appear white and cool ones red. It is obvious that the brightest object in this area, Her 36, is surrounded by a dense cluster of (young) stars. The central star of G5.97-1.17 is indicated with an arrow. New HST images The recent release by the Space Telescope--European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) [4] of new HST images taken during a second series of observations of M8 with the new HST-WFPC2 camera allows an unambiguous identification of the physical nature of G5.97-1.17. On these images, G5.97-1.17 is spatially resolved and presents the typical bow shape with the apex of the bow pointing towards Her 36. The infrared star, seen on the ESO images

  12. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  13. Quantum dense key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S; Rastello, M L; Bovino, F A; Colla, A M; Castagnoli, G C

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than BB84 one. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

  14. Hydrodynamical interaction of mildly relativistic ejecta with an ambient medium

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamical interaction of spherical ejecta freely expanding at mildly relativistic speeds into an ambient cold medium is studied in semi-analytical and numerical ways to investigate how ejecta produced in energetic stellar explosions dissipate their kinetic energy through the interaction with the surrounding medium. We especially focus on the case in which the circumstellar medium is well represented by a steady wind at a constant mass-loss rate having been ejected from the stellar surface prior to the explosion. As a result of the hydrodynamical interaction, the ejecta and circumstellar medium are swept by the reverse and forward shocks, leading to the formation of a geometrically thin shell. We present a semi-analytical model describing the dynamical evolution of the shell and compare the results with numerical simulations. The shell can give rise to bright emission as it gradually becomes transparent to photons. while it is optically thick. We develop an emission model for the expected emission from th...

  15. Optical Evidence for Circumstellar Interaction Around SN 1993J

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Feng; ZHANG Tian-Meng; ZHOU Xu; LI Zong-Wei

    2004-01-01

    We study the circumstellar interaction around SN 1993J by its intermediate-band light curves obtained by the 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope at Xinglong station. The optical emission showed a slow decay of 0.05±0.02 mag/100 d in the period from 1995 to 2003, invoking a main energy contribution from SN-circumstellar interaction at late times. The relatively flat power law SN density model fits better with the observations. In particular, the line ratio of [O Ⅲ]λλ4959, 5007 and Na I D relative to Hα are well reproduced by the model. Moreover, the Hα light curve displayed obvious bump structures at some epochs, which is probably attributed to the density fluctuations in the ambient material that surrounds the reverse shockwave.

  16. Mean gas opacity for circumstellar environments and equilibrium temperature degeneracy

    CERN Document Server

    Malygin, M G; Klahr, H; Dullemond, C P; Henning, Th

    2014-01-01

    In a molecular cloud dust opacity typically dominates over gas opacity, yet in the vicinities of forming stars dust is depleted, and gas is the sole provider of opacity. In the optically thin circumstellar environments the radiation temperature cannot be assumed to be equal to the gas temperature, hence the two-temperature Planck means are necessary to calculate the radiative equilibrium. By using the two-temperature mean opacity one does obtain the proper equilibrium gas temperature in a circumstellar environment, which is in a chemical equilibrium. A careful consideration of a radiative transfer problem reveals that the equilibrium temperature solution can be degenerate in an optically thin gaseous environment. We compute mean gas opacities based on the publicly available code DFSYNTHE by Kurucz and Castelli. We performed the calculations assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and an ideal gas equation of state. The values were derived by direct integration of the high-resolution opacity spectrum. We prod...

  17. Proper Motions of Water Masers in Circumstellar Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, K. B.; Diamond, P. J.; Kemball, A. J.

    We present proper motion measurements of circumstellar water masers obtained with the VLBA. The objects observed include S Persei, VX Sagittarii, U Herculis, VY Canis Majoris, NML Cygni, IK Tauri and RX Bootis. Results of the observations and modeling indicate that the water masers exist in a kinematically complex region of the circumstellar envelope, which is not well fit by the standard model of a uniformly expanding spherical wind. Attempts at fitting an ellipsoidal geometric distribution with a variety of kinematic models are presented. Estimates for the distances of the stars are also discussed. A change in position of the maser spots as a function of velocity has been measured. This effect may be used to place limits on accelerations in the masing gas.

  18. Circumstellar Shells in Absorption in Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Borkowski, K J; Reynolds, S P

    2009-01-01

    Progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) have been predicted to modify their ambient circumstellar (CSM) and interstellar environments through the action of their powerful winds. While there is X-ray and optical evidence for circumstellar interaction in several remnants of Type Ia SNe, widespread evidence for such interaction in Type Ia SNe themselves has been lacking. We consider prospects for detection of CSM shells that have been predicted to be common around Type Ia SNe. Such shells are most easily detected in Na I absorption lines. Variable (declining) absorption is expected to occur soon after the explosion, primarily during the SN rise time, for shells located within 1 - 10 pc of a SN. The distance of the shell from the SN can be determined by measuring the time scale for line variability.

  19. Observations of Circumstellar Thermochemical Equilibrium: The Case of Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    We will present observations of phosphorus-bearing species in circumstellar envelopes, including carbon- and oxygen-rich shells 1. New models of thermochemical equilibrium chemistry have been developed to interpret, and constrained by these data. These calculations will also be presented and compared to the numerous P-bearing species already observed in evolved stars. Predictions for other viable species will be made for observations with Herschel and ALMA.

  20. A search for precursors of Ultracompact HII Regions in a sample of luminous IRAS sources; 3, Circumstellar Dust Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Molinari, S; Cesaroni, R; Palla, Fabrizio; Molinari, Sergio; Brand, Jan; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Palla, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope has been used to obtain submillimeter and millimeter continuum photometry of a sample of 30 IRAS sources previously studied in molecular lines and centimeter radio continuum. All the sources have IRAS colours typical of very young stellar objects (YSOs) and are associated with dense gas. In spite of their high luminosities (L>10000 solar units), only ten of these sources are also associated with a radio counterpart. In 17 cases we could identify a clear peak of millimeter emission associated with the IRAS source, while in 9 sources the millimeter emission was extended or faint and a clear peak could not be identified; upper limits were found in 4 cases only. Using simple greybody fitting model to the observed SED, we derive global properties of the circumstellar dust. The dust temperature varies from 24 K to 45 K, while the exponent of the dust emissivity vs frequency power-law spans a range 1.56circumstellar masses ran...

  1. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness they are no......Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness...... they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  2. Dispersal of Gaseous Circumstellar Discs around High-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Y; Shen, Yue; Lou, Yu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    We study the dispersal of a gaseous disc surrounding a central high-mass stellar core once this circumstellar disc becomes fully ionized. If the stellar and surrounding EUV and X-ray radiations are so strong as to rapidly heat up and ionize the entire circumstellar disc as further facilitated by disc magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, a shock can be driven to travel outward in the fully ionized disc, behind which the disc expands and thins. For an extremely massive and powerful stellar core, the ionized gas pressure overwhelms the centrifugal and gravitational forces in the disc. In this limit, we construct self-similar shock solutions for such an expansion and depletion phase. As a significant amount of circumstellar gas being removed, the relic disc becomes vulnerable to strong stellar winds and fragments into clumps. We speculate that disc disappearance happens rapidly, perhaps on a timescale of $\\sim 10^3-10^4\\hbox{yr}$ once the disc becomes entirely ionized sometime after the onset of thermal nuclear ...

  3. Grand Design Spiral Arms in A Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Tomida, Kengo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Lin, Chia Hui

    2016-01-01

    We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues and its radius becomes as large as 200 AUs toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk soon becomes unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phase. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2-27, whose circumstellar disk has grand design spiral arms. We find an excellent agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests tha...

  4. The Circumstellar Environments of NML Cyg and the Cool Hypergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, M T; Marengo, M; Schuster, Michael T.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Marengo, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    We present high-resolution HST WFPC2 images of compact nebulosity surrounding the cool M-type hypergiants NML Cyg, VX Sgr and S Per. The powerful OH/IR source NML Cyg exhibits a peculiar bean-shaped asymmetric nebula that is coincident with the distribution of its H2O vapor masers. We show that NML Cyg's circumstellar envelope is likely shaped by photo-dissociation from the powerful, nearby association Cyg OB2 inside the Cygnus X superbubble. The OH/IR sources VX Sgr and S Per have marginally resolved envelopes. S Per's circumstellar nebula appears elongated in a NE/SW orientation similar to that for its OH and H2O masers, while VX Sgr is embedded in a spheroidal envelope. We find no evidence for circumstellar nebulosity around the intermediate-type hypergiants rho Cas, HR 8752, HR 5171a, nor the normal M-type supergiant mu Cep. We conclude that there is no evidence for high mass loss events prior to 500-1000 yrs ago for these four stars.

  5. Molecular content of the circumstellar disk in AB Aur: First detection of SO in a circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Fuente, A; Agundez, M; Berne, O; Goicoechea, J R; Alonso-Albi, T; Marcelino, N

    2010-01-01

    Very few molecular species have been detected in circumstellar disks surrounding young stellar objects. We are carrying out an observational study of the chemistry of circumstellar disks surrounding T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. First results of this study are presented in this note. We used the EMIR receivers recently installed at the IRAM 30m telescope to carry a sensitive search for molecular lines in the disks surrounding AB Aur, DM Tau, and LkCa 15. We detected lines of the molecules HCO+, CN, H2CO, SO, CS, and HCN toward AB Aur. In addition, we tentatively detected DCO+ and H2S lines. The line profiles suggest that the CN, HCN, H2CO, CS and SO lines arise in the disk. This makes it the first detection of SO in a circumstellar disk. We have unsuccessfully searched for SO toward DM Tau and LkCa 15, and for c-C3H2 toward AB Aur, DM Tau, and LkCa 15. Our upper limits show that contrary to all the molecular species observed so far, SO is not as abundant in DM Tau as it is in AB Aur. Our results demonstrate th...

  6. Modeling Transiting Circumstellar Disks: Characterizing the Newly Discovered Eclipsing Disk System OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Erin L; Pecaut, Mark J; Quillen, Alice C; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. 2014. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ~1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ~0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ~150 Myr and mass of ~4 solar masses. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ~0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ~1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  7. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  8. A Green Method for Processing Polymers using Dense Gas Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan B. Yoganathan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dense CO2 can be used as an environmentally-benign polymer processing medium because of its liquid-like densities and gas-like mass transfer properties.In this work, polymer bio-blends of polycarbonate (PC, a biocompatible polymer, and polycaprolactone (PCL, a biodegradable polymer were prepared. Dense CO2 was used as a reaction medium for the melt-phase PC polymerization in the presence of dense CO2-swollen PCL particles and this method was used to prepare porous PC/PCL blends. To extend the applicability of dense CO2 to the biomedical industry and polymer blend processing, the impregnation of ibuprofen into the blend was conducted and subsequent dissolution characteristics were observed.

  9. The Velocity Structure of SN 1987A's Outer Circumstellar Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotts, A. P. S.; Heathcote, S. R.

    1997-12-01

    We present high-resolution optical spectroscopy, (obtained with the CTIO 4-meter/echelle spectrograph over many epochs between 1989 and 1997) of the circumstellar nebula of SN 1987A, including the outer rings (within 3 arcsec of the SN), the inner (equatorial) ring, and fainter features at larger radii never studied before spectroscopically. We report velocity displacements for portions of the outer rings, up to 26 km s(-1) with respect the SN centroid velocity, with blueshifted components in the location of the southern outer ring and the redshifted portions of the northern outer ring. The largest shifts are near the SN, as predicted by a model in which the outer rings are the crowns of an expanding, bipolar nebula with the inner ring at its waist. We also confirm that the inner ring shows a velocity full-width of about 13 km s(-1) , which, along with the geometry of the rings and our outer ring velocity measurements, allows us to estimate a characteristic timescale of about 20,000 y for each of the three rings, implying that all are coeval. This contrasts with measurements by others of compositional ratios in the inner versus outer rings indicating that they were, perhaps, ejected at different times from the progenitor's star's outer envelope. Additionally, we measure the velocity of low surface brightness features at larger radii indicating that circumstellar material even farther from the SN was ejected up to 400,000 y before the explosion. Finally, we note the presence of transient emission features within the circumstellar nebula and describe their behaviour, and consider what implications our observations may have for the coming transformation of this nebula into Supernova Remnant 1987A.

  10. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, A.; Hadjiyska, E.; Rabinowitz, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present optical observations of the peculiar stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw discovered by the La Silla-QUEST survey. LSQ12btw reaches an absolute peak magnitude of M-g = -19.3 +/- 0.2, and shows an asymmetric light curve. Stringent pre-discovery limits constrain its.......2), and experiences an extremely rapid post-peak decline similar to that observed in the peculiar SN Ib 2002bj. A stringent pre-discovery limit and an early marginal detection of LSQ13ccw allow us to determine the explosion time with an uncertainty of +/- 1 d. The spectra of LSQ12btw show the typical narrow He I....../IIn classification. As for other SNe Ibn, we argue that LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw likely result from the explosions of Wolf-Rayet stars that experienced instability phases prior to core collapse. We inspect the host galaxies of SNe Ibn, and we show that all of them but one are hosted in spiral galaxies, likely...

  11. Supernova remnants as particle accelerators and probes of the circumstellar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the night sky may look static on a regular night, apart from the rising moon and the occasional shooting star, a closer look and different timescales reveal that this is certainly not the case. Similar to daily life around us, stars, galaxies and the universe have life-cycles of their own.

  12. Models for the Circumstellar Medium of Long Gamma-Ray Burst Progenitor Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. van Marle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos modelos hidrodin amicos del medio circunestelar (CSM alrededor de candidatos progenitores de estallidos de rayos gamma (GRB largos. Estos son estrellas masivas que han perdido gran parte de sus masas en forma de vientos estelares durante sus evoluciones. Hay dos formas posibles de examinar el CSM de progenitores de GRB largos. Primeramente, el residuo del GRB se observa en radiaci on sincrotr on, emitida cuando el chorro supers onico del GRB barre el medio circundante. De esta forma, la curva de luz est a directamente relacionada con el per l de densidad del CSM. La densidad puede tanto decrecer como el cuadrado del radio (como es el caso de un viento estelar que se expande libremente o ser constante (como se esperar a para un viento chocado o para el medio interestelar. Segundamente, el material entre el GRB y el observador absorber a parte de la radiaci on del residuo del GRB, causando l neas de absorci on en el espectro del residuo. En algunos casos, tales l neas de absorci on estar an corridas al azul con respecto a la fuente, indicando que el material se aleja de la estrella progenitora. Esto puede ser explicado en t erminos de interacci ones de vientos en el CSM. Se pueden usar los CSM de estas estrellas para investigar sus estados de evoluci on previa.

  13. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - IV. Transitional Type Ibn supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Brown, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared data of the Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) 2010al and 2011hw. SN 2010al reaches an absolute magnitude at peak of M-R = -18.86 +/- 0.21. Its early light curve shows similarities with normal SNe Ib, with a rise to maximum slower than most SNe Ibn. The sp...

  14. Circumstellar Environments of MYSOs Revealed by IFU Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarete, F.; Damineli, A.; Barbosa, C. L.; Blum, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of massive stars (M > 8 M ⊙) is still not well understood and lacks of observational constraints. We observed 7 MYSO candidates using the NIFS spectrometer at Gemini North Telescope to study the accretion process at high angular resolution (~ 50 mas) and very closer to the central star. Preliminary results for 2 sources have revealed circumstellar structures traced by Brackett-Gamma, CO lines and extended H2 emission. Both sources present kinematics in the CO absorption lines, suggesting rotating structures. The next step will derive the central mass of each source by applying a keplerian model for these CO features.

  15. Protonated acetylene - An important circumstellar and interstellar ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Omont, A.; Guelin, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a circumstellar envelope, a substantial amount of acetylene is transported in a wind to the outer envelope, where it can be photoionized by interstellar radiation and then converted into C2H3(+) by a low-temperature reaction with H2. New chemical modeling calculations indicate that sufficient C2H3(+) may be produced in the outer envelope of IRC + 10216 to be observable. Similar considerations suggest that C2H3(+) should also be detectable in interstellar clouds, provided its rotational spectrum has been measured accurately in the laboratory.

  16. BF Orionis - Evidence for an infalling circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Alan D.; Barden, Samuel C.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the optical magnitudes and Balmer lines of the Herbig Ae/Be star BF Orionis confirm that the object is an early to mid A-type star, but appears to be below the zero-age main sequence. Enhanced metal-line strengths (once thought to link BF Ori with the Am stars), line asymmetries, and radial velocities are shown to be signatures of an infalling circumstellar envelope. The possibility that BF Ori has a late-type companion is examined, and it is concluded that it does not.

  17. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Extremely Dense Media

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina

    2016-01-01

    We study the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in extremely dense exotic systems with very unique properties. These EM waves develop a longitudinal component due to its interaction with the medium. Renormalization scheme of QED is used to understand the propagation of EM waves in both longitudinal and transverse directions. The propagation of EM waves in a quantum statistically treatable medium affects the properties of the medium itself. The electric permittivity and the magnetic permeability of the medium are modified and influence the related behavior of the medium. All the electromagnetic properties of a medium become a function of temperature and chemical potential of the medium. We study in detail the modifications of electric permittivity and magnetic permeability and other related properties of a medium in the superdense stellar objects.

  18. The circumstellar envelope of the C-rich post-AGB star HD 56126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hony, S; Tielens, AGGM; Waters, LBFM; de Koter, A

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar envelope of the post-asymptotic giant branch "21 mum object" HD 56126. We build a detailed dust radiative transfer model of the circumstellar envelope in order to derive the dust composition and mass, and the mass-loss history of the star. To model th

  19. On the gas temperature in circumstellar disks around A stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kamp, I; Kamp, Inga; Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan van

    2001-01-01

    In circumstellar disks or shells it is often assumed that gas and dust temperatures are equal where the latter is determined by radiative equilibrium. This paper deals with the question whether this assumption is applicable for tenous circumstellar disks around young A stars. In this paper the thin hydrostatic equilibrium models described by Kamp & Bertoldi (2000) are combined with a detailed heating/cooling balance for the gas. The most important heating and cooling processes are heating through infrared pumping, heating due to the drift velocity of dust grains, and fine structure and molecular line cooling. Throughout the whole disk gas and dust are not efficiently coupled by collisions and hence their temperatures are quite different. Most of the gas in the disk models considered here stays well below 300 K. In the temperature range below 300 K the gas chemistry is not much affected by T_gas and therefore the simplifying approximation T_gas = T_dust can be used for calculating the chemical structure of...

  20. The Complex Circumstellar and Circumbinary Environment of V356 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, Andrew; Lomax, Jamie R.; Malatesta, Michael A.; Babler, Brian L.; Bednarski, Daniel; Berdis, Jodi; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Carciofi, Alex C.; Davidson, James W.; Keil, Marcus; Meade, Marilyn; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Scheffler, Matt; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Wisniewski, John P.

    2017-01-01

    The eclipsing, interacting binary star V356 Sgr is a particularly exciting object for analysis due to its probable nonconservative mass loss and the possible progenitor link between Roche-lobe overflow systems and core-collapse supernovae. We present the results of 45 spectropolarimetric observations of V356 Sgr taken over 21 years, which we used to characterize the geometry of the system's circumstellar material. We find that V356 Sgr exhibits a large intrinsic polarization signature arising from electron scattering. The lack of repeatable eclipses in the polarization phase curves indicates the presence of a substantial pool of scatterers not occulted by either star. We suggest that these scatterers form either a circumbinary disk coplanar with the gainer's accretion disk, or an elongated structure perpendicular to the orbital plane of V356 Sgr, possibly formed by bipolar outflows.We also observe small-scale, cycle-to-cycle variations in the magnitude of intrinsic polarization at individual phases. These may indicate a mass transfer or mass loss rate that varies on the time-scale of the system's orbital period. Finally, we present a comparison of V356 Sgr with the well studied beta Lyr system; the significant differences observed between the two systems suggests diversity in the basic circumstellar geometry of Roche-lobe overflow binaries.

  1. Circumstellar Material on and off the Main Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Amy; Debes, John H.; Deming, Drake

    2017-06-01

    There is evidence of circumstellar material around main sequence, giant, and white dwarf stars that originates from the small-body population of planetary systems. These bodies tell us something about the chemistry and evolution of protoplanetary disks and the planetary systems they form. What happens to this material as its host star evolves off the main sequence, and how does that inform our understanding of the typical chemistry of rocky bodies in planetary systems? In this talk, I will discuss the composition(s) of circumstellar material on and off the main sequence to begin to answer the question, “Is Earth normal?” In particular, I look at three types of debris disks to understand the typical chemistry of planetary systems—young debris disks, debris disks around giant stars, and dust around white dwarfs. I will review the current understanding on how to infer dust composition for each class of disk, and present new work on constraining dust composition from infrared excesses around main sequence and giant stars. Finally, dusty and polluted white dwarfs hold a unique key to our understanding of the composition of rocky bodies around other stars. In particular, I will discuss WD1145+017, which has a transiting, disintegrating planetesimal. I will review what we know about this system through high speed photometry and spectroscopy and present new work on understanding the complex interplay of physics that creates white dwarf pollution from the disintegration of rocky bodies.

  2. The Three-Dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Sugerman, B E K; Kunkel, W E; Heathcote, S R; Lawrence, S S; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    We present the detailed construction and analysis of the most complete map to date of the circumstellar environment around SN 1987A, using ground and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 ly from the SN. Careful analyses allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly-structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 ly along the poles and 11 ly near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 ly. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 ly in radius and 4 ly long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41\\degr south and 8\\degr east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in...

  3. The Circumstellar Disk of the Be Star $o$~Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Sigut, T A A; Jansen, B; Zavala, R T

    2015-01-01

    Omicron Aquarii is late-type, Be shell star with a stable and nearly symmetric H$\\alpha$ emission line. We combine H$\\alpha$ interferometric observations obtained with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) covering 2007 through 2014 with H$\\alpha$ spectroscopic observations over the same period and a 2008 observation of the system's near-infrared spectral energy distribution to constrain the properties of $o$~Aqr's circumstellar disk. All observations are consistent with a circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of $75\\pm\\,3^{\\circ}$ with a position angle on the sky of $110\\pm\\,8^{\\circ}$ measured E from N. From the best-fit disk density model, we find that 90\\% of the H$\\alpha$ emission arises from within $9.5$ stellar radii, and the mass associated with this H$\\alpha$ disk is $\\sim 1.8\\times10^{-10}$ of the stellar mass and the associated angular momentum, assuming Keplerian rotation for the disk, is $\\sim 1.6\\times10^{-8}$ of the total stellar angular momentum. The occurrence of a central quas...

  4. First Evidence of Circumstellar Disks around Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, O; Ouellette, J A; Zurek, D R; Shara, M M; Marco, Orsola De; Lanz, Thierry; Ouellette, John A.; Zurek, David; Shara, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of optical HST/STIS and HST/FOS spectroscopy of 6 blue stragglers found in the globular clusters M3, NGC6752 and NGC6397. These stars are a subsample of a set of ~50 blue stragglers and stars above the main sequence turn-off in four globular clusters which will be presented in an forthcoming paper. All but the 6 stars presented here can be well fitted with non-LTE model atmospheres. The 6 misfits, on the other hand, possess Balmer jumps which are too large for the effective temperatures implied by their Paschen continua. We find that our data for these stars are consistent with models only if we account for extra absorption of stellar Balmer photons by an ionized circumstellar disk. Column densities of HI and CaII are derived as are the the disks' thicknesses. This is the first time that a circumstellar disk is detected around blue stragglers. The presence of magnetically-locked disks attached to the stars has been suggested as a mechanism to lose the large angular momentum imparted by ...

  5. An energetic stellar outburst accompanied by circumstellar light echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, H E; Levay, Z G; Panagia, N; Sparks, W B; Starrfield, S; Wagner, R M; Corradi, R L M; Munari, U; Bond, Howard E.; Henden, Arne; Levay, Zoltan G.; Panagia, Nino; Sparks, William B.; Starrfield, Sumner

    2003-01-01

    Some classes of stars, including supernovae and novae, undergo explosive outbursts that eject stellar material into space. In 2002, the previously unknown variable star V838 Monocerotis brightened suddenly by a factor of about 10^4. Unlike a supernova or nova, V838 Mon did not explosively eject its outer layers; rather, it simply expanded to become a cool supergiant with a moderate-velocity stellar wind. Superluminal light echoes were discovered as light from the outburst propagated into surrounding, pre-existing circumstellar dust. Here we report high-resolution imaging and polarimetry of the light echoes, which allow us to set direct geometric distance limits to the object. At a distance of >6 kpc, V838 Mon at its maximum brightness was temporarily the brightest star in the Milky Way. The presence of the circumstellar dust implies that previous eruptions have occurred, and spectra show it to be a binary system. When combined with the high luminosity and unusual outburst behavior, these characteristics indic...

  6. B[e] Supergiants' circumstellar environment: disks or rings?

    CERN Document Server

    Maravelias, G; Aret, A; Cidale, L; Arias, M L; Fernandes, M Borges

    2016-01-01

    B[e] Supergiants are a phase in the evolution of some massive stars for which we have observational evidence but no predictions by any stellar evolution model. The mass-loss during this phase creates a complex circumstellar environment with atomic, molecular, and dust regions usually found in rings or disk-like structures. However, the detailed structure and the formation of the circumstellar environment are not well-understood, requiring further investigation. To address that we initiated an observing campaign to obtain a homogeneous set of high-resolution spectra in both the optical and NIR (using MPG-ESO/FEROS, GEMINI/Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES, respectively). We monitor a number of Galactic B[e] Supergiants, for which we examined the [OI] and [CaII] emission lines and the bandheads of the CO and SiO molecules to probe the structure and the kinematics of their formation regions. We find that the emission from each tracer forms either in a single or in multiple equatorial rings.

  7. B[e] Supergiants' Circumstellar Environment: Disks or Rings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, G.; Kraus, M.; Aret, A.; Cidale, L.; Arias, M. L.; Borges Fernandes, M.

    2017-02-01

    B[e] supergiants are a phase in the evolution of some massive stars for which we have observational evidence but no predictions by any stellar evolution model. The mass-loss during this phase creates a complex circumstellar environment with atomic, molecular, and dust regions usually found in rings or disk-like structures. However, the detailed structure and the formation of the circumstellar environment are not well-understood, requiring further investigation. To address that we initiated an observing campaign to obtain a homogeneous set of high-resolution spectra in both the optical and NIR (using MPG-ESO/FEROS, GEMINI /Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES, respectively). We monitor a number of Galactic B[e] supergiants, for which we examined the [O I] and [Ca II] emission lines and the bandheads of the CO and SiO molecules to probe the structure and the kinematics of their formation regions. We find that the emission from each tracer forms either in a single or multiple equatorial rings.

  8. Transit probability of precessing circumstellar planets in binaries and exomoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David. V.

    2017-05-01

    Over two decades of exoplanetology has yielded thousands of discoveries, yet some types of systems are still to be observed. Circumstellar planets around one star in a binary have been found, but not for tight binaries (≲5 au). Additionally, extra-solar moons are yet to be found. This paper motivates finding both types of three-body system by calculating analytic and numerical probabilities for all transit configurations, accounting for any mutual inclination and orbital precession. The precession and relative three-body motion can increase the transit probability to as high as tens of per cent, and make it inherently time-dependent over a precession period as short as 5-10 yr. Circumstellar planets in such tight binaries present a tempting observational challenge: enhanced transit probabilities but with a quasi-periodic signature that may be difficult to identify. This may help explain their present non-detection, or maybe they simply do not exist. Whilst this paper considers binaries of all orientations, it is demonstrated how eclipsing binaries favourably bias the transit probabilities, sometimes to the point of being guaranteed. Transits of exomoons exhibit a similar behaviour under precession, but unfortunately only have one star to transit rather than two.

  9. Fine coal processing with dense-medium cyclones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Korte, GJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .050 0.3 x 0.15 1.83 0.010 5 United States of America During the 1970?s, a number of ?wash-to-zero? plants, based on the Tertre flowsheet, were built in the US by Stamicarbon?s licensee Roberts & Schaefer. In these plants, efficient separation... as in the Belgian plants. A simplified flowsheet for a typical wash-to- zero plant is shown in Figure 2. 1x 0 mm discard 50 x 0 mm raw coal 50 x 1 mm Discard 50 x 1 mm Product 1 x 0 mm product Figure 2. Wash-to-zero flow diagram The results...

  10. Warm dense crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2016-03-01

    The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "warm dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.

  11. Dense Suspension Splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy; Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-03-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes by ejecting liquid-coated particles. We study the mechanism for splash formation using experiments and a numerical model. In the model, the dense suspension is idealized as a collection of cohesionless, rigid grains with finite surface roughness. The grains also experience lubrication drag as they approach, collide inelastically and rebound away from each other. Simulations using this model reproduce the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles. They also provide direct evidence supporting the conclusion from earlier experiments that inelastic collisions, rather than viscous drag, dominate when the suspension contains macroscopic particles immersed in a low-viscosity solvent such as water. Finally, the simulations reveal two distinct routes for splash formation: a particle can be ejected by a single high momentum-change collision. More surprisingly, a succession of small momentum-change collisions can accumulate to eject a particle outwards. Supported by NSF through its MRSEC program (DMR-0820054) and fluid dynamics program (CBET-1336489).

  12. Dense Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure.If the axion mass energy is $mc^2= 10^{-4}$ eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about $10^{-14} M_\\odot$. We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If $mc^2 = 10^{-4}$ eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mas...

  13. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10-14M⊙ if the axion mass is 10-4 eV . We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10-20M⊙ to about M⊙ . If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  14. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.

  15. The Three-dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-07-01

    Surrounding SN 1987A is a three-ring nebula attributed to interacting stellar winds, yet no model has successfully reproduced this system. Fortunately, the progenitor's mass-loss history can be reconstructed using light echoes, in which scattered light from the supernova traces the three-dimensional morphology of its circumstellar dust. In this paper, we construct and analyze the most complete map to date of the progenitor's circumstellar environment, using ground- and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 lt-yr from the SN. Previously known structures, such as an inner hourglass, Napoleon's Hat, and a contact discontinuity, are probed in greater spatial detail than before. Previously unknown features are also discovered, such as a southern counterpart to Napoleon's Hat. Careful analyses of these echoes allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main-sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 lt-yr along the poles and 11 lt-yr near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 lt-yr. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 lt-yr in radius and 4 lt-yr long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41° south and 8° east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. From the hourglass to the large, bipolar lobes, echo fluxes suggest that the gas density drops from 1-3 to >~0.03 cm-3, while the maximum dust-grain size increases from ~0.2 to 2 μm, and the silicate:carbonaceous dust ratio decreases. The nebulae have a total mass of ~1.7 Msolar. The geometry of the three rings is

  16. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Barenfeld, Scott A; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and $^{12}$CO $J = 3-2$ line fluxes of disks around low mass ($0.14-1.66$ $M_{\\odot}$) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, 5 are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area ($\\lesssim 40$ AU), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least $\\sim1000$ relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of $M_{dust}\\propto M_*^...

  17. Exploring the multifaceted circumstellar environment of the luminous blue variable HR Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, C. S.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Cavallaro, F.; Cerrigone, L.; Agliozzo, C.; Bufano, F.; Riggi, S.; Molinari, S.; Schillirò, F.

    2017-03-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic luminous blue variable HR Carinae, based on new high-resolution mid-infrared (IR) and radio images obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), which have been complemented by far-infrared Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations and ATCA archive data. The Herschel images reveal the large-scale distribution of the dusty emitting nebula, which extends mainly to the north-east direction, up to 70 arcsec from the central star, and is oriented along the direction of the space motion of the star. In the mid-infrared images, the brightness distribution is characterized by two arc-shaped structures, tracing an inner envelope surrounding the central star more closely. At radio wavelengths, the ionized gas emission lies on the opposite side of the cold dust with respect to the position of the star, as if the ionized front were confined by the surrounding medium in the north-south direction. Comparison with previous data indicates significant changes in the radio nebula morphology and in the mass-loss rate from the central star, which has increased from 6.1 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 in 1994-1995 to 1.17 × 10-5 M⊙ yr-1 in 2014. We investigate possible scenarios that could have generated the complex circumstellar environment revealed by our multiwavelength data.

  18. Circumstellar Environments of Luminous Infrared Stellar Objects in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Abigail; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2011-01-01

    Young stars are formed out of the interstellar medium (ISM) which is replenished by mass loss rates from evolved stars. Circumstellar matter around young and evolved stellar objects usually emits energy in the infrared (IR) wavelength range as the matter is heated by the central star. Surveys of the Magellanic Clouds with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the 3.6-160 micron range have previously been completed. These surveys have led to catalogs of infrared sources: which include HII regions, young stars, super giants, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars, and planetary nebulae. The utility of such surveys can be improved upon by using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data. HST provides higher angular resolution than Spitzer and has allowed for more detailed investigation of these luminous IR objects. This project used previously obtained HST archival data to examine luminous IR objects at optical wavelengths. This allows for the reclassification of stellar objects previously thought as one type of object or in a particular stage of their stellar evolution. An overall objective of this project included looking for extended nebulosity around evolved stars to better understand the life cycle of such objects and classify these nebulae by shape.

  19. A hydrodynamical model of the circumstellar bubble created by two massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    van Marle, Allard Jan; Marcowith, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Numerical models of the wind-blown bubble of massive stars usually account only for the wind of a single star. However, since massive stars are usually formed in clusters, it would be more realistic to follow the evolution of a bubble created by several stars. We make a 2D model of the circumstellar bubble created by two massive stars: a 40 solar mass star and a 25 solar mass star and follow its evolution. The stars have a separation of approx. 16 pc and surrounded by a cold medium with a density of 20 particles per cubic cm. We use the MPI-AMRVAC hydrodynamics code to solve the conservation equations of hydrodynamics on a 2D cylindrical grid using time-dependent models for the parameters of the wind of the two stars. At the end of the stellar evolution (4.5 and 7.0 million years for the 40 and 25 solar mass stars respectively) we simulate the supernova explosion of each star. Initially, each star creates its own bubble. However, as the bubbles expand they merge, creating a combined, a-spherical bubble. The c...

  20. Phase transitions in dense 2-colour QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Boz, Tamer; Fister, Leonard; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate 2-colour QCD with 2 flavours of Wilson fermion at nonzero temperature T and quark chemical potential mu, with a pion mass of 700 MeV (m_pi/m_rho=0.8). From temperature scans at fixed mu we find that the critical temperature for the superfluid to normal transition depends only very weakly on mu above the onset chemical potential, while the deconfinement crossover temperature is clearly decreasing with mu. We also present results for the Landau-gauge gluon propagator in the hot and dense medium.

