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Sample records for dense breast images

  1. Dense Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also appear white on mammography, they can be hidden by or within dense breast tissue. Other imaging ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  2. Application of image processing techniques for contrast enhancement in dense breast digital mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fatima d. L. d. S.; Schiabel, Homero; Benatti, Rodrigo H.

    1999-05-01

    Dense breasts, that usually are characteristic of women less than 40 years old, difficult many times early detection of breast cancer. In this work we present the application of some image processing techniques intended to enhance the contrast in dense breast images, regarding the detection of clustered microcalcifications. The procedure was, firstly, determining in the literature the main techniques used for mammographic images contrast enhancement. The results indicate that, in general: (1) as expected, the overall performance of the CAD scheme for clusters detection decreased when applied exclusively to dense breast images, compared to the application to a set of images without this characteristic; (2) most of the techniques for contrast enhancement used successfully in generic mammography images databases are not able to enhance structures of athirst in databases formed only by dense breasts images, due to the very poor contrast between microcalcifications, for example, and other tissues. These features should stress, therefore, the need of developing a methodology specifically for this type of images in order to provide better conditions to the detection of breast suspicious structures in these group of women.

  3. Contrast enhancement in dense breast images using the modulation transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fátima L S; Schiabel, Homero; Benatti, Rodrigo H

    2002-12-01

    This work proposes a method aimed at enhancing the contrast in dense breast images in mammography. It includes a new preprocessing technique, which uses information on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the mammographic system in the whole radiation field. The method is applied to improve the efficiency of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme. Seventy-five regions of interest (ROIs) from dense mammograms were acquired in two pieces of equipment (a CGR Senographe 500t and a Philips Mammodiagnost) and were digitized in a Lumiscan 50 laser scanner. A computational procedure determines the effective focal spot size in each region of interest from the measured focal spot in the center for a given mammographic equipment. Using computational simulation the MTF is then calculated for each field region. A procedure that enlarges the high-frequency portion of this function is applied and a convolution between the resulting new function and the original image is performed. Both original and enhanced images were submitted to a processing procedure for detecting clustered microcalcifications in order to compare the performance for dense breast images. ROIs were divided into four groups, two for each piece of equipment-one with clustered microcalcifications and another without microcalcifications. Our results show that in about 10% of the enhanced images more signals were detected when compared to the results for the original dense breast images. This is important because the usual processing techniques used in CAD schemes present poor results when applied to dense breast images. Since the MTF method is a well-recognized tool in the evaluation of radiographic systems, this new technique could be used to associate quality assurance procedures with the processing schemes employed in CAD for mammography.

  4. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

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    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  5. MR imaging as an additional screening modality for the detection of breast cancer in women aged 50-75 years with extremely dense breasts : The DENSE trial study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emaus, Marleen J.; Bakker, Marije F.; Peeters, Petra H M; Loo, Claudette E.; Mann, Ritse M.; De Jong, Mathijn D F; Bisschops, Robertus H C; Veltman, Jeroen; Duvivier, Katya M.; Lobbes, Marc B I; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Karssemeijer, Nico; De Koning, Harry J.; Van Den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Veldhuis, WB; Van Gils, Carla H.

    2015-01-01

    Women with extremely dense breasts have an increased risk of breast cancer and lower mammographic tumor detectability. Nevertheless, in most countries, these women are currently screened with mammography only. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has the potential to improve breast cancer detection at an

  6. MR Imaging as an Additional Screening Modality for the Detection of Breast Cancer in Women Aged 50-75 Years with Extremely Dense Breasts: The DENSE Trial Study Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emaus, M.J.; Bakker, M.F.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Loo, C.E.; Mann, R.M.; Jong, M.D.E.; Bisschops, R.H.; Veltman, J.; Duvivier, K.M.; Lobbes, M.B.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Karssemeijer, N.; Koning, H.J. de; Bosch, M.A. van den; Monninkhof, E.M.; Mali, W.P.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Gils, C.H. van

    2015-01-01

    Women with extremely dense breasts have an increased risk of breast cancer and lower mammographic tumor detectability. Nevertheless, in most countries, these women are currently screened with mammography only. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has the potential to improve breast cancer detection at an

  7. SU-C-207B-04: Automated Segmentation of Pectoral Muscle in MR Images of Dense Breasts

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    Verburg, E; Waard, SN de; Veldhuis, WB; Gils, CH van; Gilhuijs, KGA [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a fully automated method for segmentation of the pectoral muscle boundary in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of dense breasts. Methods: Segmentation of the pectoral muscle is an important part of automatic breast image analysis methods. Current methods for segmenting the pectoral muscle in breast MRI have difficulties delineating the muscle border correctly in breasts with a large proportion of fibroglandular tissue (i.e., dense breasts). Hence, an automated method based on dynamic programming was developed, incorporating heuristics aimed at shape, location and gradient features.To assess the method, the pectoral muscle was segmented in 91 randomly selected participants (mean age 56.6 years, range 49.5–75.2 years) from a large MRI screening trial in women with dense breasts (ACR BI-RADS category 4). Each MR dataset consisted of 178 or 179 T1-weighted images with voxel size 0.64 × 0.64 × 1.00 mm3. All images (n=16,287) were reviewed and scored by a radiologist. In contrast to volume overlap coefficients, such as DICE, the radiologist detected deviations in the segmented muscle border and determined whether the result would impact the ability to accurately determine the volume of fibroglandular tissue and detection of breast lesions. Results: According to the radiologist’s scores, 95.5% of the slices did not mask breast tissue in such way that it could affect detection of breast lesions or volume measurements. In 13.1% of the slices a deviation in the segmented muscle border was present which would not impact breast lesion detection. In 70 datasets (78%) at least 95% of the slices were segmented in such a way it would not affect detection of breast lesions, and in 60 (66%) datasets this was 100%. Conclusion: Dynamic programming with dedicated heuristics shows promising potential to segment the pectoral muscle in women with dense breasts.

  8. Detectability comparison of simulated objects within a dense breast phantom using high energy x-ray phase sensitive and conventional imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Wei; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the detectability of simulated objects within a dense breast phantom using high energy x-rays for phase sensitive breast imaging in comparison with a conventional imaging system. A 5 cm thick phantom was used which represented a compressed breast consisting of 70% glandular and 30% adipose tissue ratio in non-uniform background. The phantom had a 6 × 6 matrix of holes with milled depths ranging from 1 to 0.1 mm and diameters ranging from 4.25 to 0.25 mm representing simulated tumors. The in-line phase sensitive prototype was equipped with a micro-focus x-ray source and a flat panel detector with a 50 μm pixel pitch, both mounted on an optical rail. Phase contrast image of the phantom was acquired at 120 kVp, 4.5 mAs at source to object distance (SOD) of 68 cm and source to image detector distance (SIDD) of 170 cm with a geometric magnification (M) of 2.5. A 2.5 mm aluminum (Al) filter was used for beam hardening. The conventional image was acquired using the same porotype with the phantom in contact with the detector at 40 kVp, 12.5 mAs under SID = 68 cm. The mean glandular dose (Dg) for both the acquisitions was 1.3 mGy. The observer study and CNR analyses indicated that the phase contrast image had higher disk detectability as compared to the conventional image. The edge enhancement provided by the phase sensitive images warrants in identifying boundaries of malignant tissues and in providing optimal results in phase retrieval process. The potential demonstrated by this study for imaging a dense breast with a high energy phase sensitive x-ray imaging to improve tumor detection in warrants further investigation of this technique.

  9. Three-dimensional whole breast segmentation in sagittal MR images with dense depth field modeling and localized self-adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Weinstein, Susan; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Schnall, Mitchell; Kontos, Despina

    2017-02-01

    Whole breast segmentation is the first step in quantitative analysis of breast MR images. This task is challenging due mainly to the chest-wall line's (CWL) spatially varying appearance and nearby distracting structures, both being complex. In this paper, we propose an automatic three-dimensional (3-D) segmentation method of whole breast in sagittal MR images. This method distinguishes itself from others in two main aspects. First, it reformulates the challenging problem of CWL localization into an equivalence that searches for an optimal smooth depth field and so fully utilizes the 3-D continuity of the CWLs. Second, it employs a localized self- adapting algorithm to adjust to the CWL's spatial variation. Experimental results on real patient data with expert-outlined ground truth show that the proposed method can segment breasts accurately and reliably, and that its segmentation is superior to that of previously established methods.

  10. Mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk: interactions of percent density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas with breast cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-02-01

    We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. This study included 1,044 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses' Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computerized techniques. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires. Percent breast density was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in current postmenopausal hormone users (≥50 vs. 10 %: OR 5.34, 95 % CI 3.36-8.49) as compared to women with past (OR 2.69, 95 % CI 1.32-5.49) or no hormone history (OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.18-5.60, p-interaction = 0.03). Non-dense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in parous women, but not in women without children (p-interaction = 0.03). Associations of density with breast cancer risk did not differ by the levels of BMI, age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. Women with dense breasts, who currently use menopausal hormone therapy are at a particularly high risk of breast cancer. Most breast cancer risk factors do not modify the association between mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk.

  11. Using digital subtraction in computer simulated images as a tool to aid the visual detection of masked lesions in dense breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiabel, Homero; Guimarães, Luciana T.; Sousa, Maria A. Z.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a simulation model involving subtraction of digital mammography images obtained at different X-ray beam levels of energy to aid the detection of breast malignant lesions. Absorption coefficients behavior of 3 main structures of clinical interest - adipose tissue, fiber glandular tissue and the typical carcinoma - as a function of the beam energy from a Mo X-ray tube was the basis to develop a computer simulation of the possible acquired images. The simulation has considered a typical compressed breast with 4.5cm in thickness, and variations of the carcinoma and glandular tissues thicknesses - 0.4 up to 2.0cm and 4.1 to 2.5cm, respectively - were evaluated as a function of the photons mean energy - 14 up to 25 keV, in the typical mammography energy range. Results have shown that: (a) if the carcinoma thickness is over 0.4cm, its detection may be feasible even masked by fiber tissue with exposures in the range of 19 to 25 keV; (b) for masked carcinoma with thickness in the range of 0.4-2.0cm, the proposed procedure can enhance it in the image resulting from the digital subtraction between images obtained at 14 and at 22 keV. Therefore such results indicate that this simulation procedure can be a useful tool in aiding the identification of possible missed malignant lesions which could not be detected in the typical exam, mainly considering dense breasts.

  12. Abbreviated MRI protocols for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breasts

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    Chen, Shung Qing; Huang, Min; Shen, Yu Ying; Liu, Chen Lu; Xu, Chuan Xiao [The Affiliated Suzhou Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou (China)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the validity of two abbreviated protocols (AP) of MRI in breast cancer screening of dense breast tissue. This was a retrospective study in 356 participants with dense breast tissue and negative mammography results. The study was approved by the Nanjing Medical University Ethics Committee. Patients were imaged with a full diagnostic protocol (FDP) of MRI. Two APs (AP-1 consisting of the first post-contrast subtracted [FAST] and maximum-intensity projection [MIP] images, and AP-2 consisting of AP-1 combined with diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) and FDP images were analyzed separately, and the sensitivities and specificities of breast cancer detection were calculated. Of the 356 women, 67 lesions were detected in 67 women (18.8%) by standard MR protocol, and histological examination revealed 14 malignant lesions and 53 benign lesions. The average interpretation time of AP-1 and AP-2 were 37 seconds and 54 seconds, respectively, while the average interpretation time of the FDP was 3 minutes and 25 seconds. The sensitivities of the AP-1, AP-2, and FDP were 92.9, 100, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities of the three MR protocols were 86.5, 95.0, and 96.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference among the three MR protocols in the diagnosis of breast cancer (p > 0.05). However, the specificity of AP-1 was significantly lower than that of AP-2 (p = 0.031) and FDP (p = 0.035), while there was no difference between AP-2 and FDP (p > 0.05). The AP may be efficient in the breast cancer screening of dense breast tissue. FAST and MIP images combined with DWI of MRI are helpful to improve the specificity of breast cancer detection.

  13. Characterization of lesions in dense breasts: Does tomosynthesis help?

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    Krithika Rangarajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mammography in dense breasts is challenging due to lesion obscuration by tissue overlap. Does tomosynthesis offers a solution? Aims: To study the impact of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT in characterizing lesions in breasts of different mammographic densities. Settings and Design: Prospective blinded study comparing mammography in two views with Mammography + Tomosynthesis. Methods and Material: Tomosynthesis was performed in 199 patients who were assigned Breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS categories 0, 3, 4, or 5 on two-dimensional (2D mammogram. Mammograms were first categorized into one of 4 mammographic breast densities in accordance with the American College of Radiology (ACR. Three radiologists independently analyzed these images and assigned a BIRADS category first based on 2D mammogram alone, and then assigned a fresh BIRADS category after taking mammography and tomosynthesis into consideration. A composite gold-standard was used in the study (histopathology, ultrasound, follow-up mammogram, magnetic resonance imaging. Each lesion was categorized into 3 groups—superior categorization with DBT, no change in BIRADS, or inferior BIRADS category based on comparison with the gold-standard. The percentage of lesions in each group was calculated for different breast densities. Results: There were 260 lesions (ages 28–85. Overall, superior categorization was seen in 21.2% of our readings on addition of DBT to mammography. DBT was most useful in ACR Densities 3 and 4 breasts where it led to more appropriate categorization in 27 and 42% of lesions, respectively. DBT also increased diagnostic confidence in 54.5 and 63.6% of lesions in ACR Densities 3 and 4, respectively. Conclusions: In a diagnostic setting, the utility of tomosynthesis increases with increasing breast density. This helps in identifying the sub category of patients where DBT can actually change management.

  14. Characterization of lesions in dense breasts: Does tomosynthesis help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Krithika; Hari, Smriti; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Sanjay; Srivastava, Anurag; Parshad, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Mammography in dense breasts is challenging due to lesion obscuration by tissue overlap. Does tomosynthesis offers a solution? To study the impact of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in characterizing lesions in breasts of different mammographic densities. Prospective blinded study comparing mammography in two views with Mammography + Tomosynthesis. Tomosynthesis was performed in 199 patients who were assigned Breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) categories 0, 3, 4, or 5 on two-dimensional (2D) mammogram. Mammograms were first categorized into one of 4 mammographic breast densities in accordance with the American College of Radiology (ACR). Three radiologists independently analyzed these images and assigned a BIRADS category first based on 2D mammogram alone, and then assigned a fresh BIRADS category after taking mammography and tomosynthesis into consideration. A composite gold-standard was used in the study (histopathology, ultrasound, follow-up mammogram, magnetic resonance imaging). Each lesion was categorized into 3 groups-superior categorization with DBT, no change in BIRADS, or inferior BIRADS category based on comparison with the gold-standard. The percentage of lesions in each group was calculated for different breast densities. There were 260 lesions (ages 28-85). Overall, superior categorization was seen in 21.2% of our readings on addition of DBT to mammography. DBT was most useful in ACR Densities 3 and 4 breasts where it led to more appropriate categorization in 27 and 42% of lesions, respectively. DBT also increased diagnostic confidence in 54.5 and 63.6% of lesions in ACR Densities 3 and 4, respectively. In a diagnostic setting, the utility of tomosynthesis increases with increasing breast density. This helps in identifying the sub category of patients where DBT can actually change management.

  15. Breast imaging

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    Kopans, D.B.; Meyer, J.E.; Sadowsky, N.

    1984-04-12

    The majority of information available today indiates that the most efficient and accurate method of screening women to detect early-stage breast cancer is an aggressive program of patient self-examination, physical examination by well-trained, motivated personnel, and high-quality x-ray mammography. There are two important factors in the implementation of mammographic screening. The first is the availability of facilities to perform high-quality, low-dose mammography, which is directly related to the second factor: the expense to society for support of this large-scale effort. Cost-benefit analysis is beyond the scope of this review. In 1979 Moskowitz and Fox attempted to address this issue, using data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project in Cincinnati, but additional analysis is required. The cost for each ''curable'' cancer that is detected must be compared with the psychological, social, and personal losses that accrue, as well as the numerous medical expenses incurred, in a frequently protracted death from breast cancer. All other imaging techniques that have been reviewed should be regarded as adjuncts to rather than replacements for mammographic screening. Ultrasound and computerized tomography are helpful when the physical examination and mammogram are equivocal. Other techniques, such as transillumination, thermography, and magnetic-resonance imaging, should be considered experimental. In patients with clinically evident lesions, x-ray mammography is helpful to evaluate the suspicious area, as well as to ''screen'' the remaining tissue in both breasts and to search for multicentric or bilateral lesions. Mammography is the only imaging technique that has been proved effective for screening.

  16. Breast cancer screening: Evidence of the effect of adjunct ultrasound screening in women with unilateral mammography-negative dense breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with the previous history of breast cancer are in risk of contralateral breast cancer. On the other hand, increased breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer and the sensitivity of detecting nonpalpable cancers in screening mammography in radiographically dense breasts is low. The use of ultrasonography in dense breast remains a controversial topic. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of routine ultrasonography in follow-up of women with the previous history of breast cancer and negative mammography but dense breasts. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 267 individuals with unilateral postmastectomy mammogram screened and 153 subjects assigned to study. There were 28 subjects with American College of Radiology (ACR breast density 2 and 125 with ACR breast density 3-4, which there was no new finding in their mammogram in comparison to previous studies. We assumed subjects with ACR breast density 3-4 as mammographic Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS category 0 for malignancy. Standard two-view mammogram was performed for all participants, and breast ultrasound (US examinations were performed by an expert radiologist in radial and anti-radial planes. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: The results showed that in subjects with ACR breast density 3-4, when there was no new density in two consecutive mammograms in comparison to previous studies, US also showed no possibility for malignancy (BI-RADS 1-2. And also in subjects with ACR breast density 2, when the mammographic results were BI-RADS 1-2, the US results was the same. Conclusion: Our data indicate that for the detection of breast cancer, sensitivity of US was not greater than mammography in patients with postmastectomy unilateral dense breast if there is not any new density.

  17. Imaging male breast cancer

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    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  18. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  19. Breast Imaging Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Teresa G

    2015-01-01

    Artifacts appear on breast images for a number of reasons. Radiologic technologists play an important role in identifying artifacts that can help or hinder breast cancer diagnosis and in minimizing artifacts that degrade image quality. This article describes various artifacts that occur in breast imaging, along with their causes. The article focuses on artifacts in mammography, with a heavy emphasis on digital mammography, and on magnetic resonance imaging of the breast. Artifacts in ultrasonography of the breast, digital breast tomosynthesis, and positron emission mammography also are discussed.

  20. Rapid review: Estimates of incremental breast cancer detection from tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) screening in women with dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Turner, Robin M

    2016-12-01

    High breast tissue density increases breast cancer (BC) risk, and the risk of an interval BC in mammography screening. Density-tailored screening has mostly used adjunct imaging to screen women with dense breasts, however, the emergence of tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) provides an opportunity to steer density-tailored screening in new directions potentially obviating the need for adjunct imaging. A rapid review (a streamlined evidence synthesis) was performed to summarise data on tomosynthesis screening in women with heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breasts, with the aim of estimating incremental (additional) BC detection attributed to tomosynthesis in comparison with standard 2D-mammography. Meta-analysed data from prospective trials comparing these mammography modalities in the same women (N = 10,188) in predominantly biennial screening showed significant incremental BC detection of 3.9/1000 screens attributable to tomosynthesis (P mammography (N = 177,814) yielded a pooled difference in BC detection of 1.4/1000 screens representing significantly higher BC detection in tomosynthesis-screened women (P mammography. These estimates can inform planning of future trials of density-tailored screening and may guide discussion of screening women with dense breasts.

  1. Value of Sonography in Screening Women with Dense Breasts in Mammography

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    Esmaeel Shokrollahi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women and the main cause of death due to malignancy in women between 40-44 years of age.This cancer is responsible for 33% of all cancers in women and 20% of all deaths due to cancer in women."nMammography is the main modality for screening and diagnosis of breast lesions, but in dense breasts it has low sensitivity (about 48% with low possibility for visualization of mass lesions or calcifications, and this results in fading abnormal findings and increasing the risk of malignancy. This defect is compensated by ultrasonography."nSonography also elegantly shows hidden areas, which are covered by normal breast tissue in mammography, and also shows the pictures real time without overlap."nPresence of any palpable mass in clinical exam was an excluding criterion for patients from the study. Any lesion as a cystic or solid mass or echo change or calcification was recorded in the database. If a lesion had a malignant picture, FNA or core biopsy was done for it and the sample was sent for pathologic report."nThis study showed that correlation with sonography is mandatory in women who have dense breasts in mammography, even if it is a low-grade dense breast. If this correlation was not done, breast cancers present in 1.5% of the studied population would be missed."nSo due to the high false negativity of mammography in dense breasts, in the time being, sonography is considered as the second line screening method and complementary modality for mammography. It not only increases the diagnostic accuracy, but also as the only real time imaging modality, it can be used for localization and precise biopsy of breast lesions. Also, it can be used without any limitation as a cheap and harmless way for follow up imaging in short intervals for suspected patients.

  2. The connecticut experiment: the role of ultrasound in the screening of women with dense breasts.

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    Weigert, Jean; Steenbergen, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of screening breast ultrasound to improve breast cancer detection in women with mammographically normal, but dense breasts. Six Connecticut radiology practices with 12 total sites participated in a retrospective chart review. The total number of screening mammograms, screening ultrasounds broken down by BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) codes, and the number of positive and negative biopsies were collected from November 2009 through November 2010. Demographic data on the patients with positive biopsies as well as cancer staging were also collected. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value, and Negative Predictive Value were calculated. A total of 72,030 screening mammograms and 8,647 screening ultrasounds were performed at the research sites during the study period. Relevant research indicates that 41% of the female population has dense breasts. In this study, 12% (8,647/72,030) underwent follow-up breast ultrasound screening. A total of 86% (7,451/8,647) of the ultrasounds were BIRADS 1 or 2, 9% (767/8,647) were BIRADS 3, 5% (429/8,647) were BIRADS 4 or 5. Of those 429 recommended to undergo biopsy 418 were performed and 28 cancers were found. There was one false negative. Screening breast ultrasound in women with mammographically normal, but dense breasts has a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 6.7% (28/418), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 99.9% (7,450/7,451), sensitivity of 96.6% (28/29), and a specificity of 94.9% (7,450/7,851). Screening ultrasound had an additional yield of 3.25 per 1,000 cancers in women with dense breasts and normal mammograms and no additional risk factors. As with all screening tests, time, cost, and false positive risk must be considered.

  3. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between v...

  4. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  5. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

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    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  6. Breast-Volume Displacement Using an Extended Glandular Flap for Small Dense Breasts

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    Tomoko Ogawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We defined the glandular flap including fat in the subclavicular area as an extended glandular flap, which has been used for breast-conserving reconstruction in the upper portion of the breast. Indication. The excision volume was 20% to 40% of the breast volume, and the breast density was dense. Surgical Technique. The upper edge of the breast at the subclavicular area was drawn in the standing position before surgery. After partial mastectomy, an extended glandular flap was made by freeing the breast from both the skin and the pectoralis fascia up to the preoperative marking in the subclavicular area. It is important to keep the perforators of the internal mammary artery and/or the branches of the lateral thoracic artery intact while making the flap. Results. Seventeen patients underwent remodeling using an extended glandular flap. The cosmetic results at 1 year after the operation: excellent in 11, good in 1, fair in 3, and poor in 2. All cases of unacceptable outcome except one were cases with complications, and more than 30% resection of moderate or large size breasts did not obtain an excellent result for long-term followup. Conclusion. This technique is useful for performing the breast-conserving reconstruction of small dense breasts.

  7. Breast cancer patients with dense breasts do not have increased death risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., NCI. Image shows physician

  8. Dose reduction in molecular breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Chowdhury, Samir; Hugg, James W.; Moats, Rex A.; Patt, Bradley E.

    2011-10-01

    Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) is the imaging of radiolabeled drugs, cells, or nanoparticles for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Screening of broad populations of women for breast cancer with mammography has been augmented by the emergence of breast MRI in screening of women at high risk for breast cancer. Screening MBI may benefit the sub-population of women with dense breast tissue that obscures small tumors in mammography. Dedicated breast imaging equipment is necessary to enable detection of early-stage tumors less than 1 cm in size. Recent progress in the development of these instruments is reviewed. Pixellated CZT for single photon MBI imaging of 99mTc-sestamibi gives high detection sensitivity for early-stage tumors. The use of registered collimators in a near-field geometry gives significantly higher detection efficiency - a factor of 3.6-, which translates into an equivalent dose reduction factor given the same acquisition time. The radiation dose in the current MBI procedure has been reduced to the level of a four-view digital mammography study. In addition to screening of selected sub-populations, reduced MBI dose allows for dual-isotope, treatment planning, and repeated therapy assessment studies in the era of molecular medicine guided by quantitative molecular imaging.

  9. Building a dense surface map incrementally from semi-dense point cloud and RGB images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-shan LI; Rong XIONG; Shoudong HUANG; Yi-ming HUANG

    2015-01-01

    Building and using maps is a fundamental issue for bionic robots in fi eld applications. A dense surface map, which offers rich visual and geometric information, is an ideal representation of the environment for indoor/outdoor localization, navigation, and recognition tasks of these robots. Since most bionic robots can use only small light-weight laser scanners and cameras to acquire semi-dense point cloud and RGB images, we propose a method to generate a consistent and dense surface map from this kind of semi-dense point cloud and RGB images. The method contains two main steps: (1) generate a dense surface for every single scan of point cloud and its corresponding image(s) and (2) incrementally fuse the dense surface of a new scan into the whole map. In step (1) edge-aware resampling is realized by segmenting the scan of a point cloud in advance and resampling each sub-cloud separately. Noise within the scan is reduced and a dense surface is generated. In step (2) the average surface is estimated probabilistically and the non-coincidence of different scans is eliminated. Experiments demonstrate that our method works well in both indoor and outdoor semi-structured environments where there are regularly shaped ob jects.

  10. Spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Han Yong

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) employs near-infrared light to image the concentration of chromophores and cell organelles in tissue and thereby providing access to functional parameters that can differentiate cancerous from normal tissues. This thesis describes research at the bench and in the clinic that explores and identifies the potential of DOT breast cancer imaging. The bench and clinic instrumentation differ but share important features: they utilize a very large, spatially dense, set of source-detector pairs (10 7) for imaging in the parallel-plate geometry. The bench experiments explored three-dimensional (3D) image resolution and fidelity as a function of numerous parameters and also ascertained the effects of a chest wall phantom. The chest wall is always present but is typically ignored in breast DOT. My experiments clarified chest wall influences and developed schemes to mitigate these effects. Mostly, these schemes involved selective data exclusion, but their efficacy also depended on reconstruction approach. Reconstruction algorithms based on analytic (fast) Fourier inversion and linear algebraic techniques were explored. The clinical experiments centered around a DOT instrument that I designed, constructed, and have begun to test (in-vitro and in-vivo). This instrumentation offers many features new to the field. Specifically, the imager employs spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain data; it possesses the world's largest optical source-detector density yet reported, facilitated by highly-parallel CCD-based frequency-domain imaging based on gain-modulation heterodyne detection. The instrument thus measures both phase and amplitude of the diffusive light waves. Other features include both frontal and sagittal breast imaging capabilities, ancillary cameras for measurement of breast boundary profiles, real-time data normalization, and mechanical improvements for patient comfort. The instrument design and construction is my most significant

  11. Breast imaging with the SoftVue imaging system: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Schmidt, Steven; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Janer, Roman; Kunz, Dave; Chen, Xiaoyang; Goll, Jeffrey; Wallen, Andrea; Zafar, Fouzaan; Allada, Veerendra; West, Erik; Jovanovic, Ivana; Li, Kuo; Greenway, William

    2013-03-01

    For women with dense breast tissue, who are at much higher risk for developing breast cancer, the performance of mammography is at its worst. Consequently, many early cancers go undetected when they are the most treatable. Improved cancer detection for women with dense breasts would decrease the proportion of breast cancers diagnosed at later stages, which would significantly lower the mortality rate. The emergence of whole breast ultrasound provides good performance for women with dense breast tissue, and may eliminate the current trade-off between the cost effectiveness of mammography and the imaging performance of more expensive systems such as magnetic resonance imaging. We report on the performance of SoftVue, a whole breast ultrasound imaging system, based on the principles of ultrasound tomography. SoftVue was developed by Delphinus Medical Technologies and builds on an early prototype developed at the Karmanos Cancer Institute. We present results from preliminary testing of the SoftVue system, performed both in the lab and in the clinic. These tests aimed to validate the expected improvements in image performance. Initial qualitative analyses showed major improvements in image quality, thereby validating the new imaging system design. Specifically, SoftVue's imaging performance was consistent across all breast density categories and had much better resolution and contrast. The implications of these results for clinical breast imaging are discussed and future work is described.

  12. Accuracy and reading time for six strategies using digital breast tomosynthesis in women with mammographically negative dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano; Calabrese, Massimo; Bignotti, Bianca; Signori, Alessio; Fisci, Erica; Rossi, Federica; Valdora, Francesca; Houssami, Nehmat

    2017-06-22

    To compare six strategies using digital breast tomosynthesis in women with mammographically negative dense breasts. This is a substudy of the 'ASTOUND' trial. 163 women who underwent tomosynthesis with synthetically reconstructed projection images (S-2D) inclusive of 13 (7.9%) cases diagnosed with breast cancer at histopathology after surgery were evaluated. Accuracy measures and screen-reading time of six reading strategies were assessed: (A) Single reading of S-2D alone, (B) single reading of tomosynthesis alone, (C) single reading of joint interpretation of tomosynthesis + S-2D, (D) double-reading of S-2D alone, (E) double reading of tomosynthesis alone, (F) double reading of joint interpretation of tomosynthesis + S-2D. The median age of the patients was 53 years (range, 36-88 years). The highest global accuracy was obtained with double reading of tomosynthesis + S2D (F) with an AUC of 0.979 (preading time of 154 s versus 34 s for the fastest strategy (single reading of S-2D alone). The AUCs for the other five strategies did not differ from each other. Double reading of tomosynthesis+ S2D had the best accuracy of six screen-reading strategies although it had the longest reading time. • Tomosynthesis acquisitions are progressively implemented with reconstructed synthesized 2D images • Double reading using S-2D plus tomosynthesis had the highest global accuracy (preading of S-2D plus tomosynthesis increased reading time.

  13. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  14. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  15. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  16. Automated quality assessment in three-dimensional breast ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Julia; Diez, Yago; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; van Zelst, Jan; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Gregori, Johannes; Günther, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound (ABUS) is a valuable adjunct to x-ray mammography for breast cancer screening of women with dense breasts. High image quality is essential for proper diagnostics and computer-aided detection. We propose an automated image quality assessment system for ABUS images that detects artifacts at the time of acquisition. Therefore, we study three aspects that can corrupt ABUS images: the nipple position relative to the rest of the breast, the shadow caused by the nipple, and the shape of the breast contour on the image. Image processing and machine learning algorithms are combined to detect these artifacts based on 368 clinical ABUS images that have been rated manually by two experienced clinicians. At a specificity of 0.99, 55% of the images that were rated as low quality are detected by the proposed algorithms. The areas under the ROC curves of the single classifiers are 0.99 for the nipple position, 0.84 for the nipple shadow, and 0.89 for the breast contour shape. The proposed algorithms work fast and reliably, which makes them adequate for online evaluation of image quality during acquisition. The presented concept may be extended to further image modalities and quality aspects.

  17. Optical imaging of individual biomolecules in densely packed clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingjie; Jungmann, Ralf; Yin, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence super-resolution microscopy have allowed subcellular features and synthetic nanostructures down to 10-20 nm in size to be imaged. However, the direct optical observation of individual molecular targets (∼5 nm) in a densely packed biomolecular cluster remains a challenge. Here, we show that such discrete molecular imaging is possible using DNA-PAINT (points accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography)—a super-resolution fluorescence microscopy technique that exploits programmable transient oligonucleotide hybridization—on synthetic DNA nanostructures. We examined the effects of a high photon count, high blinking statistics and an appropriate blinking duty cycle on imaging quality, and developed a software-based drift correction method that achieves optical nanodisplay with 5 × 5 nm pixel size and three distinct colours with <1 nm cross-channel registration accuracy.

  18. Breast-Specific γ-Imaging for the Detection of Mammographically Occult Breast Cancer in Women at Increased Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Rachel F; Ruda, Rachel C; Yang, Jialu L; Coffey, Caitrín M; Rapelyea, Jocelyn A

    2016-05-01

    Breast-specific γ-imaging (BSGI) is a physiologic imaging modality that can detect subcentimeter and mammographically occult breast cancer, with a sensitivity and specificity comparable to MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental increase in breast cancer detection when BSGI is used as an adjunct to mammography in women at increased risk for breast cancer. All patients undergoing BSGI from April 2010 through January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Eligible patients were identified as women at increased risk for breast cancer and whose most recent mammogram was benign. Examinations exhibiting focally increased radiotracer uptake were considered positive. Incremental increase in cancer detection was calculated as the percentage of mammographically occult BSGI-detected breast cancer and the number of mammographically occult breast cancers detected per 1,000 women screened. Included in this study were 849 patients in whom 14 BSGI examinations detected mammographically occult breast cancer. Patients ranged in age from 26 to 83 y, with a mean age of 57 y. Eleven of 14 cancers were detected in women with dense breasts. The addition of BSGI to the annual breast screen of asymptomatic women at increased risk for breast cancer yields 16.5 cancers per 1,000 women screened. When high-risk lesions and cancers were combined, BSGI detected 33.0 high-risk lesions and cancers per 1,000 women screened. BSGI is a reliable adjunct modality to screening mammography that increases breast cancer detection by 1.7% (14/849) in women at increased risk for breast cancer, comparable to results reported for breast MRI. BSGI is beneficial in breast cancer detection in women at increased risk, particularly in those with dense breasts. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  19. Digital mammography in the radio-dense and complex pattern breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Jafroudi, Hamid; Hogge, Jacquelyn; Zuurbier, Rebecca A.; Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Katial, Raj; Mun, Seong K.

    1996-04-01

    The sensitivity of mammography for the detection of breast cancer is decreased in the radiodense breast. Storage phosphor digital radiographic systems have a wider latitude of exposure than conventional mammographic screen film systems. By using low resolution histogram equalization one can produce a mammographic image of the breast that retains the high frequency information that defines the edges of microcalcifications, architectural distortion and some masses but which, at the same time, allows one to look through into regions of increased breast radiodensity and identify microcalcifications within them. This paper demonstrates the effect of this special form of image processing.

  20. Semiautomated Multimodal Breast Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Curtis

    2012-01-01

    However, due to the highly deformable nature of breast tissues, comparison of 3D and 2D modalities is a challenge. To enable this comparison, a registration technique was developed to map features from 2D mammograms to locations in the 3D image space. This technique was developed and tested using magnetic resonance (MR images as a reference 3D modality, as MR breast imaging is an established technique in clinical practice. The algorithm was validated using a numerical phantom then successfully tested on twenty-four image pairs. Dice's coefficient was used to measure the external goodness of fit, resulting in an excellent overall average of 0.94. Internal agreement was evaluated by examining internal features in consultation with a radiologist, and subjective assessment concludes that reasonable alignment was achieved.

  1. Dense image registration through MRFs and efficient linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Ben; Komodakis, Nikos; Tziritas, Georgios; Navab, Nassir; Paragios, Nikos

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel and efficient approach to dense image registration, which does not require a derivative of the employed cost function. In such a context, the registration problem is formulated using a discrete Markov random field objective function. First, towards dimensionality reduction on the variables we assume that the dense deformation field can be expressed using a small number of control points (registration grid) and an interpolation strategy. Then, the registration cost is expressed using a discrete sum over image costs (using an arbitrary similarity measure) projected on the control points, and a smoothness term that penalizes local deviations on the deformation field according to a neighborhood system on the grid. Towards a discrete approach, the search space is quantized resulting in a fully discrete model. In order to account for large deformations and produce results on a high resolution level, a multi-scale incremental approach is considered where the optimal solution is iteratively updated. This is done through successive morphings of the source towards the target image. Efficient linear programming using the primal dual principles is considered to recover the lowest potential of the cost function. Very promising results using synthetic data with known deformations and real data demonstrate the potentials of our approach.

  2. Imaging inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, J-P

    2012-02-01

    Carcinomatous mastitis is a severe form of breast cancer and its diagnosis is essentially clinical and histological. The first examination to perform is still mammography, not only to provide evidence supporting this diagnosis but also to search for a primary intramammary lesion and assess local/regional spread. It is essential to study the contralateral breast for bilaterality. Ultrasound also provides evidence supporting inflammation, but appears to be better for detecting masses and analysing lymph node areas. The role of MRI is debatable, both from a diagnostic point of view and for monitoring during treatment, and should be reserved for selected cases. An optimal, initial radiological assessment will enable the patient to be monitored during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Éditions française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 超声对致密型乳腺疾病的诊断价值%Clinical value of ultrasonography in dense breasts by mammography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋珺; 陈亚青; 李文英; 徐依耑

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of breast ultrasonography in women with dense breast tissue by mammography. Methods The breast ultrasonography appearance in 115 patients with dense breasts and 304 patients without dense breasts were retrospectively analyzed. The findings by ultrasound, mammography and subsequent histopathology were used to calculate the detection rate, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of breast ultrasonography. Results The detection rates of breast neoplasms by ultrasonography in patients with or without dense breast were 96. 3% and 98. 3% , respectively, which were significantly higher than mammography ( 36. 0% , 83. 7% , P <0. 01 ). In the dense breasts, the diagnostic sensitivity for breast cancer by ultrasonography was higher than that by mammography (83.9%, 51.6%, P < 0.01 ), while the diagnostic sensitivity of ultrasonography was lower than that by mammography ( 88.6% , 98. 1% , P <0. 01 ). The diagnostic accuracy rate of the two methods was 87. 5% . In the patients without dense breast, no statistical difference was found in the diagnosis for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the two imaging techniques ( P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion The breast ultrasonography could significantly improve the detection rate of breast neoplasm and the diagnosis sensitivity of breast cancer in the dense breasts by mammography, which could be a useful supplement for screening mammography in women with dense breast.%目的 探讨超声在致密型乳腺疾病中的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析115例致密型乳腺患者和304例非致密型乳腺患者的超声声像图表现,并与其钼靶X线检查结果和病理结果相比较,统计分析超声对致密型乳腺疾病的检出率和诊断准确率.结果 超声对致密型、非致密型乳腺中的病灶检出率分别为96.3%、98.3%,均显著高于钼靶(36.0%、83.7%;P<0.01).在致密型乳腺患者中,超声对乳腺癌的诊断敏感度显著高于钼靶(83.9%

  4. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Littrup, Peter [KARMONOS CANCER INSTITUTE

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided pbreast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  5. Breast percent density estimation from 3D reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakic, Predrag R.; Kontos, Despina; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2008-03-01

    Breast density is an independent factor of breast cancer risk. In mammograms breast density is quantitatively measured as percent density (PD), the percentage of dense (non-fatty) tissue. To date, clinical estimates of PD have varied significantly, in part due to the projective nature of mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D imaging modality in which cross-sectional images are reconstructed from a small number of projections acquired at different x-ray tube angles. Preliminary studies suggest that DBT is superior to mammography in tissue visualization, since superimposed anatomical structures present in mammograms are filtered out. We hypothesize that DBT could also provide a more accurate breast density estimation. In this paper, we propose to estimate PD from reconstructed DBT images using a semi-automated thresholding technique. Preprocessing is performed to exclude the image background and the area of the pectoral muscle. Threshold values are selected manually from a small number of reconstructed slices; a combination of these thresholds is applied to each slice throughout the entire reconstructed DBT volume. The proposed method was validated using images of women with recently detected abnormalities or with biopsy-proven cancers; only contralateral breasts were analyzed. The Pearson correlation and kappa coefficients between the breast density estimates from DBT and the corresponding digital mammogram indicate moderate agreement between the two modalities, comparable with our previous results from 2D DBT projections. Percent density appears to be a robust measure for breast density assessment in both 2D and 3D x-ray breast imaging modalities using thresholding.

  6. Breast MRI: guidelines from the European Society of Breast Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R. M.; Kuhl, C. K.; Kinkel, K.; BOETES, C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of breast MRI is to obtain a reliable evaluation of any lesion within the breast. It is currently always used as an adjunct to the standard diagnostic procedures of the breast, i.e., clinical examination, mammography and ultrasound. Whereas the sensitivity of breast MRI is usually very high, specificity—as in all breast imaging modalities—depends on many factors such as reader expertise, use of adequate techniques and composition of the patient cohorts. Since breast MRI will always yi...

  7. MRI surveillance for women with dense breasts and a previous breast cancer and/or high risk lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Michelle; Al-Attar, Hyder; Warner, Ellen; Martel, Anne L; Balasingham, Sharmila; Zhang, Liying; Lipton, Joseph H; Curpen, Belinda

    2017-08-01

    The role of surveillance breast MRI for women with mammographically dense breasts, a personal history of breast cancer (BC), atypical hyperplasia (AH), or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is unclear. We estimated the performance of annual surveillance MRI in women with a combination of these risk factors. We performed a retrospective review of the clinical, radiological, and pathological parameters of women who received annual concurrent surveillance breast MRI and mammography between 04/2013 and 12/2015 and fulfilled all of the following criteria: 1) age <70; 2) prior diagnosis of AH, LCIS or BC; 3) heterogeneously or extremely dense breast(s); and 4) did not qualify for our provincial breast MRI high risk screening program. This study included 198 patients (266 MRI exams). MRI detected 15 cancers: 11 invasive stage I and 4 in-situ. All but 1 were mammographically occult and there were no interval cancers. The cancer detection rate (CDR) and false positive (FP) rate were 6.1% and 21% for round one and 4.7% and 12.5% for round two, respectively. Not being on anti-estrogen therapy and having a 1st degree relative with BC significantly increased the likelihood of tumor detection. The CDR and FP rate of surveillance MRI in this study were comparable to those reported for women with BRCA mutations. The addition of annual MRI to mammography should be considered for surveillance of women with a combination of these risk factors, particularly if they have a family history of BC and are not on anti-estrogen therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental and Other Breast Imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... optical imaging with other tests like MRI or 3D mammography to help diagnose breast cancer. Molecular breast ... radioactive particle to detect cancer cells. The PEM scanner is approved by the Food and Drug Administration ( ...

  9. Comparative effectiveness of combined digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening for women with dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Cevik, Mucahit; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Sprague, Brian L; Tosteson, Anna N A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Stout, Natasha K; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Ramsey, Scott D; Lehman, Constance D

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of combined biennial digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening, compared with biennial digital mammography screening alone, among women with dense breasts. An established, discrete-event breast cancer simulation model was used to estimate the comparative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of biennial screening with both digital mammography and tomosynthesis versus digital mammography alone among U.S. women aged 50-74 years with dense breasts from a federal payer perspective and a lifetime horizon. Input values were estimated for test performance, costs, and health state utilities from the National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, Medicare reimbursement rates, and medical literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the implications of varying key model parameters, including combined screening sensitivity and specificity, transient utility decrement of diagnostic work-up, and additional cost of tomosynthesis. For the base-case analysis, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained by adding tomosynthesis to digital mammography screening was $53 893. An additional 0.5 deaths were averted and 405 false-positive findings avoided per 1000 women after 12 rounds of screening. Combined screening remained cost-effective (less than $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) over a wide range of incremental improvements in test performance. Overall, cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to the additional cost of tomosynthesis. Biennial combined digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening for U.S. women aged 50-74 years with dense breasts is likely to be cost-effective if priced appropriately (up to $226 for combined examinations vs $139 for digital mammography alone) and if reported interpretive performance metrics of improved specificity with tomosynthesis are met in routine practice.

  10. MRI对致密型乳腺中乳腺癌的诊断价值%Study on the significance of dense breast in MRI for detecting breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎星; 吕涛; 汪湍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of dense breast in detecting breast cancer by breast MRI. Methods Fifty - three patients with breast cancer showing dense breast in mammography were examined by breast MRI. All these 53 cases had been confirmed by pathological examination. Their morphological features, diffusion - weighted imaging ( DW1) and time - signal intensity curve ( TIC ) were analyzed. Results Among fifty - three cases of breast cancer, 23 cases were detected by mammography, and 30 cases were misdiagnosed. Among these 53 cases, 49 of them were detected by MRI, 4 cases were misdiagnosed, and its sensitivity was 92. 5% . Conclusion The appearance of dense breast in breast MRI has very important significance in diagnosis of breast cancer.%目的 探讨MRI对致密型乳腺中乳腺癌的诊断价值.方法 收集53例同时行钼靶X线检查及MRI检查的致密型乳腺,均经手术后病理证实为乳腺癌患者,通过对病变的检出、形态学、扩散加权成像(DWI)以及时间-信号曲线(TIC)等方面进行分析诊断.结果 53例患者中,钼靶诊断正确为23例,误诊及漏诊为30例;MRI诊断正确为49例,误诊及漏诊为4例,其敏感度为92.5%.结论 乳腺MRI检查对致密型乳腺中乳腺癌的诊断具有重要不可替代的价值.

  11. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  12. MRI对X线上致密型乳腺中乳腺癌的诊断价值%The Value of MRI in Diagnosing Breast Cancer in Mammographic Dense Breasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜婷婷; 李志; 汪登斌; 柴维敏

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the MRI characteristics of breast cancers with histopathological correlation in dense breasts on mammography compared with those in nondense. Methods: From March, 2009 to March, 2010, there were 180 women who were diagnosed with breast cancer, and 77 of them were regarded as having dense breasts on mammography. All patients were performed with breast MRI by using GE 1.5 T Signa Excite MR imager. The MRI manifestations were analyzed to define the characteristics of the breast cancers in dense breast compared with those in non-dense breast. Results: The dense breast group had 66 infiltrating ductal carcinoma (85.7%), 8 ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS)( 10.4%), 3 other types(3.9%);while the non-dense breast group included 85 infiltrating ductal carcinoma (82.5%),7 DCIS(6.8%),11 other types(10.7%). The size of the lesion in dense breast was bigger than that in non-dense breast (2.3cm vs 1.9cm, P<0.05). The breast cancers in dense breast were vulnerable to have a spiculated or obscured margin (43 of 60 in the dense breast group vs 47 of 87 in the non-dense breast group, P<0.05). The grading of the invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) was higher than that in non-dense breasts(P<0.05). The patients in dense breast group were younger than the other group (47.2 yrs vs 60.1 yrs, P<0.05) Conclusion: The breast cancer in the dense breast has different MRI findings with histopathological correlation compared with those in non-dense breast.%目的:探讨致密型乳腺中乳腺癌MRI表现,以组织病理学为标准,与非致密型乳腺中乳腺癌作对照分析.方法:2009年3月至2010年3月来我院完成乳腺MRI及X线摄影检、病理组织学诊断为乳腺癌的连续180例病人纳入研究,年龄28~85岁,平均54.4岁;按X线摄影上纤维腺体组织密度分型标准将入组病例分为致密型和非致密型,并对两组的乳腺癌MRI表现进行对比分析,进一步归纳出致密型中乳腺癌的MRI特点.结果:致密型乳腺77

  13. Dense Image Matching with Two Steps of Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuxun; He, Jia'nan; Huang, Shan; Duan, Yansong

    2016-06-01

    Dense image matching is a basic and key point of photogrammetry and computer version. In this paper, we provide a method derived from the seed-and-grow method, whose basic procedure consists of the following: First, the seed and feature points are extracted, after which the feature points around every seed point are found in the first step of expansion. The corresponding information on these feature points needs to be determined. This is followed by the second step of expansion, in which the seed points around the feature point are found and used to estimate the possible matching patch. Finally, the matching results are refined through the traditional correlation-based method. Our proposed method operates on two frames without geometric constraints, specifically, epipolar constraints. It (1) can smoothly operate on frame, line array, natural scene, and even synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and (2) at the same time guarantees computing efficiency as a result of the seed-and-grow concept and the computational efficiency of the correlation-based method.

  14. Breast lump removal - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a breast lump is very important to a patient's prognosis (probable outcome). Most breast lumps are not diagnosed at the ... is required. If the lump is malignant, the outcome depends on the ... lumpectomy does not require a breast replacement (prosthesis).

  15. Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer with Ultrasound Molecular Imaging in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Lutz, Amelie M.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Tranquart, Francois; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2013-01-01

    While there is an increasing role of ultrasound for breast cancer screening in patients with dense breast, conventional anatomical-ultrasound lacks sensitivity and specificity for early breast cancer detection. In this study we assessed the potential of molecular-ultrasound imaging, using clinically-translatable vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR2)-targeted microbubbles (MBVEGFR2), to improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in earlier detection of breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a transgenic mouse model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul). In vivo binding specificity studies (n=26 tumors) showed that ultrasound imaging signal was significantly higher (P95% of cases and highly agreed between each other (ICC=0.98; 95% CI, 97, 99). These results suggest that VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging allows highly accurate detection of DCIS and breast cancer in transgenic mice and may be a promising approach for early breast cancer detection in women. PMID:23328585

  16. Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Fhager, Andreas; Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity and condu......Still more research groups are promoting microwave imaging as a viable supplement or substitution to more conventional imaging modalities. A widespread approach for microwave imaging of the breast is tomographic imaging in which one seeks to reconstruct the distributions of permittivity...

  17. Image classification with densely sampled image windows and generalized adaptive multiple kernel learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shengye; Xu, Xinxing; Xu, Dong; Lin, Stephen; Li, Xuelong

    2015-03-01

    We present a framework for image classification that extends beyond the window sampling of fixed spatial pyramids and is supported by a new learning algorithm. Based on the observation that fixed spatial pyramids sample a rather limited subset of the possible image windows, we propose a method that accounts for a comprehensive set of windows densely sampled over location, size, and aspect ratio. A concise high-level image feature is derived to effectively deal with this large set of windows, and this higher level of abstraction offers both efficient handling of the dense samples and reduced sensitivity to misalignment. In addition to dense window sampling, we introduce generalized adaptive l(p)-norm multiple kernel learning (GA-MKL) to learn a robust classifier based on multiple base kernels constructed from the new image features and multiple sets of prelearned classifiers from other classes. With GA-MKL, multiple levels of image features are effectively fused, and information is shared among different classifiers. Extensive evaluation on benchmark datasets for object recognition (Caltech256 and Caltech101) and scene recognition (15Scenes) demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art under a broad range of settings.

