WorldWideScience

Sample records for denial processing cost

  1. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  2. Disability Reconsideration Average Processing Time (in Days) (Excludes technical denials)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A presentation of the overall cumulative number of elapsed days (including processing time for transit, medical determinations, and SSA quality review) from the date...

  3. Mapping the caregiving process in paediatric asthma: Parental burden, acceptance and denial coping strategies and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neuza; Crespo, Carla; Carona, Carlos; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Based on a multidimensional model of the caregiving process, the main goal of this study was to examine the direct and indirect links, via acceptance and denial coping, between the caregiving burden and the quality of life (QoL) in parents of children with asthma. The sample was composed of 182 parents of a child/adolescent between 8 and 18 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of asthma. Data were obtained via self-report questionnaires assessing the caregiving burden, acceptance and denial coping strategies and QoL. Results from structural equation modelling indicated a good fit for the mediation model, which explained 30% of the variability of the parents' QoL. Higher levels of caregiving burden were negatively and indirectly associated with the parents' QoL, via less use of acceptance and greater use of denial coping strategies. Multigroup analyses ascertained the invariance of these links across the children's asthma severity, age and socio-economic groups. These findings emphasise acceptance and denial as important coping mechanisms in the caregiving process. Thus, broad-spectrum family-centred interventions in paediatric asthma settings can target the development of the parents' coping tendencies characterised by greater acceptance and less denial as a way of reappraising caregiving demands as less burdensome and improving their QoL.

  4. DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACK IN DISTRIBUTED WIRELESS NETWORK BY DISTRIBUTED JAMMER NETWORK: A BIRTH-DEATH RANDOM PROCESS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dhanasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large number of low power, tiny radio jammers are constituting a Distributed Jammer Network (DJN is used nowadays to cause a Denial of Service (DoS attack on a Distributed Wireless Network (DWN. Using NANO technologies, it is possible to build huge number of tiny jammers in millions, if not more. The Denial of Service (DoS attacks in Distributed Wireless Network (DWN using Distributed Jammer Network (DJN considering each of them as separate Poisson Random Process. In an integrated approach, in this study, we advocate the more natural Birth-Death Random Process route to study the impact of Distributed Jammer Network (DJN on the connectivity of Distributed Wireless Network (DWN. We express that the Distributed Jammer Network (DJN can root a phase transition in the performance of the target network. We use Birth-Death Random Process (BDRP route for this phase transition to evaluate the collision of Distributed Jammer Network (DJN on the connectivity and global percolation of the target network. This study confirms the global percolation of Distributed Wireless Network (DWN is definite when the Distributed Jammer Network (DJN is not more significant.

  5. Global Warming Denial: The Human Brain on Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrouch, N.; Johnson, B. T.; Slawinska, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Future assessments of climate change rely on multi-model intercomparisons, and projections of the extreme events frequency are of particular interest as associated with significant economic costs and social threats. Notably, systematically simulated increases in the number of extreme weather events agree well with observational data over the last decade. At the same time, as the climate grows more volatile, widespread denial of climate change and its anthropocentric causes continues to proliferate (based on nationally representative U.S. polls). Simultaneous increases in both high-impact exposure and its denial is in stark contrast with our knowledge of socio-natural dynamics and its models. Disentangling this paradox requires an understanding of the origins of global warming denial at an individual level, and how subsequently it propagates across social networks of many scales, shaping global policies. However, as the real world and its dynamical models are complex (high-dimensional and coupled), separating the particular feedback of interest remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate this feedback in a controlled experiment, where increasing unpredictability using helplessness-training paradigms induces changes in global warming denial, and the endorsement of conservative ideology. We explain these results in the context of evolutionary theory framing self-deception and denial as remnants of evolutionary processes that shaped and facilitated the survival of the human species. Further we link these findings to changes in neural and higher-level cognitive processes in response to unpredictable stimuli. We argue that climate change denial is an example of an extreme belief system that carries the potential to threaten the wellbeing of both humans and other species alike. It is therefore crucial to better quantify climate denial using social informatics tools that provide the means to improve its representations in coupled socio-geophysical models to mitigate its

  6. Denial Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Lengyel, Florian

    2012-01-01

    We define Denial Logic DL, a system of justification logic that models an agent whose justified beliefs are false, who cannot avow his own propositional attitudes and who can believe contradictions but not tautologies of classical propositional logic. Using Artemov's natural semantics for justification logic JL, in which justifications are interpreted as sets of formulas, we provide an inductive construction of models of DL, and prove soundness and completeness results for DL. Some logical notions developed for JL, such as constant specifications and the internalization property, are inconsistent with DL. This leads us to define negative constant specifications for DL, which can be used to model agents with justified false beliefs. Denial logic can therefore be relevant to philosophical skepticism. We use DL with what we call coherent negative constant specifications to model a Putnamian brain in a vat with the justified false belief that it is not a brain in a vat, and derive a model of JL in which "I am a b...

  7. Environmental Denial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Grušovnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though today reliable information about the negative impact of humans on the environment is only two clicks away, a considerable number of people still deny it. Why? Research shows that what we might call 'environmental denial' is a consequence of specific social and psychological factors: if we were to admit the negative impact of our lifestyles on the environment, we would have to change our way of life founded on consumerism. However, consumerism is not simply a way of exchanging goods; it is also something around which we organize the meaning of our lives, as consumer research clearly shows. Therefore we deny the information on the negattive impact of human activity on the environment because admitting it would lead to a conflict between cognition (attitudes, beliefs and actions (behaviour around which we organize the meaning of our lives. Such an exposition points to wider sociopolitical effects. Firstly, it raises questions about education that have to take into account the non-rational nature of human beings, and secondly it raises questions about the directions and possible outcomes of social action.

  8. Science denial as a form of pseudoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-06-01

    Science denialism poses a serious threat to human health and the long-term sustainability of human civilization. Although it has recently been rather extensively discussed, this discussion has rarely been connected to the extensive literature on pseudoscience and the science-pseudoscience demarcation. This contribution argues that science denialism should be seen as one of the two major forms of pseudoscience, alongside of pseudotheory promotion. A detailed comparison is made between three prominent forms of science denialism, namely relativity theory denialism, evolution denialism, and climate science denialism. Several characteristics are identified that distinguish science denialism from other forms of pseudoscience, in particular its persistent fabrication of fake controversies, the extraordinary male dominance among its activists, and its strong connection with various forms of right-wing politics. It is argued that the scientific response to science denialism has to be conceived with these characteristics in mind. In particular, it is important to expose the fabricated fake controversies for what they are and to reveal how science denialists consistently use deviant criteria of assent to distort the scientific process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Insurance denials for cancer clinical trial participation after the Affordable Care Act mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Christine B; Antonelli, Kaitlyn R; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Ellis, Shellie D

    2017-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes a mandate requiring most private health insurers to cover routine patient care costs for cancer clinical trial participation; however, the impact of this provision on cancer centers' efforts to accrue patients to clinical trials has not been well described. First, members of cancer research centers and community-based institutions (n = 252) were surveyed to assess the status of insurance denials, and then, a focused survey (n = 77) collected denial details. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine associations between the receipt of denials and site characteristics. Overall, 62.7% of the initial survey respondents reported at least 1 insurance denial during 2014. Sites using a precertification process were 3.04 times more likely to experience denials (95% confidence interval, 1.55-5.99; P ≤ .001), and similar rates of denials were reported from sites located in states with preexisting clinical trial coverage laws versus states without them (82.3% vs 85.1%; χ = 50.7; P ≤ .001). Among the focused survey sites, academic centers reported denials more often than community sites (71.4% vs 46.4%). The failure of plans to cover trial participation was cited as the most common reason provided for denials (n = 33 [80.5%]), with nearly 80% of sites (n = 61) not receiving a coverage response from the insurer within 72 hours. Despite the ACA's mandate for most insurers to cover routine care costs for cancer clinical trial participation, denials and delays continue. Denials may continue because some insurers remain exempt from the law, or they may signal an implementation failure. Delays in coverage may affect patient participation in trials. Additional efforts to eliminate this barrier will be needed to achieve federal initiatives to double the pace of cancer research over the next 5 years. Future work should assess the law's effectiveness at the patient level to inform these efforts

  10. Rumor spreading models with random denials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorno, Virginia; Spina, Serena

    2016-11-01

    The concept of denial is introduced on rumor spreading processes. The denials occur with a certain rate and they reset to start the initial situation. A population of N individuals is subdivided into ignorants, spreaders and stiflers; at the initial time there is only one spreader and the rest of the population is ignorant. The denials are introduced in the classic DK model and in its generalization, in which a spreader can transmit the rumor at most to k ignorants. The steady state densities are analyzed for these models. Finally, a numerical analysis is performed to study the rule of the involved parameters and to compare the proposed models.

  11. Denial: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Denial was a mechanism that Sigmund Freud worked with in his clinical practice and in his formulation of personality. He considered denial, e.g., in his papers on Repression (1915) and on Fetishism (1927) in Collected Papers, Volumes IV and V respectively (London: Hogarth and The Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1925 and 1950 respectively). It would…

  12. Demystifying the Cost Estimation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing today, nothing is more important than giving a customer a clear and straight-forward accounting of what their money has purchased. Many potentially promising return business orders are lost because of unclear, ambiguous, or improper billing. One of the best ways of resolving cost bargaining conflicts is by providing a…

  13. Demystifying the Cost Estimation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing today, nothing is more important than giving a customer a clear and straight-forward accounting of what their money has purchased. Many potentially promising return business orders are lost because of unclear, ambiguous, or improper billing. One of the best ways of resolving cost bargaining conflicts is by providing a…

  14. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  15. Science denial and contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Tom; Mackey, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    In reply to Robert P Crease's column "Fighting science denial" (Critical Point, September) in which he compared the concealment of evidence about climate change to shouting "Stay put!" in a burning store.

  16. Avoidable Technical and Clinical Denial Write-Off Management in Hospitals, Physician Offices, and Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Sandra Marlene; Byrne, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the various types of technical and clinical denials that are usually "written off" and proposes strategies to prevent this loss. For purposes of this writing, avoidable technical and clinical denial write-offs are defined as revenue lost from "first-pass" denials rejections. For example, a procedure that requires an authorization is performed without having had an authorization obtained. After appeals and attempts to recoup the revenue, often unsuccessful, the organization ultimately "writes off" the revenue as not collectable. The question to ask is: Are these claims really not collectable or can actionable steps be taken to conserve these dollars and improve the bottom line? Acute care hospitals, physician offices, and clinics. In today's environment, the need to manage costs is ubiquitous. Cost management is on the priority list of all savvy health care executives, even if margins are healthy, revenue is under pressure, and the magnitude of cost reduction needed is greater than what past efforts have achieved. As hospitals and physician clinics prioritize areas for improvement, reduction in lost revenue-especially avoidable lost revenue-should be at the top of the list. Attentively managing claim denial write-offs will significantly reduce lost revenue. There is significant interface between case management and the revenue cycle. Developing core competencies for reducing clinical and technical denials should be a critical imperative in overall cost management strategy. Case managers are well placed to prevent these unnecessary losses through accurate status determination and clinical documentation review. These clinical professionals can also provide insight into work flow and other processes inherent in the preauthorization process.

  17. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.

  18. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, H. P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Lyons, Jennifer [EG& G Technical Services, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States); White, Charles W. [EG& G Technical Services, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

  19. Illness denial questionnaire for patients and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Ferrario S

    2017-03-01

    avoidance positively associated with anxiety and depression. The IDQ also showed a good stability (r from 0.71 to 0.87. Conclusion: The IDQ demonstrated good psychometric properties. Denial of negative emotions and resistance to change seem to contribute to a real expression of denial, and conscious avoidance seems to constitute a further step in the process of cognitive–affective elaboration of the illness. Keywords: assessment, denial, avoidance, chronic diseases

  20. Low-cost LANDSAT processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, N. L.; Hooper, N. J.; Spann, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    LANDSAT analysis system is assembled from commercially available components at relatively low cost. Small-scale system is put together for price affordable for state agencies and universities. It processes LANDSAT data for subscene areas on repetitive basis. Amount of time required for processing decreases linearly with number of classifications desired. Computer programs written in FORTRAN IV are available for analyzing data.

  1. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  2. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  3. Democracy and the Twin Challenges of Climate Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change poses major challenges to the operation of "modern" political, economic and social systems, making visible assumptions and raising questions about how scientific information can and should operate in a modern globalized democracy. Alongside the serious threat to democracy posed by the phenomenon of "literal denial" (the e.g. so called skeptic challenges of scientific information for political reasons) is "implicatory denial" or the more pervasive and everyday problem of how and why people who believe climate change is occurring nevertheless manage to ignore it. Instead, disturbing information about climate change is normalized through a variety of everyday social practices from changing the subject, controlling exposure to information or the use of humor. The blatant and more readily identifiable processes of literal denial can work together with the less visible (and to date less studied) process of implicatory denial to hamper public response to climate change.

  4. Animated-simulation modeling facilitates clinical-process costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelman, W N; Glick, N D; Blackmore, C C

    2001-09-01

    Traditionally, the finance department has assumed responsibility for assessing process costs in healthcare organizations. To enhance process-improvement efforts, however, many healthcare providers need to include clinical staff in process cost analysis. Although clinical staff often use electronic spreadsheets to model the cost of specific processes, PC-based animated-simulation tools offer two major advantages over spreadsheets: they allow clinicians to interact more easily with the costing model so that it more closely represents the process being modeled, and they represent cost output as a cost range rather than as a single cost estimate, thereby providing more useful information for decision making.

  5. Lean Cost Management Analysis on Food Processing Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce Lean Cost Management (LCM that tries to create creating value for customers and performs whole cost management in enterprise’s entire life cycle under structure of target cost, cost sustaining and cost improvement guided by reverse thinking into food processing enterprise to construct LCM system from aspects of external value chain analysis as well as internal cost management. Dynamic pricing game model was used to provide cost improvement on food enterprise value chain so as to minimize whole cost. The target cost was divided into each part in design phase supported by cost programming, cost reduction and cost improving. Case study shows that such cost suppressing method can reduce cost of food processing enterprises and improve long-term competitiveness.

  6. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sungki Kim; Wonil Ko; Sungsig Bang

    2015-01-01

    ...) metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method...

  7. Process Approach to Cost of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary understanding comprehending cost of quality is connected both with the sphere of the management, as well as the operational activity. Borders of considering the category of quality costs moved beyond the technical – technological area. Trial including costs let the quality for classifying them with reference to all action carried out in the modern enterprise. Standard models of quality costs and the activity – based costing appointed new prospects of economics of the quality in the business administration.

  8. Denial of Service Prevention for 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yao; Kaur, Bipjeet; Andersen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    5G wireless mobile communication is expected to include a large number of advanced technologies in order to further increase bandwidth, Quality of Service (QoS), improve usability and security, decrease delays and cost of service. Software Defined Radio (SDR) will be the platform for advanced...... terminals. Our focus is security and especially prevention of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks which we believe will become more common in commercial networks through increasing availability of easy programmable SDRs. We propose a secret version of Adaptive Frequency Hopping, as a possible 5G technology...

  9. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  10. Skepticism and Denial: Drawing a line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Brown, M. B.; Peacock, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate denialism is distinct from a merely skeptical attitude towards generally accepted views in climate science. But drawing the line between them takes care—there are similarities between skepticism and denial, including a shared reluctance to accept conclusions that nearly all qualified scientists take to be well-justified. Here we will explore both how to draw the line, and how to effectively communicate the differences between denial and skepticism. Identifying which of these two terms best describes someone's attitude turns on whether they reject a generally accepted view based on a `high threshold' for acceptance of conclusions in general, or from a preference that the conclusion in question be false. In most cases, denialism manifests in disregard and mistreatment of evidence, including selective quotation, credulous endorsement of bad sources and incredulous rejection of good sources. Historically, current accepted views became dominant as alternatives were excluded and arguments supporting current views accumulated. The accumulated record of evidence and successful application of those views sets a high bar for proposed alternatives to them. Pure skeptics may refuse to endorse generally accepted views without rejecting or distorting the strong evidence for those views, and typically support policy responses based on the implications of that evidence. But deniers who reject scientific conclusions reject the evidence for those views while endorsing views that a true skeptic would regard as less plausible and well-supported than the accepted views. Thus motivated cognition is the key to defining denial. Pascal's famous argument for belief in God illustrates the problem: even assuming God's existence to be extremely improbable, the expected value of believing is far higher than the expected value of disbelieving. But Pascal's argument undermines its own methodology: without reasons to rely on beliefs as reliable guides to successful action, cost

  11. Nihilism: a benign denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros

    2003-06-01

    Nihilism is the belief that all possible knowledge on a given topic has been amassed and codified. Ranging from benign denial to deliberate attempts at excommunication, nihilism is often encountered in the history of medicine. Eustachius, Columbus, and Sylvius strongly criticized Vesalius and defended the authority of Galen. Riolan fervently rejected Harvey's monumental work on the circulation of blood. Gross stated that no honest and sensible surgeon would ever sanction thyroidectomy. Sandstrom's discovery of the parathyroids was met with silence. Transplantation of parathyroids by Mandl was not appreciated when announced. Aristotle's dictum that the heart cannot withstand serious injury led to Paget's statement that cardiac surgery had reached the limits set by nature, which no new techniques could overcome. The first Billroth I operation was welcomed as, "Hopefully, also the last." Pancreatic surgery was opposed because the organ was of no clinical interest and was impossible for surgeons to reach. Pancreatic transplantation was rejected for many years, despite good results. When Blundell used blood transfusion for postpartum hemorrhage, critics averred that his next exploit would be radical removal of the spleen. Bassini stated that it could be risky to publish more about radical treatment of inguinal hernias. Carcinomas of the lower sigmoid and upper rectum were deemed untreatable because of their inaccessibility. Colostomy during pediatric surgery was rejected many times. Although it is difficult for the human mind to move from a familiar point of view, this propensity should not infect science, thereby impeding advancement.

  12. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  13. Avoidance Denial versus Optimistic Denial in Reaction to the Threat of Future Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Suzanne C.; Ting, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Two distinctly different denial-based threat orientations (avoidance denial and optimistic denial) were examined using a message about the future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) for young adults. Participants (N = 101) completed measures of denial-based dispositional threat orientations, current eating, comparative risk, and objective risk…

  14. Process-based Cost Estimation for Ramjet/Scramjet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijendra; Torres, Felix; Nesman, Miles; Reynolds, John

    2003-01-01

    Process-based cost estimation plays a key role in effecting cultural change that integrates distributed science, technology and engineering teams to rapidly create innovative and affordable products. Working together, NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Canoga Park have developed a methodology of process-based cost estimation bridging the methodologies of high-level parametric models and detailed bottoms-up estimation. The NASA GRC/Boeing CP process-based cost model provides a probabilistic structure of layered cost drivers. High-level inputs characterize mission requirements, system performance, and relevant economic factors. Design alternatives are extracted from a standard, product-specific work breakdown structure to pre-load lower-level cost driver inputs and generate the cost-risk analysis. As product design progresses and matures the lower level more detailed cost drivers can be re-accessed and the projected variation of input values narrowed, thereby generating a progressively more accurate estimate of cost-risk. Incorporated into the process-based cost model are techniques for decision analysis, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and functional utility analysis. Design alternatives may then be evaluated not just on cost-risk, but also user defined performance and schedule criteria. This implementation of full-trade study support contributes significantly to the realization of the integrated development environment. The process-based cost estimation model generates development and manufacturing cost estimates. The development team plans to expand the manufacturing process base from approximately 80 manufacturing processes to over 250 processes. Operation and support cost modeling is also envisioned. Process-based estimation considers the materials, resources, and processes in establishing cost-risk and rather depending on weight as an input, actually estimates weight along with cost and schedule.

  15. Defending Science Denial in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, J.

    2013-12-01

    Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and other social media have proven themselves powerful vectors for science denial. Left unchecked, these attacks on foundational sciences like evolution and climate change undermine public confidence in science and spawn attacks on science-based policy and science education. Scientists can blunt such attacks by being vigorous advocates for their own research and their discipline's core findings, by seeking wide and unexpected audiences for discussions of their science, and by understanding and addressing the social, political, and cultural roots of science denial.

  16. Process-Improvement Cost Model for the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, Sheila R; Greenfield, Eric; Messimer, Sherri; Thotakura, Swati; Gholston, Sampson; Doughty, Tracy; Hays, Mary; Ivey, Richard; Spalding, Joseph; Phillips, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a simplified, activity-based costing approach for hospital emergency departments (EDs) to use with Lean Six Sigma cost-benefit analyses. The cost model complexity is reduced by removing diagnostic and condition-specific costs, thereby revealing the underlying process activities' cost inefficiencies. Examples are provided for evaluating the cost savings from reducing discharge delays and the cost impact of keeping patients in the ED (boarding) after the decision to admit has been made. The process-improvement cost model provides a needed tool in selecting, prioritizing, and validating Lean process-improvement projects in the ED and other areas of patient care that involve multiple dissimilar diagnoses.

  17. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium/TRU (TRansUranium metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning. The unit process cost was calculated by classifying the cost consumed at each process into raw material and conversion costs. The unit process costs of the pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning were calculated as 195 US$/kgU-TRU, 310 US$/kgU-TRU, 215 US$/kgU-TRU and 231 US$/kgU-TRU, respectively. Finally the total pyroprocess cost was calculated as 951 US$/kgU-TRU. In addition, the cost driver for the raw material cost was identified as the cost for Li3PO4, needed for the LiCl-KCl purification process, and platinum as an anode electrode in the electrochemical reduction process.

  18. 45 CFR 5.34 - Appeal of denials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... give any explanation. (c) Review process. Before making a decision on an appeal of a denial, the designated review official will consult with the General Counsel to ensure that the rights and interests of... reasons why you believe that the FOIA exemption(s) we cited do not apply to the records that you...

  19. Analysis of the Data From a Technical Processing Cost Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Hans Joachim

    This study was conducted to analyze and summarize raw data obtained from a 1972 study: "Report on a Cost Study of Specific Technical Processing Activities of the California State University and College Libraries" with the hypothesis that the cost of technical processes increases as the production volume both rises above and falls below…

  20. A COST ORIENTED SYSTEM FOR HOLE MAKING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur PAMUKOĞLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge based system for manufacturing of various hole making processes has been developed. In the system, selection of machining methods, determination of sequences based on cutting tools for each process, determination of process time and cost analysis have been conducted. In the procedure, all available processes have been taken in to account regarding their costs and the most suitable in cost was chosen. The system generated helps facilitate determination of process time and the costs of features to be manufactured. It is especially useful for quick cost estimation. In addition to these, the system helps people who are naïve in manufacturing operations so that people could be used for the related manufacturing stages.

  1. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from 502.8 kW h-1-usable to 370.3 kW h-1-usable, a savings of 132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  2. Processing Polarity Items: Contrastive Licensing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddy, Douglas; Drenhaus, Heiner; Frisch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment that investigated the failure to license polarity items in German using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The results reveal distinct processing reflexes associated with failure to license positive polarity items in comparison to failure to license negative polarity items. Failure to license both negative and…

  3. Denial Denied: Freedom of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Newey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Free speech is a widely held principle. This is in some ways surprising, since formal and informal censorship of speech is widespread, and rather different issues seem to arise depending on whether the censorship concerns who speaks, what content is spoken or how it is spoken. I argue that despite these facts, free speech can indeed be seen as a unitary principle. On my analysis, the core of the free speech principle is the denial of the denial of speech, whether to a speaker, to a proposition, or to a mode of expression. Underlying free speech is the principle of freedom of association, according to which speech is both a precondition of future association (e.g. as a medium for negotiation and a mode of association in its own right. I conclude by applying this account briefly to two contentious issues: hate speech and pornography.

  4. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Lisa R; Karayanidis, Frini; Fulham, Ross; Provost, Alexander; Michie, Patricia T; Heathcote, Andrew; Hsieh, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these "mixed" repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011). In this paper, we analyze stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. These findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  5. An improved effective cost review process for value engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, D S; Park, J I

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis.

  6. Process Cost Modeling for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.; Freeman, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This report outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are costed according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this report is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool. In successive sections, the report addresses the issues of cost modeling as follows. First, an introduction is presented to provide the background for the research work. Next, a quick review of cost estimation techniques is made with the intention to

  7. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  8. Silence and Denial in Everyday Life-The Case of Animal Suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Deidre

    2011-02-21

    How can we make sense of the fact that we live in a world where good people co-exist in silence about widespread animal suffering. How is it that sites of suffering such as laboratories, factory farms, abattoirs and animal transportation are all around us and yet we 'do not, in a certain sense, know about them' [1]. This 'not knowing' is one of the most difficult barriers for animal activists who must constantly develop new strategies in an attempt to catch public attention and translate it into action. Recent contributions from the 'sociology of denial' have elucidated many of the mechanisms involved in 'not knowing' in relation to human atrocities and genocide. In this context, 'denial' refers to the maintenance of social worlds in which an undesirable situation is unrecognized, ignored or made to seem normal [2]. These include different types of denial: personal, official and cultural, as well as the process of normalization whereby suffering becomes invisible through routinization, tolerance, accommodation, collusion and cover up. Denial and normalization reflect both personal and collective states where suffering is not acknowledged [3]. In this paper, I will examine insights from the sociology of denial and apply them to human denial and normalization of animal suffering. This will include an examination of denial which is both individual and social and the implications of these insights for theory and practice in the human/animal relationship.

  9. Guidelines and cost analysis for catalyst production in biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Nordblad, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    be a powerful tool to guide research and development activities in order to achieve commercial potential. This study discusses the cost contribution of the biocatalyst in processes that use isolated enzymes, immobilized enzymes, or whole cells to catalyze reactions leading to the production of chemicals...... as well as the production scale are crucial for decreasing the total cost contribution of the biocatalyst. Moreover, it is clear that, based on initial process performance, the potential to reduce production costs by several orders of magnitude is possible. Guideline minimum productivities for a feasible...... process are suggested for different types of processes and products, based on typical values of biocatalyst and product costs. Such guidelines are dependent on the format of the biocatalyst (whole-cell, soluble enzyme, immobilized enzyme), as well as product market size and value. For example commodity...

  10. Process Setting Models for the Minimization of Costs Defectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process Setting Models for the Minimization of Costs Defectives. ... Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (1991) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. The economy of production controls all manufacturing activities. In the ...

  11. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  12. Comparison between cylindrical and prismatic lithium-ion cell costs using a process based cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    The relative size and age of the US electric vehicle market means that a few vehicles are able to drive market-wide trends in the battery chemistries and cell formats on the road today. Three lithium-ion chemistries account for nearly all of the storage capacity, and half of the cells are cylindrical. However, no specific model exists to examine the costs of manufacturing these cylindrical cells. Here we present a process-based cost model tailored to the cylindrical lithium-ion cells currently used in the EV market. We examine the costs for varied cell dimensions, electrode thicknesses, chemistries, and production volumes. Although cost savings are possible from increasing cell dimensions and electrode thicknesses, economies of scale have already been reached, and future cost reductions from increased production volumes are minimal. Prismatic cells, which are able to further capitalize on the cost reduction from larger formats, can offer further reductions than those possible for cylindrical cells.

  13. Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelson, T. S.; Barth, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The relative manufacturing costs were estimated for large high technology fan blades prepared by advanced composite fabrication methods using seven candidate materials/process systems. These systems were identified as laminated resin matrix composite, filament wound resin matrix composite, superhybrid solid laminate, superhybrid spar/shell, metal matrix composite, metal matrix composite with a spar and shell, and hollow titanium. The costs were calculated utilizing analytical process models and all cost data are presented as normalized relative values where 100 was the cost of a conventionally forged solid titanium fan blade whose geometry corresponded to a size typical of 42 blades per disc. Four costs were calculated for each of the seven candidate systems to relate the variation of cost on blade size. Geometries typical of blade designs at 24, 30, 36 and 42 blades per disc were used. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  14. Patient level costing in Ireland: process, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A; McElroy, B

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, the Department of Health released their policy paper on hospital financing entitled Money Follows the Patient. A fundamental building block for the proposed financing model is patient level costing. This paper outlines the patient level costing process, identifies the opportunities and considers the challenges associated with the process in the Irish hospital setting. Methods involved a review of the existing literature which was complemented with an interview with health service staff. There are considerable challenges associated with implementing patient level costing including deficits in information and communication technologies and financial expertise as well as timeliness of coding. In addition, greater clinical input into the costing process is needed compared to traditional costing processes. However, there are long-term benefits associated with patient level costing; these include empowerment of clinical staff, improved transparency and price setting and greater fairness, especially in the treatment of outliers. These can help to achieve the Government's Health Strategy. The benefits of patient level costing need to be promoted and a commitment to investment in overcoming the challenges is required.

  15. [Cost management: the implementation of the activity-based costing method in sterile processing department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Castilho, Valéria

    2010-09-01

    This exploratory case study was performed aiming at implementing the Activity-based Costing (ABC) method in a sterile processing department (SPD) of a major teaching hospital. Data collection was performed throughout 2006. Documentary research techniques and non participant closed observation were used. The ABC implementation allowed for learning the activity-based costing of both the chemical and physical disinfection cycle/load: (dollar 9.95) and (dollar 12.63), respectively; as well as the cost for sterilization by steam under pressure (autoclave) (dollar 31.37) and low temperature steam and gaseous formaldehyde sterilization (LTSF) (dollar 255.28). The information provided by the ABC method has optimized the overall understanding of the cost driver process and provided the foundation for assessing performance and improvement in the SPD processes.

  16. VPLS Based Quality and Cost Control for Tennessee Eastman Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凯; 王海清; 李平

    2005-01-01

    Product quality and operation cost control obtain increasing emphases in modern chemical system engineering. To improve the fault detection power of the partial least square (PLS) method for quality control, a new QRPV statistic is proposed in terms of the VP (variable importance in projection) indices of monitored process variables, which is significantly advanced over and different from the conventional Q statistic. QRPV is calculated only by the residuals of the remarkable process variables (RPVs). Therefore, it is the dominant relation between quality and RPV not all process variables (as in the case of the conventional PLS) that is monitored by this new VP-PLS (VPLS) method. The combination of QRPV and T2 statistics is applied to the quality and cost control of the Tennessee Eastman (TE) process, and weak faults can be detected as quickly as possible. Consequently, the product quality of TE process is guaranteed and operation costs are reduced.

  17. APPLICABILITY OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wanda MARUSZEWSKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to emphasis that activity based costing is a proper tool for engineers to enhance their deci-sion-making process while developing new product. The theoretical analysis shows that variety of factors shall be en-compassed into new product decision-making process and therefore engineers and management should pay great attention to proper cost allocation. The paper suggests the usage of Activity Based Costing methodology for new product development decision-making process. Author states that application ABC in the process of rational decision-making referring to new product development enables managers and engineers to prioritize possible solutions, and reallocate resources used in production process in order to meet wider organizational goals. It would also contribute in coopera-tion of managers and engineers for the sake of organizational goal.

  18. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  19. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  20. Producing optical (contact) lenses by a novel low cost process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Richard S.; Spencer, Ian D.

    2005-09-01

    The rapid and impressive growth of China has been achieved on the back of highly labour intensive industries, often in manufacturing, and at the cost of companies and jobs in Europe and America. Approaches that worked well in the 1990's to reduce production costs in the developed countries are no longer effective when confronted with the low labour costs of China and India. We have looked at contact lenses as a product that has become highly available to consumers here but as an industry that has reduced costs by moving to low labour cost countries. The question to be answered was, "Do we have the skill to still make the product in the UK, and can we make it cheap enough to export to China?" if we do not, then contact lens manufacture will move to China sooner or later. The challenge to enter the markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries is extremely exciting as here is the new money, high growth and here is a product that sells to those with disposable incomes. To succeed we knew we had to be radical in our approach; the radical step was very simple: to devise a process in which each step added value to the customer and not cost to the product. The presentation examines the processes used by the major producers and how, by applying good manufacturing practice sound scientific principles to them, the opportunity to design a new low cost patented process was identified.

  1. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAloon Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production 1. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day. These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer® and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process

  2. Paradox of Denials in All My Sons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷慧慧

    2014-01-01

    Arthur Miller, who was one of the greatest American playwrights of the 20th century. In All My Sons, different sorts of denials lead to the family’s collapse and Keller’s death. Paradoxically, the very denial that is designed to protect him from prose-cution and incarceration is followed by a chain of events that lead to Keller’s own self-imprisonment and self-imposed execu-tion. Denial also exists in the history of some countries, such as Germany, Japan and America and so on. My paper aims to ex-plore the paradox of denial both in our history and in literature works. My paper will demonstrate that denial has some negative effects both on the outer-world and the inner-world through thorough analysis on the characters in All My Sons.

  3. An Improved, Efficient and Cost Effective Software Inspection Meeting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilawar Ali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normally, the inspection process is seemed to be just finding defects in software during software development process lifecycle. Software inspection is considered as a most cost effective technique, but if these defects are not properly corrected or handled it would cost you more than double later in the project. This paper focus on the last phase of inspection meeting process showing the importance of Follow-Up Stage in software inspection meeting process. This paper also suggests a set of activities that should be performed during the Rework and Follow-Up Stages so to get inspection meeting results productive and efficient. In this paper we focus on the over the shoulder reviews so to ensure the software quality having less impact on the total software cost.

  4. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost in young and old adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Rebecca Whitson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost. These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs. Moreover, residual RT mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these ‘mixed’ repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011. In this study, we examine stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We argue that, together with evidence of greater proactive control and more cautious responding for these trials, these findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  5. Operating cost budgeting methods: quantitative methods to improve the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Olegário Rodrigues da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Operating cost forecasts are used in economic feasibility studies of projects and in budgeting process. Studies have pointed out that some companies are not satisfied with the budgeting process and chief executive officers want updates more frequently. In these cases, the main problem lies in the costs versus benefits. Companies seek simple and cheap forecasting methods without, at the same time, conceding in terms of quality of the resulting information. This study aims to compare operating cost forecasting models to identify the ones that are relatively easy to implement and turn out less deviation. For this purpose, we applied ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average and distributed dynamic lag models to data from a Brazilian petroleum company. The results suggest that the models have potential application, and that multivariate models fitted better and showed itself a better way to forecast costs than univariate models.