  1. METAMORPHOSIS OF SN 2014C: DELAYED INTERACTION BETWEEN A HYDROGEN POOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA AND A NEARBY CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Patnaude, D. J.; Raymond, J. C.; Challis, P.; Drout, M. R.; Grindlay, J. E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Miller, G. F.; Parrent, J. T.; Sanders, N. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Eldridge, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Fong, W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bietenholz, M. [Hartebeesthoek Radio Observatory, P.O. Box 443, Krugersdorp 1740 (South Africa); Chornock, R. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Fransson, C. [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Fesen, R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Lab, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Mackey, J., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hgel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2015-12-20

    We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star’s stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf–Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. An extended high velocity Hα absorption feature seen in near-maximum light spectra implies that the progenitor star was not completely stripped of hydrogen at the time of core collapse. Archival pre-explosion Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the region obtained in 2009 show a coincident source that is most likely a compact massive star cluster in NGC 7331 that hosted the progenitor system. By comparing the emission properties of the source with stellar population models that incorporate interacting binary stars we estimate the age of the host cluster to be 30–300 Myr, and favor ages closer to 30 Myr in light of relatively strong Hα emission. SN 2014C is the best observed member of a class of core-collapse supernovae that fill the gap between events that interact strongly with dense, nearby environments immediately after explosion and those that never show signs of interaction. Better understanding of the frequency and nature of this intermediate population can contribute valuable information about the poorly understood final stages of stellar evolution.

  2. Why all stars should possess circumstellar temperature inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Jack D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper shows that the circumstellar temperature inversions possessed by all stars are the consequence of the 'velocity filtration' process described by Scudder (1992), according to which a stellar envelope is hotter than its underlying layers. The filtration scenario relies on the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined non-Maxwellian velocity distributions of ions and/or electrons in other sampled astrophysical plasmas and the transition region. The most immediate consequence is that the temperature and quasi-neutral plasma density become anticorrelated with increasing radius in a thin transition region, leaving the temperature profile inverted in excess of 10 exp 6 K up into a corona, without depositing a wave of magnetic field energy into the gas above the base of the transition region.

  3. The photochemistry of carbon-rich circumstellar shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, P. J.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of ambient ultraviolet photons on the chemical structure of carbon-rich, circumstellar envelopes is investigated with a simple formulation of the time-dependent, photochemical rate equations valid for optically thick shells. Molecules injected into the shielded inner envelope are broken down when they reach the outer regions where ambient ultraviolet photons can penetrate. A quantitative description of the abundance variations is obtained for the case of uniform expansion by detailed consideration of the shielding of the radiation by the dust and molecules of the envelope. Representative results are presented to illustrate the role of shielding in defining the extent of molecular envelopes, the formation of C I and C II shells by photodestruction of carbon-bearing molecules, and the development of layered chemical structures from the photobreakup of polyatomic molecules. Photochemistry makes the outer parts of thick, carbon-rich envelopes into complex regions containing radicals, ions, and atoms which are of considerable observational and theoretical interest.

  4. Variable Circumstellar Disks: Prevalence, Timescales, and Physical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Anthony; Wisniewski, John P.; Lomax, Jamie R.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Covey, Kevin R.; Gerhartz, Cody; Richardson, Noel; Thao, Pa

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly rotating B-type stars often experience mass ejection that leads to the formation of a circumstellar gas disk, as diagnosed by distinct emission lines present in their spectra. The mass ejection from these stars, known as classical Be stars, sometimes slows or stops, leading to the mass falling back onto the central star and the disk dissipating. The prevalence and time-scale of such disk-loss and disk-replenishment episodes, as well as the underlying physical processes that cause the underlying mass ejection, remain unknown. We are using multi-epoch broad- and narrow-band photometric observations of 12 young open clusters to characterize the prevalence and time-scale of disk-loss and disk-replenishment episodes. We use our observations to gauge which cluster objects exhibit H-alpha emission, which is a primary indicator of Be stars in our clusters. This program is supported by NSF-AST 1411563, 1412110, and 1412135.

  5. Circumstellar Debris and Pollution at White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar disks of planetary debris are now known or suspected to closely orbit hundreds of white dwarf stars. To date, both data and theory support disks that are entirely contained within the preceding giant stellar radii, and hence must have been produced during the white dwarf phase. This picture is strengthened by the signature of material falling onto the pristine stellar surfaces; disks are always detected together with atmospheric heavy elements. The physical link between this debris and the white dwarf host abundances enables unique insight into the bulk chemistry of extrasolar planetary systems via their remnants. This review summarizes the body of evidence supporting dynamically active planetary systems at a large fraction of all white dwarfs, the remnants of first generation, main-sequence planetary systems, and hence provide insight into initial conditions as well as long-term dynamics and evolution.

  6. Polarization and SEDs from Microlensing of Circumstellar Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ignace, R; Bunker, C

    2008-01-01

    Microlensing surveys have proven to be tremendously fruitful in providing valuable data products for many fields of astrophysics, from eclipse lightcurves for substellar candidates to limb darkening in stellar atmospheres. We report on a program of modeling observables from microlensing of circumstellar envelopes, particularly those of red giant stars that are the most likely to show finite source effects. We will summarize work for how polarization light curves can be used to infer envelope properties and will describe recent modeling of the time dependent spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for microlensing of dusty winds. One of the most exciting developments is the possibility of measuring variable polarization from microlensing in a suitable source using the RINGO polarimeter at La Palma. Also quite interesting is the possibility of probing a dusty wind using IRAC data for a suitable source in the event that Spitzer has a ``warm'' cycle.

  7. Infrared observations of circumstellar ammonia in OH/IR supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaren, R. A.; Betz, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    Ammonia has been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of VY Canis Majoris, VX Sagittarii, and IRC +10420 by means of several absorption lines in the nu-2 vibration-rotation band near 950 kaysers. The line profiles are well resolved (0.2 km/sec resolution) and show the gas being accelerated to terminal expansion velocities near 30 km/sec. The observations reveal a method for determining the position of the central star on VLBI maps of OH maser emission to an accuracy of approximately 0.2 arcsec. A firm lower limit of 2 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm is obtained for the NH3 column density in VY Canis Majoris.

  8. Magnetic field and early evolution of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic field plays a central role in the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks. The magnetic field connects the rapidly rotating central region with the outer envelope and extracts angular momentum from the central region during gravitational collapse of the cloud core. This process is known as magnetic braking. Both analytical and multidimensional simulations have shown that disk formation is strongly suppressed by magnetic braking in moderately magnetized cloud cores in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit. On the other hand, recent observations have provided growing evidence of a relatively large disk several tens of astronomical units in size existing in some Class 0 young stellar objects. This introduces a serious discrepancy between the theoretical study and observations. Various physical mechanisms have been proposed to solve the problem of catastrophic magnetic braking, such as misalignment between the magnetic field and the rotation axis, turbulence, and non-ideal effect. In this paper,...

  9. The Complex Circumstellar and Circumbinary Environment of V356 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Jamie R; Malatesta, Michael A; Babler, Brian; Bednarski, Daniel; Berdis, Jodi R; Bjorkman, Karen S; Bjorkman, Jon E; Carciofi, Alex C; Davidson, James W; Keil, Marcus; Meade, Marilyn R; Nordsieck, Kenneth; Scheffler, Matt; Hoffman, Jennifer L; Wisniewski, John P

    2016-01-01

    We analyze 45 spectropolarimetric observations of the eclipsing, interacting binary star V356 Sgr, obtained over a period of 21 years, to characterize the geometry of the system's circumstellar material. After removing interstellar polarization from these data, we find the system exhibits a large intrinsic polarization signature arising from electron scattering. In addition, the lack of repeatable eclipses in the polarization phase curves indicates the presence of a substantial pool of scatterers not occulted by either star. We suggest that these scatterers form either a circumbinary disk coplanar with the gainer's accretion disk or an elongated structure perpendicular to the orbital plane of V356 Sgr, possibly formed by bipolar outflows. We also observe small-scale, cycle-to-cycle variations in the magnitude of intrinsic polarization at individual phases, which we interpret as evidence of variability in the amount of scattering material present within and around the system. This may indicate a mass transfer ...

  10. The progenitor of SN 2011ja: Clues from circumstellar interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Yadav, Naveen; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until the time of core collapse produce Type IIP (Plateau) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shock the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the ATCA to study the relative importance of particle acceleration and magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the ...

  11. RCEP Modulation on Evolution of Two-color Femtosecond Pulses and Spectrum in a Dense V-type Medium%稠密V型介质中双色飞秒脉冲 及频谱演化的RCEP调制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁变; 贾克宁; 梁颖; 仝殿民; 樊锡君

    2011-01-01

    In one-photon resonance and detuning case*, effect of relative carrier-envelope phase ( RCEP) on evolution of two-color sech-type femtosecond pulses and spectrum in a dense V-type three-level atomic medium is investigated with full Maxwell-Bloch equations. Modulation of RCEP on pulse shape and spectral property of two-color pulses in detuning case is more evident than that in single-photon resonance case. And in detuning case we get spectrum broadening much greater than that in resonance case. Supercontinuum with the highest frequency of 18 times of incident frequency appears.%利用不含慢变振幅近似和旋波近似的全波Maxwell-Bloch方程组的数值解,研究单光子共振和失谐两种条件下,相对载波包络相位(RCEP)对在稠密V型三能级原子介质中传播的双色sech型飞秒超短脉冲及频谱演化的影响.结果表明,RCEP对双色脉冲的传播形式及频谱特性的调制在失谐情况比在单光子共振情况显著,在失谐条件下调节RCEP可获得比单光子共振条件下大得多的频谱展宽,出现了最高频率达到入射脉冲中心频率18倍的超连续谱.

  12. Sound scattering in dense granular media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA XiaoPing; LAURENT J; KHIDAS Y; LANGLOIS V

    2009-01-01

    The sound propagation in a dense granular medium is basically characterized by the ratio of wave-length to the grain size. Two types of wave transport are distinguished: one corresponds to coherent waves in the long wavelength limit, the other to short-wavelength scattered waves by the inhomoge-neous contact force networks. These multiply scattered elastic waves are shown to exhibit a diffusive characteristics of transport over long distances of propagation. Determination of the transport mean free path l* and the inelastic absorption (Q~(-1)) allows the inference of the structural properties of the material such as the heterogeneity and internal dissipation. The relevance of our experiments for seismological applications is discussed. Moreover, we apply the correlation technique of the configu-ration-specific sound scattering to monitoring the dynamic behaviour of the granular medium (irre-versible rearrangements) under strong vibration, shearing and thermal cycling, respectively.

  13. Multi-channel Support for Dense Wireless Sensor Networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmaz, O.; Dulman, S.O.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Havinga, P.J.M.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, N.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Wegdam, M.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, most wireless sensor network applications assume the presence of single-channel Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols. When sensor nodes are densely deployed, single-channel MAC protocols may be inadequate due to the higher demand for the limited bandwidth. To overcome this drawback, we

  14. Conductive dense hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremets, M.; Troyan, I.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen at ambient pressures and low temperatures forms a molecular crystal which is expected to display metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature Tc of 200-400 K. The superconductor may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures, and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. Recent experiments performed at low temperatures T 220 GPa, new Raman modes arose, providing evidence for the transformation to a new opaque and electrically conductive phase IV. Above 260 GPa, in the next phase V, hydrogen reflected light well. Its resistance was nearly temperature-independent over a wide temperature range, down to 30 K, indicating that the hydrogen was metallic. Releasing the pressure induced the metallic phase to transform directly into molecular hydrogen with significant hysteresis at 200 GPa and 295 K. These data were published in our paper: M. I. Eremets and I. A. Troyan "Conductive dense hydrogen." Nature Materials 10: 927-931. We will present also new results on hydrogen: phase diagram with phases IV and V determined in P,T domain up to 300 GPa and 350 K. We will also discuss possible structures of phase IV based on our Raman and infrared measurements up to 300 GPa.

  15. Dense Hypervelocity Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael; van Doren, David; Elton, Raymond; Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker

    2007-11-01

    We are developing high velocity dense plasma jets for fusion and HEDP applications. Traditional coaxial plasma accelerators suffer from the blow-by instability which limits the mass accelerated to high velocity. In the current design blow-by is delayed by a combination of electrode shaping and use of a tailored plasma armature created by injection of a high density plasma at a few eV generated by arrays of capillary discharges or sparkgaps. Experimental data will be presented for a complete 32 injector gun system built for driving rotation in the Maryland MCX experiment, including data on penetration of the plasma jet through a magnetic field. We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma velocity, temperature, and density, as well as total momentum measured using a ballistic pendulum. Measurements are in agreement with each other and with time of flight data from photodiodes and a multichannel PMT. Plasma density is above 10^15 cm-3, velocities range up to about 100 km/s. Preliminary results from a quadrature heterodyne HeNe interferometer are consistent with these results.

  16. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogert, A. C. A. [IPAC, NASA Herschel Science Center, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Knez, C.; Mundy, L. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Öberg, K. I. [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Pendleton, Y. J. [Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F., E-mail: aboogert@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-11-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 μm) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H{sub 2}O ices form at extinctions of A{sub K} = 0.25 ± 0.07 mag (A{sub V} = 2.1 ± 0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H{sub 2}O ice (2.3 ± 0.1 × 10{sup –5} relative to N{sub H}) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of three to four compared to dense envelopes of young stellar objects. The low solid CH{sub 3}OH abundance (<3%-8% relative to H{sub 2}O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 μm) continuum extinction relative to A{sub K} increases as a function of A{sub K}. Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to R{sub V} ∼ 3.5 (A{sub K} = 0.71) and R{sub V} ∼ 5.0 (A{sub K} = 1.47). For lines of sight with A{sub K} > 1.0 mag, the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio is a factor of two lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A{sub 7.4}/A{sub K} continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts.

  17. TW Hya Association Membership and New WISE-detected Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok

    2012-01-01

    We assess the current membership of the nearby, young TW Hydrae Association and examine newly proposed members with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to search for infrared excess indicative of circumstellar disks. Newly proposed members TWA 30A, TWA 30B, TWA 31, and TWA 32 all show excess emission at 12 and 22 \\mum providing clear evidence for substantial dusty circumstellar disks around these low-mass, ~8 Myr old stars that were previously shown to likely be accreting from circumstellar material. TWA 30B shows large amounts of self-extinction, likely due to an edge-on disk geometry. We also confirm previously reported circumstellar disks with WISE, and determine a 22 \\mum excess fraction of 42+/- 9% based on our results.

  18. Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of the Quiescent Medium of Nearby Clouds: I. Ice Formation and Grain Growth in Lupus

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, A C A; Knez, C; Öberg, K I; Mundy, L G; Pendleton, Y J; Tielens, A G G M; van Dishoeck, E F

    2013-01-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 um) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of the grains and the composition of the ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H2O ices form at extinctions of Ak=0.25+/-0.07 mag (Av=2.1+/-0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H2O ice (2.3+/-0.1*10^-5 relative to Nh) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of 3-4 compared to dense envelopes of YSOs. The low solid CH3OH abundance (5 um) continuum extinction relative to Ak increases as a function of Ak. Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to Rv~ 3.5 (Ak=0.71) and Rv~5.0 (Ak=1.47). For lines of sight with Ak>1.0 mag, the tau9.7/Ak ratio is a factor of 2 lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter be...

  19. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IPR 98: Rust-resistant dwarf arabica coffee cultivar for dense spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The IPR 98 coffee cultivar is a dwarf plant smaller than the Catuaí Vermelho IAC-81 cultivar, completelyresistant to Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br. with medium precocity in ripening and superior quality and high yields with semidense,dense and super dense spacing in lower temperature coffee regions of the state of Paraná.

  20. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Vega-like Stars: Abundances and Circumstellar Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, S. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Ryan, Sean G.

    1996-01-01

    Vega-like stars are main-sequence stars exhibiting excess infrared emission. In an effort to improve the information available on this class of star, 13 stars have been analyzed which have been classed as Vega-like, or have an infra-red excess attributable to dust in their circumstellar environment. In a separate paper stellar properties such as effective temperature and log g have been derived and in this poster we highlight the results of the photospheric abundance analysis also carried out during this work. King recently drew attention to the possible link between Vega-like stars and the photospheric metal-depleted class of A-stars, the Lambda Bootis stars. Since Vega-like stars are thought to have disks of dust, it might be expected that accretion of depleted gas onto the surface of these stars may cause this same phenomenon. In the 6 stars studied for depletions, none showed the extreme underabundance patterns observed in Lambda Bootis stars. However, depletions of silicon and magnesium were found in two of the sample, suggesting that these elements are in silicate dust grains in the circumstellar environment of these stars. Absorption lines attributed to circumstellar gas have been positively identified in three stars in our sample. Individual cases show evidence either of high-velocity outflowing gas, variability in the circumstellar lines observed, or evidence of circumstellar gas in excited lines of Fe II. No previous identification of circumstellar material has been made for two of the stars in question.

  1. Photochemistry in the inner layers of clumpy circumstellar envelopes: formation of water in C-rich objects and of C-bearing molecules in O-rich objects

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, Marcelino; Guelin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism based on the penetration of interstellar ultraviolet photons into the inner layers of clumpy circumstellar envelopes around AGB stars is proposed to explain the non-equilibrium chemistry observed in such objects. We show through a simple modelling approach that in circumstellar envelopes with a certain degree of clumpiness or with moderately low mass loss rates (a few 10^(-7) solar masses per year) a photochemistry can take place in the warm and dense inner layers inducing important changes in the chemical composition. In carbon-rich objects water vapor and ammonia would be formed with abundances of 10^(-8) - 10(^-6) relative to H2, while in oxygen-rich envelopes ammonia and carbon-bearing molecules such as HCN and CS would form with abundances of 10^(-9) - 10^(-7) relative to H2. The proposed mechanism would explain the recent observation of warm water vapor in the carbon-rich envelope IRC +10216 with the Herschel Space Observatory, and predict that H2O should be detectable in other carbon-rich o...

  2. Chemical composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae

    CERN Document Server

    Pacheco-Vázquez, S; Agúndez, M; Pinte, C; Alonso-Albi, T; Neri, R; Cernicharo, J; Goicoechea, J R; Berné, O; Wiesenfeld, L; Bachiller, R; Lefloch, B

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Our goal is to determine the molecular composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae (hereafter, AB Aur). AB Aur is a prototypical Herbig Ae star and the understanding of its disk chemistry is of paramount importance to understand the chemical evolution of the gas in warm disks. Methods. We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to perform a sensitive search for molecular lines in AB Aur as part of the IRAM Large program ASAI (A Chemical Survey of Sun-like Star-forming Regions). These data were complemented with interferometric observations of the HCO+ 1-0 and C17O 1-0 lines using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). Single-dish and interferometric data were used to constrain chemical models. Results. Throughout the survey, several lines of CO and its isotopologues, HCO+, H2CO, HCN, CN and CS, were detected. In addition, we detected the SO 54-33 and 56-45 lines, confirming the previous tentative detection. Comparing to other T Tauri's and Herbig Ae disks, AB Aur presents low HCN 3-2/HCO+ 3-2 ...

  3. Observation of Circumstellar Gas in the Neighborhood of RZ Psc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potravnov, I. S.; Grinin, V. P.; Ilyin, I. V.

    2013-12-01

    The first evidence is found of the existence of circumstellar gas in the nearest surroundings of the UX Ori star RZ Psc. Spectra obtained at the Terskol Observatory, Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) reveal a strong variability in the sodium doublet lines that is indicative of a sporadic outflow of matter. Weak variability was also observed in the core of the Hα line. One nontrivial feature of this discovery is that RZ Psc is of spectral class K0 IV. This means that the star has no intrinsic energy resources for creating the observed outflow of matter. There are no emission lines in the star's spectrum which might indicate that matter is falling into the star so that the observed outflow could be related to an accretion process. We suggest, nevertheless, that the ejection of gas is related to residual (slow) accretion and is driven by a propeller mechanism. The latter is possible if the star has a sufficiently high (on the order of 103 G) magnetic field.

  4. Cepheids at high angular resolution: circumstellar envelope and pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, interferometric observations with VLTI/VINCI and CHARA/FLUOR revealed the existence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) around some Cepheids. This surrounding material is particularly interesting for two reasons: it could have an impact on the distance estimates and could be linked to a past or on-going mass loss. The use of Baade-Wesselink methods for independent distance determinations could be significantly biased by the presence of these envelopes. Although their observations are difficult because of the high contrast between the photosphere of the star and the CSE, several observation techniques have the potential to improve our knowledge about their physical properties. In this thesis, I discuss in particular high angular resolution techniques that I applied to the study of several bright Galactic Cepheids. First, I used adaptive optic observations with NACO of the Cepheid RS Puppis, in order to deduce the flux ratio between the CSE and the photosphere of the star. In addition, I could carry out ...

  5. Evolution of Gas and Dust in Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Körner, D W

    1999-01-01

    A clear understanding of the chemical processing of matter, as it is transferred from a molecular cloud to a planetary system, depends heavily on knowledge of the physical conditions endured by gas and dust as these accrete onto a disk and are incorporated into planetary bodies. Reviewed here are astrophysical observations of circumstellar disks which trace their evolving properties. Accretion disks that are massive enough to produce a solar system like our own are typically larger than 100 AU. This suggests that the chemistry of a large fraction of the infalling material is not radically altered upon contact with a vigorous accretion shock. The mechanisms of accretion onto the star and eventual dispersal are not yet well understood, but timescales for the removal of gas and optically thick dust appear to be a few times 10$^6$ yrs. At later times, tenuous ``debris disks'' of dust remain around stars as old as a few times 10$^8$ yrs. Features in the morphology of the latter, such as inner holes, warps, and azi...

  6. ALMA Observations of HD141569's Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    White, J A; Hughes, A M; Flaherty, K M; Ford, E; Wilner, D; Corder, S; Payne, M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA band 7 (345 GHz) continuum and $^{12}$CO(J = 3-2) observations of the circumstellar disk surrounding HD141569. At an age of about 5 Myr, the disk has a complex morphology that may be best interpreted as a nascent debris system with gas. Our $870\\rm~\\mu m$ ALMA continuum observations resolve a dust disk out to approximately $ 56 ~\\rm au$ from the star (assuming a distance of 116 pc) with $0."38$ resolution and $0.07 ~ \\rm mJy~beam^{-1}$ sensitivity. We measure a continuum flux density for this inner material of $3.8 \\pm 0.4 ~ \\rm mJy$ (including calibration uncertainties). The $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas is resolved kinematically and spatially from about 30 to 210 au. The integrated $^{12}$CO(3-2) line flux density is $15.7 \\pm 1.6~\\rm Jy~km~s^{-1}$. We estimate the mass of the millimeter debris and $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas to be $\\gtrsim0.04~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$ and $\\sim2\\times 10^{-3}~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$, respectively. If the millimeter grains are part of a collisional cascade, then we infer that the inner disk ($&...

  7. The Structure of the DoAr 25 Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Sean M; Wilner, D J; Qi, Chunhua

    2008-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution (< 0.3" = 40$ AU) Submillimeter Array observations of the 865 micron continuum emission from the circumstellar disk around the young star DoAr 25. Despite its bright millimeter emission, this source exhibits only a comparatively small infrared excess and low accretion rate, suggesting that the material and structural properties of the inner disk may be in an advanced state of evolution. A simple model of the physical conditions in the disk is derived from the submillimeter visibilities and the complete spectral energy distribution using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. For the standard assumption of a homogeneous grain size distribution at all disk radii, the results indicate a shallow surface density profile, $\\Sigma \\propto r^{-p}$ with p = 0.34, significantly less steep than a steady-state accretion disk (p = 1) or the often adopted minimum mass solar nebula (p = 1.5). Even though the total mass of material is large (M_d = 0.10 M_sun), the densities inferred in t...

  8. Circumstellar Dust Created by Terrestrial Planet Formation in HD 113766

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, C M; Wyatt, M C; Morlok, A

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gas-poor circumstellar material in the HD 113766 binary system (F3/F5, 10 - 16 Myr), recently observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. For our study we have used the infrared mineralogical model derived from observations of the Deep Impact experiment. We find the dust dominated by warm, fine (~1 um) particles, abundant in Mg-rich olivine, crystalline pyroxenes, amorphous silicates, Fe-rich sulfides, amorphous carbon, and colder water-ice. The warm dust material mix is akin to an inner main belt asteroid of S-type composition. The ~440 K effective temperature of the warm dust implies that the bulk of the observed material is in a narrow belt ~1.8 AU from the 4.4 L_solar central source, in the terrestrial planet-forming region and habitable zone of the system (equivalent to 0.9 AU in the solar system). The icy dust lies in 2 belts, located at 4-9 AU and at 30 - 80 AU. The lower bound of warm dust mass in 0.1 - 20 um, dn/da ~ a^-3.5 particles is very large, at least 3 x 10^20 kg, eq...

  9. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  10. The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in evolved circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the circumstellar outflows of evolved stars is reviewed, with an emphasis on carbon stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. Evidence for PAHs present in their winds is provided by meteoritic studies and recent observations of the Unidentified Infrared bands. We detail the chemical processes leading to the closure of the first aromatic ring as well as the growth mechanisms leading to amorphous carbon grains. Existing studies on PAH formation in evolved stellar envelopes are reviewed and new results for the modelling of the inner wind of the archetype carbon star IRC+10216 are presented. Benzene, C6H6, forms close to the star, as well as water, H2O, as a result of non-equilibrium chemistry induced by the periodic passage of shocks. The growth process of aromatic rings may thus resemble that active in sooting flames due to the presence of radicals like hydroxyl, OH. Finally, we discuss possible formation processes for PAHs and aromatic compounds in the hydrogen-...

  11. Dust Migration and Morphology in Optically Thin Circumstellar Gas Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, T; Takeuchi, Taku; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of gas-dust coupling in the presence of stellar radiation pressure in circumstellar gas disks, which are in a transitional stage between the gas-dominated, optically thick, primordial nebulae, and the dust-dominated, optically thin Vega-type disks. Dust undergo radial migration, seeking a stable equilibrium orbit in corotation with gas. The migration of dust gives rise to radial fractionation of dust and creates a variety of possible observed disk morphologies, which we compute by considering the equilibrium between the dust production and the dust-dust collisions removing particles from their equilibrium orbits. Sand-sized and larger grains are distributed throughout most of the gas disk, with concentration near the gas pressure maximum in the inner disk. Smaller grains (typically in the range of 10 to 200 micron) concentrate in a prominent ring structure in the outer region of the gas disk (presumably at radius 100 AU), where gas density is rapidly declining with radius. The width an...

  12. Rapid disappearance of a warm, dusty circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, Carl; Rhee, Joseph H; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Stars form with gaseous and dusty circumstellar envelopes, which rapidly settle into disks that eventually give rise to planetary systems. Understanding the process by which these disks evolve is paramount in developing an accurate theory of planet formation that can account for the variety of planetary systems discovered so far. The formation of Earth-like planets through collisional accumulation of rocky objects within a disk has mainly been explored in theoretical and computational work in which post-collision ejecta evolution is typically ignored, although recent work has considered the fate of such material. Here we report observations of a young, Sun-like star (TYC 8241 2652 1) where infrared flux from post-collisional ejecta has decreased drastically, by a factor of about 30, over a period of less than two years. The star seems to have gone from hosting substantial quantities of dusty ejecta, in a region analogous to where the rocky planets orbit in the Solar System, to retaining at most a meagre amoun...

  13. Rapid disappearance of a warm, dusty circumstellar disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J.; Bessell, Michael S.

    2012-07-01

    Stars form with gaseous and dusty circumstellar envelopes, which rapidly settle into disks that eventually give rise to planetary systems. Understanding the process by which these disks evolve is paramount in developing an accurate theory of planet formation that can account for the variety of planetary systems discovered so far. The formation of Earth-like planets through collisional accumulation of rocky objects within a disk has mainly been explored in theoretical and computational work in which post-collision ejecta evolution typically is ignored, although recent work has considered the fate of such material. Here we report observations of a young, Sun-like star (TYC 8241 2652 1) where infrared flux from post-collisional ejecta has decreased drastically, by a factor of about 30, over a period of less than two years. The star seems to have gone from hosting substantial quantities of dusty ejecta, in a region analogous to where the rocky planets orbit in the Solar System, to retaining at most a meagre amount of cooler dust. Such a phase of rapid ejecta evolution has not been previously predicted or observed, and no currently available physical model satisfactorily explains the observations.

  14. The circumstellar environment of pre-SN Ia systems

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, E; Boumis, P; Kopsacheili, M; Akras, S; Sabin, L; Jurkic, T

    2016-01-01

    Here we explore the possible preexisting circumstellar debris of supernova type Ia systems. Classical, symbiotic and recurrent novae all accrete onto roughly solar mass white dwarfs from main sequence or Mira type companions and result in thermonuclear runaways and expulsion of the accreted material at high velocity. The expelled material forms a fast moving shell that eventually slows to planetary nebula expansion velocities within several hundred years. All such systems are recurrent and thousands of shells (each of about 0.001 Mo) snow plough into the environment. As these systems involve common envelope binaries the material is distributed in a non-spherical shell. These systems could be progenitors of some SN Ia and thus explode into environments with large amounts of accumulated gas and dust distributed in thin non-spherical shells. Such shells should be observable around 100 years after a SN Ia event in a radio flash as the SN Ia debris meets that of the ejected material of the systems previous incarna...

  15. A dynamical study of the circumstellar gas in UX Orionis

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Eiroa, C; Grady, C A; De Winter, D; Davies, J K; Ferlet, R; Harris, A W; Montesinos, B; Oudmaijer, R D; Palacios, J; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Rauer, H; Alberdi, A; Cameron, A; Deeg, H J; Garzón, F; Horne, K; Merin, B; Penny, A; Schneider, J; Solano, E; Tsapras, Y; Wesselius, P R

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a high spectral resolution study of the circumstellar (CS) gas around the intermediate mass, pre-main sequence star UX Ori. The results are based on a set of 10 echelle spectra, monitoring the star on time scales of months, days and hours. A large number of transient blueshifted and redshifted absorption features are detected in the Balmer and in many metallic lines. A multigaussian fit is applied to determine for each transient absorption the velocity, v, dispersion velocity, Delta v, and the parameter R, which provides a measure of the absorption strength of the CS gas. The time evolution of those parameters is presented and discussed. A comparison of intensity ratios among the transient absorptions suggests a solar-like composition of the CS gas. This confirms previous results and excludes a very metal-rich environment as the cause of the transient features in UX Ori. The features can be grouped by their similar velocities into 24 groups, of which 17 are redshifted and 7 blueshift...

  16. Evolution of Cold Circumstellar Dust Around Solar-Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M; Schreyer, K; Launhardt, R; Henning, T; Carpenter, John M.; Wolf, Sebastian; Schreyer, Katharina; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Th.

    2004-01-01

    We present submillimeter (CSO 350um) and millimeter (SEST 1.2 mm, OVRO 3 mm) photometry for 125 solar-type stars from the FEPS Spitzer Legacy program that have masses between ~0.5 and 2.0 Msun and ages from 3 Myr to 3 Gyr. Continuum emission was detected toward four stars with a signal to noise ratio >= 3$: the classical T Tauri stars RX J1842.9-3532, RX J1852.3-3700, and PDS 66 with SEST, and the debris disk system HD 107146 with OVRO. RXJ1842.9-3532 and RXJ1852.3-3700 are located in projection nearby the R CrA molecular cloud with estimated ages of ~10 Myr, while PDS66 is a probable member of the 20 Myr old Lower Centaurus-Crux subgroup of the Sco-Cen OB association. The continuum emission toward these three sources is unresolved at the 24'' SEST resolution and likely originates from circumstellar accretion disks, each with estimated dust masses of ~5x10**-5 Msun. Analysis of the visibility data toward HD107146 (age 80-200 Myr) indicates that the 3 mm continuum emission is centered on the star within the as...

  17. Supplementary Information for ``Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs''

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas; Youdin, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This document contains refereed supplementary information for the paper ``Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs''. It contains 15 sections (\\S1.1 -- \\S1.15) that address a number of subjects related to the main paper. We describe in detail the Poisson solver used to find the self-potential of the solid particles, including a linear and a non-linear test problem (\\S1.3). Dissipative collisions remove energy from the motion of the particles by collisional cooling (\\S1.4), an effect that allows gravitational collapse to occur in somewhat less massive discs (\\S1.7). A resolution study of the gravitational collapse of the boulders is presented in \\S1.6. We find that gravitational collapse can occur in progressively less massive discs as the grid resolution is increased, likely due to the decreased smoothing of the particle-mesh self-gravity solver with increasing resolution. In \\S1.10 we show that it is in good agreement with the Goldreich & Ward (1973) stability analysis to form severa...

  18. Optical Signatures of Circumstellar Interaction in Type IIP Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Chugai, N N; Utrobin, V P; Chugai, Nikolai N.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Utrobin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    We propose new diagnostics for circumstellar interaction in Type IIP supernovae by the detection of high velocity (HV) absorption features in Halpha and He I 10830 A lines during the photospheric stage. To demonstrate the method, we compute the ionization and excitation of H and He in supernova ejecta taking into account time-dependent effects and X-ray irradiation. We find that the interaction with a typical red supergiant wind should result in the enhanced excitation of the outer layers of unshocked ejecta and the emergence of corresponding HV absorption, i.e. a depression in the blue absorption wing of Halpha and a pronounced absorption of He I 10830 A at a radial velocity of about -10,000 km/s. We identify HV absorption in Halpha and He I 10830 A lines of SN 1999em and in Halpha of SN 2004dj as being due to this effect. The derived mass loss rate is close to 10^{-6} Msun/yr for both supernovae, assuming a wind velocity 10 km/s. We argue that, in addition to the HV absorption formed in the unshocked ejecta...

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of electrons in dense gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Wade; Boyle, Greg; Cocks, Daniel; Buckman, Stephen; White, Ron

    2014-10-01

    We implement a Monte-Carlo simulation modelling the transport of electrons and positrons in dense gases and liquids, by using a dynamic structure factor that allows us to construct structure-modified effective cross sections. These account for the coherent effects caused by interactions with the relatively dense medium. The dynamic structure factor also allows us to model thermal gases in the same manner, without needing to directly sample the velocities of the neutral particles. We present the results of a series of Monte Carlo simulations that verify and apply this new technique, and make comparisons with macroscopic predictions and Boltzmann equation solutions. Financial support of the Australian Research Council.

  20. Densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes .1. Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Derks, R.; van der Vegt, H.A.; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    Novel densely crosslinked polycarbosiloxanes were obtained by using functional branched prepolymers. Two types of soluble prepolymers were prepared from di- and trifunctional alkoxysilane monomers via cohydrolysis/condensation and for both final crosslinking occurred via hydrosilylation. The prepoly

  1. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and 12CO J = 3-2 line fluxes of disks around low-mass (0.14-1.66 M ⊙) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, five are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area (≲40 au), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least ˜1000 relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of {M}{dust}\\propto {M}* 1.67+/- 0.37. Disk dust masses in Upper Sco are compared to those measured in the younger Taurus star-forming region to constrain the evolution of disk dust mass. We find that the difference in the mean of {log}({M}{dust}/{M}* ) between Taurus and Upper Sco is 0.64 ± 0.09, such that M dust/M * is lower in Upper Sco by a factor of ˜4.5.