  18. MR mammography in the pre-operative staging of breast cancer in patients with dense breast tissue: comparison with mammography and ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goethem, M.; Schelfout, K.; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; De Schepper, A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Dijckmans, L. [Department of Gynecology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Van Der Auwera, J.C.; Weyler, J. [Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-operative MR mammography could predict the extent of breast cancer in patients with dense breasts or whether dense parenchyma will lead to false-positive or inconclusive examinations. Sixty-seven patients with dense breasts with a malignant breast tumor planned for conservative surgery were reviewed. Detection rates of mammography, ultrasound, and MR mammography were studied, and the diameters of the lesions were measured and compared with pathological examination. Pathology revealed breast cancer in 65 patients. Sensitivity for detection of index lesions was 83% for mammography, 70.8% for ultrasound, and 98% for MR mammography. Mammography underestimated tumor extent in 37%, ultrasound in 40%, and MR in 12.5%. Of the 20 patients (31%) with multifocal or multicentric carcinoma, mammography detected the lesions in 35%, ultrasound in 30%, and MR in 100%, with a false-positive rate of 12.5, 14, and 23%. The MR mammography is more accurate in assessing tumor extent and multifocality in patients with dense breasts, but benign changes may lead to false-positive examinations. (orig.)

  19. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  20. Causes of breast lumps (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous), as in fibroadenoma, a condition that mostly affects women under age ... with the menstrual cycle, whereas a lump from fibroadenoma does not. While most breast lumps are benign, ...

  1. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    In the United States, one in eight women will be affected by breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed - as well as the second most fatal - cancer in American women. It is estimated that there will be nearly 200,000 diagnoses of breast cancer this year; more than 40,000 of these will be fatal. Although advances in medical technologies have greatly increased the odds of surviving the disease, the increase in screenings has not resulted in a significant reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate. Moreover, recent studies have even suggested that an increase in these methods might, in itself, cause cancer. A new tool for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, supported by an award from the Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs of Department of Defense, could give women a new advantage in the fight against breast cancer. This LANL-led project will integrate ultrasound tomography (UST) with recent discoveries in the field of cell and tissue biomechanics to improve breast cancer detection and characterization. UST uses ultrasound waves instead of X-rays to identify and characterize breast tumors. This technology reveals small mechanical-property changes within the breast. These changes are often the earliest signs of breast cancer. Additionally, UST is effective for women with dense breast tissue, who have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Because the technology does not use radiation, UST can also be used as frequently as needed for women with a high risk of developing breast cancer. In contrast, mammography, the only routine breast-cancer screening tool currently available, is not effective for women with dense breast tissue and may come with unwanted side-effects caused by ionizing radiation. UST has great potential to become an alternative breast-cancer screening tool because of UST's advantages and benefits over mammography

  2. Sensitivity of imaging for multifocal-multicentric breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viale Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study aims to determine: 1 the sensitivity of preoperative mammography (Mx and ultrasound (US, and re-reviewed Mx to detect multifocal multicentric breast carcinoma (MMBC, defined by pathology on surgical specimens, and 2 to analyze the characteristics of both detected and undetected foci on Mx and US. Methods Three experienced breast radiologists re-reviewed, independently, digital mammography of 97 women with MMBC pathologically diagnosed on surgical specimens. The radiologists were informed of all neoplastic foci, and blinded to the original mammograms and US reports. With regards to Mx, they considered the breast density, number of foci, the Mx characteristics of the lesions and their BI-RADS classification. For US, they considered size of the lesions, BI-RADS classification and US pattern and lesion characteristics. According to the histological size, the lesions were classified as: index cancer, 2nd lesion, 3rd lesion, and 4th lesion. Any pathologically identified malignant foci not previously described in the original imaging reports, were defined as undetected or missed lesions. Sensitivity was calculated for Mx, US and re-reviewed Mx for detecting the presence of the index cancer as well as additional satellite lesions. Results Pathological examination revealed 13 multifocal and 84 multicentric cancers with a total of 303 malignant foci (282 invasive and 21 non invasive. Original Mx and US reports had an overall sensitivity of 45.5% and 52.9%, respectively. Mx detected 83/97 index cancers with a sensitivity of 85.6%. The number of lesions undetected by original Mx was 165/303. The Mx pattern of breasts with undetected lesions were: fatty in 3 (1.8%; scattered fibroglandular density in 40 (24.3%, heterogeneously dense in 91 (55.1% and dense in 31 (18.8% cases. In breasts with an almost entirely fatty pattern, Mx sensitivity was 100%, while in fibroglandular or dense pattern it was reduced to 45

  3. Breast imaging findings in women with BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.J.; Evans, A.J. E-mail: aevans@ncht.trent.nhs.uk; Wilson, A.R.M.; Scott, N.; Cornford, E.J.; Pinder, S.E.; Khan, H.N.; Macmillan, R.D

    2004-10-01

    AIM: To document the breast imaging findings of women with BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated breast carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Family history clinic records identified 18 BRCA1 and 10 BRCA2 cases who collectively were diagnosed with 27 invasive breast carcinomas and four ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. All underwent pre-operative imaging (29 mammogram and 22 ultrasound examinations). All invasive BRCA-associated breast carcinoma cases were compared with age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma. RESULTS: Within the BRCA cases the age range was 26-62 years, mean 36 years. Two mammograms were normal and 27 (93%) abnormal. The most common mammographic features were defined mass (63%) and microcalcifications (37%). Thirty-four percent of women had a dense mammographic pattern, 59% mixed and 7% fatty. Ultrasound was performed in 22 patients and in 21 (95%) indicated a mass. This was classified as benign in 24%, indeterminate in 29% and malignant in 48%. Mammograms of BRCA1-associated carcinomas more frequently showed a defined mass compared with BRCA2-associated carcinomas, 72 versus 36% (73% control group) whilst mammograms of BRCA2-associated carcinomas more frequently showed microcalcification, 73 versus 12% (8% control group; p<0.001). Thirty-six percent of the BRCA2-associated carcinomas were pure DCIS while none of the BRCA1 associated carcinomas were pure DCIS (p=0.004). Of those patients undergoing regular mammographic screening, 100% of BRCA2-associated carcinomas were detected compared with 75% of BRCA1-associated carcinomas. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the imaging findings of BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated carcinomas differ from each other and from age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  5. Requirements for effective functional breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I. N.; Zawarzin, V.; Adler, L. P.; Pani, R.; DeVincentis, G.; Khalkhali, I.; Vargas, H.; Venegas, R.; Kim, S. C.; Bakale, G.; Levine, E.; Perrier, N.; Freimanis, R. I.; Lesko, N. M.; Newman, D. P.; Geisinger, K. R.; Berg, W. A.; Masood, S.

    2003-01-01

    Most nuclear medicine physicists were trained on devices aimed at functional neuroimaging. The clinical goals of brain-centered devices differ dramatically from the parameters needed to be useful in the breast clinic. We will discuss similarities and differences that impact on design considerations, and describe our latest generation of positron emission mammography and intraoperative products. Source of physiologic contrast: Clinical neuroimaging depends on flow agents to detect the presence of breaks in the blood-brain barrier. Breast flow agents are nonspecific, and may miss preinvasive lesions. Resolution: Brain cancers are generally diagnosed at late stages, so resolution is not so critical. Detecting early breast cancers, and specifying margins for surgery requires 3 mm spatial resolution or better. Prevalence: Primary brain cancer is uncommon, and lesions mimicking brain cancer are rare. Primary breast cancer is common, and benign lesions are even more common, so specificity and biopsy capability are very important. Anatomic references: Brain structure is standard, while breast structure is highly variable, requiring immobilization/compression for physiologic imaging and biopsy. Surgery: Complete cancer resections for brain are very rare, but are possible for breast with appropriate imaging guidance, implying the need for rapid and reliable imaging. To summarize, the breast clinic needs a rapid and highly sensitive method of assessing breast physiology, compatible with biopsy and surgery. Positron emission mammography devices, in handheld and X-ray platform based configurations, are ideal for this mission.

  6. Rainbow Particle Imaging Velocimetry for Dense 3D Fluid Velocity Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Jinhui

    2017-04-11

    Despite significant recent progress, dense, time-resolved imaging of complex, non-stationary 3D flow velocities remains an elusive goal. In this work we tackle this problem by extending an established 2D method, Particle Imaging Velocimetry, to three dimensions by encoding depth into color. The encoding is achieved by illuminating the flow volume with a continuum of light planes (a “rainbow”), such that each depth corresponds to a specific wavelength of light. A diffractive component in the camera optics ensures that all planes are in focus simultaneously. For reconstruction, we derive an image formation model for recovering stationary 3D particle positions. 3D velocity estimation is achieved with a variant of 3D optical flow that accounts for both physical constraints as well as the rainbow image formation model. We evaluate our method with both simulations and an experimental prototype setup.

  7. Breast density mapping based upon system calibration, x-ray techniques, and FFDM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Smith, Andrew P.; Jing, Zhenxue; Wu, Tao

    2007-03-01

    Clinical studies have correlated a high breast density to a women's risk of breast cancer. A breast density measurement that can quantitatively depict the volume distribution and percentage of dense tissues in breasts would be very useful for risk factor assessment of breast cancer, and might be more predictive of risks than the common but subjective and coarse 4-point BIRADS scale. This paper proposes to use a neural-network mapping to compute the breast density information based upon system calibration data, x-ray techniques, and Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images. The mapping consists of four modules, namely, system calibration, generator of beam quality, generator of normalized absorption, and a multi-layer feed-forward neural network. As the core of breast density mapping, the network accepts x-ray target/filter combination, normalized x-ray absorption, pixel-wise breast thickness map, and x-ray beam quality during image acquisition as input elements, and exports a pixel-wise breast density distribution and a single breast density percentage for the imaged breast. Training and testing data sets for the design and verification of the network were formulated from calibrated x-ray beam quality, imaging data with a step wedge phantom under a variety x-ray imaging techniques, and nominal breast densities of tissue equivalent materials. The network was trained using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based back-propagation learning method. Various thickness and glandular density phantom studies were performed with clinical x-ray techniques. Preliminary results showed that the neural network mapping is promising in accurately computing glandular density distribution and breast density percentage.

  8. Dense 3d Point Cloud Generation from Uav Images from Image Matching and Global Optimazation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, S.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    3D spatial information from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) images is usually provided in the form of 3D point clouds. For various UAV applications, it is important to generate dense 3D point clouds automatically from over the entire extent of UAV images. In this paper, we aim to apply image matching for generation of local point clouds over a pair or group of images and global optimization to combine local point clouds over the whole region of interest. We tried to apply two types of image matching, an object space-based matching technique and an image space-based matching technique, and to compare the performance of the two techniques. The object space-based matching used here sets a list of candidate height values for a fixed horizontal position in the object space. For each height, its corresponding image point is calculated and similarity is measured by grey-level correlation. The image space-based matching used here is a modified relaxation matching. We devised a global optimization scheme for finding optimal pairs (or groups) to apply image matching, defining local match region in image- or object- space, and merging local point clouds into a global one. For optimal pair selection, tiepoints among images were extracted and stereo coverage network was defined by forming a maximum spanning tree using the tiepoints. From experiments, we confirmed that through image matching and global optimization, 3D point clouds were generated successfully. However, results also revealed some limitations. In case of image-based matching results, we observed some blanks in 3D point clouds. In case of object space-based matching results, we observed more blunders than image-based matching ones and noisy local height variations. We suspect these might be due to inaccurate orientation parameters. The work in this paper is still ongoing. We will further test our approach with more precise orientation parameters.

  9. Multispectral image segmentation of breast pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Joseph P.; Blaakman, Andre; Rubens, Deborah; Totterman, Saara

    1991-06-01

    The signal intensity in a magnetic resonance image is not only a function of imaging parameters but also of several intrinsic tissue properties. Therefore, unlike other medical imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the imaging scientist to locate pathology using multispectral image segmentation. Multispectral image segmentation works best when orthogonal spectral regions are employed. In MRI, possible spectral regions are spin density (rho) , spin-lattice relaxation time T1, spin-spin relaxation time T2, and texture for each nucleus type and chemical shift. This study examines the ability of multispectral image segmentation to locate breast pathology using the total hydrogen T1, T2, and (rho) . The preliminary results indicate that our technique can locate cysts and fibroadenoma breast lesions with a minimum number of false-positives and false-negatives. Results, T1, T2, and (rho) algorithms, and segmentation techniques are presented.

  10. TH-A-18A-01: Innovation in Clinical Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yang, K [University of Oklahoma, Oklahomoa City, OK (United States); Yaffe, M [University Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chen, J [GE/U-Systems, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Several novel modalities have been or are on the verge of being introduced into the breast imaging clinic. These include tomosynthesis imaging, dedicated breast CT, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and automated breast ultrasound, all of which are covered in this course. Tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT address the problem of tissue superimposition that limits mammography screening performance, by improved or full resolution of the 3D breast morphology. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography provides functional information that allows for visualization of tumor angiogenesis. 3D breast ultrasound has high sensitivity for tumor detection in dense breasts, but the imaging exam was traditionally performed by radiologists. In automated breast ultrasound, the scan is performed in an automated fashion, making for a more practical imaging tool, that is now used as an adjunct to digital mammography in breast cancer screening. This course will provide medical physicists with an in-depth understanding of the imaging physics of each of these four novel imaging techniques, as well as the rationale and implementation of QC procedures. Further, basic clinical applications and work flow issues will be discussed. Learning Objectives: To be able to describe the underlying physical and physiological principles of each imaging technique, and to understand the corresponding imaging acquisition process. To be able to describe the critical system components and their performance requirements. To understand the rationale and implementation of quality control procedures, as well as regulatory requirements for systems with FDA approval. To learn about clinical applications and understand risks and benefits/strength and weakness of each modality in terms of clinical breast imaging.

  11. A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Robert [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Fei, Baowei, E-mail: bfei@emory.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. Methods: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale bilateral filter to reduce noise while keeping edge information and were corrected to overcome cupping artifacts. As skin and glandular tissue have similar CT values on breast CT images, morphologic processing is used to identify the skin based on its position information. A support vector machine (SVM) is trained and the resulting model used to create a pixelwise classification map of fat and glandular tissue. By combining the results of the skin mask with the SVM results, the breast tissue is classified as skin, fat, and glandular tissue. This map is then used to identify markers for a minimum spanning forest that is grown to segment the image using spatial and intensity information. To evaluate the authors’ classification method, they use DICE overlap ratios to compare the results of the automated classification to those obtained by manual segmentation on five patient images. Results: Comparison between the automatic and the manual segmentation shows that the minimum spanning forest based classification method was able to successfully classify dedicated breast CT image with average DICE ratios of 96.9%, 89.8%, and 89.5% for fat, glandular, and skin tissue, respectively. Conclusions: A 2D minimum spanning forest based classification method was proposed and evaluated for classifying the fat, skin, and glandular tissue in dedicated breast CT images. The classification method can be used for dense breast tissue quantification, radiation dose assessment, and other applications in breast imaging.

  12. Three-dimensional microwave imaging of realistic numerical breast phantoms via a multiple-frequency inverse scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jacob D.; Kosmas, Panagiotis; Hagness, Susan C.; Van Veen, Barry D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Breast density measurement has the potential to play an important role in individualized breast cancer risk assessment and prevention decisions. Routine evaluation of breast density will require the availability of a low-cost, nonionizing, three-dimensional (3-D) tomographic imaging modality that exploits a strong properties contrast between dense fibroglandular tissue and less dense adipose tissue. The purpose of this computational study is to investigate the performance of 3-D tomography using low-power microwaves to reconstruct the spatial distribution of breast tissue dielectric properties and to evaluate the modality for application to breast density characterization. Methods: State-of-the-art 3-D numerical breast phantoms that are realistic in both structural and dielectric properties are employed. The test phantoms include one sample from each of four classes of mammographic breast density. Since the properties of these phantoms are known exactly, these testbeds serve as a rigorous benchmark for the imaging results. The distorted Born iterative imaging method is applied to simulated array measurements of the numerical phantoms. The forward solver in the imaging algorithm employs the finite-difference time-domain method of solving the time-domain Maxwell’s equations, and the dielectric profiles are estimated using an integral equation form of the Helmholtz wave equation. A multiple-frequency, bound-constrained, vector field inverse scattering solution is implemented that enables practical inversion of the large-scale 3-D problem. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent characteristic of breast tissues at microwave frequencies is exploited to obtain a parametric reconstruction of the dispersive dielectric profile of the interior of the breast. Imaging is performed on a high-resolution voxel basis and the solution is bounded by a known range of dielectric properties of the constituent breast tissues. The imaging method is validated using a breast

  13. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, 110 Donner, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla. (author)

  14. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, R; Karp, J S

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  15. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S.

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  16. Breast conserving therapy and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Tsuneaki; Masuda, Yu; Hachiya, Junichi; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Fukushima, Hisayoshi; Uchigasaki, Shinya [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-12-01

    Recently, breast conserving therapy has been widely accepted in our country. The extensive intraductal component (EIC) is a serious problem in breast conserving therapy, because it is well-known that EIC frequently causes locoregional recurrence in preserved breast parenchyma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful method for detecting breast masses due to its excellent contrast resolution. We studied the application of MRI to detection of intraductal spread in twenty-two patients. All cases were revealed invasive cancer with intraductal spread by histopathological examination. MRI findings of intraductal spread can be divided into two major groups. One is daugter nodules or strand-like enhancement and the other is bridging enhancement. We also reffered to the preliminary study of MR-guiding transcutaneous aspiration biopsy of mammographically and clinically occult breast masses. (author)

  17. Compound Radar Approach for Breast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Dallan; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J

    2017-01-01

    Multistatic radar apertures record scattering at a number of receivers when the target is illuminated by a single transmitter, providing more scattering information than its monostatic counterpart per transmission angle. This paper considers the well-known problem of detecting tumor targets within breast phantoms using multistatic radar. To accurately image potentially cancerous targets size within the breast, a significant number of multistatic channels are required in order to adequately calibrate-out unwanted skin reflections, increase the immunity to clutter, and increase the dynamic range of a breast radar imaging system. However, increasing the density of antennas within a physical array is inevitably limited by the geometry of the antenna elements designed to operate with biological tissues at microwave frequencies. A novel compound imaging approach is presented to overcome these physical constraints and improve the imaging capabilities of a multistatic radar imaging modality for breast scanning applications. The number of transmit-receive (TX-RX) paths available for imaging are increased by performing a number of breast scans with varying array positions. A skin calibration method is presented to reduce the influence of skin reflections from each channel. Calibrated signals are applied to receive a beamforming method, compounding the data from each scan to produce a microwave radar breast profile. The proposed imaging method is evaluated with experimental data obtained from constructed phantoms of varying complexity, skin contour asymmetries, and challenging tumor positions and sizes. For each imaging scenario outlined in this study, the proposed compound imaging technique improves skin calibration, clearly detects small targets, and substantially reduces the level of undesirable clutter within the profile.

  18. (Almost) Featureless Stereo: Calibration and Dense 3D Reconstruction Using Whole Image Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Morris, R. D.; Maluf, D. A.; Cheeseman, P.

    2001-01-01

    The conventional approach to shape from stereo is via feature extraction and correspondences. This results in estimates of the camera parameters and a typically spare estimate of the surface. Given a set of calibrated images, a dense surface reconstruction is possible by minimizing the error between the observed image and the image rendered from the estimated surface with respect to the surface model parameters. Given an uncalibrated image and an estimated surface, the camera parameters can be estimated by minimizing the error between the observed and rendered images a function of the camera parameters. We use a very small dense set of matched features to provide camera parameter estimates for the initial dense surface estimate. We then re-estimate the camera parameters as described above, and then re-estimate the surface. This process is iterated. Whilst it can not be proven to converge, we have found that around three iterations results in excellent surface and camera parameters estimates.

  19. Breast cancer imaging; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, M. [Stadtklinik Baden-Baden, Brustzentrum Klinikum Mittelbaden, Radiologische Klinik, Baden-Baden (Germany); Villena, C. [Stadtklinik Baden-Baden, Brustzentrum Klinikum Mittelbaden, Frauenklinik, Baden-Baden (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Die Fortschritte bei den bildgebenden Verfahren der weiblichen Brust haben in den letzten Jahren die Diagnostik, die Therapie und die Prognose des Mammakarzinoms erheblich beeinflusst. Die Frueherkennungsmammographie in traditioneller oder digitaler Technik gilt heute als der ''Goldstandard'' fuer die fruehzeitige Detektion von Brustkrebs. Weitere Modalitaeten wie die Mammasonographie und die kontrastmittelgestuetzte MR-Mammographie spielen bei der bildgebenden Diagnostik, im Staging sowie in der Nachsorge des Mammakarzinoms eine wichtige Rolle. Die perkutane Nadelbiopsie stellt eine schnellere, weniger invasive und kostenguenstigere Methode dar als die diagnostische Exzision fuer die histologische Sicherung der Diagnose. Neue Modalitaeten wie Tomosynthese der Brust, kontrastverstaerkte Mammographie und Positronenemissionstomographie erheben den Anspruch, zu einer weiteren Verbesserung der Bildgebung beizutragen. Weitere Studien sind notwendig, um diese neuen Methoden an die klinischen Beduerfnisse zu adaptieren und ihren Stellenwert im klinischen Alltag

  20. Breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS): magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardivon, Anne A; Athanasiou, Alexandra; Thibault, Fabienne; El Khoury, Carl

    2007-02-01

    This article reviews the technical aspects and interpretation criteria in breast MR imaging based on the first edition of breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS) published by the American College of Radiology (ACR) in 2003. In a second article, practical cases will be proposed for training the readers. The major aims of using this lexicon are: first to use a logical and standardized description of MR lesions, secondly to obtain a structured MR report with a clear final impression (BIRADS assessment categories), and thirdly to help comparison between different clinical studies based on similar breast MRI terminology.

  1. Breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS): Magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardivon, Anne A. [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: anne.tardivon@curie.net; Athanasiou, Alexandra [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Thibault, Fabienne [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); El Khoury, Carl [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-02-15

    This article reviews the technical aspects and interpretation criteria in breast MR imaging based on the first edition of breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS) published by the American College of Radiology (ACR) in 2003. In a second article, practical cases will be proposed for training the readers. The major aims of using this lexicon are: first to use a logical and standardized description of MR lesions, secondly to obtain a structured MR report with a clear final impression (BIRADS assessment categories), and thirdly to help comparison between different clinical studies based on similar breast MRI terminology.

  2. Review of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Rinneberg, Herbert; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy of the female breast is an area of active research. We review the present status of this field and discuss the broad range of methodologies and applications. Starting with a brief overview on breast physiology, the remodeling of vasculature and extracellular matrix caused by solid tumors is highlighted that is relevant for contrast in optical imaging. Then, the various instrumental techniques and the related methods of data analysis and image generation are described and compared including multimodality instrumentation, fluorescence mammography, broadband spectroscopy, and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. We review the clinical results on functional properties of malignant and benign breast lesions compared to host tissue and discuss the various methods to improve contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, such as enhanced spectroscopic information, dynamic variations of functional properties, pharmacokinetics of extrinsic contrast agents, including the enhanced permeability and retention effect. We discuss research on monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy and on breast cancer risk assessment as potential clinical applications of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy. Moreover, we consider new experimental approaches, such as photoacoustic imaging and long-wavelength tissue spectroscopy.

  3. Fusing range and intensity images for generating dense models of three-dimensional environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Miró, Jaime Valls; Dissanayake., Gamini

    This paper presents a novel strategy for the construction of dense three-dimensional environment models by combining images from a conventional camera and a range imager. Ro- bust data association is ?rst accomplished by exploiting the Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) technique...

  4. Using mastectomy specimens to develop breast models for breast tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Das, Mini; Didier, Clay; Mah'D, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.

    2008-03-01

    Dedicated x-ray computed tomography (CT) of the breast using a cone-beam flat-panel detector system is a modality under investigation by a number of research teams. As previously reported, we have fabricated a prototype, bench-top flat-panel CT breast imaging (CTBI) system and developed computer simulation software to model such a system. We are developing a methodology to use high resolution, low noise CT reconstructions of fresh mastectomy specimens for generating an ensemble of 3D digital breast phantoms that realistically model 3D compressed and uncompressed breast anatomy. These breast models can be used to simulate realistic projection data for both breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT systems thereby providing a powerful evaluation and optimization mechanism.

  5. Estimation of Dense Image Flow Fields in Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    1998-01-01

    The estimation of flow fields from time sequences of satellite imagery has a number of important applications. For visualisation of cloud or sea ice movements in sequences of crude temporal sampling a satisfactory non-blurred temporal interpolation can be performed only when the flow field...... images. The estimated flow fields are used in a temporal interpolation scheme....

  6. Accelerated two-dimensional cine DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance using compressed sensing and parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Yang, Yang; Cai, Xiaoying; Auger, Daniel A; Meyer, Craig H; Salerno, Michael; Epstein, Frederick H

    2016-06-14

    Cine Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) provides accurate quantitative imaging of cardiac mechanics with rapid displacement and strain analysis; however, image acquisition times are relatively long. Compressed sensing (CS) with parallel imaging (PI) can generally provide high-quality images recovered from data sampled below the Nyquist rate. The purposes of the present study were to develop CS-PI-accelerated acquisition and reconstruction methods for cine DENSE, to assess their accuracy for cardiac imaging using retrospective undersampling, and to demonstrate their feasibility for prospectively-accelerated 2D cine DENSE imaging in a single breathhold. An accelerated cine DENSE sequence with variable-density spiral k-space sampling and golden angle rotations through time was implemented. A CS method, Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM), was combined with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for the reconstruction of under-sampled multi-coil spiral data. Seven healthy volunteers and 7 patients underwent 2D cine DENSE imaging with fully-sampled acquisitions (14-26 heartbeats in duration) and with prospectively rate-2 and rate-4 accelerated acquisitions (14 and 8 heartbeats in duration). Retrospectively- and prospectively-accelerated data were reconstructed using BLOSM-SENSE and SENSE. Image quality of retrospectively-undersampled data was quantified using the relative root mean square error (rRMSE). Myocardial displacement and circumferential strain were computed for functional assessment, and linear correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare accelerated acquisitions to fully-sampled reference datasets. For retrospectively-undersampled data, BLOSM-SENSE provided similar or lower rRMSE at rate-2 and lower rRMSE at rate-4 acceleration compared to SENSE (p cine DENSE provided good image quality and expected values of displacement and strain. BLOSM-SENSE-accelerated spiral cine DENSE imaging with 2D displacement encoding can be

  7. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  8. Ballistic Imaging of Liquid Breakup Processes in Dense Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-24

    link in CFD models is the description of the breakup process for the liquid fuel spray, especially primary breakup; the process by which a liquid...the near field of a hollow cone spray breaking up into sheets, ligaments and droplets. He doesn’t quote numbers, but it is likely that We is less...approaching 10) in the near field. The hollow cone image presented by Van Dyke was taken with a classical white light shadowgram arrangement. If the

  9. Scintimammography (Breast Specific Gamma Imaging-BSGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 45 to 60 minutes to perform. Prior to imaging, you will be injected with a small amount of radiotracer. One breast at a time will be placed next to the BSGI gamma camera and compressed with a flat plate, similar to a screening mammogram. Some machines have ...

  10. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis c

  11. Breast magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Bo La; Kim, Sun Mi; Jang, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Despite the high sensitivity of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathologic confirmation by biopsy is essential because of limited specificity. MRI-guided biopsy is required in patients with lesions only seen on MRI. We review preprocedural considerations and the technique of MRI-guided biopsy, challenging situations and trouble-shooting, and correlation of radiologic and pathologic findings.

  12. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  13. Detecting Densely Distributed Graph Patterns for Fine-Grained Image Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Yang, Yang; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Nie, Liqiang; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Fine-grained image categorization is a challenging task aiming at distinguishing objects belonging to the same basic-level category, e.g., leaf or mushroom. It is a useful technique that can be applied for species recognition, face verification, and so on. Most of the existing methods either have difficulties to detect discriminative object components automatically, or suffer from the limited amount of training data in each sub-category. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a new fine-grained image categorization model. The key is a dense graph mining algorithm that hierarchically localizes discriminative object parts in each image. More specifically, to mimic the human hierarchical perception mechanism, a superpixel pyramid is generated for each image. Thereby, graphlets from each layer are constructed to seamlessly capture object components. Intuitively, graphlets representative to each super-/sub-category is densely distributed in their feature space. Thus, a dense graph mining algorithm is developed to discover graphlets representative to each super-/sub-category. Finally, the discovered graphlets from pairwise images are integrated into an image kernel for fine-grained recognition. Theoretically, the learned kernel can generalize several state-of-the-art image kernels. Experiments on nine image sets demonstrate the advantage of our method. Moreover, the discovered graphlets from each sub-category accurately capture those tiny discriminative object components, e.g., bird claws, heads, and bodies.

  14. Objective breast tissue image classification using Quantitative Transmission ultrasound tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bilal; Klock, John; Wiskin, James; Lenox, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound (QT) is a powerful and emerging imaging paradigm which has the potential to perform true three-dimensional image reconstruction of biological tissue. Breast imaging is an important application of QT and allows non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging of whole breasts in vivo. Here, we report the first demonstration of breast tissue image classification in QT imaging. We systematically assess the ability of the QT images’ features to differentiate between normal breast tissue types. The three QT features were used in Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers, and classification of breast tissue as either skin, fat, glands, ducts or connective tissue was demonstrated with an overall accuracy of greater than 90%. Finally, the classifier was validated on whole breast image volumes to provide a color-coded breast tissue volume. This study serves as a first step towards a computer-aided detection/diagnosis platform for QT.

  15. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3-Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachawal, Sunitha V; Jensen, Kristin C; Wilson, Katheryne E; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-06-15

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T-cell coregulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor, and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an IHC analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients.

  16. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3 Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T cell co-regulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an immunohistochemical analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients. PMID:25899053

  17. Building Change Detection from Historical Aerial Photographs Using Dense Image Matching and Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Nebiker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A successful application of dense image matching algorithms to historical aerial photographs would offer a great potential for detailed reconstructions of historical landscapes in three dimensions, allowing for the efficient monitoring of various landscape changes over the last 50+ years. In this paper we propose the combination of image-based dense DSM (digital surface model reconstruction from historical aerial imagery with object-based image analysis for the detection of individual buildings and the subsequent analysis of settlement change. Our proposed methodology is evaluated using historical greyscale and color aerial photographs and numerous reference data sets of Andermatt, a historical town and tourism destination in the Swiss Alps. In our paper, we first investigate the DSM generation performance of different sparse and dense image matching algorithms. They demonstrate the superiority of dense matching algorithms and of the resulting historical DSMs with root mean square error values of 1–1.5 GSD (ground sampling distance and yield point densities comparable to those of recent airborne LiDAR DSMs. In the second part, we present an object-based building detection workflow mainly based on the historical DSMs and the historical imagery itself. Additional inputs are a current digital terrain model and a cadastral building database. For the case of densely matched DSMs, the evaluation yields building detection rates of 92% for grayscale and 94% for color imagery.

  18. Efficacy of reduced dose of pegfilgrastim in Japanese breast cancer patients receiving dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yoshio; Fuchikami, Hiromi; Takeda, Naoko; Iwai, Masaru; Sato, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a 3.6-mg dose of pegfilgrastim for primary prophylaxis in Japanese breast cancer patients receiving dose-dense chemotherapy. Patients treated with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer at the Tokyo-West Tokushukai Hospital were included in this analysis. Because 6 mg pegfilgrastim has not yet been approved for use in Japan, we compared the outcomes of a dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide regimen plus 3.6 mg pegfilgrastim support with a conventional dose epirubicin and cyclophosphamide regimen. The incidence of febrile neutropenia, relative dose intensity, dose delay, dose reduction, regimen change and hospitalization because of neutropenia were assessed. From November 2013 to March 2016, 97 patients with stage I-III invasive breast cancer were analyzed (dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide plus 3.6-mg pegfilgrastim group, n  =  41; epirubicin and cyclophosphamide group, n  =  56; median ages, 49.0 and 48.5 years, respectively). Febrile neutropenia occurred during the first chemotherapy cycle in 7 of 56 patients (12.5%) in the epirubicin and cyclophosphamide group and 0 of 41 patients in the dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide group (P  =  0.02). The average relative dose intensities were 97.9% and 96.8%, respectively (P  =  0.28), with corresponding dose delay rates of 4.9% (2/41) and 16.1% (9/56), respectively (P  =  0.11) and dose reduction rates of 0% (0/41) and 7.1% (4/56), respectively (P  =  0.16). Our results indicate the efficacy of a 3.6-mg pegfilgrastim dose for the primary prevention of febrile neutropenia in dose-dense doxorubicin- and cyclophosphamide-treated Japanese breast cancer patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  20. Breast cancer screening with imaging: recommendations from the Society of Breast Imaging and the ACR on the use of mammography, breast MRI, breast ultrasound, and other technologies for the detection of clinically occult breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol H; Dershaw, D David; Kopans, Daniel; Evans, Phil; Monsees, Barbara; Monticciolo, Debra; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence; Berg, Wendie; Feig, Stephen; Hendrick, Edward; Mendelson, Ellen; D'Orsi, Carl; Sickles, Edward; Burhenne, Linda Warren

    2010-01-01

    Screening for breast cancer with mammography has been shown to decrease mortality from breast cancer, and mammography is the mainstay of screening for clinically occult disease. Mammography, however, has well-recognized limitations, and recently, other imaging including ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have been used as adjunctive screening tools, mainly for women who may be at increased risk for the development of breast cancer. The Society of Breast Imaging and the Breast Imaging Commission of the ACR are issuing these recommendations to provide guidance to patients and clinicians on the use of imaging to screen for breast cancer. Wherever possible, the recommendations are based on available evidence. Where evidence is lacking, the recommendations are based on consensus opinions of the fellows and executive committee of the Society of Breast Imaging and the members of the Breast Imaging Commission of the ACR.

  1. Background {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake of breast-specific gamma imaging in relation to background parenchymal enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Bom Sahn [Ewha Womans University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yemi [Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute and Department of Conservative Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee Eun [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated factors that could affect background uptake of {sup 99m}Tc- methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) on normal breast by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI). In addition, the impact of background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake on the diagnostic performance of BSGI was further investigated. One hundred forty-five women with unilateral breast cancer who underwent BSGI, MRI, and mammography were retrospectively enrolled. Background uptake on BSGI was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were classified into non-dense and dense breast groups according to mammographic breast density. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) was rated according to BI-RADS classification. The relationship of age, menopausal status, mammographic breast density, and BPE with background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake was analyzed. Heterogeneous texture and high background uptake ratio on BSGI were significantly correlated with younger age (p < 0.001, respectively), premenopausal status (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003), dense breast (p < 0.001, respectively), and marked BPE (p < 0.001, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only BPE remained a significant factor for background MIBI uptake (p < 0.001).There was a significant reduction in positive predictive value (p = 0.024 and p = 0.002) as background MIBI uptake and BPE grade increased. BPE on MRI was the most important factor for background MIBI uptake on BSGI. High background MIBI uptake or marked BPE can diminish the diagnostic performance of BSGI. (orig.)

  2. Automatic nipple detection on 3D images of an automated breast ultrasound system (ABUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanshir Moghaddam, Mandana; Tan, Tao; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that applying Automated Breast Ultrasound in addition to mammography in women with dense breasts can lead to additional detection of small, early stage breast cancers which are occult in corresponding mammograms. In this paper, we proposed a fully automatic method for detecting the nipple location in 3D ultrasound breast images acquired from Automated Breast Ultrasound Systems. The nipple location is a valuable landmark to report the position of possible abnormalities in a breast or to guide image registration. To detect the nipple location, all images were normalized. Subsequently, features have been extracted in a multi scale approach and classification experiments were performed using a gentle boost classifier to identify the nipple location. The method was applied on a dataset of 100 patients with 294 different 3D ultrasound views from Siemens and U-systems acquisition systems. Our database is a representative sample of cases obtained in clinical practice by four medical centers. The automatic method could accurately locate the nipple in 90% of AP (Anterior-Posterior) views and in 79% of the other views.

  3. Breast milk intake is not reduced more by the introduction of energy dense complementary food than by typical infant porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Lauren; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Phuka, John; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Ken; Wong, William W; Manary, Mark J

    2007-07-01

    The effect of different energy densities of complementary foods on breast milk consumption is not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that provision of fortified spread (FS), a micronutrient fortified, energy-dense (22 kJ/g), ready-to-use food, to Malawian infants would not decrease their breast milk intake more than a traditional corn + soy blended flour (CSB). Forty-four healthy 6-mo-old infant and mother pairs were enrolled in a prospective, parallel group, investigator-blinded, randomized controlled complementary feeding trial. Infants were randomized to receive 25 g/d of FS, 50 g/d of FS, or 72 g/d of CSB. The primary outcome was the difference in breast milk intake after 1 mo of complementary feeding as measured by the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide dilution technique. Outcomes were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. A total of 41 mother-infant pairs completed the study. At enrollment, 88% of the infants had received corn porridge. At baseline, the infants consumed 129 +/- 18 g.kg body wt(-1) x d(-1) (mean +/- SD) of breast milk. After 1 mo of complementary feeding with 25 g/d FS, 50 g/d FS, or 72 g/d CSB, their breast milk consumption was 115 +/- 18 g.kg body wt(-1) x d(-1), a significant reduction; however, the effects of the complementary foods did not differ from one another (F-value model = 4.33, P = 0.0008 for effect of time and P = 0.69 for effect of type of food). The results suggest that complementary feeding of Malawian infants with FS has the same effect on their breast milk intake as complementary feeding with traditional CSB porridge.

  4. Breast cancer screening: updated recommendations of the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Dellê; Chala, Luciano Fernandes; Bauab, Selma di Pace; Schaefer, Marcela Brisighelli; dos Santos, Radiá Pereira; Maranhão, Norma Medicis de Albuquerque; Kefalas, Ana Lucia; Kalaf, José Michel; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; Canella, Ellyete de Oliveira; Peixoto, João Emílio; de Amorim, Heverton Leal Ernesto; de Camargo Junior, Helio Sebastião Amâncio

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present the current recommendations for breast cancer screening in Brazil, as devised by the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, the Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and the Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations. Materials and methods We analyzed scientific studies available in the Medline and Lilacs databases. In the absence of evidence, the recommendations reflected the consensus of a panel of experts. Recommendations Annual mammography screening is recommended for women 40-74 years of age. Among women ≥ 75 years of age, annual mammography screening should be reserved for those with an expected survival > 7 years. Complementary ultrasound should be considered for women with dense breasts. Complementary magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for women at high risk. When available, an advanced form of mammography known as tomosynthesis can be considered as a means of screening for breast cancer. PMID:28894332

  5. Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gareth.Porter@phnt.swest.nhs.uk; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Holgate, C. [Department of Histopathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Aim: To review the outcome of further assessment of breast abnormalities detected incidentally by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to determine whether any MDCT imaging features were predictive of malignancy. Material and methods: The outcome of 34 patients referred to the Primrose Breast Care Unit with breast abnormalities detected incidentally using MDCT was prospectively recorded. Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded. CT imaging features and histological diagnoses were recorded and the correlation assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%). There were 10 breast malignancies (seven invasive ductal carcinomas, one invasive lobular carcinoma, two metastatic lesions) and one axillary lymphoma. CT features suggestive of breast malignancy were spiculation [6/10 (60%) versus 0/24 (0%) p = 0.0002] and associated axillary lymphadenopathy [3/10 (33%) versus 0/20 (0%) p = 0.030]. Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p = 0.015]. Associated calcification, ill-definition, heterogeneity, size, and multiplicity of lesions were not useful discriminating CT features. There was a non-significant trend for lesions in involuted breasts to be more frequently malignant than in dense breasts [6/14 (43%) versus 4/20 (20%) p = 0.11]. Conclusion: In the present series there was a significant rate (32%) of malignancy in patients referred to the breast clinic with CT-detected incidental breast lesions. The CT features of spiculation or axillary lymphadenopathy are strongly suggestive of malignancy.

  6. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B.; Conners, Amy Lynn; Vachon, Celine M.; O’Connor, Michael K.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bartley, Adam C.; Rhodes, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives The level of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake within normal fibroglandular tissue on molecular breast imaging (MBI), termed background parenchymal uptake (BPU), has been anecdotally observed to fluctuate with menstrual cycle. Our objective was to assess the impact of menstrual cycle phase on BPU appearance. Materials and Methods Premenopausal volunteers who reported regular menstrual cycles and no exogenous hormone use were recruited to undergo serial MBI exams during the follicular and luteal phase. A study radiologist, blinded to cycle phase, categorized BPU as either photopenic, minimal-mild, moderate, or marked. Change in BPU with cycle phase was determined as well as correlations of BPU with mammographic density and hormone levels. Results Among 42 analyzable participants, high BPU (moderate or marked) was observed more often in luteal phase compared to follicular (p = 0.016). BPU did not change with phase in 30 of 42 (71%) and increased in the luteal phase compared to follicular in 12 (29%). High BPU was more frequent in dense breasts compared to non-dense breasts at both the luteal phase (58% [15/26] vs. 13% [2/16], p= 0.004) and follicular phase (35% [9/26] vs. 6% [1/16], p=0.061). Spearman’s correlation coefficients did not show any correlation of BPU with hormone levels measured at either cycle phase, and suggested a weak correlation between change in BPU and changes in estrone and estradiol between phases. Conclusion We observed variable effects of menstrual cycle on BPU among our cohort of premenopausal women, however, when high BPU was observed, it was most frequently seen during the luteal phase compared to follicular phase, and in women with dense breasts compared to non-dense breasts. PMID:26112057

  7. Issues to consider before implementing digital breast tomosynthesis into a breast imaging practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Lara A

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues surrounding the implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) into a clinical breast imaging practice and assist radiologists, technologists, and administrators who are considering the addition of this new technology to their practices. CONCLUSION. When appropriate attention is given to image acquisition, interpretation, storage, technologist and radiologist training, patient selection, billing, radiation dose, and marketing, implementation of DBT into a breast imaging practice can be successful.

  8. AN AERIAL-IMAGE DENSE MATCHING APPROACH BASED ON OPTICAL FLOW FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dense matching plays an important role in many fields, such as DEM (digital evaluation model producing, robot navigation and 3D environment reconstruction. Traditional approaches may meet the demand of accuracy. But the calculation time and out puts density is hardly be accepted. Focus on the matching efficiency and complex terrain surface matching feasibility an aerial image dense matching method based on optical flow field is proposed in this paper. First, some high accurate and uniformed control points are extracted by using the feature based matching method. Then the optical flow is calculated by using these control points, so as to determine the similar region between two images. Second, the optical flow field is interpolated by using the multi-level B-spline interpolation in the similar region and accomplished the pixel by pixel coarse matching. Final, the results related to the coarse matching refinement based on the combined constraint, which recognizes the same points between images. The experimental results have shown that our method can achieve per-pixel dense matching points, the matching accuracy achieves sub-pixel level, and fully meet the three-dimensional reconstruction and automatic generation of DSM-intensive matching’s requirements. The comparison experiments demonstrated that our approach’s matching efficiency is higher than semi-global matching (SGM and Patch-based multi-view stereo matching (PMVS which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  9. An Aerial-Image Dense Matching Approach Based on Optical Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Chen, Shiyu; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Jianya; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Dense matching plays an important role in many fields, such as DEM (digital evaluation model) producing, robot navigation and 3D environment reconstruction. Traditional approaches may meet the demand of accuracy. But the calculation time and out puts density is hardly be accepted. Focus on the matching efficiency and complex terrain surface matching feasibility an aerial image dense matching method based on optical flow field is proposed in this paper. First, some high accurate and uniformed control points are extracted by using the feature based matching method. Then the optical flow is calculated by using these control points, so as to determine the similar region between two images. Second, the optical flow field is interpolated by using the multi-level B-spline interpolation in the similar region and accomplished the pixel by pixel coarse matching. Final, the results related to the coarse matching refinement based on the combined constraint, which recognizes the same points between images. The experimental results have shown that our method can achieve per-pixel dense matching points, the matching accuracy achieves sub-pixel level, and fully meet the three-dimensional reconstruction and automatic generation of DSM-intensive matching's requirements. The comparison experiments demonstrated that our approach's matching efficiency is higher than semi-global matching (SGM) and Patch-based multi-view stereo matching (PMVS) which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  10. Exploring a new bilateral focal density asymmetry based image marker to predict breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Mirniaharikandehei, Seyedehnafiseh; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Although breast density has been widely considered an important breast cancer risk factor, it is not very effective to predict risk of developing breast cancer in a short-term or harboring cancer in mammograms. Based on our recent studies to build short-term breast cancer risk stratification models based on bilateral mammographic density asymmetry, we in this study explored a new quantitative image marker based on bilateral focal density asymmetry to predict the risk of harboring cancers in mammograms. For this purpose, we assembled a testing dataset involving 100 positive and 100 negative cases. In each of positive case, no any solid masses are visible on mammograms. We developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to automatically detect focal dense regions depicting on two bilateral mammograms of left and right breasts. CAD selects one focal dense region with the maximum size on each image and computes its asymmetrical ratio. We used this focal density asymmetry as a new imaging marker to divide testing cases into two groups of higher and lower focal density asymmetry. The first group included 70 cases in which 62.9% are positive, while the second group included 130 cases in which 43.1% are positive. The odds ratio is 2.24. As a result, this preliminary study supported the feasibility of applying a new focal density asymmetry based imaging marker to predict the risk of having mammography-occult cancers. The goal is to assist radiologists more effectively and accurately detect early subtle cancers using mammography and/or other adjunctive imaging modalities in the future.

  11. Imaging Three-Dimensional Myocardial Mechanics Using Navigator-gated Volumetric Spiral Cine DENSE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaodong; Spottiswoode, Bruce S.; Meyer, Craig H.; Kramer, Christopher M.; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2010-01-01

    A navigator-gated 3D spiral cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) pulse sequence for imaging 3D myocardial mechanics was developed. In addition, previously-described 2D post-processing algorithms including phase unwrapping, tissue tracking, and strain tensor calculation for the left ventricle (LV) were extended to 3D. These 3D methods were evaluated in 5 healthy volunteers, using 2D cine DENSE and historical 3D myocardial tagging as reference standards. With an average scan time of 20.5 ± 5.7 minutes, 3D data sets with a matrix size of 128 × 128 × 22, voxel size of 2.8 × 2.8 × 5.0 mm3, and temporal resolution of 32 ms were obtained with displacement encoding in three orthogonal directions. Mean values for end-systolic mid-ventricular mid-wall radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strain were 0.33 ± 0.10, −0.17 ± 0.02, and −0.16 ± 0.02, respectively. Transmural strain gradients were detected in the radial and circumferential directions, reflecting high spatial resolution. Good agreement by linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis was achieved when comparing normal strains measured by 2D and 3D cine DENSE. Also, the 3D strains, twist, and torsion results obtained by 3D cine DENSE were in good agreement with historical values measured by 3D myocardial tagging. PMID:20574967

  12. Image to physical space registration of supine breast MRI for image guided breast surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Rebekah H.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is a desirable option for many women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and involves a lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy. However, approximately 50% of eligible women will elect for mastectomy over BCT despite equal survival benefit (provided margins of excised tissue are cancer free) due to uncertainty in outcome with regards to complete excision of cancerous cells, risk of local recurrence, and cosmesis. Determining surgical margins intraoperatively is difficult and achieving negative margins is not as robust as it needs to be, resulting in high re-operation rates and often mastectomy. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) can provide detailed information about tumor margin extents, however diagnostic images are acquired in a fundamentally different patient presentation than that used in surgery. Therefore, the high quality diagnostic MRIs taken in the prone position with pendant breast are not optimal for use in surgical planning/guidance due to the drastic shape change between preoperative images and the common supine surgical position. This work proposes to investigate the value of supine MRI in an effort to localize tumors intraoperatively using image-guidance. Mock intraoperative setups (realistic patient positioning in non-sterile environment) and preoperative imaging data were collected from a patient scheduled for a lumpectomy. The mock intraoperative data included a tracked laser range scan of the patient's breast surface, tracked center points of MR visible fiducials on the patient's breast, and tracked B-mode ultrasound and strain images. The preoperative data included a supine MRI with visible fiducial markers. Fiducial markers localized in the MRI were rigidly registered to their mock intraoperative counterparts using an optically tracked stylus. The root mean square (RMS) fiducial registration error using the tracked markers was 3.4mm. Following registration, the average closest point distance between the MR

  13. Surface driven biomechanical breast image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiben, Björn; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Hipwell, John H.; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian; Buelow, Thomas; Williams, Norman R.; Keshtgar, M.; Hawkes, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Biomechanical modelling enables large deformation simulations of breast tissues under different loading conditions to be performed. Such simulations can be utilised to transform prone Magnetic Resonance (MR) images into a different patient position, such as upright or supine. We present a novel integration of biomechanical modelling with a surface registration algorithm which optimises the unknown material parameters of a biomechanical model and performs a subsequent regularised surface alignment. This allows deformations induced by effects other than gravity, such as those due to contact of the breast and MR coil, to be reversed. Correction displacements are applied to the biomechanical model enabling transformation of the original pre-surgical images to the corresponding target position. The algorithm is evaluated for the prone-to-supine case using prone MR images and the skin outline of supine Computed Tomography (CT) scans for three patients. A mean target registration error (TRE) of 10:9 mm for internal structures is achieved. For the prone-to-upright scenario, an optical 3D surface scan of one patient is used as a registration target and the nipple distances after alignment between the transformed MRI and the surface are 10:1 mm and 6:3 mm respectively.

  14. Image-Guided Non-Local Dense Matching with Three-Steps Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Zhang, Yongjun; Yue, Zhaoxi

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a new image-guided non-local dense matching algorithm that focuses on how to solve the following problems: 1) mitigating the influence of vertical parallax to the cost computation in stereo pairs; 2) guaranteeing the performance of dense matching in homogeneous intensity regions with significant disparity changes; 3) limiting the inaccurate cost propagated from depth discontinuity regions; 4) guaranteeing that the path between two pixels in the same region is connected; and 5) defining the cost propagation function between the reliable pixel and the unreliable pixel during disparity interpolation. This paper combines the Census histogram and an improved histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) feature together as the cost metrics, which are then aggregated based on a new iterative non-local matching method and the semi-global matching method. Finally, new rules of cost propagation between the valid pixels and the invalid pixels are defined to improve the disparity interpolation results. The results of our experiments using the benchmarks and the Toronto aerial images from the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) show that the proposed new method can outperform most of the current state-of-the-art stereo dense matching methods.