  6. COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRANA MIHAELA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

  7. Process cost calculation - an alternative to cost management?; Prozesskostenrechnung - eine Alternative fuer das Kostenmanagement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-01-12

    Increasing competition and changing markets in the energy sector make new demands on cost management and at the same time on the quality to be provided by the costing systems. The process cost calculation used today in various branches of industry is able to contribute - by orientating itself to processes and chains of delivered value - to an assignment of costs doing more justice to the causes so that costing information with improved meaningfulness is available for entrepreneurial decisions. The authors introduce process cost calculation and illustrate its function using a practice-related example for its application. Potential fields of utilisation in the electricity supply enterprises are subsequently shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zunehmender Wettbewerb und sich wandelnde Maerkte im Energiesektor stellen neue Anforderungen an das Kostenmanagement und damit auch an die Qualitaet der von den Kostenrechnungssystemen bereitzustellenden Informationen. Die heute in verschiedenen Wirtschaftszweigen eingesetzte Prozesskostenrechnung kann - durch Orientierung an Prozessen und Wertschoepfungsketten - zu einer verursachungsgerechteren Kostenzuordnung beitragen, so dass fuer unternehmerische Entscheidungen Kostenrechnungsinformationen mit verbesserter Aussagekraft zur Verfuegung stehen. Die Verfasser stellen die Prozesskostenrechnung vor und veranschaulichen deren Funktionsweise anhand eines praxisbezogenen Anwendungsbeispiels. Im Anschluss werden moegliche Einsatzgebiete fuer Energieversorgungsunternehmen aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  8. Treatment of Holocaust Denial Literature in Association of Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidal, Debra F.

    2012-01-01

    Holocaust denial literature has been treated inconsistently in library collections. At one time Holocaust denial literature was classed and subject headings assigned with Holocaust literature. After specific Library of Congress classification numbers and subject headings for Holocaust denial and Holocaust denial literature became available in the…

  9. The processing cost of scrambling and topicalization in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eImamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two reading comprehension experiments, using the sentence correctness decision task, that explore the causes of processing cost of Japanese sentences with SnomOaccV, StopOaccV, OaccSnomV, and OtopSnomV word orders. The first experiment was conducted in order to see if either syntax or frequency plays a significant role in the processing of these sentences. The results of the first experiment have shown that both the structure-building process and frequency directly affect processing load. We observed that there was no difference in processing cost between SnomnOaccV and StopOaccV, both of which are easier to process than OACCSNOMV, which is in turn easier to process than OtopSnomV: SnomOaccV = StopOaccV < OaccSnomV < OtopSnomV. This result is the mixture of the two positions. Specifically, the structure building cost of StopOaccV was neutralized by its high frequency. The aim of the second experiment was to investigate the interaction between syntactic structure, frequency, and information structure. The results showed that the processing cost of OaccSnomV was facilitated by given-new ordering, but SnomOaccV, StopOaccV, and OtopSnomV were not. Thus, we can conclude that information structure also influences processing cost. In addition, the distribution of informational effects can be accounted for by Kuno’s (1987: 212 Markedness Principle for Discourse Rule Violations: SnomOaccV and StopOaccV are unmarked/canonical options, and as such are not penalized even when they violate given-new ordering, OaccSnomV is penalized when it does not maintain given-new ordering because it is a marked/non-canonical option, and OtopSnomV is penalized even when it obeys given-new ordering possibly because more specific contexts are needed. Another reason for the increased processing cost of OtopSnomV is a garden path effect; upon encountering Otop of OtopSnomV, the parser preferentially (misinterpreted it as Stop due to a subject

  10. 30 CFR 251.13 - Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information and certain processing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and information and certain processing costs. 251.13 Section 251.13 Mineral Resources MINERALS... third party for the reasonable costs of processing geophysical information (which does not include cost... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.13 Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information...

  11. BUSINESS PROCESS MODELLING FOR PROJECTS COSTS MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂTRAŞCU AURELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Information Technologies in organizations represents an evident progress for company, money economy, time economy and generates value for the organization. In this paper the author proposes to model the business processes for an organization that manages projects costs, because modelling is an important part of any software development process. Using software for projects costs management is essential because it allows the management of all operations according to the established parameters, the management of the projects groups, as well as the management of the projects and subprojects, at different complexity levels.

  12. The hand surgery fellowship application process: expectations, logistics, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Osterman, Meredith

    2015-04-01

    To investigate expectations, logistics, and costs relevant to the hand surgery fellowship application process. We sought to discover (1) what both applicants and program directors are seeking, (2) what both parties have to offer, (3) how both parties collect information about each other, and (4) the costs incurred in arranging each match. We conducted on-line surveys of hand surgery fellowship applicants for appointment in 2015 and of current fellowship program directors. Sixty-two applicants and 41 program directors completed the survey. Results revealed applicants' demographic characteristics, qualifications, method of ranking hand fellowship programs, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, ultimate match status, and suggestions for change. Results also revealed program directors' program demographics, rationale for offering interviews and favorably ranking applicants, application-related logistical details, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, and suggestions for change. Applicants for hand surgery fellowship training are primarily interested in a potential program's academic reputation, emphasis on orthopedic surgery, and location. The typical, successfully matched applicant was a 30-year-old male orthopedic resident with 3 publications to his credit. Applicants rely on peers and Web sites for information about fellowships. Fellowship directors are primarily seeking applicants recommended by other experienced surgeons and with positive personality traits. The typical fellowship director offers a single year of orthopedic-based fellowship training to 2 fellows per year and relies on a common application and in-person interviews to collect information about applicants. Applicants appear to be more concerned than directors about the current state of the match process. Applicants and directors alike incur heavy costs, in both dollars and opportunity, to arrange each match. A nuanced

  13. RTM: Cost-effective processing of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasko, Greg; Dexter, H. Benson

    1991-01-01

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a promising method for cost effective fabrication of high strength, low weight composite structures from textile preforms. In this process, dry fibers are placed in a mold, resin is introduced either by vacuum infusion or pressure, and the part is cured. RTM has been used in many industries, including automotive, recreation, and aerospace. Each of the industries has different requirements of material strength, weight, reliability, environmental resistance, cost, and production rate. These requirements drive the selection of fibers and resins, fiber volume fractions, fiber orientations, mold design, and processing equipment. Research is made into applying RTM to primary aircraft structures which require high strength and stiffness at low density. The material requirements are discussed of various industries, along with methods of orienting and distributing fibers, mold configurations, and processing parameters. Processing and material parameters such as resin viscosity, perform compaction and permeability, and tool design concepts are discussed. Experimental methods to measure preform compaction and permeability are presented.

  14. 19 CFR 10.814 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.814 Section 10.814 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... administrative salaries, casualty and liability insurance, advertising, and salesmen's salaries, commissions,...

  15. 19 CFR 10.774 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.774 Section 10.774 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... administrative salaries, casualty and liability insurance, advertising, and salesmen's salaries, commissions,...

  16. Cost effective processes by using negative-tone development application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Kato, Keita; Ou, Keiyu; Shirakawa, Michihiro; Kamimura, Sou

    2015-03-01

    The high volume manufacturing with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is delaying due to its light source issue. Therefore, ArF-immersion lithography has still been the most promising technology for down scaling of device pitch. As the limitation of ArF-immersion single patterning is considered to be nearly 40nm half pitch (hp), ArF-immersion lithography has necessity to be extended by combining processes to achieve sub- 20nm hp patterning. Recently, there are many reports about the extension of ArF-immersion lithography, e.g., self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) and litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) process. These methods have been realized by the combination of lithography, deposition, and etching. On the other aspect, 1-D layout is adopted for leading devices, which contains additional cut or block litho and etch processes to form 2-D like layout. Thus, according to the progress of down scaling technologies, number of processes increases and the cost of ownership (CoO) can not be neglected. Especially, the number of lithography steps and etching steps has been expanded by the combination of processes, and it has come to occupy a large portion of total manufacturing cost. We have reported that negative tone development (NTD) system using organic solvent developer have enough resolution to achieve fine narrow trench or contact hole patterning, since negative tone imaging enables to apply bright mask for these pattern with significantly high optical image contrast compared to positive tone imaging, and it has contributed high throughput multiple patterning. On the other hand, NTD system is found to be useful not only for leading device node, but also for cost effective process. In this report, we propose the cost effective process using NTD application. In the viewpoint of cost down at exposure tool, we have developed KrF-NTD resist which is customized for organic solvent developer. Our KrF-NTD resist has resolution comparable with ArF positive tone development

  17. Process-Costing, Job-Order-Costing, Operation Costing (også kaldet Batch Costing og Functional Costing - Når Systemtankegangen ligger til grund for økonomistyringen og dens beslutninger)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    De tre begreber process-costing, job-order-costing, operation-costing samt functional-based costing er faktisk historiske begreber som stammer langt tilbage i økonomistyringslitteraturen, faktisk tilbage til Scientific Management bevægelsen fra 20'erne og 30'erne. Man kan derfor ikke sige, at disse...

  18. Climate change denial, freedom of speech and global justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Lavik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I claim that there are moral reasons for making climate denialism illegal . First I define climate denialism, and then I discuss its impact on society and its reception in the media.  I build my philosophical arguments mainly on John Stuart Mill and Thomas M. Scanlon.  According to Mill’s utilitarian justification of free speech, even untrue opinions are valuable in society’s pursuit of more truth. Consequently one might think that Mill’s philosophy would justify climate denialists’ right to free speech.  A major section of the paper argues against that view. The main arguments are: Climate denialism is not beneficial because its main goal is to produce doubt, and not truth. Climate denialism is not sincerely meant, which is a necessary condition for Mill to accept utterances. Climate denialists bring harm, by blocking necessary action on climate change.  Primarily they harm future generations and people in developing countries. Hence the case can be made in terms of global justice: Would future generations and people in developing countries support my claim? I think so, or so I argue. My argument from global justice is built on Scanlon’s distinction between the interests of participants, the interests of audiences, and the interests of bystanders.  The climate denialists have participant interests ‘in being able to call something to the attention of a wide audience’. Audience interests consist in ‘having access to expressions that we wish to hear or read, and even in being exposed to some degree to expressions we have not chosen’. Future generations and people in poor countries are bystanders to the climate debate. If the debate postpones necessary actions, it is the bystanders who must pay the price. I argue that bystanders’ costs outweigh participants’ and audiences’ interests, and that this is an argument for a statutory ban on climate denialism.Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 

  19. Organizational crisis-denial strategy: the effect of denial on public framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    By applying a framing perspective, this study explores the effect of a crisis-denial strategy on public response. The online public framing of a specific crisis is compared with the crisis-denial frame provided by the organization. An automated semantic-network analysis is used to identify frames em

  20. Organizational crisis-denial strategy: the effect of denial on public framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    By applying a framing perspective, this study explores the effect of a crisis-denial strategy on public response. The online public framing of a specific crisis is compared with the crisis-denial frame provided by the organization. An automated semantic-network analysis is used to identify frames em

  1. 8 CFR 214.4 - Denial of certification, denial of recertification or withdrawal of SEVP certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 214.4 Denial of certification, denial of...(a)(15)(F)(i) and/or 101(a)(15)(M)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, will be withdrawn on... consider the impact that such date will have upon SEVP, the school, and the school's nonimmigrant...

  2. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Todorut; L. Paliu-Popa; V. S. Tselentis; D. Cirnu

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM) tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main L...

  3. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  4. Low-cost EUV collector development: design, process, and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Ranju D.; Goldstein, Michael; Engelhaupt, Darell; Lee, Sang H.; Panning, Eric M.

    2007-03-01

    Cost of ownership (COO) is an area of concern that may limit the adoption and usage of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL). One of the key optical components that contribute to the COO budget is the collector. The collectors being fabricated today are based on existing x-ray optic design and fabrication processes. The main contributors to collector COO are fabrication cost and lifetime. We present experimental data and optical modeling to demonstrate a roadmap for optimized efficiency and a possible approach for significant reduction in collector COO. Current state of the art collectors are based on a Wolter type-1 design and have been adapted from x-ray telescopes. It uses a long format that is suitable for imaging distant light sources such as stars. As applied to industrial equipment and very bright nearby sources, however, a Wolter collector tends to be expensive and requires significant debris shielding and integrated cooling solutions due to the source proximity and length of the collector shells. Three collector concepts are discussed in this work. The elliptical collector that has been used as a test bed to demonstrate alternative cost effective fabrication method has been optimized for collection efficiency. However, this fabrication method can be applied to other optical designs as well. The number of shells and their design may be modified to increase the collection efficiency and to accommodate different EUV sources The fabrication process used in this work starts with a glass mandrel, which is elliptical on the inside. A seed layer is coated on the inside of the glass mandrel, which is then followed by electroplating nickel. The inside/exposed surface of the electroformed nickel is then polished to meet the figure and finish requirements for the particular shell and finally coated with Ru or a multilayer film depending on the angle of incidence of EUV light. Finally the collector shell is released from the inside surface of the mandrel. There are

  5. 76 FR 51120 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Denial of motor... System (FARS) tracks all fatal crashes involving motor vehicles in the United States. An analysis...

  6. 32 CFR 1636.10 - Statement of reasons for denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CLASSIFICATION OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS § 1636.10 Statement of reasons for denial. (a) Denial of a conscientious objector claim by a board must be accompanied by a statement specifying the reason(s) for...

  7. Damage costs due to bedload transport processes in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoux, A.; Andres, N.; Turowski, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    In Alpine regions, floods are often associated with erosion, transport and deposition of coarse sediment along the streams. These processes are related to bedload transport and pose a hazard in addition to the elevated water discharge. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to total damage caused by natural hazards. Using the Swiss flood and landslide damage database - which collects financial damage data of naturally triggered floods, debris flows and landslides - we estimated the contribution of fluvial bedload transport processes to total damage costs in Switzerland. For each database entry an upper and lower limit of financial losses caused by or related to bedload transport processes was estimated, and the quality of the estimate was judged. When compared to total damage, the fraction of bedload transport damage in the 40 yr study period lies between 0.32 and 0.37. However, this value is highly variable for individual years (from 0.02 to 0.72). Bedload transport processes have induced cumulative financial losses between CHF 4.3 and 5.1 billion. Spatial analysis revealed a considerable heterogeneous distribution with largest damage for mountainous regions. The analysis of the seasonal distribution shows that more than 75 % of the bedload damage costs occurs in summer (June-August), and ∼ 23% in autumn (September-November). With roughly 56 %, by far most of the damage has been registered in August. Bedload transport processes are presently still inadequately understood, and the predictive quality of common bedload equations is often poor. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of bedload transport as a natural hazard and financial source of risk, and thus the need for future structured research on transport processes in steep streams.

  8. Process Model of Quality Cost Monitoring for Small and Medium Wood-Processing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Jelačić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality is not only a technical category and the system of quality management is not only focused on product quality. Quality and costs are closely interlinked. The paper deals with the quality cost monitoring in small and medium wood-processing enterprises (SMEs in Slovakia, and also presents the results of the questionnaire survey. An empirical study is aimed to determine the level of understanding and level of implementation of quality cost monitoring in wood-processing SMEs in Slovakia. The research is based on PAF model. A suitable model for quality cost monitoring is also proposed in the paper based on the research results with guidelines for using the methods of Activity Basic Costing. The empirical study is focused on SMEs, which make 99.8 % of all companies in the branch, and where the quality cost monitoring often works as a latent management subsystem. SMEs managers use indicators for monitoring the processe performance and production quality, but they usually do not develop a separate framework for measuring and evaluating quality costs.

  9. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by

  10. 29 CFR 530.204 - Discretionary denial or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discretionary denial or revocation. 530.204 Section 530.204... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Denial/Revocation of Homeworker Employer Certificates § 530.204 Discretionary denial or revocation. Where the Administrator finds that the employment...

  11. 29 CFR 530.205 - Mandatory denial or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mandatory denial or revocation. 530.205 Section 530.205... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Denial/Revocation of Homeworker Employer Certificates § 530.205 Mandatory denial or revocation. The Administrator shall deny or revoke a certificate in...

  12. Thermodynamic costs of information processing in sensory adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sensory systems react to changes in their surroundings. They are characterized by fast response and slow adaptation to varying environmental cues. Insofar as sensory adaptive systems map environmental changes to changes of their internal degrees of freedom, they can be regarded as computational devices manipulating information. Landauer established that information is ultimately physical, and its manipulation subject to the entropic and energetic bounds of thermodynamics. Thus the fundamental costs of biological sensory adaptation can be elucidated by tracking how the information the system has about its environment is altered. These bounds are particularly relevant for small organisms, which unlike everyday computers, operate at very low energies. In this paper, we establish a general framework for the thermodynamics of information processing in sensing. With it, we quantify how during sensory adaptation information about the past is erased, while information about the present is gathered. This process produces entropy larger than the amount of old information erased and has an energetic cost bounded by the amount of new information written to memory. We apply these principles to the E. coli's chemotaxis pathway during binary ligand concentration changes. In this regime, we quantify the amount of information stored by each methyl group and show that receptors consume energy in the range of the information-theoretic minimum. Our work provides a basis for further inquiries into more complex phenomena, such as gradient sensing and frequency response.

  13. 48 CFR 30.604 - Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosed or established cost accounting practices. 30.604 Section 30.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.604 Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting...

  14. Comparative cost estimates of five coal utilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Detailed capital and operating cost estimates were prepared for the generation of electric power in a new, net 500 MW (e), coal-burning facility by five alternative processes: conventional boiler with no control of SO/sub 2/ emissions, atmospheric fluidized bed steam generator (AFB), conventional boiler equipped with a limestone FGD system, conventional boiler equipped with magnesia FGD system, and coal beneficiation followed by a conventional boiler quipped with limestone FGD for part of the flue gas stream. For a coal containing 3.5% sulfur, meeting SO/sub 2/ emission limits of 1.2 pounds per million Btu fired was most economical with the limestone FGD system. This result was unchanged for a coal containing 5% sulfur; however, for 2% sulfur, limestone FGD and AFB were competitive methods of controlling SO/sub 2/ emissions. Brief consideration of 90% reduction of SO/sub 2/ emissions led to the choice of limestone FGD as the most economical method. Byproduct credit for the sulfuric acid produced in regenerating the magnesia could make that system competitive with the limestone FGD system, depending upon local markets. The cost of sludge fixation and disposal would make limestone FGD noneconomic in many situations, if these steps are necessary.

  15. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S, Visual Management (VM, Kaizen, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM, Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED, leading to a critical appraisal of their application in the metallurgical industry.

  16. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Chartier, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints.

  17. Inferring Internet Denial-of-Service Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Inferring Internet Denial-of-Service Activity David Moore CAIDA San Diego Supercomputer Center University of California, San Diego dmoore@caida.org...the local network topology. kc claffy and Colleen Shannon at CAIDA provided support and valuable feed- back throughout the project. David Wetherall

  18. Resilient Control under Denial-Of-Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    We investigate resilient control strategies for linear systems under Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. By DoS attacks we mean interruptions of communication on measurement (sensor-to-controller) and control (controller-to-actuator) channels carried out by an intelligent adversary. We characterize the

  19. "LUDO" - Kids playing Distributed Denial of Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Cardoso de Santanna, José Jair; Spatharas, E.; Amler, H.; Breuer, N.; Graul, K.; Kuhnert, B.; Piontek, U.; Sperotto, Anna; Baier, H.; Pras, Aiko; Bergström, Johan; Hórvath, Gyöngyi; Schofield, Brook

    2016-01-01

    Distributed denial of service attacks pose a serious threat to the availability of the network infrastructures and services. GE̿ANT, the pan-European network with terabit capacities witnesses close to hundreds of DDoS attacks on a daily basis. The reason is that DDoS attacks are getting larger, more

  20. Data denial experiments for extratropical transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Anwender

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Data denial experiments using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF model are designed to investigate the value of targeted observations for historical extratropical transition (ET cases over the Atlantic. The impact of removing data from specified locations linked to the ET development is therefore examined. It is shown that the impact of denying data in the near tropical cyclone (TC environment is, on average, as important as denying data in mid-latitude sensitive regions determined using extratropical singular vectors (SV. The impact of data denial over TC regions propagates downstream from the Atlantic towards Europe, with a maximum degradation at day 4. This degradation is mainly attributed to the data denial at the TC stage, i.e. before ET is completed. When data are denied on mid-latitude sensitive regions, the largest degradation is found around day 2 and also after the day 4 forecast. In general, the loss of information content is larger when data are denied in mid-latitude sensitive areas because these identify dynamically active regions. In both denial experiments, aircraft and satellite radiance data are the most influential observations. For the selected case of Hurricane Irene, the largest degradations are found for forecasts initialised while Irene reached its peak intensity. If observations are denied in the near storm environment, the TC mostly disappears from the analysis and the subsequent forecast. This allows the impact of Irene on the formation of the downstream cut-off low to be investigated.

  1. Benchmarking energy use and costs in salt-and-dry fish processing and lobster processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Canadian fish processing sector was the focus of this benchmarking analysis, which was conducted jointly by the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation and the Fisheries Council of Canada, who retained Corporate Renaissance Group (CRG) to establish benchmarks for salt-and-dry processing operations in Nova Scotia and lobster processing operations in Prince Edward Island. The analysis was limited to the ongoing operations of the processing plants, and started with the landing of the fish/lobster and ended with freezer/cooler storage of the final products. Fuel used by the fishing fleet and in delivery trucks was not included in this study. The initial phase of each study involved interviews with management personnel at a number of plants in order to lay out process flow diagrams which were used to identify the series of stages of production for which energy consumption could be separately analyzed. Detailed information on annual plant production and total plant energy consumption and costs for the year by fuel type were collected, as well as inventories of energy-consuming machinery and equipment. At the completion of the data collection process, CRG prepared a summary of energy use, production data, assumptions and a preliminary analysis of each plant's energy use profile. Energy consumption and costs per short ton were calculated for each stage of production. Information derived from the calculations includes revised estimates of energy consumption by stage of production; energy costs per ton of fish; total energy consumption and costs associated with production of a standard product; and a detailed inter-plant comparison of energy consumption and costs per ton among the participating plants. Details of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and potential energy savings were also presented. 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhang, Pu [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2016-11-30

    For this Vehicle Technologies Incubator/Energy Storage R&D topic, Lambda Technologies teamed with Navitas Systems and proposed a new advanced drying process that promised a 5X reduction in electrode drying time and significant reduction in the cost of large format lithium batteries used in PEV's. The operating principle of the proposed process was to use penetrating radiant energy source Variable Frequency Microwaves (VFM), that are selectively absorbed by the polar water or solvent molecules instantly in the entire volume of the electrode. The solvent molecules are thus driven out of the electrode thickness making the process more efficient and much faster than convective drying method. To evaluate the Advanced Drying Process (ADP) a hybrid prototype system utilizing VFM and hot air flow was designed and fabricated. While VFM drives the solvent out of the electrode thickness, the hot air flow exhausts the solvent vapors out of the chamber. The drying results from this prototype were very encouraging. For water based anodes there is a 5X drying advantage (time & length of oven) in using ADP over standard drying system and for the NMP based cathodes the reduction in drying time has 3X benefit. For energy savings the power consumption measurements were performed to ADP prototype and compared with the convection standard drying oven. The data collected demonstrated over 40% saving in power consumption with ADP as compared to the convection drying systems. The energy savings are one of the operational cost benefits possible with ADP. To further speed up the drying process, the ADP prototype was explored as a booster module before the convection oven and for the electrode material being evaluated it was possible to increase the drying speed by a factor of 4, which could not be accomplished with the standard dryer without surface defects and cracks. The instantaneous penetration of microwave in the entire slurry thickness showed a major advantage in rapid drying of

  3. 'Cost in transliteration': the neurocognitive processing of Romanized writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chaitra; Mathur, Avantika; Singh, Nandini C

    2013-03-01

    Romanized transliteration is widely used in internet communication and global commerce, yet we know little about its behavioural and neural processing. Here, we show that Romanized text imposes a significant neurocognitive load. Readers faced greater difficulty in identifying concrete words written in Romanized transliteration (Romanagari) compared to L1 and L2. Functional neuroimaging revealed that the neural cost of processing transliterations arose from significantly greater recruitment of language (left precentral gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule) and attention networks (left mid-cingulum). Additionally, transliterated text uniquely activated attention and control areas compared to both L1 (cerebellar vermis) and L2 (pre-supplementary motor area/pre-SMA). We attribute the neural effort of reading Romanized transliteration to (i) effortful phonological retrieval from unfamiliar orthographic forms and (ii) conflicting attentional demands imposed by mapping orthographic forms of one language to phonological-semantic representations in another. Finally, significant brain-behaviour correlation suggests that the left mid-cingulum modulates cognitive-linguistic conflict.

  4. Transforming Pre-Service Teacher Education in Bolivia: From Indigenous Denial to Decolonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2012-01-01

    In line with a broader Latin American turn to the left, since 2006 Bolivia's "politics of change" of president Evo Morales includes a new "decolonising" education reform called "Avelino Sinani Elizardo Perez" (ASEP). With the aim to break down deep historical processes of indigenous denial and exclusion in education,…

  5. Transforming pre-service teacher education in Bolivia: from indigenous denial to decolonisation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.

    2012-01-01

    In line with a broader Latin American turn to the left, since 2006 Bolivia’s ‘politics of change’ of president Evo Morales includes a new ‘decolonising’ education reform called Avelino Sinani Elizardo Perez (ASEP). With the aim to break down deep historical processes of indigenous denial and

  6. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  7. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a

  8. Application of Cost Allocation Concepts of Game Theory Approach for Cost Sharing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Valinejad Shoubi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissatisfaction among involved parties regarding the ways of cost allocation is ordinary in the joint ventures, since each party attempts to get more interest caused by making the coalition. Various cost allocation methods such as proportional methods, some methods in cooperative game theory approach and etc have been used for the purpose of cost sharing in the joint projects. In this study the Nucleolus, Shapley value and SCRB as the cost sharing concepts in game theory approach have been used to investigate their effectiveness in fairly joint cost allocation between parties involved in constructing the joint water supply system. Then the results derived from these methods have been compared with the results of the traditional proportional to population and demand methods. The results indicated that the proportional methods may not lead to a fairly cost allocation while the Nucleolus, SCRB and the Shapley value methods can establish adequate incentive for cooperation.

  9. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  10. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L Orbán

    Full Text Available Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints.

  11. The practice of quality-associated costing: application to transfusion manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, P M; Dixon, R

    1997-01-01

    This article applies the new method of quality-associated costing (QAC) to the mixture of processes that create red cell and plasma products from whole blood donations. The article compares QAC with two commonly encountered but arbitrary models and illustrates the invalidity of clinical cost-benefit analysis based on these models. The first, an "isolated" cost model, seeks to allocate each whole process cost to only one product class. The other is a "shared" cost model, and it seeks to allocate an approximately equal share of all process costs to all associated products.

  12. Distributed Denial of Service Attacks: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Swetapadma Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network (WSN is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions.WSN is a fluorishing network that has numerous applications and could be used in diverse scenarios. DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service is an attack where a number of compromised systems attack a single target, thereby causing denial of service for users of the targeted system. The flood of incoming messages to the target system essentially forces it to shut down, thereby denying service to the system to legitimate users.Not much research work has been done in DDoS in WSN.We are conducting a review on DDoS attack to show its impact on networks and to present various defensive, detection and preventive measures adopted by researchers till now.

  13. 78 FR 20393 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... CFR Parts 701, 736, 737 et al. Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement... Parts 701, 736, 737, 738, and 750 RIN 1029-AC65 Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and... inspection), and the differing costs for the administration of the Federal and Indian Land Programs among...

  14. 78 FR 18429 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... 30 CFR Parts 701, 736, 737 et al. Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and... 701, 736, 737, 738, and 750 RIN 1029-AC65 Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and... fees to recover the actual costs for permit review and administration and permit enforcement...

  15. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...... in raw material prices, process designs and enzyme cost and performance....

  16. Denial of Service (DoS Attacks at Network Layer in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Ghildiyal,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in technology, tiny size, cost effectiveness have made sensors as a crucial part of real world sensitive applications. These sensor nodes are scattered over an area to monitor the situations like fire, flood and record the data and to forward meaningful data to the center head node for observation, resulting an advance prompt to control the situation. In last decade, WSN have grown significantly in variety of areas and applications, resulted the high, consistent security mechanism. Also, there is variety of attacks on WSN at their different layers of architecture. Though sensor nodes are not capable enough in terms of power, processing etc. but applications based on these sensors demand on-time collection of information or data and then to send same on reliable, secure delivery medium. Small sensors with limited hardware, processing cannot afford traditional security mechanisms to face or sustain the attacks. There is variety of attacks at different layers of WSN architecture to affect sensor‟s roles like signaling, framing, transmission etc. Many Denial of Service (DoS attacks are identified at each layer of WSN which are purposeful, planned attacks to hamper the availability of service, restricting the sensor node‟s utility for problem solution. In this paper we will focus on the WSN architecture, characteristics, constraints and various types of DoS attacks primarily on physical and data link layer and particularly at network layer in details with some suggestions against attacks.

  17. The Process Approach to Defining and Classifying the Marketing Costs of Trade Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoliarchuk Hanna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests the definition of marketing costs based on a process approach, taking into account the innovation component. A detailed analysis of existing approaches to the definition of the term of «marketing costs» has been carried out. It has been found that there is no single scientific-methodical approach to the definition of marketing costs among scientists. Feasibility of using the process approach to the definition of marketing costs has been substantiated. According to the allocated business processes of marketing activity, components of its costs have been provided with account of the costs of innovation. Prospect for further research is development of a system of the indicators for evaluating the efficiency of costs of business processes of marketing activity.

  18. 10 CFR 950.23 - Claims process for payment of covered costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims process for payment of covered costs. 950.23 Section 950.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Claims Administration Process § 950.23 Claims process for payment of covered costs. (a) General. No more than 120...

  19. Novel interconnection processes for low cost PEN/PET substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J. van den; Kusters, R.; Fledderus, H.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Podprocky, T.; Dietzel, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Recently a new class of flexible electronics is starting to emerge which is most effectively termed 'printed electronics'. This term often refers to all-printed, cost effective, smart electronic products that will find a wide range of applications in large quantities in our society. The substrate ma

  20. Novel interconnection processes for low cost PEN/PET substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J. van den; Kusters, R.; Fledderus, H.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Podprocky, T.; Dietzel, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Recently a new class of flexible electronics is starting to emerge which is most effectively termed 'printed electronics'. This term often refers to all-printed, cost effective, smart electronic products that will find a wide range of applications in large quantities in our society. The substrate

  1. 44 CFR 71.3 - Denial of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance. 71... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF COASTAL BARRIER LEGISLATION § 71.3 Denial of flood insurance. (a) No new flood insurance...

  2. Development of a Denial Scale for Male Incest Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James T.; Canada, Richard M.; Lim, Mee-Gaik; Jennings, Glen H.

    1998-01-01

    A scale to measure denial among sexual offenders was developed for male incest offenders (N=265). Validity and reliability were tested. Four subscales correspond to the domains of denial: facts, awareness, impact, and responsibility. Development strategy and psychometric analysis are reported. Recommendations for further research are included.…

  3. 41 CFR 51-9.303-4 - Denials of access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Denials of access. 51-9...-Individual Access to Records § 51-9.303-4 Denials of access. (a) The Executive Director may deny any individual access to his record only on the grounds that the Committee has published rules in the...

  4. 33 CFR 138.120 - Certificates, denial or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... revocation. 138.120 Section 138.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.120 Certificates, denial or revocation. (a) The Director, NPFC... equivalent of a denial. (e) If the intended revocation under paragraph (b) of this section is based...

  5. 33 CFR 135.223 - Certificates, denial or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... revocation. 135.223 Section 135.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.223 Certificates, denial or revocation...) Denial or revocation of a certificate shall be immediate and without prior notice in a case where...

  6. Critical Surfing: Holocaust Denial and Credibility on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrowman, Shane

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the nature of hate speech in general, and Holocaust denial in particular, on the World Wide Web, citing specific Web sources. Argues that, although discussion of Holocaust denial may be a difficult classroom discussion topic, and should be approached carefully, intelligent use of the Internet must be taught in the classroom. (MSE)

  7. Activity-based costing as an information basis for an efficient strategic management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC provides an information basis for monitoring and controlling one of two possible sources of competitive advantage, low-cost production and lowcost distribution. On the basis of cost information about particular processes and activities, management may determine their contribution to the success of a company, and may decide to transfer certain processes and activities to another company. Accuracy of cost information is conditioned by finding an adequate relation between overhead costs and cost objects, identifying and tracing cost drivers and output measures of activities, and by monitoring cost behaviour of different levels of a product. Basic characteristics of the ABC approach, such as more accurate cost price accounting of objects, focusing on process and activity output (rather than only on resource consumption and on understanding and interpretation of cost structure (rather than on cost measurement, enable managers to estimate and control future costs more reliably. Thus the ABC methodology provides a foundation for cost tracing, analysis, and management, which entails making quality and accurate operative and strategic decisions as a basis for the longterm orientation of a company. ABC is also complementary to the widely accepted technique of strategic planning and strategy implementation known as Balanced Scorecard (BSC.