  2. Flash Spectroscopy: Emission Lines from the Ionized Circumstellar Material around $<10$-Day-Old Type II Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Khazov, D; Gal-Yam, A; Manulis, I; Rubin, A; Kulkarni, S R; Arcavi, I; Kasliwal, M M; Ofek, E O; Cao, Y; Perley, D; Sollerman, J; Horesh, A; Sullivan, M; Filippenko, A V; Nugent, P E; Howell, D A; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Ebeling, H; Taddia, F; Johansson, J; Laher, R R; Surace, J; Rebbapragada, U D; Wozniak, P R; Matheson, T

    2015-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra ($\\leq 10$ days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra ("flash spectroscopy"), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 Type II SNe showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14\\% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18\\% of SNe~II observed at ages $<5$ days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as "blue/featureless" (BF) those events having a first spectrum which is similar to that of a black body, without any emission or absorption signa...

  3. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: PROPERTIES OF INTERMEDIATE-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS IN OMC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George E.; Henderson, Charles P.; Schoenwald, Justin; Stacey, Gordon [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Space Sciences Bldg., Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Osorio, Mayra; Macias, Enrique [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Thomas Megeath, S.; Fischer, William J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Mailstop 111, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Ali, Babar [NHSC/IPAC/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 825 Dennison Building, 500 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D' Alessio, Paola [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph Y. [SOFIA-University Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Keller, Luke D. [Ithaca College, Physics Department, 264 Ctr for Natural Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Remming, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Stanke, Thomas [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Stutz, Amelia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-04-20

    We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star-forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions (SED) of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modeled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 Multiplication-Sign 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L{sub Sun} to 20 L{sub Sun }. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of {approx}50 L{sub Sun} and mass infall rate of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  4. First Science Observations with SOFIA/FORCAST: Properties of Intermediate-Luminosity Protostars and Circumstellar Disks in OMC-2

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Joseph D; Osorio, Mayra; Macias, Enrique; Megeath, S Thomas; Fischer, William J; Ali, Babar; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola; De Buizer, James M; Gull, George E; Henderson, Charles P; Keller, Luke D; Morris, Mark R; Remming, Ian S; Schoenwald, Justin; Shuping, Ralph Y; Stacey, Gordon; Stanke, Thomas; Stutz, Amelia; Vacca, William

    2012-01-01

    We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, 2MASS, APEX, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modelled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 x 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L_sun to 20 L_sun. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of ~50 L_sun and mass infall rate of ~10^-4 sol...

  5. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar disks: I. Optically thin decretion disks of classical Oe/Be stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kee, N D; Sundqvist, J O

    2016-01-01

    The extreme luminosities of hot, massive stars drive strong stellar winds through UV line-scattering. For OB stars with an orbiting circumstellar disk, we explore the effect of such line-scattering in ablating disk material, initially focusing on the marginally optically thin decretion disks of classical Oe and Be stars. For this we apply a multi-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code, assuming optically thin ray tracing for the stellar continuum and a multi-ray Sobolev treatment of the line transfer. This accounts for desaturation of line-absorption by Keplerian shear in the disk, and associated driving by non-radial photons. Results show dense, intermediate-speed surface ablation, consistent with the strong, blue-shifted absorption seen in UV wind lines of Be shell stars. The asymptotic ablation rate is typically an order-unity factor times the stellar wind mass loss rate, leading to disk destruction times of order months to years for Be disks, consistent with observations. The much stronger radiative for...

  6. FLASH SPECTROSCOPY: EMISSION LINES FROM THE IONIZED CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND <10-DAY-OLD TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazov, D.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Manulis, I.; Rubin, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Horesh, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute for Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Perley, D. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Sollerman, J. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Sullivan, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Filippenko, A. V.; Nugent, P. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ebeling, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2016-02-10

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra (≤10 days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra (“flash spectroscopy”), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 SNe II showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18% of SNe II observed at ages <5 days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as “blue/featureless” (BF) those events having a first spectrum that is similar to that of a blackbody, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude M{sub R} = −18.2 belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above M{sub R} = −17.6 mag, significantly brighter than average SNe II.

  7. Direct thermal imaging of circumstellar discs and exo-planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin, Eric; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Cavarroc, Celine; Sterzik, Michael F.

    2008-07-01

    The phase A study of a mid infrared imager and spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), called METIS, was endorsed in May 2008. Two key science drivers of METIS are: a) direct thermal imaging of exo-planets and b) characterization of circumstellar discs from the early proto-planetary to the late debris phase. Observations in the 10μm atmospheric window (N band) require a contrast ratio between stellar light and emitted photons from the exo-planet or the disc of ~ 105. At shorter wavelengths the contrast between star and reflected light from the planet-disc system exceeds >~ 107 posing technical challenges. By means of end-to-end detailed simulations we demonstrate that the superb spatial resolution of a 42m telescope in combination with stellar light rejection methods such as coronagraphic or differential imaging will allow detections at 10μm for a solar type system down to a star-planet separation of 0.1" and a mass limit for irradiated planets of 1 Jupiter (MJ) mass. In case of self-luminous planets observations are possible further out e.g. at the separation limit of JWST of ~ 0.7", METIS will detect planets >~5MJ. This allows to derive a census of all such exo-planets by means of thermal imaging in a volume limited sample of up to 6pc. In addition, METIS will provide the possibility to study the chemical composition of atmospheres of exo-planets using spectroscopy at moderate spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ~ 100) for the brightest targets. Based on detailed performance and sensitivity estimates, we demonstrate that a mid-infrared instrument on an ELT is perfectly suited to observe gravitationally created structures such as gaps in proto- and post- planetary discs, in a complementary way to space missions (e.g. JWST, SOFIA) and ALMA which can only probe the cold dust emission further out.

  8. SMA Continuum Survey of Circumstellar Disks in Serpens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Charles; Ricci, Luca; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Qi, Chunhua

    2017-06-01

    The lifetime of disks surrounding pre-main-sequence stars is closely linked to planet formation and provides information on disk dispersal mechanisms and dissipation timescales. The potential for these optically thick, gas-rich disks to form planets is critically dependent on how much dust is available to be converted into terrestrial planets and rocky cores of giant planets. For this reason, an understanding of how dust mass varies with key properties such as stellar mass, age, and environment is critical for understanding planet formation. Millimeter wavelength observations, in which the dust emission is optically thin, are required to study the colder dust residing in the disk’s outer regions and to measure disk dust masses. Hence, we have obtained SMA 1.3 mm continuum observations of 62 Class II sources with suspected circumstellar disks in the Serpens star-forming region (SFR). Relative to the well-studied Taurus SFR, Serpens allows us to probe the distribution of dust masses for disks in a much denser and more clustered environment. Only 13 disks were detected in the continuum with the SMA. We calculate the total dust masses of these disks and compare their masses to those of disks in Taurus, Lupus, and Upper Scorpius. We do not find evidence of diminished dust masses in Serpens disks relative to those in Taurus despite the fact that disks in denser clusters may be expected to contain less dust mass due to stronger and more frequent tidal interactions that can disrupt the outer regions of disks. However, considering the low detection fraction, we likely detected only bright continuum sources and a more sensitive survey of Serpens would help clarify these results.

  9. Spread of the dust temperature distribution in circumstellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heese, S.; Wolf, S.; Dutrey, A.; Guilloteau, S.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Accurate temperature calculations for circumstellar disks are particularly important for their chemical evolution. Their temperature distribution is determined by the optical properties of the dust grains, which, among other parameters, depend on their radius. However, in most disk studies, only average optical properties and thus an average temperature is assumed to account for an ensemble of grains with different radii. Aims: We investigate the impact of subdividing the grain radius distribution into multiple sub-intervals on the resulting dust temperature distribution and spectral energy distribution (SED). Methods: The temperature distribution, the relative grain surface below a certain temperature, the freeze-out radius, and the SED were computed for two different scenarios: (1) Radius distribution represented by 16 logarithmically distributed radius intervals, and (2) radius distribution represented by a single grain species with averaged optical properties (reference). Results: Within the considered parameter range, i.e., of grain radii between 5 nm and 1 mm and an optically thin and thick disk with a parameterized density distribution, we obtain the following results: in optically thin disk regions, the temperature spread can be as large as 63% and the relative grain surface below a certain temperature is lower than in the reference disk. With increasing optical depth, the difference in the midplane temperature and the relative grain surface below a certain temperature decreases. Furthermore, below 20 K, this fraction is higher for the reference disk than for the case of multiple grain radii, while it shows the opposite behavior for temperatures above this threshold. The thermal emission in the case of multiple grain radii at short wavelengths is stronger than for the reference disk. The freeze-out radius (snowline) is a function of grain radius, spanning a radial range between the coldest and warmest grain species of 30 AU.

  10. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  11. Tidal Truncation of Inclined Circumstellar and Circumbinary Discs in Young Stellar Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that circumstellar and circumbinary discs in young stellar binaries are often misaligned with respect to the binary orbital plane. We analyze the tidal truncation of such misaligned discs due to torques applied to the disc at the Lindblad resonances from the tidal forcings of the binary. We consider eccentric binaries with arbitrary binary-disc inclination angles. We determine the dependence of the tidal forcing strengths on the binary parameters and show that they are complicated non-monotonic functions of eccentricity and inclination. We adopt a truncation criterion determined by the balance between resonant torque and viscous torque, and use it to calculate the outer radii of circumstellar discs and the inner radii of circumbinary discs. Misaligned circumstellar discs have systematically larger outer radii than aligned discs, and are likely to fill their Roche lobes if inclined by more than $45^\\circ - 90^\\circ$, depending on the binary mass ratio and disc viscosity parameter...

  12. The detection of heavy metals in the circumstellar envelopes of post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Klochkova, V G

    2015-01-01

    A new type of peculiarity -- a splitting or asymmetry of strong absorption lines, is found in the optical spectra of selected post-AGB stars with C-rich circumstellar envelopes. The effect is maximal in BaII lines whose profile is split into two-three components. The particular components of the split absorption lines are shown to be formed in a structured circumstellar envelope, suggesting an efficient dredge-up of the heavy metals produced during the preceding evolution of this star into the envelope. We suspect that the splitting (or asymmetry) of the profiles of strongest absorptions with low excitation potential of the low level can be associated with the kinematic and chemical properties of the circumstellar environment and with type of its morphology.

  13. Recent progress on dense nuclear matter in skyrmion approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, YongLiang; Rho, Mannque

    2017-03-01

    The Skyrme model provides a novel unified approach to nuclear physics. In this approach, single baryon, baryonic matter and medium-modified hadron properties are treated on the same footing. Intrinsic density dependence (IDD) reflecting the change of vacuum by compressed baryonic matter figures naturally in the approach. In this article, we review the recent progress on accessing dense nuclear matter by putting baryons treated as solitons, namely, skyrmions, on crystal lattice with accents on the implications in compact stars.

  14. Chemical composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, S.; Fuente, A.; Agúndez, M.; Pinte, C.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Neri, R.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Berné, O.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Bachiller, R.; Lefloch, B.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Our goal is to determine the molecular composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae (hereafter, AB Aur). AB Aur is a prototypical Herbig Ae star and the understanding of its disk chemistry is paramount for understanding the chemical evolution of the gas in warm disks. Methods: We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to perform a sensitive search for molecular lines in AB Aur as part of the IRAM Large program ASAI (a chemical survey of Sun-like star-forming regions). These data were complemented with interferometric observations of the HCO+ 1→0 and C17O 1→0 lines using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). Single-dish and interferometric data were used to constrain chemical models. Results: Throughout the survey, several lines of CO and its isotopologues, HCO+, H2CO, HCN, CN, and CS, were detected. In addition, we detected the SO 54→33 and 56→45 lines, confirming the previously tentative detection. Compared to other T Tauri and Herbig Ae disks, AB Aur presents low HCN 3→2/HCO+ 3→2 and CN 2→1/HCN 3→2 line intensity ratios, similar to other transition disks. AB Aur is the only protoplanetary disk detected in SO thus far, and its detection is consistent with interpretation of this disk being younger than those associated with T Tauri stars. Conclusions: We modeled the line profiles using a chemical model and a radiative transfer 3D code. Our model assumes a flared disk in hydrostatic equilibrium. The best agreement with observations was obtained for a disk with a mass of 0.01 M⊙, Rin = 110 AU, Rout = 550 AU, a surface density radial index of 1.5, and an inclination of 27°. The intensities and line profiles were reproduced within a factor of ˜2 for most lines. This agreement is reasonable considering the simplicity of our model that neglects any structure within the disk. However, the HCN 3→2 and CN 2→1 line intensities were predicted to be more intense by a factor of >10. We discuss several scenarios to explain this

  15. Illuminating the Role of Spiral Waves in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee W.

    2017-01-01

    The transport of angular momentum and mass, and the generation of turbulence, play a crucial role in the evolution of a variety of astrophysical disks. Spiral waves, driven for instance by companion bodies or instabilities, have long been recognized as an important means for the aforementioned two processes. In this dissertation talk, I will discuss an instability of spiral waves that I have recently come across. I will begin by presenting the results from a three-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulation which described the growth and saturation of the instability. The spiral wave instability (SWI) arises as inertial modes, natural oscillations in rotating systems, amplify when they resonantly couple to and extract energy from the background spiral waves. This leads to break down of the spiral waves into turbulence when the velocity perturbations caused by unstable inertial modes reach a similar magnitude to those induced by the spiral waves. As an implication of the instability, I will present numerical results and discuss the consequence of the SWI when it acts on the spiral waves driven by a Jupiter-mass planet in a protoplanetary disk. I find that the planet-driven spiral arms are destabilized via the SWI, generating hydrodynamic turbulence and sustained vertical flows that are associated with long wavelength inertial modes. The associated vertical diffusion rate measured from the simulations is such that solid particles with sizes up to a few centimeters are vertically mixed within the first scale height in a protosolar nebula-like disk. Since circumstellar disks are believed to remain laminar, and thus to induce no or very little particle stirring as suggested by recent magnetocentrifugal wind models, the results imply that the SWI can be the mechanism controlling the degree of vertical settling of solid particles in planet-hosting disks. In particular, if accretion of mm- to cm-sized pebbles dominates the growth of terrestrial bodies, the stirring of solid

  16. GAS PHASE SYNTHESIS OF (ISO)QUINOLINE AND ITS ROLE IN THE FORMATION OF NUCLEOBASES IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Ahmed, Musahid [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mebel, Alexander M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-20

    Nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) have been proposed to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, yet the formation mechanisms of even their simplest prototypes—quinoline and isoquinoline—remain elusive. Here, we reveal a novel concept that under high temperature conditions representing circumstellar envelopes of carbon stars, (iso)quinoline can be synthesized via the reaction of pyridyl radicals with two acetylene molecules. The facile gas phase formation of (iso)quinoline in circumstellar envelopes defines a hitherto elusive reaction class synthesizing aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms that are essential building blocks in contemporary biological-structural motifs. Once ejected from circumstellar shells and incorporated into icy interstellar grains in cold molecular clouds, these NPAHs can be functionalized by photo processing forming nucleobase-type structures as sampled in the Murchison meteorite.

  17. Radio Supernovae: Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I.) of Supernova Progenitor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    ar X iv :0 90 2. 40 59 v1 [ as tr o- ph .H E ] 2 4 Fe b 20 09 Radio Supernovae : Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I.) of Supernova Progenitor...FEB 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radio Supernovae : Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I...of Supernova Progenitor Stars 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  18. Interferometric observations of non-maser SiO emission from circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars - Acceleration regions and SiO depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Bieging, John H.

    1993-01-01

    High- and medium-resolution images of SiO J = 2-1(V = 0) from the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of three oxygen-rich stars, Chi Cyg, RX Boo, and IK Tau, were obtained. The SIO images were found to be roughly circular, implying that the CSEs are spherically symmetric on angular-size scales of about 3-9 arcsec. The observed angular half-maximum intensity source radius is nearly independent of the LSR velocity for all three CSEs. Chi Cyg and RX Boo are argued to be less than 450 pc distant, and have mass-loss rates larger than about 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr. In Chi Cyg and RX Boo, the line profiles at the peak of the brightness distribution are rounded, typical of optically-thick emission from a spherical envelope expanding with a constant velocity. In the IK Tau line profiles, an additional narrower central component is present, probably a result of emission from an inner circumstellar shell with a significantly smaller expansion velocity than the extended envelope.

  19. Constructing dense genetic linkage maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Jong, de A.G.; Ooijen, van J.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a novel combination of techniques for the construction of dense genetic linkage maps. The construction of such maps is hampered by the occurrence of even small proportions of typing errors. Simulated annealing is used to obtain the best map according to the optimality criterion:

  20. Method for dense packing discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Elser, Veit; Gravel, Simon

    2010-11-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit-cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to previously reported improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest-known lattice sphere packings and the best-known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions, respectively, providing numerical evidence for their optimality. For nonspherical particles, we report a dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density ϕ=128/219≈0.5845 and with a similar structure to the densest-known tetrahedron packing.

  1. Unconditional Continuous Variable Dense Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which unconditional dense coding can be achieved using continuous variable entanglement. We consider the effect of entanglement impurity and detector efficiency and discuss experimental verification. We conclude that the requirements for a strong demonstration are not as stringent as previously thought and are within the reach of present technology.

  2. Circumstellar Disks of the Most Vigorously Accreting Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Dong, Ruobing; Vorobyov, Eduard I; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Fukagawa, Misato; Tamura, Motohide; Henning, Thomas; Dunham, Michael M; Karr, Jennifer; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuribe, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Young stellar objects (YSOs) may not accumulate their mass steadily, as was previously thought, but in a series of violent events manifesting themselves as sharp stellar brightening. These events can be caused by fragmentation due to gravitational instabilities in massive gaseous disks surrounding young stars, followed by migration of dense gaseous clumps onto the star. We report our high angular resolution, coronagraphic near-infrared polarization imaging observations using the High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) of the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope, towards four YSOs which are undergoing luminous accretion outbursts. The obtained infrared images have verified the presence of several hundred AUs scale arms and arcs surrounding these YSOs. In addition, our hydrodynamics simulations and radiative transfer models further demonstrate that these observed structures can indeed be explained by strong gravitational instabilities occurring at the beginning of the disk formation p...

  3. Probing the Density Structure of 48 Librae's Circumstellar Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaj, J.; Jones, C. E.; Carciofi, A. C.; Escolano, C.; Tycner, C.

    2016-11-01

    48 Librae is a well-known Be shell star that exhibits spectacular cyclic V/R asymmetries in its Balmer emission lines. In this work, we use the HDUST code to investigate the disk density structure required to produce this signature. By modelling one representative Hα profile, we obtain the two initial densities required to match each peak, and from this we infer the average initial disk density. Furthermore, we investigate the parameters of the central star by modelling the SED, and we constrain the inclination angle of the system with polarization measurements. We find 48 Lib is best represented by a B3V central star surrounded by a very dense disk with an average initial density of 1.1×10-10 g cm-3, and that the system is oriented at 85°.

  4. Circumstellar disks of the most vigorously accreting young stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Takami, Michihiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Dong, Ruobing; Vorobyov, Eduard I; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Fukagawa, Misato; Tamura, Motohide; Henning, Thomas; Dunham, Michael M; Karr, Jennifer L; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuribe, Toru

    2016-02-01

    Stars may not accumulate their mass steadily, as was previously thought, but in a series of violent events manifesting themselves as sharp stellar brightening. These events can be caused by fragmentation due to gravitational instabilities in massive gaseous disks surrounding young stars, followed by migration of dense gaseous clumps onto the star. Our high-resolution near-infrared imaging has verified the presence of the key associated features, large-scale arms and arcs surrounding four young stellar objects undergoing luminous outbursts. Our hydrodynamics simulations and radiative transfer models show that these observed structures can indeed be explained by strong gravitational instabilities occurring at the beginning of the disk formation phase. The effect of those tempestuous episodes of disk evolution on star and planet formation remains to be understood.

  5. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-04-21

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities

  6. Stellar Emission Inhibiting the Study of ``Exo-Chondrules'' in Circumstellar Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. A.; Boley, A. C.

    2017-05-01

    The host stars in circumstellar disks can be a confounding parameter in recovering the disc's properties. I'll present examples where we can't study the small grains due to stellar effects and discuss a project designed to solve the issue.

  7. Daughter Fragmentation is Unlikely To Occur in Self-Gravitating Circumstellar Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar discs are thought to be self-gravitating at very early times. If the disc is relatively cool, extended and accreting sufficiently rapidly, it can fragment into bound objects of order a few Jupiter masses and upwards. Given that the fragment's initial angular momentum is non-zero, and it will continue to accrete angular momentum from the surrounding circumstellar disc, we should expect that the fragment will also possess a relatively massive disc at early times. Therefore, we can ask: is disc fragmentation a hierarchical process? Or, can a disc fragment go on to produce its own self-gravitating circumfragmentary disc that produces daughter fragments? We investigate this using a set of nested 1D self-gravitating disc models. We calculate the radial structure of a marginally stable, self-gravitating circumstellar disc, and compute its propensity to fragmentation. We use this data to construct the local fragment properties at this radius. For each circumstellar disc model that results in fragmentati...

  8. Circumstellar CO Emission in S Stars I. Mass-Loss with Little or No Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Liechti, S.

    1994-01-01

    47 S stars have been searched for circumstellar CO (J=1-0 and/or 2-1) emission, and 29 have been detected, including 4 which show no evidence of dust in their IRAS LRS spectra and one with possibly no Tc (and therefore not an AGB star).

  9. Detectability of Circumstellar SiO Maser Emission on VSOP-2 Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, F.; Bujarrabal, V.; Ruiz, R. S.; Dodson, R.; Alcolea, J.; Desmurs, J.-F.

    2009-08-01

    We have studied compact circumstellar SiO maser emission at 86 GHz with the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA), which provides the same spatial resolution as the VSOP-2 to ground baselines at 43 GHz. We present preliminary maps of the emission, estimate the flux and size of the maser spots, and discuss their detectability on baselines from VSOP-2 to ground telescopes.

  10. Attenuation of super-soft X-ray sources by circumstellar material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel; Gilfanov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    of the circumbinary material photo-ionised by the radiation of the central source. Our results show that the circumstellar mass-loss rates required for obcuration of super-soft X-ray sources is about an order of magnitude larger than those reported in earlier studies, for comparable model parameters. While this does...

  11. Circumstellar Dust Around AGB Stars and Implications for Infrared Emission from Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Villaume, Alexa; Johnson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Stellar population synthesis (SPS) models are used to infer many galactic properties including star formation histories, metallicities, and stellar and dust masses. However, most SPS models neglect the effect of circumstellar dust shells around evolved stars and it is unclear to what extent they impact the analysis of SEDs. To overcome this shortcoming we have created a new set of circumstellar dust models, using the radiative transfer code DUSTY Ivezic et al. 1999, for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and incorporated them into the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis code. The circumstellar dust models provide a good fit to individual AGB stars as well as the IR color-magnitude diagrams of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. IR luminosity functions from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are not well-fit by the 2008 Padova isochrones when coupled to our circumstellar dust models, and so we adjusted the lifetimes of AGB stars in the models to provide a match to the data. We show, in agreement with ...

  12. Against the Wind: Radio Light Curves of Type Ia Supernovae Interacting with Low-Density Circumstellar Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Chelsea E; Kasen, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    For decades, a wide variety of observations spanning the radio through optical and on to the x-ray have attempted to uncover signs of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). The goal of these studies is to constrain the nature of the hypothesized SN Ia mass-donor companion. A continuous CSM is typically assumed when interpreting observations of interaction. However, while such models have been successfully applied to core-collapse SNe, the assumption of continuity may not be accurate for SNe Ia, as shells of CSM could be formed by pre-supernova eruptions (novae). In this work, we model the interaction of SNe with a spherical, low density, finite-extent CSM and create a suite of synthetic radio synchrotron light curves. We find that CSM shells produce sharply peaked light curves, and identify a fiducial set of models that all obey a common evolution and can be used to generate radio light curves for interaction with an arbitrary shell. The relations obeyed by the fiducial mod...

  13. Structural Transitions in Dense Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lambiotte, R; Bhat, U; Redner, S

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an evolving network model in which a new node attaches to a randomly selected target node and also to each of its neighbors with probability $p$. The resulting network is sparse for $p<\\frac{1}{2}$ and dense (average degree increasing with number of nodes $N$) for $p\\geq \\frac{1}{2}$. In the dense regime, individual networks realizations built by this copying mechanism are disparate and not self-averaging. Further, there is an infinite sequence of structural anomalies at $p=\\frac{2}{3}$, $\\frac{3}{4}$, $\\frac{4}{5}$, etc., where the dependences on $N$ of the number of triangles (3-cliques), 4-cliques, undergo phase transitions. When linking to second neighbors of the target can occur, the probability that the resulting graph is complete---where all nodes are connected---is non-zero as $N\\to\\infty$.

  14. Radiative properties of dense nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Fedorov, Andrei G; Luo, Zhongyang; Ni, Mingjiang

    2012-09-01

    The radiative properties of dense nanofluids are investigated. For nanofluids, scattering and absorbing of electromagnetic waves by nanoparticles, as well as light absorption by the matrix/fluid in which the nanoparticles are suspended, should be considered. We compare five models for predicting apparent radiative properties of nanoparticulate media and evaluate their applicability. Using spectral absorption and scattering coefficients predicted by different models, we compute the apparent transmittance of a nanofluid layer, including multiple reflecting interfaces bounding the layer, and compare the model predictions with experimental results from the literature. Finally, we propose a new method to calculate the spectral radiative properties of dense nanofluids that shows quantitatively good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Dilatons for Dense Hadronic Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2009-01-01

    The idea that the explicit breaking of scale invariance by the trace anomaly of QCD can be rephrased as a spontaneous breaking has been recently exploited to capture the low-energy strong interaction dynamics of dense (and also hot) matter in terms of two dilaton fields, the "soft" (chi_s) and the "hard" (chi_h) fields, in the frame work of the hidden local gauge symmetry. In the Freund-Nambu model, the spontaneous symmetry breaking of scale symmetry is induced by an explicitly breaking term, while the spontaneous symmetry breaking is possible in the flat potential model which is scale symmetric. We discuss the interplay of the soft and hard dilatons using the spontaneously broken scale symmetry schemes and uncover a novel structure of dense matter hitherto unexplored.

  16. Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Falceta-Goncalves, D; Falgarone, E; Chian, A C -L

    2014-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in the insterstellar medium and plays a major role in several processes such as the formation of dense structures and stars, the stability of molecular clouds, the amplification of magnetic fields, and the re-acceleration and diffusion of cosmic rays. Despite its importance, interstellar turbulence, alike turbulence in general, is far from being fully understood. In this review we present the basics of turbulence physics, focusing on the statistics of its structure and energy cascade. We explore the physics of compressible and incompressible turbulent flows, as well as magnetized cases. The most relevant observational techniques that provide quantitative insights of interstellar turbulence are also presented. We also discuss the main difficulties in developing a three-dimensional view of interstellar turbulence from these observations. Finally, we briefly present what could be the the main sources of turbulence in the interstellar medium.

  17. A multi-wavelength investigation of the radio-loud supernova PTF11qcj and its circumstellar environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st St, NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Xu, D. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Frail, D. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Carpenter, J.; Arcavi, I.; Cao, Y.; Mooley, K.; Sesar, B. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fox, D. B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kasliwal, M. M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sullivan, M.; Maguire, K.; Pan, Y.-C. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 685, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sternberg, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Bersier, D., E-mail: corsi@gwu.edu [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-02-10

    We present the discovery, classification, and extensive panchromatic (from radio to X-ray) follow-up observations of PTF11qcj, a supernova (SN) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Our observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that this event is radio-loud: PTF11qcj reached a radio peak luminosity comparable to that of the famous gamma-ray-burst-associated SN 1998bw (L {sub 5} {sub GHz} ≈ 10{sup 29} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1}). PTF11qcj is also detected in X-rays with the Chandra Observatory, and in the infrared band with Spitzer. Our multi-wavelength analysis probes the SN interaction with circumstellar material. The radio observations suggest a progenitor mass-loss rate of ∼10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} × (v{sub w} /1000 km s{sup –1}), and a velocity of ≈0.3-0.5 c for the fastest moving ejecta (at ≈10 days after explosion). However, these estimates are derived assuming the simplest model of SN ejecta interacting with a smooth circumstellar wind, and do not account for possible inhomogeneities in the medium and asphericity of the explosion. The radio data show deviations from such a simple model, as well as a late-time re-brightening. The X-ray flux from PTF11qcj is compatible with the high-frequency extrapolation of the radio synchrotron emission (within the large uncertainties). A light echo from pre-existing dust is in agreement with our infrared data. Our pre-explosion data from the PTF suggest that a precursor eruption of absolute magnitude M{sub r} ≈ –13 mag may have occurred ≈2.5 yr prior to the SN explosion. Overall, PTF11qcj fits the expectations from the explosion of a Wolf-Rayet star. Precursor eruptions may be a feature characterizing the final pre-explosion evolution of such stars.

  18. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  19. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  20. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Subedi, R; Monaghan, P; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; De Jager, C W; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Širca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Zheng, X -C; Zhu, L; 10.1126/science.1156675

    2009-01-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, where a proton is knocked-out of the nucleus with high momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in 12C the neutron-proton pairs are nearly twenty times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  1. Dilatons in Dense Baryonic Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the role of dilaton, which is supposed to be representing a special feature of scale symmetry of QCD, trace anomaly, in dense baryonic matter. The idea that the scale symmetry breaking of QCD is responsible for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is presented along the similar spirit of Freund-Nambu model. The incorporation of dilaton field in the hidden local symmetric parity doublet model is briefly sketched with the possible role of dilaton at high density baryonic matter, the emergence of linear sigma model in dilaton limit.

  2. Interstellar-medium Mapping in M82 and Circumstellar Environment Constraints through Light Echoes Around Supernova 2014J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Lifan

    2017-01-01

    We present multiple-epoch measurements of the size and surface brightness of the light echoes from supernova (SN) 2014J in the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS/WFC images were taken ˜277 and ˜416 days after B-band maximum in the filters F475W, F606W, and F775W. Linear polarimetry of the SN 2014J has also been acquired. The images reveal the temporal evolution of at least two major light-echo components. The first one exhibits a filled ring structure with position-angle-dependent intensity. This radially extended, diffuse echo indicates the presence of an inhomogeneous interstellar dust cloud ranging from ˜100 pc to ˜500 pc in the foreground of the SN. The second echo component appears as an unresolved luminous quarter-circle arc centered on the SN. The wavelength dependence of scattering measured in different dust components suggests that the dust producing the luminous arc favors smaller grain sizes, while that causing the diffuse light echo may have sizes similar to those of the Milky Way dust. Smaller grains can produce an optical depth consistent with that along the supernova-Earth line of sight measured by previous studies around maximum light. Therefore, it is possible that the dust slab, from which the luminous arc arises, is also responsible for most of the extinction towards SN 2014J. The optical depths produced by the diffuse Milky Way-like dust in the scattering matters are lower than that produced by the dust slab. Apart from the resolved light echoes, the polarization of the SN 2014J point source measured at day 277 shows conspicuous deviations from other epochs and this can be identified as due to at least 10-6 Msun of dust located at a distance of ~5×1017 cm away from the SN. The presence of this CS dust may set strong constraints on the progenitor system that led to the explosion of SN 2014J.

  3. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - IX. SN 2014av, and characterization of Type Ibn SNe

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorello, A; Ciabattari, F; Bersier, D; Mazzali, P A; Gao, X; Xu, Z; Zhang, J -J; Tokuoka, S; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Elias-Rosa, N; Harutyunyan, A; Huang, F; Miluzio, M; Mo, J; Ochner, P; Tartaglia, L; Terreran, G; Tomasella, L; Turatto, M

    2015-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric data of the Type Ibn supernova (SN) 2014av, discovered by the Xingming Observatory Sky Survey. A stringent pre-discovery detection limit indicates that the object was discovered soon after core-collapse. A prompt follow-up campaign arranged by amateur astronomers allows us to monitor the rising phase (lasting 10.6 days) and to accurately estimate the epoch of the maximum light, on 2014 April 23 (JD = 2456771.1 +- 1.2). The absolute magnitude of the SN at the maximum light is M(R) = -19.76 +- 0.16. The post-peak light curve shows an initial fast decline lasting about 3 weeks, and is followed by a slower decline in all bands until the end of the monitoring campaign. The spectra are initially characterized by a hot continuum. Later on, the temperature declines and a number of lines become prominent mostly in emission. In particular, later spectra are dominated by strong and narrow emission features of He I typical of Type Ibn supernovae (SNe), although there is clear evid...

  4. Phase matching alters spatial multiphoton processes in dense atomic ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Leszczyński, Adam; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton processes in dense atomic vapors such as four-wave mixing or coherent blue light generation are typically viewed from single-atom perspective. Here we study the surprisingly important effect of phase matching near two-photon resonances that arises due to spatial extent of the atomic medium within which the multiphoton process occurs. The non-unit refractive index of the atomic vapor may inhibit generation of light in nonlinear processes, significantly shift the efficiency maxima in frequencies and redirect emitted beam. We present these effects on an example of four-wave mixing in dense rubidium vapors in a double-ladder configuration. By deriving a simple theory that takes into account essential spatial properties of the process, we give precise predictions and confirm their validity in the experiment. The model allows us to improve on the geometry of the experiment and engineer more efficient four-wave mixing.

  5. Phase matching alters spatial multiphoton processes in dense atomic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyński, Adam; Parniak, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2017-01-09

    Multiphoton processes in dense atomic vapors such as four-wave mixing or coherent blue light generation are typically viewed from single-atom perspective. Here we study the surprisingly important effect of phase matching near two-photon resonances that arises due to spatial extent of the atomic medium within which the multiphoton process occurs. The non-unit refractive index of the atomic vapor may inhibit generation of light in nonlinear processes, significantly shift the efficiency maxima in frequencies and redirect emitted beam. We present these effects on an example of four-wave mixing in dense rubidium vapors in a double-ladder configuration. By deriving a simple theory that takes into account essential spatial properties of the process, we give precise predictions and confirm their validity in the experiment. The model allows us to improve on the geometry of the experiment and engineer more efficient four-wave mixing.