  15. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    the project was the development of an educational intervention ( flip chart ) for physicians to use in the clinic setting when discussing breast...Procedure Scheduling on Breast Biopsy Patient Outcomes The first phase of this project is the development of an educational flip chart for...breast biopsy and breast cancer survivors to guide the content of the flip chart b) Develop outline and overall format c) Identify/develop

  16. Contour classification in thermographic images for detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuniewski, Rafał; Nowak, Robert M.; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Oleszkiewicz, Witold

    2016-09-01

    Thermographic images of breast taken by the Braster device are uploaded into web application which uses different classification algorithms to automatically decide whether a patient should be more thoroughly examined. This article presents the approach to the task of classifying contours visible on thermographic images of breast taken by the Braster device in order to make the decision about the existence of cancerous tumors in breast. It presents the results of the researches conducted on the different classification algorithms.

  17. LIDAR vs dense image matching point clouds in complex urban scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezos, Evangelos; Kyrkou, Athanasia; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to highlight the differences, in terms of robustness and efficiency, of the use of LIDAR point clouds compared to dense image matching (DIM) point clouds at urban areas that contain buildings with complex structure. The application is conducted over an area in the Greek island of Milos using two different types of data: (a) a dense point cloud which extracted by DIM using a variation of the stereo-method semi-global matching (SGM) at RGB digital aerial images, and (b) a georeferenced LIDAR point cloud. For the case of the DIM point cloud, the following steps were applied: aerial triangulation, rectification of the original images to epipolar images, extraction of disparity maps and application of a 3D similarity transformation. The evaluations that were executed included urban and rural areas. At first step, a direct cloud-to-cloud comparison between the georeferenced DIM and LIDAR point clouds was carried out. Then, the corresponding orthoimages generated by the DIM and LIDAR point clouds undergo a quality control. Although the results show that the LIDAR point clouds respond better at such complex scenes compared to DIM point clouds, the latter gave promising results. In this context, the Quality Assurance issue is also discussed so as to be more efficient towards the challenge of the increasingly greater demands for accurate and cost effective applications.

  18. Imaging Spectrums of the Male Breast Diseases: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Ahn, Hye Kyung; Chung, Soo Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang Ik [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ah young [Dept. of Pathology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Most described male breast lesions, such as gynecomastia, are benign. The overall incidence of male breast cancer is less than 3%. Like women, common presentations of male breast diseases are palpable lumps or tenderness. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasound are generally used for work-up of breast diseases in both women and men. However, men do not undergo screening mammograms; all male patients are examined in symptomatic cases only. Therefore, all male breast examinations are diagnostic, whereas the majority of the examinations for women are for screening purpose. The differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions is important, especially for men, because the reported prognosis of male breast cancer is poor due to delayed diagnosis. In this article, we review the spectrum of male breast diseases, from benign to malignant, and illustrate their ultrasonographic and mammographic imaging features.

  19. Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woowon; Kabir, Mohammad M; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Toussaint, Kimani C

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the imaging of unstained breast tissue biopsies using third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy. As a label-free imaging technique, THG microscopy is compared to phase contrast and polarized light microscopy which are standard imaging methods for breast tissues. A simple feature detection algorithm is applied to detect tumour-associated lymphocyte rich regions in unstained breast biopsy tissue and compared with corresponding regions identified by a pathologist from bright-field images of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast tissue. Our results suggest that THG imaging holds potential as a complementary technique for analysing breast tissue biopsies. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health.

  1. Phase retrieval deblurring for imaging of dense object within a low scattering soft biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Maya Aviv; Rivenson, Yair; Meiri, Amihai; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    Tissues are characterized by a strong scattering of visible optical radiation, which prevents one from achieving deep-tissue imaging. We propose a computational imaging technique for the inference of specific macroscopic, spatial phase distribution features of the scattering media. The spatial phase distribution is reconstructed from several defocused intensity images. We empirically demonstrate the method by reconstructing the location of two fibula chicken bones, embedded within chicken breast tissue. The suggested technique is safe, using visible laser illumination, and noninvasive. It is also cost-effective since a simple optical system is used and the images are acquired using a conventional camera, and it does not require interferometric detection as well as direct access to the object in absence of the layer.

  2. Intake of Energy-Dense Foods, Fast Foods, Sugary Drinks, and Breast Cancer Risk in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E.; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR=2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR=1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status. PMID:25265504

  3. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status.

  4. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Role of RGD Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women of all ages worldwide. With advances in molecular imaging procedures, it has been possible to detect breast cancer in its early stage, determine the extent of the disease to administer appropriate therapeutic protocol and also monitor the effects of treatment. By accurately characterizing the tumor properties and biological processes involved, molecular imaging can play a crucial role in minimizing the morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer. The integrin αvβ3 plays an important role in breast cancer angiogenesis and is expressed on tumor endothelial cells as well as on some tumor cells. It is a receptor for the extracellular matrix proteins with the exposed arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide sequence and therefore RGD peptides can preferentially bind to integrin αvβ3. In this context, targeting tumor vasculature or tumor cells by RGD-based probes is a promising strategy for molecular imaging of breast cancer. Using RGD-based probes, several preclinical studies have employed different imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and optical imaging for visualization of integrin αvβ3 expression in breast cancer models. Limited clinical trials using (18)F-labeled RGD peptides have also been initiated for non-invasive detection and staging of breast cancer. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes and discuss the challenges and opportunities for advancement of the field. The reported strategies for molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes holds promise for making clinically translatable advances that can positively impact the overall diagnostic and therapeutic processes and result in improved quality of life for breast cancer patients.

  5. Dose-dense and sequential strategies in adjuvant breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untch, M; Von Koch, F; Crohns, C; Sobotta, K; Kahlert, S; Konecny, G; Hepp, H

    2001-05-01

    Several attempts have been made to improve the survival rates of breast cancer patients. The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was clearly shown, but the absolute difference of 2% to 11% in overall survival, depending on the patient group, is disappointingly small. In particular, high-risk patients, such as those with > or = 10 involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, or vascular invasion, still have an excessive risk of recurrence even after standard adjuvant chemotherapy. To increase the survival rates after adjuvant therapy, new chemotherapeutic agents and new strategies of application are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar), methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) seems to be safe and effective in patients with breast cancer. In addition, in metastatic patients, dose-intensified chemotherapy is being investigated. The introduction of epirubicin (Ellence), an agent less cardiotoxic and equally active compared to doxorubicin, enabled the escalation of anthracyclines in adjuvant therapy without serious cardiotoxic effects. The combination of dose-intensified chemotherapy and sequential application in the treatment of breast cancer is reviewed.

  6. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  7. Spectral imaging of breast fibroadenoma using second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liqin; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA), typically composed of stroma and epithelial cells, is a very common benign breast disease. Women with FA are associated with an increased risk of future breast cancer. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) for characterizing the morphology of collagen in the human breast fibroadenomas. In the study, high-contrast SHG images of human normal breast tissues and fibroadenoma tissues were obtained for comparison. The morphology of collagen was different between normal breast tissue and fibroadenoma. This study shows that MPLSM has the ability to distinguish fibroadenoma tissues from the normal breast tissues based on the noninvasive SHG imaging. With the advent of the clinical portability of miniature MPLSM, we believe that the technique has great potential to be used in vivo studies and for monitoring the treatment responses of fibroadenomas in clinical.

  8. Interference of breast implants with echocardiographic image acquisition and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movahed Mohammad-Reza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echocardiography is one of the most important diagnostic testing in cardiology. The presence of a breast implant overlying heart can cause significant impairment of the echocardiographic acoustic window. Breast implants are increasing in popularity in the USA and the Federal Drug and Food Administration (FDA just approved silicone implants again. In this review, the impact of silicone breast implant on the echocardiographic image acquisition and interpretation is discussed.

  9. Micropapillary Lung Cancer with Breast Metastasis Simulating Primary Breast Cancer due to Architectural Distortion on Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, See Yeon [Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Jae Yoon [The Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A 47-year-old Korean woman with right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural effusion, and multiple lymph node and bone metastases, after three months of lung cancer diagnosis, presented with a palpable right breast mass. Images of the right breast demonstrated architectural distortion that strongly suggested primary breast cancer. Breast biopsy revealed metastatic lung cancer with a negative result for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and mammaglobin, and a positive result for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We present a case of breast metastasis from a case of lung cancer with an extensive micropapillary component, which was initially misinterpreted as a primary breast cancer due to unusual image findings with architectural distortion.

  10. Metabolic Mapping of Breast Cancer with Multiphoton Spectral and Lifetime Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    37°C with 10% CO2. COS-7 cells were maintained in DMEM (containing high glucose, L-glutamine, sodium pyruvate and pyridoxine hydrochloride) plus 10...characterize, study, and combat breast cancer are of great significance. One of the largest risk factors for developing breast carcinoma is high...breast tissue density (Boyd et al. 2002). Dense breast tissue is linked to a four-to-six fold increased risk of breast carcinoma (Boyd et al. 1998

  11. Breast Imaging in Evaluation of Breast Cancer: Radiologist’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sedighi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In every breast imaging, the radiologist confronts these questions:"n1. Finding the lesion"n2. Is the lesion real?"n3. Where the pathology lies"n4. What the lesion is "n5. What should be done about it?"nThe major objective in breast imaging is the detection of breast cancers at a small size and early stage in an effort to reduce mortality."nSome conditions limit evaluation of breast cancer imaging."nWhen additional mammographic views or ultrasound are unable to triangulate the location of a lesion, computed tomography can be very helpful for locating lesions three dimensionally. MRI with and without contrast is the other modality for evaluation of problematic cases or ambiguous findings in other modalities."nImplants present a problem for breast imaging in that they may prevent optimal visualization of the tissues."nA focal asymmetric density may merely represent an island of breast tissue. DCIS, with or without calcification, and metastatic axillary lymph nodes in a normal mammogram are some of the problematic cases of breast cancer."nThis presentation is expected to include real cases of breast cancer with the above-mentioned problems or unusual manifestations, which are resolved by a combination of different imaging modalities.    

  12. Three-dimensional digital breast histopathology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, G. M.; Peressotti, C.; Mawdsley, G. E.; Eidt, S.; Ge, M.; Morgan, T.; Zubovits, J. T.; Yaffe, M. J.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a digital histology imaging system that has the potential to improve the accuracy of surgical margin assessment in the treatment of breast cancer by providing finer sampling and 3D visualization. The system is capable of producing a 3D representation of histopathology from an entire lumpectomy specimen. We acquire digital photomicrographs of a stack of large (120 x 170 mm) histology slides cut serially through the entire specimen. The images are then registered and displayed in 2D and 3D. This approach dramatically improves sampling and can improve visualization of tissue structures compared to current, small-format histology. The system consists of a brightfield microscope, adapted with a freeze-frame digital video camera and a large, motorized translation stage. The image of each slide is acquired as a mosaic of adjacent tiles, each tile representing one field-of-view of the microscope, and the mosaic is assembled into a seamless composite image. The assembly is done by a program developed to build image sets at six different levels within a multiresolution pyramid. A database-linked viewing program has been created to efficiently register and display the animated stack of images, which occupies about 80 GB of disk space per lumpectomy at full resolution, on a high-resolution (3840 x 2400 pixels) colour monitor. The scanning or tiling approach to digitization is inherently susceptible to two artefacts which disrupt the composite image, and which impose more stringent requirements on system performance. Although non-uniform illumination across any one isolated tile may not be discernible, the eye readily detects this non-uniformity when the entire assembly of tiles is viewed. The pattern is caused by deficiencies in optical alignment, spectrum of the light source, or camera corrections. The imaging task requires that features as small as 3.2 &mum in extent be seamlessly preserved. However, inadequate accuracy in positioning of the translation

  13. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amy V; Mankoff, David A

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine, basing treatment approaches on patient traits and specific molecular features of disease processes, has an important role in the management of patients with breast cancer as targeted therapies continue to improve. PET imaging offers noninvasive information that is complementary to traditional tissue biomarkers, including information about tumor burden, tumor metabolism, receptor status, and proliferation. Several PET agents that image breast cancer receptors can visually demonstrate the extent and heterogeneity of receptor-positive disease and help predict which tumors are likely to respond to targeted treatments. This review presents applications of PET imaging in the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Forward Scattering of Microwave Breast Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Hoi-Shun; Fhager, Andreas; Persson, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Microwave imaging for breast cancer detection has been of significant interest for the last two decades. Recent studies focus on solving the imaging problem using an inverse scattering approach. Efforts have mainly been focused on the development of the inverse scattering algorithms, experimental setup, antenna design and clinical trials. However, the success of microwave breast imaging also heavily relies on the quality of the forward data such that the tumor inside the breast volume is well illuminated. In this work, a numerical study of the forward scattering data is conducted. The scattering behavior of simple breast models under different polarization states and aspect angles of illumination are considered. Numerical results have demonstrated that better data contrast could be obtained when the breast volume is illuminated using cross-polarized components in linear polarization basis or the copolarized components in the circular polarization basis. PMID:22611371

  15. Automated chest wall line detection for whole-breast segmentation in sagittal breast MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P; Conant, Emily F; Schnall, Mitchell D; Kontos, Despina

    2013-04-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Computerized analysis is increasingly used to quantify breast MRI features in applications such as computer-aided lesion detection and fibroglandular tissue estimation for breast cancer risk assessment. Automated segmentation of the whole-breast as an organ from the other parts imaged is an important step in aiding lesion localization and fibroglandular tissue quantification. For this task, identifying the chest wall line (CWL) is most challenging due to image contrast variations, intensity discontinuity, and bias field. In this work, the authors develop and validate a fully automated image processing algorithm for accurate delineation of the CWL in sagittal breast MRI. The CWL detection is based on an integrated scheme of edge extraction and CWL candidate evaluation. The edge extraction consists of applying edge-enhancing filters and an edge linking algorithm. Increased accuracy is achieved by the synergistic use of multiple image inputs for edge extraction, where multiple CWL candidates are evaluated by the dynamic time warping algorithm coupled with the construction of a CWL reference. Their method is quantitatively validated by a dataset of 60 3D bilateral sagittal breast MRI scans (in total 3360 2D MR slices) that span the full American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density range. Agreement with manual segmentation obtained by an experienced breast imaging radiologist is assessed by both volumetric and boundary-based metrics, including four quantitative measures. In terms of breast volume agreement with manual segmentation, the overlay percentage expressed by the Dice's similarity coefficient is 95.0% and the difference percentage is 10.1%. More specifically, for the segmentation accuracy of the CWL boundary, the CWL overlay percentage is 92.7% and averaged deviation distance is 2.3 mm. Their method

  16. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T.A.; Lu, B.; Heine, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.

  17. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers m

  18. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: A clinicial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Edge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in screening for breast cancer and its use after the diagnosis of breast cancer is discussed. The topic is enormous, with over 5 000 papers published in the last 10 years. In this précis, we focused on articles that examine its clinical relevance. We did not look at economic factors.

  20. The central role of imaging for breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barentsz, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the essential role of imaging in breast cancer diagnostics and treatment. Part I describes the impact of same-day diagnosis for breast cancer. Same-day diagnosis was introduced in the University Medical Center Utrecht in November 2011 with the aim to reduce patient anxiety by

  1. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers m

  2. Breast MR Imaging: What the Radiologist Needs to Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet S Dhillon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the breast is being performed more frequently to improve primary and recurrent tumor detection, characterization, and response to therapy. Sensitivity of this test approaches 90% and the specificity ranges from 37% to 100%. We present a concise tutorial for the general radiologist with a pictorial review of common lesions identified with breast MRI.

  3. Breast cancer in male-to-female transsexuals: use of breast imaging for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Katharine D; Margolies, Laurie; Jaffer, Shabnam; Szabo, Janet; Schmidt, Hank; Weltz, Christina; Sonnenblick, Emily B

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this article are to describe two cases of breast cancer in male-to-female transsexuals and to review eight cases previously reported in the literature. Breast cancer occurs in male-to-female transsexuals who receive high doses of exogenous estrogen and develop breast tissue histologically identical to that of a biologically female breast. This exposure to estrogen results in increased risk of breast cancer. The first patient described is a male-to-female transsexual with screening-detected ductal carcinoma in situ and a family history of breast cancer. The other patient is a male-to-female transsexual with invasive ductal carcinoma that was occult on diagnostic digital mammographic and ultrasound findings but visualized on digital breast tomosynthesis and breast MR images. The analysis of the eight previously reported cases showed that breast cancer in male-to-female transsexuals occurs at a younger age and is more frequently estrogen receptor negative than breast cancer in others born biologically male. Screening for breast cancer in male-to-female transsexuals should be undertaken for those with additional risk factors (e.g., family history, BRCA2 mutation, Klinefelter syndrome) and should be available to those who desire screening, preferably in a clinical trial.

  4. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  5. Image-guided breast biopsy: state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, E.A.M., E-mail: lizoflynn@doctors.org.u [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Wilson, A.R.M.; Michell, M.J. [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Percutaneous image-guided breast biopsy is widely practised to evaluate predominantly non-palpable breast lesions. There has been steady development in percutaneous biopsy techniques. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was the original method of sampling, followed in the early 1990s by large core needle biopsy. The accuracy of both has been improved by ultrasound and stereotactic guidance. Larger bore vacuum-assisted biopsy devices became available in the late 1990s and are now commonplace in most breast units. We review the different types of breast biopsy devices currently available together with various localization techniques used, focusing on their advantages, limitations and current controversial clinical management issues.

  6. 全数字化乳腺点压摄影诊断致密型乳腺中乳腺癌%Digital spot mammography for breast cancer in dense breasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜牧; 曹满瑞; 赵弘; 张方璟; 朱志军

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨数字化乳腺点压摄影对致密型乳腺的乳腺癌的诊断价值.方法 对68例致密型乳腺的乳腺癌患者经全数字化乳腺X线检查常规检查(首尾位及内外斜位)后,对触诊异常区域加摄无放大点压摄影,分别分析常规摄影和点压摄影的影像表现并进行对比.结果 点压摄影在肿块显示、毛刺显示方面明显优于常规摄影.两种方法对钙化的显示率无显著差别,但在显示钙化数量、大小、形态及密度等具体特征方面,压点摄影优于常规摄影.4例常规摄影显示乳腺结构扭曲的患者,点压摄影可见小肿块;5例常规摄影显示乳腺局灶性不对称患者,点压摄影均可见肿块.点压摄影的诊断准确率(86.76%)高于常规摄影(63.24%),漏诊及误诊率(4.41%)低于常规摄影(14.70%).结论 常规乳腺摄影结合点压摄影能够明显提高致密型乳腺的乳腺癌的诊断准确率.%Objective To observe the diagnostic value of digital spot mammography for breast cancer in dense breasts.Methods Sixty-eight patients with breast cancer in dense breasts proved pathologicaly were enrolled. After conventional digital mammography (including craniocaudal view and midiolateral oblique view) were conducted for every patient, digital spot mammography without magnification were performed in the suspected area. The image findings of both digital spot mammography and conventional mammography were analyzed and compared. Results Digital spot mammography was superior to conventional mammography in showing the margin and spiculated features of masses. There was no significant difference in showing calcification of tumors, whereas digital spot mammography was superior to conventional mammography in showing the specific features of calcification like quantity, size, shape and density. Masses were found with digital spot mammography in 4 cases of architectural distortion and 5 cases of focal asymmetric density on conventional mammography

  7. Tumour Delineation using Statistical Properties of The Breast US Images and Vector Quantization based Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Kekre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is most common and leading cause of death among women. With improvement in the imaging modalities it is possible to diagnose the cancer at an early stage moreover treatment at an early stage reduces the mortality rate. B-mode ultrasound (US imaging is very illustrious and reliable technique in early detection of masses in the breast. Though it is complimentary to the mammography, dense breast tissues can be examined more efficiently and detects the small nodules that are usually not observed in mammography. Segmentation of US images gives the clear understanding of nature and growth of the tumor. But some inherent artifact of US images makes this process difficult and computationally inefficient. Many methods are discussed in the literature for US image segmentation, each method has its pros and cons. In this paper, initially region merging based watershed and marker-controlled watershed transforms are discussed and implemented. In the subsequent sections we proposed a method for segmentation, based on clustering. Proposed method consists of three stages, in first stage probability images and its equalized histogram images are obtained from the original US images without any preprocessing. In the next stage, we used VQ based clustering technique with LBG, KPE and KEVR codebook generation algorithm followed by sequential cluster merging. Last stage is the post processing, where we removed unwanted regions from the selected cluster image by labeling the connected components and moreover used morphological operation for closing the holes in the final segmented image. Finally, results by our method are compared with initially discussed methods.

  8. Assessment and Development of Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    At the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), a 3D tomographic microwave imaging system is currently being developed with the aim of using nonlinear microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection. The imaging algorithm used in the system is based on an iterative Newton-type scheme. In this algorithm...

  9. Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Molly L; Khalil, Michael A; Al Abdi, Rabah; Kim, Hyun K; Fong, Christopher J; Desperito, Elise; Hershman, Dawn L; Barbour, Randall L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse optical tomography has shown promising results as a tool for breast cancer screening and monitoring response to chemotherapy. Dynamic imaging of the transient response of the breast to an external stimulus, such as pressure or a respiratory maneuver, can provide additional information that can be used to detect tumors. We present a new digital continuous-wave optical tomography system designed to simultaneously image both breasts at fast frame rates and with a large number of sources and detectors. The system uses a master-slave digital signal processor-based detection architecture to achieve a dynamic range of 160 dB and a frame rate of 1.7 Hz with 32 sources, 64 detectors, and 4 wavelengths per breast. Included is a preliminary study of one healthy patient and two breast cancer patients showing the ability to identify an invasive carcinoma based on the hemodynamic response to a breath hold.

  10. A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, R.; Sechopoulos, I.; Fei, B.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. METHODS: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale bila

  11. Stereoscopic interpretation of low-dose breast tomosynthesis projection images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Markey, Mia K; Bovik, Alan C; Haygood, Tamara Miner; Stephens, Tanya W; Geiser, William R; Garg, Naveen; Adrada, Beatriz E; Dogan, Basak E; Carkaci, Selin; Khisty, Raunak; Whitman, Gary J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate stereoscopic perception of low-dose breast tomosynthesis projection images. In this Institutional Review Board exempt study, craniocaudal breast tomosynthesis cases (N = 47), consisting of 23 biopsy-proven malignant mass cases and 24 normal cases, were retrospectively reviewed. A stereoscopic pair comprised of two projection images that were ±4° apart from the zero angle projection was displayed on a Planar PL2010M stereoscopic display (Planar Systems, Inc., Beaverton, OR, USA). An experienced breast imager verified the truth for each case stereoscopically. A two-phase blinded observer study was conducted. In the first phase, two experienced breast imagers rated their ability to perceive 3D information using a scale of 1-3 and described the most suspicious lesion using the BI-RADS® descriptors. In the second phase, four experienced breast imagers were asked to make a binary decision on whether they saw a mass for which they would initiate a diagnostic workup or not and also report the location of the mass and provide a confidence score in the range of 0-100. The sensitivity and the specificity of the lesion detection task were evaluated. The results from our study suggest that radiologists who can perceive stereo can reliably interpret breast tomosynthesis projection images using stereoscopic viewing.

  12. Nuclear Breast Imaging: Clinical Results and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wendie A

    2016-02-01

    Interest in nuclear breast imaging is increasing because of technical improvements in dedicated devices that allow the use of relatively low doses of radiotracers with high sensitivity for even small breast cancers. For women with newly diagnosed cancer, primary chemotherapy is often recommended, and improved methods of assessing treatment response are of interest. With widespread breast density notification, functional rather than anatomic methods of screening are of increasing interest as well. For a cancer imaging technology to be adopted, several criteria must be met that will be discussed: evidence of clinical benefit with minimal harm, standardized interpretive criteria, direct biopsy guidance, and acceptable cost-effectiveness.

  13. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  14. Breast Image Analysis for Risk Assessment, Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, M.L.; Karssemeijer, N.; Schnabel, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of breast image analysis in radiologists' interpretation tasks in cancer risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment continues to expand. Breast image analysis methods include segmentation, feature extraction techniques, classifier design, biomechanical modeling, image registration

  15. THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF 99mTc-MIBI BREAST IMAGING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任长才; 金少津; 邹强; 朱汇庆; 王红鹰; 梁春立

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find an effective, sensitive, specific and noninvasive diagnostic method of breast cancer. Methods: 109 masses of 102 patients with breast lesions smaller than 2 cm in diameter were divided into three groups to undergo 99mTc-MIBI imaging and compared with the results of pathology examination. 20 cases without breast lesions were selected as control. Abnormal condensation of 99mTc-MIBI in the breast reaching 10% higher than that in the counterpart of the healthy breast was regarded as positive. Results: Of 32 breast cancers, positive imaging appeared in 25. Negative imaging were found in 31 of 38 benign breast lesions. Of 39 occult breast lesions, positive imaging appeared in 6 and 3 of them were breast cancer, 2 of 3 patients with slightly increased 99mTc-MIBI imaging threshold were breast cancer also. No positive imaging was found in the control group. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of 99mTc-MIBI was 88.4%, 89.2%, 88.0%, 75.0% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion: 99mTc-MIBI imaging had higher sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer and differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions. It could provide useful information for the diagnosis of clinically suspected breast cancer.

  16. Comparison of breast tissue measurements using magnetic resonance imaging, digital mammography and a mathematical algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lee-Jane W.; Nishino, Thomas K.; Johnson, Raleigh F.; Nayeem, Fatima; Brunder, Donald G.; Ju, Hyunsu; Leonard, Morton H., Jr.; Grady, James J.; Khamapirad, Tuenchit

    2012-11-01

    Women with mostly mammographically dense fibroglandular tissue (breast density, BD) have a four- to six-fold increased risk for breast cancer compared to women with little BD. BD is most frequently estimated from two-dimensional (2D) views of mammograms by a histogram segmentation approach (HSM) and more recently by a mathematical algorithm consisting of mammographic imaging parameters (MATH). Two non-invasive clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols: 3D gradient-echo (3DGRE) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) were modified for 3D volumetric reconstruction of the breast for measuring fatty and fibroglandular tissue volumes by a Gaussian-distribution curve-fitting algorithm. Replicate breast exams (N = 2 to 7 replicates in six women) by 3DGRE and STIR were highly reproducible for all tissue-volume estimates (coefficients of variation tissue, (2) 0.72-0.82, 0.64-0.96, and 0.77-0.91, for glandular volume, (3) 0.87-0.98, 0.94-1.07, and 0.89-0.99, for fat volume, and (4) 0.89-0.98, 0.94-1.00, and 0.89-0.98, for total breast volume. For all values estimated, the correlation was stronger for comparisons between the two MRI than between each MRI versus mammography, and between each MRI versus MATH data than between each MRI versus HSM data. All ICC values were >0.75 indicating that all four methods were reliable for measuring BD and that the mathematical algorithm and the two complimentary non-invasive MRI protocols could objectively and reliably estimate different types of breast tissues.

  17. Dense deformation field estimation for atlas-based segmentation of pathological MR brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Cuadra, M; De Craene, M; Duay, V; Macq, B; Pollo, C; Thiran, J-Ph

    2006-12-01

    Atlas registration is a recognized paradigm for the automatic segmentation of normal MR brain images. Unfortunately, atlas-based segmentation has been of limited use in presence of large space-occupying lesions. In fact, brain deformations induced by such lesions are added to normal anatomical variability and they may dramatically shift and deform anatomically or functionally important brain structures. In this work, we chose to focus on the problem of inter-subject registration of MR images with large tumors, inducing a significant shift of surrounding anatomical structures. First, a brief survey of the existing methods that have been proposed to deal with this problem is presented. This introduces the discussion about the requirements and desirable properties that we consider necessary to be fulfilled by a registration method in this context: To have a dense and smooth deformation field and a model of lesion growth, to model different deformability for some structures, to introduce more prior knowledge, and to use voxel-based features with a similarity measure robust to intensity differences. In a second part of this work, we propose a new approach that overcomes some of the main limitations of the existing techniques while complying with most of the desired requirements above. Our algorithm combines the mathematical framework for computing a variational flow proposed by Hermosillo et al. [G. Hermosillo, C. Chefd'Hotel, O. Faugeras, A variational approach to multi-modal image matching, Tech. Rep., INRIA (February 2001).] with the radial lesion growth pattern presented by Bach et al. [M. Bach Cuadra, C. Pollo, A. Bardera, O. Cuisenaire, J.-G. Villemure, J.-Ph. Thiran, Atlas-based segmentation of pathological MR brain images using a model of lesion growth, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23 (10) (2004) 1301-1314.]. Results on patients with a meningioma are visually assessed and compared to those obtained with the most similar method from the state-of-the-art.

  18. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  19. Inverse scattering and refraction corrected reflection for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskin, J.; Borup, D.; Johnson, S.; Berggren, M.; Robinson, D.; Smith, J.; Chen, J.; Parisky, Y.; Klock, John

    2010-03-01

    Reflection ultrasound (US) has been utilized as an adjunct imaging modality for over 30 years. TechniScan, Inc. has developed unique, transmission and concomitant reflection algorithms which are used to reconstruct images from data gathered during a tomographic breast scanning process called Warm Bath Ultrasound (WBU™). The transmission algorithm yields high resolution, 3D, attenuation and speed of sound (SOS) images. The reflection algorithm is based on canonical ray tracing utilizing refraction correction via the SOS and attenuation reconstructions. The refraction correction reflection algorithm allows 360 degree compounding resulting in the reflection image. The requisite data are collected when scanning the entire breast in a 33° C water bath, on average in 8 minutes. This presentation explains how the data are collected and processed by the 3D transmission and reflection imaging mode algorithms. The processing is carried out using two NVIDIA® Tesla™ GPU processors, accessing data on a 4-TeraByte RAID. The WBU™ images are displayed in a DICOM viewer that allows registration of all three modalities. Several representative cases are presented to demonstrate potential diagnostic capability including: a cyst, fibroadenoma, and a carcinoma. WBU™ images (SOS, attenuation, and reflection modalities) are shown along with their respective mammograms and standard ultrasound images. In addition, anatomical studies are shown comparing WBU™ images and MRI images of a cadaver breast. This innovative technology is designed to provide additional tools in the armamentarium for diagnosis of breast disease.

  20. Breast image pre-processing for mammographic tissue segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenda; Hogg, Peter; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erika R E; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2015-12-01

    During mammographic image acquisition, a compression paddle is used to even the breast thickness in order to obtain optimal image quality. Clinical observation has indicated that some mammograms may exhibit abrupt intensity change and low visibility of tissue structures in the breast peripheral areas. Such appearance discrepancies can affect image interpretation and may not be desirable for computer aided mammography, leading to incorrect diagnosis and/or detection which can have a negative impact on sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography. This paper describes a novel mammographic image pre-processing method to improve image quality for analysis. An image selection process is incorporated to better target problematic images. The processed images show improved mammographic appearances not only in the breast periphery but also across the mammograms. Mammographic segmentation and risk/density classification were performed to facilitate a quantitative and qualitative evaluation. When using the processed images, the results indicated more anatomically correct segmentation in tissue specific areas, and subsequently better classification accuracies were achieved. Visual assessments were conducted in a clinical environment to determine the quality of the processed images and the resultant segmentation. The developed method has shown promising results. It is expected to be useful in early breast cancer detection, risk-stratified screening, and aiding radiologists in the process of decision making prior to surgery and/or treatment.

  1. Novelty detection for breast cancer image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Pawel; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał; Oleszkiewicz, Witold

    2016-09-01

    Using classification learning algorithms for medical applications may require not only refined model creation techniques and careful unbiased model evaluation, but also detecting the risk of misclassification at the time of model application. This is addressed by novelty detection, which identifies instances for which the training set is not sufficiently representative and for which it may be safer to restrain from classification and request a human expert diagnosis. The paper investigates two techniques for isolated instance identification, based on clustering and one-class support vector machines, which represent two different approaches to multidimensional outlier detection. The prediction quality for isolated instances in breast cancer image data is evaluated using the random forest algorithm and found to be substantially inferior to the prediction quality for non-isolated instances. Each of the two techniques is then used to create a novelty detection model which can be combined with a classification model and used at the time of prediction to detect instances for which the latter cannot be reliably applied. Novelty detection is demonstrated to improve random forest prediction quality and argued to deserve further investigation in medical applications.

  2. Multicenter prospective study of magnetic resonance imaging prior to breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian; Liu Yinhua; Xu Ling; Duan Xuening; Li Ting; Qin Naishan; Kang Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background This multicenter prospective study aimed to assess the utility of dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer.Methods The research subjects were drawn from patients with primary early resectable breast cancer treated in the breast disease centers of six three-level hospitals in Beijing from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012.The participants were allocated to a breast-conserving surgery group (breast-conserving group) or a total mastectomy group (total mastectomy group).Enhanced MRI was used to measure breast volume,longest diameter of tumor and tumor volume.The correlations between these measurements and those derived from histopathologic findings were assessed.The relationships between the success rate of breast-conserving surgery and MRI-and pathology-based measurement results were statistically analyzed in the breast-conserving group.Results The study included 461 cases in the total mastectomy group and 195 in the breast-conserving group.Allocation to these groups was based on clinical indications and patient preferences.The cut-off for concurrence between MRI-and pathology-based measurements of the longest diameter of tumor was set at 0.3 cm.In the total mastectomy group,the confidence interval for 95% concurrence of these measurements was 35.41%-44.63%.Correlation coefficients for MRI and histopathology-based measurements of breast volume,tumor volume and tumor volume/breast volume ratio were r=0.861,0.569,and 0.600,respectively (all P <0.001).In the breast-conserving group,with 0.30 cm taken as the cut-off for concurrence,the 95% confidence interval for MRI and pathology-based measurements of the longest diameter of tumor was 29.98%-44.01%.The subjective and objective success rates for breast-conserving surgery were 100% and 88.54%,respectively.Conclusions There were significant correlations between dynamic enhanced MRI-and histopathology-based measurements of the longest

  3. Subtraction and dynamic MR images of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Manabu; Harada, Junta (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging in patients with breast masses. In 23 breast cancers and six fibroadenomas, spin echo T1 images were obtained at 0.2 Tesla before and every minute after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 or 0.2 mmol/kg). Subtraction images were obtained sequentially on the CRT monitor. All breast masses were enhanced after gadolinium and stood out as bright lesions on subtraction images. The tumor margin and its extension were more precisely evaluated on subtraction MR images than on conventional postcontrast MR images. Breast cancer showed a characteristic time-intensity curve with an early peak, in contrast to fibroadenoma, which showed a gradual increase in signal intensity. Subtraction MR imaging is a simple method for the evaluation of breast masses, and further, the time-intensity curve obtained by dynamic study is helpful in the differential diagnosis of lesions. (author).

  4. Women’s experiences and preferences regarding breast imaging after completing breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandzel S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Susan Brandzel,1 Dori E Rosenberg,1 Dianne Johnson,1 Mary Bush,1 Karla Kerlikowske,2–5 Tracy Onega,6,7 Louise Henderson,8 Larissa Nekhlyudov,9,10 Wendy DeMartini,11 Karen J Wernli1 1Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Epidemiology, 4Department of Biostatistics, 5Department of Veterans Affairs, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 6Department of Biomedical Data Science, 7Department of Epidemiology, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, 8Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 9Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 10Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, 11Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: After treatment for breast cancer, most women receive an annual surveillance mammography to look for subsequent breast cancers. Supplemental breast MRI is sometimes used in addition to mammography despite the lack of clinical evidence for it. Breast imaging after cancer treatment is an emotionally charged experience, an important part of survivorship care, and a topic about which limited patient information exists. We assessed women’s experiences and preferences about breast cancer surveillance imaging with the goal of determining where gaps in care and knowledge could be filled. Participants and methods: We conducted six focus groups with a convenience sample of 41 women in California, North Carolina, and New Hampshire (USA. Participants were aged 38–75 years, had experienced stage 0–III breast cancer within the previous 5 years, and had completed initial treatment. We used inductive thematic analysis to identify key themes from verbatim transcripts. Results: Women reported various types and frequencies of surveillance imaging and a range of surveillance imaging

  5. Homogenization of sample absorption for the imaging of large and dense fossils with synchrotron microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sophie; Fernandez, Vincent; Pierce, Stephanie E; Tafforeau, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Propagation phase-contrast synchrotron radiation microtomography (PPC-SRμCT) has proved to be very successful for examining fossils. Because fossils range widely in taphonomic preservation, size, shape and density, X-ray computed tomography protocols are constantly being developed and refined. Here we present a 1-h procedure that combines a filtered high-energy polychromatic beam with long-distance PPC-SRμCT (sample to detector: 4-16 m) and an attenuation protocol normalizing the absorption profile (tested on 13-cm-thick and 5.242 g cm(-3) locally dense samples but applicable to 20-cm-thick samples). This approach provides high-quality imaging results, which show marked improvement relative to results from images obtained without the attenuation protocol in apparent transmission, contrast and signal-to-noise ratio. The attenuation protocol involves immersing samples in a tube filled with aluminum or glass balls in association with a U-shaped aluminum profiler. This technique therefore provides access to a larger dynamic range of the detector used for tomographic reconstruction. This protocol homogenizes beam-hardening artifacts, thereby rendering it effective for use with conventional μCT scanners.

  6. Dense Semantic Labeling of Subdecimeter Resolution Images With Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Michele; Tuia, Devis

    2017-02-01

    Semantic labeling (or pixel-level land-cover classification) in ultra-high resolution imagery (Neural Networks (CNNs) achieve this goal by learning discriminatively a hierarchy of representations of increasing abstraction. In this paper we present a CNN-based system relying on an downsample-then-upsample architecture. Specifically, it first learns a rough spatial map of high-level representations by means of convolutions and then learns to upsample them back to the original resolution by deconvolutions. By doing so, the CNN learns to densely label every pixel at the original resolution of the image. This results in many advantages, including i) state-of-the-art numerical accuracy, ii) improved geometric accuracy of predictions and iii) high efficiency at inference time. We test the proposed system on the Vaihingen and Potsdam sub-decimeter resolution datasets, involving semantic labeling of aerial images of 9cm and 5cm resolution, respectively. These datasets are composed by many large and fully annotated tiles allowing an unbiased evaluation of models making use of spatial information. We do so by comparing two standard CNN architectures to the proposed one: standard patch classification, prediction of local label patches by employing only convolutions and full patch labeling by employing deconvolutions. All the systems compare favorably or outperform a state-of-the-art baseline relying on superpixels and powerful appearance descriptors. The proposed full patch labeling CNN outperforms these models by a large margin, also showing a very appealing inference time.

  7. Improved Topographic Models via Concurrent Airborne LIDAR and Dense Image Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, G.; Wenzel, K.; Spitzer, A.; Haala, N.; Glira, P.; Pfeifer, N.

    2017-09-01

    Modern airborne sensors integrate laser scanners and digital cameras for capturing topographic data at high spatial resolution. The capability of penetrating vegetation through small openings in the foliage and the high ranging precision in the cm range have made airborne LiDAR the prime terrain acquisition technique. In the recent years dense image matching evolved rapidly and outperforms laser scanning meanwhile in terms of the achievable spatial resolution of the derived surface models. In our contribution we analyze the inherent properties and review the typical processing chains of both acquisition techniques. In addition, we present potential synergies of jointly processing image and laser data with emphasis on sensor orientation and point cloud fusion for digital surface model derivation. Test data were concurrently acquired with the RIEGL LMS-Q1560 sensor over the city of Melk, Austria, in January 2016 and served as basis for testing innovative processing strategies. We demonstrate that (i) systematic effects in the resulting scanned and matched 3D point clouds can be minimized based on a hybrid orientation procedure, (ii) systematic differences of the individual point clouds are observable at penetrable, vegetated surfaces due to the different measurement principles, and (iii) improved digital surface models can be derived combining the higher density of the matching point cloud and the higher reliability of LiDAR point clouds, especially in the narrow alleys and courtyards of the study site, a medieval city.

  8. Quaternionic Spatiotemporal Filtering for Dense Motion Field Estimation in Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Marion

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood motion estimation provides fundamental clinical information to prevent and detect pathologies such as cancer. Ultrasound imaging associated with Doppler methods is often used for blood flow evaluation. However, Doppler methods suffer from shortcomings such as limited spatial resolution and the inability to estimate lateral motion. Numerous methods such as block matching and decorrelation-based techniques have been proposed to overcome these limitations. In this paper, we propose an original method to estimate dense fields of vector velocity from ultrasound image sequences. Our proposal is based on a spatiotemporal approach and considers 2D+t data as a 3D volume. Orientation of the texture within this volume is related to velocity. Thus, we designed a bank of 3D quaternionic filters to estimate local orientation and then calculate local velocities. The method was applied to a large set of experimental and simulated flow sequences with low motion (≈1 mm/s within small vessels (≈1 mm. Evaluation was conducted with several quantitative criteria such as the normalized mean error or the estimated mean velocity. The results obtained show the good behaviour of our method, characterizing the flows studied.

  9. Quaternionic Spatiotemporal Filtering for Dense Motion Field Estimation in Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Adrien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood motion estimation provides fundamental clinical information to prevent and detect pathologies such as cancer. Ultrasound imaging associated with Doppler methods is often used for blood flow evaluation. However, Doppler methods suffer from shortcomings such as limited spatial resolution and the inability to estimate lateral motion. Numerous methods such as block matching and decorrelation-based techniques have been proposed to overcome these limitations. In this paper, we propose an original method to estimate dense fields of vector velocity from ultrasound image sequences. Our proposal is based on a spatiotemporal approach and considers 2D+t data as a 3D volume. Orientation of the texture within this volume is related to velocity. Thus, we designed a bank of 3D quaternionic filters to estimate local orientation and then calculate local velocities. The method was applied to a large set of experimental and simulated flow sequences with low motion ( 1 mm/s within small vessels ( 1 mm. Evaluation was conducted with several quantitative criteria such as the normalized mean error or the estimated mean velocity. The results obtained show the good behaviour of our method, characterizing the flows studied.

  10. Breast imaging with SoftVue: initial clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Seamans, John; Wallen, Andrea; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    We describe the clinical performance of SoftVue, a breast imaging device based on the principles of ultrasound tomography. Participants were enrolled in an IRB-approved study at Wayne State University, Detroit, MI. The main research findings indicate that SoftVue is able to image the whole uncompressed breast up to cup size H. Masses can be imaged in even the densest breasts with the ability to discern margins and mass shapes. Additionally, it is demonstrated that multi-focal disease can also be imaged. The system was also tested in its research mode for additional imaging capabilities. These tests demonstrated the potential for generating tissue stiffness information for the entire breast using through-transmission data. This research capability differentiates SoftVue from the other whole breast systems on the market. It is also shown that MRI-like images can be generated using alternative processing of the echo data. Ongoing research is focused on validating and quantifying these findings in a larger sample of study participants and quantifying SoftVue's ability to differentiate benign masses from cancer.

  11. Functional Imaging of Breast Tissue and Clinical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach to image hemoglobin concentration(ΔDhb) and oxygen saturation (ΔDoxy) of breast tissue is presented. The scenograph of dual-wavelength (760 and 850 nm) near infrared lights through breast tissue is acquired by high sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The evaluation criterion of the difference of ΔDhb and ΔDoxy between detected and referenced breast tissue can be obtained by a calculation formula without complicate caculation. This approach is applied to clinic detection in breast tissue. The ongoing clinical experiments indicate that malignant tumor usually exhibits characterize of "higher ΔDhb and lower ΔDoxy", while benign lesion often shows "lower ΔDhb and higher ΔDoxy" or other characters. So it is useful to assist the diagnosis of breast disease.

  12. Prototype of Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection has received the attention of a large number of research groups in the last decade. In this paper, the imaging system currently being developed at the Technical university of Denmark is presented. This includes a description of the antenna system...

  13. Dosimetry in x-ray-based breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, David R.; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-10-01

    The estimation of the mean glandular dose to the breast (MGD) for x-ray based imaging modalities forms an essential part of quality control and is needed for risk estimation and for system design and optimisation. This review considers the development of methods for estimating the MGD for mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and dedicated breast CT (DBCT). Almost all of the methodology used employs Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors to relate the measurable quantity, generally the incident air kerma, to the MGD. After a review of the size and composition of the female breast, the various mathematical models used are discussed, with particular emphasis on models for mammography. These range from simple geometrical shapes, to the more recent complex models based on patient DBCT examinations. The possibility of patient-specific dose estimates is considered as well as special diagnostic views and the effect of breast implants. Calculations using the complex models show that the MGD for mammography is overestimated by about 30% when the simple models are used. The design and uses of breast-simulating test phantoms for measuring incident air kerma are outlined and comparisons made between patient and phantom-based dose estimates. The most widely used national and international dosimetry protocols for mammography are based on different simple geometrical models of the breast, and harmonisation of these protocols using more complex breast models is desirable.

  14. Imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Joo Hwa; Choi, Byung Gil; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Song, Byung Joo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast and to assess the rate of upgrade to breast cancer. From March 2008 to May 2012, seven lesions were confirmed as complex sclerosing lesions by ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy. Final results by either surgical excision or follow-up imaging studies were reviewed to assess the rate of upgrade to breast cancer. Two radiologists retrospectively analyzed the imaging findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System classification. Five lesions underwent subsequent surgical excision and two of them revealed ductal carcinoma in situ (n=1) and invasive ductal carcinoma (n=1). Our study showed a breast cancer upgrade rate of 28.6% (2 of 7 lesions). Two lesions were stable on imaging follow-up beyond 1 year. The mammographic features included masses (n=4, 57.1%), architectural distortion (n=2, 28.6%), and focal asymmetry (n=1, 14.3%). Common B-mode ultrasonographic features were irregular shape (n=6, 85.7%), spiculated margin (n=5, 71.4 %), and hypoechogenicity (n=7, 100%). The final assessment categories were category 4 (n=6, 85.7%) and category 5 (n=1, 14.3%). The complex sclerosing lesions were commonly mass-like on mammography and showed the suspicious ultrasonographic features of category 4. Due to a high underestimation rate, all complex sclerosing lesions by core needle biopsy should be excised.

  15. Online advertising by three commercial breast imaging services: message takeout and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Pratt, Iain S; Donovan, Robert J; Lin, Chad; Saunders, Christobel; Slevin, Terry

    2013-10-01

    Mammography is widely acknowledged to be the most cost-effective technique for population screening for breast cancer. Recently in Australia, imaging modalities other than mammography, including thermography, electrical impedance, and computerised breast imaging, have been increasingly promoted as alternative methods of breast cancer screening. This study assessed the impact of three commercial breast imaging companies' promotional material upon consumers' beliefs about the effectiveness of the companies' technology in detecting breast cancer, and consumers' intentions to seek more information or consider having their breasts imaged by these modalities. Results showed 90% of respondents agreed that the companies' promotional material promoted the message that the advertised breast imaging method was effective in detecting breast cancer, and 80% agreed that the material promoted the message that the imaging method was equally or more effective than a mammogram. These findings have implications for women's preference for and uptake of alternative breast imaging services over mammography. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal breast cancer patients: A pooled analysis of the MIG1 and GIM2 phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Ceppi, Marcello; Cognetti, Francesco; Cavazzini, Giovanna; De Laurentiis, Michele; De Placido, Sabino; Michelotti, Andrea; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Durando, Antonio; Valle, Enrichetta; Scotto, Tiziana; De Censi, Andrea; Turletti, Anna; Benasso, Marco; Barni, Sandro; Montemurro, Filippo; Puglisi, Fabio; Levaggi, Alessia; Giraudi, Sara; Bighin, Claudia; Bruzzi, Paolo; Del Mastro, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    No evidence exists to recommend a specific chemotherapy regimen in young breast cancer patients. We performed a pooled analysis of two randomised clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant dose-dense chemotherapy in premenopausal breast cancer patients and its impact on the risk of treatment-induced amenorrhoea. In the MIG1 study, node-positive or high-risk node-negative patients were randomised to 6 cycles of fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide every 2 (dose-dense) or 3 (standard-interval) weeks. In the GIM2 study, node-positive patients were randomised to 4 cycles of dose-dense or standard-interval EC or FEC followed by 4 cycles of dose-dense or standard-interval paclitaxel. Using individual patient data, the hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival by means of a Cox proportional hazards model and the odds ratio for treatment-induced amenorrhoea through a logistic regression model were calculated for each study. A meta-analysis of the two studies was performed using the random effect model to compute the parameter estimates. A total of 1,549 patients were included. Dose-dense chemotherapy was associated with a significant improved overall survival as compared to standard-interval chemotherapy (HR, 0.71; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.54-0.95; p = 0.021). The pooled HRs were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.54-1.12) and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.40-1.06) for patients with hormone receptor-positive and -negative tumours, respectively (interaction p = 0.330). No increased risk of treatment-induced amenorrhoea was observed with dose-dense chemotherapy (odds ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.80-1.25; p = 0.989). Dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy may be considered the preferred treatment option in high-risk premenopausal breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in an intensive dose-dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy schedule for locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Frai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT in patients with locally advanced (L A inoperable breast cancer (BC at baseline, by using the intensified combination CT at the interval being reduced between the administration of cytostatic dru gs to 2 weeks to give a chance to the patients to be surgically treated.Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 26 patients aged 33 to 75 years with L A BC. Paclitaxel was administered intravenously (IV over 3 hours at a dose of 175 mg/m2 on day 1, followed by gemcitabine, 2000 mg/m2, given by 30-minute IV infusion on day 1 every 2 w eeks. If the cytostatics were well tolerated and their effect increased, the treatment was continued up to 6 courses.Results. Eighteen (69.2% out of the 26 patients achieved the objective effect of treatment; of them 17 (65.4% had a partial remission and 1 (3.8 had a complete remission.The therapeutic pathomorphism of a tumor w as rated in 22 patients; fourth-degree tumor pathomorphism w as found in 2 (9% patien ts. The follow-up of patients w as 11 to 28 months (median, 20 months. The median time to progression w as not reached in the entire group of patients.Conclusion. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in intensive dose-dense scheduling has a marked antitumor activity in BC andis characterized by its good tolerability without a pronounced myelosuppressive effect. This therapy regimen may be used as neoadjuvant CT.