  8. Business Process Re-engineering: A Panacea for Reducing Operational Cost in Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Joseph Sungau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations in today’s business environment struggle on how to reduce operation cost in order to set prices that can be afforded by many customers while obtaining reasonable profit.  In order to reduce Operational Cost, service organizations have been working hard to identify techniques that facilitate business processes improvement for reduced Operational Cost. In so doing, the global literature indicates that service organizations adopt Business Process Re-engineering technique as a panacea of reducing Operational Cost. Despite a documented potentiality of Business Process Re-engineering technique, there are mixed empirical results, findings and conclusions regarding the effect of Business Process Re-engineering on Operational Cost. Therefore, this paper aimed at assessing and explaining effects of BPR on Operational Cost.   The study used cross-sectional survey design to investigate the effect of BPR on Operational Cost. Intensive literature review enabled the construction of structural measurement model, formulation of testable hypotheses and operationalization of constructs. In order to test the model and hypotheses, data were collected from ninety five (95 service organizations in Tanzania. Results of the study reveal that BPR and delivering speed have no direct effects on Operational Cost; they indirectly affect Operational Cost through the mediations of service quality. Therefore, BPR influences first both service quality and delivery speed in affecting Operational Cost of service organizations. It is now recommended that service organizations should use Business Process Re-engineering as panacea of reducing Operational Cost.    

  9. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC OBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data

  10. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data.

  11. Keeping the Cost of Process Change Low through Refactoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS) large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are introduc

  12. Keeping the Cost of Process Change Low through Refactoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS) large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are

  13. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  14. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  15. Vehicle Lightweighting: Mass Reduction Spectrum Analysis and Process Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, Anthony [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Hannibal, Ted [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ivanic, Ziga [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Clark, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. In the first two phases of this effort examined combinations of strategies aimed at achieving strategic targets of 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. These results have been reported in the Idaho National Laboratory report INL/EXT-14-33863 entitled Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting published in March 2015. The data for these strategies were drawn from many sources, including Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. lightweighting studies, U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc./Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, many United States Council for Automotive Research’s/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs, and IBIS Associates, Inc.’s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses.

  16. Process-Costing, Job-Order-Costing, Operation Costing (også kaldet Batch Costing og Functional Costing - Når Systemtankegangen ligger til grund for økonomistyringen og dens beslutninger)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    De tre begreber process-costing, job-order-costing, operation-costing samt functional-based costing er faktisk historiske begreber som stammer langt tilbage i økonomistyringslitteraturen, faktisk tilbage til Scientific Management bevægelsen fra 20'erne og 30'erne. Man kan derfor ikke sige, at disse...... Aktivitets-Baseret Cost Management systemerne. Det er derfor vigtigt dels at kende sin historie på området, dels at gøre sig klart, om de under visse antagelser stadig har deres berettigelse. De samme begreber har også deres pendant til de danske begreber, afdelings- eller funktionsregnskabet samt...... ordreregnskabet, f.eks. som dette er analyseret hos Palle Hansen og Vagn Madsen. Begrebet operational costing anvendes også, men dette dækker i realiteten over, hvordan og hvilke elementer der indgår i hele virksomhedens regnskabs-information-system. Dvs. at dette mere er et spørgsmål om, hvordan systemerne er...

  17. 76 FR 24871 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... from eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of...). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs...

  18. 75 FR 71677 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of the Energy Policy Act of... requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of...

  19. 76 FR 30696 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of the Energy... requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of...

  20. SISTEM PERHITUNGAN HARGA POKOK PRODUKSI PADA PERUSAHAAN FARMASI PT. BALATIF DENGAN METODE PROCESS COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Handojo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, PT. Balatif has the calculation system for production cost that can only include the calculation of cost of materials based on standard Bill of Material (BOM, while record of factory overhead cost, direct labor cost and report that relating to the calculation of Cost of Goods Manufactured of product still cannot be handled by the system. So that the current costs that really occurred in the production process will be difficult to trace and the production cost not based on reality process. Based on that problem, this research design a system to calculate production cost that can handle that problem. This application used Microsoft Visual Studio .Net 2005 as the programming tool and Oracle 10g as the database. Results that obtained from the application that have been made are raw material usage can be saved based on BOM or additional, machine usage, operator usage, and so on associated with the production process. In addition, the application that has been made can be used to allocate the costs that occur during the production process and to generate reports related to the calculation of Cost of Goods Manufactured of a product automatically.

  1. New Catalyst Reduces Wasted Carbon in Biofuel Process, Lowers Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Researchers at NREL recently developed a catalyst formulation that incorporates more hydrogen into the DME-to-high-octane gasoline process, resulting in a higher yield to gasoline-range products. Further, the researchers developed a secondary process that efficiently couples a portion of the gasoline-range product to yield jet/diesel fuels. The modified catalyst doubles the conversion rate of DME, which can be produced from biomass, to the high-octane gasoline product and significantly decreases the formation of wasted byproducts. For the distillate-range product, 80% of the mixture is in line with ASTM standards for use as a jet fuel blendstock. The increased productivity of high-octane gasoline and the development of a value-added distillate blendstock process further improve the economic viability toward commercially implementing this renewable fuels process.

  2. Low-Cost Structural Thermoelectric Materials: Processing and Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    nanocrystalline materials11,12 and this research utilizes the existing powder processing infrastructure at ARL to explore nanostructured TE materials ...The process of utilizing mechanical alloying to produce bulk nanocrystalline materials is shown in Fig. 3. There are a number of different types of...consolidate nanocrystalline metal powders. In fact, the bottom image in Fig. 9 is the Ti–Ni–Sn material consolidated at 1,000 ◦C. The hollowed area is the

  3. Silence and Denial in Everyday Life—The Case of Animal Suffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Deidre

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper analyses issues implicit in the question: How is it that decent and compassionate people co-exist in silence about widespread animal suffering? The paper explores the complex process of denial which operates at both a personal and societal level to allow people to ‘not see’ and ‘not know’ about the realities of the lives of animals in our world. The paper argues that silence allows animal suffering to exist and flourish at a historically unprecedented level at this time. It goes on to examine the conditions under which silence can be punctured and acknowledgement and action for animals becomes possible. Abstract How can we make sense of the fact that we live in a world where good people co-exist in silence about widespread animal suffering. How is it that sites of suffering such as laboratories, factory farms, abattoirs and animal transportation are all around us and yet we ‘do not, in a certain sense, know about them’ [1]. This ‘not knowing’ is one of the most difficult barriers for animal activists who must constantly develop new strategies in an attempt to catch public attention and translate it into action. Recent contributions from the ‘sociology of denial’ have elucidated many of the mechanisms involved in ‘not knowing’ in relation to human atrocities and genocide. In this context, ‘denial’ refers to the maintenance of social worlds in which an undesirable situation is unrecognized, ignored or made to seem normal [2]. These include different types of denial: personal, official and cultural, as well as the process of normalization whereby suffering becomes invisible through routinization, tolerance, accommodation, collusion and cover up. Denial and normalization reflect both personal and collective states where suffering is not acknowledged [3]. In this paper, I will examine insights from the sociology of denial and apply them to human denial and normalization of animal suffering. This will include an

  4. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymatic Corn Wet Milling (E-Milling) is a proposed alternative process to conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and coproducts using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and to decrease the steeping time. In 2005, the total starch production in USA by conven...

  5. "Cost in Transliteration": The Neurocognitive Processing of Romanized Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chaitra; Mathur, Avantika; Singh, Nandini C.

    2013-01-01

    Romanized transliteration is widely used in internet communication and global commerce, yet we know little about its behavioural and neural processing. Here, we show that Romanized text imposes a significant neurocognitive load. Readers faced greater difficulty in identifying concrete words written in Romanized transliteration (Romanagari)…

  6. Science and the Public: Debate, Denial, and Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Lewandowsky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When the scientific method yields discoveries that imperil people’s lifestyle or worldviews or impinge on corporate vested interests, the public and political response can be anything but favorable. Sometimes the response slides into overt denial of scientific facts, although this denial is often claimed to involve “skepticism”. We outline the distinction between true skepticism and denial with several case studies. We propose some guidelines to enable researchers to differentiate legitimate critical engagement from bad-faith harassment, and to enable members of the public to pursue their skeptical engagement and critique without such engagement being mistaken for harassment.

  7. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Bentley, J.; Barnett, B.

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R&D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice, operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under 150/kW in stationary applications and 30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories.

  8. Thermo-ecological cost (TEC evaluation of metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stanek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy represents a complex production system of fuel and mineral non-renewable resources transformation. The effectiveness of resource management in metallurgical chains depends on the applied ore grade and on the irreversibility of components of the system. TEC can be applied to measure the influence of metallurgy on the depletion of natural resources. The paper discusses the possibility of application of TEC in metallurgy and presents illustrative example concerning blast-furnace process.

  9. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  10. DECENTRALIZED THERMOPHILIC BIOHYDROGEN: A MORE EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Sani, Rajesh.K.; Rajesh V. Shende; Sudhir Kumar; Aditya Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Nonfood lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal substrate for biohydrogen production. By avoiding pretreatment steps (acid, alkali, or enzymatic), there is potential to make the process economical. Utilization of regional untreated lignocellulosic biomass by cellulolytic and fermentative thermophiles in a consolidated mode using a single reactor is one of the ways to achieve economical and sustainable biohydrogen production. Employing these potential microorganisms along with decentralized biohyd...

  11. Costs of Quality: Exploratory Analysis of Hidden Elements and Prioritization using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cost of Quality analysis is emerged as an effective tool for the industrial managers for pinpointing the deficiencies in the system as well as for identifying the improvement areas by highlighting the cost reduction opportunities. However , this analysis will be fully effective only if it is further extended to identify the cost incurred in ensuring quality in all areas of the supply chain including the hidden costs and costs of missed out opportunities. Most of the hidden elements of quality costs are difficult to track and not accounted by the traditional accounting tools. An exploratory analysis is made in this research to identify the hidden elements of quality costs in manufacturing industry. Further, the identified cost elements are classified into various groups for better analysis and, finally, prioritized to identify the vital few among them. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique which is one of the most popular Multi Criteria Decision Method (MCDM and Pareto analysis were used in this study for prioritizing the hidden quality cost elements based on their degree of impact on overall cost of quality. By this analysis, the key cost elements which are to be addressed to reduce the overall cost of quality are identified.

  12. [Process-oriented cost calculation in interventional radiology. A case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, A H; Bruners, P; Günther, R W; Rasche, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently used costing methods such as cost centre accounting do not sufficiently reflect the process-based resource utilization in medicine. The goal of this study was to establish a process-oriented cost assessment of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver and lung metastases. In each of 15 patients a detailed task analysis of the primary process of hepatic and pulmonary RF ablation was performed. Based on these data a dedicated cost calculation model was developed for each primary process. The costs of each process were computed and compared with the revenue for in-patients according to the German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system 2010. The RF ablation of liver metastases in patients without relevant comorbidities and a low patient complexity level results in a loss of EUR 588.44, whereas the treatment of patients with a higher complexity level yields an acceptable profit. The treatment of pulmonary metastases is profitable even in cases of additional expenses due to complications. Process-oriented costing provides relevant information that is needed for understanding the economic impact of treatment decisions. It is well suited as a starting point for economically driven process optimization and reengineering. Under the terms of the German DRG 2010 system percutaneous RF ablation of lung metastases is economically reasonable, while RF ablation of liver metastases in cases of low patient complexity levels does not cover the costs.

  13. 20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification. 656.26 Section 656.26 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor...

  14. Denial of Service Attack: Analysis of Network Traffic Anormaly using Queuing Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Neetu; Chaudhuri, Pranay

    2010-01-01

    Denial-of-service (DOS) attacks increasingly gained reputation over the past few years. As the Internet becomes more ubiquitous, the threat of the denial-of-service attacks becomes more realistic and important for individuals, businesses, governmental organizations, and even countries. There is intensive need to detect an attack in progress as soon as possible. The efficiency of diagnosing the DOS attack using concepts of queuing theory and performance parameter of the system has been investigated in the present work, as the servers definitely have some mechanisms to store and process the requests. Utilizing this concept of queuing theory, the collection of data patterns were generated. With the performance parameter of the system, the analysis of the data pattern had been made to diagnose the network anomaly. Performance analysis and results show the accuracy of the proposed scheme in detecting anomalies.

  15. DECENTRALIZED THERMOPHILIC BIOHYDROGEN: A MORE EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Sani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonfood lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal substrate for biohydrogen production. By avoiding pretreatment steps (acid, alkali, or enzymatic, there is potential to make the process economical. Utilization of regional untreated lignocellulosic biomass by cellulolytic and fermentative thermophiles in a consolidated mode using a single reactor is one of the ways to achieve economical and sustainable biohydrogen production. Employing these potential microorganisms along with decentralized biohydrogen energy production will lead us towards regional and national independence having a positive influence on the bioenergy sector.

  16. Application of the TDABC model in the logistics process using different capacity cost rates

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Afonso; Alex Santana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The understanding of logistics process in terms of costs and profitability is a complex task and there is a need of more research and applied work on these issues. In this research project, the concepts underlying Time-Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC) have been used in the context of logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach: A Distribution Centre of wood and carpentry related materials has been studied. A multidisciplinary team has been composed to support the project in...

  17. Application of the TDABC Model in the Logistics Process Using Different Capacity Cost Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, Paulo; Santana, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The understanding of logistics process in terms of costs and profitability is a complex task and there is a need of more research and applied work on these issues. In this research project, the concepts underlying Time-Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC) have been used in the context of logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach: A Distribution Centre of wood and carpentry related materials has been studied. A multidisciplinary team has been composed to support the...

  18. Improving product cost and schedule management in a garment product development process

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Lotta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the beginning stages of a garment product development process at Marimekko Oyj, a Finnish design company, by finding better ways to manage the product cost and schedule. The main objective is to bring the final cost of garments closer to the original target cost in order to keep margins at required levels. Action research and case study were used as research methods. During the action research cycles, two collections were started and observed. Th...

  19. Detection of Denial-of-service Attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Denial-of-service (DOS) is a type of computer attack, which can essentially disable computers and networks.Resource consumption type of DOS attack could not be detected by the traditional misuse detection technique. This paper presents a new method of support vector mchine (SVM) to detect these attacks. We find that a DOS attack to a host is related to the activities within an impact data set of the host. The SVM method is used to classify the subsets of an impact data set to estimate its anomalism. The experiment result shows that this method can detect resource consumption type of DOS attacks, such as SYNflood, Smurf and UDP-storm. A receiver operating characteristic curve is plotted to determine performance for any possible operating point of the DOS attacks detection.

  20. Factors determining cost and quality of the electrical insulation in the VPI-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruetsch, R.; Allison, J.; Thaler, T. [Von Roll Isola, Breitenbach (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The construction of the electrical insulation and the carrying out of the VPI-process are critical steps in the production of rotating high voltage machines. On the other hand the manufacture of the insulation and the VPI-process are cost factors. It is therefore important to know the factors influencing cost and quality of the insulation in the VPI-process in order to determine the optimal production parameters and to achieve a high reliability of the resulting machine. This article gives an overview of the relevant factors and some considerations regarding costs.

  1. Quality Costs (IRR Impact on Lot Size Considering Work in Process Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Ullaha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic order quantity model and production quantity model assume that production processes are error free. However, variations exist in processes which result in imperfection particularly in high machining environments. Processes variations result in nonconformities that increase quality costs in the form of rework, rejects and quality control techniques implementations to ensure quality product delivery. This paper is an attempt towards development of inventory model which incorporate inspection, rework, and rejection (IRR quality costs in optimum lot size calculation focusing work in process inventory. Mathematical model is derived for optimum lot size based on minimum average cost function using analytical approach. This new developed model (GTOQIRR assume an imperfect production environment. Numerical examples are used to visualize the significant effect of quality cost in the proposed model in comparison to the previously developed models. The proposed model is highly recommendable for quality based high machining manufacturing environments considering work in process inventories.

  2. Denial of abortion in legal settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-07-01

    Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Denial of shipments - myth or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrette, M.A.; McInnes, D. [MDS Nordion, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The global healthcare community depends on shipments of radioisotopes. MDS Nordion manufactures and distributes radioisotopes used in the medical, research and sterilization industries throughout the world. With a growing demand for radiation and radiation technology to prevent, diagnose and treat disease, it is important that the global health care industry have a secure and reliable supply of such important materials. Despite this ever increasing need, shipments of radioisotopes are being increasingly delayed and outright denied. This paper outlines the importance of radioisotopes to global healthcare. It also details examples of shipment denials and how this evolving situation has impeded the efficient transport of radioactive material which risks preventing the delivery of essential radioisotopes to many member states. Denial of shipments was identified as a key issue at the 2003 International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, the 2003 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference and at an IAEA Technical Meeting in January 2004. The outcome is that the IAEA is focused on better documenting the problem and is starting to develop ideas to address it. Moreover, governments, associations and modal organizations are becoming more aware of the matter. As a responsible partner in a unique industry, MDS Nordion encourages all IAEA Member States, commercial carriers, airports and ports to be engaged in this matter and accept the transport of radioactive material without additional requirements. In this respect, the collaboration of all organizations involved in this highly interactive global system of transport is vital to assure the effective transport of radioactive material for global health care.

  4. Collaborative Learning Processes in Teacher Training: Benefits and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Aschermann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current pedagogical discussion emphasizes self-determined and cooperative forms of learning. The theoretical background stems from constructivist theories of learning, which interpret social exchange and reflecting on one’s learning pathway as crucial points for construction processes. Consequently, self-regulation turns into a central condition for scholarly learning. This includes setting goals, planning and conducting the learning process as well as the evaluation of results. This paper focusses on the processes secondary school teachers use to implement newly acquired knowledge on self-regulated learning in their lessons. By means of qualitative research methodology, we wanted to explore how experienced teachers develop their own abilities for self-determined learning while teaching their own pupils to do so. Method: In a transdisciplinary research-project between a secondary school and a university, a group of mathematic teachers participated in a two-day training course on self-regulated learning during which they discussed and developed ways to enhance self-regulation of learners. They were then tasked with implementing their newly acquired knowledge during their maths lessons (number of pupils = 270, 4 – 5 lessons per week with eighth graders in the course of a twelve week teaching period. Two separate groups of teachers were asked to put their newly acquired skills into practice. The first group (N = 6 used a collaborative setting in which tasks, teaching activities and performance reviews had been clarified and discussed within the group. The second group (N = 4 fulfilled these tasks individually without seeking assistance. The teaching strategies were assessed by means of multiple semi-structured interviews and observations of classroom activities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the teachers prior to the training and after 12 and 32 weeks respectively to explore their understanding of self-regulated learning

  5. Simulation Models for Analyzing the Dynamic Costs of Process-aware Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    Introducing process-aware information systems (PAIS) in enterprises (e.g., workflow management systems, case handling systems) is associated with high costs. Though cost estimation has received considerable attention in software engineering for many years, it is difficult to apply existing

  6. Estimated costs of implementation of membrane processes for on-site greywater recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, P; Hourlier, F; Bulteau, G; Massé, A; Jaouen, P; Gérente, C; Faur, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2011-01-01

    Greywater reuse inside buildings is a possible way to preserve water resources and face up to water scarcity. This study is focused on a technical-economic analysis of greywater treatment by a direct nanofiltration (NF) process or by a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) for on-site recycling. The aim of this paper is to analyse the cost of recycled water for two different configurations (50 and 500 inhabitants) in order to demonstrate the relevance of the implementation of membrane processes for greywater recycling, depending on the production capacity of the equipment and the price of drinking water. The first step was to define a method to access the description of the cost of producing recycled water. The direct costs were defined as a sum of fixed costs due to equipment, maintenance and depreciation, and variable costs generated by chemical products and electricity consumptions. They were estimated from an experimental approach and from data found in literature, enabling operating conditions for greywater recycling to be determined. The cost of treated water by a SMBR unit with a processing capacity of 500 persons is close to 4.40 euros m(-3), while the cost is 4.81 euros m(-3) with a NF process running in the same conditions. These costs are similar to the price of drinking water in some European countries.

  7. Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based approach for the development of a rural technology product. ... The product is a low- cost water filter for which there is a definite need in rural India. The case brings ... Article Metrics.

  8. Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Carlos J.; Corripio, Armando B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two computer programs for use in process design courses: an easy-to-use equipment cost estimation program based on latest cost correlations available and an economic evaluation program which calculates two profitability indices. Comparisons between programed and hand-calculated results are included. (JM)

  9. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  10. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  11. The Budgetary Process with a Use of Modern Approaches in Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hammer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State organisational units still compile their budget as incremental and as such it therefore disregards causes of the origination of costs and does not put a sufficient pressure on increase in efficiency of economy. This article aims to propose a budgetary setup for operating costs using the methods of ABC/ABM (Activity Based Costing/Activity Based Management in state organisational units (SOU. Essence of the proposed procedure towards budgetary setup as well as cost management is specification of such cost drivers that reflect the causal link between activities of the given organisation and indirect operating costs. Through a system of linear equations there is in turn resolved parity between demands on budgetary funding of a specific activity and full costs of activities. Using a multiple regression analyses, for selected cost groups there was also tested their dependence upon criteria that may act as general cost drivers. Undertaken research has also uncovered that frequently used variable “number of workers” cannot explain the analysed cost groups. Benefit of proposed solutions is increase in efficiency of SOU economy. This way, the management receives a tool for budgeting and cost control not only within the process structure based on activities, but also within individual items of the budgetary classification.

  12. 7 CFR 205.405 - Denial of certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.405 Denial of certification. (a) When the...

  13. 7 CFR 205.507 - Denial of accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.507 Denial of accreditation....

  14. 27 CFR 479.65 - Denial of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Application to Make A Firearm § 479.65 Denial of application....

  15. 33 CFR 151.08 - Denial of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.08 Denial of entry. (a) Unless a ship...

  16. 33 CFR 136.307 - Denial of designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 136.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Designation of Source and Advertisement § 136.307 Denial... Designation. Advertisement...

  17. Application of the TDABC model in the logistics process using different capacity cost rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The understanding of logistics process in terms of costs and profitability is a complex task and there is a need of more research and applied work on these issues. In this research project, the concepts underlying Time-Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC have been used in the context of logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach: A Distribution Centre of wood and carpentry related materials has been studied. A multidisciplinary team has been composed to support the project including the researchers and three employees of the company responsible for accounting, logistics and warehousing. The design and implementation of the costing model asked for a deep understanding of the different tasks and processes that should be considered. Accordingly, a TDABC model for the logistics function was developed. Findings: The cost model presented here is supported on a series of time equations designed for the logistics function which allow the analysis and discussion of costs and profitability of different cost objects namely, products, clients, distribution channels, processes and activities. The cost of unused capacity and the effectiveness of logistics processes are also highlighted in this model. Research limitations/implications: In a case study, results and implications cannot be directly or immediately generalized. Nevertheless, the proposed time equations and cost model can be easily adapted to explain other types of logistics functions and it gives the foundations or other TDABC models with more than one capacity cost rate. Practical implications: The TDABC model developed in this case study can be used in similar cases and as a basis for the analysis of logistics costs in other logistics processes. Furthermore, managers can rely on the proposed approach to analyze products’ profitability and logistics cost structure.  Originality/value: In this case, different capacity cost rates were computed in order to reflect appropriately the

  18. Managing the Threat of Denial-of-Service Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis ( CAIDA ) address this question in their paper, “Inferring Internet Denial-of-Service Activity.” (see...belonging to more than 2,000 distinct organizations during a three-week period.” In addition, CAIDA reports that 90% of attacks last for one hour or less...Engineering Task Force http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ipngwg-charter.html Inferring Internet Denial-of-Service Activity CAIDA , University of

  19. Cost account in agriculture with particular accordance to requirements of decision making process and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kondraszuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents cost account applicability in the agricultural companies regarding the general theory of economic and organisation of enterprises. The main focus was laid down to analyse the unit total cost account with variable costs and their applicability in three spheres: stock valuation and profit, requirements of planning and decision making processes and controlling. It was concluded that cost calculation at the level of agricultural enterprise should be an inherent element of integrated information system at the level of registry, planning, decision making and control.

  20. Low-Cost Innovative Hi-Temp Fiber Coating Process for Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MATECH GSM (MG) proposes 1) to demonstrate a low-cost innovative Hi-Temp Si-doped in-situ BN fiber coating process for advanced ceramic matrix composites in order to...

  1. On the optimality equation for average cost Markov control processes with Feller transition probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskiewicz, Anna; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    2006-04-01

    We consider Markov control processes with Borel state space and Feller transition probabilities, satisfying some generalized geometric ergodicity conditions. We provide a new theorem on the existence of a solution to the average cost optimality equation.

  2. Disentangling the effects of process and product innovation on cost and demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaumandreu, J.; Mairesse, J.

    2016-01-01

    We explore in this note different structural models of the impact of process and product innovation on firms' demand and production cost functions. We find that the introduction of process and product innovations affects them differently as could be expected. Both product and process innovation shif

  3. Cue-switch costs in task-switching: cue priming or control processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, James A; Houghton, George

    2010-09-01

    In the explicitly cued task-switching paradigm, two cues per task allow separation of costs associated with switching cues from costs of switching tasks. Whilst task-switch costs have become controversial, cue-switch costs are robust. The processes that contribute to cue-switch costs are under-specified in the literature: they could reflect perceptual priming of cue properties, or priming of control processes that form relevant working memory (WM) representations of task demands. Across two experiments we manipulated cue-transparency in an attention-switching design to test the contrasting hypotheses of cue-switch costs, and show that such costs emerge from control processes of establishing relevant WM representations, rather than perceptual priming of the cue itself. When the cues were maximally transparent, cue-switch costs were eradicated. We discuss the results in terms of recent theories of cue encoding, and provide a formal definition of cue-transparency in switching designs and its relation to WM representations that guide task performance.

  4. Warranty cost analysis using alternating quasi-renewal processes with a warranty option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedida, Sarada; Unnissa Munavar, Mubashir; Ranjani, R.

    2012-03-01

    This article analyses a repairable deteriorating system with quasi-renewal operating and repair times during warranty. To establish the importance of non-negligible repair times modelled with quasi-renewal processes in warranty cost analysis, a fixed warranty model is developed and the results are compared with an existing model using expected warranty cost. Sensitivity analysis and graphical illustrations are provided to highlight the effect of various cost parameters on the expected warranty cost by means of three different distributions. In order to examine the cost implications to the customer and manufacturer, an extended warranty model in which a manufacturer offers a warranty option to the customer with two different policies, has been proposed. Based on the long-run average cost per unit time, profit analysis has been carried out for the manufacturer as it is an essential aspect of warranty management. This article emphasises the incorporation of non-negligible 'improved' repair times during warranty.

  5. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sihai; Wang, Zhiyang

    2016-01-01

    How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers' destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big data analysis in

  6. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  7. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis. Annual subcontract report, 11 March 1991--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisnant, R.A. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price.

  8. A Robust Mechanism For Defending Distributed Denial Of Service Attacks On Web Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Sen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks have emerged as a popular means of causing mass targetedservice disruptions, often for extended periods of time. The relative ease and low costs of launching suchattacks, supplemented by the current inadequate sate of any viable defense mechanism, have made themone of the top threats to the Internet community today. Since the increasing popularity of web-basedapplications has led to several critical services being provided over the Internet, it is imperative tomonitor the network traffic so as to prevent malicious attackers from depleting the resources of thenetwork and denying services to legitimate users. This paper first presents a brief discussion on some ofthe important types of DDoS attacks that currently exist and some existing mechanisms to combat theseattacks. It then points out the major drawbacks of the currently existing defense mechanisms andproposes a new mechanism for protecting a web-server against a DDoS attack. In the proposedmechanism, incoming traffic to the server is continuously monitored and any abnormal rise in theinbound traffic is immediately detected. The detection algorithm is based on a statistical analysis of theinbound traffic on the server and a robust hypothesis testing framework. While the detection process ison, the sessions from the legitimate sources are not disrupted and the load on the server is restored to thenormal level by blocking the traffic from the attacking sources. To cater to different scenarios, thedetection algorithm has various modules with varying level of computational and memory overheads fortheir execution. While the approximate modules are fast in detection and involve less overhead, theyprovide lower level of detection accuracy. The accurate modules employ complex detection logic andhence involve more overhead for their execution. However, they have very high detection accuracy.Simulations carried out on the proposed mechanism have produced

  9. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  10. A low-cost vector processor boosting compute-intensive image processing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorf, Hans-Martin

    1992-01-01

    Low-cost vector processing (VP) is within reach of everyone seriously engaged in scientific computing. The advent of affordable add-on VP-boards for standard workstations complemented by mathematical/statistical libraries is beginning to impact compute-intensive tasks such as image processing. A case in point in the restoration of distorted images from the Hubble Space Telescope. A low-cost implementation is presented of the standard Tarasko-Richardson-Lucy restoration algorithm on an Intel i860-based VP-board which is seamlessly interfaced to a commercial, interactive image processing system. First experience is reported (including some benchmarks for standalone FFT's) and some conclusions are drawn.

  11. A low-cost photovoltaic cell process based on thick film techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, N.; Pepe, A.; Bunyan, S.; Edwards, B.; Olson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The low-cost, easily automated processing for solar cell fabrication being developed at Spectrolab for the DOE LSA program is described. These processes include plasma-etching, spray-on diffusion sources and antireflective coating, thick film metallization, aluminum back contacts, laser scribing and ultrasonic soldering. The process sequence has been shown to produce solar cells having 15% conversion efficiency at AM1 which meet the cell fabrication budget required for the DOE 1986 cost goal of $0.70 per peak watt in 1980.

  12. Improving Library Management by Using Cost Analysis Tools: A Case Study for Cataloguing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Siguenza-Guzman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available TTDABC is a relatively new costing management technique, initially developed for manufacturing processes, which is gaining attention in libraries. This is because TDABC is a fast and simple method that only requires two parameters, an estimation of time required to perform an activity and the unit cost per time of supplying capacity. A few case studies have been documented with regard to TDABC in libraries; all of them being oriented to analyse specific library activities such as inter-library loan, acquisition and circulation processes. The primary focus of this paper is to describe TDABC implementation in one of the most important library processes, namely cataloguing. In particular, original and copy cataloguing are analysed through a case study to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of TDABC to perform cost analysis of cataloguing processes.

  13. 77 FR 3460 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of the acceptance of... (DOE) acceptance of claims in FY 2012 from eligible active uranium and thorium processing site... uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation,...

  14. Guidelines for process development and future cost reduction of CO 2 post-combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, M.R.M.; Fernandez, E.S.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a perspective is given on the development lines for CO 2 post-combustion capture technology. Guidelines for cost reductions and suggestions for future research on solvent and process development are presented. By analyzing the post-combustion capture process in this work, it is evident

  15. Mamul Geliştirme Sürecinde Hedef Maliyetleme(Target Costing in Product Development Process)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe N. YERELİ; DOĞAN, Semra; Damla ŞAHİN

    2012-01-01

    Organizations aimed at saving or increasing market share have to find alternative ways to reduce costs in every step of production. In that sense, target costing is seen as a market and customer oriented costing model. The first object of this study is creating cost parameters for new product development in a large sized Turkish white goods company. Second object is creating an application model to provide cost control through product development process by dividing costs into product compone...

  16. Electrophysiological correlates of the cognitive control processes underpinning mixing and switching costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Vincenza; Mazzonetto, Ilaria; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-09-01

    Typically, in task-switching contexts individuals are slower and less accurate when repeating a task in mixed blocks compared to single-task blocks (mixing cost) and when switching to a new task compared to repeating a previous one (switch cost). Previous research has shown that distinct electrophysiological correlates underlie these two phenomena. However, this evidence is not a consistent result. The goal of this study was to better characterize differences between the control processes involved in mixing and switch costs. To this aim, we examined event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked during a cued task-switching experiment. In order to minimize the confounding effects of cognitive demands unrelated to task-switching, we asked participants to shift between two simple tasks (a letter identity task and a letter position task). The mixing cost was defined, in terms of ERPs, by contrasting repeat and single-task trials, whereas the ERP switch cost was obtained from the comparison of switch and repeat trials. Cue-locked ERPs showed that the mixing cost was mediated by two sustained components, an early posterior positivity and a late anterior negativity. On the other hand, the switch cost was associated with two early phasic positive components, one principally distributed over centro-parietal sites and the other located over left posterior sites. In target-locked ERPs the mixing cost was expressed by a frontal positivity, whereas the switch cost was expressed by a reduced parietal P3b. Overall, the results extend previous findings by providing elucidating ERP evidence on distinct proactive and reactive control processes involved in mixing and switch costs.

  17. An attempt of reduction of optimization costs of complex industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztangret, Łukasz; Kusiak, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Reduction of computational costs of optimization of real industrial processes is crucial, because the models of these processes are often complex and demand time consuming numerical computations. Iterative optimization procedures have to run the simulations many times and therefore the computational costs of the optimization may be unacceptable high. This is why a new optimization methods and strategies which need less simulation runs are searched. The paper is focused on the problem of reduction of computational costs of optimization procedure. The main goal is the presentation of developed by the Authors new, efficient Approximation Based Optimization (ABO) and Modified Approximation Based Optimization (MABO) methods which allow finding the global minimum in smaller number of objective function calls. Detailed algorithm of the MABO method as well as the results of tests using several benchmark functions are presented. The efficiency of MABO method was compared with heuristic methods and the results show that MABO method reduces the computational costs and improve the optimization accuracy.

  18. Design the price signal mechanism of suppliers' cost in the commercial procurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinming, Huang; Wenjing, Li; Huazhen, Zhu

    2016-06-01

    In the process of commercial procurement, there exists information asymmetry between purchasers and suppliers in terms of commodity cost. The strike price is what purchasers care about, while the focus of suppliers is only the sales revenue. In order to achieve the relatively lower strike price, purchasers need to design a price signal mechanism, explicating the commodity cost of suppliers. In this article, we have designed a mechanism that purchasers can explicit the commodity cost price based on suppliers' choices by providing a variety of purchase contracts to suppliers.