  6. Magnetic Moments of Octet Baryons in Hot and Dense Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harpreet; Dahiya, Harleen

    2016-01-01

    We have calculated the in-medium magnetic moments of octet baryons in the presence of hot and dense symmetric nuclear matter. Effective magnetic moments of baryons have been derived from medium modified quark masses within chiral SU(3) quark mean field model.Further, for better insight of medium modification of baryonic magnetic moments, we have considered the explicit contributions from the valence as well as sea quark effects. These effects have been successful in giving the description of baryonic magnetic moments in vacuum. The magnetic moments of baryons are found to vary significantly as a function of density of nuclear medium.

  7. CIRCUMSTELLAR MAGNETITE FROM THE LAP 031117 CO3.0 CHONDRITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zega, Thomas J. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine [Laboratory for Space Sciences and Physics Department, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Stroud, Rhonda M., E-mail: tzega@lpl.arizona.edu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Code 6366, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We report the first microstructural confirmation of circumstellar magnetite, identified in a petrographic thin section of the LaPaz Icefield 031117 CO3.0 chondrite. The O-isotopic composition of the grain indicates an origin in a low-mass (∼2.2 M{sub ⊙}), approximately solar metallicity red/asymptotic giant branch (RGB/AGB) star undergoing first dredge-up. The magnetite is a single crystal measuring 750 × 670 nm, is free of defects, and is stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We hypothesize that the magnetite formed via oxidation of previously condensed Fe dust within the circumstellar envelope of its progenitor star. Using an empirically derived rate constant for this reaction, we calculate that such oxidation could have occurred over timescales ranging from approximately ∼9000–500,000 years. This timescale is within the lifetime of estimates for dust condensation within RGB/AGB stars.

  8. Differential interferometric phases at high spectral resolution as a sensitive physical diagnostic of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Faes, D M; Rivinius, Th; Štefl, S; Baade, D; de Souza, A Domiciano

    2013-01-01

    Context. The circumstellar disks ejected by many rapidly rotating B stars (so-called Be stars) offer the rare opportunity of studying the structure and dynamics of gaseous disks at high spectral as well as angular resolution. Aims. This paper explores a newly identified effect in spectro-interferometric phase that can be used for probing the inner regions of gaseous edge-on disks on a scale of a few stellar radii. Methods. The origin of this effect (dubbed central quasi-emission phase signature, CQE-PS) lies in the velocity-dependent line absorption of photospheric radiation by the circumstellar disk. At high spectral and marginal interferometric resolution, photocenter displacements between star and isovelocity regions in the Keplerian disk reveal themselves through small interferometric phase shifts. To investigate the diagnostic potential of this effect, a series of models are presented, based on detailed radiative transfer calculations in a viscous decretion disk. Results. Amplitude and detailed shape of ...

  9. Wind Dynamics and Circumstellar Extinction Variations in the T Tauri Star RY Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Babina, Elena V; Petrov, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    The wind interaction with the dusty environment of the classical T Tauri star RY Tau has been investigated. During two seasons of 2013-2015 we carried out a spectroscopic and photometric (BVR) monitoring of the star. A correlation between the stellar brightness and the radial velocity of the wind determined from the H-alpha and Na D line profiles has been found for the first time. The irregular stellar brightness variations are shown to be caused by extinction in a dusty disk wind at a distance of about 0.2 AU from the star. We suppose, that variations of the circumstellar extinction results from cyclic rearrangements of the stellar magnetosphere and coronal mass ejections, which affect the dusty disk wind near the inner boundary of the circumstellar disk.

  10. Radiative transfer modeling of three T Tauri stars: selecting candidates for studying circumstellar disk evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liu; Hong-Chi Wang; Sebastian Wolf; David Madlener

    2013-01-01

    We present modeling work on three young stellar objects that are promising targets for future high-resolution observations to investigate circumstellar disk evolution.The currently available data comprise the spectral energy distribution from optical to millimeter wavelengths which allow constraining the structure of the circumstellar disk using self-consistent radiative transfer models.The results suggest that the assumption of well-mixed dust and gas leads to overestimation of flux in the far-infrared.Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that an overall decrease in far-infrared excess can be explained by dust settling towards the midplane.A new disk model is hence employed to take the effect of dust sedimentation into account.The extended model satisfactorily reproduces all existing observations.The three targets studied here therefore deserve follow-up observations to reveal the evolutionary state of their protoplanetary disks.

  11. From Protoplanetary Disks to Extrasolar Planets: Understanding the Life Cycle of Circumstellar Gas with Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Ardila, David R; Bergin, Edwin A; Brown, Alexander; Burgh, Eric B; Calvet, Nuria; Chiang, Eugene; Cook, Timothy A; Désert, Jean-Michel; Ebbets, Dennis; Froning, Cynthia S; Green, James C; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Johns-Krull, Christopher M; Koskinen, Tommi T; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Redfield, Seth; Roberge, Aki; Schindhelm, Eric R; Scowen, Paul A; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Tumlinson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Few scientific discoveries have captured the public imagination like the explosion of exoplanetary science during the past two decades. This work has fundamentally changed our picture of Earth's place in the Universe and led NASA to make significant investments towards understanding the demographics of exoplanetary systems and the conditions that lead to their formation. The story of the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems is essentially the story of the circumstellar gas and dust that are initially present in the protostellar environment; in order to understand the variety of planetary systems observed, we need to understand the life cycle of circumstellar gas from its initial conditions in protoplanetary disks to its endpoint as planets and their atmospheres. In this white paper response to NASA's Request for Information "Science Objectives and Requirements for the Next NASA UV/Visible Astrophysics Mission Concepts (NNH12ZDA008L)", we describe scientific programs that would use the unique capabi...

  12. Synthetic photometry for carbon-rich giants II. The effects of pulsation and circumstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Nowotny, Walter; Höfner, Susanne; Lederer, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    By using self-consistent dynamic model atmospheres which simulate pulsation-enhanced dust-driven winds of AGB stars we studied in detail the influence of (i) pulsations of the stellar interiors, and (ii) the development of dusty stellar winds on the spectral appearance of long period variables with carbon-rich atmospheric chemistry. While the pulsations lead to large-amplitude photometric variability, the dusty envelopes cause pronounced circumstellar reddening. Based on one selected dynamical model which is representative of C-type Mira variables with intermediate mass loss rates, we calculated synthetic spectra and photometry for standard broad-band filters from the visual to the near-infrared. Our modelling allows to investigate in detail the substantial effect of circumstellar dust on the resultant photometry. The pronounced absorption of amorphous carbon dust grains leads to colour indices which are significantly redder than the corresponding ones based on hydrostatic dust-free models. Only if we account...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Database of circumstellar OH masers (Engels+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, D.; Bunzel, F.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new database of circumstellar OH masers at 1612, 1665, and 1667MHz in the Milky Way galaxy in tabular form. The database (version 2.4) contains 13655 observations and 2341 different stars detected in at least one transition and includes published data until end of 2014. Interferometric follow-up observations and monitor programs are stored in two auxiliary tables. (3 data files).

  14. Oxygen Chemistry in the Circumstellar Envelope of the Carbon-Rich Star IRC+10216

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Agundez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the oxygen chemistry in the C-rich circumstellar shells of IRC+10216. The recent discoveries of oxygen bearing species (water, hydroxyl radical and formaldehyde) toward this source challenge our current understanding of the chemistry in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. The presence of icy comets surrounding the star or catalysis on iron grain surfaces have been invoked to explain the presence of such unexpected species. This detailed study aims at evaluating the chances of producing O-bearing species in the C-rich circumstellar envelope only by gas phase chemical reactions. For the inner hot envelope, it is shown that although most of the oxygen is locked in CO near the photosphere (as expected for a C/O ratio greater than 1), some stellar radii far away species such as H2O and CO2 have large abundances under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium. It is also shown how non-LTE chemistry makes very difficult the CO-->H2O,CO2 transformation predicted in LTE. Concerning the chemistry ...

  15. Observational Possibility of the "Snow Line" on the Surface of Circumstellar Disks with the Scattered Light

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Akio K; Nakamoto, Taishi; Oka, Akinori

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how we obtain the spatial distribution of ice on the surface of the circumstellar disk around young stars. Ice in the disks plays a very important role in various issues, for instance, on the disk structure, on the planet formation, on the isotopic anomaly in meteorites, and on the origin of the sea on the Earth. Therefore, the spatially resolved observation of the condensation/sublimation front of ice, so-called ``snow line'' is strongly required. Here, we propose a new method for obtaining the spatially resolved ``snow line'' on the circumstellar disks by observing 3 \\micron H$_2$O ice feature in the scattered light. Based on radiative transfer considerations, we show that the feature is clearly imprinted in the spectrum of the scattered light from both optically thick and thin circumstellar disks. We also show that the scattered light and the H$_2$O ice feature from protoplanetary disks are detectable and spatially resolvable with the current instruments through a $H_2O$ narrowband filter around...

  16. Sulphur molecules in the circumstellar envelopes of M-type AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovich, Taissa; Black, J H; Olofsson, H; Justtanont, K

    2016-01-01

    The sulphur compounds SO and SO$_2$ have not been widely studied in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. By presenting and modelling a large number of SO and SO$_2$ lines in the low mass-loss rate M-type AGB star R Dor, and modelling the available lines of those molecules in a further four M-type AGB stars, we aim to determine their circumstellar abundances and distributions. We use a detailed radiative transfer analysis based on the accelerated lambda iteration method to model circumstellar SO and SO$_2$ line emission and molecular data files for both SO and SO$_2$ that are more extensive than those previously available. Using 17 SO lines and 98 SO2 lines to constrain our models for R Dor, we find an SO abundance of 6.7x10$^{-6}$ and an SO$_2$ abundance of 5x10$^{-6}$ with both species having high abundances close to the star. We also modelled $^{34}$SO and found an abundance of 3.1x10$^{-7}$, giving an $^{32}$SO/$^{34}$SO ratio of 21.6. We derive similar results for the circum...

  17. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Polarimetry of a Circumstellar Disk around UX Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Ryoko; Itoh, Yoichi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hioki, Tomonori; Oasa, Yumiko; Gupta, Ranjan; Sen, Asoke K.; Wisniewski, John P.; Muto, Takayuki; Grady, Carol A.; Hashimoto, Jun; Fukagawa, Misato; Mayama, Satoshi; Hornbeck, Jeremy; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Werren, Chelsea; Curé, Michel; Currie, Thayne; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Momose, Munetake; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Inutsuka, Shu-ichi; Takeuchi, Taku; Dong, Ruobing; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Egner, Sebastian E.; Feldt, Markus; Fukue, Tsubasa; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Matsuo, Taro; McElwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-ichi; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuro; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-12-01

    We present H-band polarimetric imagery of UX Tau A taken with HiCIAO/AO188 on the Subaru Telescope. UX Tau A has been classified as a pre-transitional disk object, with a gap structure separating its inner and outer disks. Our imagery taken with the 0.''15 (21 AU) radius coronagraphic mask has revealed a strongly polarized circumstellar disk surrounding UX Tau A, which extends to 120 AU, at a spatial resolution of 0.''1 (14 AU). It is inclined by 46° ± 2°, since the west side is nearest. Although SED modeling and sub-millimeter imagery have suggested the presence of a gap in the disk, with the inner edge of the outer disk estimated to be located at 25-30 AU, we detect no evidence of a gap at the limit of our inner working angle (23 AU) at the near-infrared wavelength. We attribute the observed strong polarization (up to 66%) to light scattering by dust grains in the disk. However, neither polarization models of the circumstellar disk based on Rayleigh-scattering nor Mie-scattering approximations were consistent with the observed azimuthal profile of the polarization degrees of the disk. Instead, a geometric optics model of the disk with nonspherical grains with radii of 30μm is consistent with the observed profile. We suggest that the dust grains have experienced frequent collisional coagulations, and have grown in the circumstellar disk of UX Tau A.

  18. Imaging the circumstellar environment of the young T Tauri star SU Aurigae

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffers, S V; Canovas, H; Rodenhuis, M; Keller, C U

    2013-01-01

    The circumstellar environments of classical T Tauri stars are challenging to directly image because of their high star-to-disk contrast ratio. One method to overcome this is by using imaging polarimetry where scattered and consequently polarised starlight from the star's circumstellar disk can be separated from the unpolarised light of the central star. We present images of the circumstellar environment of SU Aur, a classical T Tauri star at the transition of T Tauri to Herbig stars. The images directly show that the disk extends out to ~500 au with an inclination angle of $\\sim$ 50$^\\circ$. Using interpretive models, we derived very small grains in the surface layers of its disk, with a very steep size- and surface-density distribution. Additionally, we resolved a large and extended nebulosity in our images that is most likely a remnant of the prenatal molecular cloud. The position angle of the disk, determined directly from our images, rules out a polar outflow or jet as the cause of this large-scale nebulo...

  19. Circumstellar Dust, PAHs, and Stellar Populations in Early-Type Galaxies: Insights from GALEX and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Simonian, Gregory V

    2016-01-01

    A majority of early-type galaxies contain interstellar dust, yet the origin of this dust, and why the dust sometimes exhibits unusual PAH ratios, remains a mystery. If the dust is internally produced, the most likely origin is the large number of AGB stars associated with the old stellar population. We present GALEX and WISE elliptical aperture photometry of $\\sim350$ early-type galaxies with Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and/or ancillary data from ATLAS3D, to characterize their circumstellar dust and the shape of the radiation field that illuminates the interstellar PAHs. We find that circumstellar dust is ubiquitous in early-type galaxies, which indicates some tension between stellar population age estimates and models for circumstellar dust production in very old stellar populations. We also use dynamical masses from ATLAS3D to show that WISE W1 (3.4 $\\mu$m) mass-to-light ratios are inconsistent with model predictions for a single IMF, as found by previous work. While the stellar population differences...

  20. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Polarimetry of a Circumstellar Disk around UX Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serabyn, G.; Grady, C. A.; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present H-band polarimetric imagery of UX Tau A taken with HiCIAO/AO188 on the Subaru Telescope. UX Tau A has been classified as a pre-transitional disk object, with a gap structure separating its inner and outer disks. Our imagery taken with the 0.15" (21 AU) radius coronagraphic mask has revealed a strongly polarized circumstellar disk surrounding UX Tau A which extends to 120 AU, at a spatial resolution of 0.1" (14 AU). It is inclined by 46 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees as the west side is nearest. Although SED modeling and sub-millimeter imagery suggested the presence of a gap in the disk, with the inner edge of the outer disk estimated to be located at 25 - 30 AU, we detect no evidence of a gap at the limit of our inner working angle (23AU) at the near-infrared wavelength. We attribute the observed strong polarization (up to 66 %) to light scattering by dust grains in the disk. However, neither polarization models of the circumstellar disk based on Rayleigh scattering nor Mie scattering approximations were consistent with the observed azimuthal profile of the polarization degrees of the disk. Instead, a geometric optics model of the disk with nonspherical grains with the radii of 30 micrometers is consistent with the observed profile. We suggest that the dust grains have experienced frequent collisional coagulations and have grown in the circumstellar disk of UX Tau A.

  1. The magnetic field around late-type stars revealed by the circumstellar H2O masers

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T; Diamond, P J

    2005-01-01

    Through polarization observations, circumstellar masers are excellent probes of the magnetic field in the envelopes of late-type stars. Whereas observations of the polarization of the SiO masers close to the star and on the OH masers much further out were fairly commonplace, observations of the magnetic field strength in the intermediate density and temperature region where the 22 GHz water masers occur have only recently become possible. Here we present the analysis of the circular polarization, due to Zeeman splitting, of the water masers around the Mira variable stars U Her and U Ori and the supergiant VX Sgr. We present an upper limit of the field around U Her that is lower but consistent with previous measurements, reflecting possible changes in the circumstellar envelope. The field strengths around U Ori and VX Sgr are shown to be of the order of several Gauss. Moreover, we show for the first time that large scale magnetic fields permeate the circumstellar envelopes of an evolved star; the polarization ...

  2. Modeling the jet quenching in hot and dense QCD matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, I P; Petrushanko, S V; Snigirev, A M; Arsene, I; Tywoniuk, K

    2009-01-01

    One of the important perturbative ("hard") probes of hot and dense QCD matter is the medium-induced energy loss of energetic partons, so called "jet quenching", which is predicted to be very different in cold nuclear matter and in QGP, and leads to a number of phenomena which are already seen in the RHIC data on the qualitative level. The inclusion of jet quenching and other important collective effects, such as radial and elliptic flows, in the existing Monte-Carlo models of relativistic heavy ion collisions is discussed. Some issues on the corresponding physical observables at RHIC and LHC energies obtained with HYDJET++ model are presented.

  3. Viscoelastic behavior of dense microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cametti, C.; Codastefano, P.; D'arrigo, G.; Tartaglia, P.; Rouch, J.; Chen, S. H.

    1990-09-01

    We have performed extensive measurements of shear viscosity, ultrasonic absorption, and sound velocity in a ternary system consisting of water-decane-sodium di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfo- succinate(AOT), in the one-phase region where it forms a water-in-oil microemulsion. We observe a rapid increase of the static shear viscosity in the dense microemulsion region. Correspondingly the sound absorption shows unambiguous evidence of a viscoelastic behavior. The absorption data for various volume fractions and temperatures can be reduced to a universal curve by scaling both the absorption and the frequency by the measured static shear viscosity. The sound absorption can be interpreted as coming from the high-frequency tail of the viscoelastic relaxation, describable by a Cole-Cole relaxation formula with unusually small elastic moduli.

  4. Neutrino Oscillations in Dense Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, A. E.

    2017-03-01

    A modification of the electroweak theory, where the fermions with the same electroweak quantum numbers are combined in multiplets and are treated as different quantum states of a single particle, is proposed. In this model, mixing and oscillations of particles arise as a direct consequence of the general principles of quantum field theory. The developed approach enables one to calculate the probabilities of the processes taking place in the detector at long distances from the particle source. Calculations of higher-order processes, including computation of the contributions due to radiative corrections, can be performed in the framework of the perturbation theory using the regular diagram technique. As a result, the analog to the Dirac-Schwinger equation of quantum electrodynamics describing neutrino oscillations and its spin rotation in dense matter can be obtained.

  5. DPIS for warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.

    2010-05-23

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.

  6. Performance characteristics of pilot plant dense media hydrocyclone for beneficiation of coal and 3-D CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, P.D.; Kumar, V.; Sripriya, R.; Chakraborty, S.; Meikap, B.C. [University of Kwazulu Natal, Durban (South Africa). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-08-15

    Dense-medium separators have proven to be the most efficient processes for removing the undesirable material from run-of-mine coal. The application of high-pressure feed injection into dense-medium cyclones to provide an elevated centrifugal force has recently been found to allow efficient separation performances for the treatment of fine coal (i.e., < 1000 {mu} m). However, high-pressure injection requires specialized pumps and results in relatively high maintenance requirements. The current study involves experimental investigation of separation performance characteristics of the dense media hydrocyclone (DMC). A pilot plant DMC has been designed and fabricated for performance characterization. Experiments have been conducted on 300 mm dense medium cyclone treating coal in the size range of -6 to +2 mm using magnetite as the medium under operating conditions. The operating variable was the specific gravity of the medium, feed inlet pressure and feed inlet flow rate. The ash contents of the feed coal reporting to the overflow and underflow have been analyzed qualitatively. The result indicates that the use of magnetite as dense medium in DMC resulted in the yield of clean coal, which is 5% more when the air core is suppressed as compared to the same conditions when the air core remains. A 3-D geometry is created in Gambit to support the experimental findings by using CFD simulation. It is interesting to observe that experimental findings agree well with the simulation results.

  7. Improving the thin-disk models of circumstellar disk evolution. The 2+1-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Pavlyuchenkov, Yaroslav N.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks of gas and dust are naturally formed from contracting pre-stellar molecular cores during the star formation process. To study various dynamical and chemical processes that take place in circumstellar disks prior to their dissipation and transition to debris disks, the appropriate numerical models capable of studying the long-term disk chemodynamical evolution are required. Aims: We improve the frequently used 2D hydrodynamical model for disk evolution in the thin-disk limit by employing a better calculation of the disk thermal balance and adding a reconstruction of the disk vertical structure. Together with the hydrodynamical processes, the thermal evolution is of great importance since it influences the strength of gravitational instability and the chemical evolution of the disk. Methods: We present a new 2+1-dimensional numerical hydrodynamics model of circumstellar disk evolution, where the thin-disk model is complemented with the procedure for calculating the vertical distributions of gas volume density and temperature in the disk. The reconstruction of the disk vertical structure is performed at every time step via the solution of the time-dependent radiative transfer equations coupled to the equation of the vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. Results: We perform a detailed comparison between circumstellar disks produced with our previous 2D model and with the improved 2+1D approach. The structure and evolution of resulting disks, including the differences in temperatures, densities, disk masses, and protostellar accretion rates, are discussed in detail. Conclusions: The new 2+1D model yields systematically colder disks, while the in-falling parental clouds are warmer. Both effects act to increase the strength of disk gravitational instability and, as a result, the number of gravitationally bound fragments that form in the disk via gravitational fragmentation as compared to the purely 2D thin-disk simulations with a simplified

  8. 5G Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xiaohu; Tu, Song; Mao, Guoqiang; Wang, Cheng-xiang; Han, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Traditional ultra-dense wireless networks are recommended as a complement for cellular networks and are deployed in partial areas, such as hotspot and indoor scenarios. Based on the massive multiple-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas and the millimeter wavecommunication technologies, the 5G ultra-dense cellular network is proposed to deploy in overall cellular scenarios. Moreover, a distribution network architecture is presented for 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. Furthermore, the backhaul ...

  9. Interference Coordination for Dense Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2015-01-01

    The promise of ubiquitous and super-fast connectivity for the upcoming years will be in large part fulfilled by the addition of base stations and spectral aggregation. The resulting very dense networks (DenseNets) will face a number of technical challenges. Among others, the interference emerges ...... simply react to an identified interference problem. As an example, we propose two algorithms to apply time domain and frequency domain small cell interference coordination in a DenseNet....

  10. HOW GOOD IS A DENSE SHOP SCHEDULE?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈礴; 俞文(鱼此)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study a class of simple and easy-to-construct shop schedules, known as dense schedules. We present tight bounds on the maximum deviation in makespan of dense flow-shop and job-shop schedules from their optimal ones. For dense open-shop schedules, we do the same for the special case of four machines and thus add a stronger supporting case for proving a standing conjecture.

  11. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  12. The rate and latency of star formation in dense, massive clumps in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Heyer, M; Urquhart, J S; Csengeri, T; Wienen, M; Leurini, S; Menten, K; Wyrowski, F

    2016-01-01

    Newborn stars form within the localized, high density regions of molecular clouds. The sequence and rate at which stars form in dense clumps and the dependence on local and global environments are key factors in developing descriptions of stellar production in galaxies. We seek to observationally constrain the rate and latency of star formation in dense massive clumps that are distributed throughout the Galaxy and to compare these results to proposed prescriptions for stellar production. A sample of 24 micron-based Class~I protostars are linked to dust clumps that are embedded within molecular clouds selected from the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy. We determine the fraction of star-forming clumps, f*, that imposes a constraint on the latency of star formation in units of a clump's lifetime. Protostellar masses are estimated from models of circumstellar environments of young stellar objects from which star formation rates are derived. Physical properties of the clumps are calculated from 870 m...

  13. HIGH-DENSITY CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SN 2010jl: THE FIRST 1100 DAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Claes; Ergon, Mattias; Sollerman, Jesper [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Challis, Peter J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Marion, G. H.; Milisavljevic, Dan; Friedman, Andrew S.; Chornock, Ryan; Czekala, Ian; Soderberg, Alicia [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chevalier, Roger A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); France, Kevin [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Smith, Nathan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bufano, Filomena [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Kangas, Tuomas [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20 FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Larsson, Josefin [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Mattila, Seppo [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20 FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Benetti, Stefano [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-12-20

    Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2010jl are analyzed, including photometry and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, optical, and near-IR bands, 26-1128 days after first detection. At maximum, the bolometric luminosity was ∼3 × 10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1} and even at 850 days exceeds 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}. A near-IR excess, dominating after 400 days, probably originates in dust in the circumstellar medium (CSM). The total radiated energy is ≳ 6.5 × 10{sup 50} erg, excluding the dust component. The spectral lines can be separated into one broad component that is due to electron scattering and one narrow with expansion velocity ∼100 km s{sup –1} from the CSM. The broad component is initially symmetric around zero velocity but becomes blueshifted after ∼50 days, while remaining symmetric about a shifted centroid velocity. Dust absorption in the ejecta is unlikely to explain the line shifts, and we attribute the shift instead to acceleration by the SN radiation. From the optical lines and the X-ray and dust properties, there is strong evidence for large-scale asymmetries in the CSM. The ultraviolet lines indicate CNO processing in the progenitor, while the optical shows a number of narrow coronal lines excited by the X-rays. The bolometric light curve is consistent with a radiative shock in an r {sup –2} CSM with a mass-loss rate of M-dot ∼0.1  M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The total mass lost is ≳ 3 M {sub ☉}. These properties are consistent with the SN expanding into a CSM characteristic of a luminous blue variable progenitor with a bipolar geometry. The apparent absence of nuclear processing is attributed to a CSM that is still opaque to electron scattering.

  14. Light scattering by a spherical particle with multiple densely packed inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xian-Ming; Wang Hai-Hua; Liu Wan-Qiang; Shen Ji

    2009-01-01

    This paper calculates light scattering by a spherical water particle containing densely packed inclusions at a visible wavelength 0.55 μm by a combination of ray-tracing and Monte Carlo techniques. While the individual reflection and refraction events at the outer boundary of a sphere particle are considered by a ray-tracing program, the Monte Carlo routine simulates internal scattering processes. The main advantage of this method is that the shape of the particle can be arbitrary, and multiple scattering can be considered in the internal scattering processes. A dense-medium light-scattering theory based on the introduction of the static structure factor is used to calculate the phase function and asymmetry parameters for densely packed inclusions. Numerical results of the single scattering characteristics for a sphere containing multiple densely packed inclusions are given.

  15. Optimal probabilistic dense coding schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Roger A.; Neves, Leonardo

    2017-04-01

    Dense coding with non-maximally entangled states has been investigated in many different scenarios. We revisit this problem for protocols adopting the standard encoding scheme. In this case, the set of possible classical messages cannot be perfectly distinguished due to the non-orthogonality of the quantum states carrying them. So far, the decoding process has been approached in two ways: (i) The message is always inferred, but with an associated (minimum) error; (ii) the message is inferred without error, but only sometimes; in case of failure, nothing else is done. Here, we generalize on these approaches and propose novel optimal probabilistic decoding schemes. The first uses quantum-state separation to increase the distinguishability of the messages with an optimal success probability. This scheme is shown to include (i) and (ii) as special cases and continuously interpolate between them, which enables the decoder to trade-off between the level of confidence desired to identify the received messages and the success probability for doing so. The second scheme, called multistage decoding, applies only for qudits ( d-level quantum systems with d>2) and consists of further attempts in the state identification process in case of failure in the first one. We show that this scheme is advantageous over (ii) as it increases the mutual information between the sender and receiver.

  16. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically {approx}1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of {approx}2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  17. Star formation in dense clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion, and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star IMF from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosi...

  18. Type Ia supernovae within dense carbon-oxygen rich envelopes: a model for 'Super-Chandrasekhar' explosions?

    CERN Document Server

    Noebauer, U M; Blinnikov, S; Sorokina, E; Hillebrandt, W

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of fairly normal Type Ia supernovae being embedded in compact and dense envelopes of carbon and oxygen rich circumstellar material by means of detailed radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Our main focus rests on exploring the effects of the interaction between ejecta and circumstellar material on the ejecta evolution and the broad-band light curve. In our calculations, we find that a strong reverse shock efficiently decelerates and compresses the ejecta material. This leads to a significant broadening of the optical light curve, a longer rise to maximum and a slower decline in the tail phase. During the interaction, substantial radiative energy is generated, which mostly emerges in the extreme ultraviolet and X-ray regime. Only if reprocessing due to radiation-matter interactions is very efficient, a significant boost in the optical light curve is observed. We discuss these findings in particular in the context of the super-luminous event SN 2009dc. As our calculations are able...

  19. Thermophysical properties of warm dense hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Holst, Bastian; Desjarlais, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    We study the thermophysical properties of warm dense hydrogen using quantum molecular dynamics simulations. New results are presented for the pair distribution functions, the equation of state, the Hugoniot curve, and the reflectivity. We compare with available experimental data and predictions of the chemical picture. Especially, we discuss the nonmetal-to-metal transition which occurs at about 40 GPa in the dense fluid.

  20. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based mode...

  1. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar discs - I. Optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe/Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stanley; Sundqvist, J. O.

    2016-05-01

    The extreme luminosities of massive, hot OB stars drive strong stellar winds through line-scattering of the star's UV continuum radiation. For OB stars with an orbiting circumstellar disc, we explore here the effect of such line-scattering in driving an ablation of material from the disc's surface layers, with initial focus on the marginally optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe and Be stars. For this we apply a multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code that assumes simple optically thin ray tracing for the stellar continuum, but uses a multiray Sobolev treatment of the line transfer; this fully accounts for the efficient driving by non-radial rays, due to desaturation of line-absorption by velocity gradients associated with the Keplerian shear in the disc. Results show a dense, intermediate-speed surface ablation, consistent with the strong, blueshifted absorption of UV wind lines seen in Be shell stars that are observed from near the disc plane. A key overall result is that, after an initial adjustment to the introduction of the disc, the asymptotic disc destruction rate is typically just an order-unity factor times the stellar wind mass-loss rate. For optically thin Be discs, this leads to a disc destruction time of order months to years, consistent with observationally inferred disc decay times. The much stronger radiative forces of O stars reduce this time to order days, making it more difficult for decretion processes to sustain a disc in earlier spectral types, and so providing a natural explanation for the relative rarity of Oe stars in the Galaxy. Moreover, the decrease in line-driving at lower metallicity implies both a reduction in the winds that help spin-down stars from near-critical rotation, and a reduction in the ablation of any decretion disc; together these provide a natural explanation for the higher fraction of classical Be stars, as well as the presence of Oe stars, in the lower metallicity Magellanic Clouds. We conclude with a

  2. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  3. Detailed modelling of the circumstellar molecular line emission of the S-type AGB star W Aquilae

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovich, T; Justtanont, K; Lombaert, R; Maercker, M; Olofsson, H; Ramstedt, S; Royer, P

    2014-01-01

    S-type AGB stars have a C/O ratio which suggests that they are transition objects between oxygen-rich M-type stars and carbon-rich C-type stars. As such, their circumstellar compositions of gas and dust are thought to be sensitive to their precise C/O ratio, and it is therefore of particular interest to examine their circumstellar properties. We present new Herschel HIFI and PACS sub-millimetre and far-infrared line observations of several molecular species towards the S-type AGB star W Aql. We use these observations, which probe a wide range of gas temperatures, to constrain the circumstellar properties of W Aql, including mass-loss rate and molecular abundances. We used radiative transfer codes to model the circumstellar dust and molecular line emission to determine circumstellar properties and molecular abundances. We assumed a spherically symmetric envelope formed by a constant mass-loss rate driven by an accelerating wind. Our model includes fully integrated H2O line cooling as part of the solution of th...

  4. Circumstellar dust, PAHs and stellar populations in early-type galaxies: insights from GALEX and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonian, Gregory V.; Martini, Paul

    2017-02-01

    A majority of early-type galaxies contain interstellar dust, yet the origin of this dust, and why the dust sometimes exhibits unusual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ratios, remains a mystery. If the dust is internally produced, it likely originates from the large number of asymptotic giant branch stars associated with the old stellar population. We present GALEX and WISE elliptical aperture photometry of ˜310 early-type galaxies with Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and/or ancillary data from ATLAS3D, to characterize their circumstellar dust and the shape of the radiation field that illuminates the interstellar PAHs. We find that circumstellar dust is ubiquitous in early-type galaxies, which indicates some tension between stellar population age estimates and models for circumstellar dust production in very old stellar populations. We also use dynamical masses from ATLAS3D to show that WISE W1 (3.4 μm) mass-to-light ratios are consistent with the initial mass function variation found by previous work. While the stellar population differences in early-type galaxies correspond to a range of radiation field shapes incident upon the diffuse dust, the ratio of the ionization-sensitive 7.7 μm/11.3 μm PAH feature does not correlate with the shape of the radiation field, nor to variations with the size-sensitive 11.3 μm/17 μm ratio. The 7.7 μm/11.3 μm PAH ratio does tend to be smaller in galaxies with proportionally greater H2 emission, which is evidence that processing of primarily smaller grains by shocks is responsible for the unusual ratios, rather than substantial differences in the overall PAH size or ionization distribution.

  5. Evidence of Dissipation of Circumstellar Disks from L-band Spectra of Bright Galactic Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabogal, B. E.; Ubaque, K. Y.; García-Varela, A.; Álvarez, M.; Salas, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present L-band spectra of the Be stars γ Cas, ϕ Per, 28 Tau, θ CrB, 66 Oph, o Her, and 28 Cyg, obtained through use of the CID-InSb spectrograph with the 2.1-m telescope at OAN/UNAM San Pedro Martir Observatory. This is the first report of L-band spectra of o Her and θ CrB, and of the data obtained with this spectrograph. We obtain flux ratios of hydrogen lines for these stars, finding that they have optically thin envelopes, except by 66 Oph and θ CrB, which do not show evidence of a circumstellar disk. γ Cas and ϕ Per have flux ratio values of hydrogen lines closer to the optically thick case than the other stars. We use the line flux ratio diagram and optical spectra reported in the literature to study the life cycles of the disks. We find clear evidence of the dissipating process of the envelopes of 66 Oph and 28 Cyg, i.e., they are decaying stars. 28 Tau seems to have passed by a similar process. γ Cas and ϕ Per are stable stars because their circumstellar disks do not show notorious changes for many years. Finally, the stars in a build-up phase, whose envelopes are generated after a decaying phase or for the first time, have not yet been observed in the L-band. It would be useful to monitor more Be stars to observe this class of stars that probably change from a very tenuous envelope to an optically thick circumstellar disk. The line flux ratio diagram seems to confirm that late Be stars have more tenuous disks than early-type Be stars, as they tend to be separated at the left bottom and the top right parts of the diagram, respectively. Larger samples of Be stars are needed to confirm this hypothesis through a statistical analysis.

  6. A New View of the Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-07-01

    We summarize the analysis of a uniform set of both previously known and newly discovered scattered-light echoes, detected within 30" of SN 1987A in 10 years of optical imaging, and with which we have constructed the most complete three-dimensional model of the progenitor's circumstellar environment. Surrounding the SN is a richly structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``peanut,'' which we believe is the contact discontinuity between the red supergiant and main-sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 lt-yr along the poles and 11 lt-yr near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 lt-yr. Interior, the innermost circumstellar material lies along a cylindrical hourglass, 1 lt-yr in radius and 4 lt-yr long, which connects to the peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41° south and 8° east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. The three-dimensional geometry of the three circumstellar rings is studied, suggesting the northern and southern rings are located 1.3 and 1.0 lt-yr from the SN, while the equatorial ring is elliptical (b/a~0.03 cm-3 the maximum dust-grain size increases from ~0.2 to 2 μm and the silicate:carbonaceous dust ratio decreases. The nebulae have a total mass of ~1.7 Msolar, yielding a red-supergiant mass loss around 5×10-6 Msolar yr-1. We compare these results to current formation models and find that no model has successfully reproduced this system. However, our results suggest a heuristic evolutionary sequence in which the progenitor evolves through two ``blue loops,'' perhaps accompanied by a close binary companion.