  18. Counterview: Pre-operative breast MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is not recommended for all patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solin, Lawrence J

    2010-02-01

    For the woman with a newly diagnosed early stage breast cancer, the routine use of pre-operative breast MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is not indicated beyond conventional breast imaging (i.e., mammography with correlation ultrasound as indicated). There is no consistent evidence that a pre-operative breast MRI confers a benefit to the patient by improving clinical outcomes or surgical procedures. In a meta-analysis of studies reporting on the use of pre-operative breast MRI for the patient with an established index cancer, multifocal or multicentric disease was found on breast MRI in 16% of the patients, a rate substantially higher than the rate of local recurrence after breast conserving surgery plus definitive radiation treatment. In the largest retrospective study of patients treated with breast conserving surgery plus radiation, no gain was found for adding a breast MRI to conventional breast imaging. No randomized clinical trial has been designed to evaluate long term clinical outcomes associated with adding a pre-operative breast MRI. Adding pre-operative breast MRI can alter clinical management in ways that are potentially harmful to patients, for example, increased ipsilateral mastectomies, increased contralateral prophylactic mastectomies, increased work-ups, and delay to definitive surgery. In summary, the routine use of pre-operative breast MRI is not warranted for the typical patient with a newly diagnosed early stage breast cancer.

  19. Volumetric breast density estimation from full-field digital mammograms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeland, S. van; Snoeren, P.R.; Huisman, H.J.; Boetes, C.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2006-01-01

    A method is presented for estimation of dense breast tissue volume from mammograms obtained with full-field digital mammography (FFDM). The thickness of dense tissue mapping to a pixel is determined by using a physical model of image acquisition. This model is based on the assumption that the breast

  20. How I report breast magnetic resonance imaging studies for breast cancer staging and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2016-07-25

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is the most sensitive imaging technique for the diagnosis and local staging of primary breast cancer and yet, despite the fact that it has been in use for 20 years, there is little evidence that its widespread uncritical adoption has had a positive impact on patient-related outcomes.This has been attributed previously to the low specificity that might be expected with such a sensitive modality, but with modern techniques and protocols, the specificity and positive predictive value for malignancy can exceed that of breast ultrasound and mammography. A more likely explanation is that historically, clinicians have acted on MRI findings and altered surgical plans without prior histological confirmation. Furthermore, modern adjuvant therapy for breast cancer has improved so much that it has become a very tall order to show a an improvement in outcomes such as local recurrence rates.In order to obtain clinically useful information, it is necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the technique and the physiological processes reflected in breast MRI. An appropriate indication for the scan, proper patient preparation and good scan technique, with rigorous quality assurance, are all essential prerequisites for a diagnostically relevant study.The use of recognised descriptors from a standardised lexicon is helpful, since assessment can then dictate subsequent recommendations for management, as in the American College of Radiology BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) lexicon (Morris et al., ACR BI-RADS® Atlas, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, 2013). It also enables audit of the service. However, perhaps the most critical factor in the generation of a meaningful report is for the reporting radiologist to have a thorough understanding of the clinical question and of the findings that will influence management. This has never been more important than at present, when we are in the throes of a

  1. Neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma: imaging features correlated with clinical and histopathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil; Ustuen, Esin Emin; Memis, Aysenur [Department of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Zekioglu, Osman; Erhan, Yildiz [Department of Pathology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the imaging features of neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma (NEDBC) and to correlate the radiological findings with the clinical and histopathological findings. A retrospective review of the mammograms of 1845 histopathologically proven breast cancer cases revealed five NEDBC. The clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings were analyzed. On mammography, a high-density mass was seen in all patients. The shape of the mass was round in 4 and irregular in 1 patient. The margins were spiculated in 2, indistinct in 1, microlobulated in 1, and partially obscured in 1 patient. On sonography, 4 patients had homogeneously hypoechoic masses with normal sound transmission. In 1 patient the mass was heterogeneously hypoechoic with mild posterior acoustic enhancement. The margins were microlobulated in 2, irregular in 2, and well-circumscribed in 1 patient. Neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of mammographically dense, round masses with predominantly spiculated or lobulated margins. Sonographically, they mostly present as irregular or microlobulated, homogeneously hypoechoic masses with normal sound transmission. (orig.)

  2. Multimodal breast cancer imaging using coregistered dynamic diffuse optical tomography and digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Deng, Bin; Singh, Bhawana; Martino, Mark; Selb, Juliette; Fang, Qianqian; Sajjadi, Amir Y.; Cormier, Jayne; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.; Saksena, Mansi A.; Carp, Stefan A.

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is emerging as a noninvasive functional imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis and neoadjuvant chemotherapy monitoring. In particular, the multimodal approach of combining DOT with x-ray digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is especially synergistic as DBT prior information can be used to enhance the DOT reconstruction. DOT, in turn, provides a functional information overlay onto the mammographic images, increasing sensitivity and specificity to cancer pathology. We describe a dynamic DOT apparatus designed for tight integration with commercial DBT scanners and providing a fast (up to 1 Hz) image acquisition rate to enable tracking hemodynamic changes induced by the mammographic breast compression. The system integrates 96 continuous-wave and 24 frequency-domain source locations as well as 32 continuous wave and 20 frequency-domain detection locations into low-profile plastic plates that can easily mate to the DBT compression paddle and x-ray detector cover, respectively. We demonstrate system performance using static and dynamic tissue-like phantoms as well as in vivo images acquired from the pool of patients recalled for breast biopsies at the Massachusetts General Hospital Breast Imaging Division.

  3. Convergence of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidky, Emil; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2012-01-01

    solutions can aid in iterative image reconstruction algorithm design. This issue is particularly acute for iterative image reconstruction in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT), where the corresponding data model IS particularly poorly conditioned. The impact of this poor conditioning is that iterative......Most iterative image reconstruction algorithms are based on some form of optimization, such as minimization of a data-fidelity term plus an image regularizing penalty term. While achieving the solution of these optimization problems may not directly be clinically relevant, accurate optimization....... Math. Imag. Vol. 40, pgs 120-145) and apply it to iterative image reconstruction in DBT....

  4. Automatic Detection of Building Points from LIDAR and Dense Image Matching Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezos, E.; Ioannidis, C.

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to detect automatically building points: (a) from LIDAR point cloud using simple techniques of filtering that enhance the geometric properties of each point, and (b) from a point cloud which is extracted applying dense image matching at high resolution colour-infrared (CIR) digital aerial imagery using the stereo method semi-global matching (SGM). At first step, the removal of the vegetation is carried out. At the LIDAR point cloud, two different methods are implemented and evaluated using initially the normals and the roughness values afterwards: (1) the proposed scan line smooth filtering and a thresholding process, and (2) a bilateral filtering and a thresholding process. For the case of the CIR point cloud, a variation of the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) is computed for the same purpose. Afterwards, the bare-earth is extracted using a morphological operator and removed from the rest scene so as to maintain the buildings points. The results of the extracted buildings applying each approach at an urban area in northern Greece are evaluated using an existing orthoimage as reference; also, the results are compared with the corresponding classified buildings extracted from two commercial software. Finally, in order to verify the utility and functionality of the extracted buildings points that achieved the best accuracy, the 3D models in terms of Level of Detail 1 (LoD 1) and a 3D building change detection process are indicatively performed on a sub-region of the overall scene.

  5. Simulated lesion, human observer performance comparison between thin-section dedicated breast CT images versus computed thick-section simulated projection images of the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Boone, J. M.; Abbey, C. K.; Hargreaves, J.; Bateni, C.; Lindfors, K. K.; Yang, K.; Nosratieh, A.; Hernandez, A.; Gazi, P.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the lesion detection performance of human observers between thin-section computed tomography images of the breast, with thick-section (>40 mm) simulated projection images of the breast. Three radiologists and six physicists each executed a two alterative force choice (2AFC) study involving simulated spherical lesions placed mathematically into breast images produced on a prototype dedicated breast CT scanner. The breast image data sets from 88 patients were used to create 352 pairs of image data. Spherical lesions with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 11 mm were simulated and adaptively positioned into 3D breast CT image data sets; the native thin section (0.33 mm) images were averaged to produce images with different slice thicknesses; average section thicknesses of 0.33, 0.71, 1.5 and 2.9 mm were representative of breast CT; the average 43 mm slice thickness served to simulate simulated projection images of the breast. The percent correct of the human observer’s responses were evaluated in the 2AFC experiments. Radiologists lesion detection performance was significantly (p physicist observer, however trends in performance were similar. Human observers demonstrate significantly better mass-lesion detection performance on thin-section CT images of the breast, compared to thick-section simulated projection images of the breast.

  6. Opto-acoustic breast imaging with co-registered ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Oraevsky, Alexander; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; Otto, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    We present results from a recent study involving the ImagioTM breast imaging system, which produces fused real-time two-dimensional color-coded opto-acoustic (OA) images that are co-registered and temporally inter- leaved with real-time gray scale ultrasound using a specialized duplex handheld probe. The use of dual optical wavelengths provides functional blood map images of breast tissue and tumors displayed with high contrast based on total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation of the blood. This provides functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism. OA also shows morphologic information about tumor neo-vascularity that is complementary to the morphological information obtained with conventional gray scale ultrasound. This fusion technology conveniently enables real-time analysis of the functional opto-acoustic features of lesions detected by readers familiar with anatomical gray scale ultrasound. We demonstrate co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical study that provide new insight into the function of tumors in-vivo. Results from the Feasibility Study show preliminary evidence that the technology may have the capability to improve characterization of benign and malignant breast masses over conventional diagnostic breast ultrasound alone and to improve overall accuracy of breast mass diagnosis. In particular, OA improved speci city over that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound, which could potentially reduce the number of negative biopsies performed without missing cancers.

  7. Practicing breast imaging in HRT ladies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhothisuwan, Wilaiporn

    2004-10-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in Thai women increased significantly each year. The statistic from Siriraj Cancer Institute, it was 6.8% of female cancers in 1985 and became 20.0% in 2003. With increasingly use of hormone replacement therapy in Thai ladies, awareness of breast cancer is mandatory. Screening for breast cancer is recommended prior to and during the treatment. Thai breasts are differed in the composition of breast tissue. It was almost entirely fat in 2527 cases (7%), scattered fibroglandular in 7216 cases (20%), heterogeneously dense in 21498 (59%) and extremely dense in 5146 cases (14%). Therefore, in our practice, no matter it is a screening or diagnostic case, we performed mammography first, we looked at the films and finished the Siriraj Breast Centre had mammograms performed in 39,806 cases (up to July 2004), which was for screening in 22,468 cases (56.44%) and for diagnosis in 17338 cases (43.56%). Of the screening cases, we made diagnosis of benign looking lesions (BIRADS 2) in 24.35%, probably benign (BIRADS 3) in 17.02%, indeterminate lesion (BIRADS 4) in 2.23% and malignancy (BIRADS 5) in 79 cases (0.35%). Of those 79 cases, mass was noted in 43 cases, microcalcifications alone in 19 cases and mass with microcalcifications in 22 cases. The ultrasound can detect malignancy in mammography negative in 141 cases. The correlation of mammographic, ultrasonic and pathological diagnoses will be presented and the analysis confirms significantly increased accuracy when both mammograms and ultrasound are practiced together mammographic study and then, we scanned the patient by ultrasound. When a mass is found by mammograms, it is defined into a round or oval mass or a microlobulated, irregular or speculated mass. Ultrasound can show more details of the mass. We give the impression of a simple cyst, complex cyst, benign looking solid mass, probably benign solid mass, indeterminate nature or highly suggestive of malignancy. Ultrasound is very beneficial

  8. 3D tomographic breast imaging in-vivo using a handheld optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Martinez, Sergio; Gonzalez, Jean; Roman, Manuela; Nunez, Annie; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-02-01

    Hand-held optical imagers are currently developed toward clinical imaging of breast tissue. However, the hand-held optical devices developed to are not able to coregister the image to the tissue geometry for 3D tomography. We have developed a hand-held optical imager which has demonstrated automated coregistered imaging and 3D tomography in phantoms, and validated coregistered imaging in normal human subjects. Herein, automated coregistered imaging is performed in a normal human subject with a 0.45 cm3 spherical target filled with 1 μM indocyanine green (fluorescent contrast agent) placed superficially underneath the flap of the breast tissue. The coregistered image data is used in an approximate extended Kalman filter (AEKF) based reconstruction algorithm to recover the 3D location of the target within the breast tissue geometry. The results demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D tomographic imaging and recovering a fluorescent target in breast tissue of a human subject for the first time using a hand-held based optical imager. The significance of this work is toward clinical imaging of breast tissue for cancer diagnostics and therapy monitoring.

  9. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

  10. TU-EF-207-00: Advances in Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Breast imaging technology is advancing on several fronts. In digital mammography, the major technological trend has been on optimization of approaches for performing combined mammography and tomosynthesis using the same system. In parallel, photon-counting slot-scan mammography is now in clinical use and more efforts are directed towards further development of this approach for spectral imaging. Spectral imaging refers to simultaneous acquisition of two or more energy-windowed images. Depending on the detector and associated electronics, there are a number of ways this can be accomplished. Spectral mammography using photon-counting detectors can suppress electronic noise and importantly, it enables decomposition of the image into various material compositions of interest facilitating quantitative imaging. Spectral imaging can be particularly important in intravenously injected contrast mammography and eventually tomosynthesis. The various approaches and applications of spectral mammography are discussed. Digital breast tomosynthesis relies on the mechanical movement of the x-ray tube to acquire a number of projections in a predefined arc, typically from 9 to 25 projections over a scan angle of +/−7.5 to 25 degrees depending on the particular system. The mechanical x-ray tube motion requires relatively long acquisition time, typically between 3.7 to 25 seconds depending on the system. Moreover, mechanical scanning may have an effect on the spatial resolution due to internal x-ray filament or external mechanical vibrations. New x-ray source arrays have been developed and they are aimed at replacing the scanned x-ray tube for improved acquisition time and potentially for higher spatial resolution. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Combination of digital mammography and tomosynthesis in a single system places increased demands on certain functional aspects of the detector and overall performance, particularly in the tomosynthesis

  11. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  12. Experimental Study of Breast Cancer Detection Using UWB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Alshehri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer detection using UWB imaging is presented in this paper. The study is performed experimentally. Homogeneous breast phantom is constructed using pure petroleum jelly. The tumor is modeled using mixture of water and wheat flour. The breast fatty tissue and tumor tissue are put in breast shaped glass which mimics the skin. The dielectric properties values are comparable to previous study. Neural Network (NN was trained and tested using feature vector which is prepared by performing discrete cosine transform (DCT of the received UWB signals. Very encouraging results were obtained. Up to 100 % tumor existence detection was achieved. Tumor size and location detection rate were 91.3% and 95.6% respectively.

  13. Medical imaging and computers in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and quantitative image analysis (QIA) methods (i.e., computerized methods of analyzing digital breast images: mammograms, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance images) can yield novel image-based tumor and parenchyma characteristics (i.e., signatures that may ultimately contribute to the design of patient-specific breast cancer management plans). The role of QIA/CAD has been expanding beyond screening programs towards applications in risk assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy as well as in data mining to discover relationships of image-based lesion characteristics with genomics and other phenotypes; thus, as they apply to disease states. These various computer-based applications are demonstrated through research examples from the Giger Lab.

  14. Optimization of Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation Imaging Across Large Dense Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufri, O.; Xie, Y.; Lin, F. C.; Song, W.

    2015-12-01

    Ambient Noise Tomography is currently one of the most studied topics of seismology. It gives possibility of studying physical properties of rocks from the depths of subsurface to the upper mantle depths using recorded noise sources. A network of new seismic sensors, which are capable of recording continuous seismic noise and doing the processing at the same time on-site, could help to assess possible risk of volcanic activity on a volcano and help to understand the changes in physical properties of a fault before and after an earthquake occurs. This new seismic sensor technology could also be used in oil and gas industry to figure out depletion rate of a reservoir and help to improve velocity models for obtaining better seismic reflection cross-sections. Our recent NSF funded project is bringing seismologists, signal processors, and computer scientists together to develop a new ambient noise seismic imaging system which could record continuous seismic noise and process it on-site and send Green's functions and/or tomography images to the network. Such an imaging system requires optimum amount of sensors, sensor communication, and processing of the recorded data. In order to solve these problems, we first started working on the problem of optimum amount of sensors and the communication between these sensors by using small aperture dense network called Sweetwater Array, deployed by Nodal Seismic in 2014. We downloaded ~17 day of continuous data from 2268 one-component stations between March 30-April 16 2015 from IRIS DMC and performed cross-correlation to determine the lag times between station pairs. The lag times were then entered in matrix form. Our goal is to selecting random lag time values in the matrix and assuming all other elements of the matrix either missing or unknown and performing matrix completion technique to find out how close the results from matrix completion technique would be close to the real calculated values. This would give us better idea

  15. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: protocol optimization, interpretation, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Savannah C; McDonald, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) has shown promise for improving the positive predictive value of breast MR imaging for detection of breast cancer, evaluating tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and as a noncontrast alternative to MR imaging in screening for breast cancer. However, data quality varies widely. Before implementing DWI into clinical practice, one must understand the pertinent technical considerations and current evidence regarding clinical applications of breast DWI. This article provides an overview of basic principles of DWI, optimization of breast DWI protocols, imaging features of benign and malignant breast lesions, promising clinical applications, and potential future directions.

  16. Prospective screening study of 0.5 Tesla dedicated magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of breast cancer in young, high-risk women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumkin Jules H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based screening guidelines are needed for women under 40 with a family history of breast cancer, a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, or other risk factors. An accurate assessment of breast cancer risk is required to balance the benefits and risks of surveillance, yet published studies have used narrow risk assessment schemata for enrollment. Breast density limits the sensitivity of film-screen mammography but is not thought to pose a limitation to MRI, however the utility of MRI surveillance has not been specifically examined before in women with dense breasts. Also, all MRI surveillance studies yet reported have used high strength magnets that may not be practical for dedicated imaging in many breast centers. Medium strength 0.5 Tesla MRI may provide an alternative economic option for surveillance. Methods We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized pilot study of 30 women age 25–49 years with dense breasts evaluating the addition of 0.5 Tesla MRI to conventional screening. All participants had a high quantitative breast cancer risk, defined as ≥ 3.5% over the next 5 years per the Gail or BRCAPRO models, and/or a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation. Results The average age at enrollment was 41.4 years and the average 5-year risk was 4.8%. Twenty-two subjects had BIRADS category 1 or 2 breast MRIs (negative or probably benign, whereas no category 4 or 5 MRIs (possibly or probably malignant were observed. Eight subjects had BIRADS 3 results, identifying lesions that were "probably benign", yet prompting further evaluation. One of these subjects was diagnosed with a stage T1aN0M0 invasive ductal carcinoma, and later determined to be a BRCA1 mutation carrier. Conclusion Using medium-strength MRI we were able to detect 1 early breast tumor that was mammographically undetectable among 30 young high-risk women with dense breasts. These results support the concept that breast MRI can enhance surveillance for young high

  17. New tools for cost-effective delivery of breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gerald R

    2002-01-01

    Breast imaging has a deserved reputation as a very difficult financial proposition for hospitals. Regulation, low reimbursement, costly new technologies and staff shortages all combine to create an operational environment that is difficult, at best. While it may not be possible for every hospital to make breast imaging profitable, it is the obligation of every hospital to make this and all service lines as cost-effective as possible. While the typical care episode in a hospital will include several different services or procedures, the breast-imaging patient is typically in the department or breast center for a single procedure. Consequently, all of the administrative and facility costs of the patient encounter must be borne by the reimbursement for the single procedure. Breast imaging involves relatively expensive technology and highly-trained, and costly, technologists in its delivery. The costs of these inputs are relatively fixed; therefore material improvement can only be realized through the redesign of process. Analysis of the process of care delivery is critical to any discussion of the economics of breast imaging. Breast imaging can basically be divided into two categories: screening mammography and diagnostic procedures. This is a very important distinction, because screening mammography requires only general supervision, while the balance of breast imaging requires the direct supervision of the physician. Decoupling the physician from the examination allows the organization of screening delivery programs in highly efficient, high-throughput systems. On the diagnostic side of breast imaging, the primary economic enhancement that can be realized is from the delivery of more than one procedure during the patient visit. Mammography has high fixed costs (technology and technologist) and, where high fixed costs are found, profitability is determined by process and volume. Where process can be optimized to a level that will allow a positive return for each

  18. Imaging Appearance and Clinical Impact of Preoperative Breast MRI in Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kelly S; Green, Lauren A; Lebron, Lizza; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the imaging features of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) on breast MRI and to consider the impact of preoperative MRI on patient management. A retrospective review of medical records from January 1994 to May 2014 identified 183 women who presented with a new diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy or within 1 year postpartum. MR images were available for 53 of these patients, all of whom were included in the study. Clinical history and available breast images were reviewed. The clinical impact of preoperative breast MRI was also recorded. Of the 53 women, nine (17%) presented during pregnancy and 44 (83%) presented during the first year postpartum. The sensitivity of MRI was 98% (52/53). Among the 53 patients, the most common findings of PABC on MRI included a solitary mass (29 patients [55%]), nonmass enhancement (12 patients [23%]), and multiple masses (eight patients [15%]). For 12 patients (23%), MRI showed a pathologically proven larger tumor size or greater extent of disease than did mammography or ultrasound, with an additional eight patients (15%) having findings suspicious for greater extent of disease but having unavailable pathologic data. Breast MRI changed surgical management for 15 patients (28%), with four patients (8%) requiring a larger lumpectomy, seven (13%) no longer being considered candidates for lumpectomy, two (4%) having contralateral disease, and two (4%) having unsuspected metastasis. Breast MRI had a high sensitivity for PABC in our study population. MRI may play an important role in PABC because it changed the surgical management of 28% of patients.

  19. Efficient iterative image reconstruction algorithm for dedicated breast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropova, Natalia; Sanchez, Adrian; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Boone, John; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-03-01

    Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) is currently being studied as a potential screening method for breast cancer. The X-ray exposure is set low to achieve an average glandular dose comparable to that of mammography, yielding projection data that contains high levels of noise. Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms may be well-suited for the system since they potentially reduce the effects of noise in the reconstructed images. However, IIR outcomes can be difficult to control since the algorithm parameters do not directly correspond to the image properties. Also, IIR algorithms are computationally demanding and have optimal parameter settings that depend on the size and shape of the breast and positioning of the patient. In this work, we design an efficient IIR algorithm with meaningful parameter specifications and that can be used on a large, diverse sample of bCT cases. The flexibility and efficiency of this method comes from having the final image produced by a linear combination of two separately reconstructed images - one containing gray level information and the other with enhanced high frequency components. Both of the images result from few iterations of separate IIR algorithms. The proposed algorithm depends on two parameters both of which have a well-defined impact on image quality. The algorithm is applied to numerous bCT cases from a dedicated bCT prototype system developed at University of California, Davis.

  20. Phase contrast imaging of breast tumours with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivo, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aolivo@medphys.ucl.ac.uk; Rigon, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Area Science Park, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: rigon@ts.infn.it; Vinnicombe, S.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Bartholomews Hospital, Barts and the London NHS Trust, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.j.vinnicombe@qmul.ac.uk; Cheung, K.C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.c.cheung@dl.ac.uk; Ibison, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.ibison@dl.ac.uk; Speller, R.D. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rspeller@medphys.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Even though the potential of phase contrast (PC) imaging has been demonstrated in a number of biological tissue samples, the availability of free-space propagation phase contrast images of real breast tumours is still limited. The aim of this study was to obtain phase contrast images of two different pathological breast specimens containing tumours of differing morphological type at two synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities, and to assess any qualitative improvements in the evaluation and characterisation of the masses through the use of phase contrast imaging. A second aim was to assess the effects of parameters such as detector resolution, beam energy and sample-to-detector distance on image quality using the same breast specimens, as to date these effects have been modelled and discussed only for geometric phantoms. At each synchrotron radiation facility a range of images was acquired with different detectors and by varying the above parameters. Images of the same samples were also acquired with the absorption-based approach to allow a direct comparison and estimation of the advantages specifically ascribable to the PC technique.

  1. 89Zr-bevacizumab PET imaging in primary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, Sietske B M; Brouwers, Adrienne H; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Pleijhuis, Rick G; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Pot, Linda; van Dam, Gooitzen M; van der Meulen, Sibylle B; de Jong, Johan R; Bart, Joost; de Vries, Jakob; Jansen, Liesbeth; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, J

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A is overexpressed in most malignant and premalignant breast lesions. VEGF-A can be visualized noninvasively with PET imaging and using the tracer (89)Zr-labeled bevacizumab. In this clinical feasibility study, we assessed whether VEGF-A in prima

  2. Imaging of Pelvic Bone Metastasis from Malignant Phyllodes Breast Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ba D.

    2015-01-01

    The author reports a patient with a malignant phyllodes breast tumor, who then had a ten-year disease free interval before she developed a left pelvic bone metastasis and soft tissue invasion. Cross-sectional and radionuclide imaging of its musculoskeletal metastasis is presented. Literature concerning bone metastasis from phyllodes tumor is also briefly reviewed and discussed, along with its epidemiology.

  3. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  4. WE-FG-207A-05: Dedicated Breast CT as a Diagnostic Imaging Tool: Physics and Clinical Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karellas, A

    2016-06-01

    Mammography-based screening has been a valuable imaging tool for the early detection of non-palpable lesions and has contributed to significant reduction in breast cancer associated mortality. However, the breast imaging community recognizes that mammography is not ideal, and in particular is inferior for women with dense breasts. Also, the 2-D projection of a 3-D organ results in tissue superposition contributing to false-positives. The sensitivity of mammography is breast-density dependent. Its sensitivity, especially in dense breasts, is low due to overlapping tissue and the fact that normal breast tissue, benign lesions and breast cancers all have similar "densities", making lesion detection more difficult. We ideally need 3-D imaging for imaging the 3-D breast. MRI is 3-D, whole breast ultrasound is 3-D, digital breast tomosynthesis is called 3-D but is really "pseudo 3-D" due to poor resolution along the depth-direction. Also, and importantly, we need to be able to administer intravenous contrast agents for optimal imaging, similar to other organ systems in the body. Dedicated breast CT allows for 3-D imaging of the uncompressed breast. In current designs, the patient is positioned prone on the table and the breast is pendant through an aperture and the scan takes approximately 10 seconds [O'Connell et al., AJR 195: 496-509, 2010]. Almost on the heels of the invention of CT itself, work began on the development of dedicated breast CT. These early breast CT systems were used in clinical trials and the results from comparative performance evaluation of breast CT and mammography for 1625 subjects were reported in 1980 [Chang et al., Cancer 46: 939-46, 1980]. However, the technological limitations at that time stymied clinical translation for decades. Subsequent to the landmark article in 2001 [Boone et al., Radiology 221: 657-67, 2001] that demonstrated the potential feasibility in terms of radiation dose, multiple research groups are actively investigating

  5. Carbon nanotube electron field emitters for X-ray imaging of human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gidcumb, Emily; Gao, Bo; Shan, Jing; Inscoe, Christy; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2014-01-01

    For imaging human breast cancer, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve image quality and breast cancer detection in comparison to 2D mammography. Current DBT systems have limited spatial resolution and lengthy scan times. Stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT), utilizing an array of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission X-ray sources, provides increased spatial resolution and potentially faster imaging than current DBT systems. This study presents...

  6. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  7. Nonrigid registration algorithm for longitudinal breast MR images and the preliminary analysis of breast tumor response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Dawant, Benoit M.; Welch, E. Brian; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Freehardt, Darla; Mayer, Ingrid; Kelley, Mark; Meszoely, Ingrid; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2009-02-01

    Although useful for the detection of breast cancers, conventional imaging methods, including mammography and ultrasonography, do not provide adequate information regarding response to therapy. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has emerged as a promising technique to provide relevant information on tumor status. Consequently, accurate longitudinal registration of breast MR images is critical for the comparison of changes induced by treatment at the voxel level. In this study, a nonrigid registration algorithm is proposed to allow for longitudinal registration of breast MR images obtained throughout the course of treatment. We accomplish this by modifying the adaptive bases algorithm (ABA) through adding a tumor volume preserving constraint in the cost function. The registration results demonstrate the proposed algorithm can successfully register the longitudinal breast MR images and permit analysis of the parameter maps. We also propose a novel validation method to evaluate the proposed registration algorithm quantitatively. These validations also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm constrains tumor deformation well and performs better than the unconstrained ABA algorithm.

  8. Performance Benchmarks for Screening Breast MR Imaging in Community Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janie M; Ichikawa, Laura; Valencia, Elizabeth; Miglioretti, Diana L; Wernli, Karen; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Henderson, Louise M; Sprague, Brian L; Onega, Tracy; Rauscher, Garth H; Lehman, Constance D

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To compare screening magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performance in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) benchmarks. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA and included BCSC screening MR examinations collected between 2005 and 2013 from 5343 women (8387 MR examinations) linked to regional Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program registries, state tumor registries, and pathologic information databases that identified breast cancer cases and tumor characteristics. Clinical, demographic, and imaging characteristics were assessed. Performance measures were calculated according to BI-RADS fifth edition and included cancer detection rate (CDR), positive predictive value of biopsy recommendation (PPV2), sensitivity, and specificity. Results The median patient age was 52 years; 52% of MR examinations were performed in women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, 46% in women with a personal history of breast cancer, and 15% in women with both risk factors. Screening MR imaging depicted 146 cancers, and 35 interval cancers were identified (181 total-54 in situ, 125 invasive, and two status unknown). The CDR was 17 per 1000 screening examinations (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15, 20 per 1000 screening examinations; BI-RADS benchmark, 20-30 per 1000 screening examinations). PPV2 was 19% (95% CI: 16%, 22%; benchmark, 15%). Sensitivity was 81% (95% CI: 75%, 86%; benchmark, >80%), and specificity was 83% (95% CI: 82%, 84%; benchmark, 85%-90%). The median tumor size of invasive cancers was 10 mm; 88% were node negative. Conclusion The interpretative performance of screening MR imaging in the BCSC meets most BI-RADS benchmarks and approaches benchmark levels for remaining measures. Clinical practice performance data can inform ongoing benchmark development and help identify areas for quality improvement. (©) RSNA

  9. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Bae (Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)), Email: med20@hanmail.net; Shu, Kwang Sun (Department of Pathology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of))

    2012-02-15

    Background Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported. Purpose To investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. Material and Methods We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were recorded retrospectively using the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Immunohistochemical studies of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and C-erbB-2 were performed. Results The most common mammographic findings were oval shape (37%), circumscribed margin (59%), and high density (74%). The most common sonogfindings were irregular shape (59.4%), microlobulated margin (41%), complex echogenicity (81%), parallel orientation (97%), and posterior acoustic enhancement (50%). Axillary lymph node metastases were noted for 25% of the sonographic examinations. On MRI, the most common findings of margin and shape were irregularity (57% and 52.4%, respectively). High signal intensity was the most common finding on T2-weighted images (57%). Immunohistochemical profile was negative for ER (91%, 29/32) and PR (81%, 26/32). Conclusion Metaplastic carcinomas might display more benign features and less axillary lymph node metastasis than IDC. High signal intensity on T2 MRI images and hormone receptor negativity would be helpful in differentiating this tumor from other breast cancers

  10. Opto-acoustic image fusion technology for diagnostic breast imaging in a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Ulissey, Michael; Stavros, A. T.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Lavin, Philip; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. C.; Otto, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    Functional opto-acoustic (OA) imaging was fused with gray-scale ultrasound acquired using a specialized duplex handheld probe. Feasibility Study findings indicated the potential to more accurately characterize breast masses for cancer than conventional diagnostic ultrasound (CDU). The Feasibility Study included OA imagery of 74 breast masses that were collected using the investigational Imagio® breast imaging system. Superior specificity and equal sensitivity to CDU was demonstrated, suggesting that OA fusion imaging may potentially obviate the need for negative biopsies without missing cancers in a certain percentage of breast masses. Preliminary results from a 100 subject Pilot Study are also discussed. A larger Pivotal Study (n=2,097 subjects) is underway to confirm the Feasibility Study and Pilot Study findings.

  11. An infrared image based methodology for breast lesions screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, K. C. C.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Reisemberger, G. G.; Freitas, F. N. P.; Oliari, S. H.; Brioschi, M. L.; Louveira, M. H.; Spautz, C.; Dias, F. G.; Gasperin, P.; Budel, V. M.; Cordeiro, R. A. G.; Schittini, A. P. P.; Neto, C. D.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of utilizing a structured methodology for breast lesions screening, based on infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges, and of breast cancer patients, previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. An analysis of the systematic error of the infrared camera skin temperature measurements was conducted in several different regions of the body, by direct comparison to high precision thermistor temperature measurements, showing that infrared camera temperatures are consistently around 2 °C above the thermistor temperatures. Therefore, a method of conjugated gradients is proposed to eliminate the infrared camera direct temperature measurement imprecision, by calculating the temperature difference between two points to cancel out the error. The method takes into account the human body approximate bilateral symmetry, and compares measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ bar) between two symmetric regions of the patient's breast, that takes into account the breast region, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures, and doing so, the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and non subjective. The range of normal whole breast average dimensionless temperature differences for 101 healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the breasts temperatures exhibit a unimodal normal distribution, the healthy normal range for each region was considered to be the dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements, Δ θ bar ‾ + 2σ Δ θ bar ‾ , in order to represent 95% of the population. Forty-seven patients with previously diagnosed breast cancer through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting breast abnormalities in 45 cases (96%). Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective

  12. Mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun He; Guohui Xu; Jin Ren; Bin Feng; Xiaolei Dong; Hao Lu; Changjiu He

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the application of mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Methods Mammography and DCE-MRI were performed for 120 patients with breast cancer (malignant, 102; benign; 18). Results The sensitivity of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 66.67%, specificity was 77.78%, and accuracy was 68.33%. The sensitivity of MRI for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 94.12%, specificity was 88.89%, and accuracy was 93.33%. However, the sensitivity of mammography combined with DCE-MRI volume imaging with enhanced water signal (VIEWS) scanning for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 97.06%, specificity was 94.44%, and accuracy was 96.67%. Conclusion Mammography combined with DCE-MRI increased the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing early breast cancer.

  13. Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging for breast cancer analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, Alex

    2017-02-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its biological composition, both structural and functional. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. However, determination of the Mueller matrix requires tissue analysis under many different states of polarized light; a time consuming and measurement intensive process. Here we address this limitation with a new rapid polarimetry system, and use this polarimetry platform to investigate a variety of tissue changes associated with breast cancer. We have recently developed a rapid polarimetry imaging platform based on four photoelastic modulators (PEMs). The PEMs generate fast polarization modulations that allow the complete sample Mueller matrix to be imaged over a large field of view, with no moving parts. This polarimetry system is then demonstrated to be sensitive to a variety of tissue changes that are relevant to breast cancer. Specifically, we show that changes in depolarization can reveal tumor margins, and can differentiate between viable and necrotic breast cancer metastasized to the lymph nodes. Furthermore, the polarimetric property of linear retardance (related to birefringence) is dependent on collagen organization in the extracellular matrix. These findings indicate that our polarimetry platform may have future applications in fields such as breast cancer diagnosis, improving the speed and efficacy of intraoperative pathology, and providing prognostic information that may be beneficial for guiding treatment.

  14. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  15. Towards breast tomography with synchrotron radiation at Elettra: first images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, R; Arfelli, F; Bellazzini, R; Bottigli, U; Brez, A; Brun, F; Brunetti, A; Delogu, P; Di Lillo, F; Dreossi, D; Fanti, V; Fedon, C; Golosio, B; Lanconelli, N; Mettivier, G; Minuti, M; Oliva, P; Pinchera, M; Rigon, L; Russo, P; Sarno, A; Spandre, G; Tromba, G; Zanconati, F

    2016-02-21

    The aim of the SYRMA-CT collaboration is to set-up the first clinical trial of phase-contrast breast CT with synchrotron radiation (SR). In order to combine high image quality and low delivered dose a number of innovative elements are merged: a CdTe single photon counting detector, state-of-the-art CT reconstruction and phase retrieval algorithms. To facilitate an accurate exam optimization, a Monte Carlo model was developed for dose calculation using GEANT4. In this study, high isotropic spatial resolution (120 μm)(3) CT scans of objects with dimensions and attenuation similar to a human breast were acquired, delivering mean glandular doses in the range of those delivered in clinical breast CT (5-25 mGy). Due to the spatial coherence of the SR beam and the long distance between sample and detector, the images contain, not only absorption, but also phase information from the samples. The application of a phase-retrieval procedure increases the contrast-to-noise ratio of the tomographic images, while the contrast remains almost constant. After applying the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique to low-dose phase-retrieved data sets (about 5 mGy) with a reduced number of projections, the spatial resolution was found to be equal to filtered back projection utilizing a four fold higher dose, while the contrast-to-noise ratio was reduced by 30%. These first results indicate the feasibility of clinical breast CT with SR.

  16. Broadband near-infrared tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia

    Near-infrared (NIR) light provides potential for a new approach to non-invasive detection, diagnosis and clinical management of breast cancer. Using NIR spectroscopic imaging techniques, the physiological information about breast tissue composition can be quantitatively estimated, including hemoglobin, water and lipid concentrations, together with scattering properties. In this thesis work, strategies to improve the accuracy of NIR imaging have been explored experimentally and numerically. A novel Ti:Sapphire laser-based frequency domain tomography system was developed to achieve maximum spectral information, using intrinsic phase-locked detection of the signal propagation. The improvement in quantification through addition of more wavelengths was demonstrated in simulations and in tissue-phantom experiments. A hybrid NIR tomography system combining frequency domain and continuous wave spectroscopy approaches was implemented for imaging healthy subjects and women with malignant breast tumors. Adding measurements at wavelengths above 850nm with the continuous wave method significantly improved the accuracy of water and lipid estimation. When used in cancer imaging in vivo, the NIR contrast information is consistent with physiological and pathological values expected in tumor as seen by investigational studies with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and pathology analysis.

  17. Automated analysis of image mammogram for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah, Sampurno, Joko; Faryuni, Irfana Diah; Ivansyah, Okto

    2016-03-01

    Medical imaging help doctors in diagnosing and detecting diseases that attack the inside of the body without surgery. Mammogram image is a medical image of the inner breast imaging. Diagnosis of breast cancer needs to be done in detail and as soon as possible for determination of next medical treatment. The aim of this work is to increase the objectivity of clinical diagnostic by using fractal analysis. This study applies fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis to determine the density of normal and abnormal and applying the segmentation technique based on K-Means clustering algorithm to image abnormal for determine the boundary of the organ and calculate the area of organ segmentation results. The results show fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis can be used to distinguish between the normal and abnormal breast and segmentation techniques with K-Means Clustering algorithm is able to generate the boundaries of normal and abnormal tissue organs, so area of the abnormal tissue can be determined.

  18. A Multi-View Dense Image Matching Method for High-Resolution Aerial Imagery Based on a Graph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-view dense matching is a crucial process in automatic 3D reconstruction and mapping applications. In this paper, we present a robust and effective multi-view dense matching algorithm for high-resolution aerial images based on a graph network. The overlap ratio and intersection angle between image pairs are used to find candidate stereo pairs and build the graph network. A Coarse-to-Fine strategy based on an improved Semi-Global Matching algorithm is applied for disparity computation across stereo pairs. Based on the constructed graph, point clouds of base views are generated by triangulating all connected image nodes, followed by a fusion process with the average reprojection error as a priority measure. The proposed method was successfully applied in experiments on aerial image test dataset provided by the ISPRS of Vaihingen, Germany and an oblique nadir image block of Zürich, Switzerland, using three kinds of matching configurations. The proposed method was compared to other state-of-art methods, SURE and PhotoScan. The results demonstrate that the proposed method delivers matches at higher completeness, efficiency, and accuracy than the other methods tested; the RMS for average reprojection error reached the sub pixel level and the actual positioning deviation was better than 1.5 GSD.

  19. Breast mass detection in tomosynthesis projection images using information-theoretic similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swatee; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to study Computer Aided Detection (CADe) of breast masses for digital tomosynthesis. It is believed that tomosynthesis will show improvement over conventional mammography in detection and characterization of breast masses by removing overlapping dense fibroglandular tissue. This study used the 60 human subject cases collected as part of on-going clinical trials at Duke University. Raw projections images were used to identify suspicious regions in the algorithm's high-sensitivity, low-specificity stage using a Difference of Gaussian (DoG) filter. The filtered images were thresholded to yield initial CADe hits that were then shifted and added to yield a 3D distribution of suspicious regions. These were further summed in the depth direction to yield a flattened probability map of suspicious hits for ease of scoring. To reduce false positives, we developed an algorithm based on information theory where similarity metrics were calculated using knowledge databases consisting of tomosynthesis regions of interest (ROIs) obtained from projection images. We evaluated 5 similarity metrics to test the false positive reduction performance of our algorithm, specifically joint entropy, mutual information, Jensen difference divergence, symmetric Kullback-Liebler divergence, and conditional entropy. The best performance was achieved using the joint entropy similarity metric, resulting in ROC A z of 0.87 +/- 0.01. As a whole, the CADe system can detect breast masses in this data set with 79% sensitivity and 6.8 false positives per scan. In comparison, the original radiologists performed with only 65% sensitivity when using mammography alone, and 91% sensitivity when using tomosynthesis alone.

  20. Lesion detectability in stereoscopically viewed digital breast tomosynthesis projection images: a model observer study with anthropomorphic computational breast phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Jacob; Wen, Gezheng; Lo, Joseph Y.; Markey, Mia K.

    2017-03-01

    Stereoscopic views of 3D breast imaging data may better reveal the 3D structures of breasts, and potentially improve the detection of breast lesions. The imaging geometry of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) lends itself naturally to stereo viewing because a stereo pair can be easily formed by two projection images with a reasonable separation angle for perceiving depth. This simulation study attempts to mimic breast lesion detection on stereo viewing of a sequence of stereo pairs of DBT projection images. 3D anthropomorphic computational breast phantoms were scanned by a simulated DBT system, and spherical signals were inserted into different breast regions to imitate the presence of breast lesions. The regions of interest (ROI) had different local anatomical structures and consequently different background statistics. The projection images were combined into a sequence of stereo pairs, and then presented to a stereo matching model observer for determining lesion presence. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was used as the figure of merit in evaluation, and the SNR from the stack of reconstructed slices was considered as the benchmark. We have shown that: 1) incorporating local anatomical backgrounds may improve lesion detectability relative to ignoring location-dependent image characteristics. The SNR was lower for the ROIs with the higher local power-law-noise coefficient β. 2) Lesion detectability may be inferior on stereo viewing of projection images relative to conventional viewing of reconstructed slices, but further studies are needed to confirm this observation.

  1. Breast image feature learning with adaptive deconvolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Andrew R.; Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2012-03-01

    Feature extraction is a critical component of medical image analysis. Many computer-aided diagnosis approaches employ hand-designed, heuristic lesion extracted features. An alternative approach is to learn features directly from images. In this preliminary study, we explored the use of Adaptive Deconvolutional Networks (ADN) for learning high-level features in diagnostic breast mass lesion images with potential application to computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) and content-based image retrieval (CBIR). ADNs (Zeiler, et. al., 2011), are recently-proposed unsupervised, generative hierarchical models that decompose images via convolution sparse coding and max pooling. We trained the ADNs to learn multiple layers of representation for two breast image data sets on two different modalities (739 full field digital mammography (FFDM) and 2393 ultrasound images). Feature map calculations were accelerated by use of GPUs. Following Zeiler et. al., we applied the Spatial Pyramid Matching (SPM) kernel (Lazebnik, et. al., 2006) on the inferred feature maps and combined this with a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier for the task of binary classification between cancer and non-cancer breast mass lesions. Non-linear, local structure preserving dimension reduction, Elastic Embedding (Carreira-Perpiñán, 2010), was then used to visualize the SPM kernel output in 2D and qualitatively inspect image relationships learned. Performance was found to be competitive with current CADx schemes that use human-designed features, e.g., achieving a 0.632+ bootstrap AUC (by case) of 0.83 [0.78, 0.89] for an ultrasound image set (1125 cases).

  2. CT guided diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as blood, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer detection. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at wavelengths of 650 and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements, the width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an EMCCD camera with air cooling is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we report our effort and progress on the integration of the multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  3. The need for supplemental breast cancer screening modalities: a perspective of population-based breast cancer screening programs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses possible supplemental breast cancer screening modalities for younger women with dense breasts from a perspective of population-based breast cancer screening program in Japan. Supplemental breast cancer screening modalities have been proposed to increase the sensitivity and detection rates of early stage breast cancer in women with dense breasts; however, there are no global guidelines that recommend the use of supplemental breast cancer screening modalities in such women. Also, no criterion standard exists for breast density assessment. Based on the current situation of breast imaging in Japan, the possible supplemental breast cancer screening modalities are ultrasonography, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging. An appropriate population-based breast cancer screening program based on the balance between cost and benefit should be a high priority. Further research based on evidence-based medicine is encouraged. It is very important that the ethnicity, workforce, workflow, and resources for breast cancer screening in each country should be considered when considering supplemental breast cancer screening modalities for women with dense breasts.

  4. Molecular breast imaging. An update; Molekulare Brustbildgebung. Ein Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K.; Helbich, T.H.; Magometschnigg, H.; Baltzer, P. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Molekulare Bildgebung, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Fueger, B. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Molekulare Bildgebung, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    The aim of molecular imaging is to visualize and quantify biological, physiological and pathological processes at cellular and molecular levels. Molecular imaging using various techniques has recently become established in breast imaging. Currently molecular imaging techniques comprise multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRSI), nuclear imaging by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission mammography (PEM) and combinations of techniques (e.g. PET-CT and multiparametric PET-MRI). Recently, novel techniques for molecular imaging of breast tumors, such as sodium imaging ({sup 23}Na-MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRSI) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as specific radiotracers have been developed and are currently under investigation. It can be expected that molecular imaging of breast tumors will enable a simultaneous assessment of the multiple metabolic and molecular processes involved in cancer development and thus an improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring of response to treatment will become possible. (orig.) [German] Die molekulare Bildgebung zielt auf die Darstellung, Beschreibung und Quantifizierung biologischer, physiologischer und pathologischer Prozesse auf zellulaerer und molekularer Ebene ab. In den letzten Jahren hat sich die molekulare Bildgebung mit ihren verschiedenen Modalitaeten in der Brustdiagnostik etabliert. Die molekularen Brustbildgebung umfasst derzeit die multiparametrische(MP)-MRT mit funktioneller und morphologischer kontrastmittelverstaerkter MRT (KM-MRT), molekularer diffusionsgewichteter Bildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI) und metabolischer Protonenspektroskopie ({sup 1}H-MRSI) sowie nuklearmedizinische Verfahren (brustspezifische Gammakamerabildgebung [BSGI], Positronenemissionstomographie [PET], PET

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of trilucent TM breast implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, Elspeth M.; Jones, Annette; King, Rebecca; Chapman, P.; Stanek, Jan; Irvine, Allan T.; Bingham, John B

    2002-04-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of intact and ruptured Trilucent TM implants with imaging and surgical correlation. The appearances of the implant transponder artefact are also described MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the MRI findings in 34 patients with bilateral subpectoral Trilucent TM breast implants (Lipomatrix, Inc./Collagen Aesthetics International Inc., Neuchatel, Switzerland) was performed. Patients under implant surveillance and those with suspected implant rupture formed the study group. Imaging findings were correlated with surgical appearances. RESULTS: Surgical correlation was available in 53% of patients. Fifty per cent (18/36) of implants were intact at surgery, 50% (18/36) of implants were ruptured. Of the 18 ruptured implants, 17 were intracapsular ruptures and one an extracapsular rupture. The sensitivity of MRI for detection of intracapsular rupture in Trilucent TM breast implants was 82% specificity 76%, positive predictive value 78%, negative predictive value 81% and accuracy 79% in this study group. No case of implant rupture was obscured by the transponder artefact. Four implants were found to have 'pseudocapsules' at surgery (5{center_dot}9%), the implants were intact with fluid present between the implant and capsule. Only one pseudocapsule was demonstrated on MRI. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most accurate technique for diagnosis of implant rupture in Trilucent TM breast implants. Transponder artefact does not appear to interfere with the assessment of implant rupture. Elson, E. M. et al. (2002)

  6. Spatial frequency domain imaging for monitoring palpable breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Constance M.; Antaki, James F.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.

    2017-02-01

    We describe a novel approach for monitoring breast lesions, utilizing spatial frequency domain imaging, a diffuse optical imaging method to detect hemoglobin contrast, in combination with mechanical compression of the tissue. The project is motivated by the growing rate of unnecessary breast biopsies, caused by uncertainty in X-ray mammographic diagnoses. We believe there is a need for an alternate means of tracking the progression palpable lesions exhibiting probably benign features, that can be performed non-invasively and hence frequently: at home or in the clinic. The proposed approach capitalizes on two distinguishing properties of cancerous lesions, namely the relative stiffness with respect to surrounding tissue and the optical absorption due to the greater vascularization, hence hemoglobin concentration. The current research project is a pilot study to evaluate the principle on soft, breast tissue-mimicking phantoms containing stiffer, more highly absorbing inclusions. Spatial frequency domain imaging was performed by projecting onto the phantom a series of wide-field patterns at multiple spatial frequencies. Image analysis then was performed to map absorption and scattering properties. The results of the study demonstrate that compression significantly increases the optical contrast observed for inclusions located 10 and 15 mm beneath the surface. In the latter case, the inclusion was not detectable without compression.