  19. The costs of seasonality and expansion in Ireland’s milk production and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Heinschink K.; Shalloo L.; Wallace M

    2016-01-01

    Ireland’s milk production sector relies on grass-based spring-calving systems, which facilitates cost advantages in milk production but entails a high degree of supply seasonality. Among other implications, this supply seasonality involves extra costs in the processing sector including elevated plant capacities and varying levels of resource utilisation throughout the year. If both the national raw milk production increased substantially (e.g. post-milk quota) and a high degree of seasonality...

  20. Considerations in developing geographic informations systems based on low-cost digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, F. M.; Dobson, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of digital image processing systems costing $20,000 or less for geographic information systems is assessed with the emphasis on the volume of data to be handled, the commercial hardware systems available, and the basic software for: (1) data entry, conversion and digitization; (2) georeferencing and geometric correction; (3) data structuring; (4) editing and updating; (5) analysis and retrieval; (6) output drivers; and (7) data management. Costs must also be considered as tangible and intangible factors.

  1. A new, integrated, continuous purification process template for monoclonal antibodies: Process modeling and cost of goods studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenopoulos, Alex

    2015-11-10

    An evolving biopharmaceutical industry requires advancements in biomanufacturing that offer increased productivity and improved economics without sacrificing process robustness. Accordingly, we have developed a new monoclonal antibody purification template comprised of flocculation-based clarification, capture by continuous multi-column protein A chromatography and flow-through polishing. The new process offers a robust, single-use manufacturing solution while significantly reducing overall cost of goods. Modeling studies verify that the individual clarification, capture and polishing solutions offer significant advantages as stand-alone unit operations. These technologies were also designed to be integrated into a continuous purification template. Process modeling studies have been used to highlight both cost and operational advantages of the new process template. Depending on scale, savings of more than 20% and 60% were seen for commercial and clinical operation, respectively. Integrating the technologies into a continuous process consistently offered additional cost advantages. During template development, process modeling was instrumental in highlighting the importance of identifying technologies that provided high product yield and purification factors. Additionally, high product concentration and eliminating the need for intermediate product dilution emerged as important considerations for newly developed unit operations. Combining experimental work with insights from modeling can significantly improve the outcome of product and process development.

  2. Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The conservative movement and especially its think tanks play a critical role in denying the reality and significance of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), especially by manufacturing uncertainty over climate science. Books denying AGW are a crucial means of attacking climate science and scientists, and we examine the links between conservative think tanks (CTTs) and 108 climate change denial books published through 2010. We find a strong link, albeit noticeably weaker for the growing number of self-published denial books. We also examine the national origins of the books and the academic backgrounds of their authors or editors, finding that with the help of American CTTs climate change denial has spread to several other nations and that an increasing portion of denial books are produced by individuals with no scientific training. It appears that at least 90% of denial books do not undergo peer review, allowing authors or editors to recycle scientifically unfounded claims that are then amplified by the conservative movement, media, and political elites. PMID:24098056

  3. The making of a civic discourse on controversial historical past: from denial to parrhesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna LEONE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the pragmatic effects of different rhetoric strategies conveying evidence of past ingroup violence after a long lasting social denial (Cohen, 2001. In particular, a case study is presented on the making of a civic discourse on controversial historical past: war crimes committed by the Italian Army during the colonial invasion of Ethiopia (1935-36. Although very well proved (Del Boca, 2005, these facts were only recently inserted in Italian history textbooks (Leone & Mastrovito, 2010; Cajani, 2013. In this same period, evidence of these crimes was officially presented during discussions of the Italian Parliament. In spite of these recent acknowledgments of the Italian responsibilities for these crimes, a social myth is still widely shared by the public opinion, representing Italians as good fellows (Italiani, brava gente: cfr. Del Boca, 2005, unable to be cruel both in everyday life and in wartimes (Volpato et al., 2012. This specific situation, denying even the reality of facts happened, has been defined literal social denial, i.e. the deepest among the three possible states of denial (literal, interpretive, implicative: cfr. Cohen, 2001. The issue of literal social denial of past ingroup violence is at the intersection among theories on narratives on national past (László, 2003, social representations of history (Liu et al., 2014, conflict ethos (Bar-Tal et al., 2012; Kelman, 2008, group-based emotions (Allpress et al., 2010; Leone, 2000 and intergroup reconciliation processes (Nadler et al., 2008. Namely, understanding how a social denial could break down implies the theorization of human mind’s reflexivity as grounded on historical awareness (Ortega y Gasset, 1930, and the notion of social change as primarily rooted in natality, i.e. the fact that each birth represents a new beginning (Arendt, 1958. Drawing on this theoretical background, we will present an ongoing research program (Leone, in press on the

  4. Solar energy for process heat: Design/cost studies of four industrial retrofit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. L.; Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Five specific California plants with potentially attractive solar applications were identified in a process heat survey. These five plants were visited, process requirements evaluated, and conceptual solar system designs were generated. Four DOE (ERDA) sponsored solar energy system demonstration projects were also reviewed and compared to the design/cost cases included in this report. In four of the five cases investigated, retrofit installations providing significant amounts of thermal energy were found to be feasible. The fifth was rejected because of the condition of the building involved, but the process (soap making) appears to be an attractive potential solar application. Costs, however, tend to be high. Several potential areas for cost reduction were identified including larger collector modules and higher duty cycles.

  5. Process-Based Governance in Public Administrations Using Activity-Based Costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jörg; Bergener, Philipp; Räckers, Michael

    Decision- and policy-makers in public administrations currently lack on missing relevant information for sufficient governance. In Germany the introduction of New Public Management and double-entry accounting enable public administrations to get the opportunity to use cost-centered accounting mechanisms to establish new governance mechanisms. Process modelling in this case can be a useful instrument to help the public administrations decision- and policy-makers to structure their activities and capture relevant information. In combination with approaches like Activity-Based Costing, higher management level can be supported with a reasonable data base for fruitful and reasonable governance approaches. Therefore, the aim of this article is combining the public sector domain specific process modelling method PICTURE and concept of activity-based costing for supporting Public Administrations in process-based Governance.

  6. Advancing the extended parallel process model through the inclusion of response cost measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintamaki, Lance S; Yang, Z Janet

    2014-01-01

    This study advances the Extended Parallel Process Model through the inclusion of response cost measures, which are drawbacks associated with a proposed response to a health threat. A sample of 502 college students completed a questionnaire on perceptions regarding sexually transmitted infections and condom use after reading information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the health risks of sexually transmitted infections and the utility of latex condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infection transmission. The questionnaire included standard Extended Parallel Process Model assessments of perceived threat and efficacy, as well as questions pertaining to response costs associated with condom use. Results from hierarchical ordinary least squares regression demonstrated how the addition of response cost measures improved the predictive power of the Extended Parallel Process Model, supporting the inclusion of this variable in the model.

  7. Early‐Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jean‐Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean‐Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil‐based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital‐intensive projects that involve state‐of‐the‐art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well‐documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early‐stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. PMID:27484398

  8. Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkari, Mirela; Couturier, Jean-Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-08

    Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil-based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital-intensive projects that involve state-of-the-art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well-documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early-stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Process cost and facility considerations in the selection of primary cell culture clarification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felo, Michael; Christensen, Brandon; Higgins, John

    2013-01-01

    The bioreactor volume delineating the selection of primary clarification technology is not always easily defined. Development of a commercial scale process for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins requires scale-up from a few liters to thousands of liters. While the separation techniques used for protein purification are largely conserved across scales, the separation techniques for primary cell culture clarification vary with scale. Process models were developed to compare monoclonal antibody production costs using two cell culture clarification technologies. One process model was created for cell culture clarification by disc stack centrifugation with depth filtration. A second process model was created for clarification by multi-stage depth filtration. Analyses were performed to examine the influence of bioreactor volume, product titer, depth filter capacity, and facility utilization on overall operating costs. At bioreactor volumes cost savings compared to clarification using centrifugation. For bioreactor volumes >5,000 L, clarification using centrifugation followed by depth filtration offers significant cost savings. For bioreactor volumes of ∼ 2,000 L, clarification costs are similar between depth filtration and centrifugation. At this scale, factors including facility utilization, available capital, ease of process development, implementation timelines, and process performance characterization play an important role in clarification technology selection. In the case study presented, a multi-product facility selected multi-stage depth filtration for cell culture clarification at the 500 and 2,000 L scales of operation. Facility implementation timelines, process development activities, equipment commissioning and validation, scale-up effects, and process robustness are examined. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. A Model of Process-Based Automation: Cost and Quality Implications in the Medication Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Trent Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand how a set of systems, as defined by the business process, creates value. The three studies contained in this work develop the model of process-based automation. The model states that complementarities among systems are specified by handoffs in the business process. The model also provides theory to…

  11. 2 CFR 801.1105 - Cause for a limited denial of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Department of Veterans Affairs Optional Subpart for OMB Guidance at 2 CFR Part 180). § 801.1105 Cause for a limited denial of participation. (a) Causes. A limited denial of participation shall be based upon... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cause for a limited denial of...

  12. A Model of An Integration System for Operations and Cost Data Designed to Control Logistics Processes in Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Wajszczuk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model of an integration system for operations and cost data designed for the needs of process controlling in agricultural enterprises, with special emphasis on logistics processes. The proposed model constituted the basis for the development of an IT tool to be used in the identification and analysis of logistics costs in agricultural enterprises in terms of the process based approach. As a result of research and programming efforts a model was developed, which made it possible in agricultural enterprises to determine the type-based relationship of cost dynamics and structure with realized actions, operating processes (including logistics processes and products, as well as the relationship of these costs with used resources, maintained stocks, applied materials and work methods. Moreover, this model facilitates cost allocation to products and processes as well as cost centers and points, and makes it possible to determine multidimensional dependencies of the result (divided into individual products on incurred costs.

  13. Socially desirable responding in Chinese university students: denial and enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Yong

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) with one-, two-, three-, and four-dimensional models and tested the BIDR's discriminant validity with personality variables. A confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of responses from 600 Chinese university students (314 men, 282 women, 4 missing; M age=20.0 yr.) provided results indicating that the four-factor model fit the data best; i.e., self-deception and impression management split into denial and enhancement. The Denial and Enhancement subscales with personality variables show significant differences, confirming the four-factor model. The cultural differences as a possible reason for the split were discussed.

  14. Cost of Multicast Logical Key Tree Based on Hierarchical Data Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Fucai; XU Jian; LI Ting

    2006-01-01

    How to design a multicast key management system with high performance is a hot issue now. This paper will apply the idea of hierarchical data processing to construct a common analytic model based on directed logical key tree and supply two important metrics to this problem: re-keying cost and key storage cost. The paper gives the basic theory to the hierarchical data processing and the analyzing model to multicast key management based on logical key tree. It has been proved that the 4-ray tree has the best performance in using these metrics. The key management problem is also investigated based on user probability model, and gives two evaluating parameters to re-keying and key storage cost.

  15. Benchmarking of WWTP design by assessing costs, effluent quality and process variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, L; Bixio, D; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2006-01-01

    Process choice and dimensioning of WWTPs is a particularly sensitive step to cost-efficiently comply with regulatory standards. This step accounts only for a small fraction of the upfront costs, but it can lead to substantial savings. This paper illustrates the results of a systematic methodology to evaluate system design/upgrade options. In contrast to conventional practice, this approach allows the choice between the most appropriate trade-off between cost of measures and effluent quality, and to assess the reliability of a process layout. It is therefore a flexible instrument to cope with the flexibility and complexity of integrated water management regulations. Results show good agreement of the simulations with extensiv benchmarking studies on actual plants. For that reason, the suggested methodology can provide valuable support also to such practices.

  16. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  17. 78 FR 22451 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Parts 701, 736, 737, 738, and 750 RIN 1029-AC65 Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement Correction In proposed...

  18. DRIE and Bonding Assisted Low Cost MEMS Processing of In-plane HAR Inertial Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Makinwa, K.A.A.; French, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple, flexible and low cost MEMS fabrication process, developed using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and wafer bonding technologies, for manufacturing in-plane high aspect ratio (HAR) inertial sensors. Among examples, the design and fabrication results of a two axis inertial device

  19. SPECIFICS OF TAX ACCOUNTING FOR TAN-GIBLE COSTS (FOR EXAMPLE THE DAIRY PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krugljak Z. I.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The elements of tangible costs, which must be included in the tax accounting policy, are defined and studied. Use of the proposed methodology for evaluating recyclable processing waste is substantiated for dairy, butter-, cheese-making, and dairy-canning industry enterprises

  20. DRIE and Bonding Assisted Low Cost MEMS Processing of In-plane HAR Inertial Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Makinwa, K.A.A.; French, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple, flexible and low cost MEMS fabrication process, developed using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and wafer bonding technologies, for manufacturing in-plane high aspect ratio (HAR) inertial sensors. Among examples, the design and fabrication results of a two axis inertial device

  1. Digitizing dissertations for an institutional repository: a process and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorun, Mary; Palmer, Lisa A

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the Lamar Soutter Library's process and costs associated with digitizing 300 doctoral dissertations for a newly implemented institutional repository at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Project tasks included identifying metadata elements, obtaining and tracking permissions, converting the dissertations to an electronic format, and coordinating workflow between library departments. Each dissertation was scanned, reviewed for quality control, enhanced with a table of contents, processed through an optical character recognition function, and added to the institutional repository. Three hundred and twenty dissertations were digitized and added to the repository for a cost of $23,562, or $0.28 per page. Seventy-four percent of the authors who were contacted (n = 282) granted permission to digitize their dissertations. Processing time per title was 170 minutes, for a total processing time of 906 hours. In the first 17 months, full-text dissertations in the collection were downloaded 17,555 times. Locally digitizing dissertations or other scholarly works for inclusion in institutional repositories can be cost effective, especially if small, defined projects are chosen. A successful project serves as an excellent recruitment strategy for the institutional repository and helps libraries build new relationships. Challenges include workflow, cost, policy development, and copyright permissions.

  2. SPECIFICS OF TAX ACCOUNTING FOR TAN-GIBLE COSTS (FOR EXAMPLE THE DAIRY PROCESSING INDUSTRY)

    OpenAIRE

    Krugljak Z. I.; Kalinskaya M. V.

    2014-01-01

    The elements of tangible costs, which must be included in the tax accounting policy, are defined and studied. Use of the proposed methodology for evaluating recyclable processing waste is substantiated for dairy, butter-, cheese-making, and dairy-canning industry enterprises

  3. A Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Controllable Processing Times to Optimize Total Cost of Delay and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mokhtari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flexible job shop scheduling problem with machine flexibility and controllable process times is studied. The main idea is that the processing times of operations may be controlled by consumptions of additional resources. The purpose of this paper to find the best trade-off between processing cost and delay cost in order to minimize the total costs. The proposed model, flexible job shop scheduling with controllable processing times (FJCPT, is formulated as an integer non-linear programming (INLP model and then it is converted into an integer linear programming (ILP model. Due to NP-hardness of FJCPT, conventional analytic optimization methods are not efficient. Hence, in order to solve the problem, a Scatter Search (SS, as an efficient metaheuristic method, is developed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerical experiments are conducted. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of a genetic algorithm (GA available in the literature for solving FJSP problem. The results showed that the proposed SS provide better solutions than the existing GA.

  4. Low-cost Landsat digital processing system for state and local information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, N. J.; Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1979-01-01

    The paper details a minicomputer-based system which is well within the budget of many state, regional, and local agencies that previously could not afford digital processing capability. In order to achieve this goal a workable small-scale Landsat system is examined to provide low-cost automated processing. It is anticipated that the alternative systems will be based on a single minicomputer, but that the peripherals will vary depending on the capability emphasized in a particular system.

  5. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-22

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions.

  6. Fractionation of Whey Protein Isolate with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide—Process Modeling and Cost Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McAloon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2 as an acid to produce enriched fractions of α-lactalbumin (α-LA and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI containing 20% α-LA and 55% β-LG, through selective precipitation of α-LA. Pilot-scale experiments were performed around the optimal parameter range (T = 60 to 65 °C, P = 8 to 31 MPa, C = 5 to 15% (w/w WPI to quantify the recovery rates of the individual proteins and the compositions of both fractions as a function of processing conditions. Mass balances were calculated in a process flow-sheet to design a large-scale, semi-continuous process model using SuperproDesigner® software. Total startup and production costs were estimated as a function of processing parameters, product yield and purity. Temperature, T, pressure, P, and concentration, C, showed conflicting effects on equipment costs and the individual precipitation rates of the two proteins, affecting the quantity, quality, and production cost of the fractions considerably. The highest α-LA purity, 61%, with 80% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction, was obtained at T = 60 °C, C = 5% WPI, P = 8.3 MPa, with a production cost of $8.65 per kilogram of WPI treated. The most profitable conditions resulted in 57%-pure α-LA, with 71% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction and 89% β-LG recovery in the soluble fraction, and production cost of $5.43 per kilogram of WPI treated at T = 62 °C, C = 10% WPI and P = 5.5 MPa. The two fractions are ready-to-use, new food ingredients with a pH of 6.7 and contain no residual acid or chemical contaminants.

  7. Predicting Health Care Cost Transitions Using a Multidimensional Adaptive Prediction Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Gandy, William; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James; Rula, Elizabeth; Wells, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    Managing population health requires meeting individual care needs while striving for increased efficiency and quality of care. Predictive models can integrate diverse data to provide objective assessment of individual prospective risk to identify individuals requiring more intensive health management in the present. The purpose of this research was to develop and test a predictive modeling approach, Multidimensional Adaptive Prediction Process (MAPP). MAPP is predicated on dividing the population into cost cohorts and then utilizing a collection of models and covariates to optimize future cost prediction for individuals in each cohort. MAPP was tested on 3 years of administrative health care claims starting in 2009 for health plan members (average n=25,143) with evidence of coronary heart disease. A "status quo" reference modeling methodology applied to the total annual population was established for comparative purposes. Results showed that members identified by MAPP contributed $7.9 million and $9.7 million more in 2011 health care costs than the reference model for cohorts increasing in cost or remaining high cost, respectively. Across all cohorts, the additional accurate cost capture of MAPP translated to an annual difference of $1882 per member, a 21% improvement, relative to the reference model. The results demonstrate that improved future cost prediction is achievable using a novel adaptive multiple model approach. Through accurate prospective identification of individuals whose costs are expected to increase, MAPP can help health care entities achieve efficient resource allocation while improving care quality for emergent need individuals who are intermixed among a diverse set of health care consumers.

  8. Profiling mild steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions and costs in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael J; Siert, Arlen; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel G

    2014-05-01

    To provide quantitative information to choose the best welding processes for minimizing workplace emissions, nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for mild steel were assessed for fume generation rates, normalized fume generation rates (milligram fume per gram of electrode consumed), and normalized generation rates for elemental manganese, nickel, and iron. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux-cored arc-welding (FCAW) processes were also profiled. The fumes were collected quantitatively in an American Welding Society-type fume chamber and weighed, recovered, homogenized, and analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for total metals. The processes included GMAW with short circuit, globular transfer, axial spray, pulsed spray, Surface Tension Transfer™, Regulated Metal Deposition™, and Cold Metal Transfer™ (CMT) modes. Flux-cored welding was gas shielded, and SMAW was a single rod type. Results indicate a wide range of fume emission factors for the process variations studied. Fume emission rates per gram of electrode consumed were highest for SMAW (~13 mg fume g(-1) electrode) and lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed spray (~1.5mg g(-1)) and CMT (~1mg g(-1)). Manganese emission rates per gram of electrode consumed ranged from 0.45 mg g(-1) (SMAW) to 0.08 mg g(-1) (CMT). Nickel emission rates were generally low and ranged from ~0.09 (GMAW short circuit) to 0.004 mg g(-1) (CMT). Iron emission rates ranged from 3.7 (spray-mode GMAW) to 0.49 mg g(-1) (CMT). The processes studied have significantly different costs, and cost factors are presented based on a case study to allow comparisons between processes in specific cost categories. Costs per linear meter of weld were $31.07 (SMAW), $12.37 (GMAW short circuit), and $10.89 (FCAW). Although no single process is the best for minimizing fume emissions and costs while satisfying the weld requirements, there are several processes that can minimize emissions. This study provides

  9. An LMI Method to Robust Iterative Learning Fault-tolerant Guaranteed Cost Control for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Limin; CHEN Xi; GAO Furong

    2013-01-01

    Based on an equivalent two-dimensional Fornasini-Marchsini model for a batch process in industry,a closed-loop robust iterative learning fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control scheme is proposed for batch processes with actuator failures.This paper introduces relevant concepts of the fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control and formulates the robust iterative learning reliable guaranteed cost controller (ILRGCC).A significant advantage is that the proposed ILRGCC design method can be used for on-line optimization against batch-to-batch process uncertainties to realize robust tracking of set-point trajectory in time and batch-to-batch sequences.For the convenience of implementation,only measured output errors of current and previous cycles are used to design a synthetic controller for iterative learning control,consisting of dynamic output feedback plus feed-forward control.The proposed controller can not only guarantee the closed-loop convergency along time and cycle sequences but also satisfy the H∞ performance level and a cost function with upper bounds for all admissible uncertainties and any actuator failures.Sufficient conditions for the controller solution are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),and design procedures,which formulate a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints,are presented.An example of injection molding is given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the ILRGCC design approach.

  10. EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF MENEGMENT'S PROCESS COST MENEGMENT IN NETWORK RETAIL BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Rezyapova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the proprietary methodology of distributing administrative expenses in the network retail businesses within the process approach to management, which has been developed to improve the quality of trade expenses administration. To this end, the author suggests using the original base unit (cost driver in the course of distribution of the subject expenses to improve the accuracy of calculating the trade process efficiency. The author gives reasons to the necessity of applying a comprehensive approach in its selection. This implies use, as the base unit, of a coefficient representing shop turnover per 1m2 of sales area. The author has made a coefficient rating to formalize the relationship between the management results and economic factors of the trade businesses risk. This approach takes into account the commodity prime cost, and the quality and economic efficiency of the management processes in selling subdivisions of a network business.

  11. Rolling Stock Planning at DSB S-tog - Processes, Cost Structures and Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    A central issue for operators of suburban passenger train transport systems is providing sufficient number of seats for the passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. The process of providing this is called rolling stock planning. This technical report documents the terminology......, the processes, the cost structures and the requirements for rolling stock planning at DSB S-tog, the suburban passenger train operator of the City of Copenhagen. The focus of the technical report is directed at practical train operator oriented issues. The technical report is thought to serve as a basis...... for investigating better methods to perform the rolling stock planning (to be the topic of later papers). This technical report is produced as a part of the current industrial Ph. D. project to improve the rolling stock planning process of DSB S-tog....

  12. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

  13. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  14. The Child with Cancer: Patterns of Communication and Denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetta, John J.; Maloney, Lorrie J.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the role of communication and denial in coping efforts of children with cancer. Results indicate level of family communication about cancer expressed by mother's communication is correlated with hypothesized responses in child. Usefulness of three instruments as effective tools in measuring child's reactions is demonstrated. (Author/BEF)

  15. 42 CFR 433.148 - Denial or termination of eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Assignment of Rights to Benefits § 433.148 Denial or termination of eligibility. In administering the assignment of rights provision, the agency must: (a) Deny or terminate eligibility for any applicant or recipient who— (1) Refuses to assign his own rights or those of any other individual for whom he can...

  16. On climate change skepticism and denial in tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, C.M.; Amelung, B.; Cohen, S.; Eijgelaar, E.; Gössling, S.; Higham, J.; Leemans, R.; Peeters, P.; Ram, Y.; Scott, D.

    2015-01-01

    The period leading to and immediately after the release of the IPCC’s fifth series of climate change assessments saw substantial efforts by climate change denial interests to portray anthropogenic climate change (ACC) as either unproven theory or a negligible contribution to natural climate variabil

  17. Networked control of nonlinear systems under Denial-of-Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, C.; Tesi, P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the analysis and design of a control strategy for nonlinear systems under Denial-of-Service attacks. Based on an ISS-Lyapunov function analysis, we provide a characterization of the maximal percentage of time that feedback information can be lost without resulting in instability of th

  18. On climate change skepticism and denial in tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, C.M.; Amelung, B.; Cohen, S.; Eijgelaar, E.; Gössling, S.; Higham, J.; Leemans, R.; Peeters, P.; Ram, Y.; Scott, D.

    2015-01-01

    The period leading to and immediately after the release of the IPCC’s fifth series of climate change assessments saw substantial efforts by climate change denial interests to portray anthropogenic climate change (ACC) as either unproven theory or a negligible contribution to natural climate

  19. Flooding Distributed Denial of Service Attacks-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah W.M. Ghazali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Flaws either in users’ implementation of a network or in the standard specification of protocols has resulted in gaps that allow various kinds of network attack to be launched. Of the kinds of network attacks, denial-of-service flood attacks have caused the most severe impact. Approach: This study reviews recent researches on flood attacks and their mitigation, classifying such attacks as either high-rate flood or low-rate flood. Finally, the attacks are compared against criteria related to their characteristics, methods and impacts. Results: Denial-of-service flood attacks vary in their rates, traffic, targets, goals and impacts. However, they have general similarities that are the methods used are flooding and the main purpose is to achieve denial of service to the target. Conclusion/Recommendations: Mitigation of the denial-of-service flood attacks must correspond to the attack rates, traffic, targets, goals and impacts in order to achieve effective solution.

  20. 7 CFR 946.123 - Denial and appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Special Purpose Certificates § 946.123 Denial and appeals. The committee may rescind a special purpose certificate issued to a handler for the purpose specified in § 946.120(a),...

  1. On climate change skepticism and denial in tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, C.M.; Amelung, B.; Cohen, S.; Eijgelaar, E.; Gössling, S.; Higham, J.; Leemans, R.; Peeters, P.; Ram, Y.; Scott, D.

    2015-01-01

    The period leading to and immediately after the release of the IPCC’s fifth series of climate change assessments saw substantial efforts by climate change denial interests to portray anthropogenic climate change (ACC) as either unproven theory or a negligible contribution to natural climate variabil

  2. Resilient control under Denial-of-Service: Robust design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Shuai; Tesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study networked control systems in the presence of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, namely attacks that prevent transmissions over the communication network. The control objective is to maximize frequency and duration of the DoS attacks under which closed-loop stability is not dest

  3. Resilient Control under Denial-of-Service:Robust Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Shuai; Tesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study networked control systems in the presence of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, namely attacks that prevent transmissions over the communication network. The control objective is to maximize frequency and duration of the DoS attacks under which closed-loop stability is not dest

  4. 45 CFR 1701.6 - Form of denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Form of denial. 1701.6 Section 1701.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND... Libraries and Information Science, Suite 601, 1717 K Street NW., Washington, DC 20036, and (d) that judicial...

  5. 4 CFR 83.14 - Denial of access requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... review of a denial of access within 10 working days after receipt of the request. If it is not possible to reach a decision within an additional 10 working days, the requester shall be informed of the approximate date (within 30 working days) when such a decision may be expected. (d) In reaching a...

  6. Denial of women's rights to contraception in southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Onwudiwe, Elijah N; Iwuji, Stella E

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the opinions and experiences of married women in southeastern Nigeria regarding their rights to contraception, in addition to the impact of the denial of women's contraceptive rights on unplanned pregnancy rate. A cross-sectional survey of women who registered for prenatal care at 2 federal tertiary healthcare facilities in southeastern Nigeria was conducted. Randomly selected samples of participants were interviewed via a structured, pretested questionnaire. In total, 1204 women participated in the survey. Overall, 526 (43.7%) were unaware of their rights to contraception. Denial of contraceptive rights was reported by 522 (43.4%) women. In total, 174/317 (54.9%) women with unplanned pregnancies blamed denial of access to contraception for their pregnancies. Among the women who had used contraception previously, 61.9% reported that the decision to do so was taken by their spouse. Formal education seemed to increase women's level of awareness of their rights to contraception (P=0.001) but it did not influence the exercising of such rights. A considerable proportion of women in southeastern Nigeria are being denied their rights to contraception, mainly owing to a culture of male dominance. There may be significant health implications for women with unplanned pregnancies arising from such denials. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 24 CFR 16.6 - Initial denial of access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial denial of access. 16.6 Section 16.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... consideration, including the identity and address of the appropriate Privacy Appeals Officer. If no...

  8. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    The industrial production of biodiesel has had a very turbulent lifetime due to drastic changes in prices of raw materials and fossil fuels as well as regulatory changes and produced amounts of biodiesel. Biodiesel production is carried out by various forms of catalysts, but industrially only...... as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...

  9. Low-Cost Bio-Based Carbon Fibers for High Temperature Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Ryan Michael [GrafTech International, Brooklyn Heights, OH (United States); Naskar, Amit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-03

    GrafTech International Holdings Inc. (GTI), under Award No. DE-EE0005779, worked with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under CRADA No. NFE-15-05807 to develop lignin-based carbon fiber (LBCF) technology and to demonstrate LBCF performance in high-temperature products and applications. This work was unique and different from other reported LBCF work in that this study was application-focused and scalability-focused. Accordingly, the executed work was based on meeting criteria based on technology development, cost, and application suitability. High-temperature carbon fiber based insulation is used in energy intensive industries, such as metal heat treating and ceramic and semiconductor material production. Insulation plays a critical role in achieving high thermal and process efficiency, which is directly related to energy usage, cost, and product competitiveness. Current high temperature insulation is made with petroleum based carbon fibers, and one goal of this protect was to develop and demonstrate an alternative lignin (biomass) based carbon fiber that would achieve lower cost, CO2 emissions, and energy consumption and result in insulation that met or exceeded the thermal efficiency of current commercial insulation. In addition, other products were targeted to be evaluated with LBCF. As the project was designed to proceed in stages, the initial focus of this work was to demonstrate lab-scale LBCF from at least 4 different lignin precursor feedstock sources that could meet the estimated production cost of $5.00/pound and have ash level of less than 500 ppm in the carbonized insulation-grade fiber. Accordingly, a preliminary cost model was developed based on publicly available information. The team demonstrated that 4 lignin samples met the cost criteria. In addition, the ash level for the 4 carbonized lignin samples was below 500 ppm. Processing as-received lignin to produce a high purity lignin fiber was a significant accomplishment in that most industrial

  10. Low–Cost Bio-Based Carbon Fiber for High-Temperature Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Akato, Kokouvi M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tran, Chau D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paul, Ryan M. [GrafTech International Holdings, Inc., Brooklyn Heights, OH (United States); Dai, Xuliang [GrafTech International Holdings, Inc., Brooklyn Heights, OH (United States)

    2017-02-01

    GrafTech International Holdings Inc. (GTI), worked with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under CRADA No. NFE-15-05807 to develop lignin-based carbon fiber (LBCF) technology and to demonstrate LBCF performance in high-temperature products and applications. This work was unique and different from other reported LBCF work in that this study was application-focused and scalability-focused. Accordingly, the executed work was based on meeting criteria based on technology development, cost, and application suitability. The focus of this work was to demonstrate lab-scale LBCF from at least 4 different precursor feedstock sources that could meet the estimated production cost of $5.00/pound and have ash level of less than 500 ppm in the carbonized insulation-grade fiber. Accordingly, a preliminary cost model was developed based on publicly available information. The team demonstrated that 4 lignin samples met the cost criteria, as highlighted in Table 1. In addition, the ash level for the 4 carbonized lignin samples were below 500 ppm. Processing asreceived lignin to produce a high purity lignin fiber was a significant accomplishment in that most industrial lignin, prior to purification, had greater than 4X the ash level needed for this project, and prior to this work there was not a clear path of how to achieve the purity target. The lab scale development of LBCF was performed with a specific functional application in mind, specifically for high temperature rigid insulation. GTI is currently a consumer of foreignsourced pitch and rayon based carbon fibers for use in its high temperature insulation products, and the motivation was that LBCF had potential to decrease costs and increase product competitiveness in the marketplace through lowered raw material costs, lowered energy costs, and decreased environmental footprint. At the end of this project, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) remained at 5 for LBCF in high temperature insulation.

  11. Mamul Geliştirme Sürecinde Hedef Maliyetleme(Target Costing in Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe N. YERELİ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations aimed at saving or increasing market share have to find alternative ways to reduce costs in every step of production. In that sense, target costing is seen as a market and customer oriented costing model. The first object of this study is creating cost parameters for new product development in a large sized Turkish white goods company. Second object is creating an application model to provide cost control through product development process by dividing costs into product components and features. In case study first product costs have been forecasted and then compared with the cost parameters determined before. If the predicted costs exceed the cost parameters alternative ways such as using cost reducing formules in those components whose costs expected to be reduced have to be found to reduce costs. Contrary to that cost increasing methods have been used in those components whose costs expected to be increased. By ths way it has become possible to integrate product features and their costs.

  12. Cost savings deliverables and criteria for the OST technology decision process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, A.

    1997-04-01

    This document has been prepared to assist focus area (FA) technical and management teams in understanding the cost savings deliverables associated with a technology system during its research and development (R and D) phases. It discusses the usefulness of cost analysis in the decision-making process, and asserts that the level of confidence and data quality of a cost analysis is proportional to the maturity of the technology system`s development life cycle. Suggestions of specific investment criteria or cost savings metrics that a FA might levy on individual research projects are made but the final form of these elements should be stipulated by the FA management based on their rationale for a successful technology development project. Also, cost savings deliverables for a single FA will be more detailed than those for management of the Office of Science and Technology (OST). For example, OST management may want an analysis of the overall return on investment for each FA, while the FA program manager may want this analysis and the return on investment metrics for each technology research activity the FA supports.