  7. Simulation of compact circumstellar shells around Type Ia supernovae and the resulting high-velocity features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-01-01

    For Type Ia supernovae that are observed prior to B-band maximum (approximately 18-20 days after the explosion) Ca absorption features are observed at velocities of order 10,000 km/s faster than the typical photospheric features. These high velocity features weaken in the first couple of weeks, disappearing entirely by a week after B-band maximum. The source of this high velocity material is uncertain: it may be the result of interaction between the supernova and circumstellar material or may be the result of plumes or bullets of material ejected during the course of the explosion. We simulate interaction between a supernova and several compact circumstellar shells, located within 0.03 solar radii of the progenitor white dwarf and having masses of 0.02 solar masses or less. We use FLASH to perform hydrodynamic simulations of the system to determine the structure of the ejecta and shell components after the interaction, then use these results to generate synthetic spectra with 1 day cadence for the first 25 days after the explosion. We compare the evolution of the velocity and pseudo-equivalent width of the Ca near-infrared triplet features in the synthetic spectra to observed values, demonstrating that these models are consistent with observations. Additionally, we fit the observed spectra of SN 2011fe (Parrent 2012, Pereira 2013) prior to B-band maximum using these models and synthetic spectra and provide an estimate for Ca abundance within the circumstellar material with implications for the mechanism by which the white dwarf explodes.

  8. Density distribution in a heavy-medium cyclone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuling; Zhao Yuemin; Yang Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Heavy-medium cyclones are widely used to upgrade run-of-mine coal. But the understanding of flow in a cyclone containing a dense medium is still incomplete. By introducing turbulent diffusion into calculations of centrifugal settling a theoretical distribution function giving the density field can be deduced. Qualitative analysis of the density field in every part of a cylindrical cyclone suggests an optimum design that has exhibited good separation effectiveness and anti-wear performance when in commercial operation.

  9. Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragones, J L; Steimel, J P; Alexander-Katz, A

    2016-04-26

    The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between the active stresses and elasticity of the system. This discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium.

  10. Indicator of Exo-Solar Planet(s) in the Circumstellar Disk Around Beta Pictoris

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkavyi, N; Ozernoy, L M; Taidakova, T; Mather, J; Gorkavyi, Nick; Heap, Sara; Ozernoy, Leonid; Taidakova, Tanya; Mather, John

    2000-01-01

    Our efficient numerical approach has been applied to modeling the asymmetric circumstellar dust disk around Beta Pictoris as observed with the HST/STIS. We present a new model on the origin of the warping of the Beta Pic disk. We suggest that the observed warp is formed by the gravitational influence of a planet with a mass of about 10 masses of Earth, at a distance of 70 AU, and a small inclination ($\\sim 2.5^\\circ$) of the planetary orbit to the main dust disk. Results of our modeling are compared with the STIS observations.

  11. Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE): Statistical assessment of point source detections

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet, É; Soummer, R; Perrin, M D; Hagan, J B; Gofas-Salas, E; Rajan, A; Aguilar, J

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE program, for Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environment, is currently conducting a virtual survey of about 400 stars, by re-analyzing the HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. We present here the strategy that we adopted to identify detections and potential candidates for follow-up observations, and we give a preliminary overview of our detections. We present a statistical analysis conducted to evaluate the confidence level on these detection and the completeness of our candidate search.

  12. Circumstellar disks and planets. Science cases for next-generation optical/infrared long-baseline interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Sebastian; Alexander, Richard; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Duchene, Gaspard; Dutrey, Anne; Mordasini, Christophe; Pantin, Eric; Pont, Frederic; Pott, Joerg-Uwe; Tatulli, Eric; Testi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of the interplay between the evolution of circumstellar disks and the formation of planets, both from the perspective of theoretical models and dedicated observations. Based on this, we identify and discuss fundamental questions concerning the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks and planets which can be addressed in the near future with optical and infrared long-baseline interferometers. Furthermore, the importance of complementary observations with long-baseline (sub)millimeter interferometers and high-sensitivity infrared observatories is outlined.

  13. Hubble and Spitzer Observations of an Edge-on Circumstellar Disk around a Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L; D'Alessio, Paola; Calvet, Nuria; McLeod, Kim K; Bohac, J; Forrest, William J; Hartmann, Lee; Sargent, B; Watson, Dan M

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of a circumstellar disk that is inclined close to edge-on around a young brown dwarf in the Taurus star-forming region. Using data obtained with SpeX at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, we find that the slope of the 0.8-2.5 um spectrum of the brown dwarf 2MASS J04381486+2611399 cannot be reproduced with a photosphere reddened by normal extinction. Instead, the slope is consistent with scattered light, indicating that circumstellar material is occulting the brown dwarf. By combining the SpeX data with mid-IR photometry and spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope and previously published millimeter data from Scholz and coworkers, we construct the spectral energy distribution for 2MASS J04381486+2611399 and model it in terms of a young brown dwarf surrounded by an irradiated accretion disk. The presence of both silicate absorption at 10 um and silicate emission at 11 um constrains the inclination of the disk to be ~70 deg, i.e. ~20 deg from edge-on. Additional evidence of the h...

  14. On the central symmetry of the circumstellar envelope of RS Cnc

    CERN Document Server

    Nhung, Pham Tuyet; Winters, Jan Martin; Darriulat, Pierre; Gérard, Eric; Bertre, Thibaut Le

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological study of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star RS\\,Cnc. It reveals departures from central symmetry that turn out to be efficient tools for the exploration of some of the CSE properties. We use a wind model including a bipolar flow with a typical wind velocity of $\\sim$8 km\\,s$^{-1}$ decreasing to $\\sim$2 km\\,s$^{-1}$ near the equator to describe Doppler velocity spectral maps obtained by merging data collected at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Pico Veleta single dish radio telescope. Parameters describing the wind morphology and kinematics are obtained, together with the radial dependence of the gas temperature in the domain of the circumstellar envelope probed by the CO observations. Significant north-south central asymmetries are revealed by the analysis, which we quantify using a simple phenomenological description. The origin of such asymmetries is unclear.

  15. Tracing planet-induced structures in circumstellar disks using molecular lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ober, F; Uribe, A L; Klahr, H H

    2015-01-01

    Circumstellar disks are considered to be the birthplace of planets. Specific structures like spiral arms, gaps, and cavities are characteristic indicators of planet-disk interaction. Investigating these structures can provide insights into the growth of protoplanets and the physical properties of the disk. We investigate the feasibility of using molecular lines to trace planet-induced structures in circumstellar disks. Based on 3D hydrodynamic simulations of planet-disk interactions, we perform self-consistent temperature calculations and produce N-LTE molecular line velocity-channel maps and spectra of these disks using our new N-LTE line radiative transfer code Mol3D. Subsequently, we simulate ALMA observations using the CASA simulator. We consider two nearly face-on inclinations, 5 disk masses, 7 disk radii, and 2 different typical pre-main-sequence host stars (T Tauri, Herbig Ae). We calculate up to 141 individual velocity-channel maps for five molecules/isotopoloques in a total of 32 rotational transitio...

  16. HI and CO in the circumstellar environment of the oxygen-rich AGB star RX Lep

    CERN Document Server

    Libert, Y; Gérard, E; Winters, J M

    2008-01-01

    Circumstellar shells around AGB stars are built over long periods of time that may reach several million years. They may therefore be extended over large sizes (~1 pc, possibly more), and different complementary tracers are needed to describe their global properties. In the present work, we combined 21-cm HI and CO rotational line data obtained on an oxygen-rich semi-regular variable, RX Lep, to describe the global properties of its circumstellar environment. With the SEST, we detected the CO(2-1) rotational line from RX Lep. The line profile is parabolic and implies an expansion velocity of ~4.2 km/s and a mass-loss rate ~1.7 10^-7 Msun/yr (d = 137 pc). The HI line at 21 cm was detected with the Nancay Radiotelescope on the star position and at several offset positions. The linear shell size is relatively small, ~0.1 pc, but we detect a trail extending southward to ~0.5 pc. The line profiles are approximately Gaussian with an FWHM ~3.8 km/s and interpreted with a model developed for the detached shell around...

  17. VLA Observations of HI in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Lynn D; 10.1086/512613

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We have used the VLA to search for neutral atomic hydrogen in the circumstellar envelopes of five AGB stars. We have detected HI 21-cm emission coincident in both position and velocity with the semi-regular variable RS Cnc. The emission comprises a compact, slightly elongated feature centered on the star with a mean diameter ~82'' (1.5e17 cm), plus an additional filament extending ~6' to the NW. This filament suggests that a portion of the mass loss is highly asymmetric. We estimate MHI=1.5e-3 Msun and M_dot~1.7e-7 Msun/yr. Toward R Cas, we detect weak emission that peaks at the stellar systemic velocity and overlaps with the location of its circumstellar dust shell and thus is probably related to the star. In the case of IRC+10216, we were unable to confirm the detection of HI in absorption against the cosmic background previously reported by Le Bertre & Gerard. However, we detect arcs of emission at projected distances of r~14'-18' (~2e18 cm) to the NW. A large separation of the emission from...

  18. The PDS 66 Circumstellar Disk as seen in Polarized Light with the Gemini Planet Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Schuyler G; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Nielsen, Eric L; Wang, Jason; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Dong, Ruobing; Draper, Zachary H; Duchene, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Goodsell, Stephen J; Grady, Carol A; Graham, James R; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hines, Dean C; Hung, Li-Wei; Kalas, Paul; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik T; Schneider, Glenn; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J

    2016-01-01

    We present H and K band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.12'' inner working angle (IWA) in H band, almost 3 times as close to the star as the previous HST observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.35'' effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the East side of the disk which is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the South possibly due to shadowing from material within the inner working angle. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  19. V409 Tau As Another AA Tau: Photometric Observations of Stellar Occultations by the Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Joseph E; Stassun, Keivan G; Siverd, Robert J; Cargile, Phillip; Weintraub, David A; Beatty, Thomas G; Gaudi, B Scott; Mamajek, Eric E; Sanchez, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    AA Tau is a well studied young stellar object that presents many of the photometric characteristics of a Classical T Tauri star (CTTS), including short-timescale stochastic variability attributed to spots and/or accretion as well as long duration dimming events attributed to occultations by vertical features (e.g., warps) in its circumstellar disk. We present new photometric observations of AA Tau from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope North (KELT-North) which reveal a deep, extended dimming event in 2011, which we show supports the interpretation by Bouvier et al. (2013) of an occultation by a high-density feature in the circumstellar disk located >8 AU from the star. We also present KELT-North observations of V409 Tau, a relatively unstudied young stellar object also in Taurus-Auriga, showing short timescale erratic variability, along with two separate long and deep dimming events, one from January 2009 through late October 2010, and the other from March 2012 until at least September 2013. We interp...

  20. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  1. The circumstellar envelope of the C-rich post-AGB star HD 56126

    CERN Document Server

    Hony, S; Waters, L B F M; De Koter, A

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar envelope of the post-asymptotic giant branch ``21 micron object'' HD 56126. We build a detailed dust radiative transfer model of the circumstellar envelope in order to derive the dust composition and mass, and the mass-loss history of the star. To model the emission of the dust we use amorphous carbon, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, magnesium sulfide and titanium carbide. We present a detailed parametrisation of the optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon as a function of H/C content. The mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy is best reproduced by a single dust shell from 1.2 to 2.6 arcsec radius around the central star. This shell originates from a short period during which the mass-loss rate exceeded 10^(-4) M_sun/yr. We find that the strength of the ``21'' micron feature poses a problem for the TiC identification. The low abundance of Ti requires very high absorption cross-sections in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength range to explain the st...

  2. Effects of stellar flybys on planetary systems: 3D modeling of the circumstellar disks damping effects

    CERN Document Server

    Picogna, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flybys in star clusters are suspected to affect the orbital architecture of planetary systems causing eccentricity excitation and orbital misalignment between the planet orbit and the equatorial plane of the star. We explore whether the impulsive changes in the orbital elements of planets, caused by an hyperbolic stellar flyby, can be fully damped by the circumstellar disk surrounding the star. The time required to disperse stellar clusters is in fact comparable to circumstellar disk's lifetime. We have modelled in 3D a system made of a solar type star surrounded by a low density disk with a giant planet embedded in it approached on a hyperbolic encounter trajectory by a second star, of similar mass and with its own disk. We focus on extreme configurations where a very deep stellar flyby perturbs a Jovian planet on an external orbit. This allows to test in full the ability of the disk to erase the effects of the stellar encounter. We find that the amount of mass lost by the disk during the stellar fly...

  3. Atomic and molecular hydrogen in the circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of atomic and molecular hydrogen in the expanding circumstellar envelopes of cool evolved stars is discussed. The main concern is to evaluate the effects of photodestruction of H2 by galactic UV radiation, including shielding of the radiation by H2 itself and by dust in the envelope. One of the most important parameters is the H/H2 ratio which is frozen out in the upper atmosphere of the star. For stars with photospheric temperatures greater than about 2500 K, atmospheric models suggest that the outflowing hydrogen is mainly atomic, whereas cooler stars should be substantially molecular. In the latter case, photodissociation of H2 and heavy molecules contribute to the atomic hydrogen content of the outer envelope. The presented estimates indicate that atomic hydrogen is almost at the limit of detection in the C-rich star IRC + 10216, and may be detectable in warmer stars. Failure to detect it would have important implications for the general understanding of circumstellar envelopes.

  4. Testing circumstellar disk lifetimes in young embedded clusters associated with the Vela Molecular Ridge

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, Fabrizio; Codella, Claudio; Testi, Leonardo; Vanzi, Leonardo; Gomes, Joana

    2010-01-01

    Context. The Vela Molecular Ridge hosts a number of young embedded star clusters in the same evolutionary stage. Aims. The main aim of the present work is testing whether the fraction of members with a circumstellar disk in a sample of clusters in the cloud D of the Vela Molecular Ridge, is consistent with relations derived for larger samples of star clusters with an age spread. Besides, we want to constrain the age of the young embedded star clusters associated with cloud D. Methods. We carried out L (3.78 microns) photometry on images of six young embedded star clusters associated with cloud D of the Vela Molecular Ridge, taken with ISAAC at the VLT. These data are complemented with the available HKs photometry. The 6 clusters are roughly of the same size and appear to be in the same evolutionary stage. The fraction of stars with a circumstellar disk was measured in each cluster by counting the fraction of sources displaying a NIR excess in colour-colour (HKsL) diagrams. Results. The L photometry allowed us...

  5. Circumstellar C2, CN, and CH+ in the optical spectra of post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J; Waters, L B F M; Schoenmaker, T; Bakker, Eric J.; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van; Schoenmaker, Ton

    1996-01-01

    We present optical high-resolution spectra of a sample of sixteen post-AGB stars and IRC +10216. Of the post-AGB stars, ten show C2 Phillips and Swan and CN Red System absorption, one CH+ emission, one CH+ absorption, and four without any molecules. We find typically Trot=43-399, 155-202, and 18-50 K, log N = 14.90-15.57, 14.35, and 15.03-16.47 cm-2 for C2, CH+, and CN respectively, and 0.620. The presence of C2 and CN absorption is correlated with cold dust (Tdust300K). All objects with the unidentified 21mum emission feature exhibit C2 and CN absorption, but not all objects with C2 and CN detections exhibit a 21mum feature. The derived expansion velocity, ranging from 5 to 44 km/s, is the same as that derived from CO millimeter line emission. This unambiguously proves that these lines are of circumstellar origin and are formed in the AGB ejecta (circumstellar shell expelled during the preceding AGB phase). Furthermore there seems to be a relation between the C2 molecular column density and the expansion vel...

  6. A New View of the Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Sugerman, B E K; Kunkel, W E; Heathcote, S R; Lawrence, S S; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize the analysis of a uniform set of both previously-known and newly-discovered scattered-light echoes, detected within 30" of SN 1987A in ten years of optical imaging, and with which we have constructed the most complete three-dimensional model of the progenitor's circumstellar environment. Surrounding the SN is a richly-structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``peanut,'' which we believe is the contact discontinuity between the red supergiant and main sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 ly along the poles and 11 ly near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 ly. Interior, the innermost circumstellar material lies along a cylindrical hourglass, 1 ly in radius and 4 ly long, which connects to the peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41o south and 8o east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. Th...

  7. A Correlation Between Circumstellar Disks and Rotation in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Dahm, S E; White, R J

    2011-01-01

    We present projected rotational velocities for 20 early-type (B8-A9) and 74 late-type (F2-M8) members of the ~5 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB Association derived from high dispersion optical spectra obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) on Keck I and the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) on the Magellan Clay telescope. The spectroscopic sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with infrared signatures of circumstellar disks, both primordial and debris, and non-excess sources of comparable spectral type. We merge projected rotational velocities, accretion diagnostics, and Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 micron photometry to examine the relationship between rotation and circumstellar disks. The rotational velocities are strongly correlated with spectral type, a proxy for mass, such that the median vsini for B8-A9 type stars is: 195(+/-)70 km/s, F2-K4: 37.8(+/-)7.4 km/s, K5-K9: 13.8(+21.3/-8.2) km/s, M0-M5:...

  8. AGB stars in the LMC: evolution of dust in circumstellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Schneider, R; Di Criscienzo, M; García-Hernández, D A; Rossi, C; Brocato, E

    2014-01-01

    We calculated theoretical evolutionary sequences of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, including formation and evolution of dust grains in their circumstellar envelope. By considering stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we calculate synthetic colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams, which are compared with those obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions outlines that extremely obscured carbon-stars and oxygen-rich sources experiencing hot bottom burning (HBB) occupy well defined, distinct regions in the colour-colour ($[3.6]-[4.5]$, $[5.8]-[8.0]$) diagram. The C-rich stars are distributed along a diagonal strip that we interpret as an evolutionary sequence, becoming progressively more obscured as the stellar surface layers enrich in carbon. Their circumstellar envelopes host solid carbon dust grains with size in the range $0.05 2$, are the descendants of stars with initial mass $M_{in} \\sim 2.5 - 3 M_{\\odot}$ in the ver...

  9. Conditions for circumstellar disc formation - II. Effects of initial cloud stability and mass accretion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate on to the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brakes the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with non-uniform densities.

  10. The Evolutionary State of Anemic Circumstellar Disks and the Primordial-to-Debris Disk Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of $\\sim$ 3 Myr-old MIPS-detected circumstellar disks in IC 348 that may be in an intermediate stage between primordial, optically-thick disks of gas/dust and debris disks characteristic of the final stages of planet formation. We demonstrate that these \\textit{anemic} disks are not a homogenous class of objects corresponding to a unique evolutionary state. Rather, such disks around early (B/A) spectral type stars are most likely warm, terrestrial zone debris disks; MIPS-detected anemic disks around later (M) stars are likely \\textit{evolved primordial disks} such as transition disks in their mid-IR colors, accretion signatures, and disk luminosities. Anemic disks surrounding G and K stars contain both populations. The difference in evolutionary states between anemic disks surrounding early type vs. late-type stars is consistent with a mass-dependent evolution of circumstellar disks from the primordial disk phase through the debris disk phase. Specifically, disks characteristicall...

  11. A search of diffuse bands in fullerene planetary nebulae: evidence for diffuse circumstellar bands

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Luis, J J; Rao, N Kameswara; Manchado, A; Cataldo, F

    2014-01-01

    Large fullerenes and fullerene-based molecules have been proposed as carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The recent detection of the most common fullerenes (C60 and C70) around some Planetary Nebulae (PNe) now enable us to study the DIBs towards fullerene-rich space environments. We search DIBs in the optical spectra towards three fullerene-containing PNe (Tc 1, M 1-20, and IC 418). Special attention is given to DIBs which are found to be unusually intense towards these fullerene sources. In particular, an unusually strong 4428A absorption feature is a common charateristic to fullerene PNe. Similarly to Tc 1, the strongest optical bands of neutral C60 are not detected towards IC 418. Our high-quality (S/N > 300) spectra for PN Tc 1 together with its large radial velocity permits us to search for the presence of diffuse bands of circumstellar origin which we refer to as diffuse circumstellar bands (DCBs). We report the first tentative detection of two DCBs at 4428 and 5780 A in the fullerene-rich ci...

  12. The frequency and infrared brightness of circumstellar discs at white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rocchetto, M; Gaensicke, B T; Bergfors, C

    2014-01-01

    White dwarfs whose atmospheres are polluted by terrestrial-like planetary debris have become a powerful and unique tool to study evolved planetary systems. This paper presents results for an unbiased Spitzer IRAC search for circumstellar dust orbiting a homogeneous and well-defined sample of 134 single white dwarfs. The stars were selected without regard to atmospheric metal content but were chosen to have 1) hydrogen rich atmospheres, 2) 17 000 K < T_eff < 25 000 K and correspondingly young post main-sequence ages of 15-270Myr, and 3) sufficient far-ultraviolet brightness for a corresponding Hubble Space Telescope COS Snapshot. Five white dwarfs were found to host an infrared bright dust disc, three previously known, and two reported here for the first time, yielding a nominal 3.7% of white dwarfs in this post-main sequence age range with detectable circumstellar dust. Remarkably, complementary HST observations indicate that a fraction of 27% show metals in their photosphere that can only be explained ...

  13. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  14. Recurring Occultations of RW Aurigae by Coagulated Dust in the Tidally Disrupted Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Joseph E; Siverd, Robert J; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G; Gaudi, B Scott; Weintraub, David A; Beatty, Thomas G; Lund, Michael B; Stevens, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    We present photometric observations of RW Aurigae, a Classical T Tauri system, that reveal two remarkable dimming events. These events are similar to that which we observed in 2010-2011, which was the first such deep dimming observed in RW Aur in a century's worth of photometric monitoring. We suggested the 2010-2011 dimming was the result of an occultation of the star by its tidally disrupted circumstellar disk. In 2012-2013, the RW Aur system dimmed by ~0.7 mag for ~40 days and in 2014/2015 the system dimmed by ~2 mag for >250 days. The ingress/egress duration measurements of the more recent events agree well with those from the 2010-2011 event, providing strong evidence that the new dimmings are kinematically associated with the same occulting source. Therefore, we suggest that both the 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 dimming events, measured using data from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope and the Kutztown University Observatory, are also occultations of RW Aur A by tidally disrupted circumstellar materi...

  15. THE PDS 66 CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AS SEEN IN POLARIZED LIGHT WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Perrin, Marshall; Hines, Dean C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Nielsen, Eric L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Wang, Jason; Dong, Ruobing; Duchêne, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cardwell, Andrew [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Room 552, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chilcote, Jeffrey [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Draper, Zachary H. [University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Hung, Li-Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goodsell, Stephen J. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale, E-mail: swolff9@jh.edu [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); and others

    2016-02-10

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  16. Detection of circumstellar CH2CHCN, CH2CN, CH3CCH and H2CS

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Cernicharo, J; Pardo, J R; Guélin, M

    2007-01-01

    We report on the detection of vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN), cyanomethyl radical (CH2CN), methylacetylene (CH3CCH) and thioformaldehyde (H2CS) in the C-rich star IRC +10216. These species, which are all known to exist in dark clouds, are detected for the first time in the circumstellar envelope around an AGB star. The four molecules have been detected trough pure rotational transitions in the course of a 3 mm line survey carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. The molecular column densities are derived by constructing rotational temperature diagrams. A detailed chemical model of the circumstellar envelope is used to analyze the formation of these molecular species. We have found column densities in the range 5 x 10^(12)- 2 x 10^(13) cm^(-2), which translates to abundances relative to H2 of several 10^(-9). The chemical model is reasonably successful in explaining the derived abundances through gas phase synthesis in the cold outer envelope. We also find that some of these molecules, CH2CHCN and CH2CN, are most pr...

  17. BANYAN. VIII. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Candidate Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Boucher, Anne; Gagné, Jonathan; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Doyon, René; Chen, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new circumstellar disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >K5 that are confirmed or candidate members of nearby young moving groups. Our search input sample was drawn from the BANYAN surveys of Malo et al. and Gagn\\'e et al. Two-Micron All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data were used to detect near- to mid-infrared excesses that would reveal the presence of circumstellar disks. A total of 13 targets with convincing excesses were identified: four are new and nine were already known in the literature. The new candidates are 2MASS J05010082$-$4337102 (M4.5), J08561384$-$1342242 (M8$\\,\\gamma$), J12474428$-$3816464 (M9$\\,\\gamma$) and J02265658$-$5327032 (L0$\\,\\delta$), and are candidate members of the TW Hya ($\\sim10\\pm 3\\,$Myr), Columba ($\\sim 42^{+6}_{-4}\\,$Myr) and Tucana-Horologium ($\\sim 45\\pm 4\\,$Myr) associations, with masses of $120$ and $13-18\\,M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$. The M8$-$L0 objects in Columba and Tucana-Horologium are po...

  18. Low-metallicity Absorbers Account for Half of the Dense Circumgalactic Gas at z < 1

    CERN Document Server

    Wotta, Christopher B; Howk, J Christopher; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the metallicity distribution of the dense circumgalactic medium (CGM) of galaxies at 0.1 19.0) show a much lower fraction of metal-poor gas; therefore, the metallicity distribution of gas in and around galaxies depends sensitively on N(H I) at z -1) pLLSs and LLSs as arising in outflows, recycling winds, and tidally-stripped gas around galaxies. The low-metallicity pLLSs and LLSs imply that the CGM of z < 1 galaxies is also host to a substantial mass of cool, dense, low-metallicity gas that may ultimately accrete onto the galaxies.

  19. Dispersal of dense protostellar material - NH3 hot cores and outflows in Sagittarius B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, S.N.; Genzel, R.; Palmer, P.

    1987-05-01

    VLA observations of Sgr B2 in six ammonia transitions have uncovered two 200-K condensations with approximately 0.2 pc diameters associated with water maser sources which are similar to the Orion hot core but are more massive. Total NH3 mass of the northern source is 1000 times higher than in the Orion hot core. The hot core emission traces dense gas around newly formed massive stars, and is produced during a relatively brief stage after the star begins to heat the surrounding medium and before the dense gas is dispersed by outflow and the emergence of an expanding H II region. 36 references.

  20. Kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graedel, T.E.; Langer, W.D.; Frerking, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    A detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds has been developed to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature, and other topics of interest. The full computation involves 328 individual reactions (expanded to 1067 to study carbon and oxygen isotope chemistry); photodegradation processes are unimportant in these dense clouds and are excluded.

  1. Dynamics of Circumstellar Disks. III. The Case of GG Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Marzari, F.

    2016-08-01

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system. We model configurations in which a circumbinary torus+disk surrounds a pair of stars in orbit around each other and a circumstellar disk surrounds each star, similar to that observed for the GG Tau A system. We assume that the disks cool as blackbodies, using rates determined independently at each location in the disk by the time dependent temperature of the photosphere there. We assume heating due to hydrodynamical processes and to radiation from the two stars, using rates approximated from a measure of the radiation intercepted by the disk at its photosphere. We simulate a suite of systems configured with semimajor axes of either a = 62 AU (“wide”) or a = 32 AU (“close”), and with assumed orbital eccentricity of either e = 0 or e = 0.3. Each simulation follows the evolution for ˜6500-7500 yr, corresponding to about three orbits of the torus around the center of mass. Our simulations show that strong, sharply defined spiral structures are generated from the stirring action of the binary and that, in some cases, these structures fragment into 1-2 massive clumps. The torus quickly fragments into several dozen such fragments in configurations in which either the binary is replaced by a single star of equal mass, or radiative heating is neglected. The spiral structures extend inwards to the circumstellar environment as large scale material streams for which most material is found on trajectories that return it to the torus on a timescale of 1-200 yr, with only a small fraction accreting into the circumstellar environment. The spiral structures also propagate outwards through the torus, generating net outwards mass flow, and eventually losing coherence at large distances from the stars. The torus becomes significantly eccentric in shape over most of its evolution. In all configurations, accretion onto the stars

  2. The in-medium scale evolution in jet modification

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, A

    2009-01-01

    The in-medium modification of the scale dependence of the fragmentation function in dense matter, brought about by higher twist corrections to the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equations, is derived. A phenomenologically motivated resummation is outlined which incorporates the next-to-leading twist single gluon emission kernel along with the vacuum emission kernel and provides an in-medium virtuality evolution of the final fragmentation function of a hard jet propagating through dense matter. The concept of a fragmentation function is generalized to include a dependence on distance travelled in the medium. Following this, numerical implementations are carried out and compared to experimental results on the single inclusive suppression observed in Deep-Inelastic scattering (DIS) off a large nucleus.

  3. Gluonic phases, vector condensates, and exotic hadrons in dense QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbar, E V; Miransky, V A; Hashimoto, Michio

    2007-01-01

    We study the dynamics in phases with vector condensates of gluons (gluonic phases) in dense two-flavor quark matter. These phases yield an example of dynamics in which the Higgs mechanism is provided by condensates of gauge (or gauge plus scalar) fields. Because vacuum expectation values of spatial components of vector fields break the rotational symmetry, it is naturally to have a spontaneous breakdown both of external and internal symmetries in this case. In particular, by using the Ginzburg-Landau approach, we establish the existence of a gluonic phase with both the rotational symmetry and the electromagnetic U(1) being spontaneously broken. In other words, this phase describes an anisotropic medium in which the color and electric superconductivities coexist. It is shown that this phase corresponds to a minimum of the Ginzburg-Landau potential and, unlike the two-flavor superconducting (2SC) phase, it does not suffer from the chromomagnetic instability. The dual (confinement) description of its dynamics is...

  4. Myoglobin entrapment in poly(vinyl alcohol dense membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. S. Figueiredo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our goal in this study was the immobilization of myoglobin in poly(vinyl alcohol dense membranes. Glutaraldehyde was investigated both as the crosslinking agent, aiming to increase the membrane stability in aqueous medium, and as the vehicle to bind myoglobin and PVA. Reaction and membrane synthesis were carried simultaneously in mild operating conditions in order to maintain the native protein folding. Membrane characterization comprised the water swelling degree, DSC, TGA, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR analysis and oxygen transport in a dialysis cell. The incorporation of myoglobin in the film decreased the water swelling degree and improved the membrane thermal properties compared to unmodified PVA membrane. The reduction of ferric iron in the prosthetic group of the protein to the ferrous form was observed. The increased affinity between oxygen and the immobilized myoglobin did not favor the release of this solute from the biocarrier.

  5. Hot dense magnetized ultrarelativistic spinor matter in a slab

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    Properties of hot dense ultrarelativistic spinor matter in a slab of finite width, placed in a transverse uniform magnetic field, are studied. The admissible set of boundary conditions is determined by the requirement that spinor matter be confined inside the slab. In thermal equilibrium, the chiral separation effect in the slab is shown to depend both on temperature and chemical potential; this is distinct from the unrealistic case of the magnetic field filling the unbounded (infinite) medium, when the effect is temperature-independent. In the realistic case of the slab, a stepwise behaviour of the axial current density at zero temperature is smoothed out as temperature increases, turning into a linear behaviour at infinitely large temperature. A choice of boundary conditions can facilitate either augmentation or attenuation of the chiral separation effect; in particular, the effect can persist even at zero chemical potential, if temperature is nonzero. Thus the boundary condition can serve as a source that ...

  6. HST/STIS results on circumstellar disks and jets, future coronography and technology for IR multi-object spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    Results of studies of circumstellar disks and jets obtained by HST/STIS visible coronagraphy and UV spectroscopy, and by ground-based Fabry-Perot coronagraphy will be presented. Future improvements in coronagraphy will be discussed. The development of microshutter arrays as programmable multi-object selectors for the NGST near IR spectrograph will be described.

  7. Discovery of multiple dust shells beyond 1 arcmin in the circumstellar envelope of IRC +10216 using Herschel/PACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decin, L.; Royer, P.; Cox, N.L.J.; Vandenbussche, B.; Ottensamer, R.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Barlow, M.J.; Lim, T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Posch, T.; Waelkens, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present new Herschel/PACS images at 70, 100, and 160 μm of the well-known, nearby, carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC+10216 revealing multiple dust shells in its circumstellar envelope. For the first time, dust shells (or arcs) are detected until 320''. The almost spherical shells are n

  8. Interaction of Helium Rydberg State Molecules with Dense Helium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaci, Nelly; Li, Zhiling; Eloranta, Jussi; Fiedler, Steven L

    2016-11-17

    The interaction potentials of the He2(*) excimer, in the a(3)Σu, b(3)Πg, c(3)Σg, and d(3)Σu electronic states with a ground state helium atom are presented. The symmetry of the interaction potentials closely follows the excimer Rydberg electron density with pronounced short-range minima appearing along the nodal planes of the Rydberg orbital. In such cases, a combination of the electrostatic short-range attraction combined with Pauli repulsion leads to the appearance of unusual long-range maxima in the potentials. Bosonic density functional calculations show that the (3)d state excimer resides in a localized solvation bubble in dense helium at 4.5 K, with radii varying from 12.7 Å at 0.1 MPa to 10.8 Å at 2.4 MPa. The calculated (3)d → (3)b pressure-induced fluorescence band shifts are in good agreement with experimental results determined by application of corona discharge. The magnitude of the spectral shifts indicate that the observed He2(*) molecules emit from dense helium whereas the corresponding fluorescence signal from the discharge zone appears quenched. This implies that fluorescence spectroscopy involving this electronic transition can only be used to probe the state of the surrounding medium rather than the discharge zone itself.

  9. Formation and liquid permeability of dense colloidal cube packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonja I. R.; Thies-Weesie, Dominique M. E.; Philipse, Albert P.

    2015-02-01

    The liquid permeability of dense random packings of cubic colloids with rounded corners is studied for solid hematite cubes and hollow microporous silica cubes. The permeabilities of these two types of packings are similar, confirming that the micropores in the silica shell of the hollow cubes do not contribute to the permeability. From the Brinkman screening length √{k } of ˜16 nm, we infer that the relevant pores are indeed intercube pores. Furthermore, we relate the permeability to the volume fraction and specific solid volume of the cubes using the Kozeny-Carman relation. The Kozeny-Carman relation contains a constant that accounts for the topology and size distribution of the pores in the medium. The constant obtained from our study with aspherical particles is of the same order of magnitude as those from studies with spherical and ellipsoidal particles, which supports the notion that the Kozeny-Carman relation is applicable for any dense particle packing with (statistically) isotropic microstructures, irrespective of the particle shape.