  7. Breast cancer margin delineation with fluorescence lifetime imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jennifer E.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Darrow, Morgan; Unger, Jakob; Bold, Richard; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    The current standard of care for early stages of breast cancer is breast-conserving surgery (BCS). BCS involves a lumpectomy procedure, during which the tumor is removed with a rim of normal tissue-if cancer cells found in that rim of tissue, it is called a positive margin and means part of the tumor remains in the breast. Currently there is no method to determine if cancer cells exist at the margins of lumpectomy specimens aside from time-intensive histology methods that result in reoperations in up to 38% of cases. We used fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) to measure time-resolved autofluorescence from N=13 ex vivo human breast cancer specimens (N=10 patients undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy) and compared our results to histology. Tumor (both invasive and ductal carcinoma in situ), fibrous tissue, fat and fat necrosis have unique fluorescence signatures. For instance, between 500-580 nm, fluorescence lifetime of tumor was shortest (4.7 +/- 0.4 ns) compared to fibrous tissue (5.5 +/- 0.7 ns) and fat (7.0 +/- 0.1 ns), P<0.05 (ANOVA). These differences are due to the biochemical properties of lipid, nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and collagen fibers in the fat, tumor and fibrous tissue, respectively. Additionally, the FLIm data is augmented to video of the breast tissue with image processing algorithms that track a blue (450 nm) aiming beam used in parallel with the 355 nm excitation beam. This allows for accurate histologic co-registration and in the future will allow for three-dimensional lumpectomy surfaces to be imaged for cancer margin delineation.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S. [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Martin, P. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI Study of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Ashok

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and most serious form of neoplastic diseases in both developed and developing countries. Mammography and ultrasound are the most often used screening methods in breast cancer. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI uses the protons in water and fat to create the image of breast cancer. But recent studies says neoplastic breast lesions contains elevated choline concentration (tCho and altered mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC which can be used as good biomarkers to evaluate the cancer stages even follow up the Neoadjuvent Chemotherapy (NACT.Aim & Objectives:1. To evaluate the relation of age, tCho concentration and mean ADC with breast cancer.2. To estimate the correlation between the factors.3. To calculate the main difference between breast cancer patient before and after menopause.Methods/Study Design: This was a cross sectional, observational study done on 14 randomly selected diagnosed stage I breast cancer patients newly registered in surgery department of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India during 3 months study period. Intentionally 7 of them were selected to be postmenopausal and rest 7 premenopausal. Patients with claustrophobia, serious illness, pacemaker or associated diseases were excluded. Volunteers were selected by lottery method after confirmation of absence of the exclusion criteria in them. All the breast MRS images were taken only after signing the consent form of being a volunteer for the study with breast coil. All the spectroscopic images were analyzed with computer technologies and SPPS software with the help of non-parametric statistical tests.Results/Findings: Mean age of patients were 44.85±6.97 where in premenopausal and postmenopausal women it was 40.14±4.59 and 49.57±5.26 respectively. tCho concentration was high in postmenopausal women (4.85±2.64 mmol/kg vs 3.72±1.64 where unlike to them premenopausal women

  10. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  11. Imaging approaches and findings in the reconstructed breast: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaranelo, Anabel M; Lord, Bridgette; Eiada, Riham; Hofer, Stefan O

    2011-02-01

    Advances in breast imaging over the last 15 years have improved early breast cancer detection and management. After treatment for breast cancer, many women choose to have reconstructive surgery. In addition, with the availability of widespread genetic screening for breast cancer, an increasing number of women are choosing prophylactic mastectomies and subsequent breast reconstruction. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to present the spectrum of imaging findings in the reconstructed breast. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging Surveillance of Patients with Breast Cancer after Primary Treatment: Current Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Women who have been treated for breast cancer are at risk for second breast cancers, such as ipsilateral recurrence or contralateral metachronous breast cancer. As the number of breast cancer survivors increases, interest in patient management and surveillance after treatment has also increased. However, post-treatment surveillance programs for patients with breast cancer have not been firmly established. In this review, we focus on the imaging modalities that have been used in post-treatment surveillance for patients with breast cancer, such as mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, the effectiveness of each modality for detecting recurrence, and how they can be applied to manage patients.

  13. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M; Piras, D; Brinkhuis, M; van Hespen, J C G; van den Engh, F M; van der Schaaf, M; Klaase, J M; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W; Manohar, S

    2015-07-10

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  14. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  15. Digital Mammography Imaging: Breast Tomosynthesis and Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvie, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This article discusses recent developments in advanced derivative technologies associated with digital mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis – its principles, development, and early clinical trials are reviewed. Contrast enhanced digital mammography and combined imaging systems with digital mammography and ultrasound are also discussed. Although all these methods are currently research programs, they hold promise for improving cancer detection and characterization if early results are confirmed by clinical trials. PMID:20868894

  16. A NEW APPROACH FOR PROGRESSIVE DENSE RECONSTRUCTION FROM CONSECUTIVE IMAGES BASED ON PRIOR LOW-DENSITY 3D POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing incidence of climate-related disasters has tremendously affected our environment. In order to effectively manage and reduce dramatic impacts of such events, the development of timely disaster management plans is essential. Since these disasters are spatial phenomena, timely provision of geospatial information is crucial for effective development of response and management plans. Due to inaccessibility of the affected areas and limited budget of first-responders, timely acquisition of the required geospatial data for these applications is usually possible only using low-cost imaging and georefencing sensors mounted on unmanned platforms. Despite rapid collection of the required data using these systems, available processing techniques are not yet capable of delivering geospatial information to responders and decision makers in a timely manner. To address this issue, this paper introduces a new technique for dense 3D reconstruction of the affected scenes which can deliver and improve the needed geospatial information incrementally. This approach is implemented based on prior 3D knowledge of the scene and employs computationally-efficient 2D triangulation, feature descriptor, feature matching and point verification techniques to optimize and speed up 3D dense scene reconstruction procedure. To verify the feasibility and computational efficiency of the proposed approach, an experiment using a set of consecutive images collected onboard a UAV platform and prior low-density airborne laser scanning over the same area is conducted and step by step results are provided. A comparative analysis of the proposed approach and an available image-based dense reconstruction technique is also conducted to prove the computational efficiency and competency of this technique for delivering geospatial information with pre-specified accuracy.

  17. Light-field camera-based 3D volumetric particle image velocimetry with dense ray tracing reconstruction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengxian; Ding, Junfei; New, T. H.; Soria, Julio

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a dense ray tracing reconstruction technique for a single light-field camera-based particle image velocimetry. The new approach pre-determines the location of a particle through inverse dense ray tracing and reconstructs the voxel value using multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART). Simulation studies were undertaken to identify the effects of iteration number, relaxation factor, particle density, voxel-pixel ratio and the effect of the velocity gradient on the performance of the proposed dense ray tracing-based MART method (DRT-MART). The results demonstrate that the DRT-MART method achieves higher reconstruction resolution at significantly better computational efficiency than the MART method (4-50 times faster). Both DRT-MART and MART approaches were applied to measure the velocity field of a low speed jet flow which revealed that for the same computational cost, the DRT-MART method accurately resolves the jet velocity field with improved precision, especially for the velocity component along the depth direction.

  18. The Ongoing Revolution in Breast Imaging Calls for a Similar Revolution in Breast Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabár, L.; Dean, P. B.; Lindhe, N.; Ingvarsson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Communication between pathologists and radiologists suffers from a lack of common ground: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D) images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings. PMID:23056950

  19. The Ongoing Revolution in Breast Imaging Calls for a Similar Revolution in Breast Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tabár

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication between pathologists and radiologists suffers from a lack of common ground: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings.

  20. The ongoing revolution in breast imaging calls for a similar revolution in breast pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabár, L; Dean, P B; Lindhe, N; Ingvarsson, M

    2012-01-01

    COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PATHOLOGISTS AND RADIOLOGISTS SUFFERS FROM A LACK OF COMMON GROUND: the pathologists examine cells in ultrathin tissue slices having the area of a postage stamp, while the radiologists examine images of an entire organ, but without seeing the cellular details. The current practice of examining breast cancer specimens is analogous to scrutinizing individual pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, without examining all of them and never putting all the pieces into place. The routine use of large section histopathology technique could help to alleviate much of this problem, especially with nonpalpable, screen-detected breast cancers. The study of three-dimensional (3D) images of subgross, thick section pathology specimens by both radiologists and pathologists could greatly assist in the communication of findings.

  1. Dual energy subtraction method for breast calcification imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukou, Vaia; Martini, Niki; Fountos, George; Michail, Christos; Sotiropoulou, Panagiota; Bakas, Athanasios; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Speller, Robert; Nikiforidis, George

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to present an experimental dual energy (DE) method for the visualization of microcalcifications (μCs). A modified radiographic X-ray tube combined with a high resolution complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) X-ray detector was used. A 40/70 kV spectral combination was filtered with 100 μm cadmium (Cd) and 1000 μm copper (Cu) for the low/high-energy combination. Homogenous and inhomogeneous breast phantoms and two calcification phantoms were constructed with various calcification thicknesses, ranging from 16 to 152 μm . Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated from the DE subtracted images for various entrance surface doses. A calcification thickness of 152 μm was visible, with mean glandular doses (MGD) in the acceptable levels (below 3 mGy). Additional post-processing on the DE images of the inhomogeneous breast phantom resulted in a minimum visible calcification thickness of 93 μm (MGD=1.62 mGy). The proposed DE method could potentially improve calcification visibility in DE breast calcification imaging.

  2. Ultrasound - Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Breast Ultrasound imaging of the breast uses sound waves ... the Breast? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  3. Dense with Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Ingkanisorn, W. Patricia; Mancini, Christine; Arai, Andrew E.

    2005-09-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) with a low encoding strength phase-cycled meta-DENSE readout and a two fold SENSE acceleration ( R = 2) is described. This combination reduces total breath-hold times for increased patient comfort during cardiac regional myocardial contractility studies. Images from phantoms, normal volunteers, and a patient are provided to demonstrate the SENSE-DENSE combination of methods. The overall breath-hold time is halved while preserving strain map quality.

  4. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha T Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer.

  5. Combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Larobina, Michele [Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Tommaso De Amicis, 95, Naples I-80145 (Italy); Di Lillo, Francesca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Del Vecchio, Silvana [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Via Pansini, 5, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.

  6. Breast Imaging Utilizing Dedicated Gamma Camera and (99m)Tc-MIBI: Experience at the Tel Aviv Medical Center and Review of the Literature Breast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Sapir, Einat; Golan, Orit; Menes, Tehillah; Weinstein, Yuliana; Lerman, Hedva

    2016-07-01

    The scope of the current article is the clinical role of gamma cameras dedicated for breast imaging and (99m)Tc-MIBI tumor-seeking tracer, as both a screening modality among a healthy population and as a diagnostic modality in patients with breast cancer. Such cameras are now commercially available. The technology utilizing a camera composed of a NaI (Tl) detector is termed breast-specific gamma imaging. The technology of dual-headed camera composed of semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride detectors that directly converts gamma-ray energy into electronic signals is termed molecular breast imaging. Molecular breast imaging system has been installed at the Department of Nuclear medicine at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv in 2009. The article reviews the literature well as our own experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound imaging of breast tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Umphrey, Heidi; Lockhart, Mark; Robbin, Michelle; Forero-Torres, Andres

    2015-09-01

    A novel image processing strategy is detailed for simultaneous measurement of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology parameters from a sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) images. After normalization and tumor segmentation, a global time-intensity curve describing contrast agent flow was analyzed to derive surrogate measures of tumor perfusion (i.e., peak intensity, time-to-peak intensity, area under the curve, wash-in rate, wash-out rate). A maximum intensity image was generated from these same segmented image sequences, and each vascular component was skeletonized via a thinning algorithm. This skeletonized data set and collection of vessel segments were then investigated to extract parameters related to the neovascular network and physical architecture (i.e., vessel-to-tissue ratio, number of bifurcations, vessel count, average vessel length and tortuosity). An efficient computation of local perfusion parameters was also introduced and operated by averaging time-intensity curve data over each individual neovascular segment. Each skeletonized neovascular segment was then color-coded by these local measures to produce a parametric map detailing spatial properties of tumor perfusion. Longitudinal DCE-US image data sets were collected in six patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system equipped with a L9-3 transducer and Definity contrast agent. Patients were imaged using US before and after contrast agent dosing at baseline and again at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24 after treatment started. Preliminary clinical results suggested that breast tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be associated with temporal and spatial changes in DCE-US-derived parametric measures of tumor perfusion. Moreover, changes in neovascular morphology parametric measures may also help identify any breast tumor response (or lack thereof) to systemic treatment. Breast cancer management from early detection to therapeutic

  8. Fluorescence goggle for intraoperative breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Bauer, Adam Q.; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Charanya, Tauseef; Mondal, Suman; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a fluorescence goggle device for intraoperative oncologic imaging. With our system design, the surgeon can directly visualize the fluorescence information from the eyepieces in real time without any additional monitor, which can improve one's coordination and surgical accuracy. In conjunction with targeting fluorescent dyes, the goggle device can successfully detect tumor margins and small nodules that are not obvious to naked eye. This can potentially decrease the incidence of incomplete resection.

  9. Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; Wu, Yuhao; Gauch, John; Campbell, Lucas K.; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the application of terahertz imaging to three-dimensional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tumors. The results demonstrate the capability of terahertz for in-depth scanning to produce cross section images without the need to slice the tumor. Samples of tumors excised from women diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma are investigated using a pulsed terahertz time domain imaging system. A time of flight estimation is used to obtain vertical and horizontal cross section images of tumor tissues embedded in paraffin block. Strong agreement is shown comparing the terahertz images obtained by electronically scanning the tumor in-depth in comparison with histopathology images. The detection of cancer tissue inside the block is found to be accurate to depths over 1 mm. Image processing techniques are applied to provide improved contrast and automation of the obtained terahertz images. In particular, unsharp masking and edge detection methods are found to be most effective for three-dimensional block imaging.

  10. Phase contrast imaging of the breast. Basic principles and steps towards clinical implementation; Phasenkontrastbildgebung der Brust. Grundlagen und Schritte zur klinischen Implementierbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandl, S.; Sztrokay-Gaul, A.; Auweter, S.D.; Hellerhoff, K. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Mammography is the only imaging technique approved for nationwide breast cancer screening. Digital full field mammography has improved mammographic image quality. Nevertheless, mammography has a low positive predictive value and a low sensitivity especially in mammographically dense breasts. One of the major limitations is the inherently low contrast between healthy breast parenchyma and breast cancer. Phase contrast imaging is based on the phase shift that occurs when X-rays encounter a change in refractive index between different materials. The improved soft tissue contrast makes the technology particularly promising for breast diagnostics. The studies presented here suggest that phase contrast imaging provides additional diagnostic information both using phase contrast mammography and phase contrast computed tomography (CT). This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of the phase contrast imaging and describes recent developments towards in vivo and ex vivo phase contrast imaging of the breast. (orig.) [German] Brustkrebs ist weltweit die haeufigste Tumorerkrankung und die haeufigste Krebstodesursache der Frau. Die Mammographie ist die einzige zugelassene bildgebende Methode zur Brustkrebsfrueherkennung im Rahmen flaechendeckender Screeningprogramme. Trotz Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet und der Befundungsperformance durch die Einfuehrung der digitalen Vollfeldmammographie sind der positiv-praediktive Wert und die Sensitivitaet der Mammographie insbesondere bei mammographisch dichtem Druesenkoerper eingeschraenkt. Dies ist u. a. auf die geringen Dichteunterschiede zwischen gesundem Brustdruesengewebe und intramammaeren Malignomen zurueckzufuehren. Die Phasenkontrastbildgebung macht sich die Phasenverschiebung von Roentgenstrahlen zunutze, die an Materialgrenzen mit unterschiedlichen Brechungsindizes entsteht. Die Technik bietet einen potenziell

  11. Development of Ultrasound Tomography for Breast Imaging: Technical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duric, N; Littrup, P; Babkin, A; Chambers, D; Azevedo, S; Arkady, K; Pevzner, R; Tokarev, M; Holsapple, E

    2004-09-30

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used in medicine because of its benign characteristics and real-time capabilities. Physics theory suggests that the application of tomographic techniques may allow ultrasound imaging to reach its full potential as a diagnostic tool allowing it to compete with other tomographic modalities such as X-ray CT and MRI. This paper describes the construction and use of a prototype tomographic scanner and reports on the feasibility of implementing tomographic theory in practice and the potential of US tomography in diagnostic imaging. Data were collected with the prototype by scanning two types of phantoms and a cadaveric breast. A specialized suite of algorithms was developed and utilized to construct images of reflectivity and sound speed from the phantom data. The basic results can be summarized as follows: (1) A fast, clinically relevant US tomography scanner can be built using existing technology. (2) The spatial resolution, deduced from images of reflectivity, is 0.4 mm. The demonstrated 10 cm depth-of-field is superior to that of conventional ultrasound and the image contrast is improved through the reduction of speckle noise and overall lowering of the noise floor. (3) Images of acoustic properties such as sound speed suggest that it is possible to measure variations in the sound speed of 5 m/s. An apparent correlation with X-ray attenuation suggests that the sound speed can be used to discriminate between various types of soft tissue. (4) Ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve diagnostic imaging in relation to breast cancer detection.

  12. Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity Among Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Seminar title: Breast Cancer: Cells/Tissues/Types Speaker: Charlie Wilson, DSU Description: The anatomy of the breast to include glandular and...UPENN Medical School Description: Cell adhesion mechanisms are especially important for the development and function of normal epithelium in many...c-means algorithm is applied to segment the glandular tissue, where classes are aggregated to the standard two-class dense vs. fatty paradigm using

  13. Avoiding preoperative breast MRI when conventional imaging is sufficient to stage patients eligible for breast conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengel, Kenneth E., E-mail: k.pengel@nki.nl [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, Claudette E. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Department of Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnappel, Ruud M. [Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.Th. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Aim: To determine when preoperative breast MRI will not be more informative than available breast imaging and can be omitted in patients eligible for breast conserving therapy (BCT). Methods: We performed an MRI in 685 consecutive patients with 692 invasive breast tumors and eligible for BCT based on conventional imaging and clinical examination. We explored associations between patient, tumor, and conventional imaging characteristics and similarity with MRI findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to compute the area under the curve (AUC). Results: MRI and conventional breast imaging were similar in 585 of the 692 tumors (85%). At univariate analysis, age (p < 0.001), negative preoperative lymph node status (p = 0.011), comparable tumor diameter at mammography and at ultrasound (p = 0.001), negative HER2 status (p = 0.044), and absence of invasive lobular cancer (p = 0.005) were significantly associated with this similarity. At multivariate analysis, these factors, except HER2 status, retained significant associations. The AUC was 0.68. Conclusions: It is feasible to identify a subgroup of patients prior to preoperative breast MRI, who will most likely show similar results on conventional imaging as on MRI. These findings enable formulation of a practical consensus guideline to determine in which patients a preoperative breast MRI can be omitted.

  14. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Eduardo; Sperl, Jonathan I; Bequé, Dirk; Benz, Tobias; Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Cozzini, Cristina; Grandl, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well.

  15. Breast cancer: an overview of nuclear medicine imaging and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, P. [QEII/Dalhousie School of Health Sciences, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this overview is to introduce the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures routinely used in the management of the patient with breast cancer and includes what some may consider being the future of nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography. Imaging the breast with {sup 99m}Tc MIBI to lymphatic mapping and the search for the sentinel lymph node for biopsy purposes, as well as bone scans used in the search for metastases will be discussed. Wall motion and ejection fraction studies are discussed as a monitoring tool for patients requiring cardiotoxic chemotherapy. The final section of the synopsis deals with the treatment of bone metastases for the purpose of palliation of this often debilitating disease. (author)

  16. SEGMENTATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF POINT CLOUDS FROM DENSE AERIAL IMAGE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Omidalizarandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, 3D city reconstruction is one of the active researches in the field of photogrammetry. The goal of this work is to improve and extend surface growing based segmentation in the X-Y-Z image in the form of 3D structured data with combination of spectral information of RGB and grayscale image to extract building roofs, streets and vegetation. In order to process 3D point clouds, hybrid segmentation is carried out in both object space and image space. Our experiments on three case studies verify that updating plane parameters and robust least squares plane fitting improves the results of building extraction especially in case of low accurate point clouds. In addition, region growing in image space has been derived to the fact that grayscale image is more flexible than RGB image and results in more realistic building roofs.

  17. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation.

  18. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  19. Shallow magma chamber under the Wudalianchi Volcanic Field unveiled by seismic imaging with dense array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Ni, Sidao; Zhang, Baolong; Bao, Feng; Zhang, Senqi; Deng, Yang; Yuen, David A.

    2016-05-01

    The Wudalianchi Volcano Field (WDF) is a typical intraplate volcano in northeast China with generation mechanism not yet well understood. As its last eruption was around 300 years ago, the present risk for volcano eruption is of particular public interest. We have carried out a high-resolution ambient noise tomography to investigate the location of magma chambers beneath the volcanic cones with a dense seismic array of 43 seismometers and ~ 6 km spatial interval. Significant low-velocity anomalies up to 10% are found at 7-13 km depth under the Weishan volcano, consistent with the pronounced high electrical-conductivity anomalies from previous magnetotelluric survey. We propose these extremely low velocity anomalies can be interpreted as partial melting in a shallow magma chamber with volume at least 200 km3 which may be responsible for most of the recent volcanic eruptions in WDF. Therefore, this magma chamber may pose a serious hazard for northeast China.

  20. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David B; Boone, John M; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice.

  1. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  2. Breast reconstruction: review of surgical methods and spectrum of imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel-Giroux, Fanny Maud; El Khoury, Mona M; Trop, Isabelle; Bernier, Christina; David, Julie; Lalonde, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is often requested by women with breast cancer who are ineligible for breast-conserving therapy and women with a high genetic risk for breast cancer. Current breast reconstruction techniques are diverse and may involve the use of an autologous tissue flap, a prosthetic implant, or both. Regardless of the technique used, cancer may recur in the reconstructed breast; in addition, in breasts reconstructed with autologous tissue flaps, benign complications such as fat necrosis may occur. To detect breast cancer recurrences at a smaller size than can be appreciated clinically and as early as possible without evidence of metastasis, radiologists must be familiar with the range of normal and abnormal imaging appearances of reconstructed breasts, including features of benign complications as well as those of malignant change. Images representing this spectrum of findings were selected from the clinical records of 119 women who underwent breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at the authors' institution between January 2009 and March 2011, after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. In 32 of 37 women with abnormal findings on MR images, only benign changes were found at further diagnostic workup; in the other five, recurrent breast cancer was found at biopsy. Four of the five had been treated initially for invasive carcinoma, and one, for multifocal ductal carcinoma; three of the five were carriers of a BRCA gene mutation. On the basis of these results, the authors suggest that systematic follow-up examinations with breast MR imaging may benefit women with a reconstructed breast and a high risk for breast cancer recurrence.

  3. Visual Genome: Connecting Language and Vision Using Crowdsourced Dense Image Annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Krishna (Ranjay); Y. Zhu (Yuke); O. Groth (Oliver); J. Johnson (Justin); K. Hata (Kenji); J. Kravitz (Joshua); S. Chen (Stephanie); Y. Kalantidis (Yannis); L.-J. LI (Li-Jia); D.A. Shamma (David); M.S. Bernstein (Michael); L. Fei-Fei (Li)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDespite progress in perceptual tasks such as image classification, computers still perform poorly on cognitive tasks such as image description and question answering. Cognition is core to tasks that involve not just recognizing, but reasoning about our visual world. However, models used

  4. HER2 and TOP2A in high-risk early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant epirubicin-based dose-dense sequential chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fountzilas George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER2 and TOP2A parameters (gene status, mRNA and protein expression have individually been associated with the outcome of patients treated with anthracyclines. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic/predictive significance of the above parameters in early, high-risk breast cancer patients treated with epirubicin-based, dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods In a series of 352 breast carcinoma tissues from patients that had been post-operatively treated with epirubicin-CMF with or without paclitaxel, we assessed HER2 and TOP2A gene status (chromogenic in situ hybridization, mRNA expression (quantitative reverse transcription PCR, as well as HER2 and TopoIIa protein expression (immunohistochemistry. Results HER2 and TOP2A amplification did not share the same effects on their downstream molecules, with consistent patterns observed in HER2 mRNA and protein expression according to HER2 amplification (all parameters strongly inter-related, p values Conclusions This study confirms the favorable prognostic value of HER2/TOP2A co-amplification and the adverse prognostic value of high TOP2A mRNA expression extending it to the adjuvant treatment setting in early high-risk breast cancer. The strong adverse prognostic impact of high HER2/TOP2A mRNA co-expression needs further validation in studies designed to evaluate markers predictive for anthracyclines. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000506998.

  5. Image analysis software versus direct anthropometry for breast measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quieregatto, Paulo Rogério; Hochman, Bernardo; Furtado, Fabianne; Machado, Aline Fernanda Perez; Sabino Neto, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2014-10-01

    To compare breast measurements performed using the software packages ImageTool(r), AutoCAD(r) and Adobe Photoshop(r) with direct anthropometric measurements. Points were marked on the breasts and arms of 40 volunteer women aged between 18 and 60 years. When connecting the points, seven linear segments and one angular measurement on each half of the body, and one medial segment common to both body halves were defined. The volunteers were photographed in a standardized manner. Photogrammetric measurements were performed by three independent observers using the three software packages and compared to direct anthropometric measurements made with calipers and a protractor. Measurements obtained with AutoCAD(r) were the most reproducible and those made with ImageTool(r) were the most similar to direct anthropometry, while measurements with Adobe Photoshop(r) showed the largest differences. Except for angular measurements, significant differences were found between measurements of line segments made using the three software packages and those obtained by direct anthropometry. AutoCAD(r) provided the highest precision and intermediate accuracy; ImageTool(r) had the highest accuracy and lowest precision; and Adobe Photoshop(r) showed intermediate precision and the worst accuracy among the three software packages.

  6. Design of optimal collimation for dedicated molecular breast imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinmann, Amanda L.; Hruska, Carrie B.; O' Connor, Michael K. [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a functional imaging technique that uses specialized small field-of-view gamma cameras to detect the preferential uptake of a radiotracer in breast lesions. MBI has potential to be a useful adjunct method to screening mammography for the detection of occult breast cancer. However, a current limitation of MBI is the high radiation dose (a factor of 7-10 times that of screening mammography) associated with current technology. The purpose of this study was to optimize the gamma camera collimation with the aim of improving sensitivity while retaining adequate resolution for the detection of sub-10-mm lesions. Square-hole collimators with holes matched to the pixilated cadmium zinc telluride detector elements of the MBI system were designed. Data from MBI patient studies and parameters of existing dual-head MBI systems were used to guide the range of desired collimator resolutions, source-to-collimator distances, pixel sizes, and collimator materials that were examined. General equations describing collimator performance for a conventional gamma camera were used in the design process along with several important adjustments to account for the specialized imaging geometry of the MBI system. Both theoretical calculations and a Monte Carlo model were used to measure the geometric efficiency (or sensitivity) and resolution of each designed collimator. Results showed that through optimal collimation, collimator sensitivity could be improved by factors of 1.5-3.2, while maintaining a collimator resolution of either {<=}5 or {<=}7.5 mm at a distance of 3 cm from the collimator face. These gains in collimator sensitivity permit an inversely proportional drop in the required dose to perform MBI.

  7. Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenglin; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Yang, Wentao; Peng, Weijun; Shi, Daren; Zhu, Peiping; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi

    2007-01-21

    The significance of the x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) technique in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its feasibility in clinical medical imaging are evaluated. Different massive specimens including normal breast tissues, benign breast tumour tissues and malignant breast tumour tissues are imaged with the DEI method. The images are recorded respectively by CCD or x-ray film at different positions of the rocking curve and processed with a pixel-by-pixel algorithm. The characteristics of the DEI images about the normal and diseased tissues are compared. The rocking curves of a double-crystal diffractometer with various tissues are also studied. The differences in DEI images and their rocking curves are evaluated for early diagnosis of breast cancers.

  8. The Application of the Edge Sharpening Operator to the Breast Near-Infrared Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The principles of Gradient operator, Laplacian operator, LOG operator and Sobel operator are discussed. Certain features of breast can be extracted in different degrees and aspects from original images by applying four edge sharpening operators to the breast near-infrared imaging. A great number of cases prove that compared with the other three operators, the improved Sobel operator can effectively extract the structural features of the breast from an original image. It can be concluded that the improved Sobel operator can assist in diagnosing breast diseases.

  9. Breast Imaging in the Era of Big Data: Structured Reporting and Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Laurie R.; Pandey, Gaurav; Horowitz, Eliot R.; Mendelson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to describe structured reporting and the development of large databases for use in data mining in breast imaging. CONCLUSION The results of millions of breast imaging examinations are reported with structured tools based on the BI-RADS lexicon. Much of these data are stored in accessible media. Robust computing power creates great opportunity for data scientists and breast imagers to collaborate to improve breast cancer detection and optimize screening algorithms. Data mining can create knowledge, but the questions asked and their complexity require extremely powerful and agile databases. New data technologies can facilitate outcomes research and precision medicine. PMID:26587797

  10. Imaging Proteolysis by Living Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Sameni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant progression is accompanied by degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we describe a novel confocal assay in which we can observe proteolysis by living human breast cancer cells (BT20 and BT549 through the use of quenchedfluorescent protein substrates. Degradation thus was imaged, by confocal optical sectioning, as an accumulation of fluorescent products. With the BT20 cells, fluorescence was localized to pericellular focal areas that coincide with pits in the underlying matrix. In contrast, fluorescence was localized to intracellular vesicles in the BT549 cells, vesicles that also label for lysosomal markers. Neither intracellular nor pericellular fluorescence was observed in the BT549 cells in the presence of cytochalasin B, suggesting that degradation occurred intracellularly and was dependent on endocytic uptake of substrate. In the presence of a cathepsin 13-selective cysteine protease inhibitor, intracellular fluorescence was decreased ~90% and pericellular fluorescence decreased 67% to 96%, depending on the protein substrate. Matrix metallo protease inhibitors reduced pericellular fluorescence ~50%, i.e., comparably to a serine and a broad spectrum cysteine protease inhibitor. Our results suggest that: 1 a proteolytic cascade participates in pericellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells, and 2 the cysteine protease cathepsin B participates in both pericellular and intracellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells.

  11. Image Cytometry Data From Breast Lesions Analyzed using Hybrid Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sakim, H A; Mat Isa, N A; G Naguib, Raouf; Sherbet, Gajanan

    2005-01-01

    The treatment and therapy to be administered on breast cancer patients are dependent on the stage of the disease at time of diagnosis. It is therefore crucial to determine the stage at the earliest time possible. Tumor dissemination to axillary lymph nodes has been regarded as an indication of tumor aggression, thus the stage of the disease. Neural networks have been employed in many applications including breast cancer prognosis. The performance of the networks have often been quoted based on accuracy and mean squared error. In this paper, the performance of hybrid networks based on Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function networks to predict axillary lymph node involvement have been investigated. A measurement of how confident the networks are with respect to the results produced is also proposed. The input layer of the networks include four image cytometry features extracted from fine needle aspiration of breast lesions. The highest accuracy achieved by the hybrid networks was 69% only. However, most of the correctly predicted cases had a high confidence level.

  12. D Point Cloud Model Colorization by Dense Registration of Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombez, N.; Caron, G.; Mouaddib, E.

    2015-02-01

    Architectural heritage is a historic and artistic property which has to be protected, preserved, restored and must be shown to the public. Modern tools like 3D laser scanners are more and more used in heritage documentation. Most of the time, the 3D laser scanner is completed by a digital camera which is used to enrich the accurate geometric informations with the scanned objects colors. However, the photometric quality of the acquired point clouds is generally rather low because of several problems presented below. We propose an accurate method for registering digital images acquired from any viewpoints on point clouds which is a crucial step for a good colorization by colors projection. We express this image-to-geometry registration as a pose estimation problem. The camera pose is computed using the entire images intensities under a photometric visual and virtual servoing (VVS) framework. The camera extrinsic and intrinsic parameters are automatically estimated. Because we estimates the intrinsic parameters we do not need any informations about the camera which took the used digital image. Finally, when the point cloud model and the digital image are correctly registered, we project the 3D model in the digital image frame and assign new colors to the visible points. The performance of the approach is proven in simulation and real experiments on indoor and outdoor datasets of the cathedral of Amiens, which highlight the success of our method, leading to point clouds with better photometric quality and resolution.

  13. Body-wave retrieval and imaging from ambient seismic fields with very dense arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.; Boué, P.; Beroza, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Correlation-based analyses of ambient seismic wavefields is a powerful tool for retrieving subsurface information such as stiffness, anisotropy, and heterogeneity at a variety of scales. These analyses can be considered to be data-driven wavefield modeling. Studies of ambient-field tomography have been mostly focused on the surface waves, especially fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves. Although the surface-wave tomography is useful to model 3D velocities, the spatial resolution is limited due to the extended depth sensitivity of the surface wave measurements. Moreover, to represent elastic media, we need at least two stiffness parameters (e.g., shear and bulk moduli). We develop a technique to retrieve P diving waves from the ambient field observed by the dense geophone network (~2500 receivers with 100-m spacing) at Long Beach, California. With two-step filtering, we improve the signal-to-noise ratio of body waves to extract P wave observations that we use for tomography to estimate 3D P-wave velocity structure. The small scale-length heterogeneity of the velocity model follows a power law with ellipsoidal anisotropy. We also discuss possibilities to retrieve reflected waves from the ambient field and show other applications of the body-wave extraction at different locations and scales. Note that reflected waves penetrate deeper than diving waves and have the potential to provide much higher spatial resolution.

  14. Seismic Velocities Imaging around "AFA" Hydrothermal Area in West Java, Indonesia derived from Dense Seimometer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanani Akbar, Akhmad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Jousset, Philippe GM; Ryannugroho, Riskiray; Gassner, Alexandra; Jaya, Makky S.; Sule, Rachmat; Diningrat, Wahyuddin; Hendryana, Andri; Kusnadi, Yosep; Umar, Muksin; Indrinanto, Yudi; Erbas, Kemal

    2015-04-01

    We have deployed about 48 three component seismometers around "AFA" hydrothermal are in West Java, Indonesia from October 2012 up to October 2014 in order to detect microseismic event and to enhance our knowledge about subsurface seismic stucture. The seismometer network in this study, is the first dense seismometer array monitoring around hydrothermal area in Indonesia so far. We analyzed a huge waveform data set to distinguish microseismic, local and regional events. Then, we picked the onset of P-and S-wave arrival of microseismic events carefully visually by eye. We determined the initial microseismic event by applying Geiger's method with uniform seismic velocity model. Totally, we have been successfully determined 2,497 microseismic events around this hydrothermal area. We also improved 1D seismic velocities (Vp, Vs) and simultaneously with hypocenter adjustment as input for the tomography inversion in this study. Overall, the microseismic events are concentrated around production area activities and we also found strong cluster microseismic event in Southern part of this region which still need to be investigated in more details. Now, we are going on tomographic inversion step by using double-difference method. We are going to show more information during the meeting.

  15. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in detection of breast cancer recurrence: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Edel Marie

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer recurrence can be difficult as a result of the presence of scar tissue in the breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be superior to traditional imaging in diagnosis of recurrence because of its ability to differentiate malignancy from scarring. Current guidelines on investigation of suspected breast cancer recurrence recommend MRI when other investigations have equivocal findings. We performed the first systematic review on this topic.

  16. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztrókay, A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Schlossbauer, T.; Brun, E.; Bamberg, F.; Mayr, D.; Reiser, M. F.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation.

  17. Intensified dose-dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy using paclitaxel-gemcitabine and docetaxel-doxorubicin combinations for locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Frai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed chemotherapy (CT regimen with paclitaxel and gemcitabine with the interval being reduced between the cycles up to 2 weeks can shorten the time of preoperative treatment 1.5-fold and may be further investigated in the neoadjuvant CT for inoperable breast cancer. Intensified CT in the regimen of paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 one day, gemcitabine 2000 mg/m2 one day, docetaxel 70 mg/m2 one day + doxorubi- cin 60 mg/m2 one day + colony-stimulating factors every 2 weeks has a high clinical effectiveness and a satisfactory tolerability.

  18. Combined photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of human breast in vivo in the mammographic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixing; Lee, Won-Mean; Hooi, Fong Ming; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Pinsky, Renee W.; Mueller, Dean; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

    2013-03-01

    This photoacoustic volume imaging (PAVI) system is designed to study breast cancer detection and diagnosis in the mammographic geometry in combination with automated 3D ultrasound (AUS). The good penetration of near-infrared (NIR) light and high receiving sensitivity of a broad bandwidth, 572 element, 2D PVDF array at a low center-frequency of 1MHz were utilized with 20 channel simultaneous acquisition. The feasibility of this system in imaging optically absorbing objects in deep breast tissues was assessed first through experiments on ex vivo whole breasts. The blood filled pseudo lesions were imaged at depths up to 49 mm in the specimens. In vivo imaging of human breasts has been conducted. 3D PAVI image stacks of human breasts were coregistered and compared with 3D ultrasound image stacks of the same breasts. Using the designed system, PAVI shows satisfactory imaging depth and sensitivity for coverage of the entire breast when imaged from both sides with mild compression in the mammographic geometry. With its unique soft tissue contrast and excellent sensitivity to the tissue hemodynamic properties of fractional blood volume and blood oxygenation, PAVI, as a complement to 3D ultrasound and digital tomosynthesis mammography, might well contribute to detection, diagnosis and prognosis for breast cancer.

  19. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluoresc

  20. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338877169

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluoresc

  1. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography : a promising new imaging tool in breast cancer detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalji, Ulrich; Lobbes, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) is a promising new breast imaging tool for breast cancer detection. In CEDM, an iodine-based contrast agent is intravenously administered and subsequently, dual-energy mammography is performed. This results in a set of images containing both a regular

  2. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338877169

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared

  3. High-resolution three-dimensional holographic display using dense ray sampling from integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakunami, Koki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Javidi, Bahram

    2012-12-15

    We present a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) holographic display using a set of elemental images obtained by passive sensing integral imaging (II). Hologram calculations using a high-density ray-sampling plane are achieved from the elemental images captured by II. In II display, ray sampling by lenslet array and light diffraction limits the achievable resolution. Our approach can improve the resolution since target objects are captured in focus and then light-ray information is interpolated and resampled with higher density on ray-sampling plane located near the object to be converted into the wavefront. Numerical experimental results show that the 3D scene, composed of plural objects at different depths from the display, can be reconstructed with order of magnitude higher resolution by the proposed technique.

  4. Deep learning and three-compartment breast imaging in breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Karen; Huynh, Benjamin Q.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Malkov, Serghei; Avila, Jesus I.; Fan, Bo; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Kazemi, Leila; Pereira, Malesa M.; Shepherd, John

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether deep learning has potential to aid in the diagnosis of breast cancer when applied to mammograms and biologic tissue composition images derived from three-compartment (3CB) imaging. The dataset contained diagnostic mammograms and 3CB images (water, lipid, and protein content) of biopsy-sampled BIRADS 4 and 5 lesions in 195 patients. In 58 patients, the lesion manifested as a mass (13 malignant vs. 45 benign), in 87 as microcalcifications (19 vs. 68), and in 56 as (focal) asymmetry or architectural distortion (11 vs. 45). Six patients had both a mass and calcifications. For each mammogram and corresponding 3CB images, a 128x128 region of interest containing the lesion was selected by an expert radiologist and used directly as input to a deep learning method pretrained on a very large independent set of non-medical images. We used a nested leave-one-out-by-case (patient) model selection and classification protocol. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the task of distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions was used as performance metric. For the cases with mammographic masses, the AUC increased from 0.83 (mammograms alone) to 0.89 (mammograms+3CB, p=.162). For the microcalcification and asymmetry/architectural distortion cases the AUC increased from 0.84 to 0.91 (p=.116) and from 0.61 to 0.87 (p=.006), respectively. Our results indicate great potential for the application of deep learning methods in the diagnosis of breast cancer and additional knowledge of the biologic tissue composition appeared to improve performance, especially for lesions mammographically manifesting as asymmetries or architectural distortions.

  5. Detection of breast cancer by soft-copy reading of digital mammograms: comparison between a routine image-processing parameter and high-contrast parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Setoguchi, Taro; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Ishii, Nobuhide; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have reported the clinical usefulness of the soft-copy reading of mammograms. However, image-processing parameters for soft-copy reading of digital mammograms have not been established. To compare observer performance in detecting breast cancer by soft-copy reading of digital mammograms using a routine image-processing parameter versus each of several high-contrast parameters. The mammograms of 154 breasts, including 48 abnormal breasts with breast cancer and 106 normal breasts, were examined. Cancers were classified into 34 mass-dominant cancers, 11 microcalcification-dominant cancers, two cancers showing only architectural distortion, and one cancer without abnormal findings. All mammograms were performed using a computed radiography (CR) system. Each image was processed using GA (1.2), which was the contrast parameter recommended by the manufacturer for hard-copy film, GA (1.4), GA (1.6), and GA (1.8). These images were displayed on 5-megapixel (M) liquid-crystal display monitors. Five experienced radiologists classified them into BI-RADS category 1-2 or 3-5, and were also asked to rate the images on a scale of 0 to 100 for the likelihood of the presence of masses and microcalcifications in each breast. In mass-dominant cancers of dense breast tissue, the mean sensitivities of GA (1.2), GA (1.4), GA (1.6), and GA (1.8) were 32.7, 38.2, 36.4, and 40.0, and the A(Z) values were 0.67, 0.73, 0.71, and 0.73, respectively; in microcalcification-dominant cancers, the mean sensitivities were 80.0, 74.5, 80.0, and 78.2, respectively; however, there were no significant differences among them. High-contrast parameters tended to show relatively high sensitivity and A(Z) values in the detection of masses in dense breast tissue, but relatively low sensitivity for microcalcifications.

  6. Evaluation of Social Support, Quality of Life, and Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatuzzi, Roberta; Vespa, Anna; Lorenzi, Primo; Miccinesi, Guido; Ricciuti, Marcello; Cifarelli, Wanda; Susi, Marina; Fabrizio, Tommaso; Ferrari, Maria G; Ottaviani, Marica; Giulietti, Maria V; Merico, Fabiana; Aieta, Michele

    2016-02-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the quality of life, body image, and perceived social support in women with breast cancer surgery. Patients receiving breast-conserving surgery (BCS) (n = 72), mastectomy alone (n = 44), and mastectomy with breast reconstruction (n = 41) were evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the EORTC Breast Cancer Module (QLQ-BR23), the Body Image Scale (BIS) and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The results indicated that the BCS group had a better body image compared with the other 2 groups and better role functioning compared with the mastectomy-alone group. In the reconstruction group, body image correlated with perceived social support, especially from family and significant others. These results suggest that a positive perception of a supportive social network can help women with breast reconstruction to better cope with the psychological effects of surgery on their body image.

  7. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate as a breast cancer imaging agent in a xenograft animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambini, Juan Pablo [Nuclear Medicine Center, Clinical Hospital, University of Uruguay, Montevideo, 11600 (Uruguay); Cabral, Pablo [Nuclear Investigations Center, School of Science, University of Uruguay, Montevideo, 11400 (Uruguay); Alonso, Omar [Nuclear Medicine Center, Clinical Hospital, University of Uruguay, Montevideo, 11600 (Uruguay); Savio, Eduardo [Department of Radiochemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Uruguay, Montevideo, 11800 (Uruguay); Daibes Figueroa, Said [Research Service, Harry S. Truman Veterans Memorial Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Zhang Xiuli [Research Service, Harry S. Truman Veterans Memorial Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ma Lixin [Research Service, Harry S. Truman Veterans Memorial Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212 (United States); Deutscher, Susan L. [Research Service, Harry S. Truman Veterans Memorial Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Quinn, Thomas P., E-mail: quinnt@missouri.ed [Research Service, Harry S. Truman Veterans Memorial Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: The use of [{sup 99m}Tc]glucarate has been reported as an infarct-avid agent with the potential for very early detection of myocardial infarction. [{sup 99m}Tc]Glucarate has also been postulated as an agent for non-invasive detection of tumors. The aim of our study was to develop a Glucarate kit and evaluate [{sup 99m}Tc]glucarate as a potential cancer imaging agent in female SCID mice bearing human MDA-MB-435 breast tumors. Methods: Glucarate in a kit formulation was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluated for radiolabelling efficiency and radiochemical purity. The Glucarate kit stability was assessed by monthly quality controls. The pharmacokinetics of [{sup 99m}Tc]glucarate were determined in female SCID mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma tumors at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 24 h. Nuclear imaging studies were performed with a micro-single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) system at 2 h post injection, while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed for tumor morphology analysis and metastatic deposit localization. Results: The Glucarate kits exhibited a stable shelf life of 6 months. [{sup 99m}Tc]Glucarate was obtained with radiochemical purity greater than 95%. Biodistribution studies demonstrated moderate tumor uptake coupled with high renal clearance. Tumor-to-muscle ratios were 4.85 and 5.14 at 1 and 4 h post injection. MRI analysis showed tumors with dense cellular growth and moderate central necrosis. [{sup 99m}Tc]Glucarate uptake in the primary MDA-MB-435 shoulder tumors and metastatic lesions were clearly visualized with micro-SPECT/CT imaging. Conclusions: Selective tumor uptake and rapid clearance from nontarget organs makes [{sup 99m}Tc]glucarate a potential agent for breast cancer imaging that awaits validation in a clinical trial.

  8. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  9. Dual Energy Method for Breast Imaging: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koukou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual energy methods can suppress the contrast between adipose and glandular tissues in the breast and therefore enhance the visibility of calcifications. In this study, a dual energy method based on analytical modeling was developed for the detection of minimum microcalcification thickness. To this aim, a modified radiographic X-ray unit was considered, in order to overcome the limited kVp range of mammographic units used in previous DE studies, combined with a high resolution CMOS sensor (pixel size of 22.5 μm for improved resolution. Various filter materials were examined based on their K-absorption edge. Hydroxyapatite (HAp was used to simulate microcalcifications. The contrast to noise ratio (CNRtc of the subtracted images was calculated for both monoenergetic and polyenergetic X-ray beams. The optimum monoenergetic pair was 23/58 keV for the low and high energy, respectively, resulting in a minimum detectable microcalcification thickness of 100 μm. In the polyenergetic X-ray study, the optimal spectral combination was 40/70 kVp filtered with 100 μm cadmium and 1000 μm copper, respectively. In this case, the minimum detectable microcalcification thickness was 150 μm. The proposed dual energy method provides improved microcalcification detectability in breast imaging with mean glandular dose values within acceptable levels.

  10. A comparative study in ultrasound breast imaging classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Edirisinghe, Eran A.; Bez, Helmut E.

    2009-02-01

    American College of Radiology introduces a standard in classification, the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS), standardize the reporting of ultrasound findings, clarify its interpretation, and facilitate communication between clinicians. The effective use of new technologies to support healthcare initiatives is important and current research is moving towards implementing computer tools in the diagnostics process. Initially a detailed study was carried out to evaluate the performance of two commonly used appearance based classification algorithms, based on the use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and two dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2D-LDA). The study showed that these two appearance based classification approaches are not capable of handling the classification of ultrasound breast image lesions. Therefore further investigations in the use of a popular feature based classifier - Support Vector Machine (SVM) was conducted. A pre-processing step before feature based classification is feature extraction, which involve shape, texture and edge descriptors for the Region of Interest (ROI). The input dataset to SVM classification is from a fully automated ROI detection. We achieve the success rate of 0.550 in PCA, 0.500 in LDA, and 0.931 in SVM. The best combination of features in SVM classification is to combine the shape, texture and edge descriptors, with sensitivity 0.840 and specificity 0.968. This paper briefly reviews the background to the project and then details the ongoing research. In conclusion, we discuss the contributions, limitations, and future plans of our work.

  11. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: Accuracy of Radiologists Interpretation of Mammographic Breast Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, S; Shi, L; Karellas, A [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (United States); O’Connell, A [University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Several commercial and non-commercial software and techniques are available for determining breast density from mammograms. However, where mandated by law the breast density information communicated to the subject/patient is based on radiologist’s interpretation of breast density from mammograms. Several studies have reported on the concordance among radiologists in interpreting mammographic breast density. In this work, we investigated the accuracy of radiologist’s interpretation of breast density. Methods: Volumetric breast density (VBD) determined from 134 unilateral dedicated breast CT scans from 134 subjects was considered the truth. An MQSA-qualified study radiologist with more than 20 years of breast imaging experience reviewed the DICOM “for presentation” standard 2-view mammograms of the corresponding breasts and assigned BIRADS breast density categories. For statistical analysis, the breast density categories were dichotomized in two ways; fatty vs. dense breasts where “fatty” corresponds to BIRADS breast density categories A/B, and “dense” corresponds to BIRADS breast density categories C/D, and extremely dense vs. fatty to heterogeneously dense breasts, where extremely dense corresponds to BIRADS breast density category D and BIRADS breast density categories A through C were grouped as fatty to heterogeneously dense breasts. Logistic regression models (SAS 9.3) were used to determine the association between radiologist’s interpretation of breast density and VBD from breast CT, from which the area under the ROC (AUC) was determined. Results: Both logistic regression models were statistically significant (Likelihood Ratio test, p<0.0001). The accuracy (AUC) of the study radiologist for classification of fatty vs. dense breasts was 88.4% (95% CI: 83–94%) and for classification of extremely dense breast was 94.3% (95% CI: 90–98%). Conclusion: The accuracy of the radiologist in classifying dense and extremely dense breasts is

  12. DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction Using 3-dimensional Surface Imaging and a Printed Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Tomita, MD, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D surface imaging technologies allow for digital quantification of complex breast tissue. We performed 11 unilateral breast reconstructions with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP flaps (5 immediate, 6 delayed using 3D surface imaging for easier surgery planning and 3D-printed molds for shaping the breast neoparenchyma. A single- or double-pedicle flap was preoperatively planned according to the estimated tissue volume required and estimated total flap volume. The DIEP flap was then intraoperatively shaped with a 3D-printed mold that was based on a horizontally inverted shape of the contralateral breast. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as satisfactory, as confirmed by the postoperative 3D measurements of bilateral breasts. We believe that DIEP flap reconstruction assisted with 3D surface imaging and a 3D-printed mold is a simple and quick method for rebuilding a symmetric breast.

  13. Automatic tissue segmentation of breast biopsies imaged by QPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Nguyen, Tan; Kandel, Mikhail; Marcias, Virgilia; Do, Minh; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    The current tissue evaluation method for breast cancer would greatly benefit from higher throughput and less inter-observer variation. Since quantitative phase imaging (QPI) measures physical parameters of tissue, it can be used to find quantitative markers, eliminating observer subjectivity. Furthermore, since the pixel values in QPI remain the same regardless of the instrument used, classifiers can be built to segment various tissue components without need for color calibration. In this work we use a texton-based approach to segment QPI images of breast tissue into various tissue components (epithelium, stroma or lumen). A tissue microarray comprising of 900 unstained cores from 400 different patients was imaged using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy. The training data were generated by manually segmenting the images for 36 cores and labelling each pixel (epithelium, stroma or lumen.). For each pixel in the data, a response vector was generated by the Leung-Malik (LM) filter bank and these responses were clustered using the k-means algorithm to find the centers (called textons). A random forest classifier was then trained to find the relationship between a pixel's label and the histogram of these textons in that pixel's neighborhood. The segmentation was carried out on the validation set by calculating the texton histogram in a pixel's neighborhood and generating a label based on the model learnt during training. Segmentation of the tissue into various components is an important step toward efficiently computing parameters that are markers of disease. Automated segmentation, followed by diagnosis, can improve the accuracy and speed of analysis leading to better health outcomes.