  13. The locative alternation: distinguishing linguistic processing cost from error signals in Broca's region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Wallentin, Mikkel

    2011-06-01

    The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is known to be involved in the processing of syntactic complexity, such as word order variation. It is also known to be involved in semantic interpretation in studies of various types of semantic and pragmatic anomalies. Across neuroimaging studies of language processing, two main approaches can be found, one that contrasts anomalous and well-formed words or sentences in order to yield an error response and one that contrasts two well-formed syntactic structures differing in complexity, investigating effects of increased integration costs. The present fMRI study aimed at disentangling the error signal from the processing cost signal in LIFG. To do so, we examined the so-called Locative Alternation, which involves the contrast between the Content-Locative construction, e.g. He sprays paint on the wall, and the Container-Locative construction, e.g. He sprays the wall with paint, which have been argued to differ in processing. By including asymmetric verbs, e.g. He blocks the road with rocks vs. *He blocks rocks on the road, we were able to study the contrast between well formed and anomalous constructions. Participants performed an acceptability judgment task during fMRI. The results showed that increased syntactic integration costs yielded both increased response time as well as LIFG activation. Anomalous sentences yielded low acceptability rating but no increase in response time, yet they also evoked increased LIFG activation. Thus, the processing cost and the error signal were found to be functionally independent, but spatially overlapping in the brain.

  14. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    ...s. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs...

  15. Perceptual grouping does not affect multi-attribute decision making if no processing costs are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt

    2015-05-01

    Adaptive strategy selection implies that a decision strategy is chosen based on its fit to the task and situation. However, other aspects, such as the way information is presented, can determine information search behavior; especially when the application of certain strategies over others is facilitated. But are such display effects on multi-attribute decisions also at work when the manipulation does not entail differential costs for different decision strategies? Three Mouselab experiments with hidden information and one eye tracking experiment with an open information board revealed that decision behavior is unaffected by purely perceptual manipulations of the display based on Gestalt principles; that is, based on manipulations that induce no noteworthy processing costs for different information search patterns. We discuss our results in the context of previous findings on display effects; specifically, how the combination of these findings and our results reveal the crucial role of differential processing costs for different strategies for the emergence of display effects. This finding describes a boundary condition of the commonly acknowledged influence of information displays and is in line with the ideas of adaptive strategy selection and cost-benefit tradeoffs.

  16. Continuous Process for Low-Cost, High-Quality YSZ Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott L. Swartz; Michael Beachy; Matthew M. Seabaugh

    2006-03-31

    This report describes results obtained by NexTech Materials, Ltd. in a project funded by DOE under the auspices of the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). The project focused on development of YSZ electrolyte powder synthesis technology that could be ''tailored'' to the process-specific needs of different solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) designs being developed by SECA's industry teams. The work in the project involved bench-scale processing work aimed at establishing a homogeneous precipitation process for producing YSZ electrolyte powder, scaleup of the process to 20-kilogram batch sizes, and evaluation of the YSZ powder products produced by the process. The developed process involved the steps of: (a) preparation of an aqueous hydrous oxide slurry via coprecipitation; (b) washing of residual salts from the precipitated hydroxide slurry followed by drying; (c) calcination of the dried powder to crystallize the YSZ powder and achieve desired surface area; and (d) milling of the calcined powder to targeted particle size. YSZ powders thus prepared were subjected to a comprehensive set of characterization and performance tests, including particle size distribution and surface area analyses, sintering performance studies, and ionic conductivity measurements. A number of different YSZ powder formulations were established, all of which had desirable performance attributes relative to commercially available YSZ powders. Powder characterization and performance metrics that were established at the onset of the project were met or exceeded. A manufacturing cost analysis was performed, and a manufactured cost of $27/kg was estimated based on this analysis. The analysis also allowed an identification of process refinements that would lead to even lower cost.

  17. Reliability improvements and cost reductions through the innovative use of materials and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.; Reid, D.; Chiovelli, S. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Syncrude has an annual maintenance budget of about $350 million. Most repairs are driven by material degradation which in most cases is predictable. One way to reduce repair costs is to address the damage mechanisms which result in the required maintenance. This can be done through emerging technologies such as: (1) bi-metallic and composite castings for wear resistance in double roll crushers and feeder breaker wear components, (2) new manufacturing processes for hydrotransport screens, (3) structural repairs through the use of fiber composite materials, (4) improved pump life through surface modifications and coatings, and (5) a user friendly materials database. A series of case studies are described to show how maintenance costs can be reduced and reliability improved through the innovative use of materials and processes. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 19 figs.

  18. A mechanism-denial study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation with reduced interference from mean state changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Mechanism-denial experiments using Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model are conducted to investigate the importance of extratropical and circumnavigating waves, wind-evaporation feedback, and radiative-convective feedback to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A common issue with mechanism-denial studies is the interference from mean state changes when processes are turned off in the model. Here time-invariant forcing and nudging on effective timescales longer than the intraseasonal timescale are implemented to maintain the mean state. The MJO activity remains largely unchanged with suppressed extratropical and circumnavigating waves when the mean state is maintained to be close to that of the control run, suggesting that excitation of MJO by extratropical and circumnavigating waves is not necessary for the existence of MJO in this model. It is also shown that the wind-evaporation feedback slows down eastward propagation of the MJO, and the radiative-convective feedback amplifies the MJO.

  19. Base Closures: Long and Costly Process of Reducing the Local National Work Force in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    from 4 months salary to 7 months.’ U.S. liability may also be affected by German labor law . For example, the German Termination Law could require...Agreement and German labor law can affect termination Complicated Process costs of local national employees. The Collective Tariff Agreement defines...Liability Agreement states that German labor laws are generally applicable to employment of local national civilians by the United States. The German Law on

  20. MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION PROCESSES IN AN ORGANIZATION ON THE BASIS OF COST APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Dokukina, I.

    2014-01-01

    The process of innovation management within the intensive economic development includes a number in a sequence of scientific, technological, industrial, institutional and commercial work, leading to an increase in its profits by increasing the productivity of labor and equipment, reducing production costs and improving product quality. In turn, technological innovation is an innovation in technology, improvements in technology, the use of fundamentally new technologies in the production of ma...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions and production cost of ethanol produced from biosyngas fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Poritosh; Dutta, Animesh; Deen, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Life cycle (LC) of ethanol has been evaluated to determine the environmental and economical viability of ethanol that was derived from biosyngas fermentation process (gasification-biosynthesis). Four scenarios [S1: untreated (raw), S2: treated (torrefied); S3: untreated-chemical looping gasification (CLG), S4: treated-CLG] were considered. The simulated biosyngas composition was used in this evaluation process. The GHG emissions and production cost varied from 1.19 to 1.32 kg-CO2 e/L and 0.78 to 0.90$/L, respectively, which were found to be dependent on the scenarios. The environmental and economical viability was found be improved when untreated feedstock was used instead of treated feedstock. Although the GHG emissions slightly reduced in the case of CLG process, production cost was nominally increased because of the cost incurred by the use of CaO. This study revealed that miscanthus is a promising feedstock for the ethanol industry, even if it is grown on marginal land, which can help abate GHG emissions.

  2. Full-solution processed flexible organic solar cells using low-cost printable copper electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kan; Zhen, Hongyu; Niu, Liyong; Fang, Xu; Zhang, Yaokang; Guo, Ruisheng; Yu, You; Yan, Feng; Li, Haifeng; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-11-12

    Full-solution-processed flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) are fabricated using low-cost and high-quality printable Cu electrodes, which achieve a power conversion efficiency as high as 2.77% and show remarkable stability upon 1000 bending cycles. This device performance is thought to be the best among all full-solution-processed OSCs reported in the literature using the same active materials. This printed Cu electrode is promising for application in roll-to-roll fabrication of flexible OSCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Low-cost digital image processing at the University of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in remote sensing at the University of Oklahoma involves two separate approaches and is dependent upon initial preprocessing of a LANDSAT computer compatible tape using software developed for an IBM 370/158 computer. In-house generated preprocessing algorithms permits students or researchers to select a subset of a LANDSAT scene for subsequent analysis using either general purpose statistical packages or color graphic image processing software developed for Apple II microcomputers. Procedures for preprocessing the data and image analysis using either of the two approaches for low-cost LANDSAT data processing are described.

  4. Optimal dividend policies with transaction costs for a class of jump-diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunting, Martin; Paulsen, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    his paper addresses the problem of finding an optimal dividend policy for a class of jump-diffusion processes. The jump component is a compound Poisson process with negative jumps, and the drift and diffusion components are assumed to satisfy some regularity and growth restrictions. Each dividend...... payment is changed by a fixed and a proportional cost, meaning that if ξ is paid out by the company, the shareholders receive kξ−K, where k and K are positive. The aim is to maximize expected discounted dividends until ruin. It is proved that when the jumps belong to a certain class of light...

  5. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task: A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Several major modifications were made to the design presented at the PDR. The frame was deleted in favor of a "frameless" design which will provide a substantially improved cell packing factor. Potential shaded cell damage resulting from operation into a short circuit can be eliminated by a change in the cell series/parallel electrical interconnect configuration. The baseline process sequence defined for the MEPSON was refined and equipment design and specification work was completed. SAMICS cost analysis work accelerated, format A's were prepared and computer simulations completed. Design work on the automated cell interconnect station was focused on bond technique selection experiments.

  6. The costs of seasonality and expansion in Ireland’s milk production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinschink K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland’s milk production sector relies on grass-based spring-calving systems, which facilitates cost advantages in milk production but entails a high degree of supply seasonality. Among other implications, this supply seasonality involves extra costs in the processing sector including elevated plant capacities and varying levels of resource utilisation throughout the year. If both the national raw milk production increased substantially (e.g. post-milk quota and a high degree of seasonality persisted, extra processing capacities would be required to cope with peak supplies. Alternatively, existing capacities could be used more efficiently by distributing the milk volume more evenly during the year. In this analysis, an optimisation model was applied to analyse the costs and economies arising to an average Irish milk-processing business due to changes to the monthly distribution of milk deliveries and/or the total annual milk pool. Of the situations examined, changing from a seasonal supply prior to expansion to a smoother pattern combined with an increased milk pool emerged as the most beneficial option to the processor because both the processor’s gross surplus and the marginal producer milk price increased. In practice, it may however be the case that the extra costs arising to the producer from smoothing the milk intake distribution exceed the processor’s benefit. The interlinkages between the stages of the dairy supply chain mean that nationally, the seasonality trade-offs are complex and equivocal. Moreover, the prospective financial implications of such strategies will be dependent on the evolving and uncertain nature of international dairy markets in the post-quota environment.

  7. Safety-cost trade-offs in medical device reuse: a Markov decision process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Thomas W

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare expenditures in the US are approaching 2 trillion dollars, and hospitals and other healthcare providers are under tremendous pressure to rein in costs. One cost-saving approach which is gaining popularity is the reuse of medical devices which were designed only for a single use. Device makers decry this practice as unsanitary and unsafe, but a growing number of third-party firms are willing to sterilize, refurbish, and/or remanufacture devices and resell them to hospitals at a fraction of the original price. Is this practice safe? Is reliance on single-use devices sustainable? A Markov decision process (MDP) model is formulated to study the trade-offs involved in these decisions. Several key parameters are examined: device costs, device failure probabilities, and failure penalty cost. For each of these parameters, expressions are developed which identify the indifference point between using new and reprocessed devices. The results can be used to inform the debate on the economic, ethical, legal, and environmental dimensions of this complex issue.

  8. Evidence-based care pathway for cellulitis improves process, clinical, and cost outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Peter M; Kukhareva, Polina V; Spivak, Emily Sydnor; Hopkins, Christy; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2015-12-01

    Cellulitis is a common infection with wide variation of clinical care. To implement an evidence-based care pathway and evaluate changes in process metrics, clinical outcomes, and cost for cellulitis. A retrospective observational pre-/postintervention study was performed. University of Utah Health Care, a 500-bed academic medical center in Salt Lake City, Utah. All patients 18 years or older admitted to the emergency department observation unit or hospital with a primary diagnosis of cellulitis. Development of an evidence-based care pathway for cellulitis embedded into the electronic medical record with education for all emergency and internal medicine physicians. Primary outcome of broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Secondary outcomes of computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging orders, length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission, and pharmacy, lab, imaging, and total facility costs. A total of 677 visits occurred, including 370 visits where order sets were used. Among all patients, there was a 59% decrease in the odds of ordering broad-spectrum antibiotics (P evidence-based care pathway for cellulitis improved care at an academic medical center by reducing broad-spectrum antibiotic use, pharmacy costs, and total facility costs without an adverse change in LOS or 30-day readmissions. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  9. Combined solar organic Rankine cycle with reverse osmosis desalination process: Energy, exergy, and cost evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafey, A.S.; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Engineering Science, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have unique properties that are well suited to solar power generation. In this work design and performance calculations are performed using MatLab/SimuLink computational environment. The cycle consists of thermal solar collectors (Flat Plate Solar Collector (FPC), or Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC), or Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)) for heat input, expansion turbine for work output, condenser unit for heat rejection, pump unit, and Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit. Reverse osmosis unit specifications used in this work is based on Sharm El-Shiekh RO desalination plant. Different working fluids such as: butane, isobutane, propane, R134a, R152a, R245ca, and R245fa are examined for FPC. R113, R123, hexane, and pentane are investigated for CPC. Dodecane, nonane, octane, and toluene are allocated for PTC. The proposed process units are modeled and show a good validity with literatures. Exergy and cost analysis are performed for saturation and superheated operating conditions. Exergy efficiency, total exergy destruction, thermal efficiency, and specific capital cost are evaluated for direct vapor generation (DVG) process. Toluene and Water achieved minimum results for total solar collector area, specific total cost and the rate of exergy destruction. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the cryogenic helium recovery process from natural gas based on flash separation by advanced exergy cost method - Linde modified process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarinasab, Hojat; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Parivazh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, exergy cost analysis method is used to evaluate a new cryogenic Helium recovery process from natural gas based on flash separation. Also advanced exergoeconomic analysis was made to determine the amount of avoidable exergy destruction cost of the process component. This proposed process can extract Helium from a feed gas stream with better efficiency than other existing processes. The results indicate that according to the avoidable endogenous exergy destruction cost C-4 (287.2/hr), C-5 (257.3/hr) and C-6 (181.6/hr) compressors should be modified first, respectively. According to the endogenous investment and exergy destruction cost, the interactions between the process components are not strong. In compressors, a high proportion of the cost of exergy destruction is avoidable while in these components, investment costs are unavoidable. In heat exchangers and air coolers, a high proportion of the exergy destruction cost is unavoidable while in these components, investment costs are avoidable. Finally, three different strategies are suggested to improve performance of each component, and the sensitivity of exergoeconomic factor and cost of exergy destruction to operating variables of the process are studied.

  11. Indirect Transportation Cost in the border crossing process: The United States–Mexico trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Obed Figueroa Ortiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a Social Accounting Matrix as database, a Computable General Equilibrium model is implemented in order to estimate the Indirect Transportations Costs (ITC present in the border crossing for the U.S.–Mexico bilateral trade. Here, an “iceberg–type” transportation function is assumed to determine the amount of loss that must be faced as a result of border crossing process through the ports of entry existing between the two countries. The study period covers annual data from 1995 to 2009 allowing the analysis of the trend of these costs considering the trade liberalisation that is experienced. Results show that the ITC have experienced a decrease of 12% during the period.Test

  12. Thermodynamics as a theory of decision-making with information processing costs

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2012-01-01

    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we propose an information-theoretic formalization of bounded rational decision-making where decision-makers trade off expected utility and information processing costs. As a result, the decision-making problem can be rephrased in terms of well-known concepts from thermodynamics and statistical physics, such that the same exponential family distributions that govern statistical ensembles can be used to describe the stochastic choice behavior of bounded decision-makers. This framework does not only explain some well-known experimental deviations from expected utility theory, but also reproduces psychophysical choice pattern captured by diffusion-to-bound models. Furthermore, this framework allows rederiving a number of decision-making schemes including risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) decision-making as well as more recent approximately optimal schemes that are...

  13. Managing hope, denial or temporal anomie? Informal cancer carers' accounts of spouses' cancer diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Rebecca Eileen

    2011-09-01

    Carers of cancer patients' emotional responses to cancer diagnoses have been a central focus within psycho-oncology. Some of this literature asserts that the maladaptive coping strategy denial is prevalent amongst carers. Using semi-structured, longitudinal interviews with 32 Australian Capital Territory carers of a spouse with cancer and an interactionist sociology of emotions framework to understanding their emotions, this study aimed to both contribute to the literature on cancer carers' coping strategies and provide a richer sociological depiction of carers' emotional reactions to a cancer diagnosis. The results raise questions about the value of singularly examining denial in cancer carers. Instead, these data suggest that carers use a range of coping strategies in the short-term and do emotion work to adapt to a challenged temporal orientation. The term temporal anomie is offered to describe carers' disrupted orientations in time and facilitate further discussion on the link between time and emotion work. Findings also show the importance of medical professionals' casting of the prognosis, from imminent death to certain future, to this temporal re-orientation and emotion work process. Instead of 'managing hope,' as much of the cancer communication literature describes it, findings suggest that physicians address cancer carers' and patients' temporal anomie. Future research might benefit from moving beyond individualistic conceptualisations of carers' emotions to include the cultural, temporal and interactionist influences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Destination Address Entropy based Detection and Traceback Approach against Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Bhandari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With all the brisk growth of web, distributed denial of service attacks are becoming the most serious issues in a data center scenarios where lot many servers are deployed. A Distributed Denial of Service attack gen-erates substantial packets by a large number of agents and can easily tire out the processing and communication resources of a victim within very less period of time. Defending DDoS problem involved several steps from detection, characterization and traceback in order todomitigation. The contribution of this research paper is a lot more. Firstly, flooding based DDoS problems is detected using obtained packets based entropy approach in a data center scenario. Secondly entropy based traceback method is applied to find the edge routers from where the whole attack traffic is entering into the ISP domain of the data center. Various simulation scenarios using NS2 are depicted in order to validate the proposed method using GT-ITM primarily based topology generators. Information theory based metrics like entropy; average entropy and differential entropy are used for this purpose.

  15. Uncertainties in early-stage capital cost estimation of process design – a case study on biorefinery design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is indeed found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable......Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which......) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design...

  16. Aqueous mineral carbonation as a possible CO2 sequestration process. Energetic efficiency and costs. Carbon dioxide, sequestration, mineral carbonation, energy consumption, costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Ruijg, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands); Witkamp, G.J. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    Aqueous mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology to reduce CO2 emissions. In this paper, the energy consumption and costs of this technology were assessed using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. The major energy-consuming process steps were found to be the grinding of the feedstock and the compression of the CO2. Within ranges of experimentally investigated process conditions, optimum energetic CO2 sequestration efficiencies were 79 and 74% for wollastonite and steel slag, respectively. It was shown that the energetic performance for both feedstock might be improved up to >90% by e.g. further grinding of the feedstock and reducing the amount of process water applied. At energetically optimized process conditions, a preliminary cost estimate was made of 93 and 66 euro/ton CO2 avoided for wollastonite and steel slag, respectively (sequestration costs excluding possible capture). For wollastonite, major costs were associated with the feedstock and the electricity consumption (51 and 20 euro/ton CO2 avoided, respectively). A sensitivity analysis showed that additional influential parameters with regard to the sequestration costs include the liquid-to-solid ratio applied in the carbonation reactor and the possible commercial value of the carbonated product.

  17. OSP(TM): Optimal Steel Making Process (Low cost steelmaking plus ecological benefits)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunsche, R. [EMPCO Ltd., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The Optimal Steelmaking Process (OSP)(TM) utilizes a non-electric multi-oxy-fuel powered metallurgical furnace. It is proposed that this furnace can replace the electric arc furnace for scrap recycling. The process OSP(TM) uses a novel scrap preheating apparatus, called ROTOBIN(TM) prior to feeding the scrap into the metallurgical furnace. ROTOBIN(TM) makes use of heat recovered from the hot waste gases emitted from the furnace exhaust. While doing so, it simultaneously reduces the contaminants from the scrap. Energy for the process is provided by multi-oxy fuel systems UNILANCE(TM) or COMBILANCE(TM). Benefits of the system in terms of reduced operating conversion costs, increased productivity, improved energy efficiency, improved safety and overall working environment, and reduced air and solid pollutants generation are described. 3 tabs.

  18. Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks with Dynamic Resource Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    digital commerce , but some researchers have also looked at the use of payment schemes as a means of mitigating denials of service. Fungible (or...transferable) digital payment schemes range from anonymous cash schemes such as David Chaum’s Digicash [Digi] [Cha83], to electronic checks and...Markup WGs, www.w3.org/ ECommerce /Micro-payments/ [Milli] Compaq Millicent, www.millicent.digital.com [Pay] PayPal, www.paypal.com [NS2] NS-2

  19. Operational Reconnaissance for the Anti-Access /Area Denial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    computational power equivalent to two supercomputers.20 This impressive analytical capacity gives the pilot a coherent, real -time understanding of...performing Operational Reconnaissance in Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) environments. Contested battlespace is radically different from the permissive...AD environment. After gaining access to this airspace, fighters can use a variety of sensors to provide commanders with a real -time understanding of

  20. SSHT Process-a Low Cost Solution for Low Sulfur and Low Aromatics Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiaodong; Nie Hong; Shi Yulin; Shi Yahua; Li Dadong

    2003-01-01

    The need for cleaner fuels has resulted in a continuing worldwide trend to reduce diesel sulfur and aromatics. There are many approaches to reducing sulfur and aromatics in diesel. Most of them have a common drawback of high cost because of adopting two stages of hydrotreating and using noble-metal catalyst, especially for reducing aromatics. The attempt to resolve this issue has led to the recent development of the Single Stage Hydrotreating (SSHT) process by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP), SINOPEC.The SSHT process is a single-stage hydrotreating technology for producing low sulfur and low aromatics diesel. The process uses one or two non-noble-metal catalysts system and operates at moderate pressure. When revamping an existing unit to meet low aromatics diesel specification, the only thing to do is to add a reactor or replace the existing reactor, In pilot plant tests, the SSHT technology has successfully treated SRGO (Straight Run Gas Oil), LCO (Light Cycle Oil) or the blend of them. It is shown that by using the SSHT process diesel with sulfur of 30 ppm and aromatics of 15 m% can be produced from Middle-East SRGO and diesel with aromatics content of 25 m% can be produced from cracked feed, such as FCC-LCO. High diesel yield and cetane number gain (from cracked feed stocks) give the SSHT technology a performance advantage compared to conventional hydrocracking and hydrotreating processes.The lower investment and operating cost is another advantage. The first commercial application of the SSHT technology has been in operation since September 2001.

  1. Investment Cost Model in Business Process Intelligence in Banking And Electricity Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Moro Sundjaja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher demand from the top management in measuring business process performance causes the incremental implementation of BPM and BI in the enterprise. The problem faced by top managements is how to integrate their data from all system used to support the business and process the data become information that able to support the decision-making processes. Our literature review elaborates several implementations of BPI on companies in Australia and Germany, challenges faced by organizations in developing BPI solution in their organizations and some cost model to calculate the investment of BPI solutions. This paper shows the success in BPI application of banks and assurance companies in German and electricity work in Australia aims to give a vision about the importance of BPI application. Many challenges in BPI application of companies in German and Australia, BPI solution, and data warehouse design development have been discussed to add insight in future BPI development. And the last is an explanation about how to analyze cost associated with BPI solution investment.

  2. Silicon carbide high performance optics: a cost-effective, flexible fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casstevens, John M.; Rashed, Abuagela; Plummer, Ronald; Bray, Don; Gates, Rob L.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Ferber, Matt K.; Kirkland, Tim

    2001-12-01

    Silicon carbide may well be the best known material for the manufacture of high performance optical components. This material offers many advantages over glasses and metals that have historically been used in high performance optical systems. A combination of extremely high specific stiffness (E/r), high thermal conductivity and outstanding dimensional stability make silicon carbide superior overall to beryllium and low-expansion glass ceramics. A major impediment to wide use of silicon carbide in optical systems has been the cost associated with preliminary shaping and final finishing of silicon carbide. Because silicon carbide is an extremely hard and strong material, precision machining can only be done with expensive diamond tooling on very stiff high quality machine tools. Near-net-shape slip casting of silicon carbide can greatly reduce the cost of silicon carbide mirror substrates but this process still requires significant diamond grinding of the cast components. The process described here begins by machining the component from all special type of graphite. This graphite can rapidly be machined with conventional multi-axis CNC machine tools to achieve any level of complexity and lightweighting required. The graphite is then directly converted completely to silicon carbide with very small and very predictable dimensional change. After conversion to silicon carbide the optical surface is coated with very fine grain CVD silicon carbide which is easily polished to extreme smoothness. Details of the fabrication process are described and photos and performance specifications of an eight-inch elliptical demonstration mirror are provided.

  3. Cost reduction in the production process using the ABC and Lean tools: Case Study in the refrigeration components industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi da Silva Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on production management with respect to operating costs that relate directly to the value of the product. For this study, three methods were used, ABC - Activity Based Costing, which provides accurate information about the knowledge of the real costs, VSM - Value Stream Mapping and Lean Manufacturing. The method adopted for this research was the case study. The study was conducted at a refrigeration components company in the Industrial Center of Manaus. The analyses and observations initially went through the process of mapping the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc.. After analysis it was possible to map the cost for each activity and finally calculate the cost of the product before and after the improvements resulting from the lean methodology. The results obtained in this study showed a 20% reduction in product costs resulting from operational improvements. The activity-based cost led to a discovery of the real costs of waste. The steps for this study include process mapping through the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc., establishing the cost driver for each activity, and finally calculating the cost of the product before and after the application of lean improvements. The paper was conducted through literature and descriptive review, and used a case study method. It describes the model that has been tested in a production line for a refrigeration components company from the Manaus Industrial Center, achieving a 20% reduction in product cost.

  4. Sustainability cost accounting - Part 2: a case study in the South African process industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available May 2007 Vol 18(1): 1-17 SUSTAINABILITY COST ACCOUNTING - PART 2: A CASE STUDY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PROCESS INDUSTRY A.C. Brent1,2, R.P.G. van Erck1 and C. Labuschagne1 1Chair of Life Cycle Engineering Department of Engineering and Technology... Framework, Directorate-General XII, Brussels. [6] Department of Minerals and Energy (DME). 2003. Data retrieved from http://www.dme.gov.za on 26 July 2003. [7] Van Erck, R.P.G. 2003. Monetary evaluation of business sustainability. Case study: GTL fuel...

  5. Systematic process synthesis and design methods for cost effective waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegler, L.T.; Grossman, I.E.; Westerberg, A.W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We present progress on our work to develop synthesis methods to aid in the design of cost effective approaches to waste minimization. Work continues to combine the approaches of Douglas and coworkers and of Grossmann and coworkers on a hierarchical approach where bounding information allows it to fit within a mixed integer programming approach. We continue work on the synthesis of reactors and of flexible separation processes. In the first instance, we strive for methods we can use to reduce the production of potential pollutants, while in the second we look for ways to recover and recycle solvents.

  6. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  7. Process Simulation and Cost Analysis for Removing Inorganics from Wood Chips using Combined Mechanical and Chemical Preprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongqiang; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert; Aston, John E.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Thompson, David N.

    2016-10-01

    Naturally occurring and introduced inorganic species (ash) in biomass feedstocks negatively impact thermochemical energy conversion processes such as pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, gasification and combustion to biopower. As such, it is desirable to better understand the cost:benefit ratios of various ash reduction processes. Here, a novel process simulation model was developed using AspenPlus to reduce the ash content of Loblolly logging residues using both air classification and a dilute-acid leaching process. For costing purposes, a throughput of 25 tons/hour was selected. At this scale, the process cost for a standalone air classification process was $3 per ton for a biomass feedstock. Ash reduction via dilute –acid leaching was simulated based on experimentally determined kinetics of ion diffusion at an acid concentration of 0.5% H2SO4 and temperature of 75°F. The total estimated processing cost for leaching at these conditions was approximately $14/ton of dry biomass. Sensitivity analysis of three parameters on mineral reduction in the leaching process revealed that increasing leaching temperature was not economically feasible, while it was viable to apply a longer retention time in leaching for higher ash removal or achieve a lower water content in final products with reasonable extra costs. In addition, scenarios combining air classification with leaching were examined. A whole process cost of approximately $16/ton of biomass at a biomass feedstock rate of 25 ton/hour considering a 9% of biomass classified as light fraction to be leached. The leaching operating costs constituted 75% of this amount, of which the heating costs of dryer was 44%. This suggests that the process costs would be substantially reduced if more efficient drying methods are applied in future.

  8. A Survey of Denial-of-Service and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks and Defenses in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Bonguet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a computing model that allows ubiquitous, convenient and on-demand access to a shared pool of highly configurable resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services. Denial-of-Service (DoS and Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS attacks are serious threats to the Cloud services’ availability due to numerous new vulnerabilities introduced by the nature of the Cloud, such as multi-tenancy and resource sharing. In this paper, new types of DoS and DDoS attacks in Cloud Computing are explored, especially the XML-DoS and HTTP-DoS attacks, and some possible detection and mitigation techniques are examined. This survey also provides an overview of the existing defense solutions and investigates the experiments and metrics that are usually designed and used to evaluate their performance, which is helpful for the future research in the domain.

  9. The Physical Flow of Materials and the Associated Costs in the Production Process of a Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holisz-Burzyńska, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of resources use is, in a large extent, determined by the organization of production flow and the way of their control. The optimization of materials flow in the production process requires the identification of physical flows of goods and it cost. In the article the physical flow process of materials stream in the production process in one of Polish rolling mill and also its logistics analysis and cost analysis are presented.

  10. Can postoperative process of care utilization or complication rates explain the volume-cost relationship for cancer surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vivian; Short, Marah N; Aloia, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    Past studies identify an association between provider volume and outcomes, but less is known about the volume-cost relationship for cancer surgery. We analyze the volume-cost relationship for 6 cancer operations and explore whether it is influenced by the occurrence of complications and/or utilization of processes of care. Medicare hospital and inpatient claims for the years 2005 through 2009 were analyzed for 6 cancer resections: colectomy, rectal resection, pulmonary lobectomy, pneumonectomy, esophagectomy, and pancreatic resection. Regressions were first estimated to quantify the association of provider volume with costs, excluding measures of complications and processes of care as explanatory variables. Next, these variables were added to the regressions to test whether they weakened any previously observed volume-cost relationship. Higher hospital volume is associated with lower patient costs for esophagectomy but not for other operations. Higher surgeon volume reduces costs for most procedures, but this result weakens when processes of care are added to the regressions. Processes of care that are frequently implemented in response to adverse events are associated with 14% to 34% higher costs. Utilization of these processes is more prevalent among low-volume versus high-volume surgeons. Processes of care implemented when complications occur explain much of the surgeon volume-cost relationship. Given that surgeon volume is readily observed, better outcomes and lower costs may be achieved by referring patients to high-volume surgeons. Increasing patient access to surgeons with lower rates of complications may be the most effective strategy for avoiding costly processes of care, controlling expenditure growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective processes in development: implications for the costs and benefits of phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2012-07-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a genotype to develop a phenotype appropriate to the local environment, allows organisms to cope with environmental variation and has implications for predicting how organisms will respond to rapid, human-induced environmental change. This review focuses on the importance of developmental selection, broadly defined as a developmental process that involves the sampling of a range of phenotypes and feedback from the environment reinforcing high-performing phenotypes. I hypothesize that understanding the degree to which developmental selection underlies plasticity is key to predicting the costs, benefits, and consequences of plasticity. First, I review examples that illustrate that elements of developmental selection are common across the development of many different traits, from physiology and immunity to circulation and behavior. Second, I argue that developmental selection, relative to a fixed strategy or determinate (switch) mechanisms of plasticity, increases the probability that an individual will develop a phenotype best matched to the local environment. However, the exploration and environmental feedback associated with developmental selection is costly in terms of time, energy, and predation risk, resulting in major changes in life history such as increased duration of development and greater investment in individual offspring. Third, I discuss implications of developmental selection as a mechanism of plasticity, from predicting adaptive responses to novel environments to understanding conditions under which genetic assimilation may fuel diversification. Finally, I outline exciting areas of future research, in particular exploring costs of selective processes in the development of traits outside of behavior and modeling developmental selection and evolution in novel environments.

  12. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  13. \\title{Low-Cost Bump-Bonding Processes for High Energy Physics Pixel Detectors}

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Colombo, Fabio; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Husemann, Ulrich; Kudella, Simon; Weber, M

    2015-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area at reasonable costs are required. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of the production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin ($15\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to $30\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$ without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bu...

  14. A Low-Cost System Based on Image Analysis for Monitoring the Crystal Growth Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Venâncio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many techniques are used to monitor one or more of the phenomena involved in the crystallization process. One of the challenges in crystal growth monitoring is finding techniques that allow direct interpretation of the data. The present study used a low-cost system, composed of a commercial webcam and a simple white LED (Light Emitting Diode illuminator, to follow the calcium carbonate crystal growth process. The experiments were followed with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM, a common technique for obtaining information about the formation and growth of crystals. The images obtained in real time were treated with the red, blue, and green (RGB system. The results showed a qualitative response of the system to crystal formation and growth processes, as there was an observed decrease in the signal as the growth process occurred. Control of the crystal growth was managed by increasing the viscosity of the test solution with the addition of monoethylene glycol (MEG at 30% and 70% in a mass to mass relationship, providing different profiles of the RGB average curves. The decrease in the average RGB value became slower as the concentration of MEG was increased; this reflected a lag in the growth process that was proven by the FBRM.

  15. A comparison of Danish listeners’ processing cost in judging the truth value of Norwegian, Swedish, and English sentences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Askjær-Jørgensen, Trine

    The present study used a sentence verification task to assess the processing cost involved in native Danish listeners’ attempts to comprehend true/false statements spoken in Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and English. Three groups of native Danish listeners heard 40 sentences each which were...... translation equivalents, and assessed the truth value of these statements. Group 1 heard sentences in Danish and Norwegian, Group 2 in Danish and Swedish, and Group 3 in Danish and English. Response time and proportion of correct responses were used as indices of processing cost. Both measures indicate...... that the processing cost for native Danish listeners in comprehending Danish and English statements is equivalent, whereas Norwegian and Swedish statements incur a much higher cost, both in terms of response time and correct assessments. The results are discussed with regard to the costs of inter...