  10. Chemistry and distribution of daughter species in the circumstellar envelopes of O-rich AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Millar, Tom J.; Heays, Alan N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Context. Thanks to the advent of Herschel and ALMA, new high-quality observations of molecules present in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are being reported that reveal large differences from the existing chemical models. New molecular data and more comprehensive models of the chemistry in circumstellar envelopes are now available. Aims: The aims are to determine and study the important formation and destruction pathways in the envelopes of O-rich AGB stars and to provide more reliable predictions of abundances, column densities, and radial distributions for potentially detectable species with physical conditions applicable to the envelope surrounding IK Tau. Methods: We use a large gas-phase chemical model of an AGB envelope including the effects of CO and N2 self-shielding in a spherical geometry and a newly compiled list of inner-circumstellar envelope parent species derived from detailed modeling and observations. We trace the dominant chemistry in the expanding envelope and investigate the chemistry as a probe for the physics of the AGB phase by studying variations of abundances with mass-loss rates and expansion velocities. Results: We find a pattern of daughter molecules forming from the photodissociation products of parent species with contributions from ion-neutral abstraction and dissociative recombination. The chemistry in the outer zones differs from that in traditional PDRs in that photoionization of daughter species plays a significant role. With the proper treatment of self-shielding, the N → N2 and C+→ CO transitions are shifted outward by factors of 7 and 2, respectively, compared with earlier models. An upper limit on the abundance of CH4 as a parent species of (≲2.5 × 10-6 with respect to H2) is found for IK Tau, and several potentially observable molecules with relatively simple chemical links to other parent species are determined. The assumed stellar mass-loss rate, in particular, has an impact on the

  11. Effects of stellar flybys on planetary systems: 3D modeling of the circumstellar disk's damping effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picogna, G.; Marzari, F.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Stellar flybys in star clusters are suspected of affecting the orbital architecture of planetary systems causing eccentricity excitation and orbital misalignment between the planet orbit and the equatorial plane of the star. Aims: We explore whether the impulsive changes in the orbital elements of planets, caused by a hyperbolic stellar flyby, can be fully damped by the circumstellar disk surrounding the star. The time required to disperse stellar clusters is comparable to the circumstellar disk's lifetime. Since we perform 3D simulations, we can also test the inclination, excitation, and damping. Methods: We have modeled in 3D with the SPH code VINE, a system made of a solar-type star surrounded by a low density disk with a giant planet embedded in it approached on a hyperbolic encounter trajectory by a second star of similar mass and with its own disk. Different inclinations between the disks, planet orbit, and star trajectory have been considered to explore various encounter geometries. We focus on an extreme configuration where a very deep stellar flyby perturbs a Jovian planet on an external orbit. This allows us to test in full the ability of the disk to erase the effects of the stellar encounter. Results: We find that the amount of mass lost by the disk during the stellar flyby is less than in 2D models where a single disk was considered. This is mostly related to the mass exchange between the two disks at the encounter. The damping in eccentricity is slightly faster than in 2D models and it occurs on timescales on the order of a few kyr. During the flyby both the disks are warped owing to the mutual interaction and to the stellar gravitational perturbations, but they quickly relax to a new orbital plane. The planet is quickly dragged back within the disk by the tidal interaction with the gas. The only trace of the flyby left in the planet system, after about 104 yr, is a small misalignment, lower than 9°, between the star equatorial plane and the

  12. Extensive HST Ultraviolet Spectra and Multi-wavelength Observations of SN 2014J in M82 Indicate Reddening and Circumstellar Scattering by Typical Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Ryan J; McCully, C; Phillips, M M; Sand, D J; Zheng, W; Challis, P; Filippenko, A V; Folatelli, G; Hillebrandt, W; Hsiao, E Y; Jha, S W; Kirshner, R P; Kromer, M; Marion, G H; Nelson, M; Pakmor, R; Pignata, G; Roepke, F K; Seitenzahl, I R; Silverman, J M; Skrutskie, M; Stritzinger, M D

    2014-01-01

    SN 2014J in M82 is the closest detected Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in at least 28 years and perhaps in 410 years. Despite its small distance of 3.3 Mpc, SN 2014J is surprisingly faint, peaking at V = 10.6 mag, and assuming a typical SN Ia luminosity, we infer an observed visual extinction of A_V = 2.0 +/- 0.1 mag. But this picture, with R_V = 1.6 +/- 0.2, is too simple to account for all observations. We combine 10 epochs (spanning a month) of HST/STIS ultraviolet through near-infrared spectroscopy with HST/WFC3, KAIT, FanCam, and Spitzer photometry from the optical to the infrared and 9 epochs of high-resolution TRES spectroscopy to investigate the sources of extinction and reddening for SN 2014J. We argue that the wide range of observed properties for SN 2014J are caused by a combination of dust reddening, likely originating in the interstellar medium of M82, and scattering off circumstellar material. For this model, roughly half of the extinction is caused by reddening from typical dust (E(B-V) = 0.45 mag a...

  13. Effective Field Theories for Hot and Dense Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaschke D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is divided in two parts. The first one deals with an introduction to the physics of hot, dense many-particle systems in quantum field theory [1, 2]. The basics of the path integral approach to the partition function are explained for the example of chiral quark models. The QCD phase diagram is discussed in the meanfield approximation while QCD bound states in the medium are treated in the rainbow-ladder approximation (Gaussian fluctuations. Special emphasis is devoted to the discussion of the Mott effect, i.e. the transition of bound states to unbound, but resonant scattering states in the continnum under the influence of compression and heating of the system. Three examples are given: (1 the QCD model phase diagram with chiral symmetry ¨ restoration and color superconductivity [3], (2 the Schrodinger equation for heavy-quarkonia [4], and (2 Pions [5] as well as Kaons and D-mesons in the finite-temperature Bethe-Salpeter equation [6]. We discuss recent applications of this quantum field theoretical approach to hot and dense quark matter for a description of anomalous J/ψ supression in heavy-ion collisions [7] and for the structure and cooling of compact stars with quark matter interiors [8]. The second part provides a detailed introduction to the Polyakov-loop Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model [9] for thermodynamics and mesonic correlations [10] in the phase diagram of quark matter. Important relationships of low-energy QCD like the Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner relation are generalized to finite temperatures. The effect of including the coupling to the Polyakov-loop potential on the phase diagram and mesonic correlations is discussed. An outlook is given to effects of nonlocality of the interactions [11] and of mesonic correlations in the medium [12] which go beyond the meanfield description.

  14. Hadrons in medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Mosel

    2006-04-01

    In these lectures I first give the motivation for investigations of in-medium properties of hadrons. I discuss the relevant symmetries of QCD and how they might affect the observed hadron properties. I then discuss at length the observable consequences of in-medium changes of hadronic properties in reactions with elementary probes, and in particular photons, on nuclei. Here I put an emphasis on new experiments on changes of the - and -mesons in medium.

  15. CO and HI emission from the circumstellar envelopes of some evolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Diep, P N; Nhung, P T; Tuan-Anh, P; Bertre, T Le; Winters, J M; Matthews, L D; Phuong, N T; Thao, N T; Darriulat, P

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the CO and HI radio emission of some evolved stars are presented using data collected by the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and Pico Veleta telescope, the Nan\\c{c}ay Radio Telescope and the JVLA and ALMA arrays. Approximate axial symmetry of the physical and kinematic properties of the circumstellar envelope (CSE) are observed in CO emission, in particular, from RS Cnc, EP Aqr and the Red Rectangle. A common feature is the presence of a bipolar outflow causing an enhanced wind velocity in the polar directions. HI emission extends to larger radial distances than probed by CO emission and displays features related to the interaction between the stellar outflow and interstellar matter. With its unprecedented sensitivity, FAST will open a new window on such studies. Its potential in this domain is briefly illustrated.

  16. Photodissociation and chemistry of N$_2$ in the circumstellar envelope of carbon-rich AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaohu; Walsh, Catherine; Heays, Alan N; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    The envelopes of AGB stars are irradiated externally by ultraviolet photons; hence, the chemistry is sensitive to the photodissociation of N$_2$ and CO, which are major reservoirs of nitrogen and carbon, respectively. The photodissociation of N$_2$ has recently been quantified by laboratory and theoretical studies. Improvements have also been made for CO photodissociation. For the first time, we use accurate N$_2$ and CO photodissociation rates and shielding functions in a model of the circumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich AGB star, IRC +10216. We use a state-of-the-art chemical model of an AGB envelope, the latest CO and N$_2$ photodissociation data, and a new method for implementing molecular shielding functions in full spherical geometry with isotropic incident radiation. We compare computed column densities and radial distributions of molecules with observations. The transition of N$_2$ $\\to$ N (also, CO $\\to$ C $\\to$ C$^+$) is shifted towards the outer envelope relative to previous models. This leads...

  17. Circumstellar discs in X/gamma-ray binaries: first results from the Echelle spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Zamanov, R; Martí, J

    2015-01-01

    Here we report our first spectral observations of Be/X-ray and gamma-ray binaries obtained with the new Echelle spectrograph of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen. For four objects (LSI+61303, gamma Cas, MWC 148, 4U 2206+54), we report the parameters and estimate the sizes of their circumstellar discs using different emission lines (H-alpha, H-beta, H-gamma, HeI and FeII). For MWC 148, we find that the compact object goes deeply through the disc. The flank inflections of H-alpha can be connected with inner ring formed at the periastron passage or radiation transfer effects. We point out an intriguing similarity between the optical emission lines of the $\\gamma$-ray binary MWC 148 and the well known Be star $\\gamma$ Cas.

  18. First correlation between compact object and circumstellar disk in the Be/X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Zamanov, R K

    2000-01-01

    A remarkable correlation between the H-alpha emission line and the radio behaviour of LSI+61 303 (V615 Cas, GT 0236+610) over its 4 yr modulation is discovered. The radio outburst peak is shifted by a quarter of the 4 yr modulation period (about 400 days) with respect to the equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line variability. The onset of the LSI+61 303 radio outbursts varies in phase with the changes of the H-alpha emission line, at least during the increase of H-alpha equivalent width. This is the first clear correlation between the emission associated to the compact object and the Be circumstellar disk in a Be/X-ray binary system.

  19. Radiative Transfer Modeling of Passive Circumstellar Disks: Application to HR4796A

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, T; Henning, T; Furlan, E; Herter, T; Henning, Th.

    2003-01-01

    We present a radiative transfer model which computes the spectral energy distribution of a passive, irradiated, circumstellar disk, assuming the grains are in radiative equilibrium. Dependence on radial density profile, grain temperature estimation, and optical depth profiles on the output SED are discussed. The bist fit model for HR4796A has a minimum and maximum spherical grain size of 2.2 and 1000 \\mu$m respectively, a size distribution slightly steeper than the "classical" -3.5 MRN power law, grains composed of silicates, trolite, ice, and organics and a peak radial density of 1.0 x 10^-17 g cm^-2 at 70 AU, yielding a disk mass of roughly 2 M_{oplus}$.

  20. The effect of magnetic fields on the formation of circumstellar discs around young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Daniel J

    2007-01-01

    We present first results of our simulations of magnetic fields in the formation of single and binary stars using a recently developed method for incorporating Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) into the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. An overview of the method is presented before discussing the effect of magnetic fields on the formation of circumstellar discs around young stars. We find that the presence of magnetic fields during the disc formation process can lead to significantly smaller and less massive discs which are much less prone to gravitational instability. Similarly in the case of binary star formation we find that magnetic fields, overall, suppress fragmentation. However these effects are found to be largely driven by magnetic pressure. The relative importance of magnetic tension is dependent on the orientation of the field with respect to the rotation axis, but can, with the right orientation, lead to a dilution of the magnetic pressure-driven suppression of fragmentation.

  1. Prospecting for planets in circumstellar dust - Sifting the evidence from Beta Pictoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D. J.; Appleby, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    IRAS and near-IR coronographic data for the A5V star Beta Pic are analyzed for evidence of planetary formation. The light scattered from the central star in the system is integrated along the distance to the star to determine the disk magnitude at various distances from the star. A modified gamma distribution is applied to evaluate the scattering coefficient to test a hypothesis that the inner 30 AU of the disk has been swept out by planets. The scattering from the region around Beta Pic is compared with scattering around other A5V stars. Finally, the IR data at 0.89 micron is compared with scattering at the coronograph wavelengths. No evidence is found to support the hypothesis of clearing in the inner disk, although large particle densities can be found very close to Beta Pic. The study illustrates the effectiveness of using scattered light and IR data to discover and characterize matter distributions circumstellar disks.

  2. An efficient algorithm for two-dimensional radiative transfer in axisymmetric circumstellar envelopes and disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dullemond, C P

    2000-01-01

    We present an algorithm for two-dimensional radiative transfer in axisymmetric, circumstellar media. The formal integration of the transfer equation is performed by a generalization of the short characteristics (SC) method to spherical coordinates. Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) and Ng's algorithm are used to converge towards a solution. By taking a logarithmically spaced radial coordinate grid, the method has the natural capability of treating problems that span several decades in radius, in the most extreme case from the stellar radius up to parsec scale. Flux conservation is guaranteed in spherical coordinates by a particular choice of discrete photon directions and a special treatment of nearly-radially outward propagating radiation. The algorithm works well from zero up to very high optical depth, and can be used for a wide variety of transfer problems, including non-LTE line formation, dust continuum transfer and high temperature processes such as compton scattering. In this paper we focus on multip...

  3. Stellar occultation of polarized light from circumstellar electrons. I - Flat envelopes viewed edge on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John C.; Fox, Geoffrey K.

    1989-01-01

    The depolarizing and occultation effects of a finite spherical light source on the polarization of light Thomson-scattered from a flat circumstellar envelope seen edge-on are analyzed. The analysis shows that neglect of the finite size of the light source leads to a gross overestimate of the polarization for a given disk geometry. By including occultation and depolarization, it is found that B-star envelopes are necessarily highly flattened disk-type structures. For a disk viewed edge-on, the effect of occultation reduces the polarization more than the inclusion of the depolarization factor alone. Analysis of a one-dimensional plume leads to a powerful technique that permits the electron density distribution to be explicitly obtained from the polarimetric data.

  4. H12CN and H13CN excitation analysis in the circumstellar outflow of R Sculptoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, M.; Maercker, M.; De Beck, E.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Olofsson, H.; Danilovich, T.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The 12CO/13CO isotopologue ratio in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars has been extensively used as the tracer of the photospheric 12C/13C ratio. However, spatially-resolved ALMA observations of R Scl, a carbon rich AGB star, have shown that the 12CO/13CO ratio is not consistent over the entire CSE. Hence, it can not necessarily be used as a tracer of the 12C/13C ratio. The most likely hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy between the 12CO/13CO and 12C/13C ratios is CO isotopologue selective photodissociation by UV radiation. Unlike the CO isotopologue ratio, the HCN isotopologue ratio is not affected by UV radiation. Therefore, HCN isotopologue ratios can be used as the tracer of the atomic C ratio in UV irradiated regions. Aims: We aim to present ALMA observations of H13CN(4-3) and APEX observations of H12CN(2-1), H13CN(2-1, 3-2) towards R Scl. These new data, combined with previously published observations, are used to determine abundances, ratio, and the sizes of line-emitting regions of the aforementioned HCN isotopologues. Methods: We have performed a detailed non-LTE excitation analysis of circumstellar H12CN(J = 1-0, 2-1, 3-2, 4-3) and H13CN(J = 2-1, 3-2, 4-3) line emission around R Scl using a radiative transfer code based on the accelerated lambda iteration (ALI) method. The spatial extent of the molecular distribution for both isotopologues is constrained based on the spatially resolved H13CN(4-3) ALMA observations. Results: We find fractional abundances of H12CN/H2 = (5.0 ± 2.0) × 10-5 and H13CN/H2 = (1.9 ± 0.4) × 10-6 in the inner wind (r ≤ (2.0 ± 0.25) ×1015 cm) of R Scl. The derived circumstellar isotopologue ratio of H12CN/H13CN = 26.3 ± 11.9 is consistent with the photospheric ratio of 12C/13C 19 ± 6. Conclusions: We show that the circumstellar H12CN/H13CN ratio traces the photospheric 12C/13C ratio. Hence, contrary to the 12CO/13CO ratio, the H12CN/H13CN ratio is not affected by UV

  5. AKARI observations of circumstellar dust in the globular clusters NGC104 and NGC362

    CERN Document Server

    Ita, Yoshifusa; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Matsuura, Mikako; Onaka, Takashi; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Kim, Woojung; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Youichi; Usui, Fumihiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Sakon, Itsuki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Watarai, Hidenori

    2007-01-01

    We report preliminary results of AKARI observations of two globular clusters, NGC104 and NGC362. Imaging data covering areas of about 10x10 arcmin^2 centered on the two clusters have been obtained with InfraRed Camera (IRC) at 2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7.0, 9.0, 11.0, 15.0, 18.0 and 24.0 mu. We used F11/F2 and F24/F7 flux ratios as diagnostics of circumstellar dust emission. Dust emissions are mainly detected from variable stars obviously on the asymptotic giant branch, but some variable stars that reside below the tip of the first-ascending giant branch also show dust emissions. We found eight red sources with F24/F7 ratio greater than unity in NGC362. Six out of the eight have no 2MASS counterparts. However, we found no such source in NGC104.

  6. A Compact Circumstellar Shell as the Source of High--velocity Features in SN 2011fe

    CERN Document Server

    Mulligan, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    High--velocity features (HVF), especially of Ca II, are frequently seen in Type Ia supernovae observed prior to B-band maximum (Bmax). These HVF start at more than 25,000 km/s in the days after first light, and slow to about 18,000 km/s near Bmax. To recreate the Ca II near-infrared triplet (CaNIR) HVF in SN 2011fe, we consider the interaction between a Type Ia supernova and a compact circumstellar shell, employing a hydrodynamic 1-D simulation using FLASH. We generate synthetic spectra from the hydrodynamic results using syn++. We show that the CaNIR HVF and its velocity evolution is better explained by a supernova model interacting with a shell than a model without a shell, and briefly discuss the implications for progenitor models.

  7. X-ray Emission from Strongly Asymmetric Circumstellar Material in the Remnant of Kepler's Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Burkey, Mary T; Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Blondin, John M

    2012-01-01

    Kepler's supernova remnant resulted from a thermonuclear explosion, but is interacting with circumstellar material (CSM) lost from the progenitor system. We describe a statistical technique for isolating X-ray emission due to CSM from that due to shocked ejecta. Shocked CSM coincides well in position with 24 $\\mu$m emission seen by {\\sl Spitzer}. We find most CSM to be distributed along the bright north rim, but substantial concentrations are also found projected against the center of the remnant, roughly along a diameter with position angle $\\sim 100^\\circ$. We interpret this as evidence for a disk distribution of CSM before the SN, with the line of sight to the observer roughly in the disk plane. We present 2-D hydrodynamic simulations of this scenario, in qualitative agreement with the observed CSM morphology. Our observations require Kepler to have originated in a close binary system with an AGB star companion.

  8. Ground-based near-infrared imaging of the HD141569 circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Boccaletti, A; Marchis, F; Hanh, J

    2003-01-01

    We present the first ground-based near-infrared image of the circumstellar disk around the post-Herbig Ae/Be star HD141569A initially detected with the HST. Observations were carried out in the near-IR (2.2 $\\mu$m) at the Palomar 200-inch telescope using the adaptive optics system PALAO. The main large scale asymmetric features of the disk are detected on our ground-based data. In addition, we measured that the surface brightness of the disk is slightly different than that derived by HST observations (at 1.1 $\\mu$m and 1.6 $\\mu$m). We interpret this possible color-effect in terms of dust properties and derive a minimal

  9. THE GAS/DUST RATIO OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: TESTING MODELS OF PLANETESIMAL FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, David [New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States); Gibb, Erika [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Rettig, Terrence W.; Tilley, David; Balsara, Dinshaw [Center for Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Brittain, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We present high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC observations of CO absorption toward six class II T Tauri stars: AA Tau, DG Tau, IQ Tau, RY Tau, CW Tau, and Haro 6-5b. {sup 12}CO overtone absorption lines originating from the circumstellar disk of each object were used to calculate line-of-sight gas column densities toward each source. We measured the gas/dust ratio as a function of disk inclination, utilizing measured visual extinctions and inclinations for each star. The majority of our sources show further evidence for a correlation between the gas/dust column density ratio and disk inclination similar to that found by Rettig et al.

  10. Circular Polarization of Water Masers in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Late Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T; Van Langevelde, H J

    2002-01-01

    We present circular polarization measurements of circumstellar H_2O masers. The circular polarization detected in the (6_{16}-5_{23}) rotational transition of the H_{2}O maser can be attributed to Zeeman splitting in the intermediate temperature and density regime. The magnetic fields are derived using a general, LTE Zeeman analysis as well as a full radiative transfer method (non-LTE), which includes a treatment of all hyperfine components simultaneously as well as the effects of saturation and unequal populations of the magnetic substates. The differences and relevances of these interpretations are discussed extensively. The field strengths are compared with previous detections of the magnetic field on the SiO and OH masers. We show that the magnetic pressure dominates the thermal pressure by a factor of 20 or more.

  11. A Hidden Population of Massive Stars with Circumstellar Shells Discovered with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, S; Van Dyk, S D; Hoard, D W; Kafka, S; Morris, P W

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered a large number of circular and elliptical shells at 24 microns around luminous central sources with the MIPS instrument on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our archival follow-up effort has revealed 90% of these circumstellar shells to be previously unknown. The majority of the shells is only visible at 24 microns, but many of the central stars are detected at multiple wavelengths from the mid- to the near-IR regime. The general lack of optical counterparts, however, indicates that these sources represent a population of highly obscured objects. We obtained optical and near-IR spectroscopic observations of the central stars and find most of these objects to be massive stars. In particular, we identify a large population of sources that we argue represents a narrow evolutionary phase, closely related or identical to the LBV stage of massive stellar evolution.

  12. OISTER optical and near-infrared observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova candidate SN 2012dn: Dust emission from the circumstellar shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Kawabata, Koji S.; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ueno, Issei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Takahashi, Jun; Honda, Satoshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Miyanoshita, Ryo; Nagao, Takashi; Watanabe, Makoto; Isogai, Mizuki; Arai, Akira; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ui, Takahiro; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ukita, Nobuharu; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Masumoto, Kazunari; Ono, Rikako; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nogami, Daisaku; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oasa, Yumiko; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    We present extensively dense observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova (SC SN) candidate SN 2012dn from -11 to +140 d after the date of its B-band maximum in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths conducted through the OISTER ToO (Optical and Infrared Synergetic Telescopes for Education and Research Target of Opportunity) program. The NIR light curves and color evolutions up to 35 days after the B-band maximum provided an excellent match with those of another SC SN 2009dc, providing further support to the nature of SN 2012dn as an SC SN. We found that SN 2012dn exhibited strong excesses in the NIR wavelengths from 30 d after the B-band maximum. The H- and Ks-band light curves exhibited much later maximum dates at 40 and 70 d after the B-band maximum, respectively, compared with those of normal SNe Ia. The H- and Ks-band light curves subtracted by those of SN 2009dc displayed plateaued evolutions, indicating an NIR echo from the surrounding dust. The distance to the inner boundary of the dust shell is limited to 4.8-6.4 × 10-2 pc. No emission lines were found in its early phase spectra, suggesting that the ejecta-circumstellar material interaction could not occur. On the other hand, we found no signature that strongly supports the scenario of dust formation. The mass-loss rate of the pre-explosion system is estimated to be 10-6-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, assuming that the wind velocity of the system is 10-100 km s-1, which suggests that the progenitor of SN 2012dn could be a recurrent nova system. We conclude that the progenitor of this SC SN could be explained by the single-degenerate scenario.

  13. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Ori system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we will use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. We recorded spectrally dispersed (R˜35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases and the SED of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ˜3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ˜70 degree. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ˜0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ˜70 degree and an additional dust envelope. The finding of an ˜70 degree inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar.

  14. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Orionis system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori-type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. Methods: We recorded spectrally dispersed (R ~ 35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases, and the spectral energy distribution of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). Results: We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ~3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ~70°. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ~0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ~70° and an additional dust envelope. Conclusions: The finding of an ~70° inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program ID: 083.D-0224(C) and 088.C-0575(A).

  15. A SYMMETRIC INNER CAVITY IN THE HD 141569A CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazoyer, J.; Choquet, É.; Perrin, M. D.; Pueyo, L.; Debes, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States); Boccaletti, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC and Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Augereau, J.-C.; Lagrange, A.-M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Planétologie et d´Astrophysique (IPAG) F-38000 Grenoble (France); Wolff, S. G., E-mail: jmazoyer@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Some circumstellar disks, called transitional or hybrid disks, present characteristics of both protoplanetary disks (significant amount of gas) and debris disks (evolved structures around young main-sequence stars, composed of second generation dust, from collisions between planetesimals). Therefore, they are ideal astrophysical laboratories to witness the last stages of planet formation. The circumstellar disk around HD 141569A was intensively observed and resolved in the past from space, but also from the ground. However, the recent implementation of high contrast imaging systems has opened up new opportunities to re-analyze this object. We analyzed Gemini archival data from the Near-infrared Coronagraphic Imager obtained in 2011 in the H band, using several angular differential imaging techniques (classical ADI, LOCI, KLIP). These images reveal the complex structures of this disk with an unprecedented resolution. We also include archival Hubble Space Telescope images as an independent data set to confirm these findings. Using an analysis of the inner edge of the disk, we show that the inner disk is almost axisymmetrical. The measurement of an offset toward the east observed by previous authors is likely due to the fact that the eastern part of this disk is wider and more complex in substructure. Our precise reanalysis of the eastern side shows several structures, including a splitting of the disk and a small finger detached from the inner edge to the southeast. Finally, we find that the arc at 250 AU is unlikely to be a spiral, at least not at the inclination derived from the first ring, but instead could be interpreted as a third belt at a different inclination. If the very symmetrical inner disk edge is carved by a companion, the data presented here put additional constraints on its position. The observed very complex structures will be confirmed by the new generation of coronagraphic instrument (GPI, SPHERE). However, a full understanding of this system will

  16. The chemical composition of the circumstellar envelopes around yellow hypergiant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.

    2007-08-01

    Context: The yellow hypergiant stars (YHGs) are extremely luminous and massive objects whose general properties are poorly known. Only two of this kind of star show massive circumstellar envelopes, IRC +10420 and AFGL 2343. Aims: We aim to study the chemistry of the circumstellar envelopes around these two sources, by comparison with well known AGB stars and protoplanetary nebulae. We also estimate the abundances of the observed molecular species. Methods: We have performed single-dish observations of different transitions for twelve molecular species. We have compared the ratio of the intensities of the molecular transitions and of the estimated abundances in AFGL 2343 and IRC +10420 with those in O-rich and C-rich AGB stars and protoplanetary nebulae. Results: Both YHGs, AFGL 2343, and IRC +10420, have been found to have an O-rich chemistry similar to that in O-rich AGB stars, though for AFGL 2343 the emission of most molecules compared with 13CO lines is relatively weak. Clear differences with the other evolved sources appear when we compare the line intensity corrected for distance and the profile widths which are, respectively, very intense and very wide in YHGs. The abundances obtained for IRC +10420 agree with those found in AGB stars, but in general those found in AFGL 2343, except for 13CO, are too low. This apparently low molecular abundance in AFGL 2343 could be due to the fact that these molecules are present only in an inner region of the shell where the mass is relatively low. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Pico Veleta 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. The circumstellar environment of IRAS 16293-2422. ISO-LWS and SCUBA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J. C.; Griffin, M.; Saraceno, P.

    2004-05-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) continuum observations of the deeply embedded source IRAS 16293-2422 performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on-board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We also report 450 and 850 μm mapping observations done with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). We combined these observations with IRAS and other JCMT data available in the literature to construct a complete spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source. A spherically symmetric dusty envelope model was used to reproduce the SED and to characterize the circumstellar matter around the object. We call attention to the fact that when using models such as the one presented here, one needs spatial information about the object to distinguish between different possible fits to the SED. A comparison between the intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm obtained from the SCUBA observations and the profiles predicted by the model allowed us to constrain the size of the envelope and its density distribution. The SED and the 850 μm intensity profile of the source are consistent with a centrally peaked power law dust density distribution of the form ρ(r) ∝ r-p with p = 1.5-2, with a radius Renv = 3000-3250 AU, defining a very compact circumstellar envelope. We estimate a bolometric luminosity Lbol = 36 L⊙, an envelope mass Menv = 3.4 M⊙, and a submillimetre to bolometric luminosity ratio Lsubmm/Lbol = 1.9%, confirming that the source shows a submillimetre excess characteristic of Class 0 sources.

  18. A HOT MOLECULAR CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AROUND THE MASSIVE PROTOSTAR ORION SOURCE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kim, Mi Kyoung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Hwaam-dong 61-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kurono, Yasutaka, E-mail: tomoya.hirota@nao.ac.jp [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    We report new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a circumstellar disk around Source I in Orion KL, an archetype of massive protostar candidates. We detected two ortho-H{sub 2}O lines at 321 GHz (10{sub 2,} {sub 9}-9{sub 3,} {sub 6}) and 336 GHz (ν{sub 2} = 1, 5{sub 2,} {sub 3}-6{sub 1,} {sub 6}) for the first time in Source I. The latter one is in a vibrationally excited state at the lower state energy of 2939 K, suggesting evidence of hot molecular gas close to Source I. The integrated intensity map of the 321 GHz line is elongated along the bipolar outflow while the 336 GHz line map is unresolved with a beam size of 0.''4. Both of these maps show velocity gradients perpendicular to the bipolar outflow. The velocity centroid map of the 321 GHz line implies a spatial and velocity structure similar to that of vibrationally excited SiO masers tracing the root of the outflow emanating from the disk surface. In contrast, the 336 GHz line is most likely emitting from the disk midplane with a diameter of 0.''2 (84 AU) as traced by radio continuum emission and a dark lane devoid of the vibrationally excited SiO maser emission. The observed velocity gradient and the spectral profile of the 336 GHz H{sub 2}O line can be reconciled with a model of an edge-on ring-like structure with an enclosed mass of >7 M{sub ☉} and an excitation temperature of >3000 K. The present results provide further evidence of a hot and neutral circumstellar disk rotating around Source I with a diameter of ∼100 AU scale.

  19. Injection of photoelectrons into dense argon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Borghesani, A F

    2010-01-01

    The injection of photoelectrons in a gaseous or liquid sample is a widespread technique to produce a cold plasma in a weakly--ionized system in order to study the transport properties of electrons in a dense gas or liquid. We report here the experimental results of photoelectron injection into dense argon gas at the temperatureT=142.6 K as a function of the externally applied electric field and gas density. We show that the experimental data can be interpreted in terms of the so called Young-Bradbury model only if multiple scattering effects due to the dense environment are taken into account when computing the scattering properties and the energetics of the electrons.

  20. The Origin of the Near-infrared Excess in SN Ia 2012dn: Circumstellar Dust around the Super-Chandrasekhar Supernova Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Yamanaka, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    The nature of progenitors of the so-called super-Chandrasekhar candidate Type Ia supernovae (SC-SNe Ia) has been actively debated. Recently, Yamanaka et al. reported a near-infrared (NIR) excess for SN 2012dn and proposed that the excess originates from an echo by circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we examine a detailed distribution of the CS dust around SN 2012dn and investigate implications of the CS dust echo scenario for general cases of SC-SNe Ia. We find that a disk/bipolar CS medium configuration reproduces the NIR excess fairly well, where the radial density distribution is given by a stationary mass loss. The inner radius of the CS dust is 0.04 pc. The mass-loss rate of the progenitor system is estimated to be 1.2× {10}-5 and 3.2× {10}-6 M⊙ yr‑1 for the disk and bipolar CS medium configurations, respectively, which adds further support for the single-degenerate scenario. Our models limit SN 2009dc, another SC-SN Ia, to have a dust mass less than 0.16 times that of SN 2012dn. While this may merely indicate some variation on the CS environment among SC-SNe Ia, this could raise another interesting possibility. There could be two classes among SC-SNe Ia: the brighter SC-SNe Ia in a clean environment (SN 2009dc) and the fainter SC-SNe Ia in a dusty environment (SN 2012dn).

  1. Welsh-Medium Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Gareth

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect in the primary and secondary school levels of teaching through the medium of Welsh and the response of the University of Wales. The media and the educational system are two formal social organizations which help the threatened Welsh language to survive. Another would be the establishment of a Welsh-medium university. (SED)

  2. Medium is the message

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Ritzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), in his book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). In this book, McLuhan examines the impact of media on societies and human relations, arguing for the primacy of the medium -

  3. Medium is the message

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Ritzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), in his book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). In this book, McLuhan examines the impact of media on societies and human relations, arguing for the primacy of the medium - understo

  4. Synthetic laser medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  5. Negative refraction and Negative refractive index in an optical uniaxial absorbent medium

    OpenAIRE

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Yu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Chin-Te

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the existence of both negative refraction and a negative refractive index in an optical uniaxial absorbent medium that can be characterized by ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices. Negative refraction occurs in any absorbent uniaxial medium if the real part of the extraordinary index is less than its imaginary part. The refractive index is negative when the incident medium is sufficiently dense and the incident angle exceeds a critical angle that is defined here.

  6. DNS of turbulent flows of dense gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacovelli, L.; Cinnella, P.; Gloerfelt, X.; Grasso, F.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of dense gas effects on compressible turbulence is investigated by means of numerical simulations of the decay of compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence (CHIT) and of supersonic turbulent flows through a plane channel (TCF). For both configurations, a parametric study on the Mach and Reynolds numbers is carried out. The dense gas considered in these parametric studies is PP11, a heavy fluorocarbon. The results are systematically compared to those obtained for a diatomic perfect gas (air). In our computations, the thermodynamic behaviour of the dense gases is modelled by means of the Martin-Hou equation of state. For CHIT cases, initial turbulent Mach numbers up to 1 are analyzed using mesh resolutions up to 5123. For TCF, bulk Mach numbers up to 3 and bulk Reynolds numbers up to 12000 are investigated. Average profiles of the thermodynamic quantities exhibit significant differences with respect to perfect-gas solutions for both of the configurations. For high-Mach CHIT, compressible structures are modified with respect to air, with weaker eddy shocklets and stronger expansions. In TCF, the velocity profiles of dense gas flows are much less sensitive to the Mach number and collapse reasonably well in the logarithmic region without any special need for compressible scalings, unlike the case of air, and the overall flow behaviour is midway between that of a variable-property liquid and that of a gas.