  14. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  15. Review: Receptor Targeted Nuclear Imaging of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalm, Simone U; Verzijlbergen, John Fred; De Jong, Marion

    2017-01-26

    Receptor targeted nuclear imaging directed against molecular markers overexpressed on breast cancer (BC) cells offers a sensitive and specific method for BC imaging. Currently, a few targets such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), somatostatin receptor (SSTR), and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) are being investigated for this purpose. Expression of these targets is BC subtype dependent and information that can be gained from lesion visualization is dependent on the target; ER-targeting radiotracers, e.g., can be used to monitor response to anti-estrogen treatment. Here we give an overview of the studies currently under investigation for receptor targeted nuclear imaging of BC. Main findings of imaging studies are summarized and (potential) purposes of lesion visualization by targeting these molecular markers are discussed. Since BC is a very heterogeneous disease and molecular target expression can vary per subtype, but also during disease progression or under influence of treatment, radiotracers for selected imaging purposes should be chosen carefully.

  16. Review: Receptor Targeted Nuclear Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalm, Simone U.; Verzijlbergen, John Fred; De Jong, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Receptor targeted nuclear imaging directed against molecular markers overexpressed on breast cancer (BC) cells offers a sensitive and specific method for BC imaging. Currently, a few targets such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), somatostatin receptor (SSTR), and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) are being investigated for this purpose. Expression of these targets is BC subtype dependent and information that can be gained from lesion visualization is dependent on the target; ER-targeting radiotracers, e.g., can be used to monitor response to anti-estrogen treatment. Here we give an overview of the studies currently under investigation for receptor targeted nuclear imaging of BC. Main findings of imaging studies are summarized and (potential) purposes of lesion visualization by targeting these molecular markers are discussed. Since BC is a very heterogeneous disease and molecular target expression can vary per subtype, but also during disease progression or under influence of treatment, radiotracers for selected imaging purposes should be chosen carefully. PMID:28134770

  17. The effectiveness of power Doppler vocal fremitus imaging in the diagnosis of breast hamartoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Seyma; Bakan, Ayse Ahsen; Aydın, Sinem; Kadıoglu, Huseiyn; Serter, Asli; Bilgin, Sennur; Alkan, Alpay

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of power Doppler vocal fremitus (PDVF) breast sonography for differentiation of hamartomas from other breast (malign or benign) masses. Two hundred and six breast masses in 180 women were evaluated. The breast lesions were scanned first by mammography (MG), then by ultrasonography (US) with PDVF imaging. Finally, biopsy was performed on lesions suspicious for malignancy (n=172). We used PDVF imaging to evaluate whether the Power acoustic Doppler artifact existed in all breast lesions. Pathology results of 172 biopsied lesions showed that 83 were malign and 89 masses were benign. Totally 39 breast hamartomas were diagnosed radiologically (n=25) or histopathologically (n=14). All hamartomas (n=39) produced the power acoustic Doppler artifact as the surrounding tissue at the same depth in PDVF imaging. On the other hand, none of the malign or benign lesions, apart from hamartomas, evidenced a similar vibrational artifact as the surrounding tissue at the same depth in the PDVF imaging. PDVF imaging during breast sonography is an invaluable technique in the identification of breast hamartomas from other benign or malign breast masses.

  18. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  19. Development of anatomically and dielectrically accurate breast phantoms for microwave imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, M.; Lohfeld, S.; Ruvio, G.; Browne, J.; Krewer, F.; Ribeiro, C. O.; Inacio Pita, V. C.; Conceicao, R. C.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. In the United States alone, it accounts for 31% of new cancer cases, and is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of deaths in American women. More than 184,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year resulting in approximately 41,000 deaths. Early detection and intervention is one of the most significant factors in improving the survival rates and quality of life experienced by breast cancer sufferers, since this is the time when treatment is most effective. One of the most promising breast imaging modalities is microwave imaging. The physical basis of active microwave imaging is the dielectric contrast between normal and malignant breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The dielectric contrast is mainly due to the increased water content present in the cancerous tissue. Microwave imaging is non-ionizing, does not require breast compression, is less invasive than X-ray mammography, and is potentially low cost. While several prototype microwave breast imaging systems are currently in various stages of development, the design and fabrication of anatomically and dielectrically representative breast phantoms to evaluate these systems is often problematic. While some existing phantoms are composed of dielectrically representative materials, they rarely accurately represent the shape and size of a typical breast. Conversely, several phantoms have been developed to accurately model the shape of the human breast, but have inappropriate dielectric properties. This study will brie y review existing phantoms before describing the development of a more accurate and practical breast phantom for the evaluation of microwave breast imaging systems.

  20. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Micro and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Philips Technologie GmbH, Roentgenstrasse 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Interdisciplinary Breast Center Baden, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  1. Challenges in the Design of Microwave Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    Among the various breast imaging modalities for breast cancer detection, microwave imaging is attractive due to the high contrast in dielectric properties between the cancerous and normal tissue. Due to this reason, this modality has received a significant interest and attention from the microwave...... community. This paper presents the survey of the ongoing research in the field of microwave imaging of biological tissues, with major focus on the breast tumor detection application. The existing microwave imaging systems are categorized on the basis of the employed measurement concepts. The advantages...

  2. Fibromatosis associated with silicone breast implant: ultrasonography and MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyun Seok; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Kim, Ok Hwa; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Suk Jung; Kim, Woogyeong; Kim, Woon Won

    2014-01-01

    Desmoid type fibromatosis is an uncommon benign disease entity of which its etiology is currently unknown. It constitutes 0.3% of all solid neoplasms, but it is rarely seen in the breast and even more scarcely reported to develop in association with breast implant. We present ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 29-year-old female patient with fibromatosis after breast implant surgery. Knowledge of imaging findings of breast fibromatosis associated with implant will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Positive predictive value of additional synchronous breast lesions in whole-breast ultrasonography at the diagnosis of breast cancer: clinical and imaging factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Jung [Dept. of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBU) for detection of synchronous breast lesions on initial diagnosis of breast cancer and evaluate factors affecting the PPV of BWBU according to varying clinicoimaging factors. A total of 75 patients who had synchronous lesions with pathologic confirmation at the initial diagnosis of breast cancer during January 2007 and December 2007 were included. The clinical factors of the patients were evaluated. One observer retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of the index breast cancer lesion and the synchronous lesion. The PPV for additional biopsy was calculated for BWBU and various clinical and imaging factors affecting the PPV for BWBU were evaluated. The overall PPV for additional biopsy was 25.7% (18 of 70). The PPV for synchronous lesions detected both on mammography and BWBU, and detected only on BWBU, was 76.9% (10 of 13) and 14.3% (7 of 49), respectively. There was no clinical factor affecting the PPV for BWBU. Among the imaging factors, ipsilateral location of the synchronous lesion to the index lesion (P=0.06) showed a marginal statistically significant correlation with malignancy in the synchronous breast lesion. A mass with calcification on mammography presentation (P<0.01), presence of calcification among the ultrasonography findings (P<0.01), and high Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System final assessment (P<0.01) were imaging factors that were associated with malignancy in the additional synchronous lesion. BWBU can detect additional synchronous malignancy at the diagnosis of breast cancer with a relatively high PPV, especially when mammography findings are correlated with ultrasonographic findings.

  4. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  5. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  6. A graph lattice approach to maintaining and learning dense collections of subgraphs as image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Effective object and scene classification and indexing depend on extraction of informative image features. This paper shows how large families of complex image features in the form of subgraphs can be built out of simpler ones through construction of a graph lattice—a hierarchy of related subgraphs linked in a lattice. Robustness is achieved by matching many overlapping and redundant subgraphs, which allows the use of inexpensive exact graph matching, instead of relying on expensive error-tolerant graph matching to a minimal set of ideal model graphs. Efficiency in exact matching is gained by exploitation of the graph lattice data structure. Additionally, the graph lattice enables methods for adaptively growing a feature space of subgraphs tailored to observed data. We develop the approach in the domain of rectilinear line art, specifically for the practical problem of document forms recognition. We are especially interested in methods that require only one or very few labeled training examples per category. We demonstrate two approaches to using the subgraph features for this purpose. Using a bag-of-words feature vector we achieve essentially single-instance learning on a benchmark forms database, following an unsupervised clustering stage. Further performance gains are achieved on a more difficult dataset using a feature voting method and feature selection procedure.

  7. Discrete scintillator coupled mercuric iodide photodetector arrays for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S.; Hoffman, E.J. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Multi-element (4x4) imaging arrays with high resolution collimators, size matched to discrete CsI(Tl) scintillator arrays and mercuric iodide photodetector arrays (HgI{sub 2} PDA) are under development as prototypes for larger 16 x 16 element arrays. The compact nature of the arrays allows detector positioning in proximity to the breast to eliminate activity not in the line-of-sight of the collimator, thus reducing image background. Short collimators, size matched to {le}1.5 x 1.5 mm{sup 2} scintillators show a factor of 2 and 3.4 improvement in spatial resolution and efficiency, respectively, compared to high resolution collimated gamma cameras for the anticipated compressed breast geometries. Monte Carlo simulations, confirmed by measurements, demonstrated that scintillator length played a greater role in efficiency and photofraction for 140 keV gammas than cross sectional area, which affects intrinsic spatial resolution. Simulations also demonstrated that an increase in the ratio of scintillator area to length corresponds to an improvement in light collection. Electronic noise was below 40 e{sup -} RMS indicating that detector resolution was not noise limited. The high quantum efficiency and spectral match of prototype unity gain HgI{sub 2} PDAs coupled to 1 x 1 x 2.5 mm{sup 3} and 2 x 2 x 4 mm{sup 3} CsI(Tl) scintillators demonstrated energy resolutions of 9.4% and 8.8% FWHM at 140 keV, respectively, without the spectral tailing observed in standard high-Z, compound semi-conductor detectors. Line spread function measurements matched the scintillator size and pitch, and small, complex phantoms were easily imaged.

  8. Correlations between diffusion-weighted imaging and breast cancer biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martincich, Laura; Deantoni, Veronica; Bertotto, Ilaria; Liotti, Michele; Regge, Daniele [Unit of Radiology, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Redana, Stefania; Rossi, Valentina; Aglietta, Massimo; Montemurro, Filippo [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Division of Medical Oncology, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Kubatzki, Franziska; Ponzone, Riccardo [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Division of Gynecological Oncology, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Sarotto, Ivana [Unit of Pathology, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Candiolo, Turin (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We evaluated whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) provided by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) varies according to biological features in breast cancer. DWI was performed in 190 patients undergoing dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local staging. For each of the 192 index cancers we studied the correlation between ADC and classical histopathological and immunohistochemical breast tumour features (size, histological type, grade, oestrogen receptor [ER] and Ki-67 expression, HER2 status). ADC was compared with immunohistochemical surrogates of the intrinsic subtypes (Luminal A; Luminal B; HER2-enriched; triple-negative). Correlations were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. A weak, statistically significant correlation was observed between ADC values and the percentage of ER-positive cells (-0.168, P = 0.020). Median ADC values were significantly higher in ER-negative than in ER-positive tumours (1.110 vs 1.050 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, P = 0.015). HER2-enriched tumours had the highest median ADC value (1.190 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, range 0.950-2.090). Multiple comparisons showed that this value was significantly higher than that of Luminal A (1.025 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s [0.700-1.340], P = 0.004) and Luminal B/HER2-negative (1.060 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s [0.470-2.420], P = 0.008) tumours. A trend towards statistical significance (P = 0.018) was seen with Luminal B/HER2-positive tumours. ADC values vary significantly according to biological tumour features, suggesting that cancer heterogeneity influences imaging parameters. (orig.)

  9. Right Ventricular Strain, Torsion, and Dyssynchrony in Healthy Subjects using 3D Spiral Cine DENSE Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suever, Jonathan; Wehner, Gregory; Jing, Linyuan; Powell, David; Hamlet, Sean; Grabau, Jonathan; Mojsejenko, Dimitri; Andres, Kristin; Haggerty, Christopher; Fornwalt, Brandon

    2016-12-29

    Mechanics of the left ventricle (LV) are important indicators of cardiac function. The role of right ventricular (RV) mechanics is largely unknown due to the technical limitations of imaging its thin wall and complex geometry and motion. By combining 3D Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) with a post-processing pipeline that includes a local coordinate system, it is possible to quantify RV strain, torsion, and synchrony. In this study, we sought to characterize RV mechanics in 50 healthy individuals and compare these values to their LV counterparts. For each cardiac frame, 3D displacements were fit to continuous and differentiable radial basis functions, allowing for the computation of the 3D Cartesian Lagrangian strain tensor at any myocardial point. The geometry of the RV was extracted via a surface fit to manually delineated endocardial contours. Throughout the RV, a local coordinate system was used to transform from a Cartesian strain tensor to a polar strain tensor. It was then possible to compute peak RV torsion as well as peak longitudinal and circumferential strain. A comparable analysis was performed for the LV. Dyssynchrony was computed from the standard deviation of regional activation times. Global circumferential strain was comparable between the RV and LV (-18.0% for both) while longitudinal strain was greater in the RV (-18.1% vs. -15.7%). RV torsion was comparable to LV torsion (6.2 vs. 7.1 degrees, respectively). Regional activation times indicated that the RV contracted later but more synchronously than the LV. 3D spiral cine DENSE combined with a post-processing pipeline that includes a local coordinate system can resolve both the complex geometry and 3D motion of the RV.

  10. A Novel Approach to Contrast-Enhanced Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Screening: High-Resolution Ultrafast Dynamic Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, R.M.; Mus, R.D.M.; Zelst, J. van; Geppert, C.; Karssemeijer, N.; Platel, B.

    2014-01-01

    The use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as screening tool has been stalled by high examination costs. Scan protocols have lengthened to optimize specificity. Modern view-sharing sequences now enable ultrafast dynamic whole-breast MRI, allowing much shorter and more cost-effective procedur

  11. Mitosis Detection for Invasive Breast Cancer Grading in Histopathological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angshuman; Mukherjee, Dipti Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Histopathological grading of cancer not only offers an insight to the patients' prognosis but also helps in making individual treatment plans. Mitosis counts in histopathological slides play a crucial role for invasive breast cancer grading using the Nottingham grading system. Pathologists perform this grading by manual examinations of a few thousand images for each patient. Hence, finding the mitotic figures from these images is a tedious job and also prone to observer variability due to variations in the appearances of the mitotic cells. We propose a fast and accurate approach for automatic mitosis detection from histopathological images. We employ area morphological scale space for cell segmentation. The scale space is constructed in a novel manner by restricting the scales with the maximization of relative-entropy between the cells and the background. This results in precise cell segmentation. The segmented cells are classified in mitotic and non-mitotic category using the random forest classifier. Experiments show at least 12% improvement in F1 score on more than 450 histopathological images at 40× magnification.

  12. Three-dimensional finite element model for lesion correspondence in breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan; Li, Lihua; Goldgof, Dmitry; Sarkar, Sudeep; Anton, Sorin; Clark, Robert A.

    2004-05-01

    Predicting breast tissue deformation is of great significance in several medical applications such as biopsy, diagnosis, and surgery. In breast surgery, surgeons are often concerned with a specific portion of the breast, e.g., tumor, which must be located accurately beforehand. Also clinically it is important for combining the information provided by images from several modalities or at different times, for the detection/diagnosis, treatment planning and guidance of interventions. Multi-modality imaging of the breast obtained by X-ray mammography, MRI is thought to be best achieved through some form of data fusion technique. However, images taken by these various techniques are often obtained under entirely different tissue configurations, compression, orientation or body position. In these cases some form of spatial transformation of image data from one geometry to another is required such that the tissues are represented in an equivalent configuration. We propose to use a 3D finite element model for lesion correspondence in breast imaging. The novelty of the approach lies in the following facts: (1) Finite element is the most accurate technique for modeling deformable objects such as breast. The physical soundness and mathematical rigor of finite element method ensure the accuracy and reliability of breast modeling that is essential for lesion correspondence. (2) When both MR and mammographic images are available, a subject-specific 3D breast model will be built from MRIs. If only mammography is available, a generic breast model will be used for two-view mammography reading. (3) Incremental contact simulation of breast compression allows accurate capture of breast deformation and ensures the quality of lesion correspondence. (4) Balance between efficiency and accuracy is achieved through adaptive meshing. We have done intensive research based on phantom and patient data.

  13. Digital Image Processing Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cabrera, R.; Guzmán-Sepúlveda, J. R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; May-Arrioja, D. A.; Ruiz-Pinales, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Aviña-Cervantes, G.; Parada, A. González

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Primary prevention in the early stages of the disease becomes complex as the causes remain almost unknown. However, some typical signatures of this disease, such as masses and microcalcifications appearing on mammograms, can be used to improve early diagnostic techniques, which is critical for women’s quality of life. X-ray mammography is the main test used for screening and early diagnosis, and its analysis and processing are the keys to improving breast cancer prognosis. As masses and benign glandular tissue typically appear with low contrast and often very blurred, several computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been developed to support radiologists and internists in their diagnosis. In this article, an approach is proposed to effectively analyze digital mammograms based on texture segmentation for the detection of early stage tumors. The proposed algorithm was tested over several images taken from the digital database for screening mammography for cancer research and diagnosis, and it was found to be absolutely suitable to distinguish masses and microcalcifications from the background tissue using morphological operators and then extract them through machine learning techniques and a clustering algorithm for intensity-based segmentation.

  14. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Practice Patterns Following 2011 FDA Approval: A Survey of Breast Imaging Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yiming; Babb, James S; Toth, Hildegard K; Moy, Linda; Heller, Samantha L

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate uptake, patterns of use, and perception of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) among practicing breast radiologists. Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained for this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant electronic survey, sent to 7023 breast radiologists identified via the Radiological Society of North America database. Respondents were asked of their geographic location and practice type. DBT users reported length of use, selection criteria, interpretive sequences, recall rate, and reading time. Radiologist satisfaction with DBT as a diagnostic tool was assessed (1-5 scale). There were 1156 (16.5%) responders, 65.8% from the United States and 34.2% from abroad. Of these, 749 (68.6%) use DBT; 22.6% in academia, 56.5% private, and 21% other. Participants are equally likely to report use of DBT if they worked in academics versus in private practice (78.2% [169 of 216] vs 71% [423 of 596]) (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 0.87-1.40; P = 1.000). Of nonusers, 43% (147 of 343) plan to adopt DBT. No US regional differences in uptake were observed (P = 1.000). Although 59.3% (416 of 702) of DBT users include synthetic 2D (s2D) for interpretation, only 24.2% (170 of 702) use s2D alone. Majority (66%; 441 of 672) do not perform DBT-guided procedures. Radiologist (76.6%) (544 of 710) satisfaction with DBT as a diagnostic tool is high (score ≥ 4/5). DBT is being adopted worldwide across all practice types, yet variations in examination indication, patient selection, utilization of s2D images, and access to DBT-guided procedures persist, highlighting the need for consensus and standardization. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaliang; Gao, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong; Thrall, Michael J.; Luo, Pengfei; Wong, Kelvin K.; Wong, Stephen T.

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is a common disease in women. Current imaging and diagnostic methods for breast cancer confront several limitations, like time-consuming, invasive and with a high cost. Alternative strategies are in high demand to alleviate patients' trauma and lower medical expenses. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging technique offers many advantages, including label-free, sub-wavelength spatial resolution and video-rate imaging speed. Therefore, it has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for various biomedical applications. In this study, we present a label-free fast imaging method to identify breast cancer and its subtypes using CARS microscopy. Human breast tissues, including normal, benign and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo using a custom-built CARS microscope. Compared with results from corresponding hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains, the CARS technique has demonstrated its capability in identifying morphological features in a similar way as in H&E stain. These features can be used to distinguish breast cancer from normal and benign tissues, and further separate cancer subtypes from each other. Our pilot study suggests that CARS microscopy could be used as a routine examination tool to characterize breast cancer ex vivo. Moreover, its label-free and fast imaging properties render this technique as a promising approach for in vivo and real-time imaging and diagnosis of breast cancer.

  16. Overuse of imaging the male breast-findings in 557 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, Oren; Siebenga, Pieter; Zonderland, Harmien M

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is the most common abnormality of the male breast. However, breast cancer may occur, albeit with a significantly lower incidence than in females. Imaging is often used as part of the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization and outcome of imaging with mammography or ultrasound of the male breast in a university hospital's department of radiology. A retrospective study assessing the imaging of the male breast in 557 patients over a 10-year period. Referral was done mainly by general surgeons and general practitioners. The most common indication was enlargement of the breast, described as gynecomastia or swelling in 74% of patients, followed by pain in 24% and "lumps" in 10%. The modalities used were mammography in 65%, ultrasound in 51% and both in 26%. Most examinations, 519, were BI-RADS 1 or 2, and 38 were BI-RADS 3 or higher. Altogether 160 patients had additional fine-needle aspiration or biopsy. Malignancies were diagnosed in five patients (0.89%). Imaging had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 99%. The positive predictive value was 44% and the negative predictive value 99.8%. Malignancies are rare in the male breast. The probability of finding cancer when performing imaging of clinically benign findings in the male breast is negligible. Imaging is not warranted unless there are suspicious abnormalities. Routine imaging of gynecomastia should be discouraged. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Three-Dimensional Imaging as a Novel Approach to Breast Cancer Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rudolph

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Today surgical planning in reconstruction of female breast cancer patients is limited by the inability of plastic surgeons to define the necessary volume, shape and contour of the breast. A novel approach to breast cancer reconstruction is three-dimensional imaging, which has gained popularity in an array of industries. Three-dimensional (3D images of a patient’s breasts enable a surgeon to not only visually assess the size, shape, contour, and symmetry of the breasts, but also to obtain quantitative breast measurements and make volumetric calculations. The following study is a preliminary analysis of female patient volunteers undergoing unilateral tissue-expander/implant reconstruction by one of two senior authors. 3D images were obtained during routine preoperative and postoperative office visits and served as a guide by the surgeon for surgical planning. Twelve patients have completed 3D assisted unilateral breast reconstruction to date. Overall breast symmetry improved at the completion of reconstruction in the majority of patients. Average postoperative symmetry was 95% as compared to 88% preoperatively. With 3D images plastic surgeons are able to objectively assess their patient, which is an improvement to the current surgical planning that utilizes subjective two-dimensional images and visual estimates.

  18. D Model of AL Zubarah Fortress in Qatar - Terrestrial Laser Scanning VS. Dense Image Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T.; Mechelke, K.; Maziull, L.

    2015-02-01

    In September 2011 the fortress Al Zubarah, built in 1938 as a typical Arabic fortress and restored in 1987 as a museum, was recorded by the HafenCity University Hamburg using terrestrial laser scanning with the IMAGER 5006h and digital photogrammetry for the Qatar Museum Authority within the framework of the Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project. One goal of the object recording was to provide detailed 2D/3D documentation of the fortress. This was used to complete specific detailed restoration work in the recent years. From the registered laser scanning point clouds several cuttings and 2D plans were generated as well as a 3D surface model by triangle meshing. Additionally, point clouds and surface models were automatically generated from digital imagery from a Nikon D70 using the open-source software Bundler/PMVS2, free software VisualSFM, Autodesk Web Service 123D Catch beta, and low-cost software Agisoft PhotoScan. These outputs were compared with the results from terrestrial laser scanning. The point clouds and surface models derived from imagery could not achieve the same quality of geometrical accuracy as laser scanning (i.e. 1-2 cm).

  19. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for photoacoustic and ultrasonic breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Zhou, Weimin; Matthews, Thomas P; Appleton, Catherine M; Anastasio, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) and ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) are emerging modalities for breast imaging. As in all emerging imaging technologies, computer-simulation studies play a critically important role in developing and optimizing the designs of hardware and image reconstruction methods for PACT and USCT. Using computer-simulations, the parameters of an imaging system can be systematically and comprehensively explored in a way that is generally not possible through experimentation. When conducting such studies, numerical phantoms are employed to represent the physical properties of the patient or object to-be-imaged that influence the measured image data. It is highly desirable to utilize numerical phantoms that are realistic, especially when task-based measures of image quality are to be utilized to guide system design. However, most reported computer-simulation studies of PACT and USCT breast imaging employ simple numerical phantoms that oversimplify the complex anatomical structures in the human female breast. We develop and implement a methodology for generating anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms from clinical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data. The phantoms will depict vascular structures and the volumetric distribution of different tissue types in the breast. By assigning optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue structures, both optical and acoustic breast phantoms will be established for use in PACT and USCT studies.

  20. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for photoacoustic and ultrasonic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Zhou, Weimin; Matthews, Thomas P.; Appleton, Catherine M.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) and ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) are emerging modalities for breast imaging. As in all emerging imaging technologies, computer-simulation studies play a critically important role in developing and optimizing the designs of hardware and image reconstruction methods for PACT and USCT. Using computer-simulations, the parameters of an imaging system can be systematically and comprehensively explored in a way that is generally not possible through experimentation. When conducting such studies, numerical phantoms are employed to represent the physical properties of the patient or object to-be-imaged that influence the measured image data. It is highly desirable to utilize numerical phantoms that are realistic, especially when task-based measures of image quality are to be utilized to guide system design. However, most reported computer-simulation studies of PACT and USCT breast imaging employ simple numerical phantoms that oversimplify the complex anatomical structures in the human female breast. We develop and implement a methodology for generating anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms from clinical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data. The phantoms will depict vascular structures and the volumetric distribution of different tissue types in the breast. By assigning optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue structures, both optical and acoustic breast phantoms will be established for use in PACT and USCT studies.

  1. Conceptual data sampling for breast cancer histology image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Eman; Awan, Zainab; Islam, Fahad; Jaoua, Ali; Al Maadeed, Somaya; Zhang, Nan; Das, Gautam; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2017-07-29

    Data analytics have become increasingly complicated as the amount of data has increased. One technique that is used to enable data analytics in large datasets is data sampling, in which a portion of the data is selected to preserve the data characteristics for use in data analytics. In this paper, we introduce a novel data sampling technique that is rooted in formal concept analysis theory. This technique is used to create samples reliant on the data distribution across a set of binary patterns. The proposed sampling technique is applied in classifying the regions of breast cancer histology images as malignant or benign. The performance of our method is compared to other classical sampling methods. The results indicate that our method is efficient and generates an illustrative sample of small size. It is also competing with other sampling methods in terms of sample size and sample quality represented in classification accuracy and F1 measure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Documentation of dislocated boulders and monitoring of coastal sites in western Greece by terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Röbke, Björn; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Dislocated boulders are one evidence of high-energy coastal inundation by tsunamis and storms. The accurate determination of the mass and the lateral areas of these boulders are important input parameters for wave transport equations, which calculate the necessary wave height and velocity for dislocation. Several studies have revealed that these boulder parameters are not easy to estimate by simply measuring the axes of a boulder, as their morphology is mostly complex. In addition, there is an ongoing debate, how tsunami and storm impacts are distinguishable by wave transport equations. Therefore, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as dense image matching from the ground and by an unmanned aerial system (UAS) have been used to accurately document dislocated boulders. In addition, several different coastal sites in western Greece were monitored since 2009 in order to distinguish gradual changes. This specific region is characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk, due to the nearby plate boundaries. In addition, severe storms during winter time can considerably alter the coasts. The 3D data, gathered by the different methods, was used to derive 3D models of the boulders and enabled the calculation of the volume of each boulder and the corresponding lateral areas as well. The mass of the boulders was achieved by the incorporation of density values. Likewise, the accurate position, orientation and distance to the sea were measured. High-resolution digital elevation models (2.5D) of each site were compared to each other in order to determine changes. For all measurements, marked base points were used for RTK-GPS and tachymetric measurements. Thus, all data is georeferenced and comparable over the observed years. The results of the field campaigns show that the dislocated boulders can be accurately documented and monitored. Their volume and the lateral areas are considerably smaller than estimations by axes measurements. The new data shows reduced wave

  3. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  4. Effect of Tailored Dose-Dense Chemotherapy vs Standard 3-Weekly Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Recurrence-Free Survival Among Women With High-Risk Early Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukakis, Theodoros; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Bengtsson, Nils-Olof; Brandberg, Yvonne; Wallberg, Birgitta; Fornander, Tommy; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Schmatloch, Sabine; Singer, Christian F; Steger, Günther; Egle, Daniel; Karlsson, Eva; Carlsson, Lena; Loibl, Sibylle; Untch, Michael; Hellström, Mats; Johansson, Hemming; Anderson, Harald; Malmström, Per; Gnant, Michael; Greil, Richard; Möbus, Volker; Bergh, Jonas

    2016-11-08

    Standard dosing of chemotherapy based on body surface area results in marked interpatient variation in pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, and efficacy. Whether tailored dosing can improve outcomes is unknown, as is the role of dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy. To determine whether tailored dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcomes of early breast cancer compared with a standard 3-weekly chemotherapy schedule. A randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial of women aged 65 years and younger who had surgery for nonmetastatic node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer at 86 sites in Sweden, Germany, and Austria between February 20, 2007, and September 14, 2011. Patients were randomized 1:1 either to 4 cycles of leukocyte nadir-based tailored and dose-dense adjuvant epirubicin and cyclophosphamide every 2 weeks followed by 4 cycles of tailored dose-dense docetaxel every 2 weeks, or to standard-interval chemotherapy with 3 cycles of fluorouracil and epirubicin-cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel every 3 weeks. The primary end point was breast cancer recurrence-free survival (BCRFS). Secondary end points included 5-year event-free survival (EFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), overall survival (OS), and rates of grade 3 or 4 toxic effects. Among 2017 randomized patients (1006 in the tailored dose-dense group and 1011 in the control group; median [IQR] age, 51 [45-58] years; 80% with hormone receptor-positive tumors; 97% with node-positive disease), 2000 received study treatment (≥1 cycle of chemotherapy; 1001 in the tailored dose-dense group and 999 in the control group). After a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR, 4.5-6.1 years), 269 BCRFS events were reported, 118 in the tailored dose-dense group and 151 in the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.01; log-rank P = .06; 5-year BCRFS, 88.7% vs 85.0%). The tailored dose-dense group had significantly better EFS than the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0

  5. First clinical use of a standardized three-dimensional ultrasound for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsianos-Hermle, D. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany)], E-mail: dorothea.hermle@med.uni-muenchen.de; Wirth, S.; Fischer, T. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany); Hiltawsky, K.M. [General Electric, Global Research, Garching (Germany); Reiser, M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Objectives: The feasibility, image quality, and diagnostic potential of the prototype of an automated ultrasound (US) breast scanner were examined. Methods: Ninety-seven patients with suspicious breast lesions had mammograms, manual US, and an automated breast US. The data were evaluated according to the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) classification, image quality, and amount to diagnostic information. All lesions were confirmed histological. Results: The image quality of the three-dimensional (3D) data sets was equal to or satisfactory compared with cross-sectional images from manual US in at least 72% of cases (p < 0.05). The diagnostic information was equal or superior in at least 63% of cases (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Standardized 3D US scanning is a promising diagnostic adjunct to mammography, but is no substitute for manual US at the current stage of development.

  6. An Interactive Method Based on the Live Wire for Segmentation of the Breast in Mammography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zewei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two cases of breast segmentation data. Compared with the traditional method of image segmentation, experimental results show that the method achieves more accurate segmentation of breast lumps and provides more accurate objective basis on quantitative and qualitative analysis of breast lumps.

  7. An interactive method based on the live wire for segmentation of the breast in mammography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewei, Zhang; Tianyue, Wang; Li, Guo; Tingting, Wang; Lu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two cases of breast segmentation data. Compared with the traditional method of image segmentation, experimental results show that the method achieves more accurate segmentation of breast lumps and provides more accurate objective basis on quantitative and qualitative analysis of breast lumps.

  8. Breast molecular imaging: a retrospective review of one institutions experience with this modality and analysis of its potential role in breast imaging decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Emily; Angelakis, Elizabeth; Morris, Patricia; Pinkus, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Breast Molecular Imaging (or Breast-Specific Gamma Imaging) has been previously shown to be both sensitive and specific for the detection of breast cancer. The purpose of our study was to retrospectively review all cases of Breast Molecular Imaging (BMI) performed at our institution to determine BMI's potential role in Breast Imaging decision making. A total of 416 cases of BMI from January 2007 to November 2009 were analyzed and the following data were collected: indication for examination, BIRADS assignment after BMI, biopsy outcomes, sensitivity and specificity of the modality and patient follow-up. Fifty-six percent of cases were ordered for an indeterminate asymmetry or focal asymmetry, 14% for evaluation of calcifications, and less than 10% each for the remainder of the indications including palpable lumps with negative imaging, evaluation of extent of disease in patients with known breast cancer and screening of high risk patients who could not undergo MRI. BMI was also shown to be helpful in evaluation of lesions that were difficult to biopsy or for patients that desired further testing rather than biopsy or short term follow-up of abnormalities. Seventy percent of BMI cases performed completed the diagnostic evaluation with BIRADS 1 or BIRADS 2 designations. Only 14% of cases ultimately resulted in biopsy. Contra-lateral findings were discovered in 10% of patients, more than half of which were occult malignancies or high-risk lesions. Of the lesions for which biopsy was recommended, 43% were malignant and 15% were high-risk lesions. Sensitivity of the test at our institution was 93% and specificity 78.9%. Our results show that BMI is both a sensitive and specific test which is useful as an adjunct to standard breast imaging modalities for problem solving in indeterminate cases.

  9. Dynamic optical breast imaging: A novel technique to detect and characterize tumor vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Laure S. [Universite Paris Descartes, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Radiology Department, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); University Paris Descartes, Faculte de Medecine, EA4062, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, site Necker, 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75015 Paris (France)], E-mail: laure.fournier@gmail.com; Vanel, Daniel; Athanasiou, Alexandra [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Gatzemeier, Wolfgang [Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Pavia (Italy); Masuykov, I.V. [DOBI Medical International Inc, Mahwah, NJ (United States); Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom); Dromain, Clarisse [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Galetti, Ken [Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Pavia (Italy); Sigal, Robert [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Costa, Alberto [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom); Balleyguier, Corinne [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Radiology Department, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of optical absorption imaging in patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3-5 breast lesions. Materials and methods: Forty-six patients with BI-RADS classification 3 (11%), 4 (44%) or 5 (44%) lesions, underwent a novel optical imaging examination using red light to illuminate the breast. Pressure was applied on the breast, and time-dependent curves of light absorption were recorded. Curves that consistently increased or decreased over time were classified as suspicious for malignancy. All patients underwent a core or surgical biopsy. Results: Optical mammography showed a statistical difference in numbers of suspect pixels between benign (N = 12) and malignant (N = 35) lesions (respectively 1325 vs. 3170, P = 0.002). In this population, optical imaging had a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 92%, and diagnostic accuracy of 79%. The optical signal did not vary according to any other parameter including breast size or density, age, hormonal status or histological type of lesions. Conclusion: Optical imaging is a low-cost, non-invasive technique, yielding physiological information dependent on breast blood volume and oxygenation. It appears to have a good potential for discriminating benign from malignant lesions. Further studies are warranted to define its potential role in breast cancer imaging.

  10. Imaging the atmosphere using volcanic infrasound recorded on a dense local sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcillo, O. E.; Johnson, J. B.; Johnson, R.

    2010-12-01

    We deployed a 47-node infrasound sensor network around Kilauea’s Halemaumau Vent to image the atmospheric conditions of the near-surface. This active vent is a persistent radiator of energetic infrasound enabling us to probe atmospheric winds and temperatures. This research builds upon a previous experiment that recorded infrasound on a three-node network, to determine relative phase delay and invert for atmospheric wind. The technique developed for this previous analysis assumed the intrinsic sound speed and was able to track the evolution of the average wind field in a large area (around 10 km2) and was largely insensitive to local meteorological effects, caused by topography and vegetation. The results of this previous experiment showed the potential of this technique for atmospheric studies and called for a following experiment with a denser sensor network over a larger area. During the summer 2010, we returned to Kilauea and deployed a 47-sensor network in three different configurations around Kilauea summit and down the volcano’s flanks. Persistent infrasonic tremor was ‘loud’ with excess pressures up to 10 Pa (when scaled to 1 km) and periods of high acoustic emissions that lasted from hours to days. The instrumentation for this experiment was composed of single-channel RefTek RT125A Texan digitizers and InfraNMT infrasound sensors. The Texan digitizers provide high-resolution 24-bit analog to digital conversion and can operate continuously for approximately five days with two D-cell batteries. The InfraNMT sensor is based on a piezo-electric transducer and was developed at the Infrasound Laboratory at New Mexico Tech. This sensor features low power (< 3 mA at 9 V) and flat response between 0.02 to 50 Hz. Three different network topologies were tested during this two-week experiment. For the first and second topologies, the sensors were deployed along established roads on two almost perpendicular sensor lines centered at the Halema’uma’u crater

  11. An Object-Oriented Simulator for 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM values.

  12. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcinelli, Michelle Alvares; Albernaz, Marta de Souza; Szwed, Marzena; Iscaife, Alexandre; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Junqueira, Mara de Souza; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose) administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/montmorillonite (MMT)/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200–500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta potential of −14,6 mV. The cytotoxicity results demonstrated that the nanoparticles were capable of reaching breast cancer cells. The biodistribution data demonstrated that the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with 99mTc have great renal clearance and also a high uptake by the lesion, as ~45% of the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles injected were taken up by the lesion. The data support PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab labeled with 99mTc nanoparticles as nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging. PMID:27713638

  13. Influence of Body Image in Women Undergoing Treatment for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ana Carolina Lagos; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Prates, Mariana Ferreira Oliveira; Veloso, Márcia de Faria; Barros, Norami de Moura

    2017-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the self-esteem of women with and without breast cancer regarding their body image. Methods A quantitative, case-control study in which 90 women with breast cancer were evaluated in the case group, and 77 women without breast cancer in the control group. For data collection, the body satisfaction scale (BSS), a scale adapted and validated in Brazil, and the Rosenberg self-esteem questionnaire were used. For the statistical analysis of the data, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (IBM-SPSS, Chicago, Il, US), version 16.0 was used. Results Compared with the women without breast cancer, those with breast cancer were more dissatisfied with body image related to appearance. Women undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy were more dissatisfied with their appearance compared with those with cancer who were not undergoing this treatment. Mastectomy also accounted for more dissatisfaction concerning appearance among women who underwent the procedure compared with the women who were submitted to breast-conserving therapy. Conclusion Women with breast cancer were more dissatisfied with their body image compared with those without breast cancer, particularly following mastectomy or during chemotherapy. The self-esteem was found to be negatively affected in patients who were dissatisfied with their body image. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  14. Breast imaging using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope (PAM): new clinical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, D.; ten Tije, Ellen; Xia, W.; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Klaase, Joost; van den Engh, Frank; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, yearly about 450,000 women die from the consequences of breast cancer. Current imaging modalities are not optimal in discriminating benign from malignant tissue. Visualizing the malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentration might significantly improve early diagnosis of breast

  15. Cowden Syndrome Presenting as Breast Cancer: Imaging and Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae [Dept. of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Hyeong Gon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hye Shin [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Cowden syndrome is an uncommon, autosomal dominant disease which is characterized by multiple hamartomas of the skin, mucous membrane, brain, breast, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of Cowden syndrome implicates an increased risk of developing breast cancer. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with Cowden syndrome that presented as breast cancer with concomitant bilateral exuberant benign masses in both breasts.

  16. Comparision of full-field digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis on assessment of the lesions in dense breast: a preliminary study%数字乳腺断层摄影与全数字化乳腺摄影对致密型乳腺病变诊断的初步对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李弋; 叶兆祥; 吴涛; 安彦虹; 刘佩芳; 鲍润贤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the performance of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in the assessment of the lesions in dense breast,and to estimate the difference in diagnosis of breast disease by FFDM images alone and FFDM plus DBT images.Methods According to the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS),134 patients were selected.The morphology of the lesions shown on FFDM and DBT were evaluated and compared,and the maximum diameter of the lesions was measured.At first,doctors made the diagnosis of a patient by reading FFDM only.Then they made another diagnosis by combining with DBT images of the same patient.The two diagnoses were compared and analyzed according to the pathology results.Results One hundred and thirtyfour patients were included in this study,and all of them were confirmed by histology (65 benign cases,69 malignant cases).DBT could show more details about the morphology of the lesions,including the border of the masses,spiculation and vessels.The numbers of those signs detected by DBT were 46,30 and 3,respectively,while only 33 case with circumscribed masses and 14 cases with spiculation were detected by FFDM.Only the difference of spiculation in heterogeneously dense breast detected by DBT and FFDM was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Of the cases with calcifications,DBT images (reconstructed as a 1-mm thick slice) showed calcifications superior to FFDM in 2 cases,equal to FFDM in 23cases,and inferior to FFDM in 11 cases.The difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).But when thickness was changed into 1 cm,the visibility of calcifications in those cases was equal between FFDM and DBT.The maximum diameter of lesions was 2.46 ± 1.64 cm in DBT image,and 2.58 ± 1.62 cm in FFDM image,with a significant difference (P < 0.05).Comparing with reading FFDM images only,the accuracy of FFDM combining with DBT was increased from 88.8% to 91.8%.For FFDM,the AUC of ROC was 0.887,while for DBT it

  17. Point Cloud Classification of Tesserae from Terrestrial Laser Data Combined with Dense Image Matching for Archaeological Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2017-08-01

    Reasoning from information extraction given by point cloud data mining allows contextual adaptation and fast decision making. However, to achieve this perceptive level, a point cloud must be semantically rich, retaining relevant information for the end user. This paper presents an automatic knowledge-based method for pre-processing multi-sensory data and classifying a hybrid point cloud from both terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching. Using 18 features including sensor's biased data, each tessera in the high-density point cloud from the 3D captured complex mosaics of Germigny-des-prés (France) is segmented via a colour multi-scale abstraction-based featuring extracting connectivity. A 2D surface and outline polygon of each tessera is generated by a RANSAC plane extraction and convex hull fitting. Knowledge is then used to classify every tesserae based on their size, surface, shape, material properties and their neighbour's class. The detection and semantic enrichment method shows promising results of 94% correct semantization, a first step toward the creation of an archaeological smart point cloud.

  18. Breast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with occult breast carcinoma: evaluation on feasibility and correlation with histopathological findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; XU Yi-lin; ZHANG Shu-ping; LANG Rong-gang; Chi S.Zee; LIU Pei-fang; FU Li

    2011-01-01

    Background As an uncommon presentation, occult primary breast cancer remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in clinical practice. This study aimed to retrospectively assess the feasibility of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with malignant axillary lymphadenopathy and unknown primary malignancy, and correlation with histopathological characteristics.Methods A total of 35 women with occult breast carcinoma were evaluated with dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. Whole seriate section was used in all cases. MRI performance was assessed and correlated with histopathological findings.Results Twenty-one of 35 patients were found to have primary breast carcinoma histologically. Twenty of the 21 patients had abnormal MR findings and 1 patient had a normal MRI study. Of the remaining 14 patients, 10 were negative on both MRI and surgery. Four had suspicious enhancement on MRI and no corresponding tumor was found. Lesions with mass enhancement were found in 55% (11/20) and ductual and segmental enhancement in 45%. The average diameter of the primary tumors was 15 mm. Invasive ductal carcinomas were found in 81% (17/21). One of 17 invasive ductual carcinomas was too small to be graded. Fourteen of the remaining 16 were classified as grade II and 2 as grade I. Thirty-two of the 35 patients had received estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 examinations and the 12 of 32 were triple-negative breast carcinoma.Conclusions Mass lesions with small size and lesions with ductal or segment enhancement are common MRI features in patients with occult breast cancer. The dominant types of primary tumors are invasive ductal carcinoma with moderate histopathological grade. The rate of triple-negative breast carcinoma may be higher in occult breast cancer.

  19. A web-based personalized risk communication and decision-making tool for women with dense breasts: Design and methods of a randomized controlled trial within an integrated health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerr, Sarah; Wernli, Karen J; Leppig, Kathleen; Ehrlich, Kelly; Graham, Amanda L; Farrell, David; Evans, Chalanda; Luta, George; Schwartz, Marc D; O'Neill, Suzanne C

    2017-05-01

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer after age and family history. Mandatory breast density disclosure policies are increasing nationally without clear guidance on how to communicate density status to women. Coupling density disclosure with personalized risk counseling and decision support through a web-based tool may be an effective way to allow women to make informed, values-consistent risk management decisions without increasing distress. This paper describes the design and methods of Engaged, a prospective, randomized controlled trial examining the effect of online personalized risk counseling and decision support on risk management decisions in women with dense breasts and increased breast cancer risk. The trial is embedded in a large integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. A total of 1250 female health plan members aged 40-69 with a recent negative screening mammogram who are at increased risk for interval cancer based on their 5-year breast cancer risk and BI-RADS® breast density will be randomly assigned to access either a personalized web-based counseling and decision support tool or standard educational content. Primary outcomes will be assessed using electronic health record data (i.e., chemoprevention and breast MRI utilization) and telephone surveys (i.e., distress) at baseline, six weeks, and twelve months. Engaged will provide evidence about whether a web-based personalized risk counseling and decision support tool is an effective method for communicating with women about breast density and risk management. An effective intervention could be disseminated with minimal clinical burden to align with density disclosure mandates. Clinical Trials Registration Number:NCT03029286. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PLSA-based pathological image retrieval for breast cancer with color deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yibing; Shi, Jun; Jiang, Zhiguo; Feng, Hao

    2013-10-01

    Digital pathological image retrieval plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer. The retrieval results of an unknown pathological image, which are generally previous cases with diagnostic information, can provide doctors with assistance and reference. In this paper, we develop a novel pathological image retrieval method for breast cancer, which is based on stain component and probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) model. Specifically, the method firstly utilizes color deconvolution to gain the representation of different stain components for cell nuclei and cytoplasm, and then block Gabor features are conducted on cell nuclei, which is used to construct the codebook. Furthermore, the connection between the words of the codebook and the latent topics among images are modeled by pLSA. Therefore, each image can be represented by the topics and also the high-level semantic concepts of image can be described. Experiments on the pathological image database for breast cancer demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  1. Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of early and advanced breast cancer: When, why, and how often?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Lin, Nancy U

    2017-02-01

    Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with early or advanced breast cancer is an important aspect of cancer care. The role of imaging in breast cancer depends on the goal and should only be performed to guide clinical decisions. Imaging is valuable if a finding will change the course of treatment and improve outcomes, whether this is disease-free survival, overall survival or quality-of-life. In the last decade, imaging is often overused in oncology and contributes to rising healthcare costs. In this context, we review the data that supports the appropriate use of imaging for breast cancer patients. We will discuss: 1) the optimal use of staging imaging in both early (Stage 0-II) and locally advanced (Stage III) breast cancer, 2) the role of surveillance imaging to detect recurrent disease in Stage 0-III breast cancer and 3) how patients with metastatic breast cancer should be followed with advanced imaging.

  2. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Klock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists’ confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%–90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy.

  3. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuanow, Elaine; Malik, Bilal; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Wiskin, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT) Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists' confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM) is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%–90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy.

  4. Automated breast segmentation of fat and water MR images using dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Toro, José A; Barr, Tomoe; Galons, Jean-Philippe; Marron, Marilyn T; Stopeck, Alison; Thomson, Cynthia; Thompson, Patricia; Carroll, Danielle; Wolf, Eszter; Altbach, María I; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J

    2015-02-01

    To develop and test an algorithm that outlines the breast boundaries using information from fat and water magnetic resonance images. Three algorithms were implemented and tested using registered fat and water magnetic resonance images. Two of the segmentation algorithms are simple extensions of the techniques used for contrast-enhanced images: one algorithm uses clustering and local gradient (CLG) analysis and the other algorithm uses a Hessian-based sheetness filter (HSF). The third segmentation algorithm uses k-means++ and dynamic programming (KDP) for finding the breast pixels. All three algorithms separate the left and right breasts using either a fixed region or a morphological method. The performance is quantified using a mutual overlap (Dice) metric and a pectoral muscle boundary error. The algorithms are evaluated against three manual tracers using 266 breast images from 14 female subjects. The KDP algorithm has a mean overlap percentage improvement that is statistically significant relative to the HSF and CLG algorithms. When using a fixed region to remove the tissue between breasts with tracer 1 as a reference, the KDP algorithm has a mean overlap of 0.922 compared to 0.864 (P algorithm is independent of breast density. We developed a new automated segmentation algorithm (KDP) to isolate breast tissue from magnetic resonance fat and water images. KDP outperforms the other techniques that focus on local analysis (CLG and HSF) and yields a performance similar to human tracers. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging left-ventricular mechanical activation in heart failure patients using cine DENSE MRI: Validation and implications for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Daniel A; Bilchick, Kenneth C; Gonzalez, Jorge A; Cui, Sophia X; Holmes, Jeffrey W; Kramer, Christopher M; Salerno, Michael; Epstein, Frederick H

    2017-09-01

    To image late mechanical activation and identify effective left-ventricular (LV) pacing sites for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). There is variability in defining mechanical activation time, with some studies using the time to peak strain (TPS) and some using the time to the onset of circumferential shortening (TOS). We developed improved methods for imaging mechanical activation and evaluated them in heart failure (HF) patients undergoing CRT. We applied active contours to cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) strain images to detect TOS. Six healthy volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5T, and 50 patients underwent pre-CRT MRI (strain, scar, volumes) and echocardiography, assessment of the electrical activation time (Q-LV) at the LV pacing site, and echocardiography assessment of LV reverse remodeling 6 months after CRT. TPS at the LV pacing site was also measured by DENSE. The latest TOS was greater in HF patients vs. healthy subjects (112 ± 28 msec vs. 61 ± 7 msec, P  0.75; P cine DENSE TOS analysis is associated with improved LV reverse remodeling with CRT and deserves further study as a tool to achieve optimal LV lead placement in CRT. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:887-896. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Frequency and Clinical Significance of Extramammary Findings on Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Sneha; Thomas, Alexandra; Yang, Limin; Moore, Catherine; Xia, Chang; Schroeder, Mary C

    2016-10-01

    Use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for screening and local staging of breast cancer has increased. With this, questions have emerged regarding the management and effect of extramammary findings (EMFs) reported on breast MRI. Breast MRI studies performed between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 at the University of Iowa were analyzed. Data were collected regarding number and location of EMFs, characteristics of the patients who had a breast MRI, and time to first treatment among the patients who had a breast MRI for stage I-III breast cancer. During the study period, 1305 breast MRIs were obtained in 772 women. An EMF was found in 140 studies (10.7%) and 113 women (14.6%). EMFs were more likely in MRIs of older patients (50 vs. 54 years, P = .004) and postmenopausal women (P = .001). Anatomically, most EMFs were seen in the liver (89 of 140) or bone (21 of 140). Eight women (0.6%) had an EMF on breast MRI that led to upstaging to stage IV breast cancer. For patients with stage I-III breast cancer, the finding of an EMF on breast MRI did not affect time to initial cancer treatment (13 vs. 14 days; P = .586). EMFs on breast MRI are seen with some frequency and occur more commonly in older, postmenopausal women. In our study, most EMFs were benign and did not affect patient outcome with regard to upstaging to stage IV disease or time to cancer treatment. A very small portion of studies revealed subclinical advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequential dose-dense 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel in patients with early breast cancer with four or more positive lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murialdo, Roberto; Gallo, Maurizio; Boy, Davide; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Tixi, Lucia; Gonella, Roberta; Ballestrero, Alberto; Patrone, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the feasibility of a densified sequence of FEC75 (5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, epirubicin 75 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2) and docetaxel 100 mg/m2 (D100) in patients with primary operable high-risk breast cancer. Fifty-one consecutive patients with resectable breast cancer and 4 or more positive axillary lymph nodes were enrolled. After a common regimen of 4 cycles of FEC75 given every 14 days, patients received 4 cycles of D100 every 14 days. Prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered subcutaneously at 5 mg/kg daily from days 5 to 10 to each patient. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects receiving at least 85% of the relative dose intensity (rDI) both in the FEC and docetaxel parts of the regimen. In view of the high percentage of grade 3-4 skin toxicity (32%) observed in the first 25 patients (Group A) during D100 treatment, it was decided to continue the study using a docetaxel dose reduced by 15% (85 mg/m2; D85). This second group of 26 patients was defined as Group B. Of the total 51 patients, 38 (75%) received docetaxel rDI ≥85%, 23/26 patients (88.5%) and 15/25 patients (60.0%) in Group B and Group A, respectively. The observed grade 3-4 hematological and nonhematological toxicities were in line with data from the literature. The only significant difference was the higher percentage of grade 3-4 skin toxicity experienced with D100. This study failed to demonstrate the feasibility of a dose-dense FEC-D regimen with docetaxel 100 mg/m2. Docetaxel 85 mg/m2 seems to allow a higher rDI than docetaxel 100 mg/m2 but this should be confirmed in a larger cohort of patients.