  16. Knowledge of denial and reinforcement practices an opportunity for a different pedagogy at school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernell Villa Amaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This text is the result of a research process that addresses the knowledge of denial and the reinforcement practices within a school-community relation, which is developed from the opportunity provided by pedagogy, assumed as part of a different perspective. It is based on the need to generate an understanding-action from identifying issues affecting the school and the community. The investigation emerges from a flexible design, where the process is permanently approached to. The methodological plan is defined from the qualitative research that seeks to question the culture of actors involved, as a semiotic text; in this case, the inquiry methodology is developed parting from the ethnographic and the agreed narrative research that places the action in a horizontal relation.  

  17. Uncertainties in Early Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Process Design – A case study on biorefinery design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan eSin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early stage design is a challenging task. This is especially important in biorefinery research, where available information and experiences with new technologies is limited. A systematic methodology for uncertainty analysis of cost data is proposed that employs (a Bootstrapping as a regression method when cost data is available and (b the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data is not available. Four well-known models for early stage cost estimation are reviewed an analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early stage process design is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable robust decision making under uncertainties. One of the results using an order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with economic risks of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a due to uncertainties in cost estimations, respectively.

  18. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  19. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  20. Design of Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin

    2012-06-30

    The major goal of the project is to design and optimize a bench-scale process for novel silicone CO{sub 2}-capture solvents and establish scalability and potential for commercialization of post-combustion capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. This system should be capable of 90% capture efficiency and demonstrate that less than 35% increase in the cost of energy services can be achieved upon scale-up. Experiments were conducted to obtain data required for design of the major unit operations. The bench-scale system design has been completed, including sizing of major unit operations and the development of a detailed Process and Instrument Diagram (P&ID). The system has been designed to be able to operate over a wide range of process conditions so that the effect of various process variables on performance can be determined. To facilitate flexibility in operation, the absorption column has been designed in a modular manner, so that the height of the column can be varied. The desorber has also been designed to allow for a range of residence times, temperatures, and pressures. The system will be fabricated at Techniserv Inc.

  1. Streamlining the process: A strategy for making NEPA work better and cost less

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P.; Hansen, J.D. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States); Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-05-01

    When the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was enacted in 1969, neither Congress nor the Federal Agencies affected anticipated that implementation of the NEPA process would result in the intolerable delays, inefficiencies, duplication of effort, commitments of excessive financial and personnel resources, and bureaucratic gridlock that have become institutionalized. The 1975 Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, which were intended to make the NEPA process more efficient and more useful to decision makers and the public, have either been largely ignored or unintentionally subverted. Agency policy mandates, like those of former Secretary of Energy Hazel R. O`Leary, to ``make NEPA work better and cost less`` have, so far, been disappointingly ineffectual. Federal Agencies have reached the point where almost every constituent of the NEPA process must be subjected to crisis management. This paper focuses on a ten-point strategy for streamlining the NEPA process in order to achieve the Act`s objectives while easing the considerable burden on agencies, the public, and the judicial system. How the ten points are timed and implemented is critical to any successful streamlining.

  2. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available for the successful implementation of the manufacturing process (excludes auxiliary automation equipment such as robotics, forklifts, external PLCs, etc.). This variable is represented by RAux and determines the fraction of the total costs for all the auxiliary...

  3. VA Construction: Improved Processes Needed to Monitor Contract Modifications, Develop Schedules, and Estimate Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    that designs should avoid costly and unwarranted architectural and engineering embellishments and unnecessary construction and maintenance expenses ...relevant data taken from the existing contract, remaining construction work, and cost information from other hospitals . Credible A cost estimate is...Office of Management and Budget Circular A-11 states that the cost of a capital asset such as a new hospital is its full life-cycle cost, which

  4. 78 FR 21352 - Update on Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... on Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY... reimbursement for cleanup work performed by licensees at eligible uranium and thorium processing sites in... licensees of eligible uranium and thorium processing sites. If licensees submit claims in FY 2013,...

  5. Integrating Efficiency of Industry Processes and Practices Alongside Technology Effectiveness in Space Transportation Cost Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents past and current work in dealing with indirect industry and NASA costs when providing cost estimation or analysis for NASA projects and programs. Indirect costs, when defined as those costs in a project removed from the actual hardware or software hands-on labor; makes up most of the costs of today's complex large scale NASA space/industry projects. This appears to be the case across phases from research into development into production and into the operation of the system. Space transportation is the case of interest here. Modeling and cost estimation as a process rather than a product will be emphasized. Analysis as a series of belief systems in play among decision makers and decision factors will also be emphasized to provide context.

  6. Low-cost, solution processable carbon nanotube supercapacitors and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Suvi; Tuukkanen, Sampo; Pörhönen, Juho; Moilanen, Pasi; Virtanen, Jorma; Honkanen, Mari; Lupo, Donald

    2014-06-01

    We report ecological and low-cost carbon nanotube (CNT) supercapacitors fabricated using a simple, scalable solution processing method, where the use of a highly porous and electrically conductive active material eliminates the need for a current collector. Electrodes were fabricated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate from a printable multi-wall CNT ink, where the CNTs are solubilized in water using xylan as a dispersion agent. The dispersion method facilitates a very high concentration of CNTs in the ink. Supercapacitors were assembled using a paper separator and an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and the devices were characterized with a galvanostatic discharge method defined by an industrial standard. The capacitance of the 2 cm^2 devices was 6 mF/cm^2 (2.3 F/g) and equivalent series resistance 80 Ω . Low-cost supercapacitors fabricated from safe and environmentally friendly materials have potential applications as energy storage devices in ubiquitous and autonomous intelligence as well as in disposable low-end products.

  7. A new low-cost ultrasonic and meteorological sensor for observation of snow hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, M.; Pohl, S.; Garvelmann, J.; Wawerla, J.

    2012-04-01

    The high spatial and temporal dynamics of snow accumulation and melt is generally difficult to capture. Instrumental methods have been developed to capture snow height in combination with meteorological variables, however, these stations are usually quite expensive and only few locations can be instrumented. In order to capture the dynamics due to different elevations, aspects, vegetation cover, and snow redistribution, a low-cost station network is needed that focuses on snow processes and can be set up in rugged environments. We developed a digital-based sensor with low power consumption that can be easily deployed and can collect data up to 6 month. Data collected by the sensors include: snow height, air temperature and humidity, surface (snow) temperature, liquid precipitation, global radiation, and wind speed. In addition, the sensor can be upgraded to take a digital picture of the environment for time-lapse photography. The bus system of the sensor is built to allow GPSR modem access in future. We successfully compared the system with standard, high-cost meteorological measurements and already deployed over 50 stations in three watersheds in the Black Forest, Germany. We also successfully use the sensor for water level measurements in streams and other applications are certainly possible.

  8. SINGLE MACHINE SCHEDULING WITH CONTROLLABLE PROCESSING TIMES AND COMPRESSION COSTS (Part Ⅱ Heuristics for the General Case)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Foulds,L.R.; TangGuochun

    1999-01-01

    A single machine scheduling problem with controllable processing times and compression costs is considered. The objective is to find an optimal sequence to minimize the cost ofcompletion times and the cost of compression. The complexity of this problem is still unknown.In Part Ⅱ of this paper,the authors have considered a special case where the compression timesand the compression costs are equal among all jobs. Such a problem appears polynomiafiy solvable by developing an O(n2) algorithm. In this part(Part Ⅱ ),a general case where the controllable processing times and the compression costs are not equal is discussed. Authors proposehere two heuristics with the first based on some previous work and the second based on the algorithm developed in Part Ⅱ . Computational results are presented to show the efficiency and therobustness of these heuristics.

  9. Patients' Preferences for Outcome, Process and Cost Attributes in Cancer Treatment: A Systematic Review of Discrete Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Daniela R; Danner, Marion; Vennedey, Vera; Civello, Daniele; Evers, Silvia M; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2017-03-31

    As several studies have been conducted to elicit patients' preferences for cancer treatment, it is important to provide an overview and synthesis of these studies. This study aimed to systematically review discrete choice experiments (DCEs) about patients' preferences for cancer treatment and assessed the relative importance of outcome, process and cost attributes. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE to identify all DCEs investigating patients' preferences for cancer treatment between January 2010 and April 2016. Data were extracted using a predefined extraction sheet, and a reporting quality assessment was applied to all studies. Attributes were classified into outcome, process and cost attributes, and their relative importance was assessed. A total of 28 DCEs were identified. More than half of the studies (56%) received an aggregate score lower than 4 on the PREFS (Purpose, Respondents, Explanation, Findings, Significance) 5-point scale. Most attributes were related to outcome (70%), followed by process (25%) and cost (5%). Outcome attributes were most often significant (81%), followed by process (73%) and cost (67%). The relative importance of outcome attributes was ranked highest in 82% of the cases where it was included, followed by cost (43%) and process (12%). This systematic review suggests that attributes related to cancer treatment outcomes are the most important for patients. Process and cost attributes were less often included in studies but were still (but less) important to patients in most studies. Clinicians and decision makers should be aware that attribute importance might be influenced by level selection for that attribute.

  10. Hate in the Classroom: Free Expression, Holocaust Denial, and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with a specific type of hate speech: Holocaust denial. It is concerned with the expression of this idea by educators. Should we allow Holocaust deniers to teach in schools? This article attempts to answer this question through a close look at the Canadian experience. First, I will establish that Holocaust denial is a…

  11. 22 CFR 214.51 - Administrative review of denial for public access to records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative review of denial for public access to records. 214.51 Section 214.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Administrative Remedies § 214.51 Administrative review of denial for public access to...

  12. 42 CFR 442.118 - Denial of payments for new admissions to an ICF/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of payments for new admissions to an ICF/MR... of payments for new admissions to an ICF/MR. (a) Basis for denial of payments. The Medicaid agency may deny payment for new admissions to an ICF/MR that no longer meets the applicable conditions of...

  13. Cognitive dissonance as an explanation of the genesis, evolution and persistence of Thabo Mbeki's HIV denialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris

    2008-05-01

    The ongoing damage that the newer forms of HIV denialism are visiting upon our country is evidenced by the recent firing of Nozizwe Madlala-Routledge, the South African Deputy Minister of Health. It is widely believed that the underlying reason for her dismissal was her support of orthodox HIV treatment and prevention strategies and her disdain for HIV denialism. This paper seeks to understand the origins, spread and metamorphosis of President Thabo Mbeki's HIV denialism in South Africa. Using the theory of cognitive dissonance, I argue that, given the structural beliefs of the African National Congress (ANC) and the pattern of emergence of HIV in the 1980s, a degree of scepticism around the putative science of HIV was probable in ANC circles. On assuming the Presidency in 1999, Mbeki tapped into this scepticism to formulate his initial biological version of HIV denialism, which claimed that 'a virus can't cause a syndrome.' The steady erosion of support for this flagrant HIV denialism, together with the rise of neoliberal thinking in the ANC, would lead to the evolution of this biological denialism into a form of treatment denialism. This ideology argued against the widespread provision and use of antiretroviral treatment. Empirical evidence is presented to demonstrate the extent to which ongoing HIV denial in the general population is continuing to fuel the spread of HIV.

  14. 77 FR 56701 - Morgan Olson, LLC, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Administration [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0028; Notice 2] Morgan Olson, LLC, Denial of Petition for Decision of... Petition Denial. SUMMARY: Morgan Olson, LLC (Morgan Olson),\\1\\ has determined that certain model year 2009, 2010, and 2011 Morgan Olson walk-in van-type trucks having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) over...

  15. 26 CFR 1.585-5 - Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.585-5 Denial of bad debt... other section for an addition to a reserve for bad debts. However, for these years, except as...

  16. Hate in the Classroom: Free Expression, Holocaust Denial, and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with a specific type of hate speech: Holocaust denial. It is concerned with the expression of this idea by educators. Should we allow Holocaust deniers to teach in schools? This article attempts to answer this question through a close look at the Canadian experience. First, I will establish that Holocaust denial is a…

  17. 34 CFR 5.80 - Review of denial of a record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of denial of a record. 5.80 Section 5.80 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC PURSUANT TO PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Administrative Review § 5.80 Review of denial of a...

  18. ANOMALY BASED APPROACH FOR DEFENDING DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACK IN WEB TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramkumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS attacks has become a great threat for internet security. This attackis an advanced form of DOS (Denial of Service attack. This attack changes its whole origin ID and it gives trouble to find it out and it has become a serious threat for internet security.

  19. 19 CFR 181.71 - Denial of preferential tariff treatment dependent on origin verification and determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Origin Verifications and Determinations § 181.71 Denial of preferential tariff... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Denial of preferential tariff treatment dependent...) of this part, Customs shall deny preferential tariff treatment on an imported good, or shall deny...

  20. 42 CFR 431.223 - Denial or dismissal of request for a hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial or dismissal of request for a hearing. 431.223 Section 431.223 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Fair Hearings for Applicants and Recipients Right to Hearing § 431.223 Denial or dismissal of...

  1. Imaging on a Shoestring: Cost-Effective Technologies for Probing Vadose Zone Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkhill, C.; Bridge, J. W.; Barns, G.; Fraser, R.; Romero-Gonzalez, M.; Wilson, R.; Banwart, S.

    2010-12-01

    Key barriers to the widespread uptake of imaging technology for high spatial resolution monitoring of porous media systems are cost and accessibility. X-ray tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gamma and neutron radiography require highly specialised equipment, controlled laboratory environments and/or access to large synchrotron facilities. Here we present results from visible light, fluorescence and autoradiographic imaging techniques developed at low cost and applied in standard analytical laboratories, adapted where necessary at minimal capital expense. UV-visible time lapse fluorescence imaging (UV-vis TLFI) in a transparent thin bed chamber enabled microspheres labelled with fluorescent dye and a conservative fluorophore solute (disodium fluorescein) to be measured simultaneously in saturated, partially-saturated and actively draining quartz sand to elucidate empirical values for colloid transport and deposition parameters distributed throughout the flow field, independently of theoretical approximations. Key results include the first experimental quantification of the effects of ionic strength and air-water interfacial area on colloid deposition above a capillary fringe, and the first direct observations of particle mobilisation and redeposition by moving saturation gradients during drainage. UV-vis imaging was also used to study biodegradation and reactive transport in a variety of saturated conditions, applying fluorescence as a probe for oxygen and nitrate concentration gradients, pH, solute transport parameters, reduction of uranium, and mapping of two-dimensional flow fields around a model dipole flow borehole system to validate numerical models. Costs are low: LED excitation sources (< US 50), flow chambers (US 200) and detectors (although a complete scientific-grade CCD set-up costs around US$ 8000, robust datasets can be obtained using a commercial digital SLR camera) mean that set-ups can be flexible to meet changing experimental

  2. Economic evaluation of a combined photo-Fenton/MBR process using pesticides as model pollutant. Factors affecting costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Román Sánchez, Isabel María; Carra, Irene; Cabrera Reina, Alejandro; Casas López, José Luis; Malato, Sixto

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to carry out an economic assessment on a solar photo-Fenton/MBR combined process to treat industrial ecotoxic wastewater. This study focuses on the impact of the contamination present in wastewater, the photochemical oxidation, the use of an MBR as biological process and the plant size on operating and amortization costs. As example of ecotoxic pollutant, a mixture of five commercial pesticides commonly used in the Mediterranean area has been used, ranging from 500 mg/L to 50mg/L, expressed as dissolved organic carbon concentration. The economic evaluation shows that (i) the increase in pollution load does not always involve an increase in photo-Fenton costs because they also depend on organic matter mineralization; (ii) the use of an MBR process permits lower photochemical oxidation requirements than other biological treatments, resulting in approximately 20% photo-Fenton cost reduction for highly polluted wastewater; (iii) when pollution load decreases, the contribution of reactant consumption to the photo-Fenton process costs increase with regard to amortization costs; (iv) 30% total cost reduction can be gained treating higher daily volumes, obtaining competitive costs that vary from 1.1-1.9 €/m(3), depending on the pollution load.

  3. Investigation of a Solution-Processable, Nonspecific Surface Modifier for Low Cost, High Work Function Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Allison C; Wang, Congcong; Pfattner, Raphael; Kong, Desheng; Zhou, Yan; Ecker, Ben; Gao, Yongli; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-08-03

    We demonstrate the ability of the highly fluorinated, chemically inert copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) to significantly increase the work function of a variety of common electrode materials. The work function change is hypothesized to occur via physisorption of the polymer layer and formation of a surface dipole at the polymer/conductor interface. When incorporated into organic solar cells, an interlayer of PVDF-HFP at an Ag anode increases the open circuit voltage by 0.4 eV and improves device power conversion efficiency by approximately an order of magnitude relative to Ag alone. Solution-processable in air, PVDF-HFP thin films provide one possible route toward achieving low cost, nonreactive, high work function electrodes.

  4. Optimized SU-8 Processing for Low-Cost Microstructures Fabrication without Cleanroom Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia C. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study and optimization of epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8 microstructures through a low-cost process and without the need for cleanroom facility is presented in this paper. It is demonstrated that the Ultraviolet Rays (UV exposure equipment, commonly used in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB industry, can replace the more expensive and less available equipment, as the Mask Aligner that has been used in the last 15 years for SU-8 patterning. Moreover, high transparency masks, printed in a photomask, are used, instead of expensive chromium masks. The fabrication of well-defined SU-8 microstructures with aspect ratios more than 20 is successfully demonstrated with those facilities. The viability of using the gray-scale technology in the photomasks for the fabrication of 3D microstructures is also reported. Moreover, SU-8 microstructures for different applications are shown throughout the paper.

  5. 42 CFR 442.119 - Duration of denial of payments and subsequent termination of an ICF/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of denial of payments and subsequent termination of an ICF/MR. 442.119 Section 442.119 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... § 442.119 Duration of denial of payments and subsequent termination of an ICF/MR. (a) Period of denial...

  6. Preparation of wafer-level glass cavities by a low-cost chemical foaming process (CFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jintang; Chen, Boyin; Lin, Wei; Wong, Ching-Ping; Zhang, Di; Xu, Chao; Liu, Junwen; Huang, Qing-An

    2011-04-21

    A novel foaming process-chemical foaming process (CFP)-using foaming agents to fabricate wafer-level micro glass cavities including channels and bubbles was investigated. The process consists of the following steps sequentially: (1) shallow cavities were fabricated by a wet etching on a silicon wafer; (2) powders of a proper foaming agent were placed in a silicon cavity, named 'mother cavity', on the etched silicon surface; (3) the silicon cavities were sealed with a glass wafer by anodic bonding; (4) the bonded wafers were heated to above the softening point of the glass, and baked for several minutes, when the gas released by the decomposition of the foaming agent in the 'mother cavity' went into the other sealed interconnected silicon cavities to foam the softened glass into cylindrical channels named 'daughter channels', or spherical bubbles named 'son bubbles'. Results showed that wafer-level micro glass cavities with smooth wall surfaces were achieved successfully without contamination by the CFP. A model for the CFP was proposed to predict the final shape of the glass cavity. Experimental results corresponded with model predictions. The CFP provides a low-cost avenue to preparation of micro glass cavities of high quality for applications such as micro-reactors, micro total analysis systems (μTAS), analytical and bio-analytical applications, and MEMS packaging.

  7. New is not always costly: Evidence from online processing of topic and contrast in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luming eWang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two visual ERP experiments were conducted to investigate topic and contrast assigned by various cues such as discourse context, sentential position and marker during referential processing in Japanese. Experiment 1 showed that there was no N400-difference for new vs. given noun phrases (NPs when the new NP was expected (contrastively focused based on its preceding context and sentential position. Experiment 2 further revealed that the N400 for new NPs can be modulated by the NP’s contrastive meaning (exhausitivity induced from the marker. Both experiments also showed that new NPs engendered an increased Late Positivity. The reduced N400 for new vs. given supports an expectation-based linking mechanism. In addition, costs that were consistently observed for new vs. given entities emerged in a subsequent process, in which the new NP's occurrence requires updating and correcting of the discourse representation built so far, which is indexed by an enhanced Late Positivity. We argue that the overall data pattern should be best explained within a multi-stream model of discourse processing.

  8. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin; Hancu, Dan; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    This report presents system and economicanalysis for a carbon-capture unit which uses an aminosilicone-based solvent for CO₂ capture in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The aminosilicone solvent is a 60/40 wt/wt mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. Forcomparison purposes, the report also shows results for a carbon-capture unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). The first year removal cost of CO₂ for the aminosilicone-based carbon-capture process is $46.04/ton of CO₂ as compared to $60.25/ton of CO₂ when MEA is used. The aminosilicone- based process has <77% of the CAPEX of a system using MEA solvent. The lower CAPEX is due to several factors, including the higher working capacity of the aminosilicone solvent compared the MEA, which reduces the solvent flow rate required, reducing equipment sizes. If it is determined that carbon steel can be used in the rich-lean heat exchanger in the carbon capture unit, the first year removal cost of CO₂ decreases to $44.12/ton. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a higherthermal stability than MEA, allowing desorption to be conducted at higher temperatures and pressures, decreasing the number of compressor stages needed. The aminosilicone-based solvent also has a lowervapor pressure, allowing the desorption to be conducted in a continuous-stirred tank reactor versus a more expensive packed column. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a lowerheat capacity, which decreases the heat load on the desorber. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages overconventional systems using MEA.

  9. Reducing of thermal power energy-intensive pro-cesses costs in the mixed fodders technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approach to the creation of energy-efficient processes with direct involvement in the produc-tion process of heat pump technology for the preparation of of energy resources in obtaining of mixed fodders of the given particle size distribution was formed. Completed experimental and analytical studies paved the way for the development of energy efficient technolo-gies of mixed fodders with a vapor compression connection (VCHP and steam ejector (SEHP heat pumps on the closed thermody-namic schemes. It was shown that the strategy of the operational management of process parameters in the allowable technological properties of the resulting mixed fodder production does not allow a compromise between the conflicting technical and economic param-eters and let the main technical contradiction between productivity and power consumption. The control problem becomes much more complicated when there is no practical possibility of a detailed description of thermal processes occurring in the closed thermodynamic recycles based on the phenomenological laws of thermodynamics considering a balance of material and energy flows in the technologi-cal system. There is a need for adaptive control systems based on the extreme characteristics of the controlled object. The adaptation effect is achieved by obtaining information about the processes occurring in the conditions of technological line of mixed fodders pro-duction equalized particle size distribution, which allows to generate a control signal for the extreme value of the objective function. The scheme of automatic optimization ensuring continuous monitoring of the minimum value of the specific heat energy costs is proposed. It provides optimal consumption of the starting loose mixed fodder and rational strain on the line equipment.

  10. Adventures in Private Cloud: Balancing Cost and Capability at the CloudSat Data Processing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, P.; Finley, S.; Fluke, J.; Haynes, J. M.; Cronk, H. Q.; Miller, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Since the beginning of the CloudSat Mission in 2006, The CloudSat Data Processing Center (DPC) at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) has been ingesting data from the satellite and other A-Train sensors, producing data products, and distributing them to researchers around the world. The computing infrastructure was specifically designed to fulfill the requirements as specified at the beginning of what nominally was a two-year mission. The environment consisted of servers dedicated to specific processing tasks in a rigid workflow to generate the required products. To the benefit of science and with credit to the mission engineers, CloudSat has lasted well beyond its planned lifetime and is still collecting data ten years later. Over that period requirements of the data processing system have greatly expanded and opportunities for providing value-added services have presented themselves. But while demands on the system have increased, the initial design allowed for very little expansion in terms of scalability and flexibility. The design did change to include virtual machine processing nodes and distributed workflows but infrastructure management was still a time consuming task when system modification was required to run new tests or implement new processes. To address the scalability, flexibility, and manageability of the system Cloud computing methods and technologies are now being employed. The use of a public cloud like Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud or Google Compute Engine was considered but, among other issues, data transfer and storage cost becomes a problem especially when demand fluctuates as a result of reprocessing and the introduction of new products and services. Instead, the existing system was converted to an on premises private Cloud using the OpenStack computing platform and Ceph software defined storage to reap the benefits of the Cloud computing paradigm. This work details the decisions that were made, the benefits that

  11. The denial of death thesis: sociological critique and implications for palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Camilla; Rodin, Gary

    2004-03-01

    It has become commonplace to say that contemporary western society is 'death-denying'. This characterization, which sociologists have termed the 'denial of death thesis', first arose in the social science, psychological and clinical medical literature in the period between 1955 and 1985. During the same time period, the hospice and palliative care movements were developing and in part directed themselves against the perceived cultural denial of death in western society. While the denial of death has been taken for granted by the lay public as well as by clinicians, in the sociological literature it has been increasingly questioned. In this paper we use sociological critiques of the denial of death thesis to raise critical questions about the theory and practice of contemporary palliative care. In particular, we argue that the emphasis of palliative care should not be on extinguishing the denial of death but on the relief of suffering.

  12. Denial and immunity to change: it starts with the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2009-01-01

    It is common for leaders to be confronted with resistance that makes forward progress impossible. The easiest action for the leader is to label the resistance as denial. Labeling behaviors that do not agree with expectations is one way leaders keep their immune system intact and fight off valuable feedback. The enlightened, well-developed leader is aware of her/his own immune system and can monitor the filtering system effectively. We have many opportunities to help organizations and leaders think through the roadmap that makes our immune systems switch off when new, helpful information is trying to enter.

  13. Formalized Description of Distributed Denial of Service Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彦辉; 马锐; 刘玉树

    2004-01-01

    The distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is one of the dangers in intrusion modes. It's difficult to defense and can cause serious damage to the system. Based on a careful study of the attack principles and characteristics, an object-oriented formalized description is presented, which contains a three-level framework and offers full specifications of all kinds of DDoS modes and their features and the relations between one another. Its greatest merit lies in that it contributes to analyzing, checking and judging DDoS. Now this formalized description has been used in a special IDS and it works very effectively.

  14. The Consent Solution to Punishment and the Explicit Denial Objection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Imbrisevic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, David Boonin has put forward several objections to Carlos S. Nino's 'Consensual Theory of Punishment'. In this paper I will defend Nino against the 'explicit denial objection'. I will discuss whether Boonin's interpretation of Nino as a tacit consent theorist is right. I will argue that the offender's consent is neither tacit nor express, but a special category of implicit consent. Further, for Nino the legal-normative consequences of an act (of crime are 'irrevocable', i.e. one cannot (expressly and successfully deny liability to them. I will suggest an explanation for Nino's irrevocability claim.

  15. Measuring the value of process improvement initiatives in a preoperative assessment center using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katy E; Albright, Heidi W; Frenzel, John C; Incalcaterra, James R; Rubio, Augustin C; Jones, Jessica F; Feeley, Thomas W

    2013-12-01

    The value and impact of process improvement initiatives are difficult to quantify. We describe the use of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) in a clinical setting to quantify the value of process improvements in terms of cost, time and personnel resources. Difficulty in identifying and measuring the cost savings of process improvement initiatives in a Preoperative Assessment Center (PAC). Use TDABC to measure the value of process improvement initiatives that reduce the costs of performing a preoperative assessment while maintaining the quality of the assessment. Apply the principles of TDABC in a PAC to measure the value, from baseline, of two phases of performance improvement initiatives and determine the impact of each implementation in terms of cost, time and efficiency. Through two rounds of performance improvements, we quantified an overall reduction in time spent by patient and personnel of 33% that resulted in a 46% reduction in the costs of providing care in the center. The performance improvements resulted in a 17% decrease in the total number of full time equivalents (FTE's) needed to staff the center and a 19% increase in the numbers of patients assessed in the center. Quality of care, as assessed by the rate of cancellations on the day of surgery, was not adversely impacted by the process improvements. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    program outcomes— measured by cost growth, schedule slips, and performance shortfalls—to be better than what was achieved during the...which cost growth is measured . See Appendix A of McNicol et al. (2016) for an explanation of the basis of the boundaries separating the successive...acquisition regimes in bust climates. The measure of cost growth used is Average Procurement Unit Cost (APUC). “APUC growth” means growth in APUC in

  17. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  18. Profiling stainless steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions, hexavalent chromium emissions and operating costs in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Siert, Arlen; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T

    2016-01-01

    Nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for stainless steel were assessed for fume generation rates, fume generation rates per g of electrode consumed, and emission rates for hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Elemental manganese, nickel, chromium, iron emissions per unit length of weld, and labor plus consumables costs were similarly measured. Flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc (SMAW) processes were also studied. The objective was to identify the best welding processes for reducing workplace exposures, and estimate costs for all processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, weighed, recovered, and analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for metals, and by ion chromatography for Cr(6+). GMAW processes used were Surface Tension Transfer, Regulated Metal Deposition, Cold Metal Transfer, short-circuit, axial spray, and pulsed spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding; SMAW used E308 rods. Costs were estimated as dollars per m length of a ¼ in (6.3 mm) thick horizontal butt weld; equipment costs were estimated as ratios of new equipment costs to a 250 ampere capacity SMAW welding machine. Results indicate a broad range of fume emission factors for the processes studied. Fume emission rates per g of electrode were lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed-spray mode (0.2 mg/g), and highest for SMAW (8 mg fume/g electrode). Emission rates of Cr(6+) ranged from 50-7800 µg/min, and Cr(6+) generation rates per g electrode ranged from 1-270 µg/g. Elemental Cr generation rates spanned 13-330 µg/g. Manganese emission rates ranged from 50-300 µg/g. Nickel emission rates ranged from 4-140 µg/g. Labor and consumables costs ranged from $3.15 (GMAW pulsed spray) to $7.40 (SMAW) per meter of finished weld, and were measured or estimated for all 11 processes tested. Equipment costs for some processes may be as much as five times the cost of a typical SMAW welding machine. The results show that all of the GMAW processes in this

  19. Technology Estimating: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Reeves, John D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Greenberg, Marc; Comstock, Doug; Olds, John R.; Wallace, Jon; DePasquale, Dominic; Schaffer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA is investing in new technologies that include 14 primary technology roadmap areas, and aeronautics. Understanding the cost for research and development of these technologies and the time it takes to increase the maturity of the technology is important to the support of the ongoing and future NASA missions. Overall, technology estimating may help provide guidance to technology investment strategies to help improve evaluation of technology affordability, and aid in decision support. The research provides a summary of the framework development of a Technology Estimating process where four technology roadmap areas were selected to be studied. The framework includes definition of terms, discussion for narrowing the focus from 14 NASA Technology Roadmap areas to four, and further refinement to include technologies, TRL range of 2 to 6. Included in this paper is a discussion to address the evaluation of 20 unique technology parameters that were initially identified, evaluated and then subsequently reduced for use in characterizing these technologies. A discussion of data acquisition effort and criteria established for data quality are provided. The findings obtained during the research included gaps identified, and a description of a spreadsheet-based estimating tool initiated as a part of the Technology Estimating process.

  20. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  1. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)); Korkmaz, M. (Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m[mu] for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  2. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Korkmaz, M. [Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  4. THE ROLE OF SUNK COSTS IN ENTRY PROCESS INTO A FOREIGN MARKET: THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nadtochii

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The category of sunk costs is studied along with specific features of entry barriers. Different scientific approaches in defining a category are compared to make author's own. The study elucidates a role of sunk costs, including its influence on researching a market, evaluating an efficiency of entering into market and evaluating its risk. The paper highlights three main components of sunk costs, that are: investments to reduce production costs of incumbents relative to newcomers, investments to change a structure of rival's costs and investments to positive change of a demand on a product. Author proposes to consider sunk costs as a strategic barrier, due to a huge influence of incumbents' activities. A need to invest these costs also determines a high competitiveness of a new firm.

  5. Process development and exergy cost sensitivity analysis of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Ansarinasab, Hojat; Moftakhari Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-10-01

    An integrated power plant with a net electrical power output of 3.71 × 105 kW is developed and investigated. The electrical efficiency of the process is found to be 60.1%. The process includes three main sub-systems: molten carbonate fuel cell system, heat recovery section and cryogenic carbon dioxide capturing process. Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic methods are used for analyzing the process. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is a comprehensive evaluation tool which combines an exergetic approach with economic analysis procedures. With this method, investment and exergy destruction costs of the process components are divided into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts. Results of the conventional exergoeconomic analyses demonstrate that the combustion chamber has the largest exergy destruction rate (182 MW) and cost rate (13,100 /h). Also, the total process cost rate can be decreased by reducing the cost rate of the fuel cell and improving the efficiency of the combustion chamber and heat recovery steam generator. Based on the total avoidable endogenous cost rate, the priority for modification is the heat recovery steam generator, a compressor and a turbine of the power plant, in rank order. A sensitivity analysis is done to investigate the exergoeconomic factor parameters through changing the effective parameter variations.

  6. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar cell metallization pattern design on solar cell performance and the costs and performance effects of different metallization processes are discussed. Definitive design rules for the front metallization pattern for large area solar cells are presented. Chemical and physical deposition processes for metallization are described and compared. An economic evaluation of the 6 principal metallization options is presented. Instructions for preparing Format A cost data for solar cell manufacturing processes from UPPC forms for input into the SAMIC computer program are presented.

  7. Synthesis and processing of intelligent cost-effective structures: a final review of the ARPA SPICES program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1996-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs working to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it has been the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multi-organizational team for future incorporating of this new technology into each members respective product lines. Over the twenty-four month program many new improvements in sensors, actuators, modeling, manufacturing/integration and controls have been realized. The paper outlines the four phases of development in the program and the impact some of the key technologies will have on the smart structure development process in the future.

  8. Holocaust Denial is a Form of Hate Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Cohen-Almagor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this short piece I wish to take issue with the assertion that Holocaust denial is not hateful per se. My aim is to show that it is, and therefore that Facebook should reconsider its position. All Internet providers and web-hosting companies whose terms of service disallow hateful messages on their servers should not host or provide forums for such hate-mongering. This is of urgent need as Holocaust denial is prevalent in Europe, the United States (USA and across the Arab and Muslim parts of the world. 