  7. Dense matter at RAON: Challenges and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujeong; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Gaitanos, T.; Kim, Youngman

    2016-11-01

    Dense nuclear matter is ubiquitous in modern nuclear physics because it is related to many interesting microscopic and macroscopic phenomena such as heavy ion collisions, nuclear structure, and neutron stars. The on-going rare isotope science project in Korea will build up a rare isotope accelerator complex called RAON. One of the main goals of RAON is to investigate rare isotope physics including dense nuclear matter. Using the relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (RBUU) transport code, we estimate the properties of nuclear matter that can be created from low-energy heavyion collisions at RAON.We give predictions for the maximum baryon density, the isospin asymmetry and the temperature of nuclear matter that would be formed during 197Au+197Au and 132Sn+64Ni reactions. With a large isospin asymmetry, various theoretical studies indicate that the critical densities or temperatures of phase transitions to exotic states decrease. Because a large isospin asymmetry is expected in the dense matter created at RAON, we discuss possibilities of observing exotic states of dense nuclear matter at RAON for large isospin asymmetry.

  8. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  9. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HanJu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of is dense in .

  10. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ju Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space X is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of A(BX:X is dense in A(BX:X.

  11. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  12. APT: Action localization Proposals from dense Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Jain, M.; Gati, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is on action localization in video with the aid of spatio-temporal proposals. To alleviate the computational expensive video segmentation step of existing proposals, we propose bypassing the segmentations completely by generating proposals directly from the dense trajectories used to repr

  13. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Dense ceramic membranes made from mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting perovskite-related oxides allow separation of oxygen from an air supply at elevated temperatures (>700 °C). By combining air separation and catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas into a ceramic membrane reactor,

  14. Improvements in accuracy of dense OPC models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallingal, Chidam; Oberschmidt, James; Viswanathan, Ramya; Abdo, Amr; Park, OSeo

    2008-10-01

    Performing model-based optical proximity correction (MBOPC) on layouts has become an integral part of patterning advanced integrated circuits. Earlier technologies used sparse OPC, the run times of which explode when the density of layouts increases. With the move to 45 nm technology node, this increase in run time has resulted in a shift to dense simulation OPC, which is pixel-based. The dense approach becomes more efficient at 45nm technology node and beyond. New OPC model forms can be used with the dense simulation OPC engine, providing the greater accuracy required by smaller technology nodes. Parameters in the optical model have to be optimized to achieve the required accuracy. Dense OPC uses a resist model with a different set of parameters than sparse OPC. The default search ranges used in the optimization of these resist parameters do not always result in the best accuracy. However, it is possible to improve the accuracy of the resist models by understanding the restrictions placed on the search ranges of the physical parameters during optimization. This paper will present results showing the correlation between accuracy of the models and some of these optical and resist parameters. The results will show that better optimization can improve the model fitness of features in both the calibration and verification set.

  15. Building a dense surface map incrementally from semi-dense point cloud and RGB images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-shan LI; Rong XIONG; Shoudong HUANG; Yi-ming HUANG

    2015-01-01

    Building and using maps is a fundamental issue for bionic robots in fi eld applications. A dense surface map, which offers rich visual and geometric information, is an ideal representation of the environment for indoor/outdoor localization, navigation, and recognition tasks of these robots. Since most bionic robots can use only small light-weight laser scanners and cameras to acquire semi-dense point cloud and RGB images, we propose a method to generate a consistent and dense surface map from this kind of semi-dense point cloud and RGB images. The method contains two main steps: (1) generate a dense surface for every single scan of point cloud and its corresponding image(s) and (2) incrementally fuse the dense surface of a new scan into the whole map. In step (1) edge-aware resampling is realized by segmenting the scan of a point cloud in advance and resampling each sub-cloud separately. Noise within the scan is reduced and a dense surface is generated. In step (2) the average surface is estimated probabilistically and the non-coincidence of different scans is eliminated. Experiments demonstrate that our method works well in both indoor and outdoor semi-structured environments where there are regularly shaped ob jects.

  16. Supernova interaction with dense mass loss

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    Supernovae of Type IIn (narrow line) appear to be explosions that had strong mass loss before the event, so that the optical luminosity is powered by the circumstellar interaction. If the mass loss region has an optical depth $>c/v_s$, where $v_s$ is the shock velocity, the shock breakout occurs in the mass loss region and a significant fraction of the explosion energy can be radiated. The emission from the superluminous SN 2006gy and the normal luminosity SN 2011ht can plausibly be attributed to shock breakout in a wind, with SN 2011ht being a low energy event. Superluminous supernovae of Type I may derive their luminosity from interaction with a mass loss region of limited extent. However, the distinctive temperature increase to maximum luminosity has not been clearly observed in Type I events. Suggested mechanisms for the strong mass loss include pulsational pair instability, gravity-waves generated by instabilities in late burning phases, and binary effects.

  17. Anomalous-Magnetic-Moment Effects in a Strongly Magnetized and Dense Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, E J; Paret, D Manreza; Martínez, A Pérez

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the quantum corrections of the anomalous magnetic moment (AMM) for fermions in the presence of a strong magnetic field using the Ritus's approach. At strong fields the particles get different AMM's depending on the LL's. This result is different from what is obtained with the Schwinger's approximation at weak field where the AMM is independent of the LL. We analyze the significance of the AMM contribution to the Equation of State (EoS) of the magnetized system, in the weak and strong field approximations.

  18. MECHANISM AND APPLICATION OF COAL DRY BENEFICIATION WITH AIR-DENSE MEDIUM FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Coaldrybeneficiationwithair-densemediumfluidizedbedhasbeenestablishedasahighefi-ciencydryseparationtechniquewhichappliesflu-i...

  19. Hadronic Equation of State and Speed of Sound in Thermal and Dense Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2012-01-01

    The equation of state and squared speed of sound $c_s^2$ are studied in grand canonical ensemble of all hadron resonances having masses $\\leq 2\\,$GeV. The ensemble is divided into strange and non-strange hadron resonances. Furthermore, pionic, bosonic and femeionic sectors are considered, separately. It is found that $c_s^2$ calculated in the QCD matter below $T_c$ is obviously causal. There is no sign for superluminal phenomena. It is found that the lightest Goldstone bosons, the pions, represent the main contributors to $c_s^2$ at low temperatures. At this temperature scale, they determine the hadronic thermodynamics including the equation of state, almost entirely. The comparison of the barotropic dependence of the pressure calculated in the hadron resonance gas (HRG) with that of full lattice QCD at vanishing and finite chemical potential is excellent. Nevertheless, the comparison of $c_s^2$ at vanishing chemical potential is not that good. But, when switching on the chemical potential, HRG $c_s^2$ and th...

  20. Hadronic equation of state and speed of sound in thermal and dense medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser Tawfik, Abdel; Magdy, Hend

    2014-10-01

    The equation of state p(ɛ) and speed of sound squared cs2 are studied in grand canonical ensemble of all hadron resonances having masses ≤2 GeV. This large ensemble is divided into strange and non-strange hadron resonances and furthermore to pionic, bosonic and fermionic sectors. It is found that the pions represent the main contributors to cs2 and other thermodynamic quantities including the equation of state p(ɛ) at low temperatures. At high temperatures, the main contributions are added in by the massive hadron resonances. The speed of sound squared can be calculated from the derivative of pressure with respect to the energy density, ∂p/∂ɛ, or from the entropy-specific heat ratio, s/cv. It is concluded that the physics of these two expressions is not necessarily identical. They are distinguishable below and above the critical temperature Tc. This behavior is observed at vanishing and finite chemical potential. At high temperatures, both expressions get very close to each other and both of them approach the asymptotic value, 1/3. In the hadron resonance gas (HRG) results, which are only valid below Tc, the difference decreases with increasing the temperature and almost vanishes near Tc. It is concluded that the HRG model can very well reproduce the results of the lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) of ∂p/∂ɛ and s/cv, especially at finite chemical potential. In light of this, energy fluctuations and other collective phenomena associated with the specific heat might be present in the HRG model. At fixed temperatures, it is found that cs2 is not sensitive to the chemical potential.

  1. Collective atomic scattering and motional effects in a dense coherent medium

    CERN Document Server

    Bromley, Sarah L; Bishof, Michael; Zhang, Xibo; Bothwell, Tobias; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Nicholson, Travis L; Kaiser, Robin; Yelin, Susanne F; Lukin, Mikhail D; Rey, Ana Maria; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We investigate systematically collective emission from coherently driven ultracold $^{88}$Sr atoms. We perform two sets of experiments, using a strong (weak) transition with natural linewidth of $\\Gamma$$=$$32$ MHz ($7.5$ kHz), making it insensitive (sensitive) to atomic motion at one microKelvin. We observe highly directional forward emission with a peak intensity that is enhanced, for the strong transition, by $>$$10^{3}$ compared to that in the transverse direction. This is accompanied by substantial broadening of spectral lines. For the weak transition, the forward enhancement is substantially reduced due to motion. At the same time, a density-dependent frequency shift of the weak transition ($\\sim$$0.1\\Gamma$) is observed. In contrast, this line shift is suppressed to $<$$0.01\\Gamma$ for the strong transition. Along the transverse direction, we observe strong polarization dependences of the fluorescence intensity and line broadening for both transitions. The measurements are reproduced with a theoreti...

  2. The effects of circumstellar gas on terrestrial planet formation: Theory and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avram M.

    Our understanding of the evolution of circumstellar material from dust and gas to fully-formed planets has taken dramatic steps forward in the last decade, driven by rapid improvements in our ability to study gas- and dust-rich disks around young stars and the discovery of more than 200 extra-solar planetary systems around other stars. In addition, our ability to model the formation of both terrestrial and giant planets has improved significantly due to new computing techniques and the continued exponential increase in computing power. In this dissertation I expand on existing theories of terrestrial planet formation to include systems similar to those currently being detected around nearby stars, and I develop new observational techniques to probe the chemistry of gas-rich circumstellar disks where such planetary systems may be forming. One of the most significant characteristics of observed extrasolar planetary systems is the presence of giant planets located much closer to their parent star than was thought to be possible. The presence of "Hot Jupiters", Jovian-mass planets with very short orbital periods detected around nearby main sequence stars, has been proposed to be primarily due to the inward migration of planets formed in orbits initially much further from the parent star. Close-in giant planets are thought to have formed in the cold outer regions of planetary systems and migrated inward, passing through the orbital parameter space occupied by the terrestrial planets in our own Solar System; the migration of these planets would have profound effects on the evolution of inner terrestrial planets in these systems. I first explore this scenario with numerical simulations showing that a significant fraction of terrestrial planets could survive the migration process; damping forces could then eventually re-circularize the orbits at distances relatively close to their original positions. Calculations suggest that the final orbits of a significant fraction of

  3. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: Methods, Performance at First Light, and the Circumstellar Ring around HR 4796A

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Marshall D; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Graham, James R; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Kalas, Paul G; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M; Oppenheimer, B R; Palmer, David W; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J Kent; Wang, Jason J; Wolff, Schuyler G

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point spread function subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side >9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Ba...

  4. Lines of Circumstellar C2, CN, and CH$^+$ in the Optical Spectra of Post-Agb Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J; Van Dishoeck, E F; Bakker, Eric J.; Lambert, David L.; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van

    1996-01-01

    Recent optical spectra of post-AGB stars show the presence of C2, CN, and CH+ originating in the circumstellar shell. We present here new, higher resolution spectra which provide constraints on the physical parameters and information on the line profiles. An empirical curve of growth for the C2 Phillips and CN Red system lines in the spectrum of HD 56126 yields b = 0.50 (+0.59, -0.23) km/s. CH+ (0,0) emission lines in the spectrum of the Red Rectangle have been resolved with a FWHM approx 8.5 pm 0.8 km/s. The circumstellar CN lines of IRAS 08005--2356 are resolved into two separate components with a velocity separation of Delta v = 5.7 pm 2.0 km/s. The line profiles of CN of HD 235858 have not been resolved.

  5. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  6. Observational constraints for the circumstellar disk of the B[e] star CPD-52 9243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidale, L. S.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Andruchow, I.; Arias, M. L.; Kraus, M.; Chesneau, O.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M.; de Wit, W. J.; Muratore, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of gas and dust environments around B[e] supergiants are still open issues. Aims: We intend to study the geometry, kinematics and physical structure of the circumstellar environment (CE) of the B[e] supergiant CPD-52 9243 to provide further insights into the underlying mechanism causing the B[e] phenomenon. Methods: The influence of the different physical mechanisms acting on the CE (radiation pressure, rotation, bi-stability or tidal forces) is somehow reflected in the shape and kinematic properties of the gas and dust regions (flaring, Keplerian, accretion or outflowing disks). To investigate these processes we mainly used quasi-simultaneous observations taken with high spatial resolution optical long-baseline interferometry (VLTI/MIDI), near-IR spectroscopy of CO bandhead features (Gemini/Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES) and optical spectra (CASLEO/REOSC). Results: High angular resolution interferometric measurements obtained with VLTI/MIDI provide strong support for the presence of a dusty disk(ring)-like structure around CPD-52 9243, with an upper limit for its inner edge of ~8 mas (~27.5 AU, considering a distance of 3.44 kpc to the star). The disk has an inclination angle with respect to the line of sight of 46 ± 7°. The study of CO first overtone bandhead evidences a disk structure in Keplerian rotation. The optical spectrum indicates a rapid outflow in the polar direction. Conclusions: The IR emission (CO and warm dust) indicates Keplerian rotation in a circumstellar disk while the optical line transitions of various species are consistent with a polar wind. Both structures appear simultaneously and provide further evidence for the proposed paradigms of the mass-loss in supergiant B[e] stars. The presence of a detached cold CO ring around CPD-52 9243 could be due to a truncation of the inner disk caused by a companion, located possibly interior to the disk rim, clearing the center of the system. More spectroscopic and

  7. SO and SO2 in mass-loss envelopes of red giants - Probes of nonequilibrium circumstellar chemistry and mass-loss rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wannier, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    SO emission was searched for in one or more of four transitions toward 23 oxygen-rich red giant or supergiant stars and one S star, selected primarily on the basis of their nonmaser SiO emission. SO was detected in a total of 14 circumstellar envelopes, 13 of which are new detections. The circumstellar abundance of SO (and SO2) is significantly enhanced over the equilibrium value achieved in the photospheres of these stars. In general, the SO abundances are significantly larger than predicted by nonequilibrium circumstellar chemistry models. Sulfur cannot be significantly depleted onto circumstellar grains, and probably exists as H2S (and/or SH) in the inner regions of the envelopes. The SO rotational-level population in most circumstellar envelopes observed is characterized by excitation temperatures less than or approximately equal to 50 K. The circumstellar abundance of SO2 is comparable to, or larger than, that of SO, ruling out the 'large' value adopted for the unshielded photodissociation rate for SO2 in recent models.

  8. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  9. Resolving the inner regions of the HD97048 circumstellar disk with VLT/NACO polarimetric differential imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Quanz, Sascha P; Apai, Daniel; Wolf, Sebastian; Henning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Circumstellar disks are the cradles of planetary systems and their physical and chemical properties directly influence the planet formation process. As most planets supposedly form in the inner disk regions, i.e., within a few tens of AU, it is crucial to study circumstellar disk on these scales to constrain the conditions for planet formation. Our aims are to characterize the inner regions of the circumstellar disk around the young Herbig Ae/Be star HD97048 in polarized light. We use VLT/NACO to observe HD97048 in polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) mode in the H and Ks band. We spatially resolve the disk around HD97048 in polarized flux in both filters on scales between ~0.1"-1.0" corresponding to the inner ~16-160 AU. Fitting isophots to the flux calibrated H-band image between 13 - 14 mag/arcsec^2 and 14 - 15 mag/arcsec^2 we derive a apparent disk inclination angle of 34+-5 deg and 47+-2 deg, respectively. The disk position angle in both brightness regimes is almost identical and roughly 80 deg. Along...

  10. Spectroscopic Evolution of Disintegrating Planetesimals: Minutes to Months Variability in the Circumstellar Gas Associated with WD 1145+017

    CERN Document Server

    Redfield, Seth; Cauley, P Wilson; Parsons, Steven G; Gaensicke, Boris T; Duvvuri, Girish

    2016-01-01

    With the recent discovery of transiting planetary material around WD 1145+017, a critical target has been identified that links the evolution of planetary systems with debris disks and their accretion onto the star. We present a series of observations, five epochs over a year, taken with Keck and the VLT, which for the first time show variability of circumstellar absorption in the gas disk surrounding WD 1145+017 on timescales of minutes to months. Circumstellar absorption is measured in more than 250 lines of 14 ions among ten different elements associated with planetary composition, e.g., O, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni. Broad circumstellar gas absorption with a velocity spread of 225 km/s is detected, but over the course of a year blue shifted absorption disappears while redshifted absorption systematically increases. A correlation of equivalent width and oscillator strength indicates that the gas is not highly optically thick (median tau approximately 2). We discuss simple models of an eccentric disk couple...

  11. Colloquium: Nonlinear Collective Interactions in Dense Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K

    2010-01-01

    The current understanding of some important collective processes in dense quantum plasmas is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons, we present model equations (e.g. the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations) that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in a nonlinear quantum electron pressure and tunneling/diffusion of electrons through a nonlinear quantum Bohm potential. Since degenerate electrons have $1/2-$spin due to their Fermionic nature, there also appear a spin electron current and a spin force acting on the electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The present nonlinear equations do not include strong electron correlations and electron-exchange interactions. The quantum effects caused by the electron degeneracy produce n...

  12. Active fluidization in dense glassy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rituparno; Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Rao, Madan; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-07-20

    Dense soft glasses show strong collective caging behavior at sufficiently low temperatures. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a model glass former, we show that the incorporation of activity or self-propulsion, f0, can induce cage breaking and fluidization, resulting in the disappearance of the glassy phase beyond a critical f0. The diffusion coefficient crosses over from being strongly to weakly temperature dependent as f0 is increased. In addition, we demonstrate that activity induces a crossover from a fragile to a strong glass and a tendency of active particles to cluster. Our results are of direct relevance to the collective dynamics of dense active colloidal glasses and to recent experiments on tagged particle diffusion in living cells.

  13. Strategies for Dense Optical CDMA Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-bao; LIN Jin-tong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,we have formulated a strategy that the limited available code sequences in pure Direct-Sequence(DS)or Frequency-Hopping(FH)system can be reused to realize dense optical CDMA:the strategy of novel hybrid DS/FH system.In which,the case that there are n users employing the same FH pattern but different DS code patterns is considered.On the condition that the impact of channel noises is neglected,the upper bound probability of error is evaluated based on the stationary random process theory.The results show that the hybrid system is suitable for Dense Optical CDMA(DOCDMA)communication.Moreover,the problems such as the link-impairment,dispersion of group velocity,etc.in the pure(DS or FH)system can be solved effectively.

  14. The kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T. E.; Langer, W. D.; Frerking, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds is formulated to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, the formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, and the evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature. The abundances of the dominant isotopes of the carbon- and oxygen-bearing molecules are calculated. The chemical abundances are found to be quite sensitive to electron concentration since the electron concentration determines the ratio of H3(+) to He(+), and the electron density is strongly influenced by the metals abundance. For typical metal abundances and for H2 cloud density not less than 10,000 molecules/cu cm, nearly all carbon exists as CO at late cloud ages. At high cloud density, many aspects of the chemistry are strongly time dependent. Finally, model calculations agree well with abundances deduced from observations of molecular line emission in cold dense clouds.

  15. Topological Surface States in Dense Solid Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I; Hemley, Russell J

    2016-11-11

    Metallization of dense hydrogen and associated possible high-temperature superconductivity represents one of the key problems of physics. Recent theoretical studies indicate that before becoming a good metal, compressed solid hydrogen passes through a semimetallic stage. We show that such semimetallic phases predicted to be the most stable at multimegabar (∼300  GPa) pressures are not conventional semimetals: they exhibit topological metallic surface states inside the bulk "direct" gap in the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone; that is, metallic surfaces may appear even when the bulk of the material remains insulating. Examples include hydrogen in the Cmca-12 and Cmca-4 structures; Pbcn hydrogen also has metallic surface states but they are of a nontopological nature. The results provide predictions for future measurements, including probes of possible surface superconductivity in dense hydrogen.

  16. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X......-ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation...

  17. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  18. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-10-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  19. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  20. Accelerating Dense Linear Algebra on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg

    and matrix-vector operations on GPUs. Such operations form the backbone of level 1 and level 2 routines in the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) library and are therefore of great importance in many scientific applications. The target hardware is the most recent NVIDIA Tesla 20-series (Fermi...... architecture). Most of the techniques I discuss for accelerating dense linear algebra are applicable to memory-bound GPU algorithms in general....

  1. Observations of Plasmons in Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Lee, R W; Widmann, K; Pollaine, S W; Wallace, R J; Gregori, G; Holl, A; Bornath, T; Thiele, R; Schwarz, V; Kraeft, W; Redmer, R

    2006-09-05

    We present the first collective x-ray scattering measurements of plasmons in solid-density plasmas. The forward scattering spectra of a laser-produced narrow-band x-ray line from isochorically heated beryllium show that the plasmon frequency is a sensitive measure of the electron density. Dynamic structure calculations that include collisions and detailed balance match the measured plasmon spectrum indicating that this technique will enable new applications to determine the equation of state and compressibility of dense matter.

  2. Splashing onset in dense suspension droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Ivo; Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of droplets of dense suspensions onto a solid substrate. We show that a global hydrodynamic balance is unable to predict the splash onset and propose to replace it by an energy balance at the level of the particles in the suspension. We experimentally verify that the resulting, particle-based Weber number gives a reliable, particle size and density dependent splash onset criterion. We further show that the same argument also explains why, in bimodal systems, smaller ...

  3. A method for dense packing discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Kallus, Yoav; Gravel, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing which are reported in [arXiv:0910.5226]. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest known lattice sphere packings and the best known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and ...

  4. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  5. Dense Visual SLAM with Probabilistic Surfel Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixin; Ye, Mao; Ren, Liu

    2017-11-01

    Visual SLAM is one of the key technologies to align the virtual and real world together in Augmented Reality applications. RGBD dense Visual SLAM approaches have shown their advantages in robustness and accuracy in recent years. However, there are still several challenges such as the inconsistencies in RGBD measurements across multiple frames that could jeopardize the accuracy of both camera trajectory and scene reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a novel map representation called Probabilistic Surfel Map (PSM) for dense visual SLAM. The main idea is to maintain a globally consistent map with both photometric and geometric uncertainties encoded in order to address the inconsistency issue. The key of our PSM is proper modeling and updating of sensor measurement uncertainties, as well as the strategies to apply them for improving both the front-end pose estimation and the back-end optimization. Experimental results on publicly available datasets demonstrate major improvements with our approach over the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, comparing with σ-DVO, we achieve a 40% reduction in absolute trajectory error and an 18% reduction in relative pose error in visual odometry, as well as an 8.5% reduction in absolute trajectory error in complete SLAM. Moreover, our PSM enables generation of a high quality dense point cloud with comparable accuracy as the state-of-the-art approach.

  6. Dense Correspondences across Scenes and Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Moria; Hassner, Tal

    2016-05-01

    We seek a practical method for establishing dense correspondences between two images with similar content, but possibly different 3D scenes. One of the challenges in designing such a system is the local scale differences of objects appearing in the two images. Previous methods often considered only few image pixels; matching only pixels for which stable scales may be reliably estimated. Recently, others have considered dense correspondences, but with substantial costs associated with generating, storing and matching scale invariant descriptors. Our work is motivated by the observation that pixels in the image have contexts-the pixels around them-which may be exploited in order to reliably estimate local scales. We make the following contributions. (i) We show that scales estimated in sparse interest points may be propagated to neighboring pixels where this information cannot be reliably determined. Doing so allows scale invariant descriptors to be extracted anywhere in the image. (ii) We explore three means for propagating this information: using the scales at detected interest points, using the underlying image information to guide scale propagation in each image separately, and using both images together. Finally, (iii), we provide extensive qualitative and quantitative results, demonstrating that scale propagation allows for accurate dense correspondences to be obtained even between very different images, with little computational costs beyond those required by existing methods.

  7. Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.

  8. Onset of color decoherence for soft gluon radiation in medium

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    We report on recent studies of the phenomenon of color decoherence in jets in QCD media. The effect is most clearly observed in the radiation pattern of a quark-antiquark antenna, created in the same quantum state, traversing a dense color deconfined plasma. Multiple scattering with the medium color charges gradually destroys the coherence of the antenna. In the limit of opaque media this ultimately leads to independent radiation off the antenna constituents. Accordingly, radiation off the total charge vanishes implying a memory loss effect induced by the medium.

  9. Characterizations of the medium in jet quenching calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, A

    2008-01-01

    The modification of hard jets in dense matter has so far been described by four different formalisms based on perturbative QCD (pQCD). In these proceedings, we compare the various approximations made in these different schemes, especially those regarding the structure of the medium through which jets propagate. Following this, we highlight some of the major differences in the various physical processes contained in the different approaches.

  10. Detection of warm molecular hydrogen in the circumstellar disk around the Herbig Ae star HD97048

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Zaidi, C; Pantin, E; Habart, E

    2007-01-01

    We present high resolution spectroscopic mid-infrared observations of the circumstellar disk around the Herbig Ae star HD97048 with the VLT Imager and Spectrometer for the mid-InfraRed (VISIR). We detect the S(1) pure rotational line of molecular hydrogen (H2) at 17.035 microns arising from the disk around the star. This detection reinforces the claim that HD97048 is a young object surrounded by a flared disk at an early stage of evolution. The emitting warm gas is located within the inner 35 AU of the disk. The line-to-continuum flux ratio is much higher than expected from models of disks at local thermodynamics equilibrium. We investigate the possible physical conditions, such as a gas-to-dust mass ratio higher than 100 and different excitation mechanisms of molecular hydrogen (X-ray heating, shocks, ...) in order to explain the detection. We tentatively estimate the mass of warm gas to be in the range from 0.01 to nearly 1 Jupiter Mass. Further observations are needed to better constrain the excitation mec...

  11. Circumstellar HI and CO around the carbon stars V1942 Sgr and V CrB

    CERN Document Server

    Libert, Y; Thum, C; Winters, J M; Matthews, L D; Bertre, T Le

    2009-01-01

    Context. The majority of stars that leave the main sequence are undergoing extensive mass loss, in particular during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution. Observations show that the rate at which this phenomenon develops differs highly from source to source, so that the time-integrated mass loss as a function of the initial conditions (mass, metallicity, etc.) and of the stage of evolution is presently not well understood. Aims. We are investigating the mass loss history of AGB stars by observing the molecular and atomic emissions of their circumstellar envelopes. Methods. In this work we have selected two stars that are on the thermally pulsing phase of the AGB (TP-AGB) and for which high quality data in the CO rotation lines and in the atomic hydrogen line at 21 cm could be obained. Results. V1942 Sgr, a carbon star of the Irregular variability type, shows a complex CO line profile that may originate from a long-lived wind at a rate of ~ 10^-7 Msol/yr, and from a young (< 10^4 years) fast...

  12. A Low-Mass H2 Component to the AU Microscopii Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Lupu, Roxana E; Redfield, Seth; Feldman, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    We present a determination of the molecular gas mass in the AU Microscopii circumstellar disk. Direct detection of a gas component to the AU Mic disk has proven elusive, with upper limits derived from ultraviolet absorption line and submillimeter CO emission studies. Fluorescent emission lines of H2, pumped by the OVI 1032 resonance line through the C-X (1 -- 1) Q(3) 1031.87 \\AA\\ transition, are detected by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. These lines are used to derive the H2 column density associated with the AU Mic system. The derived column density is in the range N(H2) = 1.9 x 10^{17} - 2.8 x 10^{15} cm^{-2}, roughly two orders of magnitude lower than the upper limit inferred from absorption line studies. This range of column densities reflects the range of H2 excitation temperature consistent with the observations, T(H2) = 800 -- 2000 K, derived from the presence of emission lines excited by OVI in the absence of those excited by LyA. Within the observational uncertainties, the data are consi...

  13. The impact of secular resonances on habitable zones in circumstellar planetary systems of known binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bazsó, Ákos; Eggl, Siegfried; Funk, Barbara; Bancelin, David

    2016-01-01

    We present a survey on binary star systems with stellar separations less than 100 astronomical units. For a selection of 11 binaries with a detected (giant) planet in circumstellar motion we determine the conditions that would allow additional planets to be present inside or nearby the habitable zone (HZ) of the host star. First we calculate the three-body HZ for these systems, in order to investigate the dynamics of bodies in those regions. After adding the giant planet's influence the final HZ is considerably modified in particular by mean motion and secular resonances. We apply a semi-analytical method to determine the locations of linear secular resonances, which is based on finding the apsidal precession frequencies of the massive bodies. For very close-in giant planets we also take the general relativistic precession of the pericenter into account. Our results demonstrate that there is a qualitative difference in the dynamics whether the giant planet is located exterior or interior to the HZ. An exterio...

  14. The polluted atmosphere of the white dwarf NLTT 25792 and the diversity of circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vennes, S

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of X-Shooter spectra of the polluted, hydrogen-rich white dwarf NLTT 25792. The spectra show strong lines of calcium (Ca H&K, near-infrared calcium triplet, and Ca I 4226 and numerous lines of iron along with magnesium and aluminum lines from which we draw the abundance pattern. Moreover, the photospheric Ca H&K lines are possibly blended with a circumstellar component shifted by -20 km/s relative to the photosphere. A comparison with a sample of four white dwarfs with similar parameters show considerable variations in their abundance patterns, particularly in the calcium to magnesium abundance ratio that varies by a factor of five within this sample. The observed variations, even after accounting for diffusion effects, imply similar variations in the putative accretion source. Also, we find that silicon and sodium are significantly underabundant in the atmosphere of NLTT 25792, a fact that may offer some clues on the nature of the accretion source.

  15. Hubble imaging of V1331 Cygni: Proper motion study of its circumstellar structures

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Arpita; Linz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The young star V1331 Cyg received previous attention because it is surrounded by an optical, arc-like reflection nebula. V1331 Cyg is commonly considered to be a candidate for an object that has undergone an FU-Ori (FUOR) the outbreak in the past. This in turn could lead to a time-varying appearance of the dusty arcs that may be revealed by multi-epoch imaging. In particular, a radial colour analysis of the dust arcs can then be attempted to check whether radial grain size distribution was modified by a previous FUOR wind. Second-epoch imaging of V1331 Cyg was obtained by us in 2009 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing this to archival HST data from 2000, we studied the time evolution of the circumstellar nebulae. After a point spread function subtraction using model point spread functions, we used customised routines to perform a proper motion analysis. The nebula expansion was first derived by deconvolving and correlating the two-epoch radial brightness profiles. Additional data from other f...

  16. EVIDENCE FOR ASYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Santiago; Anderson, Joseph; Marchi, Sebastian; Gutierrez, Claudia; Hamuy, Mario; Cartier, Regis [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-08-01

    We study the properties of low-velocity material in the line of sight toward nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that have measured late phase nebular velocity shifts (v{sub neb}), thought to be an environment-independent observable. We have found that the distribution of equivalent widths of narrow blended Na I D1 and D2 and Ca II H and K absorption lines differs significantly between those SNe Ia with negative and positive v{sub neb}, with generally stronger absorption for SNe Ia with v{sub neb} {>=} 0. A similar result had been found previously for the distribution of colors of SNe Ia, which was interpreted as a dependence of the temperature of the ejecta with viewing angle. Our work suggests that (1) a significant part of these differences in color should be attributed to extinction, (2) this extinction is caused by an asymmetric distribution of circumstellar material (CSM), and (3) the CSM absorption is generally stronger on the side of the ejecta opposite to where the ignition occurs. Since it is difficult to explain (3) via any known physical processes that occur before explosion, we argue that the asymmetry of the CSM is originated after explosion by a stronger ionizing flux on the side of the ejecta where ignition occurs, probably due to a stronger shock breakout and/or more exposed radioactive material on one side of the ejecta. This result has important implications for both progenitor and explosion models.

  17. Structure and Composition of Two Transitional Circumstellar Disks in Corona Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, A M; Wilner, D J; Meyer, M R; Carpenter, J M; Qi, C; Hales, A S; Casassus, S; Hogerheijde, M R; Mamajek, E E; Wolf, S; Henning, T; Silverstone, M D

    2010-01-01

    The late stages of evolution of the primordial circumstellar disks surrounding young stars are poorly understood, yet vital to constrain theories of planet formation. We consider basic structural models for the disks around two ~10 Myr-old members of the nearby RCrA association, RX J1842.9-3532 and RX J1852.3-3700. We present new arcsecond-resolution maps of their 230 GHz continuum emission from the Submillimeter Array and unresolved CO(3-2) spectra from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. By combining these data with broadband fluxes from the literature and infrared fluxes and spectra from the catalog of the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Legacy program on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we assemble a multiwavelength data set probing the gas and dust disks. Using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RADMC to model simultaneously the SED and millimeter continuum visibilities, we derive basic dust disk properties and identify an inner cavity of radius 16 AU in the disk around R...

  18. Dynamics of Circumstellar Disks III: The case of GG Tau A

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) We present 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system similar to the GG Tau A system. We simulate systems configured with semi-major axes of either $a=62$~AU (`wide') or $a=32$~AU (`close'), and with eccentricity of either $e=0$ or $e=0.3$. Strong spiral structures are generated with large material streams extending inwards. A small fraction accretes onto the circumstellar disks, with most returning to the torus. Structures also propagate outwards, generating net outwards mass flow and eventually losing coherence at large distances. The torus becomes significantly eccentric in shape. Accretion onto the stars occurs at a rate of a few $\\times10^{-8}$\\msun/yr implying disk lifetimes shorter than $\\sim10^4$~yr, without replenishment. Only wide configurations retain disks by virtue of robust accretion. In eccentric configurations, accretion is episodic, occurs preferentially onto the secondary at wrates pea...

  19. CARMA CO(J = 2 - 1) Observations of the Circumstellar Envelope of Betelgeuse

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Brown, Joanna M; Brown, Alexander; Redfield, Seth; Richter, Matthew J; Requena-Torres, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    We report radio interferometric observations of the 12C16O 1.3 mm J = 2-1 emission line in the circumstellar envelope of the M supergiant Alpha Ori and have detected and separated both the S1 and S2 flow components for the first time. Observations were made with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) interferometer in the C, D, and E antenna configurations. We obtain good u-v coverage (5-280 klambda) by combining data from all three configurations allowing us to trace spatial scales as small as 0.9\\arcsec over a 32\\arcsec field of view. The high spectral and spatial resolution C configuration line profile shows that the inner S1 flow has slightly asymmetric outflow velocities ranging from -9.0 km s-1 to +10.6 km s-1 with respect to the stellar rest frame. We find little evidence for the outer S2 flow in this configuration because the majority of this emission has been spatially-filtered (resolved out) by the array. We also report a SOFIA-GREAT CO(J= 12-11) emission line profile w...