  8. Features of undiagnosed breast cancers at screening breast MR imaging and potential utility of computer-aided evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Cho, Nariya; Bea, Min Sun; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Chu, A Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the features of undiagnosed breast cancers on prior screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer, as well as the potential utility of MR-computer-aided evaluation (CAE). Between March 2004 and May 2013, of the 72 consecutive pairs of prior negative MR images and subsequent MR images with diagnosed cancers (median interval, 32.8 months; range, 5.4-104.6 months), 36 (50%) had visible findings (mean size, 1.0 cm; range, 0.3-5.2 cm). The visible findings were divided into either actionable or under threshold groups by the blinded review by 5 radiologists. MR imaging features, reasons for missed cancer, and MR-CAE features according to actionability were evaluated. Of the 36 visible findings on prior MR images, 33.3% (12 of 36) of the lesions were determined to be actionable and 66.7% (24 of 36) were underthreshold; 85.7% (6 of 7) of masses and 31.6% (6 of 19) of non-mass enhancements were classified as actionable lesions. Mimicking physiologic enhancements (27.8%, 10 of 36) and small lesion size (27.8%, 10 of 36) were the most common reasons for missed cancer. Actionable findings tended to show more washout or plateau kinetic patterns on MR-CAE than underthreshold findings, as the 100% of actionable findings and 46.7% of underthreshold findings showed washout or plateau (p = 0.008). MR-CAE has the potential for reducing the number of undiagnosed breast cancers on screening breast MR images, the majority of which are caused by mimicking physiologic enhancements or small lesion size.

  9. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Hari

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates.

  10. Image reconstruction for a Positron Emission Tomograph optimized for breast cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virador, Patrick R.G.

    2000-04-01

    The author performs image reconstruction for a novel Positron Emission Tomography camera that is optimized for breast cancer imaging. This work addresses for the first time, the problem of fully-3D, tomographic reconstruction using a septa-less, stationary, (i.e. no rotation or linear motion), and rectangular camera whose Field of View (FOV) encompasses the entire volume enclosed by detector modules capable of measuring Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. The camera is rectangular in shape in order to accommodate breasts of varying sizes while allowing for soft compression of the breast during the scan. This non-standard geometry of the camera exacerbates two problems: (a) radial elongation due to crystal penetration and (b) reconstructing images from irregularly sampled data. Packing considerations also give rise to regions in projection space that are not sampled which lead to missing information. The author presents new Fourier Methods based image reconstruction algorithms that incorporate DOI information and accommodate the irregular sampling of the camera in a consistent manner by defining lines of responses (LORs) between the measured interaction points instead of rebinning the events into predefined crystal face LORs which is the only other method to handle DOI information proposed thus far. The new procedures maximize the use of the increased sampling provided by the DOI while minimizing interpolation in the data. The new algorithms use fixed-width evenly spaced radial bins in order to take advantage of the speed of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which necessitates the use of irregular angular sampling in order to minimize the number of unnormalizable Zero-Efficiency Bins (ZEBs). In order to address the persisting ZEBs and the issue of missing information originating from packing considerations, the algorithms (a) perform nearest neighbor smoothing in 2D in the radial bins (b) employ a semi-iterative procedure in order to estimate the unsampled data

  11. Image reconstruction for a Positron Emission Tomograph optimized for breast cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virador, Patrick R.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The author performs image reconstruction for a novel Positron Emission Tomography camera that is optimized for breast cancer imaging. This work addresses for the first time, the problem of fully-3D, tomographic reconstruction using a septa-less, stationary, (i.e. no rotation or linear motion), and rectangular camera whose Field of View (FOV) encompasses the entire volume enclosed by detector modules capable of measuring Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. The camera is rectangular in shape in order to accommodate breasts of varying sizes while allowing for soft compression of the breast during the scan. This non-standard geometry of the camera exacerbates two problems: (a) radial elongation due to crystal penetration and (b) reconstructing images from irregularly sampled data. Packing considerations also give rise to regions in projection space that are not sampled which lead to missing information. The author presents new Fourier Methods based image reconstruction algorithms that incorporate DOI information and accommodate the irregular sampling of the camera in a consistent manner by defining lines of responses (LORs) between the measured interaction points instead of rebinning the events into predefined crystal face LORs which is the only other method to handle DOI information proposed thus far. The new procedures maximize the use of the increased sampling provided by the DOI while minimizing interpolation in the data. The new algorithms use fixed-width evenly spaced radial bins in order to take advantage of the speed of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which necessitates the use of irregular angular sampling in order to minimize the number of unnormalizable Zero-Efficiency Bins (ZEBs). In order to address the persisting ZEBs and the issue of missing information originating from packing considerations, the algorithms (a) perform nearest neighbor smoothing in 2D in the radial bins (b) employ a semi-iterative procedure in order to estimate the unsampled data

  12. TU-CD-207-09: Analysis of the 3-D Shape of Patients’ Breast for Breast Imaging and Surgery Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agasthya, G; Sechopoulos, I [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to accurately capture the 3-D shape of patients’ external breast surface before and during breast compression for mammography/tomosynthesis. Methods: During this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 50 women were recruited to undergo 3-D breast surface imaging during breast compression and imaging for the cranio-caudal (CC) view on a digital mammography/breast tomosynthesis system. Digital projectors and cameras mounted on tripods were used to acquire 3-D surface images of the breast, in three conditions: (a) positioned on the support paddle before compression, (b) during compression by the compression paddle and (c) the anterior-posterior view with the breast in its natural, unsupported position. The breast was compressed to standard full compression with the compression paddle and a tomosynthesis image was acquired simultaneously with the 3-D surface. The 3-D surface curvature and deformation with respect to the uncompressed surface was analyzed using contours. The 3-D surfaces were voxelized to capture breast shape in a format that can be manipulated for further analysis. Results: A protocol was developed to accurately capture the 3-D shape of patients’ breast before and during compression for mammography. Using a pair of 3-D scanners, the 50 patient breasts were scanned in three conditions, resulting in accurate representations of the breast surfaces. The surfaces were post processed, analyzed using contours and voxelized, with 1 mm{sup 3} voxels, converting the breast shape into a format that can be easily modified as required. Conclusion: Accurate characterization of the breast curvature and shape for the generation of 3-D models is possible. These models can be used for various applications such as improving breast dosimetry, accurate scatter estimation, conducting virtual clinical trials and validating compression algorithms. Ioannis Sechopoulos is consultant for Fuji Medical Systems USA.

  13. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  14. An Interactive Method Based on the Live Wire for Segmentation of the Breast in Mammography Images

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zewei; Wang Tianyue; Guo Li; Wang Tingting; Xu Lu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two...

  15. Segmentation of the whole breast from low-dose chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Salvatore, Mary; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2015-03-01

    The segmentation of whole breast serves as the first step towards automated breast lesion detection. It is also necessary for automatically assessing the breast density, which is considered to be an important risk factor for breast cancer. In this paper we present a fully automated algorithm to segment the whole breast in low-dose chest CT images (LDCT), which has been recommended as an annual lung cancer screening test. The automated whole breast segmentation and potential breast density readings as well as lesion detection in LDCT will provide useful information for women who have received LDCT screening, especially the ones who have not undergone mammographic screening, by providing them additional risk indicators for breast cancer with no additional radiation exposure. The two main challenges to be addressed are significant range of variations in terms of the shape and location of the breast in LDCT and the separation of pectoral muscles from the glandular tissues. The presented algorithm achieves robust whole breast segmentation using an anatomy directed rule-based method. The evaluation is performed on 20 LDCT scans by comparing the segmentation with ground truth manually annotated by a radiologist on one axial slice and two sagittal slices for each scan. The resulting average Dice coefficient is 0.880 with a standard deviation of 0.058, demonstrating that the automated segmentation algorithm achieves results consistent with manual annotations of a radiologist.

  16. Body image issues after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction in healthy women at risk for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopie, Jessica P; Mureau, Marc A M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Timman, Reinier; Tibben, Aad

    2013-09-01

    The outcome of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction (BPM-IBR) in healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be potentially burdensome for body image and the intimate relationship. Therefore, in the current analysis the impact on body image, sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was prospectively investigated in women opting for BPM-IBR as well as cancer distress and general quality of life. Healthy women undergoing BPM-IBR completed questionnaires preoperatively (T0, n = 48), at 6 months (T1, n = 44) and after finishing breast reconstruction (median 21 months, range 12-35) (T2, n = 36). With multi-level regression analyses the course of outcome variables was investigated and a statistically significant change in body image and/or sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was predicted by baseline covariates. Body image significantly decreased at T1. At T2 sexual relationship satisfaction and body image tended to be lower compared to baseline. The overall partner relationship satisfaction did not significantly change. At T2, 37 % of the women reported that their breasts felt unpleasantly, 29 % was not satisfied with their breast appearance and 21 % felt embarrassed for their naked body. Most body image issues remained unchanged in 30 % of the women. A negative body image was predicted by high preoperative cancer distress. BPM-IBR was associated with adverse impact on body image in a substantial subgroup, but satisfaction with the overall sexual and partner relationship did not significantly change in time. The psychosocial impact of BPM-IBR in unaffected women should not be underestimated. Psychological support should ideally be integrated both before and after BPM-IBR.

  17. Comparison of a flexible versus a rigid breast compression paddle: pain experience, projected breast area, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, M.J.; Voorde, M. Ten; Veldkamp, W.J.H.; Engen, R.E. van; Landsveld-Verhoeven, C. van; Jong-Gunneman, M.N. t; Win, J. de; Greve, K.D.; Paap, E.; Heeten, GJ. den

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare pain, projected breast area, radiation dose and image quality between flexible (FP) and rigid (RP) breast compression paddles. METHODS: The study was conducted in a Dutch mammographic screening unit (288 women). To compare both paddles one additional image with RP was made, consi

  18. Review of Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast: Imaging Findings and Pathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Leddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic carcinoma (MPC, an uncommon but often aggressive breast cancer, can be challenging to differentiate from other types of breast cancer and even benign lesions based on the imaging appearance. It has a variable pathology classification system. These types of tumors are generally rapidly growing palpable masses. MPCs on imaging can present with imaging features similar to invasive ductal carcinoma and probably even benign lesions. The purpose of this article is to review MPC of the breast including the pathology subtypes, imaging features, and imaging pathology correlations. By understanding the clinical picture, pathology, and overlap in imaging characteristics of MPC with invasive ductal carcinoma and probably benign lesions can assist in diagnosing these difficult malignancies.

  19. Iodine contrast cone beam CT imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, Larry; Prionas, Stavros; Seppi, Edward; Virshup, Gary; Roos, Gerhard; Sutherland, Robert; Boone, John

    2007-03-01

    An iodine contrast agent, in conjunction with an X-ray cone beam CT imaging system, was used to clearly image three, biopsy verified, cancer lesions in two patients. The lesions were approximately in the 10 mm to 6 mm diameter range. Additional regions were also enhanced with approximate dimensions down to 1 mm or less in diameter. A flat panel detector, with 194 μm pixels in 2 x 2 binning mode, was used to obtain 500 projection images at 30 fps with an 80 kVp X-ray system operating at 112 mAs, for an 8-9 mGy dose - equivalent to two view mammography for these women. The patients were positioned prone, while the gantry rotated in the horizontal plane around the uncompressed, pendant breasts. This gantry rotated 360 degrees during the patient's 16.6 sec breath hold. A volume of 100 cc of 320 mg/ml iodine-contrast was power injected at 4 cc/sec, via catheter into the arm vein of the patient. The resulting 512 x 512 x 300 cone beam CT data set of Feldkamp reconstructed ~(0.3 mm) 3 voxels were analyzed. An interval of voxel contrast values, characteristic of the regions with iodine contrast enhancement, were used with surface rendering to clearly identify up to a total of 13 highlighted volumes. This included the three largest lesions, that were previously biopsied and confirmed to be malignant. The other ten highlighted regions, of smaller diameters, are likely areas of increased contrast trapping unrelated to cancer angiogenesis. However the technique itself is capable of resolving lesions that small.

  20. Breast imaging using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope (PAM): new clinical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; Ten Tije, Ellen; Xia, Wenfeng; van Hespen, Johan; Klaase, Joost; van den Engh, Frank; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-07-01

    Worldwide, yearly about 450,000 women die from the consequences of breast cancer. Current imaging modalities are not optimal in discriminating benign from malignant tissue. Visualizing the malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentration might significantly improve early diagnosis of breast cancer. Since photoacoustic imaging can visualize hemoglobin in tissue with optical contrast and ultrasound-like resolution, it is potentially an ideal method for early breast cancer imaging. The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM) has been developed specifically for breast imaging. Recently, a large clinical study has been started in the Medisch Spectrum Twente in Oldenzaal using PAM. In PAM, the breast is slightly compressed between a window for laser light illumination and a flat array ultrasound detector. The measurements are performed using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, pulsed at 1064 nm and a 1 MHz unfocused ultrasound detector array. Three-dimensional data are reconstructed using a delay and sum reconstruction algorithm. Those reconstructed images are compared with conventional imaging and histopathology. In the first phase of the study 12 patients with a malignant lesion and 2 patients with a benign cyst have been measured. The results are used to guide developments in photoacoustic mammography in order to pave the way towards an optimal technique for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  1. Improving image quality for digital breast tomosynthesis: an automated detection and diffusion-based method for metal artifact reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Samala, Ravi K.

    2017-10-01

    In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), the high-attenuation metallic clips marking a previous biopsy site in the breast cause errors in the estimation of attenuation along the ray paths intersecting the markers during reconstruction, which result in interplane and inplane artifacts obscuring the visibility of subtle lesions. We proposed a new metal artifact reduction (MAR) method to improve image quality. Our method uses automatic detection and segmentation to generate a marker location map for each projection (PV). A voting technique based on the geometric correlation among different PVs is designed to reduce false positives (FPs) and to label the pixels on the PVs and the voxels in the imaged volume that represent the location and shape of the markers. An iterative diffusion method replaces the labeled pixels on the PVs with estimated tissue intensity from the neighboring regions while preserving the original pixel values in the neighboring regions. The inpainted PVs are then used for DBT reconstruction. The markers are repainted on the reconstructed DBT slices for radiologists’ information. The MAR method is independent of reconstruction techniques or acquisition geometry. For the training set, the method achieved 100% success rate with one FP in 19 views. For the test set, the success rate by view was 97.2% for core biopsy microclips and 66.7% for clusters of large post-lumpectomy markers with a total of 10 FPs in 58 views. All FPs were large dense benign calcifications that also generated artifacts if they were not corrected by MAR. For the views with successful detection, the metal artifacts were reduced to a level that was not visually apparent in the reconstructed slices. The visibility of breast lesions obscured by the reconstruction artifacts from the metallic markers was restored.

  2. Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using Microwave Imaging via Space-Frequency Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Spandana

    The conventional breast cancer detection methods have limitations ranging from ionizing radiations, low specificity to high cost. These limitations make way for a suitable alternative called Microwave Imaging, as a screening technique in the detection of breast cancer. The discernible differences between the benign, malignant and healthy breast tissues and the ability to overcome the harmful effects of ionizing radiations make microwave imaging, a feasible breast cancer detection technique. Earlier studies have shown the variation of electrical properties of healthy and malignant tissues as a function of frequency and hence stimulates high bandwidth requirement. A Ultrawideband, Wideband and Narrowband arrays have been designed, simulated and optimized for high (44%), medium (33%) and low (7%) bandwidths respectively, using the EM (electromagnetic software) called FEKO. These arrays are then used to illuminate the breast model (phantom) and the received backscattered signals are obtained in the near field for each case. The Microwave Imaging via Space-Time (MIST) beamforming algorithm in the frequency domain, is next applied to these near field backscattered monostatic frequency response signals for the image reconstruction of the breast model. The main purpose of this investigation is to access the impact of bandwidth and implement a novel imaging technique for use in the early detection of breast cancer. Earlier studies show the implementation of the MIST imaging algorithm on the time domain signals via a frequency domain beamformer. The performance evaluation of the imaging algorithm on the frequency response signals has been carried out in the frequency domain. The energy profile of the breast in the spatial domain is created via the frequency domain Parseval's theorem. The beamformer weights calculated using these the MIST algorithm (not including the effect of the skin) has been calculated for Ultrawideband, Wideband and Narrowband arrays, respectively

  3. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B. [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Heine, J. J. [Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR{sub pg} measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR{sub vc} and BR{sub vr} measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (κ) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had κ between 0.25–0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR{sub vr}. The measures generated by method-2 had κ between 0.42–0.45. Two of these

  4. Digital breast tomosynthesis for detecting multifocal and multicentric breast cancer: influence of acquisition geometry on model observer performance in breast phantom images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Park, Subok; Markey, Mia K.

    2017-03-01

    Multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MFMC), i.e., the presence of two or more tumor foci within the same breast, has an immense clinical impact on treatment planning and survival outcomes. Detecting multiple breast tumors is challenging as MFMC breast cancer is relatively uncommon, and human observers do not know the number or locations of tumors a priori. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in which an x-ray beam sweeps over a limited angular range across the breast, has the potential to improve the detection of multiple tumors.1, 2 However, prior efforts to optimize DBT image quality only considered unifocal breast cancers (e.g.,3-9), so the recommended geometries may not necessarily yield images that are informative for the task of detecting MFMC. Hence, the goal of this study is to employ a 3D multi-lesion (ml) channelized-Hotelling observer (CHO) to identify optimal DBT acquisition geometries for MFMC. Digital breast phantoms and simulated DBT scanners of different geometries (e.g., wide or narrow arc scans, different number of projections in each scan) were used to generate image data for the simulation study. Multiple 3D synthetic lesions were inserted into different breast regions to simulate MF cases and MC cases. 3D partial least squares (PLS) channels, and 3D Laguerre-Gauss (LG) channels were estimated to capture discriminant information and correlations among signals in locally varying anatomical backgrounds, enabling the model observer to make both image-level and location-specific detection decisions. The 3D ml-CHO with PLS channels outperformed that with LG channels in this study. The simulated MC cases and MC cases were not equally difficult for the ml-CHO to detect across the different simulated DBT geometries considered in this analysis. Also, the results suggest that the optimal design of DBT may vary as the task of clinical interest changes, e.g., a geometry that is better for finding at least one lesion may be worse for counting the

  5. Image and pathological changes after microwave ablation of breast cancer: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wenbin [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Yanni [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Chen, Lin; Ling, Lijun; Liang, Mengdi; Pan, Hong [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Siqi [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ding, Qiang [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Xiaoan, E-mail: liuxiaoan@126.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Shui, E-mail: ws0801@hotmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We report successful experience of MWA in breast cancer under local anesthesia. • We report MR imaging evaluation of microwave ablation zone in breast cancer. • Pathological changes after microwave ablation in breast cancer was reported. • 2 min MWA caused an ablation zone with three diameters > 2 cm in breast cancer. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively assess MR imaging evaluation of the ablation zone and pathological changes after microwave ablation (MWA) in breast cancer. Materials and methods: Twelve enrolled patients, diagnosed with non-operable locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), were treated by MWA and then neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgery. MR imaging was applied to evaluate the effect of MWA. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to analyze the ablated area. Results: All MWA procedures were performed successfully under local anesthesia. For a mean duration of 2.15 min, the mean largest, middle and smallest diameters in the ablated zone 24-h post-ablation in MR imaging were 2.98 cm ± 0.53, 2.51 cm ± 0.41 and 2.23 cm ± 0.41, respectively. The general shape of the ablation zone was close to a sphere. The ablated area became gradually smaller in MR imaging. No adverse effects related to MWA were noted in all 12 patients during and after MWA. HE staining could confirm the effect about 3 months after MWA, which was confirmed by TEM. Conclusions: 2 min MWA can cause an ablation zone with three diameters larger than 2 cm in breast cancer, which may be suitable for the local treatment of breast cancer up to 2 cm in largest diameter. However, the long-term effect of MWA in the treatment of small breast cancer should be determined in the future.

  6. Patterns of nonmasslike enhancement at screening breast MR imaging of high-risk premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giess, Catherine S; Raza, Sughra; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2013-01-01

    Current U.S. recommendations for breast cancer screening of women with at least a 20%-25% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer include contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breasts. The cancer detection rate in high-risk women undergoing screening MR imaging is approximately 10 times higher than that in normal-risk women undergoing screening mammography. Many of these high-risk women commence MR imaging screening while they are premenopausal, when the breasts are most influenced by cyclical hormonal changes. Healthy premenopausal breast tissue enhances in a cyclical and variable manner. This enhancement is described as background enhancement. Typically, enhancement of normal breast tissue occurs in a symmetric and diffuse pattern, and there is little diagnostic difficulty in classifying it as normal background parenchymal enhancement. However, sometimes the pattern is more focal, asymmetric, or regional. It may then be described as nonmasslike enhancement, an observation associated with both benign and malignant breast pathologic conditions. A review of the morphologic features and internal enhancement patterns in normal but nondiffuse background enhancement and abnormal nonmasslike enhancement in high-risk premenopausal women can help improve interpretive specificity and decrease false-positive interpretations. MR imaging pitfalls and interpretation strategies for localized background enhancement and pathologic nonmasslike enhancement in this high-risk population are highlighted. In evaluating nonmasslike enhancement, the use of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon to perform careful analysis of morphologic features, along with an understanding of the role and limitations of kinetic information, will help balance early breast cancer detection against false-positive interpretation.

  7. Computerized Analysis of MR and Ultrasound Images of Breast Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Yearbook of Radiology) 3. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Huo Z, Vyborny CJ; Computer-aided diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound. Proceedings...International Workshop on Digital Mammography. Toronto, Canada, June, 2000. 4. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Automatic segmentation of breast...lesions on ultrasound. Medical Physics (in press). 5. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Computerized diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound

  8. Bio-functionalized dense-silica nanoparticles for MR/NIRF imaging of CD146 in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pu Wang,1,* Yazhuo Qu,2,* Chuan Li,3 Li Yin,2 Caifei Shen,1 Wei Chen,3 Shiming Yang,4 Xiuwu Bian,2 Dianchun Fang11Institute of Gastroenterology, 2Institute of Pathology, 3Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Gastroenterology, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Nano dense-silica (dSiO2 has many advantages such as adjustable core–shell structure, multiple drug delivery, and controllable release behavior. Improving the gastric tumor-specific targeting efficiency based on the development of various strategies is crucial for anti-cancer drug delivery systems.Methods: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION were coated with dSiO2 as core–shell nanoparticles, and labeled with near infra-red fluorescence (NIRF dye 800ZW (excitation wavelength: 778 nm/­emission wavelength: 806 nm and anti-CD146 monoclonal antibody YY146 for magnetic resonance (MR/NIRF imaging study in xenograft gastric cancer model. The morphology and the size of pre- and postlabeling SPION@dSiO2 core–shell nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Iron content in SPION@dSiO2 nanoparticles was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorter studies were carried out to confirm the binding specificity of YY146 and 800ZW–SPION@dSiO2–YY146 on MKN45 cells. In vivo and in vitro NIRF imaging, control (nanoparticles only and blocking studies, and histology were executed on MKN45 tumor-bearing nude mice to estimate the affinity of 800ZW–SPION@dSiO2–YY146 to target tumor CD146.Results: 800ZW–SPION@dSiO2–YY146 nanoparticles were uniformly spherical in shape and dispersed evenly in a cell culture medium. The diameter of the nanoparticle

  9. Mammographic Breast Density Assessment Using Automated Volumetric Software and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) Categorization by Expert Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damases, Christine N; Brennan, Patrick C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; McEntee, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    To investigate agreement on mammographic breast density (MD) assessment between automated volumetric software and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) categorization by expert radiologists. Forty cases of left craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique mammograms from 20 women were used. All images had their volumetric density classified using Volpara density grade (VDG) and average volumetric breast density percentage. The same images were then classified into BIRADS categories (I-IV) by 20 American Board of Radiology examiners. The results demonstrated a moderate agreement (κ = 0.537; 95% CI = 0.234-0.699) between VDG classification and radiologists' BIRADS density assessment. Interreader agreement using BIRADS also demonstrated moderate agreement (κ = 0.565; 95% CI = 0.519-0.610) ranging from 0.328 to 0.669. Radiologists' average BIRADS was lower than average VDG scores by 0.33, with their mean being 2.13, whereas the mean VDG was 2.48 (U = -3.742; P BIRADS showed a very strong positive correlation (ρ = 0.91; P BIRADS and average volumetric breast density percentage (ρ = 0.94; P BIRADS; interreader variations still exist within BIRADS. Because of the increasing importance of MD measurement in clinical management of patients, widely accepted, reproducible, and accurate measures of MD are required. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A case of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma in a breast cancer patient: Ultrasound,CT, PET/CT and breast-specific gamma imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Seon Jeong; Shin, Hyuck Jai; Lee, Jeong Ju [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Charcoal remains stable without causing a foreign body reaction and it may be used for preoperative localization of a non-palpable breast mass. However, cases of post-charcoal-marking granuloma have only rarely been reported in the breast, and a charcoal granuloma can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. Herein, we report the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT, and breast-specific gamma imaging findings of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma after breast conserving surgery, following localization with charcoal in a breast cancer patient.

  11. Chinical Value of MRI Diagnosis Breast X-ray Asymmetrical Dense Shade Lesions%MRI诊断乳腺X线非对称性致密影病变的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志梅; 肖建云; 孙蓉

    2013-01-01

    目的::探讨MRI诊断乳腺X线非对称性致密影病变中良、恶性疾病的诊断价值。方法:选取2010年11月~2013年2月的80例乳腺X线非对称性致密影病变患者为研究对象,病变无肿块、钙化、结构扭曲等,全部采用MRI扫描,观察病灶的形态、分布、动态增强、时间-曲线和周围影像学改变。结果:肿块型强化15例,非肿块型强化65例;病灶强化均匀9例,不均匀71例;其中伴有多发脓肿、壁呈均匀或不均匀强化3例;病变乳内血管异常改变4例,皮肤表面增厚4例,皮下水肿2例,淋巴结增大1例;时间-曲线Ⅰ型39例,Ⅱ型24例,Ⅲ型17例。乳腺恶性病变31例(其中导管原位癌7例,浸润性导管癌5例,小叶原位癌6例,浸润性小叶癌2例,乳腺血管肉瘤3例,乳腺导管癌合并乳腺小叶癌8例);良性病变49例(其中乳腺增生病6例,硬化性腺病10例,慢性炎症7例,肉芽肿性乳腺炎5例,浆细胞性乳腺炎6例,囊肿伴感染4例,纤维腺瘤3例)。结论:MRI能发现乳腺X线非对称性致密影病变的良、恶性病变,特别是对于乳腺癌的早期诊断有重要价值。%Objective:To study the MRI in the diagnosis of breast X-ray asymmetrical dense shadow the diagnostic value of benign and malignant lesions of the disease.Methods:Select 2010-February 2013 in November of 80 cases of mammary X-ray asymmetry density shadow lesion patients as the research object,lesions without mass,calcification,structure distortion and so on,all using MRI scans,observe morphology and distribution of lesions,dynamic enhancement,time-around the curve and the imaging changes.Results:The tumor type 15 cases,65 cases non mass reinforcement;Uneven lesions improved uniform 9 cases,71 cases;Which accompanied by multiple abscess,wall is uniform or non-uniform strengthen 3 cases;Breast lesions abnormal changes of blood vessels in 4 cases,4 cases were thickening of the skin,subcutaneous edema in 2 cases,lymph node

  12. Analogues of estradiol as potential breast tumor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, R.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Ferriera, N.L.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The radioiodinated analogue of estradiol, 11..beta..-methoxy-17..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)iodovinylestradiol (MIVE/sub 2/), has been shown to be a good candidate for the imaging of estrogen dependent breast tumors. Although there has been no extensive study on the sensitivity of radiotracers of this type, the authors have not observed localization of the radiotracer in metastatic lesions containing less than 20 fmole estrogen receptor/mg protein or in bone metasteses. In order to improve the sensitivity, they have examined several structural analogues of moxestrol (the parent structure for MIVE/sub 2/) for affinity to the ER isolated from immature rat uterus. The 11..beta..-ethyl analogue (EEE/sub 2/) of ethynyl estradiol (EE/sub 2/) exhibits the highest affinity with the 11..beta..-methyl analogue second best. Although the lipophilicity is also very high this compound should not be much more lipophilic than 16-iodoestradiol or MIVE/sub 2/ since the introduction of iodine increases the log P by greater than 1. The distribution of the tritiated derivative of EEE/sub 2/ is under study.

  13. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarcinelli MA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Alvares Sarcinelli,1,2 Marta de Souza Albernaz,3 Marzena Szwed,4 Alexandre Iscaife,2 Kátia Ramos Moreira Leite,2 Mara de Souza Junqueira,5 Emerson Soares Bernardes,6 Emerson Oliveira da Silva,1 Maria Ines Bruno Tavares,1 Ralph Santos-Oliveira7 1Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Radiopharmacy Sector, University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 4Department of Thermobiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; 5Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Radiopharmacy Center, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN, São Paulo, Brazil; 7Laboratory of Nanoradiopharmaceuticals, Zona Oeste State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/montmorillonite (MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200–500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta

  14. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained.

  15. Challenges in the Design of Microwave Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHURBENKO, V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the various breast imaging modalities for breast cancer detection, microwave imaging is attractive due to the high contrast in dielectric properties between the cancerous and normal tissue. Due to this reason, this modality has received a significant interest and attention from the microwave community. This paper presents the survey of the ongoing research in the field of microwave imaging of biological tissues, with major focus on the breast tumor detection application. The existing microwave imaging systems are categorized on the basis of the employed measurement concepts. The advantages and disadvantages of the implemented imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs between the various system requirements are indicated. Some strategies to overcome these limitations are outlined.

  16. Digital breast tomosynthesis: Dose and image quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldera, A; De Marco, P; Colombo, P E; Origgi, D; Torresin, A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate how different acquisition geometries and reconstruction parameters affect the performance of four digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems (Senographe Essential - GE, Mammomat Inspiration - Siemens, Selenia Dimensions - Hologic and Amulet Innovality - Fujifilm) on the basis of a physical characterization. Average Glandular Dose (AGD) and image quality parameters such as in-plane/in-depth resolution, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) and artefact spread function (ASF) were examined. Measured AGD values resulted below EUREF limits for 2D imaging. A large variability was recorded among the investigated systems: the mean dose ratio DBT/2D ranged between 1.1 and 1.9. In-plane resolution was in the range: 2.2mm(-1)-3.8mm(-1) in chest wall-nipple direction. A worse resolution was found for all devices in tube travel direction. In-depth resolution improved with increasing scan angle but was also affected by the choice of reconstruction and post-processing algorithms. The highest z-resolution was provided by Siemens (50°, FWHM=2.3mm) followed by GE (25°, FWHM=2.8mm), while the Fujifilm HR showed the lowest one, despite its wide scan angle (40°, FWHM=4.1mm). The ASF was dependent on scan angle: smaller range systems showed wider ASF curves; however a clear relationship was not found between scan angle and ASF, due to the different post processing and reconstruction algorithms. SDNR analysis, performed on Fujifilm system, demonstrated that pixel binning improves detectability for a fixed dose/projection. In conclusion, we provide a performance comparison among four DBT systems under a clinical acquisition mode. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ability of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging to detect breast tumors. Comparison with ultrasonography and mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Eri; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Iwamura, Akira; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Harada, Junta; Tada, Shinpei (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-09-01

    We evaluated the ability of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging to accurately detect breast tumors. Sixty-five breast carcinomas and 24 fibroadenomas were examined by an SE pulse sequence using a 0.2 Tesla unit. Subtraction MR images were obtained every minute during dynamic study with Gd-DTPA. Almost all breast tumors were seen as very bright masses, and the margin of the mass was clearly demonstrated on subtraction MR images. Breast carcinomas and fibroadenomas showed characteristic time-intensity curves on dynamic study. Time-intensity curves of the early peak type and plateau type were seen in 97% of breast carcinomas, while the gradually increasing type was seen in 92% of fibroadenomas. The detectability of breast carcinoma was 98% by MRI, 98% by ultrasonography, and 87% by mammography. That of fibroadenoma was 95% by MRI, 91% by ultrasonography and 60% by mammography. Sensitivity and specificity for breast carcinoma were 98% and 92% for MRI and 97% and 71% for ultrasonography. For fibroadenoma, they were 96% and 98% for MRI and 89% and 92% for ultrasonography. (author).

  18. Identification of occult breast lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging with targeted ultrasound: A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aracava, Márcia M., E-mail: marcia.aracava@gmail.com; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: chojniak@uol.com.br; Souza, Juliana A., E-mail: julianaalves79@hotmail.com; Bitencourt, Almir G.V., E-mail: almirgvb@yahoo.com.br; Marques, Elvira F., E-mail: elvira.marques@ig.com.br

    2014-03-15

    Objective: To verify the capacity of targeted ultrasound (US) to identify additional lesions detected on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but occult to initial mammography, US and clinical examinations. Methods: This prospective study included 68 additional relevant breast lesions identified on MRI of 49 patients. As an inclusion criterion, breast US and mammography were required and performed up to six months before MRI. These lesions were then subjected to targeted “second-look” US up to 2 weeks after MRI, performed by one or two radiologists with expertise on breast imaging. Lesions were evaluated according to the established Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. Results: Targeted US identified 46/68 (67.6%) lesions revealed by MRI. No significant associations were observed between US identification and the type of lesion, dimensions, morphological characteristics and enhancement pattern according to MRI findings. Targeted US identified 100% of BI-RADS category 5 lesions, 90% of category 4 lesions, and just over 50% of category 3 lesions (p < 0.05). There was significant agreement (p < 0.001) between MRI and US BI-RADS classification for all three categories. Conclusion: Targeted US can identify a large proportion of the lesions detected by breast MRI, especially those at high risk of malignancy, when performed by a professional with experience in both breast US and MRI.

  19. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    K, Degani H. Magnetic reso- nance imaging reveals functional diversity of the vasculature in benign and malignant breast lesions. Cancer 2005;104:708...resonance imaging reveals functional diversity of the vasculature in benign and malignant breast lesions. Cancer 2005;104(4):708-718. 18. Tofts PS...resonance imaging reveals functional diversity of the vasculature in benign and malignant breast lesions. Cancer 2005;104(4):708-718. 405 9. Tofts PS

  20. MO-E-BRD-01: Is Non-Invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, J. [Rhode Island Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  1. REVIEW Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: A clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for breast cancer and its use after the diagnosis of breast cancer is discussed. The topic is ... decreased recurrence and, as a consequence, improved patient survival. Are patients benefitting or are they just ... lung metastasis. Two per cent had ...

  2. Is general practitioner access to breast imaging safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, G.D. [Breast Unit, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: garyosborn2@aol.com; Gahir, J.K. [Breast Unit, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom); Preece, K. [Cancer Services, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom); Vaughan-Williams, E. [Breast Unit, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom); Gower-Thomas, K. [Radiology, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the consultant radiologist run open-access breast radiology service (OAR) to investigate whether the system was safe or whether cancers were being missed. METHODS: A retrospective review of the national cancer registry database to identify patients presenting with symptomatic breast cancer in the catchment area of the Royal Glamorgan Hospital (RGH) from April 2000 to April 2002 was performed. Pathology, radiology and outpatient records were reviewed to identify patients previously assessed at the RGH. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients with breast cancer were diagnosed via the OAR and 159 by the breast clinic (BC). Twelve patients with breast cancer were diagnosed after their initial presentation. Eight patients had been previously seen for benign breast lesions. Four patients had missed breast cancers (two were initially seen via the BC and two via the OAR). A significant difference in the number of cancers missed by the two referral routes was not observed (p=0.221). CONCLUSION: OAR is as accurate a means of diagnosing breast cancer as traditional rapid access BCs. Women presenting with discrete lumps with no radiological abnormality should still undergo assessment with clinical fine core-biopsy.

  3. Breast Microcalcification Detection Using Super-Resolution Ultrasound Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Gotzsche, P. C. and Olsen, O., “Is screening for breast cancer with mammography justifiable?,” The Lancet 355, 129–134 (2000). [6] Olsen, O. and Gotzsche...P. C., “Cochrane review on screening for breast cancer with mammography,” The Lancet 358, 1340–1342 (2001). [7] Skaane, P. and Skjennald, A., “Screen

  4. Breast tissue classification in digital tomosynthesis images based on global gradient minimization and texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Lu, Guolan; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a pseudo-three-dimensional x-ray imaging modality proposed to decrease the effect of tissue superposition present in mammography, potentially resulting in an increase in clinical performance for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Tissue classification in DBT images can be useful in risk assessment, computer-aided detection and radiation dosimetry, among other aspects. However, classifying breast tissue in DBT is a challenging problem because DBT images include complicated structures, image noise, and out-of-plane artifacts due to limited angular tomographic sampling. In this project, we propose an automatic method to classify fatty and glandular tissue in DBT images. First, the DBT images are pre-processed to enhance the tissue structures and to decrease image noise and artifacts. Second, a global smooth filter based on L0 gradient minimization is applied to eliminate detailed structures and enhance large-scale ones. Third, the similar structure regions are extracted and labeled by fuzzy C-means (FCM) classification. At the same time, the texture features are also calculated. Finally, each region is classified into different tissue types based on both intensity and texture features. The proposed method is validated using five patient DBT images using manual segmentation as the gold standard. The Dice scores and the confusion matrix are utilized to evaluate the classified results. The evaluation results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method for classifying breast glandular and fat tissue on DBT images.

  5. Body Image of Women with Breast Cancer After Mastectomy: A Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçan, Sema; Gürsoy, Ayla

    2016-10-01

    To gain a holistic and deep understanding about how mastectomy effects the body image of women who have breast cancer. The sample of this qualitative descriptive study consisted of twenty patients who underwent mastectomy procedures. Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the second week after mastectomy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was performed. After the mastectomy, the findings related to the women's body image and their experiences were specified as four main themes and seven sub-themes. The main themes were: meaning of the breast, mastectomy and me, my body image and body image changes, and social life. Most of the participants in this study stated that the breast meant femininity, beauty, and motherhood. It was found that the meaning of mastectomy varied according to individuals. Women used quite negative statements about their appearances. The participants also said that they felt that half themselves was missing, as individuals and women. The women stated that they preferred clothes that hid their lack of breast. Some of the participants mentioned that relations with their husbands were not like before, and they abstained from social interaction. Our findings suggest that mastectomy as a surgical treatment for breast cancer may negatively affect a woman's body image and her self-image.

  6. Carbon nanotube electron field emitters for x-ray imaging of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidcumb, Emily; Gao, Bo; Shan, Jing; Inscoe, Christy; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2014-06-20

    For imaging human breast cancer, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve image quality and breast cancer detection in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) mammography. Current DBT systems have limited spatial resolution and lengthy scan times. Stationary DBT (s-DBT), utilizing an array of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission x-ray sources, provides increased spatial resolution and potentially faster imaging than current DBT systems. This study presents the results of detailed evaluations of CNT cathodes for x-ray breast imaging tasks. The following were investigated: high current, long-term stability of CNT cathodes for DBT; feasibility of using CNT cathodes to perform a 2D radiograph function; and cathode performance through several years of imaging. Results show that a breast tomosynthesis system using CNT cathodes could run far beyond the experimentally tested lifetime of one to two years. CNT cathodes were found capable of producing higher currents than typical DBT would require, indicating that the s-DBT imaging time can be further reduced. The feasibility of using a single cathode of the s-DBT tube to perform 2D mammography in 4 s was demonstrated. Over the lifetime of the prototype s-DBT system, it was found that both cathode performance and transmission rate were stable and consistent.

  7. Carbon nanotube electron field emitters for x-ray imaging of human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidcumb, Emily; Gao, Bo; Shan, Jing; Inscoe, Christy; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2014-06-01

    For imaging human breast cancer, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve image quality and breast cancer detection in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) mammography. Current DBT systems have limited spatial resolution and lengthy scan times. Stationary DBT (s-DBT), utilizing an array of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission x-ray sources, provides increased spatial resolution and potentially faster imaging than current DBT systems. This study presents the results of detailed evaluations of CNT cathodes for x-ray breast imaging tasks. The following were investigated: high current, long-term stability of CNT cathodes for DBT; feasibility of using CNT cathodes to perform a 2D radiograph function; and cathode performance through several years of imaging. Results show that a breast tomosynthesis system using CNT cathodes could run far beyond the experimentally tested lifetime of one to two years. CNT cathodes were found capable of producing higher currents than typical DBT would require, indicating that the s-DBT imaging time can be further reduced. The feasibility of using a single cathode of the s-DBT tube to perform 2D mammography in 4 s was demonstrated. Over the lifetime of the prototype s-DBT system, it was found that both cathode performance and transmission rate were stable and consistent.

  8. Imaging breast lesions using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope: ongoing clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Xia, W.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2012-02-01

    Current imaging modalities are often not able to detect early stages of breast cancer with high imaging contrast. Visualizing malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentrations might improve breast cancer diagnosis. Photoacoustic imaging can visualize hemoglobin in tissue with optical contrast and ultrasound resolution, which makes it potentially ideal for breast imaging. The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM) has been designed specifically for this purpose. Based on a successful pilot study in 2007, a large clinical study using PAM has been started in December 2010. PAM uses a pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm to illuminate a region of interest on the breast. Photoacoustic signals are detected with a 1MHz, unfocused ultrasound detector array. Three dimensional data are reconstructed using an acoustic backprojection algorithm. Those reconstructed images are compared with conventional imaging and histopathology. In the first phase of the study, the goal was to optimize the visualization of malignancies. We performed sixteen technically acceptable measurements on confined breast malignancies. In the reconstructed volumes of all malignancies, a confined high contrast region could be identified at the expected lesion depth. After ten successful measurements, the illumination area was increased and the fluence was substantially decreased. This caused a further significant increase in PAM lesion contrast.

  9. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed.

  10. Glandular breast tissue volume by magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Louise; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appearance of glandular breast tissue may be difficult to distinguish from fat tissue by palpation, especially in obese girls. To our knowledge, validation of the clinical assessment of pubertal breast stages by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has never been performed. Our objective....... METHODS: Glandular breast tissue volume quantified by MRI and breast stage evaluation was performed in 100 healthy peripubertal girls. Circulating levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), inhibin B, and estradiol were measured by immunoassays. Ovarian volume, uterine volume....... The best parameters to distinguish prepubertal girls from girls with breast development were: LH (area under the curve (AUC) by receiver operating characteristic analysis = 0.871), inhibin B (AUC = 0.847) and estradiol (AUC = 0.830). CONCLUSION: Clinical palpation reliably detects the presence of glandular...

  11. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina

    2016-01-01

    be given to population screening programmes on a territorial basis, with double reading. Adoption of digital mammography (not film-screen or phosphor-plate computer radiography) is a priority, which also improves sensitivity in dense breasts. Radiologists qualified as screening readers should be involved...

  12. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  13. The use of 3D laser imaging and a new breast replica cast as a method to optimize autologous breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahcan, Uros; Bracun, Drago; Zivec, Katarina; Pavlic, Rok; Butala, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Aesthetically pleasing and symmetrical breasts are the goal of reconstructive breast surgery. Sometimes, however, multiple procedures are needed to improve a reconstructed breast's symmetry and appearance. In order to avoid additional corrective procedures, we have developed a new method that uses a reverse engineering technique to produce what we call a new breast replica cast (NBRC). The NBRC is a mould of the contralateral healthy breast, designed according to preoperative laser 3D images. During surgery, the mould is used to help shape the new breast. With this method, we are able to achieve breast symmetry in terms of volume, projection, contour, and position on the chest wall more accurately, more quickly, and more safely than before. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality Assurance of Ultrasonic Diagnosis in Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Kim, Hong Dae [Hallym University, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Sonography is a subjective diagnostic method which is highly dependent on the experience of the operator and the equipment quality which requires real-time adjustments. Breast screening examination currently consists of clinical examination and mammography. Breast sonography, either supplementary to mammography or independently, is indicated for the dense breast, especially in younger women. Breast sonography is especially applicable for Korean women because of the denser breast parenchyma and the approximately 10-year younger incidence rate of breast cancer of Korean women compared to western women. To avoid unnecessary breast biopsy because of the high rate of false positive lesions in breast parenchyma, which is different from other body organs such as the liver or the kidney, a quality assurance program for breast sonography is essential. The quality assurance of breast ultrasound involves quality assurance of the equipment, imaging display and acquisition of clinical images, personnel qualifications and other aspects such as unification of lexicon, guideline of diagnostic examination and reporting system; US BI-RAD reporting system, assessment items and organization, education program, medical audit, certification issues, and medicolegal issues. A breast sonographic quality assurance system should be established before a scheme to initiate governmental medical insurance for breast sonography

  15. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances in primary and secondary angiosarcoma of the breast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Ailbhe C

    2014-04-01

    Angiosarcomas are malignant tumours of endovascular origin. They are rare tumours accounting for 0.04-1% of all breast malignancies. Two different forms are described: primary, occurring in young women, and secondary angiosarcoma, which occurs in older women with a history of breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Imaging findings on mammography and ultrasound are non-specific, but magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic contrast enhancement is more informative. We present two cases - one of primary and one of secondary angiosarcoma - and review the imaging findings.

  17. Characterization of materials for optimal near-infrared and x-ray imaging of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Pogue, Brian W; Brooks, Ken; Defreitas, Ken; Shaw, Ian; Poplack, Steven P; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-09-01

    Development of a detector case for complete co-registration of images in a non-fiber-based combined near-infrared spectral tomography and digital breast tomosynthesis, required analysis to find materials that could support a breast under full mammographic compression without affecting the x-ray images or the quality of the near infrared measurements. Several possible solutions were considered, and many types of plastics were tested in the development of the detector case. Light channeling within the detector case changed the data obtained in resin and agarose phantoms, lowering recovered absorption values. Additional developments focusing on blocking stray light were successful and permitted a normal subject imaging exam.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of residual breast tissue following mastectomy and reconstruction with silicone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Douglas; Tsehmaister-Abitbol, Vered; Rundstein, Arie; Shalmon, Anat; Zbar, Andrew; Nardini, Gil; Novikov, Ilya; Sklair-Levy, Miri

    2015-01-01

    We present our use of magnetic resonance (MR) measurement to determine the amount of residual breast tissue (RBT) following total mastectomy with reconstruction. Breast MR images of 45 women who underwent surgery between January and November 2011 were reviewed. The cohort included therapeutic and prophylactic mastectomies. RBT was evaluated at four points with a digital caliper assessing T2-weighted and T1-weighted images. Patients undergoing mastectomy for carcinoma tended to have less RBT than in prophylactic surgery. Greater age and recent surgery both correlated with larger RBT. Variable thickness of RBT is demonstrable following mastectomy and implant reconstruction using MR imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptation of the Sexual Adjustment and Body Image Scale in Turkish Breast Cancer Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Ursavaş, Figen; Karayurt, Özgül

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of the Sexual Adjustment and Body Image Scale in Turkish breast cancer women. This is a methodological and cross-sectional study, and included 161 breast cancer women. The factor loadings in the exploratory factor analysis ranged from 0.83 to 0.90 for the sexual adjustment scales and ranged from 0.52 to 0.86 for the body image scale. The Cronbach's alpha values were 0.86, 0.83, and 0.89 for the subscales of sexual adjustment and 0.77 and 0.81 for the subscales of body image. The scale is a valid and reliable tool to evaluate sexual adjustment and body image in Turkish breast cancer women. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  20. Differential diagnosis of breast cancer using quantitative, label-free and molecular vibrational imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaliang; Li, Fuhai; Gao, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong; Thrall, Michael J; Shen, Steven S; Wong, Kelvin K; Wong, Stephen T C

    2011-08-01

    We present a label-free, chemically-selective, quantitative imaging strategy to identify breast cancer and differentiate its subtypes using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Human normal breast tissue, benign proliferative, as well as in situ and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo. Simply by visualizing cellular and tissue features appearing on CARS images, cancerous lesions can be readily separated from normal tissue and benign proliferative lesion. To further distinguish cancer subtypes, quantitative disease-related features, describing the geometry and distribution of cancer cell nuclei, were extracted and applied to a computerized classification system. The results show that in situ carcinoma was successfully distinguished from invasive carcinoma, while invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma were also distinguished from each other. Furthermore, 80% of intermediate-grade IDC and 85% of high-grade IDC were correctly distinguished from each other. The proposed quantitative CARS imaging method has the potential to enable rapid diagnosis of breast cancer.

  1. X-ray tube-based diffraction enhanced imaging prototype images of full-thickness breast specimens: reader study evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulconer, L. S.; Parham, C.; Connor, D. J.; Koomen, M.; Kuzmiak, C.; Pavic, D.; Livasy, C. A.; Kim, E.; Zeng, D.; Cole, E. B.; Zhong, Z.; Pisano, E. D.