  9. The Marley hypothesis: denial of racism reflects ignorance of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica C; Adams, Glenn; Salter, Phia S

    2013-02-01

    This study used a signal detection paradigm to explore the Marley hypothesis--that group differences in perception of racism reflect dominant-group denial of and ignorance about the extent of past racism. White American students from a midwestern university and Black American students from two historically Black universities completed surveys about their historical knowledge and perception of racism. Relative to Black participants, White participants perceived less racism in both isolated incidents and systemic manifestations of racism. They also performed worse on a measure of historical knowledge (i.e., they did not discriminate historical fact from fiction), and this group difference in historical knowledge mediated the differences in perception of racism. Racial identity relevance moderated group differences in perception of systemic manifestations of racism (but not isolated incidents), such that group differences were stronger among participants who scored higher on a measure of racial identity relevance. The results help illuminate the importance of epistemologies of ignorance: cultural-psychological tools that afford denial of and inaction about injustice.

  10. Commercialization of Kennedy Space Center Instrumentation Developed to Improve Safety, Reliability, Cost Effectiveness of Space Shuttle Processing, Launch, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, William R.; Starr, Stanley O.

    1997-01-01

    Priorities and achievements of the Kennedy Space Center (KSF) Instrumentation Laboratories in improving operational safety and decreasing processing costs associated with the Shuttle vehicle are addressed. Technologies that have been or are in the process of technology transfer are reviewed, and routes by which commercial concerns can obtain licenses to other KSF Instrumentation Laboratory technologies are discussed.

  11. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The cost structure and benefits of a new billet preparation process in semi-solid metal (SSM) casting of automotive components were investigated. The process was developed by the CSIR, a government research and development agency in South Africa...

  12. ICE: A Scalable, Low-Cost FPGA-Based Telescope Signal Processing and Networking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, K.; Bender, A. N.; Cliche, J. F.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Gilbert, A. J.; Griffin, S.; Hsyu, G.; Ittah, D.; Parra, J. Mena; Montgomery, J.; Pinsonneault-Marotte, T.; Siegel, S.; Smecher, G.; Tang, Q. Y.; Vanderlinde, K.; Whitehorn, N.

    We present an overview of the ‘ICE’ hardware and software framework that implements large arrays of interconnected field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based data acquisition, signal processing and networking nodes economically. The system was conceived for application to radio, millimeter and sub-millimeter telescope readout systems that have requirements beyond typical off-the-shelf processing systems, such as careful control of interference signals produced by the digital electronics, and clocking of all elements in the system from a single precise observatory-derived oscillator. A new generation of telescopes operating at these frequency bands and designed with a vastly increased emphasis on digital signal processing to support their detector multiplexing technology or high-bandwidth correlators — data rates exceeding a terabyte per second — are becoming common. The ICE system is built around a custom FPGA motherboard that makes use of an Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA and ARM-based co-processor. The system is specialized for specific applications through software, firmware and custom mezzanine daughter boards that interface to the FPGA through the industry-standard FPGA mezzanine card (FMC) specifications. For high density applications, the motherboards are packaged in 16-slot crates with ICE backplanes that implement a low-cost passive full-mesh network between the motherboards in a crate, allow high bandwidth interconnection between crates and enable data offload to a computer cluster. A Python-based control software library automatically detects and operates the hardware in the array. Examples of specific telescope applications of the ICE framework are presented, namely the frequency-multiplexed bolometer readout systems used for the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Simons Array and the digitizer, F-engine, and networking engine for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) and Hydrogen Intensity and Real-time Analysis eXperiment (HIRAX

  13. [Statistical Process Control (SPC) can help prevent treatment errors without increasing costs in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Llueguera, E; Melero, A; Molero, J; Soler, N; Rueda, C; Paradinas, C

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) was applied to monitor patient set-up in radiotherapy and, when the measured set-up error values indicated a loss of process stability, its root cause was identified and eliminated to prevent set-up errors. Set up errors were measured for medial-lateral (ml), cranial-caudal (cc) and anterior-posterior (ap) dimensions and then the upper control limits were calculated. Once the control limits were known and the range variability was acceptable, treatment set-up errors were monitored using sub-groups of 3 patients, three times each shift. These values were plotted on a control chart in real time. Control limit values showed that the existing variation was acceptable. Set-up errors, measured and plotted on a X chart, helped monitor the set-up process stability and, if and when the stability was lost, treatment was interrupted, the particular cause responsible for the non-random pattern was identified and corrective action was taken before proceeding with the treatment. SPC protocol focuses on controlling the variability due to assignable cause instead of focusing on patient-to-patient variability which normally does not exist. Compared to weekly sampling of set-up error in each and every patient, which may only ensure that just those sampled sessions were set-up correctly, the SPC method enables set-up error prevention in all treatment sessions for all patients and, at the same time, reduces the control costs. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

  15. Evaluation of Costs in Asparagus Production in Relation to Different Technological Processes in Conditions of Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with analysis structure of cost on the production of asparagus in relation to three different technological processes in conditions of Slovak Republic. Obtained results can be used as a template to prepare budgets and make production decisions to estimate potential returns and to analyze investment and financial analysis decisions in the asparagus cultivation. Production practices used in the budget are based on typical practices for asparagus in this country. From the analysis of the cost structure of assessed variants different technological procedures follows that the largest share of the costs fall to purchased material and labor.

  16. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    2016-07-01

    The activated sludge (AS) process is a type of suspended growth biological wastewater treatment that is used for treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, three configurations containing conventional activated sludge (CAS), extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes for a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran city were proposed and the total project construction, operation labor, maintenance, material, chemical, energy and amortization costs of these WWTPs were calculated and compared. Besides, effect of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) amounts on costs of WWTPs was investigated. Results demonstrated that increase of MLSS decreases the total project construction, material and amortization costs of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS. In addition, increase of this value increases the total operation, maintenance and energy costs, but does not affect chemical cost of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS.

  17. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    2017-09-01

    The activated sludge (AS) process is a type of suspended growth biological wastewater treatment that is used for treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, three configurations containing conventional activated sludge (CAS), extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes for a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran city were proposed and the total project construction, operation labor, maintenance, material, chemical, energy and amortization costs of these WWTPs were calculated and compared. Besides, effect of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) amounts on costs of WWTPs was investigated. Results demonstrated that increase of MLSS decreases the total project construction, material and amortization costs of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS. In addition, increase of this value increases the total operation, maintenance and energy costs, but does not affect chemical cost of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS.

  18. Visual representation of costs in the productive process: a case study on a footwear industry in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi da Silva Guimarães

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, conventional production systems have gone through changes in the face of intensified competition among companies. The occurrence of these changes has boosted the development of decision-making assistance tools for the production systems. However, most of these instruments do not allow the visualization of the costs involved throughout industrial operations. This study comprises the integration of the "Waste Identification Diagrams" (WID, current tool for visualization and analysis of production processes, along with "Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing" (TDABC, strategic management cost tool, seeking to create a model that visually demonstrates waste and relate its occurrence to operating costs. For that, the research adopted a descriptive-exploratory approach, based on a case study carried out in a footwear industry. The analysis showed that the integration of tools allowed for the representation of costs based on the time equations from the TDABC, associated with the visualization of the production process by the WID. The study concludes that the WID can be integrated to the TDABC tool, creating a management model for making decisions based on the operating costs of the production process.

  19. A Novel Protective Framework for Defeating HTTP-Based Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed A; Abdul Manaf, Azizah

    2015-01-01

    The growth of web technology has brought convenience to our life, since it has become the most important communication channel. However, now this merit is threatened by complicated network-based attacks, such as denial of service (DoS) and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. Despite many researchers' efforts, no optimal solution that addresses all sorts of HTTP DoS/DDoS attacks is on offer. Therefore, this research aims to fix this gap by designing an alternative solution called a flexible, collaborative, multilayer, DDoS prevention framework (FCMDPF). The innovative design of the FCMDPF framework handles all aspects of HTTP-based DoS/DDoS attacks through the following three subsequent framework's schemes (layers). Firstly, an outer blocking (OB) scheme blocks attacking IP source if it is listed on the black list table. Secondly, the service traceback oriented architecture (STBOA) scheme is to validate whether the incoming request is launched by a human or by an automated tool. Then, it traces back the true attacking IP source. Thirdly, the flexible advanced entropy based (FAEB) scheme is to eliminate high rate DDoS (HR-DDoS) and flash crowd (FC) attacks. Compared to the previous researches, our framework's design provides an efficient protection for web applications against all sorts of DoS/DDoS attacks.

  20. A Novel Protective Framework for Defeating HTTP-Based Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of web technology has brought convenience to our life, since it has become the most important communication channel. However, now this merit is threatened by complicated network-based attacks, such as denial of service (DoS and distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks. Despite many researchers’ efforts, no optimal solution that addresses all sorts of HTTP DoS/DDoS attacks is on offer. Therefore, this research aims to fix this gap by designing an alternative solution called a flexible, collaborative, multilayer, DDoS prevention framework (FCMDPF. The innovative design of the FCMDPF framework handles all aspects of HTTP-based DoS/DDoS attacks through the following three subsequent framework’s schemes (layers. Firstly, an outer blocking (OB scheme blocks attacking IP source if it is listed on the black list table. Secondly, the service traceback oriented architecture (STBOA scheme is to validate whether the incoming request is launched by a human or by an automated tool. Then, it traces back the true attacking IP source. Thirdly, the flexible advanced entropy based (FAEB scheme is to eliminate high rate DDoS (HR-DDoS and flash crowd (FC attacks. Compared to the previous researches, our framework’s design provides an efficient protection for web applications against all sorts of DoS/DDoS attacks.

  1. Making tough resource decisions. A process for considering both values and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P J; Moskowitz, E

    1996-01-01

    Effective resource management involves prospective decision making, including setting priorities. This enables healthcare facilities to provide services that are consistent with institutional commitments and, under some circumstances, to limit or deny services that are inconsistent with those commitments. The challenge is to apply explicit moral analysis to resource allocation efforts to ensure that facilities are treating patients consistently and fairly. Not only are allocation decisions unavoidable, they also can promote holistic, socially responsible medical practice. But current mechanisms, which are largely hidden from view and informal, can negatively affect important relationships with constituents. The just allocation of our precious healthcare resources rests on values that can either conflict with or complement one another. The core values in resource management include respect for persons, professional integrity, due process, informed consent, stewardship, and the common good. An interdisciplinary team of providers should oversee an ongoing review of resource management mechanisms. The group should meet regularly to look at how the mechanism works, what its goals are, what unit of care it evaluates, and what measurements are used to reach the goals. The measures might include severity of illness, effectiveness, cost, and social factors. Examining questions related to each of these areas can help the group determine whether an existing or proposed resource management mechanism is morally defensible.

  2. Optimum Accelerated Degradation Tests for the Gamma Degradation Process Case under the Constraint of Total Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heonsang Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated degradation test (ADT is regarded as an effective alternative to an accelerated life test in the sense that an ADT can provide more accurate information on product reliability, even when few or no failures may be expected before the end of a practical test period. In this paper, statistical methods for optimal designing ADT plans are developed assuming that the degradation characteristic follows a gamma process (GP. The GP-based approach has an advantage that it can deal with more frequently encountered situations in which the degradation should always be nonnegative and strictly increasing over time. The optimal ADT plan is developed under the total experimental cost constraint by determining the optimal settings of variables such as the number of measurements, the measurement times, the test stress levels and the number of units allocated to each stress level such that the asymptotic variance of the maximum likelihood estimator of the q-th quantile of the lifetime distribution at the use condition is minimized. In addition, compromise plans are developed to provide means to check the adequacy of the assumed acceleration model. Finally, sensitivity analysis procedures for assessing the effects of the uncertainties in the pre-estimates of unknown parameters are illustrated with an example.

  3. BENEFITS AND COSTS IN SELECTING FUEL FOR MUNICIPALITY HEATING SYSTEMS WITH THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miros(l)aw DYTCZAK; Grzegorz GINDA

    2006-01-01

    Municipal economy problems are of a complex nature. Existing requirements for sustainable development make us apply various criteria while solving these problems. These can, for example,include economic, financial, social and environmental criteria. To handle them effectively,multi-criteria analysis should be applied. Decisions about heat production and delivery systems belong to such multidisciplinary problems. They were usually resolved in the past using classical numerical methodology that took into account only the technical and economic merits of the various alternatives.By applying multi-criteria tools instead it is possible to obtain more realistic results and make more effective decisions. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) seems to be a good alternative to fill the existing gap between decision-making as it is actually practiced and the traditional methods when applied to selecting district heating (DH) systems. This paper presents such an application. Our application is to select the best heat energy source for a DH system for a medium sized city located in Poland. Our results led to an interesting conclusion with regard to the best heat energy source. Our results suggest that intensifying the effort to make widespread the use of more efficient, but financially more costly, energy sources is the best.

  4. Cost minimizing of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaeva, Anastasia; Kurennov, Dmitry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with optimization problem of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines. The accuracy of objective function parameters calculation for optimization problem is investigated. This paper shows that working tool path speed is not constant value. One depends on some parameters that are described in this paper. The relations of working tool path speed depending on the numbers of NC programs frames, length of straight cut, configuration part are presented. Based on received results the correction coefficients for working tool speed are defined. Additionally the optimization problem may be solved by using mathematical model. Model takes into account the additional restrictions of thermal cutting (choice of piercing and output tool point, precedence condition, thermal deformations). At the second part of paper the non-standard cutting techniques are considered. Ones may lead to minimizing of cutting cost and time compared with standard cutting techniques. This paper considers the effectiveness of non-standard cutting techniques application. At the end of the paper the future research works are indicated.

  5. Micro-Thermoelectric Generation Modules Fabricated with Low-Cost Mechanical Machining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawei; Jin, A. J.; Peng, Wenbo; Li, Qiming; Gao, Hu; Zhu, Lianjun; Li, Fu; Zhu, Zhixiang

    2017-05-01

    Micro/small-scale thermoelectric generation modules are able to produce continuous, noise-free and reliable electricity power using low temperature differences that widely exist in nature or industry. These advantages bring them great application prospects in the fields of remote monitoring, microelectronics/micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), medical apparatus and smart management system, which often require a power source free of maintenance and vibration. In this work, a prototypical thermoelectric module (12 mm × 12 mm × 0.8 mm) with 15 pairs of micro-scale thermoelectric legs (0.2 mm in width and 0.6 mm in height for each leg) is fabricated using a low-cost mechanical machining process. In this process, cutting and polishing are the main methods for the preparation of thermoelectric pairs from commercial polycrystalline materials and for the fabrication of electrode patterns. The as-fabricated module is tested for its power generation properties with the hot side heated by an electrical heater and the cold side by cold air. With the heater temperature of 375 K, the thermoelectric potential is about 9.1 mV, the short circuit current is about 14.5 mA, and the maximum output power is about 32.8 μW. The finite element method is applied to analyze the heat transfer of the module during our test. The temperature difference and heat flux are simulated, according to which the output powers at different temperatures are calculated, and the result is relatively consistent compared to the test results.

  6. Micro-Thermoelectric Generation Modules Fabricated with Low-Cost Mechanical Machining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawei; Jin, A. J.; Peng, Wenbo; Li, Qiming; Gao, Hu; Zhu, Lianjun; Li, Fu; Zhu, Zhixiang

    2016-11-01

    Micro/small-scale thermoelectric generation modules are able to produce continuous, noise-free and reliable electricity power using low temperature differences that widely exist in nature or industry. These advantages bring them great application prospects in the fields of remote monitoring, microelectronics/micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), medical apparatus and smart management system, which often require a power source free of maintenance and vibration. In this work, a prototypical thermoelectric module (12 mm × 12 mm × 0.8 mm) with 15 pairs of micro-scale thermoelectric legs (0.2 mm in width and 0.6 mm in height for each leg) is fabricated using a low-cost mechanical machining process. In this process, cutting and polishing are the main methods for the preparation of thermoelectric pairs from commercial polycrystalline materials and for the fabrication of electrode patterns. The as-fabricated module is tested for its power generation properties with the hot side heated by an electrical heater and the cold side by cold air. With the heater temperature of 375 K, the thermoelectric potential is about 9.1 mV, the short circuit current is about 14.5 mA, and the maximum output power is about 32.8 μW. The finite element method is applied to analyze the heat transfer of the module during our test. The temperature difference and heat flux are simulated, according to which the output powers at different temperatures are calculated, and the result is relatively consistent compared to the test results.

  7. A fuzzy cost-benefit function to select economical products for processing in a closed-loop supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochampally, Kishore K.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Cullinane, Thomas P.

    2004-02-01

    The cost-benefit analysis of data associated with re-processing of used products often involves the uncertainty feature of cash-flow modeling. The data is not objective because of uncertainties in supply, quality and disassembly times of used products. Hence, decision-makers must rely on "fuzzy" data for analysis. The same parties that are involved in the forward supply chain often carry out the collection and re-processing of used products. It is therefore important that the cost-benefit analysis takes the data of both new products and used products into account. In this paper, a fuzzy cost-benefit function is proposed that is used to perform a multi-criteria economic analysis to select the most economical products to process in a closed-loop supply chain. Application of the function is detailed through an illustrative example.

  8. A Survey On Various Defense Mechanisms Against Application Layer Distributed Denial Of Service Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Anuja R. Zade

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The severity of application layer Distributed Denial of Service attack has become a major threat to network operators nowadays. Application layer Distributed Denial of Service attack causes unavailability of resources, revenue loss, and customer churns etc and is one of the most difficult problems to defend against in the internet. The goal of paper is to understand various techniquesproposed recently to defend against specifically application layer Distributed Denial of Service attack. The next step in the path would be to come up with a better solution to solve this problem. Undoubtedly the following discussed techniques are extremely good. A collaborative approach using few of them can be a better solution.

  9. An integrated TQM-model for continuous cost, process and product improvement. Konferencebidrag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsberg, Flemming

    Paperet beskriver hvorledes de tre teknikker: kvalitetsomkostningssystemer, target costing og benchmarking kan anvendes til at skabe bedre resultater i forbindelse med TQM.......Paperet beskriver hvorledes de tre teknikker: kvalitetsomkostningssystemer, target costing og benchmarking kan anvendes til at skabe bedre resultater i forbindelse med TQM....

  10. An integrated TQM-model for continuous cost, process and product improvement. Konferencebidrag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsberg, Flemming

    Paperet beskriver hvorledes de tre teknikker: kvalitetsomkostningssystemer, target costing og benchmarking kan anvendes til at skabe bedre resultater i forbindelse med TQM.......Paperet beskriver hvorledes de tre teknikker: kvalitetsomkostningssystemer, target costing og benchmarking kan anvendes til at skabe bedre resultater i forbindelse med TQM....

  11. Development of a Low-Cost Process for Manufacturing of Ti-Metal Matrix Composite by Roll-Diffusion Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testani, C.; Ferraro, F.

    2010-06-01

    Composite materials with titanium-alloy matrix are currently the class of material with the highest specific resistance at temperatures up to 800 °C. The main hurdle to their application is their final cost. Even if it is clear that the costs of constituent materials are decreasing due to volume production effects, the production processing costs remain high due to the batch production approach. Centro Sviluppo Materiali’s (CSM) efforts have focused on the manufacturing process in order to obtain an innovative solution to reduce the manufacturing costs with respect to the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process that represents the standard production process for this class of materials. The new approach can allow a cost reduction of about 40%; this result was obtained by developing an experimental “diffusion bonding” plant for co-rolling at high temperature in a superplastic rolling regime, sheets of titanium alloy and monofilament silicon carbide fabrics. The experimental pilot plant was proposed for patent with RM2006A000261 in May 2006. This paper describes the manufacturing phases and process results. Moreover, has been shown that the diffusion in the solid state was obtained in a process window that was at least 100 times faster than that of HIP. High-temperature tensile tests were carried out on specimens machined from metallic matrix composite materials produced with the roll-diffusion bonding (RDB) process. The samples produced were also submitted to electrochemical dissolution tests of the metallic matrix in order to verify the geometric integrity of the fibers inside the matrix after the bonding phase. The results achieved as well as the process knowledge acquired with the CSM pilot plant are the base for further development of industrial application of the titanium roll-diffusion bonding.

  12. Sustainable low cost production of lignocellulosic bioethanol - "The carbon slaughterhouse". A process concept developed by BioGasol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Langvad, Niels Bo

    2008-01-01

    BioGasol is a combined biotechnology and engineering company in the field of renewable energy. The core competences lie in the development and design of process technologies for the production of bioethanol and other energy products from lignocellulosic biomasses. BioGasol has developed proprietary......Gasol believes that its current development projects will reduce the MESP to about 1.0 USD per Gallon. BioGasol is currently building a feedstock flexible plant on the island of Bornholm in Denmark that will demonstrate how the process concept can be cost efficient adapted to the low cost available feedstocks...

  13. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  14. Energy- and cost-efficient lattice-QCD computations using graphics processing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Quarks and gluons are the building blocks of all hadronic matter, like protons and neutrons. Their interaction is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), a theory under test by large scale experiments like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and in the future at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. However, perturbative methods can only be applied to QCD for high energies. Studies from first principles are possible via a discretization onto an Euclidean space-time grid. This discretization of QCD is called Lattice QCD (LQCD) and is the only ab-initio option outside of the high-energy regime. LQCD is extremely compute and memory intensive. In particular, it is by definition always bandwidth limited. Thus - despite the complexity of LQCD applications - it led to the development of several specialized compute platforms and influenced the development of others. However, in recent years General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) came up as a new means for parallel computing. Contrary to machines traditionally used for LQCD, graphics processing units (GPUs) are a massmarket product. This promises advantages in both the pace at which higher-performing hardware becomes available and its price. CL2QCD is an OpenCL based implementation of LQCD using Wilson fermions that was developed within this thesis. It operates on GPUs by all major vendors as well as on central processing units (CPUs). On the AMD Radeon HD 7970 it provides the fastest double-precision D kernel for a single GPU, achieving 120GFLOPS. D - the most compute intensive kernel in LQCD simulations - is commonly used to compare LQCD platforms. This performance is enabled by an in-depth analysis of optimization techniques for bandwidth-limited codes on GPUs. Further, analysis of the communication between GPU and CPU, as well as between multiple GPUs, enables high-performance Krylov space solvers and linear scaling to multiple GPUs within a single system. LQCD

  15. Research and development of low cost processes for integrated solar arrays. Final report, April 15, 1974--January 14, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, C.D.; Kulkarni, S.; Louis, E.

    1976-05-01

    Results of a program to study process routes leading to a low cost large area integrated silicon solar array manufacture for terrestrial applications are reported. Potential processes for the production of solar-grade silicon are evaluated from thermodynamic, economic, and technical feasibility points of view. Upgrading of the present arc-furnace process is found most favorable. Experimental studies of the Si/SiF/sub 4/ transport and purification process show considerable impurity removal and reasonable transport rates. Silicon deformation experiments indicate production of silicon sheet by rolling at 1350/sup 0/C is feasible. Significant recrystallization by strain-anneal technique has been observed. Experimental recrystallization studies using an electron beam line source are discussed. A maximum recrystallization velocity of approximately 9 m/hr is calculated for silicon sheet. A comparative process rating technique based on detailed cost analysis is presented.

  16. Development of SAP-DoA techniques for GPR data processing within COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, Simone; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the use of Sub-Array Processing (SAP) and Direction of Arrival (DoA) approaches for the processing of Ground-Penetrating Radar data, with the purpose of locating metal scatterers embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. Research activities have been carried out during two Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in May 2015 and January 2016. In applications involving smart antennas and in the presence of several transmitters operating simultaneously, it is important for a receiving array to be able to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the incoming signals, in order to decipher how many emitters are present and predict their positions. A number of methods have been devised for DoA estimation: the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) and Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT) are amongst the most popular ones [1]. In the scenario considered by us, the electromagnetic sources are the currents induced on metal elements embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. GPR radargrams are processed, to estimate the DoAs of the electric field back-scattered by the sought targets. In order to work in near-field conditions, a sub-array processing (SAP) approach is adopted: the radargram is partitioned in sub-radargrams composed of few A-scans each, the dominant DoA is predicted for each sub-radargram. The estimated angles are triangulated, obtaining a set of crossings with intersections condensed around object locations. This pattern is filtered, in order to remove a noisy background of unwanted crossings, and is processed by applying the statistical procedure described in [2]. We tested our approach on synthetic GPR radargrams, obtained by using the freeware simulator gprMax implementing the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method [3]. In particular, we worked with

  17. 浅谈工程造价全过程管理%The Whole Process Cost Management of Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶靖

    2013-01-01

    The whole process of project cost management inv-olves the investment decision-making, project design, bidding, construction management, the completion of the process of set-tlement, its management quality, directly determines the succe-ss or failure of investment control. At the same time, in the pr-ocess of cost management, it must strictly control materials, equipment, manpower cost management, in order to achieve c-ost key position, so as to realize the effectiveness of cost cont-rol.%  工程造价全过程管理涉及投资决策、项目设计、招投标、施工管理、竣工结算等各过程,其管理质量,直接决定着投资控制的成败。同时,在其过程性造价管理中,要严格掌控材料、设备、人力等造价管理,以实现关键性的造价定位,进而实现造价控制的效能性。

  18. Are breast biopsies adequately funded? A process cost and revenue analysis; Ist die Mammabiopsie ausreichend finanziert? Eine Prozesskosten und Erloesbetrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, M.; Fischbach, E.; Fehm, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (DE). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology] (and others)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine whether the various breast biopsy procedures specified in the S 3 guidelines are sensibly represented within the current German health system as considered from a cost evaluation perspective. Materials and Methods: This prospectively designed multicenter study analyzed 221 breast biopsies at 7 institutions from 04/2006 to 01/2007. Core needle biopsies, vacuum-assisted biopsies and surgical open biopsies under sonographic or mammographic guidance were evaluated. During an analysis of process costs, the individual process steps were recorded in diagrammatic form and assigned to the true consumption of resources. The actual resource consumption costs were entered. A process-related breakeven analysis was conducted to check whether the reimbursement of individual biopsy types covers the costs. Results: Only sonographically guided core needle biopsy and surgical open biopsy are adequately reimbursed in the current German health system. All other breast biopsies indicate a negative profit margin. The principal reasons for underfunding are found in the area of reimbursement of investment and non-personnel costs. Conclusion: The reimbursement of breast biopsies must be improved in order to guarantee nationwide care of the population using the breast biopsy methods recommended in the S 3 guidelines and to avoid disincentives with respect to breast biopsy indications. (orig.)

  19. Low-cost copper complexes as p-dopants in solution processable hole transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellermann, Renate [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Taroata, Dan; Maltenberger, Anna; Hartmann, David; Schmid, Guenter [Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    We demonstrate the usage of the Lewis-acidic copper(II)hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(hfac){sub 2}) and copper(II)trifluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(tfac){sub 2}) as low-cost p-dopants for conductivity enhancement of solution processable hole transport layers based on small molecules in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The materials were clearly soluble in mixtures of environmentally friendly anisole and xylene and spin-coated under ambient atmosphere. Enhancements of two and four orders of magnitude, reaching 4.0 × 10{sup −11} S/cm with a dopant concentration of only 2 mol% Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 1.5 × 10{sup −9} S/cm with 5 mol% Cu(tfac){sub 2} in 2,2′,7,7′-tetra(N,N-ditolyl)amino-9,9-spiro-bifluorene (spiro-TTB), respectively, were achieved. Red light emitting diodes were fabricated with reduced driving voltages and enhanced current and power efficiencies (8.6 lm/W with Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 5.6 lm/W with Cu(tfac){sub 2}) compared to the OLED with undoped spiro-TTB (3.9 lm/W). The OLED with Cu(hfac){sub 2} doped spiro-TTB showed an over 8 times improved LT{sub 50} lifetime of 70 h at a starting luminance of 5000 cd/m{sup 2}. The LT{sub 50} lifetime of the reference OLED with PEDOT:PSS was only 8 h. Both non-optimized OLEDs were operated at similar driving voltage and power efficiency.

  20. Effectiveness of bone cleaning process using chemical and entomology approaches: time and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh Soon; Khoo, Lay See; Mohd Hilmi, Saidin; Ahmad Hafizam, Hasmi; Mohd Shah, Mahmood; Nurliza, Abdullah; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal examination is an important aspect of forensic pathology practice, requiring effective bone cleaning with minimal artefact. This study was conducted to compare between chemical and entomology methods of bone cleaning. Ten subjects between 20 and 40 years old who underwent uncomplicated medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Malaysia were randomly chosen for this descriptive cross sectional study. The sternum bone was divided into 4 parts, each part subjected to a different cleaning method, being two chemical approaches i.e. laundry detergent and a combination of 6% hydrogen peroxide and powder sodium bicarbonate and two entomology approaches using 2nd instar maggots of Chrysomyia rufifacies and Ophyra spinigera. A scoring system for grading the outcome of cleaning was used. The effectiveness of the methods was evaluated based on average weight reduction per day and median number of days to achieve the average score of less than 1.5 within 12 days of the bone cleaning process. Using maggots was the most time-effective and costeffective method, achieving an average weight reduction of 1.4 gm per day, a median of 11.3 days to achieve the desired score and an average cost of MYR 4.10 per case to reach the desired score within 12 days. This conclusion was supported by blind validation by forensic specialists achieving a 77.8% preference for maggots. Emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation also revealed that maggots especially Chrysomyia rufifacies preserved the original condition of the bones better allowing improved elucidation of bone injuries in future real cases.

  1. Denial of Service Attack Techniques: Analysis, Implementation and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elleithy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A denial of service attack (DOS is any type of attack on a networking structure to disable a server from servicing its clients. Attacks range from sending millions of requests to a server in an attempt to slow it down, flooding a server with large packets of invalid data, to sending requests with an invalid or spoofed IP address. In this paper we show the implementation and analysis of three main types of attack: Ping of Death, TCP SYN Flood, and Distributed DOS. The Ping of Death attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 95 computer. The TCP SYN Flood attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 2000 IIS FTP Server. Distributed DOS will be demonstrated by simulating a distribution zombie program that will carry the Ping of Death attack. This paper will demonstrate the potential damage from DOS attacks and analyze the ramifications of the damage.

  2. Detecting Distributed Denial of Service Attacks Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhammd Alkasassbeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Users and organizations find it continuously challenging to deal with distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks. . The security engineer works to keep a service available at all times by dealing with intruder attacks. The intrusion-detection system (IDS is one of the solutions to detecting and classifying any anomalous behavior. The IDS system should always be updated with the latest intruder attack deterrents to preserve the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the service. In this paper, a new dataset is collected because there were no common data sets that contain modern DDoS attacks in different network layers, such as (SIDDoS, HTTP Flood. This work incorporates three well-known classification techniques: Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest. The experimental results show that MLP achieved the highest accuracy rate (98.63%.

  3. REVIEW CLUSTERING MECHANISMS OF DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Bhaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS overwhelm network resources with useless or harmful packets and prevent normal users from accessing these network resources. These attacks jeopardize the confidentiality, privacy and integrity of information on the internet. Since it is very difficult to set any predefined rules to correctly identify genuine network traffic, an anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System (IDS for network security is commonly used to detect and prevent new DDoS attacks. Data mining methods can be used in intrusion detection systems, such as clustering k-means, artificial neural network. Since the clustering methods can be used to aggregate similar objects, they can detect DDoS attacks to reduce false-positive rates. In this study, a review of DDoS attacks using clustering data mining techniques is presented. A review illustrates the most recent, state-of-the art science for clustering techniques to detect DDoS attacks.

  4. Defending networks against denial-of-service attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Gellman, Michael; Loukas, George

    2004-11-01

    Denial of service attacks, viruses and worms are common tools for malicious adversarial behavior in networks. Experience shows that over the last few years several of these techniques have probably been used by governments to impair the Internet communications of various entities, and we can expect that these and other information warfare tools will be used increasingly as part of hostile behavior either independently, or in conjunction with other forms of attack in conventional or asymmetric warfare, as well as in other forms of malicious behavior. In this paper we concentrate on Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDoS) where one or more attackers generate flooding traffic and direct it from multiple sources towards a set of selected nodes or IP addresses in the Internet. We first briefly survey the literature on the subject, and discuss some examples of DDoS incidents. We then present a technique that can be used for DDoS protection based on creating islands of protection around a critical information infrastructure. This technique, that we call the CPN-DoS-DT (Cognitive Packet Networks DoS Defence Technique), creates a self-monitoring sub-network surrounding each critical infrastructure node. CPN-DoS-DT is triggered by a DDoS detection scheme, and generates control traffic from the objects of the DDoS attack to the islands of protection where DDOS packet flows are destroyed before they reach the critical infrastructure. We use mathematical modelling, simulation and experiments on our test-bed to show the positive and negative outcomes that may result from both the attack, and the CPN-DoS-DT protection mechanism, due to imperfect detection and false alarms.

  5. A Mechanism Denial Study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sik Kang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO mechanism-denial experiments is performed using an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM. Daily climatological seasonal cycles of i surface latent heat flux, ii net radiative heating rate, and iii surface wind stress are obtained from a control simulation and prescribed in place of the normal interactive computations of these fields in order to turn off the i wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE, ii cloud-radiation interaction (CRI, and iii frictional wave-CISK (FWC mechanisms, respectively. Dual and triple mechanism denial experiments are also conducted by switching off multiple mechanisms together. The influence of each mechanism is assessed by comparing experiments with that mechanism turned off to those in which it is not. CRI and WISHE are both found to be important to the simulated MJO amplitude and propagation speed, while FWC has weaker and less systematic effects. The MJO is weakened when CRI is turned off, but strengthened when WISHE is turned off, indicating that CRI amplifies the MJO in the control simulation while WISHE weakens it. The negative influence of WISHE is shown to result from simulated phase relationships between surface winds, surface fluxes and convection which differ significantly from those found in observations, and thus is not interpreted as evidence against a positive role for WISHE in the development and maintenance of the observed MJO. The positive influence of CRI in the model is consistent with a strong simulated relationship between daily grid-point column-integrated radiative and convective heating; the mean ratio of the latter to the former exceeds 0.2 for rain rates less than 14 mm d-1. CRI is also shown to suppress an excessive excitation of the convectively coupled Kelvin wave so that the amplitude and frequency of the MJO is maintained.