  20. The circumstellar disc around the Herbig AeBe star HD169142

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, W R F; Osorio, M; Calvet, N; Anglada, G

    2006-01-01

    We present 7 mm and 3.5 cm wavelength continuum observations toward the Herbig AeBe star HD169142 performed with the Very Large Array (VLA) with an angular resolution of ~1". We find that this object exhibits strong (~4.4 mJy), unresolved (~1") 7 mm continuum emission, being one of the brightest isolated Herbig AeBe stars ever detected with the VLA at this wavelength. No emission is detected at 3.5 cm continuum, with a 3 sigma upper limit of ~0.08 mJy. From these values, we obtain a spectral index of ~2.5 in the 3.5 cm to 7 mm wavelength range, indicating that the observed flux density at 7mm is most likely dominated by thermal dust emission coming from a circumstellar disc. We use available photometric data from the literature to model the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this object from radio to near-ultraviolet frequencies. The observed SED can be understood in terms of an irradiated accretion disc with low mass accretion rate, 10^{-8} solar masses per year, surrounding a star with an age of ~10 Myr....

  1. Stellar and circumstellar properties of visual binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, S; Reipurth, B; Zinnecker, H; Daemgen, S; Petr-Gotzens, M G; Koehler, R; Ratzka, Th; Aspin, C; Konopacky, Q M; Ghez, A M

    2013-01-01

    Our general understanding of multiple star and planet formation is primarily based on observations of young multiple systems in low density regions like Tau-Aur and Oph. Since many, if not most, of the stars are born in clusters, observational constraints from young binaries in those environments are fundamental for understanding both the formation of multiple systems and planets in multiple systems throughout the Galaxy. We build upon the largest survey for young binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) which is based on Hubble Space Telescope observations to derive both stellar and circumstellar properties of newborn binary systems in this cluster environment. We present Adaptive Optics spatially-resolved JHKL'-band photometry and K-band R$\\sim$\\,5000 spectra for a sample of 8 ONC binary systems from this database. We characterize the stellar properties of binary components and obtain a census of protoplanetary disks through K-L' color excess. For a combined sample of ONC binaries including 7 additional s...

  2. High spatial resolution infrared imaging of L1551-IRS 5 - Direct observations of its circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneti, Andrea; Forrest, William J.; Pipher, Judith L.; Woodward, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    Images of L1551-IRS 5 were obtained at 1.65, 2.2, and 3.8 microns using the University of Rochester's Infrared Array Camera. It is found that IRS 5 is spatially resolved, and that it is elongated: the observed FWHM size of IRS 5 is 4.1 x 2.8 arcsec-squared at 2.2 microns. These observations are interpreted in terms of a flattened circumstellar envelope that is viewed from about 18 deg above its equatorial plane, a configuration that has been treated theoretically by Lefevre et al. In this model the central star is not seen directly, but only light scattered toward the observer from the visible polar region, where the envelope is thinnest, is observed. It is deduced that the envelope has a diameter of 1000 AU, a molecular hydrogen density of greater than or approximately equal to 4 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm, and a mass of greater than or approximately equal to 0.02 M solar mass, which results in an extinction of Av greater than about 33 mag to the central source.

  3. The circumstellar structure of the Be shell star phi Per. I. Data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefl, S.; Hummel, W.; Rivinius, Th.

    2000-06-01

    We present new phase resolved observations of emission lines of the Be binary phi Per. Analyzing the orbital phase variations in the He I emission features we find strong arguments that the feature as a whole originates in the outer parts of the disk around the primary star. In addition to the He I 6678 and 5876 lines, the emission features with orbital phase variations were detected in three more He I lines. The observations are in agreement with the scenario of Poeckert and others, in which the outer parts of an axisymmetric disk are illuminated by the radiation of the secondary. The observations after 1996 are consistent with a growing global density inhomogeneity in the circumprimary disk as it occurs in disks of single Be stars. The combination of the illumination effect and the increasing density inhomogeneity make phi Per an ideal laboratory to study density perturbations of circumstellar disks of Be stars in more detail. Based on observations collected at the Ond\\v{r}ejov Observatory (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), Heidelberg Observatory, German-Spanish Astronomical Center (DSAZ) - Calar Alto (operated by the Max-Plank-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy) and Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP; CNRS, France)}

  4. Line formation in Be star circumstellar disks Shear broadening, shell absorption, stellar obscuration and rotational parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, W.; Vrancken, M.

    2000-07-01

    We improve the theory of Horne & Marsh on shear broadening in accretion disks of CVs and adapt it to Be star circumstellar disks. Stellar obscuration and shell absorption are taken into account in detail. It is shown that shell absorption is already present in those emission lines where the central depression does not drop below the stellar continuum. The model profiles are fitted to observed symmetric Hα net emission lines with low equivalent width. The derived disk radii range from Rd = 5.3 R_* to Rd = 18 R_* and the surface emissivity varies as ~ R-m with 1.6 (1)/(2) with the optically thick Hα profile of HR 5440 rules out the range of j>(1)/(2). This can be understood by the lack of velocity shear in the outer disk regions. We conclude that Keplerian rotation (j=(1)/(2)) is a valid approximation. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (DSAZ), Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Plank-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), CNRS, France.

  5. Similarities in the structure of the circumstellar environments of B[e] supergiants and yellow hypergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Aret, Anna; Kraus, Michaela; Maravelias, Grigoris

    2016-01-01

    Yellow Hypergiants (YHGs) and B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs), though in different phases in their evolution, display many features in common. This is partly due to the fact that both types of objects undergo strong, often asymmetric mass loss, and the ejected material accumulates in shells, rings, or disk-like structures, giving rise to emission from warm molecules and dust. We performed an optical spectroscopic survey of northern Galactic emission-line stars aimed at identifying tracers for the structure and kinematics of circumstellar environments. We identified two sets of lines, [O I] and [Ca II], which originate from the discs of B[e]SGs. The same set of lines is observed in V1302 Aql and V509 Cas, which are both hot YHGs. While V1302 Aql is known to have a disc-like structure, the kinematical broadening of the lines in V509 Cas suggest a Keplerian disk or ring around this star alike their hotter B[e]SG counterparts.

  6. Disk Detective: Discovery of New Circumstellar Disk Candidates through Citizen Science

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J; Bans, Alissa S; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J; Debes, John H; Currie, Thayne; Garcia, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; McElwain, Michael; Padgett, Deborah L; Rebull, Luisa M; Wisniewski, John P; Nesvold, Erika; Schawinski, Kevin; Thaller, Michelle L; Grady, Carol A; Biggs, Joseph; Bosch, Milton; Cernohous, Tadeás; Luca, Hugo A Durantini; Hyogo, Michiharu; Wah, Lily Lau Wan; Piipuu, Art; Piñeiro, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 micron excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASA's WISE mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10 different bands to identify false-positives (galaxies, background stars, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and protoplanetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137, and HD 218546) and a new detection o...

  7. COMPUTING THE CONTINUUM POLARIZATION FROM THOMSON SCATTERING IN GASEOUS CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halonen, R. J.; Mackay, F. E.; Jones, C. E., E-mail: rhalonen@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    We investigate the computation of the intrinsic continuum linear polarization from electron scattering in optically thin and thick circumstellar disks of gas. We present the use of a non-LTE radiative transfer code, along with two different computational methods for obtaining the Stokes parameters, to reproduce the polarization levels that arise from disks of classical Be stars. Since the pioneering work of Poeckert and Marlborough, numerous improvements and refinements have been incorporated into computational radiative transfer models of classical Be stars. We present an assessment of the effect of several improvements on Poeckert and Marlborough's technique for calculating the polarization levels of the classical Be star {gamma} Cas. We find that improvements to the sampling of the disk density and the inclusion of a non-isothermal structure for the gas in the disk yield polarization levels that differ from the levels expected by Poeckert and Marlborough. Principally, the inclusion of the self-consistent calculation of the thermal structure of the disk has a significant impact on the resulting polarization. In addition, we assess the importance of the inclusion of multiple scattering calculations in predicting the continuum polarization in classical Be stars. We confirm that multiple scattering calculations are necessary for studying the linear polarization levels from optically thick gaseous disks around classical Be stars.

  8. Disk Detective: Discovery of New Circumstellar Disk Candidates through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Silverberg, Steven M.; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J.; Debes, John H.; Currie, Thayne; García, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; McElwain, Michael; Padgett, Deborah L.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Nesvold, Erika; Schawinski, Kevin; Thaller, Michelle L.; Grady, Carol A.; Biggs, Joseph; Bosch, Milton; C̆ernohous, Tadeás̆; Durantini Luca, Hugo A.; Hyogo, Michiharu; Wah, Lily Lau Wan; Piipuu, Art; Piñeiro, Fernanda; Disk Detective Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 μm excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10 different bands to identify false positives (galaxies, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and protoplanetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137, and HD 218546) and a new detection of 22 μm excess around the previously known debris disk host star HD 22128.

  9. The Nature of Transition Circumstellar Disks I. The Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Cieza, Lucas A; Romero, Gisela A; Mora, Marcelo D; Merin, Bruno; Swift, Jonathan J; Orellana, Mariana; Williams, Jonathan P; Harvey, Paul M; Evans, Neal J

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained millimeter wavelength photometry, high-resolution optical spectroscopy and adaptive optics near-infrared imaging for a sample of 26 Spitzer-selected transition circumstellar disks. All of our targets are located in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud (d ~125 pc) and have Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) suggesting the presence of inner opacity holes. We use these ground-based data to estimate the disk mass, multiplicity, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to investigate the mechanisms potentially responsible for their inner holes. We find that transition disks are a heterogeneous group of objects, with disk masses ranging from < 0.6 to 40 M_JUP and accretion rates ranging from <1E-11 1E-7 M_solar/yr, but most tend to have much lower masses and accretion rates than "full disks" (i.e., disks without opacity holes). Eight of our targets have stellar companions: 6 of them are binaries and the other 2 are triple systems. In four cases, the stellar companions are close en...

  10. Synthetic Spectra and Light Curves of Interacting Binaries and Exoplanets with Circumstellar Material: SHELLSPEC

    CERN Document Server

    Budaj, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, ufo, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. $\\epsilon$ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed dark, inclined, disk of dust with the central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks. Internal optically thi...

  11. A CHARA Array Survey of Circumstellar Disks around Nearby Be-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Touhami, Y; Schaefer, G H; McAlister, H A; Ridgway, S T; Richardson, N D; Matson, R; Grundstrom, E D; Brummelaar, T A ten; Goldfinger, P J; Sturmann, L; Sturmann, J; Turner, N H; Farrington, C

    2013-01-01

    We report on a high angular resolution survey of circumstellar disks around 24 northern sky Be stars. The K-band continuum survey was made using the CHARA Array long baseline interferometer (baselines of 30 to 331 m). The interferometric visibilities were corrected for the flux contribution of stellar companions in those cases where the Be star is a member of a known binary or multiple system. For those targets with good uv coverage, we used a four parameter Gaussian elliptical disk model to fit the visibilities and to determine the axial ratio, position angle, K-band photospheric flux contribution, and angular diameter of the disk major axis. For the other targets with relatively limited uv coverage, we constrained the axial ratio, inclination angle, and or disk position angle where necessary in order to resolve the degeneracy between possible model solutions. We also made fits of the ultraviolet and infrared spectral energy distributions to estimate the stellar angular diameter and infrared flux excess of e...

  12. Exploring the circumstellar environment of the young eruptive star V2492 Cyg

    CERN Document Server

    Kóspál, Á; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Morales, M J Arévalo; Balog, Z; Carnerero, M I; Szegedi-Elek, E; Farkas, A; Henning, Th; Kelemen, J; Kovács, T; Kun, M; Marton, G; Mészáros, Sz; Moór, A; Pál, A; Sárneczky, K; Szakáts, R; Szalai, N; Szing, A; Tóth, I; Turner, N J; Vida, K

    2013-01-01

    Context. V2492 Cyg is a young eruptive star that went into outburst in 2010. The near-infrared color changes observed since the outburst peak suggest that the source belongs to a newly defined sub-class of young eruptive stars where time-dependent accretion and variable line-of-sight extinction play a combined role in the flux changes. Aims. In order to learn about the origin of the light variations and to explore the circumstellar and interstellar environment of V2492 Cyg, we monitored the source at ten different wavelengths, between 0.55 \\mu m and 2.2 \\mu m from the ground, and between 3.6 \\mu m and 160 \\mu m from space. Methods. We analyze the light curves and study the color-color diagrams via comparison with the standard reddening path. We examine the structure of the molecular cloud hosting V2492 Cyg by computing temperature and optical depth maps from the far-infrared data. Results. We find that the shapes of the light curves at different wavelengths are strictly self-similar, and the observed variabil...

  13. High spatial resolution infrared imaging of L1551-IRS 5 - Direct observations of its circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneti, Andrea; Forrest, William J.; Pipher, Judith L.; Woodward, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    Images of L1551-IRS 5 were obtained at 1.65, 2.2, and 3.8 microns using the University of Rochester's Infrared Array Camera. It is found that IRS 5 is spatially resolved, and that it is elongated: the observed FWHM size of IRS 5 is 4.1 x 2.8 arcsec-squared at 2.2 microns. These observations are interpreted in terms of a flattened circumstellar envelope that is viewed from about 18 deg above its equatorial plane, a configuration that has been treated theoretically by Lefevre et al. In this model the central star is not seen directly, but only light scattered toward the observer from the visible polar region, where the envelope is thinnest, is observed. It is deduced that the envelope has a diameter of 1000 AU, a molecular hydrogen density of greater than or approximately equal to 4 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm, and a mass of greater than or approximately equal to 0.02 M solar mass, which results in an extinction of Av greater than about 33 mag to the central source.

  14. THE FIRST DETERMINATION OF THE VISCOSITY PARAMETER IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK OF A Be STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carciofi, Alex C.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Haubois, Xavier [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Otero, Sebastian A. [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Okazaki, Atsuo T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); Stefl, Stanislav; Rivinius, Thomas [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Baade, Dietrich, E-mail: carciofi@usp.br, E-mail: jon@physics.utoledo.edu [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Be stars possess gaseous circumstellar decretion disks, which are well described using standard {alpha}-disk theory. The Be star 28 CMa recently underwent a long outburst followed by a long period of quiescence, during which the disk dissipated. Here we present the first time-dependent models of the dissipation of a viscous decretion disk. By modeling the rate of decline of the V-band excess, we determine that the viscosity parameter {alpha} = 1.0 {+-} 0.2, corresponding to a mass injection rate M-dot =(3.5{+-}1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Such a large value of {alpha} suggests that the origin of the turbulent viscosity is an instability in the disk whose growth is limited by shock dissipation. The mass injection rate is more than an order of magnitude larger than the wind mass-loss rate inferred from UV observations, implying that the mass injection mechanism most likely is not the stellar wind, but some other mechanism.

  15. Circumstellar Habitable Zones of Binary Star Systems in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Haghighipour, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Binary and multiple systems constitute more than half of the total stellar population in the Solar neighborhood (Kiseleva-Eggleton and Eggleton 2001). Their frequent occurrence as well as the fact that more than 70 (Schneider et al. 2011) planets have already been discovered in such configurations - most noteably the telluric companion of alpha Centauri B (Dumusque et al. 2012) - make them interesting targets in the search for habitable worlds. Recent studies (Eggl et al. 2012b, Forgan 2012) have shown, that despite the variations in gravitational and radiative environment, there are indeed circumstellar regions where planets can stay within habitable insolation limits on secular dynamical timescales. In this article we provide habitable zones for 19 near S-Type binary systems from the Hipparchos and WDS catalogues with semimajor axes between 1 and 100 AU. Hereby, we accounted for the combined dynamical and radiative influence of the second star on the Earth-like planet. Out of the 19 systems presented, 17 of...

  16. Diagnostics of circumstellar grains in geometric models I: structure and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, J. H. P.; Greaves, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of circumstellar dust has been extensively used to diagnose the sizes and compositions of dust grains. We show that variations of SED slope in the long wavelength (submillimetre to radio) regime can be used to diagnose the gross physical nature (and hence origins) of the dust, using simple geometric models that complement the use of detailed simulations. We consider two dust grain types: (i) clustered aggregates of smaller particles (monomers), and (ii) composite grains comprising ferrous inclusions within a silicate matrix. These types are intended to be analogous to fluffy cometary particles and fragments of compacted asteroids, respectively. Our results indicate that clusters of silicate grains produce a smooth SED, while composite grains with FeS inclusions produce an SED that has a pronounced drop at a wavelength an order of magnitude larger than the grain size, and is flatter at long wavelengths. As a test case, we compare the model predictions to flux measurements of the TW Hydrae disc. This SED shows a drop that only occurs in our models of compacted grains with inclusions. Since the TW Hya discs spans approximately 10-40 AU in radius, fluffy particles from comets were perhaps expected, as in the Sun's Kuiper belt.

  17. A SCUBA-2 850-$\\mu$m survey of circumstellar disks in the $\\lambda$ Orionis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; Cieza, Lucas A

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an 850-$\\mu$m survey of the $\\sim$ 5 Myr old $\\lambda$ Orionis star-forming region. We used the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to survey a $\\sim$0.5-diameter circular region containing 36 (out of 59) cluster members with infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar disks. We detected only one object at $>3\\sigma$ significance, the Herbig Ae star HD 245185, with a flux density of $\\sim74$ mJy beam$^{-1}$ corresponding to a dust mass of $\\sim150$ M$_{\\oplus}$. Stacking the individually undetected sources did not produce a significant mean signal but gives an upper limit on the average dust mass for $\\lambda$ Orionis disks of $\\sim3$ M$_{\\oplus}$. Our follow-up observations of HD 245185 with the Submillimeter Array found weak CO 2--1 line emission with an integrated flux of $\\sim170$ mJy km s$^{-1}$ but no $^{13}$CO or C$^{18}$O isotopologue emission at 30 mJy km s$^{-1}$ sensitivity, suggesting a gas mass of $\\lesssim1$ M$_{\\rm Jup}$. The implied gas-to-dust ratio i...

  18. Disk Detective: Discovery of New Circumstellar Disk Candidates Through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Silverberg, Steven M.; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J.; Debes, John H.; Currie, Thayne; Garcia, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 micron excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASAs Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10different bands to identify false positives (galaxies, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and proto planetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137,and HD 218546) and a new detection of 22 micron excess around the previously known debris disk host star HD 22128.

  19. The nearby population of M dwarfs with WISE: A search for warm circumstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Avenhaus, Henning; Meyer, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Circumstellar debris disks are important for their connection to planetary systems. An efficient way to identify such systems is through their infrared excess. Most studies so far concentrated on early-type or solar-type stars, but less effort has gone into M dwarfs. We characterize the mid-infrared photometric behavior of M dwarfs and search for infrared excess in nearby M dwarfs taken from the volume-limited RECONS sample using data from the WISE satellite and the 2MASS catalog. Our sample consists of 85 sources encompassing 103 M dwarfs. We derive empirical infrared colors from these data and discuss their errors. From this, we check the stars for infrared excess and discuss the minimum excess we would be able to detect. Other than the M8.5 dwarf SCR 1845-6357 A, where the excess is produced by a known T6 companion, we detect no excesses in any of our sample stars. The limits we derive for the 22um excess are slightly larger than the usual detection limit of 10-15% for Spitzer studies, but the inclusion of...

  20. Do water fountain jets really indicate the onset of the morphological metamorphosis of circumstellar envelopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Imai, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale bipolar jets with short dynamical ages from 'water-fountain' (WF) sources are regarded as an indication of the onset of circumstellar envelope morphological metamorphosis of intermediate-mass stars. Such a process usually happens at the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. However, recent studies found that WFs could be AGB stars or even early planetary nebulae. This fact prompted the idea that WFs may not necessarily be objects at the beginning of the morphological transition process. In the present work, we show that WFs could have different envelope morphologies by studying their spectral energy distribution profiles. Some WFs have spherical envelopes that resemble usual AGB stars, while others have aspherical envelopes, which are more common to post-AGB stars. The results imply that WFs may not represent the earliest stage of morphological metamorphosis. We argue further that the dynamical age of a WF jet, which can be calculated from maser proper motions, may not be the real age of the jet. The dynamical age cannot be used to justify the moment when the envelope begins to become aspherical, nor to tell the concrete evolutionary status of the object. A WF jet could be the innermost part of a larger well-developed jet, which is not necessarily a young jet.

  1. First Detection of Near-Infrared Line Emission from Organics in Young Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Mandell, A M; van Dishoeck, E F; Blake, G A; Salyk, C; Mumma, M J; Villanueva, G

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of several bright T Tauri stars using the VLT/CRIRES and Keck/NIRSPEC spectrographs, revealing the first detections of emission from HCN and C2H2 in circumstellar disks at near-infrared wavelengths. Using advanced data reduction techniques we achieve a dynamic range with respect to the disk continuum of ~500 at 3 microns, revealing multiple emission features of H2O, OH, HCN, and C2H2. We also present stringent upper limits for two other molecules thought to be abundant in the inner disk, CH4 and NH3. Line profiles for the different detected molecules are broad but centrally peaked in most cases, even for disks with previously determined inclinations of greater than 20 degrees, suggesting that the emission has both a Keplerian and non-Keplerian component as observed previously for CO emission. We apply two different modeling strategies to constrain the molecular abundances and temperatures: we use a simplified single-temperature LTE slab model with a Gauss...

  2. On the Origin of the Spiral Morphology in the Elias 2-27 Circumstellar Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meru, Farzana; Juhász, Attila; Ilee, John D.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Rosotti, Giovanni P.; Booth, Richard A.

    2017-04-01

    The young star Elias 2-27 has recently been observed to posses a massive circumstellar disk with two prominent large-scale spiral arms. In this Letter, we perform three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations, radiative transfer modeling, synthetic ALMA imaging, and an unsharped masking technique to explore three possibilities for the origin of the observed structures—an undetected companion either internal or external to the spirals, and a self-gravitating disk. We find that a gravitationally unstable disk and a disk with an external companion can produce morphology that is consistent with the observations. In addition, for the latter, we find that the companion could be a relatively massive planetary-mass companion (≲10-13 M Jup) and located at large radial distances (between ≈300-700 au). We therefore suggest that Elias 2-27 may be one of the first detections of a disk undergoing gravitational instabilities, or a disk that has recently undergone fragmentation to produce a massive companion.

  3. The circumstellar disc of AB Aurigae: evidence for envelope accretion at late stages of star formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Pietu, Vincent; Dutrey, Anne; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Ho, Paul T P

    2012-01-01

    The circumstellar disc of AB Aurigae has garnered great attentions due to the apparent existence of spirals at a relatively young stage and also the asymmetric disc traced in thermal dust emission. However, the physical conditions of the spirals are still not well understood. The origin of the asymmetric thermal emission is unclear. We observe the disc at 230 GHz (1.3 mm) in both continuum and the spectral line ^12 CO 2-1 with IRAM 30 m, the PdBI and the SMA to sample all spatial scales from 0.37" to about 50". To combine the data obtained from these telescopes, several methods and calibration issues have been checked and discussed. The 1.3 mm continuum (dust) emission is resolved into inner disc and outer ring. The emission from the dust ring is highly asymmetric in azimuth, with intensity variations by a factor 3. Molecular gas at high velocities traced by the CO line is detected aside the stellar location. The inclination angle of the disc is found to decrease toward the center. At larger scale, based on t...

  4. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre imaging of HD~76582's circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, J P; Holland, W S; Matthews, B C; Greaves, J S; Zuckerman, B

    2016-01-01

    Debris disks, the tenuous rocky and icy remnants of planet formation, are believed to be evidence for planetary systems around other stars. The JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disk legacy survey 'SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS) observed 100 nearby stars, amongst them HD~76582, for evidence of such material. Here we present imaging observations by JCMT/SCUBA-2 and \\textit{Herschel}/PACS at sub-millimetre and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. We simultaneously model the ensemble of photometric and imaging data, spanning optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths, in a self-consistent manner. At far-infrared wavelengths, we find extended emission from the circumstellar disk providing a strong constraint on the dust spatial location in the outer system, although the angular resolution is too poor to constrain the interior of the system. In the sub-millimetre, photometry at 450 and 850~$\\mu$m reveal a steep fall-off that we interpret as a disk dominated by moderately-sized dust grains ($a_{\\rm min}~=~36~\\mu$m), ...

  5. Do Water Fountain Jets Really Indicate the Onset of the Morphological Metamorphosis of Circumstellar Envelopes?

    CERN Document Server

    Yung, Bosco H K; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Imai, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The small-scale bipolar jets having short dynamical ages from "water fountain (WF)" sources are regarded as an indication of the onset of circumstellar envelope morphological metamorphosis of intermediate-mass stars. Such process usually happens at the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. However, recent studies found that WFs could be AGB stars or even early planetary nebulae. This fact prompted the idea that WFs may not necessarily be objects at the beginning of the morphological transition process. In the present work, we show that WFs could have different envelope morphologies by studying their spectral energy distribution profiles. Some WFs have spherical envelopes that resembles usual AGB stars, while others have aspherical envelopes which are more common to post-AGB stars. The results imply that WFs may not represent the earliest stage of the morphological metamorphosis. We further argue that the dynamical age of a WF jet, which can be calculated from maser proper motions, may not be the rea...

  6. The circumstellar matter of supernova 2014J and the core-degenerate scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam

    2015-01-01

    I show that the circumstellar matter (CSM) of the type Ia supernova 2014J is too massive and its momentum too large to be accounted for by any but the core-degenerate (CD) scenario for type Ia supernovae. Assuming the absorbing gas is of CSM origin, the several shells responsible of the absorption potassium lines are accounted for by a mass loss episode from a massive asymptotic giant branch star during a common envelope phase with a white dwarf companion. The time-varying potassium lines can be accounted for by ionization of neutral potassium and the Na-from-dust absorption (NaDA) model. Before explosion some of the potassium resides in the gas phase and some in dust. Weakening in absorption strength is caused by potassium-ionizing radiation of the supernova, while release of atomic potassium from dust increases the absorption. I conclude that if the absorbing gas originated from the progenitor of SN 2014J, then a common envelope phase took place about 15,000 years ago, leading to the merging of the core wit...

  7. The inner circumstellar disk of the UX Ori star V1026 Sco

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, J; Kishimoto, M; Weigelt, G; Hofmann, K -H; Kraus, S; Schertl, D; Dugué, M; Duvert, G; Lagarde, S; Massi, F

    2014-01-01

    The UX Ori type variables (named after the prototype of their class) are intermediate-mass pre-main sequence objects. One of the most likely causes of their variability is the obscuration of the central star by orbiting dust clouds. We investigate the structure of the circumstellar environment of the UX~Ori star V1026 Sco (HD 142666) and test whether the disk inclination is large enough to explain the UX Ori variability. We observed the object in the low-resolution mode of the near-infrared interferometric VLTI/AMBER instrument and derived H- and K-band visibilities and closure phases. We modeled our AMBER observations, published Keck Interferometer observations, archival MIDI/VLTI visibilities, and the spectral energy distribution using geometric and temperature-gradient models. Employing a geometric inclined-ring disk model, we find a ring radius of 0.15 +- 0.06 AU in the H band and 0.18 +- 0.06 AU in the K band. The best-fit temperature-gradient model consists of a star and two concentric, ring-shaped disk...

  8. CO and H2 Absorption in the AA Tauri Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Herczeg, Gregory J; Schindhelm, Eric; Yang, Hao; Abgrall, Herve; Roueff, Evelyne; Brown, Alexander; Brown, Joanna; Linsky, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    The direct study of molecular gas in inner protoplanetary disks is complicated by uncertainties in the spatial distribution of the gas, the time-variability of the source, and the comparison of observations across a wide range of wavelengths. Some of these challenges can be mitigated with far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. Using new observations obtained with the HST-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, we measure column densities and rovibrational temperatures for CO and H2 observed on the line-of-sight through the AA Tauri circumstellar disk. CO A-X absorption bands are observed against the far-UV continuum. The CO absorption is characterized by log(N(^{12}CO)) = 17.5 +/- 0.5 cm^{-2} and T_rot(CO) = 500$^{+500}_{-200} K, although this rotational temperature may underestimate the local kinetic temperature of the CO-bearing gas. We also detect ^{13}CO in absorption with an isotopic ratio of ~20. We do not observe H2 absorption against the continuum; however, hot H2 (v > 0) is detected in absorption against the LyA emissio...

  9. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Cesar S.; Salama, Farid, E-mail: cesar.contreras@nasa.gov, E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust.

  10. Coupled discrete element modeling of fluid injection into dense granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengshou; Damjanac, Branko; Huang, Haiying

    2013-06-01

    The coupled displacement process of fluid injection into a dense granular medium is investigated numerically using a discrete element method (DEM) code PFC2D® coupled with a pore network fluid flow scheme. How a dense granular medium behaves in response to fluid injection is a subject of fundamental and applied research interests to better understand subsurface processes such as fluid or gas migration and formation of intrusive features as well as engineering applications such as hydraulic fracturing and geological storage in unconsolidated formations. The numerical analysis is performed with DEM executing the mechanical calculation and the network model solving the Hagen-Poiseuille equation between the pore spaces enclosed by chains of particles and contacts. Hydromechanical coupling is realized by data exchanging at predetermined time steps. The numerical results show that increase in the injection rate and the invading fluid viscosity and decrease in the modulus and permeability of the medium result in fluid flow behaviors displaying a transition from infiltration-governed to infiltration-limited and the granular medium responses evolving from that of a rigid porous medium to localized failure leading to the development of preferential paths. The transition in the fluid flow and granular medium behaviors is governed by the ratio between the characteristic times associated with fluid injection and hydromechanical coupling. The peak pressures at large injection rates when fluid leakoff is limited compare well with those from the injection experiments in triaxial cells in the literature. The numerical analysis also reveals intriguing tip kinematics field for the growth of a fluid channel, which may shed light on the occurrence of the apical inverted-conical features in sandstone and magma intrusion in unconsolidated formations.

  11. Multiple and dependent scattering by densely packed discrete spheres: Comparison of radiative transfer and Maxwell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L. X.; Tan, J. Y.; Zhao, J. M.; Wang, F. Q.; Wang, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been widely used to deal with multiple scattering of light by sparsely and randomly distributed discrete particles. However, for densely packed particles, the RTE becomes questionable due to strong dependent scattering effects. This paper examines the accuracy of RTE by comparing with the exact electromagnetic theory. For an imaginary spherical volume filled with randomly distributed, densely packed spheres, the RTE is solved by the Monte Carlo method combined with the Percus-Yevick hard model to consider the dependent scattering effect, while the electromagnetic calculation is based on the multi-sphere superposition T-matrix method. The Mueller matrix elements of the system with different size parameters and volume fractions of spheres are obtained using both methods. The results verify that the RTE fails to deal with the systems with a high-volume fraction due to the dependent scattering effects. Apart from the effects of forward interference scattering and coherent backscattering, the Percus-Yevick hard sphere model shows good accuracy in accounting for the far-field interference effects for medium or smaller size parameters (up to 6.964 in this study). For densely packed discrete spheres with large size parameters (equals 13.928 in this study), the improvement of dependent scattering correction tends to deteriorate. The observations indicate that caution must be taken when using RTE in dealing with the radiative transfer in dense discrete random media even though the dependent scattering correction is applied.

  12. Charmed hadrons in nuclear medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, L.; Gamermann, D.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Molina, R.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.; Ramos, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of charmed hadrons in dense matter within a coupled-channel approach which accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner We analyze the behaviour in this dense environment of dynamically-generated baryonic resonances as well as the op

  13. Concept medium program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectural...

  14. Efficient Distributed Medium Access

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Devavrat; Tetali, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among interfering nodes properly. Moreover, to be of practical use, such a mechanism is required to be totally distributed as well as simple. As the main result of this paper, we provide such a medium access algorithm. It is randomized, totally distributed and simple: each node attempts to access medium at each time with probability that is a function of its local information. We establish efficiency of the algorithm by showing that the corresponding network Markov chain is positive recurrent as long as the demand imposed on the network can be supp...

  15. Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.

  16. Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrau, U.; Sperling, P.; Harmand, M.; Becker, A.; Bornath, T.; Bredow, R.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fennel, T.; Fletcher, L. B.; Förster, E.; Göde, S.; Gregori, G.; Hilbert, V.; Hochhaus, D.; Holst, B.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Mithen, J. P.; Mitzner, R.; Murphy, C. D.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Neumayer, P.; Przystawik, A.; Roling, S.; Schulz, M.; Siemer, B.; Skruszewicz, S.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; White, T.; Wöstmann, M.; Zacharias, H.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ≲300 fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ˜0.9 ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.

  17. Oscillating propagators in heavy-dense QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar; Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2016-10-11

    Using Monte Carlo simulations and extended mean field theory calculations we show that the $3$-dimensional $\\mathbb{Z}_3$ spin model with complex external fields has non-monotonic correlators in some regions of its parameter space. This model serves as a proxy for heavy-dense QCD in $(3+1)$ dimensions. Non-monotonic correlators are intrinsically related to a complex mass spectrum and a liquid-like (or crystalline) behavior. A liquid phase could have implications for heavy-ion experiments, where it could leave detectable signals in the spatial correlations of baryons.

  18. Interference Alignment in Dense Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs

    2009-01-01

    We consider arbitrary dense wireless networks, in which $n$ nodes are placed in an arbitrary (deterministic) manner on a square region of unit area and communicate with each other over Gaussian fading channels. We provide inner and outer bounds for the $n\\times n$-dimensional unicast and the $n\\times 2^n$-dimensional multicast capacity regions of such a wireless network. These inner and outer bounds differ only by a factor $O(\\log(n))$, yielding a fairly tight scaling characterization of the entire regions. The communication schemes achieving the inner bounds use interference alignment as a central technique and are surprisingly simple.

  19. Flavour Oscillations in Dense Baryonic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We suggest that fast neutral meson oscillations may occur in a dense baryonic matter, which can influence the balance of s/¯s quarks in the nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus interactions, if primordial multiplicities of neutral K 0, mesons are sufficiently asymmetrical. The phenomenon can occur even if CP symmetry is fully conserved, and it may be responsible for the enhanced sub-threshold production of multi-strange hyperons observed in the low-energy A+A and p+A interactions.

  20. Gravity-driven dense granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERTAS,DENIZ; GREST,GARY S.; HALSEY,THOMAS C.; DEVINE,DOV; SILBERT,LEONARDO E.

    2000-03-29

    The authors report and analyze the results of numerical studies of dense granular flows in two and three dimensions, using both linear damped springs and Hertzian force laws between particles. Chute flow generically produces a constant density profile that satisfies scaling relations suggestive of a Bagnold grain inertia regime. The type for force law has little impact on the behavior of the system. Failure is not initiated at the surface, consistent with the absence of surface flows and different principal stress directions at vs. below the surface.