    2009-02-01

    Conventional mammographic image contrast is derived from x-ray absorption, resulting in breast structure visualization due to density gradients that attenuate radiation without distinction between transmitted and scattered or refracted x-rays. This leads to image blurring and contrast reduction, hindering the early detection of small or otherwise occult cancers. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) allows for dramatically increased contrast with decreased radiation dose compared to conventional mammographic imaging due to monochromatic x-rays, its unique refraction-based contrast mechanism and excellent scatter rejection. However, a lingering drawback to the clinical translation of DEI has been the requirement for synchrotron radiation. Our laboratory developed a DEI prototype (DEI-PR) utilizing a readily available Tungsten xray tube source and traditional DEI crystal optics, providing soft tissue images at 60keV. To demonstrate the clinical utility of our DEI-PR, we acquired images of full-thickness human breast tissue specimens on synchrotron-based DEI, DEI-PR and digital mammography systems. A reader study was designed to allow unbiased assessment of system performance when analyzing three systems with dissimilar imaging parameters and requiring analysis of images unfamiliar to radiologists. A panel of expert radiologists evaluated lesion feature visibility and histopathology correlation after receiving training on the interpretation of refraction contrast mammographic images. Preliminary data analysis suggests that our DEI system performed roughly equivalently with the traditional DEI system, demonstrating a significant step toward clinical translation of this modality for breast cancer applications.

  2. Fully automated quantitative analysis of breast cancer risk in DCE-MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luan; Hu, Xiaoxin; Gu, Yajia; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) images are two important indices for breast cancer risk assessment in the clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated scheme for quantitative analysis of FGT and BPE in DCE-MR images. Our fully automated method consists of three steps, i.e., segmentation of whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues. Based on the volume of interest extracted automatically, dynamic programming method was applied in each 2-D slice of a 3-D MR scan to delineate the chest wall and breast skin line for segmenting the whole breast. This step took advantages of the continuity of chest wall and breast skin line across adjacent slices. We then further used fuzzy c-means clustering method with automatic selection of cluster number for segmenting the fibroglandular tissues within the segmented whole breast area. Finally, a statistical method was used to set a threshold based on the estimated noise level for segmenting the enhanced fibroglandular tissues in the subtraction images of pre- and post-contrast MR scans. Based on the segmented whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues, FGT and BPE were automatically computed. Preliminary results of technical evaluation and clinical validation showed that our fully automated scheme could obtain good segmentation of the whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues to achieve accurate assessment of FGT and BPE for quantitative analysis of breast cancer risk.

  3. Pilot study of quantitative analysis of background enhancement on breast MR images: association with menstrual cycle and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaranelo, Anabel M; Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Fleming, Rachel; Jacks, Lindsay M; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Crystal, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    To perform semiautomated quantitative analysis of the background enhancement (BE) in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and to correlate it with mammographic breast density and menstrual cycle. Informed consent was waived after the research ethics board approved this study. Results of 177 consecutive preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed from February to December 2009 were reviewed; 147 female patients (median age, 48 years; range, 26-86 years) were included. Ordinal values of BE and breast density were described by two independent readers by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The BE coefficient (BEC) was calculated thus: (SI2 · 100/SI1) - 100, where SI is signal intensity, SI2 is the SI enhancement measured in the largest anteroposterior dimension in the axial plane 1 minute after the contrast agent injection, and SI1is the SI before contrast agent injection. BEC was used for the quantitative analysis of BE. Menstrual cycle status was based on the last menstrual period. The Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative assessment groups. Cohen weighted κ was used to evaluate agreement. Of 147 patients, 68 (46%) were premenopausal and 79 (54%) were postmenopausal. The quantitative BEC was associated with the menstrual status (BEC in premenopausal women, 31.48 ± 20.68 [standard deviation]; BEC in postmenopausal women, 25.65 ± 16.74; P = .02). The percentage of overall BE was higher when the MR imaging was performed in women in the inadequate phase of the cycle (<35 days, not 7-14 days; mean BEC, 35.7) compared with women in the postmenopausal group (P = .001). Premenopausal women had significantly higher BEC when compared with postmenopausal women (P = .03). There was no significant difference in the percentage of BE between breast density groups. Premenopausal women with breast cancer, and specifically women in the inadequate phase of the cycle, presented with

  4. Local binary pattern texture-based classification of solid masses in ultrasound breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality among women. Ultrasound examination can be used to assess breast masses, complementarily to mammography. Ultrasound images reveal tissue information in its echoic patterns. Therefore, pattern recognition techniques can facilitate classification of lesions and thereby reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Our hypothesis was that image texture features on the boundary of a lesion and its vicinity can be used to classify masses. We have used intensity-independent and rotation-invariant texture features, known as Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The classifier selected was K-nearest neighbors. Our breast ultrasound image database consisted of 100 patient images (50 benign and 50 malignant cases). The determination of whether the mass was benign or malignant was done through biopsy and pathology assessment. The training set consisted of sixty images, randomly chosen from the database of 100 patients. The testing set consisted of forty images to be classified. The results with a multi-fold cross validation of 100 iterations produced a robust evaluation. The highest performance was observed for feature LBP with 24 symmetrically distributed neighbors over a circle of radius 3 (LBP24,3) with an accuracy rate of 81.0%. We also investigated an approach with a score of malignancy assigned to the images in the test set. This approach provided an ROC curve with Az of 0.803. The analysis of texture features over the boundary of solid masses showed promise for malignancy classification in ultrasound breast images.

  5. Mitosis detection in breast cancer histology images with deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cireşan, Dan C; Giusti, Alessandro; Gambardella, Luca M; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We use deep max-pooling convolutional neural networks to detect mitosis in breast histology images. The networks are trained to classify each pixel in the images, using as context a patch centered on the pixel. Simple postprocessing is then applied to the network output. Our approach won the ICPR 2012 mitosis detection competition, outperforming other contestants by a significant margin.

  6. Clinical experiences with photoacoustic breast imaging: the appearance of suspicious lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes photoacoustic (PA) imaging of suspicious breast lesions. In PA imaging, the tissue of interest is illuminated by short pulses of laser light, usually in the near infrared (NIR) regime. Upon absorption by primarily the tumor vasculature, the light causes a small temperature incr

  7. Optimization of image quality in breast tomosynthesis using lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberg, Pontus; Ruschin, Mark; Båth, Magnus; Hemdal, Bengt; Andersson, Ingvar; Svahn, Tony; Mattsson, Sören; Tingberg, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how image quality in breast tomosynthesis (BT) is affected when acquisition modes are varied, using human breast specimens containing malignant tumors and/or microcalcifications. Images of thirty-one breast lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens were acquired on a BT prototype based on a Mammomat Novation (Siemens) full-field digital mammography system. BT image acquisitions of the same specimens were performed varying the number of projections, angular range, and detector signal collection mode (binned and nonbinned in the scan direction). An enhanced filtered back projection reconstruction method was applied with constant settings of spectral and slice thickness filters. The quality of these images was evaluated via relative visual grading analysis (VGA) human observer performance experiments using image quality criteria. Results from the relative VGA study indicate that image quality increases with number of projections and angular range. A binned detector collecting mode results in less noise, but reduced resolution of structures. Human breast specimens seem to be suitable for comparing image sets in BT with image quality criteria.

  8. Phantom experiments with a microwave imaging system for breast-cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a promising technique for breast-cancer detection. In this paper, the microwave imaging system currently being developed at the Technical University of Denmark is introduced. This system consists of 32 antennas positioned in a cylindrical setup, each equipped...

  9. Breast varices: imaging findings of an unusual presentation of collateral pathways in superior vena caval syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Ayseguel E-mail: aozdemir@tip.gazi.edu.tr; Ilgit, Erhan T.; Konus, Oeznur L.; Cetin, Meltem; Oezsunar, Yelda

    2000-11-01

    Imaging findings are presented of an unusual pathway of collateral circulation consisting of bilateral and diffuse dilated breast veins from a patient with long standing superior vena caval syndrome. The main importance of this case is the extent of the collateral development through the breast veins, serving as the major pathway of collateral circulation. Identification of this unusual collateral development, which resembles breast varices, was performed with contrast-enhanced chest CT scans, digital subtraction venography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and mammographic studies. Collateral development was secondary to a long segment idiopathic venous occlusion involving bilateral subclavian and brachiocephalic veins as well as vena cava superior. We conclude that dilated breast veins when detected on any imaging modality should raise the suspicion of central venous obstruction.

  10. A novel breast ultrasound image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic similarity score and level set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanhui; Şengür, Abdulkadir; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Breast ultrasound (BUS) image segmentation is a challenging task due to the speckle noise, poor quality of the ultrasound images and size and location of the breast lesions. In this paper, we propose a new BUS image segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic similarity score (NSS) and level set algorithm. At first, the input BUS image is transferred to the NS domain via three membership subsets T, I and F, and then, a similarity score NSS is defined and employed to measure the belonging degree to the true tumor region. Finally, the level set method is used to segment the tumor from the background tissue region in the NSS image. Experiments have been conducted on a variety of clinical BUS images. Several measurements are used to evaluate and compare the proposed method's performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to segment the BUS images effectively and accurately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geometric calibration for a SPECT system dedicated to breast imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-Wei; WEI Long; CAO Xue-Xiang; WANG Lu; HUANG Xian-Chao; CHAI Pei; YUN Ming-Kai; ZHANG Yu-Bao; ZHANG Long; SHAN Bao-Ci

    2012-01-01

    Geometric calibration is critical to the accurate SPECT reconstruction.In this paper,a geometric calibration method was developed for a dedicated breast SPECT system with a tilted parallel beam (TPB)orbit.The acquisition geometry of the breast SPECT was firstly characterized.And then its projection model was established based on the acquisition geometry.Finally,the calibration results were obtained using a nonlinear optimization method that fitted the measured projections to the model.Monte Carlo data of the breast SPECT were used to verify the calibration method.Simulation results showed that the geometric parameters with reasonable accuracy could be obtained by the proposed method.

  12. [The actions of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in differentiating breast tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Yu, Jianqun; Chen, Dongdong; Xu, Zhongzi; Zeng, Hanjiang

    2013-12-01

    We studied the actions of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiating breast tumors. From January 2010 to February 2012, we retrospectively analyzed data of 95 cases with breast tumor pathologically confirmed from DWI and DCE-MRI. We compared the ADC value, time-intensity curve (TIC) and DCE-MRI parameters between breast tumors, and calculated the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating breast tumors. The results were as follows: (1) On DWI, mean ADC value of malignant tumor was lower than that of benign tumor (P value of time to peak (Tpeak) and maximal enhancement ratio (SImax) were lower than that of benign tumor (all P < 0.05). As for TIC, type II and III were more frequently seen in malignant tumor than in benign tumor whereas type I was more common in benign tumor than in malignant tumor (all P < 0.05). For differentiating breast malignant tumors from benign neoplasm, DCE-MRI obtained a sensitivity of 89.7% and specificity of 70.3%. (3) For differentiating breast malignant tumors from benign neoplasm, ADC value together with TIC obtained a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 78.4%. Malignant or benign breast tumors could have their own unique characteristics on DWI and DCE-MRI. These characteristics might be helpful for differentiating these tumors.

  13. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Liao, Yin-Yin

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.65 ± 0.05 and 0.98 ± 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 ± 0.03, 0.67 ± 0.11 and 0.89 ± 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p < 0.005) although the clinical results from tumors of different cases have a larger variance that may be caused by the complexity of real breast tissues. In particular, unlike the B-mode image, the Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  14. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, P-H; Chang, C-C [Division of Mechanics, Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Section 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C-K; Liao, Y-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mechang@gate.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: ckyeh@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-11-07

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 {+-} 0.01, 0.65 {+-} 0.05 and 0.98 {+-} 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 {+-} 0.03, 0.67 {+-} 0.11 and 0.89 {+-} 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p < 0.005) although the clinical results from tumors of different cases have a larger variance that may be caused by the complexity of real breast tissues. In particular, unlike the B-mode image, the Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  15. Optimal experimental design to position transducers in ultrasound breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta Martiartu, Naiara; Boehm, Christian; Vinard, Nicolas; Jovanović Balic, Ivana; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We present methods to optimize the setup of a 3D ultrasound tomography scanner for breast cancer detection. This approach provides a systematic and quantitative tool to evaluate different designs and to optimize the con- figuration with respect to predefined design parameters. We consider both, time-of-flight inversion using straight rays and time-domain waveform inversion governed by the acoustic wave equation for imaging the sound speed. In order to compare different designs, we measure their quality by extracting properties from the Hessian operator of the time-of-flight or waveform differences defined in the inverse problem, i.e., the second derivatives with respect to the sound speed. Spatial uncertainties and resolution can be related to the eigenvalues of the Hessian, which provide a good indication of the information contained in the data that is acquired with a given design. However, the complete spectrum is often prohibitively expensive to compute, thus suitable approximations have to be developed and analyzed. We use the trace of the Hessian operator as design criterion, which is equivalent to the sum of all eigenvalues and requires less computational effort. In addition, we suggest to take advantage of the spatial symmetry to extrapolate the 3D experimental design from a set of 2D configurations. In order to maximize the quality criterion, we use a genetic algorithm to explore the space of possible design configurations. Numerical results show that the proposed strategies are capable of improving an initial configuration with uniformly distributed transducers, clustering them around regions with poor illumination and improving the ray coverage of the domain of interest.

  16. A Case of Granulocytic Sarcoma of the Breast: Imaging Findings and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Radmehr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS or chloroma is a solid tumor composed of extramedullary proliferation of myeloid cells. It can appear in a variety of locations, but it is rare, especially in the breast. Diagnosis of GS in the breast could be a challenge for clinicians, radiologists, and even pathologists; especially, in the absence of clinical history. "nIn this report, we present imaging features of a 20-year-old woman with relapse of acute myeloid leu-kemia as GS in her left breast and a brief review of the literature

  17. Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Y.; Gautam, M.; Divakar Rao, K.; Swami, M. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report a study on the use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) for discriminating malignant (invasive ductal carcinoma), benign (fibroadenoma) and normal (adipocytes) breast tissue sites. The results show that while conventional OCT, that utilizes only the intensity of light back-scattered from tissue microstructures, is able to discriminate breast tissues as normal (adipocytes) and abnormal (malignant and benign) tissues, PS-OCT helps in discriminating between malignant and benign tissue sites also. The estimated values of birefringence obtained from the PSOCT imaging show that benign breast tissue samples have significantly higher birefringence as compared to the malignant tissue samples.

  18. 64Cu-DOTA-Trastuzumab PET Imaging in Women with HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol. May 20, 2006 2006;24(15):2276-2282. Williams L, Somlo G, Zhan J, et al. A pilot imaging trial of 111In- Herceptin in...metastat breast cancer patients receiving cold Herceptin therapy. Therapy with Antibodies and Immunoconjucates. 2008. Wong JYC, Raubitschek A, Yamauchi...labeled trastuzumab was prepared according to procedures defined in IND #109971. The antibody ( Herceptin , purchased from Genentech) was conjugated with

  19. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  20. Feasibility demonstration of frequency domain terahertz imaging in breast cancer margin determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngvesson, Sigfrid K.; St. Peter, Benjamin; Siqueira, Paul; Kelly, Patrick; Glick, Stephen; Karellas, Andrew; Khan, Ashraf

    2012-03-01

    In breast conservation surgery, surgeons attempt to remove malignant tissue along with a surrounding margin of healthy tissue. Subsequent pathological analysis determines if those margins are clear of malignant tissue, a process that typically requires at least one day. Only then can it be determined whether a follow-up surgery is necessary. This possibility of re-excision is undesirable in terms of reducing patient morbidity, emotional stress and healthcare. It has been shown that terahertz (THz) images of breast specimens can accurately differentiate between breast carcinoma, normal fibroglandular tissue, and adipose tissue. That study employed the Time-Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) technique. We are instead developing a new technique, Frequency-Domain Terahertz Imaging (FDTI). In this joint project between UMass/Amherst and UMass Medical School/Worcester (UMMS), we are investigating the feasibility of the FDTI technique for THz reflection imaging of breast cancer margins. Our system, which produces mechanically scanned images of size 2cm x 2cm, uses a THz gas laser. The system is calibrated with mixtures of water and ethanol and reflection coefficients as low as 1% have been measured. Images from phantoms and specimens cut from breast cancer lumpectomies at UMMS will be presented. Finally, there will be a discussion of a possible transition of this FDTI setup to a compact and inexpensive CMOS THz camera for use in the operating room.

  1. Clinical evaluation of fat suppressed fast-SPGR sequence of the breast MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mitsuyuki; Hasegawa, Makoto; Matsubara, Tadashi [Yokohama Sakae Kyosai Hospital (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    MR-mammography by fat suppressed Fast-SPGR was evaluated for diagnosis and determination of invasion of tumor. Dynamic MRIs were performed in 12 phases, such as, before infusion of contrast media, right after and one to ten minutes after infusion with interval of one minute. In 15 patients (breast cancer, fibroadenoma, lymphocytic lobulitits and cystic intraductal papilloma), underwent MRI, the images were compared with pathological findings. Ten cases were confirmed as malignancy among 11 cases of breast cancer (sensitivity 91%). Eleven cases were confirmed as breast cancer among 12 cases diagnosed as breast cancer by MRI (specificity 92%). In 12 of all 15 cases, benignity or malignancy was checked correctly (accuracy 80%). Invasion of breast cancer was defined as the deep color dyeing area which was neighbored with the tumor in early stage of cystography. Eight of 11 cases were diagnosed precisely with fat suppression image, and nine were by subtraction image. Diagnosis was possible only by subtraction image in a case of scirrhous carcinoma accompanied with intradutal invasion. The area of invasion was not defined correctly in the case accompanied by mastopathy. It is difficult to evaluate benignity or malignancy of mammary gland tumor only by dynamic MRI, it is necessary to diagnose the shape and deep color image of tumor generally. (K.H.)

  2. Volumetric texture analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Giger, Maryellen L; Li, Hui; Bick, Ulrich; Newstead, Gillian M

    2007-09-01

    Automated image analysis aims to extract relevant information from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (CE-MRI) of the breast and improve the accuracy and consistency of image interpretation. In this work, we extend the traditional 2D gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method to investigate a volumetric texture analysis approach and apply it for the characterization of breast MR lesions. Our database of breast MR images was obtained using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence and consists of 121 biopsy-proven lesions (77 malignant and 44 benign). A fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) based method is employed to automatically segment 3D breast lesions on CE-MR images. For each 3D lesion, a nondirectional GLCM is then computed on the first postcontrast frame by summing 13 directional GLCMs. Texture features are extracted from the nondirectional GLCMs and the performance of each texture feature in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign breast lesions is assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Our results show that the classification performance of volumetric texture features is significantly better than that based on 2D analysis. Our investigations of the effects of various of parameters on the diagnostic accuracy provided means for the optimal use of the approach.

  3. Multi-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for a Compact, Shielded Microwave Breast Imaging Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Burfeindt, Matthew J; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2013-12-18

    We present a comprehensive study of a class of multi-band miniaturized patch antennas designed for use in a 3D enclosed sensor array for microwave breast imaging. Miniaturization and multi-band operation are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at all frequencies of operation. Prototypes were fabricated and tested in a biocompatible immersion medium. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulations and measurements. The trade-off between miniaturization and radiation efficiency within this class of patch antennas is explored via a numerical analysis of the effects of the location and number of slots, as well as the thickness and permittivity of the dielectric substrate, on the resonant frequencies and gain. Additionally, we compare 3D quantitative microwave breast imaging performance achieved with two different enclosed arrays of slot-loaded miniaturized patch antennas. Simulated array measurements were obtained for a 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantom. The reconstructed breast images generated from miniaturized patch array data suggest that, for the realistic noise power levels assumed in this study, the variations in gain observed across this class of multi-band patch antennas do not significantly impact the overall image quality. We conclude that these miniaturized antennas are promising candidates as compact array elements for shielded, multi-frequency microwave breast imaging systems.

  4. Breast Cancer Imaging Using the Near-Infrared Fluorescent Agent, CLR1502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Korb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive margins after breast conservation surgery represent a significant problem in the treatment of breast cancer. The near-infrared fluorescence agent CLR1502 (Cellectar Biosciences, Madison, WI was studied in a preclinical breast cancer model to determine imaging properties and ability to detect small islands of malignancy. Nude mice bearing human breast cancer flank xenografts were given a systemic injection of CLR1502, and imaging was performed using LUNA (Novadaq Technologies Inc., Richmond, BC and Pearl Impulse (LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE devices. Normal tissues were examined for fluorescence signal, and conventional and fluorescence histology was performed using the Odyssey scanner. Peak tumor to background ratio occurred 2 days after injection with CLR1502. The smallest amount of tumor that was imaged and detected using these devices was 1.9 mg, equivalent to 1.9 × 106 cells. The highest fluorescence signal was seen in tumor and normal lymph node tissue, and the lowest fluorescence signal was seen in muscle and plasma. Human breast cancer tumors can be imaged in vivo with multiple optical imaging platforms using CLR1502. This pilot study supports further investigations of this fluorescent agent for improving surgical resection of malignancies, with the goal of eventual clinical translation.

  5. Image quality and dose assessment in digital breast tomosynthesis: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M.; Di Maria, S.; Oliveira, N.; Matela, N.; Janeiro, L.; Almeida, P.; Vaz, P.

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is considered a standard technique for the early detection of breast cancer. However, its sensitivity is limited essentially due to the issue of the overlapping breast tissue. This limitation can be partially overcome, with a relatively new technique, called digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). For this technique, optimization of acquisition parameters which maximize image quality, whilst complying with the ALARA principle, continues to be an area of considerable research. The aim of this work was to study the best quantum energies that optimize the image quality with the lowest achievable dose in DBT and compare these results with the digital mammography (DM) ones. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program MCNPX 2.7.0 in order to generate several 2D cranio-caudal (CC) projections obtained during an acquisition of a standard DBT examination. Moreover, glandular absorbed doses and photon flux calculations, for each projection image, were performed. A homogeneous breast computational phantom with 50%/50% glandular/adipose tissue composition was used and two compressed breast thicknesses were evaluated: 4 cm and 8 cm. The simulated projection images were afterwards reconstructed with an algebraic reconstruction tool and the signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) was calculated in order to evaluate the image quality in DBT and DM. Finally, a thorough comparison between the results obtained in terms of SDNR and dose assessment in DBT and DM was performed.

  6. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Full Intelligent Cancer Classification of Thermal Breast Images to Assist Physician in Clinical Diagnostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, AmirEhsan; Pak, Fatemeh; Firouzmand, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. The important key to treat the breast cancer is early detection of it because according to many pathological studies more than 75% - 80% of all abnormalities are still benign at primary stages; so in recent years, many studies and extensive research done to early detection of breast cancer with higher precision and accuracy. Infra-red breast thermography is an imaging technique based on recording temperature distribution patterns of breast tissue. Compared with breast mammography technique, thermography is more suitable technique because it is noninvasive, non-contact, passive and free ionizing radiation. In this paper, a full automatic high accuracy technique for classification of suspicious areas in thermogram images with the aim of assisting physicians in early detection of breast cancer has been presented. Proposed algorithm consists of four main steps: pre-processing & segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. At the first step, using full automatic operation, region of interest (ROI) determined and the quality of image improved. Using thresholding and edge detection techniques, both right and left breasts separated from each other. Then relative suspected areas become segmented and image matrix normalized due to the uniqueness of each person's body temperature. At feature extraction stage, 23 features, including statistical, morphological, frequency domain, histogram and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) based features are extracted from segmented right and left breast obtained from step 1. To achieve the best features, feature selection methods such as minimum Redundancy and Maximum Relevance (mRMR), Sequential Forward Selection (SFS), Sequential Backward Selection (SBS), Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS), Sequential Floating Backward Selection (SFBS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been used at step 3. Finally to classify and TH labeling procedures

  8. Backscattering analysis of high frequency ultrasonic imaging for ultrasound-guided breast biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Thomas; Akiyama, Takahiro; Lee, Changyang; Martin, Sue E.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2017-03-01

    A new ultrasound-guided breast biopsy technique is proposed. The technique utilizes conventional ultrasound guidance coupled with a high frequency embedded ultrasound array located within the biopsy needle to improve the accuracy in breast cancer diagnosis.1 The array within the needle is intended to be used to detect micro- calcifications indicative of early breast cancers such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Backscattering analysis has the potential to characterize tissues to improve localization of lesions. This paper describes initial results of the application of backscattering analysis of breast biopsy tissue specimens and shows the usefulness of high frequency ultrasound for the new biopsy related technique. Ultrasound echoes of ex-vivo breast biopsy tissue specimens were acquired by using a single-element transducer with a bandwidth from 41 MHz to 88 MHz utilizing a UBM methodology, and the backscattering coefficients were calculated. These values as well as B-mode image data were mapped in 2D and matched with each pathology image for the identification of tissue type for the comparison to the pathology images corresponding to each plane. Microcalcifications were significantly distinguished from normal tissue. Adenocarcinoma was also successfully differentiated from adipose tissue. These results indicate that backscattering analysis is able to quantitatively distinguish tissues into normal and abnormal, which should help radiologists locate abnormal areas during the proposed ultrasound-guided breast biopsy with high frequency ultrasound.

  9. MR imaging of multiple fibroadenoma in breast: comparison with color doppler images and histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Ahn, Hye Kyung [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To understand the different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast, and to compare these with color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS) and histologic findings. MRI (1.0 Tesla, TIWI, T2WI, 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhancement study) findings of 24 histologically proven cases of fibroadenoma in five patients were evaluated and compared with the histologic components (myxoid, adenomatous, fibrous). In addition, vascular flow, as seen on CDUS and histologic section, was compared. The observed degree of signal intensity waw classified into three groups, as follows: negative, 8.3%, mild to moderate, 54.2%; marked, 37.5%. On histologic section, the greater the fibrotic component, the higher the intensity of MRI enhancement, the greater the glandular component, and the intensity. CDUS showed vascular flow in only one tumor larger than 3cm in diameter. Vascular patterns of tumors on CDUS were dots in mass and detouring pattern, but in this case and in strongly enhanced cases, tumor vascularity-as seen on histologic section-showed no significant increase. Different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced MRI in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast may be related more to the amount of glandular and fibrotic component than to increased tumor vascularity.

  10. Automatic segmentation of breast tumor in ultrasound image with simplified PCNN and improved fuzzy mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Xiao, Zhiheng; Zhou, Shichong

    2010-07-01

    Image segmentation is very important in the field of image processing. The pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) has been efficiently applied to image processing, especially for image segmentation. In this study, a simplified PCNN (S-PCNN) model is proposed, the fuzzy mutual information (FMI) is improved as optimization criterion for S-PCNN, and then the S-PCNN and improved FMI (IFMI) based segmentation algorithm is proposed and applied for the segmentation of breast tumor in ultrasound image. To validate the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment is implemented to segment breast images not only by our proposed algorithm, but also by the improved C-V algorithm, the max-entropy-based PCNN algorithm, the MI-based PCNN algorithm, and the IFMI-based PCNN algorithm. The results show that the breast lesions are well segmented by the proposed algorithm without image preprocessing, with the mean Hausdorff of distance of 5.631+/-0.822, mean average minimum Euclidean distance of 0.554+/-0.049, mean Tanimoto coefficient of 0.961+/-0.019, and mean misclassified error of 0.038+/-0.004. These values of evaluation indices are better than those of other segmentation algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm has excellent segmentation accuracy and strong robustness against noise, and it has the potential for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis (CAD).

  11. Toward a practical ultrasound waveform tomography algorithm for improving breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Sandhu, Gursharan S.; Roy, Olivier; Duric, Neb; Allada, Veerendra; Schmidt, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography is an emerging modality for breast imaging. However, most current ultrasonic tomography imaging algorithms, historically hindered by the limited memory and processor speed of computers, are based on ray theory and assume a homogeneous background which is inaccurate for complex heterogeneous regions. Therefore, wave theory, which accounts for diffraction effects, must be used in ultrasonic imaging algorithms to properly handle the heterogeneous nature of breast tissue in order to accurately image small lesions. However, application of waveform tomography to medical imaging has been limited by extreme computational cost and convergence. By taking advantage of the computational architecture of Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), the intensive processing burden of waveform tomography can be greatly alleviated. In this study, using breast imaging methods, we implement a frequency domain waveform tomography algorithm on GPUs with the goal of producing high-accuracy and high-resolution breast images on clinically relevant time scales. We present some simulation results and assess the resolution and accuracy of our waveform tomography algorithms based on the simulation data.

  12. Shear Wave Imaging of Breast Tissue by Color Doppler Shear Wave Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Nakajima, Takahito; Kasahara, Toshihiro; Yamazaki, Mayuko; Koda, Ren; Sunaguchi, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    Shear wave elastography is a distinctive method to access the viscoelastic characteristic of the soft tissue that is difficult to obtain by other imaging modalities. This paper proposes a novel shear wave elastography [color Doppler shear wave imaging (CD SWI)] for breast tissue. Continuous shear wave is produced by a small lightweight actuator, which is attached to the tissue surface. Shear wave wavefront that propagates in tissue is reconstructed as a binary pattern that consists of zero and the maximum flow velocities on color flow image (CFI). Neither any modifications of the ultrasound color flow imaging instrument nor a high frame rate ultrasound imaging instrument is required to obtain the shear wave wavefront map. However, two conditions of shear wave displacement amplitude and shear wave frequency are needed to obtain the map. However, these conditions are not severe restrictions in breast imaging. This is because the minimum displacement amplitude is [Formula: see text] for an ultrasonic wave frequency of 12 MHz and the shear wave frequency is available from several frequencies suited for breast imaging. Fourier analysis along time axis suppresses clutter noise in CFI. A directional filter extracts shear wave, which propagates in the forward direction. Several maps, such as shear wave phase, velocity, and propagation maps, are reconstructed by CD SWI. The accuracy of shear wave velocity measurement is evaluated for homogeneous agar gel phantom by comparing with the acoustic radiation force impulse method. The experimental results for breast tissue are shown for a shear wave frequency of 296.6 Hz.

  13. Method for combined FDG-PET and radiographic imaging of primary breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lee P; Weinberg, Irving N; Bradbury, Michelle S; Levine, Edward A; Lesko, Nadine M; Geisinger, Kim R; Berg, Wendie A; Freimanis, Rita I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a hybrid functional/anatomic breast imaging platform with biopsy capability for facilitating lesion detection and diagnosis. This platform consists of an investigative dedicated positron emission mammography (PEM) device mounted on a stereotactic X-ray mammography system, permitting sequential acquisition of mammographic and emission images during a single breast compression. There is automatic coregistration of images from both modalities, and these results can be successfully correlated with histopathologic findings. The potential utility of functional images correlated to anatomic images would include noninvasively detecting clinically and radiographically occult cancers, assessing response to therapy, discriminating between benign and malignant breast masses, and ultimately reducing the number of invasive and costly surgical interventions. A spot-digital mammogram and subsequent PEM image, collected over a 4-minute period, were obtained in a single patient with the breast in compression after intravenous injection of (F-18)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) at the time of stereotactic biopsy. The authors conclude that FDG-based lesion localization information may be combined with the lesion X-ray attenuation characteristics using this common imaging platform.

  14. Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brandon S; Llopis, Antonio; Palmer, Gregory M; McCachren, Samuel S; Senlik, Ozlem; Miller, David; Brooke, Martin A; Jokerst, Nan M; Geradts, Joseph; Greenup, Rachel; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a portable, breast margin assessment probe leveraging diffuse optical spectroscopy to quantify the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins during breast conserving surgery. The approach presented here leverages a custom-made 16-channel annular photodiode imaging array (arranged in a 4 × 4 grid), a raster-scanning imaging platform with precision pressure control, and compressive sensing with an optimized set of eight wavelengths in the visible spectral range. A scalable Monte-Carlo-based inverse model is used to generate optical property [ ? s ? ( ? ) and ? a ( ? ) ] measures for each of the 16 simultaneously captured diffuse reflectance spectra. Subpixel sampling (0.75 mm) is achieved through incremental x , y raster scanning of the imaging probe, providing detailed optical parameter maps of breast margins over a 2 × 2 ?? cm 2 area in ? 9 ?? min . The morphological landscape of a tumor margin is characterized using optical surrogates for the fat to fibroglandular content ratio, which has demonstrated diagnostic utility in delineating tissue subtypes in the breast.

  15. Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brandon S.; Llopis, Antonio; Palmer, Gregory M.; McCachren, Samuel S., III; Senlik, Ozlem; Miller, David; Brooke, Martin A.; Jokerst, Nan M.; Geradts, Joseph; Greenup, Rachel; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a portable, breast margin assessment probe leveraging diffuse optical spectroscopy to quantify the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins during breast conserving surgery. The approach presented here leverages a custom-made 16-channel annular photodiode imaging array (arranged in a 4×4 grid), a raster-scanning imaging platform with precision pressure control, and compressive sensing with an optimized set of eight wavelengths in the visible spectral range. A scalable Monte-Carlo-based inverse model is used to generate optical property [μs‧(λ) and μa(λ)] measures for each of the 16 simultaneously captured diffuse reflectance spectra. Subpixel sampling (0.75 mm) is achieved through incremental x, y raster scanning of the imaging probe, providing detailed optical parameter maps of breast margins over a 2×2 cm2 area in ˜9 min. The morphological landscape of a tumor margin is characterized using optical surrogates for the fat to fibroglandular content ratio, which has demonstrated diagnostic utility in delineating tissue subtypes in the breast.

  16. Estimation of T2 relaxation time of breast cancer: Correlation with clinical, imaging and pathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu; Jahng, Geon Ho; Rhee, Sun Jung; Oh, Jang Hoon; Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the T2* relaxation time in breast cancer, and to evaluate the association between the T2* value with clinical-imaging-pathological features of breast cancer. Between January 2011 and July 2013, 107 consecutive women with 107 breast cancers underwent multi-echo T2*-weighted imaging on a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the T2* values of cancer for different groups, based on the clinical-imaging-pathological features. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find independent predictive factors associated with the T2* values. Of the 107 breast cancers, 92 were invasive and 15 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean T2* value of invasive cancers was significantly longer than that of DCIS (p = 0.029). Signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers showed significant correlation with T2* relaxation time in univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer groups with higher signal intensity on T2WI showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.005). Cancer groups with higher histologic grade showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.017). The T2* value is significantly longer in invasive cancer than in DCIS. In invasive cancers, T2* relaxation time is significantly longer in higher histologic grades and high signal intensity on T2WI. Based on these preliminary data, quantitative T2* mapping has the potential to be useful in the characterization of breast cancer.

  17. Coded aperture coherent scatter imaging for breast cancer detection: a Monte Carlo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Morris, Robert E.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that conventional x-ray imaging provides a maximum contrast between cancerous and healthy fibroglandular breast tissues of 3% based on their linear x-ray attenuation coefficients at 17.5 keV, whereas coherent scatter signal provides a maximum contrast of 19% based on their differential coherent scatter cross sections. Therefore in order to exploit this potential contrast, we seek to evaluate the performance of a coded- aperture coherent scatter imaging system for breast cancer detection and investigate its accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations. In the simulations we modeled our experimental system, which consists of a raster-scanned pencil beam of x-rays, a bismuth-tin coded aperture mask comprised of a repeating slit pattern with 2-mm periodicity, and a linear-array of 128 detector pixels with 6.5-keV energy resolution. The breast tissue that was scanned comprised a 3-cm sample taken from a patient-based XCAT breast phantom containing a tomosynthesis- based realistic simulated lesion. The differential coherent scatter cross section was reconstructed at each pixel in the image using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. Each pixel in the reconstructed image was then classified as being either air or the type of breast tissue with which its normalized reconstructed differential coherent scatter cross section had the highest correlation coefficient. Comparison of the final tissue classification results with the ground truth image showed that the coded aperture imaging technique has a cancerous pixel detection sensitivity (correct identification of cancerous pixels), specificity (correctly ruling out healthy pixels as not being cancer) and accuracy of 92.4%, 91.9% and 92.0%, respectively. Our Monte Carlo evaluation of our experimental coded aperture coherent scatter imaging system shows that it is able to exploit the greater contrast available from coherently scattered x-rays to increase the accuracy of detecting cancerous regions within the breast.

  18. Feeling like me again: a grounded theory of the role of breast reconstruction surgery in self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, L N; Newman, E F; Adair, P

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the role of breast reconstruction in women's self-image. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women from breast cancer support groups who had undergone breast reconstruction surgery. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore their experiences. The study generated a model of 'breast cancer, breast reconstruction and self-image', with a core category entitled 'feeling like me again' and two principal categories of 'normal appearance' and 'normal life'. A further two main categories, 'moving on' and 'image of sick person' were generated. The results indicated a role of breast reconstruction in several aspects of self-image including the restoration of pre-surgery persona, which further promoted adjustment.

  19. The design and characterization of a digital optical breast cancer imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Molly L; Li, Yang; Bur, Andres M; Fong, Christopher J; Masciotti, James M; Al Abdi, Rabah; Barbour, Randall L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2008-01-01

    Optical imaging has the potential to play a major role in breast cancer screening and diagnosis due to its ability to image cancer characteristics such as angiogenesis and hypoxia. A promising approach to evaluate and quantify these characteristics is to perform dynamic imaging studies in which one monitors the hemodynamic response to an external stimulus, such as a valsalva maneuver. It has been shown that the response to such stimuli shows MARKED differences between cancerous and healthy tissues. The fast imaging rates and large dynamic range of digital devices makes them ideal for this type of imaging studies. Here we present a digital optical tomography system designed specifically for dynamic breast imaging. The instrument uses laser diodes at 4 different near-infrared wavelengths with 32 sources and 128 silicon photodiode detectors.

  20. The effects of gantry tilt on breast dose and image noise in cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States); Stevens, Grant M. [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Foley, W. Dennis [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on image noise and glandular breast dose in females during cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans. Reducing the dose to glandular breast tissue is important due to its high radiosensitivity and limited diagnostic significance in cardiac CT scans.Methods: Tilted-gantry acquisition was investigated through computer simulations and experimental measurements. Upon IRB approval, eight voxelized phantoms were constructed from previously acquired cardiac CT datasets. Monte Carlo simulations quantified the dose deposited in glandular breast tissue over a range of tilt angles. The effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on breast dose were measured on a clinical CT scanner (CT750HD, GE Healthcare) using an anthropomorphic phantom with MOSFET dosimeters in the breast regions. In both simulations and experiments, scans were performed at gantry tilt angles of 0°–30°, in 5° increments. The percent change in breast dose was calculated relative to the nontilted scan for all tilt angles. The percent change in noise standard deviation due to gantry tilt was calculated in all reconstructed simulated and experimental images.Results: Tilting the gantry reduced the breast dose in all simulated and experimental phantoms, with generally greater dose reduction at increased gantry tilts. For example, at 30° gantry tilt, the dosimeters located in the superior, middle, and inferior breast regions measured dose reductions of 74%, 61%, and 9%, respectively. The simulations estimated 0%–30% total breast dose reduction across the eight phantoms and range of tilt angles. However, tilted-gantry acquisition also increased the noise standard deviation in the simulated phantoms by 2%–50% due to increased pathlength through the iodine-filled heart. The experimental phantom, which did not contain iodine in the blood, demonstrated decreased breast dose and decreased noise at all gantry tilt angles.Conclusions: Tilting the

  1. Preliminary results of acoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI) ultrasound imaging of solid suspicious breast lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ye; Liping Wang; Yuan Huang; Youbin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to make the qualitative and quantitative analysis to breast lesions usingacoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI), and assess the diagnostic value of ARFI for differentiation between benign andmalignant solid breast masses, meanwhile evaluate the influences of ARFI with breast imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS) of suspicious masses. Methods: Seventy-five women with 86 breast lesions underwent conventional breast ultrasoundexamination. Then B-mode BI-RADS features and assessments were recorded and standard breast US supplementedby ARFI elastographic examination were repeated. The data were recorded and analyzed as following: area ratio of breastlesion, the shear-wave velocity, the ratio of the shear-wave velocity between lesions and surrounding normal tissues, andaccording to the elastographic data reconsidered the BI-RADS category, all the results have been correlated with pathologicalresults and make statistical evaluations of ARFI for differentiation between benign and malignant solid breast masses.Meantime our study has correlated the adjusted BI-RADS category of suspicious breast lesions with the pathological resultsand made assessment. Results: Thirty-eight patients were malignant breast carcinoma (31 invasive ductal carcinoma, 5intraductal carcinoma in situ, 2 medullary carcinoma, 2 invasive lobular carcinoma), 48 patients were benign breast lesions(23 fibroadenoma, 12 benign nodular hyperplasia, 5 phyllodes tumor, 6 adenosis, 2 intraductal papilloma). Underwent conventionalbreast ultrasound exam, 42 cases were BI-RADS category 3, 23 cases were BI-RADS category 4. When addingelastographic data, 46 cases were BI-RADS category 3 and 20 cases were BI-RADS category 4. Compared with pathologicalresults showed for both the specificity of BIRADS features and the area under ROC curve has risen. Virtual touch tissue imaging(VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) data showed the area ratio (AR) between

  2. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice.

  3. Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Bold, R; White, R d; Ramsamooj, R

    2005-08-19

    Detection of breast cancer in fresh tissue obtained from surgery is investigated using Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging under laser excitation at 532-nm and 632.8-nm. The differences in intensity between the three main components of breast tissue (cancer, fibrous and adipose) are estimated and compared to those obtained from cross-polarized light scattering images recorded under polarized illumination at 700-nm. The optical spectroscopic images for each tissue sample were subsequently compared with the histopathology slides. The experimental results indicate that the intensity of the near-infrared emission is considerably different in breast cancer compared to that of the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (adipose and fibrous tissue). The experimental results suggest that 632.8-nm excitation offers key advantages compared to 532-nm excitation.

  4. Impact of value based breast cancer care pathway implementation on pre-operative breast magnetic resonance imaging utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Devina K. S.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used in the diagnostic workup of breast cancer (BC) to assess extent of disease and identify occult foci of disease. However, evidence for routine use of pre-operative MRI is lacking. Breast MRI is costly and can lead to unnecessary tests and treatment delays. Clinical care pathways (care paths) are value-based guidelines, which define management recommendations derived by expert consensus and available evidence based data. At Cleveland Clinic, care paths created for newly diagnosed BC patients recommend selective use of pre-operative MRI. We evaluated the number of pre-operative MRIs ordered before and after implementing an institution wide BC care paths in April 2014. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of BC cases during the years 2012, 2014, and part of 2015. Patient, tumor and treatment characteristics were collected. Pre-operative MRI utilization was compared before and after care path implementation. Results We identified 1,515 BC patients during the study period. Patients were more likely to undergo pre-operative MRI in 2012 than 2014 (OR: 2.77; Pcare path indications. Conclusions Implementation of online BC care paths at our institution was associated with a decreased use of pre-operative MRI overall and in patients without a BC care path indication, driving value based care through the reduction of pre-operative breast MRIs. PMID:28210553

  5. Real-Time Palpation Imaging for Improved Detection and Discrimination of Breast Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Mechanical imaging: A new techonology for medical diagonsis,” Int. J. Med. Inform., vol. 49, pp. 195–216, 1998. [3] P. S. Wellman, “Tactile imaging...during pal- pation of the breast; harder and less mobile lesions are considered more likely to be malignant (1). Several dif- ferent imaging methods...is that the reference coordinate system for motion tracking is mobile . The contact surface between the ultrasound transducer and the tissues that

  6. Clinical benefits of combined diagnostic three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjonen, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena

    2005-04-01

    Our goal is to evaluate diagnostic digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging clinical value in detecting and diagnosing early stage breast cancers. Determine if fusion imaging would decrease the number of biopsies and reduce further patient workup otherwise required to establish a definitive diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical results based on the study conducted at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Presentation demonstrates clinical dual modality images and results. Tomosynthesis of amorphous selenium based full field digital mammography system will be also presented. Forty asymptomatic women enrolled in the study based on prior identification of suspicious findings on screening mammograms where the possibility of breast cancer could not be excluded. Abnormal screening mammogram findings included tumor-like densities, parenchymal asymmetries and architectural distortions. Eight women were operated and 32 were not referred for surgery. Those cases, which were operated, three lesions represented ductal carcinoma in situ, two ductal carcinomas, one atypical ductal hyperplasia, one fibroadenoma and one radial scar. The 32 not operated cases revealed to be benign or superimposition of normal parenchymal breast tissue. The cases were returned to biennial screening. Ultrasound did not show clearly any lesions, but using tomosynthesis and ultrasound together we were able to analyze and locate the lesions exactly. Special tomosynthesis improves overall lesion detection and analysis. The value of tomosynthesis and ultrasound fusion imaging will be to provide additional clinical information in order to improve decision making accuracy to either confirm or exclude a suspected abnormality and in particular detect small breast cancers.

  7. Feasibility study of the optical imaging of a breast cancer lesion labeled with upconversion nanoparticle biocomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenik, Ekaterina A; Nadort, Annemarie; Generalova, Alla N; Nechaev, Andrei V; Sreenivasan, Varun K A; Khaydukov, Evgeny V; Semchishen, Vladimir A; Popov, Alexey P; Sokolov, Viktor I; Akhmanov, Aleksandr S; Zubov, Vitali P; Klinov, Dmitry V; Panchenko, Vladislav Y; Deyev, Sergey M; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2013-07-01

    Innovative luminescent nanomaterials, termed upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), have demonstrated considerable promise as molecular probes for high-contrast optical imaging in cells and small animals. The feasibility study of optical diagnostics in humans is reported here based on experimental and theoretical modeling of optical imaging of an UCNP-labeled breast cancer lesion. UCNPs synthesized in-house were surface-capped with an amphiphilic polymer to achieve good colloidal stability in aqueous buffer solutions. The scFv4D5 mini-antibodies were grafted onto the UCNPs via a high-affinity molecular linker barstar:barnase (Bs:Bn) to allow their specific binding to the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER2/neu, which is overexpressed in human breast adenocarcinoma cells SK-BR-3. UCNP-Bs:Bn-scFv4D5 biocomplexes exhibited high-specific immobilization on the SK-BR-3 cells with the optical contrast as high as 10:1 benchmarked against a negative control cell line. Breast cancer optical diagnostics was experimentally modeled by means of epi-luminescence imaging of a monolayer of the UCNP-labeled SK-BR-3 cells buried under a breast tissue mimicking optical phantom. The experimental results were analyzed theoretically and projected to in vivo detection of early-stage breast cancer. The model predicts that the UCNP-assisted cancer detection is feasible up to 4 mm in tissue depth, showing considerable potential for diagnostic and image-guided surgery applications.

  8. Clinicopathological and imaging features of breast cancer in Korean Women under 40 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Jang, Mi Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yun, Bo La; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Eun Kyu; Kang, Eun Young; Park, So Yeon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the clinicopathological and imaging features of mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in Korean women under 40 years of age according to molecular subtypes. We included 183 breast cancers in 176 consecutive women under 40 years old who had been diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2012 and November 2014. The patients' clinical and pathologic records were available as electronic medical records. A retrospective review of the pre-operative imaging studies was performed with 177 mammographies, 183 ultrasonographies, and 178 MRIs. Eighty-six percent (158/183) of lesions were symptomatic, with masses (147/183) as the most common presentation. Eighty percent (22/25) of the asymptomatic lesions were diagnosed via screening ultrasonography. The luminal A subtype was the most common (n = 79, 43%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched subtype showed indistinct margins on mammography (p = 0.006), the triple negative subtype depicted a posterior enhancement on ultrasonography (p < 0.001) and rim enhancement on MRI (p < 0.001). Breast cancers in Korean women under 40 years of age are commonly presented with a palpable mass, and luminal A is the most common molecular subtype. In our study, the imaging and pathologic characteristics of breast cancer in younger women were similar to those previously reported for older patients.

  9. Determining the number of clusters for nuclei segmentation in breast cancer image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichah, Chastine; Navastara, Dini Adni; Suciati, Nanik; Nuraini, Lubna

    2017-02-01

    Clustering is commonly technique for image segmentation, however determining an appropriate number of clusters is still challenging. Due to nuclei variation of size and shape in breast cancer image, an automatic determining number of clusters for segmenting the nuclei breast cancer is proposed. The phase of nuclei segmentation in breast cancer image are nuclei detection, touched nuclei detection, and touched nuclei separation. We use the Gram-Schmidt for nuclei cell detection, the geometry feature for touched nuclei detection, and combining of watershed and spatial k-Means clustering for separating the touched nuclei in breast cancer image. The spatial k-Means clustering is employed for separating the touched nuclei, however automatically determine the number of clusters is difficult due to the variation of size and shape of single cell breast cancer. To overcome this problem, first we apply watershed algorithm to separate the touched nuclei and then we calculate the distance among centroids in order to solve the over-segmentation. We merge two centroids that have the distance below threshold. And the new of number centroid as input to segment the nuclei cell using spatial k- Means algorithm. Experiment show that, the proposed scheme can improve the accuracy of nuclei cell counting.

  10. 3.0 Tesla vs 1.5 Tesla breast magnetic resonance imaging in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Reni S; Chen, Christine; Vashi, Reena; Hooley, Regina J; Philpotts, Liane E

    2013-08-28

    To compare 3.0 Tesla (T) vs 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Upon Institutional Review Board approval, a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective review of 147 consecutive 3.0T MR examinations and 98 consecutive 1.5T MR examinations in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer between 7/2009 and 5/2010 was performed. Eleven patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the 3.0T group were excluded. Mammographically occult suspicious lesions (BIRADS Code 4 and 5) additional to the index cancer in the ipsilateral and contralateral breast were identified. Lesion characteristics and pathologic diagnoses were recorded, and results achieved with both systems compared. Statistical significance was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. In the 3.0T group, 206 suspicious lesions were identified in 55% (75/136) of patients and 96% (198/206) of these lesions were biopsied. In the 1.5T group, 98 suspicious lesions were identified in 53% (52/98) of patients and 90% (88/98) of these lesions were biopsied. Biopsy results yielded additional malignancies in 24% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 14% of patients in the 1.5T group (33/136 vs 14/98, P = 0.07). Average size and histology of the additional cancers was comparable. Of patients who had a suspicious MR imaging study, additional cancers were found in 44% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 27% in the 1.5T group (33/75 vs 14/52, P = 0.06), yielding a higher positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system. 3.0T MR imaging detected more additional malignancies in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and yielded a higher PPV for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system.

  11. Factors Influencing Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Maedeh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Many psycho-socioeconomic and other types factors associated with cancer, the