  6. Evaluations of care by adults following a denial of an advertisement-related prescription drug request: the role of expectations, symptom severity, and physician communication style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mansi B; Bentley, John P; McCaffrey, David J

    2006-02-01

    As patients continue to take a more active role in their health care, an understanding of patient requests of health care providers, including what happens when requests are not fulfilled, is becoming more important. Although its merits have been debated, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs generates patient requests. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of physician communication style, respondents' expectations of receiving a requested prescription, and perceived symptom severity on respondents' evaluations of care following a physician denial of a prescription drug request stimulated by direct-to-consumer advertising. A 2 x 2 x 2, between-subjects experimental design was used. The respondents were made up of employees of the University of Mississippi. Physician communication style, respondents' expectations, and respondents' perceived symptom severity were manipulated using vignettes. Respondents' post-visit evaluations of care were assessed by measuring trust in the physician, visit-based satisfaction with the physician, and commitment toward the physician. Factorial analysis of variance procedures for a three-way design were used to test the hypotheses and assess the research questions. Manipulation checks suggested that the independent variables were appropriately manipulated. No significant first-order or second-order interactions were noted in any of the analyses. Post-visit evaluations of care were significantly associated with physician communication style (a partnership response led to better evaluations of care). There were no significant effects of either prior expectation of request fulfillment or perceived symptom severity. However, non-significant trends in mean scores suggested a potential role of these variables in the evaluation process following request denial. The manner in which a physician communicates with an individual is an important determinant of the evaluation of care following the denial of a request

  7. USSD technology a low cost asset in complementing public health workers’ work processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhou, M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lowering costs and easy access to health information is important to public healthcare workers (PHWs) and patients who are both offline and online to improve equitable access to healthcare information. Harnessing mobile health (mHealth) improves...

  8. Development of a Cost Estimation Process for Human Systems Integration Practitioners During the Analysis of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Canadian Defense Technology Center (DTC) (2006); Brooks, Greenley , Dyck, Salwaycott, Scipione and Shaw (2008); and Liu (2009) provide guidance for...effective operations ( Greenley & Associates, 2008). However, these costs were not used in a total cost-benefit analysis because of their multi...December 6, 2010, from http://www.hfidtc.com/ Brooks, J., Greenley , M., Salwaycott, A., & Scipione, A. (2008). The development and validation of a

  9. EFFECTS OF CARBURIZING AND NITRIDING PROCESSES ON THE COST AND QUALITY OF GEARS PRODUCED WITH AISI 4140 AND 8620 STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio José Leitão

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of nitriding and carburizing processes applied to gears subjected to contact stresses below 1300 MPa. The manufacturing cost, as well the depth of hardened layer and the distortion produced by two processes are analyzed. AISI 4140 gears quenched, tempered, liquid and gas nitriding and AISI 8620 gears after liquid carburizing, quenching and tempering are analyzed. The dimensional control of the gears was carried out before and after heat and thermochemical treatments. It is concluded that liquid or gas nitriding processes are about 30% more economical than liquid carburizing an also they reduce the dimensional changes. By the other hand liquid carburizing achieves greater case depth. Liquid nitriding process presents the lowest cost, dimensional changes and case depth.

  10. Process improvement and cost reduction utilizing a fully automated CD SEM for thin film head pole 2 resist measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutrud, Paul C.; Newcomb, Robert M.

    1996-05-01

    Thin film head (TFH) manufacturers are constantly striving to improve process control, eliminate scrap material and reduce the total cost of manufacturing their devices. Successful measurement and control of the Pole 2 Resist structure is a critical component of the TFH process which directly impacts disk drive performance, reliability and final product cost. Until recently, white light optical metrology systems have been the only option for measuring the Pole 2 structures. However, recent advances in TFH process technology have resulted in aspect ratios up to 10:1 which has limited the ability of the white light optical metrology systems. IVS has developed a unique metrology solution to image and measure these high aspect ratio structures utilizing the IVS-200TM CD SEM. This technology provides state of the art measurement performance for repeatability and stability which in turn has provided manufacturers with the ability to monitor the Pole 2 process and reap both technical and financial benefits.

  11. Modeling and simulating causal dependencies on process-aware information systems from a cost perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    Providing effective IT support for business processes has become crucial for enterprises to stay competitive in their market. Business processes must be defined, implemented, enacted, monitored, and continuously adapted to changing situations. Process life cycle support and continuous process

  12. 78 FR 53189 - Dorel Juvenile Group, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Dorel Juvenile Group, Denial of Petition for Decision of... petition. SUMMARY: Dorel Juvenile Group, Inc. (DJG) has determined that certain child restraint...

  13. Detection of Denial of Service Attack in Wireless Network using Dominance based Rough Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Syed Siraj Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Denial-of-service (DoS attack is aim to block the services of victim system either temporarily or permanently by sending huge amount of garbage traffic data in various types of protocols such as transmission control protocol, user datagram protocol, internet connecting message protocol, and hypertext transfer protocol using single or multiple attacker nodes. Maintenance of uninterrupted service system is technically difficult as well as economically costly. With the invention of new vulnerabilities to system new techniques for determining these vulnerabilities have been implemented. In general, probabilistic packet marking (PPM and deterministic packet marking (DPM is used to identify DoS attacks. Later, intelligent decision proto-type was proposed. The main advantage is that it can be used with both PPM and DPM. But it is observed that, data available in the wireless network information system contains uncertainties. Therefore, an effort has been made to detect DoS attack using dominance based rough set. The accuracy of the proposed model obtained over the KDD cup dataset is 99.76 and it is higher than the accuracy achieved by resilient back propagation (RBP model.

  14. A Robust Mechanism for Defending Distributed Denial OF Service Attacks on Web Servers

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks have emerged as a popular means of causing mass targeted service disruptions, often for extended periods of time. The relative ease and low costs of launching such attacks, supplemented by the current inadequate sate of any viable defense mechanism, have made them one of the top threats to the Internet community today. Since the increasing popularity of web-based applications has led to several critical services being provided over the Internet, it is imperative to monitor the network traffic so as to prevent malicious attackers from depleting the resources of the network and denying services to legitimate users. This paper first presents a brief discussion on some of the important types of DDoS attacks that currently exist and some existing mechanisms to combat these attacks. It then points out the major drawbacks of the currently existing defense mechanisms and proposes a new mechanism for protecting a web-server against a DDoS attack. In the proposed mechanism, ...

  15. The Effects of the Use of Activity-Based Costing Software in the Learning Process: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrea; Ferreira, Aldónio

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the use of accounting software in teaching activity-based costing (ABC) on the learning process. It draws upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour and uses the end-user computer satisfaction (EUCS) framework to examine students' satisfaction with the ABC software. The study examines students' satisfaction with…

  16. Cost and productivity of new technology for harvesting and in-woods processing small-diameter trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael B Lambert; James O. Howard

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted on the productivity and cost of an integrated harvesting and processing system operating in small-diameter timber (western hemlock-type) on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington. The system uses a new steep-slope fellerbuncher, a clam-bunk grapple-skidder (forwarder), a prototype chain-flail debarker delimber, a chipper, a conveyor system,...

  17. The Effects of the Use of Activity-Based Costing Software in the Learning Process: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrea; Ferreira, Aldónio

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the use of accounting software in teaching activity-based costing (ABC) on the learning process. It draws upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour and uses the end-user computer satisfaction (EUCS) framework to examine students' satisfaction with the ABC software. The study examines students' satisfaction with…

  18. Senior year high school pupils’ segmentation based on the benefits and costs considered in decesion making process of educational choices

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai-Florin BĂCILĂ

    2012-01-01

    Attracting financial resources is an important issue for universities. Because for universities is impossible to cover from state budget the whole costs of education, the importance of attracting students has increased. As the pupils’ needs and wishes are heterogeneous, in order to better understand the decision making process, universities must divide the educational market in smaller homogeneous segments. Although the segmentation concept and the decision making process of educational choic...

  19. Low cost and conformal microwave water-cut sensor for optimizing oil production process

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2015-08-01

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut) which is extracted out of a production well as a byproduct. Traditional water-cut (WC) laboratory measurements are precise, but are incapable of providing real-time information, while recently reported in-line WC sensors (both in research and industry) are usually incapable of sensing the full WC range (0 – 100 %), are bulky, expensive and non-scalable for the variety of pipe sizes used in the oil industry. This work presents a novel implementation of a planar microwave T-resonator for fully non-intrusive in situ WC sensing over the full range of operation, i.e., 0 – 100 %. As opposed to non-planar resonators, the choice of a planar resonator has enabled its direct implementation on the pipe surface using low cost fabrication methods. WC sensors make use of series resonance introduced by a λ/4 open shunt stub placed in the middle of a microstrip line. The detection mechanism is based on the measurement of the T-resonator’s resonance frequency, which varies with the relative percentage of oil and water (due to the difference in their dielectric properties). In order to implement the planar T-resonator based sensor on the curved surface of the pipe, a novel approach of utilizing two ground planes is proposed in this work. The innovative use of dual ground planes makes this sensor scalable to a wide range of pipe sizes present in the oil industry. The design and optimization of this sensor was performed in an electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) solver, i.e., High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) and the dielectric properties of oil, water and their emulsions of different WCs used in the simulation model were measured using a SPEAG-dielectric assessment kit (DAK-12). The simulation results were validated through characterization of fabricated prototypes. Initial rapid prototyping was completed using copper tape, after which a

  20. Optimal Medical Equipment Maintenance Service Proposal Decision Support System combining Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.

  1. Technology Estimating 2: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark; May, M. Scott; Greenberg, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    As a leader in space technology research and development, NASA is continuing in the development of the Technology Estimating process, initiated in 2012, for estimating the cost and schedule of low maturity technology research and development, where the Technology Readiness Level is less than TRL 6. NASA' s Technology Roadmap areas consist of 14 technology areas. The focus of this continuing Technology Estimating effort included four Technology Areas (TA): TA3 Space Power and Energy Storage, TA4 Robotics, TA8 Instruments, and TA12 Materials, to confine the research to the most abundant data pool. This research report continues the development of technology estimating efforts completed during 2013-2014, and addresses the refinement of parameters selected and recommended for use in the estimating process, where the parameters developed are applicable to Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) used in the parametric cost estimating analysis. This research addresses the architecture for administration of the Technology Cost and Scheduling Estimating tool, the parameters suggested for computer software adjunct to any technology area, and the identification of gaps in the Technology Estimating process.

  2. Investment Cost Model in Business Process Intelligence in Banking and Electricity Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Moro Sundjaja

    2016-06-01

    organizations and some cost model to calculate the investment of BPI solutions. This paper shows the success in BPI application of banks and assurance companies in German and electricity work in Australia aims to give a vision about the importance of BPI application. Many challenges in BPI application of companies in German and Australia, BPI solution, and data warehouse design development have been discussed to add insight in future BPI development. And the last is an explanation about how to analyze cost associated with BPI solution investment.

  3. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  4. A stochastic process model for life cycle cost analysis of nuclear power plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weide, J.A.M.; Pandey, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a general stochastic model to analyze the life cycle cost of an engineering system that is affected by minor but repairable failures interrupting the operation and a major failure that would require the replacement or renewal of the failed system. It is commonly observed that the

  5. A process model for approximating the production costs of the fermentative synthesis of sophorolipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophorolipids are microbial glycolipids that possess surfactant-type properties and have been successfully tested in a number of potential industrial and niche applications but they are generally acknowledged to require higher production costs when compared to petroleum-based surfactants. The obje...

  6. Performance, Process, and Costs: Managing Service Quality with the Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Roswitha

    2001-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project among three German libraries that used the Balanced Scorecard as a concept for an integrated quality management system. Considers performance indicators across four perspectives that will help academic libraries establish an integrated controlling system and to collect and evaluate performance as well as cost data…

  7. [Sometimes We Should Maintain a Mental Distance from a Patient--Relevance to Caring for Cancer Patients in Denial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, cancer has been the leading cause of death since 1981 and is the most common and representative life-threatening disease. Cancer treatment has markedly progressed, and so the development of cancer is now not necessarily a death sentence. Nevertheless, approximately half of cancer patients actually die as a result of the disease even today. Cancer causes marked suffering of patients. Patients with advanced and/or terminal cancer suffer from various physical symptoms and are forced to face a continuous decline in their physical function, and previous studies reported that psychological distress is frequently observed in cancer patients, especially in advanced and/or terminally ill patients. Several types of psychological defense mechanism, especially denial, are frequently observed in these patients. There are multiple levels of denial For example, a patient with true denial denies the presence of cancer itself, although true denial is quite rare. A patient with moderate denial is likely to deny an association between distressing symptoms and disease, while one with mild denial denies the life-threatening nature of disease. Denial is a psychological defense mechanism that often helps advanced cancer patients to manage their anxiety and depression. It allows such patients to continue living while facing the painfulness of their situation. In this situation, it is important for therapists to note the patient's denial. Simply being aware of the denial can, in itself, be supportive for the patient. However, when denial does not work adaptively, such as it prohibiting adherence to necessary treatment and not being useful for ameliorating psychological distress and improving the quality of life, medical staff may consider confronting a patient with the reality of the situation carefully. This paper discusses the relevance of acknowledging denial and caring for patients with denial from the point of view of psycho-oncology.

  8. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of slicing processes and junction formation processes are presented. A simple method for evaluation of the relative economic merits of competing process options with respect to the cost of energy produced by the system is described. An energy consumption analysis was developed and applied to determine the energy consumption in the solar module fabrication process sequence, from the mining of the SiO2 to shipping. The analysis shows that, in current technology practice, inordinate energy use in the purification step, and large wastage of the invested energy through losses, particularly poor conversion in slicing, as well as inadequate yields throughout. The cell process energy expenditures already show a downward trend based on increased throughput rates. The large improvement, however, depends on the introduction of a more efficient purification process and of acceptable ribbon growing techniques.

  9. The Transaction Costs of the U.S. Congress’ Funding Process: Choosing Between Separate or Combined Authorization/Appropriation Committee Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    government? Before answering this question the processes, the concepts of transaction cost economics, and the transaction costs economics literature are...reviewed. Then a transaction cost model similar to that suggested by Barry Weingast and William Marshall in their 1988 Journal of Political Economy

  10. High Volume, Low-Cost Production Process for High-grade Silicon Carbide Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following proposal summarizes the process by which Trex will utilize out patented CVC (Chemical Vapor Composite) SiC process to fabricate near net shape...

  11. Decreasing costs of ground data processing system development using a software product line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I describe software product lines and why a Ground Data Processing System should use one. I also describe how to develop a software product line, using examples from an imaginary Ground Data Processing System.

  12. High Volume, Low-Cost Production Process for High-grade Silicon Carbide Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following proposal summarizes the process by which Trex Enterprises will utilize our patented CVC (Chemical Vapor Composite) SiC process towards the fabrication...

  13. Optoelectronic properties of graphene oxide thin film processed by cost-effective route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Farzana A. [Experimental Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, 4, Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Morisaki, Takuya; Otsuki, Joe [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Alam, M. Sahabul, E-mail: alam@univdhaka.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantage of a cost-effective mass production of graphene oxide (GO) with less defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal reduction of GO at a temperature as low as 170 Degree-Sign C without any reagent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desired optical and electrical properties in a cost effective path to be applicable as a potential candidate for optoelectronic applications. - Abstract: We present large area graphene oxide (GO) thin films as a potential transparent electrode fabricated by using simple route. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographies showed a uniform film texture that is wrinkle-free with roughness as low as {approx}1.4 nm. Desired optical and electrical properties were achieved by thermal reduction at a temperature as low as 170 Degree-Sign C without any reagent; which is an important factor in practical application field. Microstructural perfection is quite evident from the abrupt descent around specific energy of photons in the transmittance spectrum. In particular, we explore that device-quality GO thin films can be obtained via a low-cost scalable technique in comparison with other previous works. Urbach energy and different electrical parameters are addressed. The nature and extent of the band gap are analyzed. The findings are very significant in view of an optimized use of GO thin films in electrical and photoelectric applications.

  14. Time consumption, productivity, and cost analysis of the motor manual tree felling and processing in the Hyrcanian Forest in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rostam Mousavi; Mehrdad Nikouy; Jori Uusitalo

    2011-01-01

    An empirical time study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the current felling and tree processing methods used in Northern Iran's Hyrcanian forest.Motor-manual felling is done mostly in winter,while tree processing starts when the felling season ends.We identified the elements of felling and processing work phases,and 142 cycles and 110 cycles were respectively recorded for felling and processing.On the basis of data analysis (time study),we developed statistical models of effective time consumption in the respective work phase and for its total productivity.The production rate of felling with and without delay time was 9.7 and 11.65 trees per hour (0.17 USD·m-3 and 0.21 USD·m-3),and the average production cost with and without delay was 1.21 USD and 1.45 USD per tree,respectively.The average productivity of processing was 35 m3 per effective hour and the average unit cost of processing was 0.22 USD·m-3.

  15. A Methodology for Cost-Effective Analysis of In-Place Software Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    routinely col- lected repositories of readily available data that can be mined for information useful in empirical process analysis . The...brings the people involved in the process on board by showing early results of what may be learned from empirical process analysis , and smooths the way for

  16. Analysis on cost control issues on the basis of process and cost driver theory%基于过程与成本动因理论的成本控制问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁

    2015-01-01

    The article interprets cost driver theory and process cost control theory,and specifically studies executional cost,structural cost and process cost control strategies,with a view to strengthen financial management and relevant cost control and improve economic benefits.%对成本动因理论和过程成本控制理论进行了解释说明,并对有关执行性成本、结构性成本及过程成本的控制策略进行了详细研究,以加强企业对财务的管理和相关成本的控制,进而提升企业的经济效益。

  17. Driving Down HB-LED Costs. Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, William [Veeco Process Equipment, Inc., Plainview, NY (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LED's into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield

  18. Packet track and traceback mechanism against denial of service attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; SHEN Su-bin

    2008-01-01

    The denial of service attack is a main type of threat on the Internet today. On the basis of path identification (Pi) and Internet control message protocol (ICMP) traceback (iTrace) methods, a packet track and traceback mechanism is proposed, which features rapid response and high accuracy. In this scheme, routers apply packet marking scheme and send traceback messages, which enables the victim to design the path tree in peace time. During attack times the victim can trace attackers back within the path tree and perform rapid packet filtering using the marking in each packet. Traceback messages overcome Pi's limitation, wherein too much path information is lost in path identifiers; whereas path identifiers can be used to expedite the design of the path-tree, which reduces the high overhead in iTrace. Therefore, our scheme not only synthesizes the advantages but also compromises the disadvantages of the above two methods. Simulation results with NS-2 show the validity of our scheme.

  19. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Teenage sexuality and rights in Chile: from denial to punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them.

  1. Dynamical evolution processes of traffic flow and travel cost in urban transportation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ren-Yong; Huang Hai-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Considering such a fact that travellers dynamically adjust their routes and the resultant link traffic flows in a network evolve over time,this paper proposes a dynamical evolutionary model of the traffic assignment problem with endogenous origin-destination (OD) demands.The model's stability is analysed and the resultant user equilibrium (UE) state is shown to be stable under certain conditions.Numerical results in a grid network indicate that the model can generate convergent flow patterns and finally terminates at the UE state.Impacts by the parameters associated with OD demand function and link cost function are also investigated.

  2. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.

  3. A Novel Mechanism for Detection of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    The increasing popularity of web-based applications has led to several critical services being provided over the Internet. This has made it imperative to monitor the network traffic so as to prevent malicious attackers from depleting the resources of the network and denying services to legitimate users. This paper has presented a mechanism for protecting a web-server against a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. Incoming traffic to the server is continuously monitored and any abnormal rise in the inbound traffic is immediately detected. The detection algorithm is based on a statistical analysis of the inbound traffic on the server and a robust hypothesis testing framework. While the detection process is on, the sessions from the legitimate sources are not disrupted and the load on the server is restored to the normal level by blocking the traffic from the attacking sources. To cater to different scenarios, the detection algorithm has various modules with varying level of computational and memory over...

  4. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  5. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vipperla, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin

    2013-12-30

    This report presents system and economic analysis for a carbon capture unit which uses an amino-silicone solvent for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The amino-silicone solvent is based on GAP-1 with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. For comparison purposes, the report also shows results for a CCS unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). At a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F), the CCS energy penalty for amino-silicone solvent is only 30.4% which compares to a 35.9% energy penalty for MEA. The increase in COE for the amino-silicone solvent relative to the non-capture case is between 98% and 103% (depending on the solvent cost) which compares to an ~109% COE cost increase for MEA. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages over conventional systems using MEA.

  6. In search of low cost titanium: the fray farthing chen (FFC) cambridge process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, SJ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process, a novel method for the electrochemical deoxidation of metal oxides in molten salt, discovered at the University of Cambridge in 1997. The process was hailed as a highly promising...

  7. In search of low cost titanium: the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, SJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge Process, a novel method for the electrochemical de-oxidation of metal oxides in molten salt, discovered at the University of Cambridge in 1997. The process was hailed as a highly promising...

  8. Lightweight, high-opacity paper : process costs and energy use reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Klungness; Fabienne. Pianta; Mathew L. Stroika; Marguerite. Sykes; Freya. Tan; Said. AbuBakr

    1999-01-01

    Fiber loading is an environmentally friendly, energy efficient, and economical method for depositing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) partly within pulp fibers. Fiber loading can easily be done within the existing pulp processing system. This paper is a review of the process development from bench-scale to industrial-scale demonstrations, with additional...

  9. Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks: Exploring the Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E; Jacques, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    The conservative movement and especially its think tanks play a critical role in denying the reality and significance of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), especially by manufacturing uncertainty over climate science. Books denying AGW are a crucial means of attacking climate science and scientists, and we examine the links between conservative think tanks (CTTs) and 108 climate change denial books published through 2010. We find a strong link, albeit noticeably weaker for the growing number of self-published denial books. We also examine the national origins of the books and the academic backgrounds of their authors or editors, finding that with the help of American CTTs climate change denial has spread to several other nations and that an increasing portion of denial books are produced by individuals with no scientific training. It appears that at least 90% of denial books do not undergo peer review, allowing authors or editors to recycle scientifically unfounded claims that are then amplified by the conservative movement, media, and political elites.

  10. Cost-performance analysis of nutrient removal in a full-scale oxidation ditch process based on kinetic modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Rong Qi; Bo Wang; Zhe Zou; Guohong Wei; Min Yang

    2013-01-01

    A full-scale oxidation ditch process for treating sewage was simulated with the ASM2d model and optimized for minimal cost with acceptable performance in terms of ammonium and phosphorus removal.A unified index was introduced by integrating operational costs (aeration energy and sludge production) with effluent violations for performance evaluation.Scenario analysis showed that,in comparison with the baseline (all of the 9 aerators activated),the strategy of activating 5 aerators could save aeration energy significantly with an ammonium violation below 10%.Sludge discharge scenario analysis showed that a sludge discharge flow of 250-300 m3/day (solid retention time (SRT),13-15 days) was appropriate for the enhancement of phosphorus removal without excessive sludge production.The proposed optimal control strategy was:activating 5 rotating disks operated with a mode of "111100100" ("1"represents activation and "0" represents inactivation) for aeration and sludge discharge flow of 200 m3/day (SRT,19 days).Compared with the baseline,this strategy could achieve ammonium violation below 10% and TP violation below 30% with substantial reduction of aeration energy cost (46%) and minimal increment of sludge production (< 2%).This study provides a useful approach for the optimization of process operation and control.

  11. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  12. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  13. Design, durability and low cost processing technology for composite fan exit guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecherman, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    A program was conducted to design, fabricate and test a durable, low cost, lightweight composite fan exit guide vane for high bypass ratio gas turbine engine application. Eight candidate material/design combinations were evaluated by NASTRAN finite element analysis. Four of these candidate systems were selected for composite vane fabrication by two vendors. A core and shell vane design was chosen in which the unidirectional graphite core fiber was the same for all candidates. The shell material, fiber orientation and ply configuration were varied. Material tests were performed on raw material and composite specimens to establish specification requirements. Composite vanes were nondestructively inspected and subsequently fatigue tested in both dry and 'wet' conditions. The program provided relevant data with respect to design analysis, materials properties, inspection standards, improved durability, weight benefits and part price of the composite fan exit guide vane.

  14. VALORIZATION OF LOW-COST NATURAL MATERIALS IN DEPOLLUTION PROCESSES OF WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bulgariu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, are presented the adsorptive characteristics of a low-cost material that are abundant in our region, namely: Romanian peat moss from Poiana Stampei (Romania, for the removal of different toxic heavy metal ions (Pb(II, Hg(II, Co(II and Ni(II and oil products from aqueous media. The experiments have concerned the influence of several experimental parameters (initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, initial heavy metals concentration, contact time, and temperature on the heavy metals and oil products removal efficiency. The most important conditions for desorption of heavy metal ions from loaded-materials, required for their regeneration are also presented.

  15. Low cost tooling material and process for graphite and Kevlar composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, William I.

    1987-01-01

    An Extruded Sheet Tooling Compound (ESTC) was developed for use in quickly building low cost molds for fabricating composites. The ESTC is a very highly mineral-filled resin system formed into a 6 mm thick sheet. The sheet is laid on the pattern, vacuum (bag) is applied to remove air from the pattern surface, and the assembly is heat cured. The formed ESTC is then backed and/or framed and ready for use. The cured ESTC exhibits low coefficient of thermal expansion and maintains strength at temperatures of 180 to 200 C. Tools were made and used successfully for: Compression molding of high strength epoxy sheet molding compound, stamping of aluminum, resin transfer molding of polyester, and liquid resin molding of polyester. Several variations of ESTC can be made for specific requirements. Higher thermal conductivity can be achieved by using an aluminum particle filler. Room temperature gel is possible to allow use of foam patterns.

  16. A COST OPTIMISED PROCESS MEAN SET POINT FOR TWO SIDED SPECIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Van Wijck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper describesthe derivationof cost minimisingexpressions to optimallyset the processmeanof a manufacturing processrestrictedby a double-sidedspecification. Two scenariosare considered. For the first scenario,multiplereworkingiterationsare possible,while in the second,only one rework opportunityis allowed. A numericalexampleis also presented. Resultswere obtainedby numerical solutionand are presentedin graphicalformat.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdieartikelbeskryfdie afleidingvan koste-minimerende uitdrukkings wat die proses-gemiddelde van 'n vervaardigingsproses wat deur 'n twee-kantige spesifikasie beperk word,optimaaldaar stel. Twee gevalleword oorweeg. In die eerstegeval is verskeieherwerk-iterasies moontlik,terwyl die tweede gevalslegs een herwerk-geleentheid aanvaar. 'n Numeriesevoorbeeldwordook bespreek. Resultate is deur numerieseanaliseverkry en word grafiesvoorgestel.

  17. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  18. Petrochemicals may fare better as feed costs dip and processes are improved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wett, T.

    1986-04-07

    With fewer projects under way and with lower feedstock costs, the U.S. and European petrochemical industries could fare better this year. According to a survey by the Chemical Manufacturers Association, chemical industry shipments were up nearly 3% in the U.S. in 1984, compared to a year earlier. However, basic petrochemical production did not share uniformly in that increase. Comparative polymer and aromatics output was on the positive side, as was output of acetic acid, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride. But production of many other materials, including ethylene and propylene, was lower than the year before. The drop in ethylene output is somewhat deceiving. Producers for the most part were running available capacity near the maximum. Demand held up well and inventories dropped throughout the year, falling from over 2 billion lb to about 970 million lb as of the end of December. U.S. demand for ethylene and propylene is expected to remain strong in 1986. Propylene, in particular, should benefit from a worldwide shift to lighter feedstock. Petrochemical demand was also strong worldwide, and U.S. exports were relatively good. The long term projection is for a drop in the U.S. balance of trade in petrochemicals for the rest of the decade. But 1985 saw mishaps at production facilities in Europe that actually prompted a healthy increase in imports from the U.S., particularly for high-density polyethylene. Still, the International Trade Commission sees a drop in the U.S. petrochemical trade balance from the current $10 billion to around $1.6 billion in 1990 as a result of the expansion of the petrochemical industry in developing countries. Falling oil prices have given European producers some breathing room, however. One producer feels that European plants based on naphtha can, at least for a time, be competitive with the Middle East's ethane-fed plants, when delivery costs are factored in.

  19. Feasibility Analysis of Low Cost Graphical Processing Units for Electromagnetic Field Simulations by Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhari, A V; Gupta, M R

    2013-01-01

    Among several techniques available for solving Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) problems, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is one of the best suited approaches when a parallelized hardware platform is used. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of implementing the FDTD method using the NVIDIA GT 520, a low cost Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), for solving the differential form of Maxwell's equation in time domain. Initially a generalized benchmarking problem of bandwidth test and another benchmarking problem of 'matrix left division is discussed for understanding the correlation between the problem size and the performance on the CPU and the GPU respectively. This is further followed by the discussion of the FDTD method, again implemented on both, the CPU and the GT520 GPU. For both of the above comparisons, the CPU used is Intel E5300, a low cost dual core CPU.

  20. 施工企业全过程造价控制%Whole-process cost control of construction enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛彩英

    2016-01-01

    Based on whole-process cost control importance of construction enterprises,the paper discusses measures of implementing cost control at bidding and tender phase,engineering construction phase and completion settlement,with a view to realize maximum economic and social ben-efits in the premise of guaranteeing engineering quality,construction duration and safety.%基于施工企业进行全过程造价控制的重要性,论述了在招投标、工程施工、竣工结算等阶段实施造价控制的措施,旨在保证工程质量、工期、安全的前提下,实现经济社会效益的最大化。

  1. Enhance accuracy in Software cost and schedule estimation by using "Uncertainty Analysis and Assessment" in the system modeling process

    CERN Document Server

    Vasantrao, Kardile Vilas

    2011-01-01

    Accurate software cost and schedule estimation are essential for software project success. Often it referred to as the "black art" because of its complexity and uncertainty, software estimation is not as difficult or puzzling as people think. In fact, generating accurate estimates is straightforward-once you understand the intensity of uncertainty and framework for the modeling process. The mystery to successful software estimation-distilling academic information and real-world experience into a practical guide for working software professionals. Instead of arcane treatises and rigid modeling techniques, this will guide highlights a proven set of procedures, understandable formulas, and heuristics that individuals and development teams can apply to their projects to help achieve estimation proficiency with choose appropriate development approaches In the early stage of software life cycle project manager are inefficient to estimate the effort, schedule, cost estimation and its development approach .This in tu...

  2. Smart Low-Cost Electronic Module for Simultaneous Sensor and Process Faults Moni Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection and isolation of air vehicle process failures is difficult because air vehicle dynamics are nonlinear and the vehicle has many important and...

  3. CESAR cost-efficient methods and processes for safety-relevant embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The book summarizes the findings and contributions of the European ARTEMIS project, CESAR, for improving and enabling interoperability of methods, tools, and processes to meet the demands in embedded systems development across four domains - avionics, automotive, automation, and rail. The contributions give insight to an improved engineering and safety process life-cycle for the development of safety critical systems. They present new concept of engineering tools integration platform to improve the development of safety critical embedded systems and illustrate capacity of this framework for end-user instantiation to specific domain needs and processes. They also advance state-of-the-art in component-based development as well as component and system validation and verification, with tool support. And finally they describe industry relevant evaluated processes and methods especially designed for the embedded systems sector as well as easy adoptable common interoperability principles for software tool integratio...

  4. Novel CdTe Cell Fabrication Process with Potential for Low Cost and High Throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X.; Sheldon, P.

    2000-01-01

    There are several production disadvantages inherent in the conventional SnO(2)/CdS/CdTe manufacturing processes. In this paper, we report a novel manufacturing process for fabrication of polycrystalline Cd(2)SnO(4)/Zn(2)/SnO(4)/CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells that yielded a CdS/CdTe device with an NREL-confirmed efficiency of 14.0%.

  5. Price Transmission Mechanisms among Disaggregated Processing Stages of Food: Demand-Pull or Cost-Push?

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Dae-Heum; Koo, Won W.

    2009-01-01

    The recent concurrent surges of food and commodity prices renew the debate on the causal directions between producer and consumer prices. To address this issue, we utilize the stage of processing system incorporating retail stage beyond crude, intermediate, and finished processing stages of food and employ the method proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) and Dolado and Lütkepohl (1996) of Granger causality tests. The overall results show that consistent with theory of derived demand, the deman...

  6. Price Transmission Mechanism among Disaggregated Processing Stages of Food: Demand-Pull or Cost-Push?

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Dae-Heum; Koo, Won W.

    2013-01-01

    The recent concurrent surges of food and commodity prices renew the debate on the causal directions between producer and consumer prices. To address this issue, we utilize the stage of processing system incorporating retail stage beyond crude, intermediate, and finished processing stages of food and employ the method proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) and Dolado and Lütkepohl (1996) of Granger causality tests. The overall results show that consistent with theory of derived demand, the deman...

  7. 17 CFR 240.19d-3 - Applications for review of final disciplinary sanctions, denials of membership, participation or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... limitations of access to services imposed by self-regulatory organizations. 240.19d-3 Section 240.19d-3... sanctions, denials of membership, participation or association, or prohibitions or limitations of access to... disciplinary sanction, denial or conditioning of membership, participation, bar from association,...

  8. 75 FR 68094 - Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable... AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0211; FRL-9215-5] Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15 Percent...

  9. 24 CFR 960.204 - Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activity or drug abuse by household members. 960.204 Section 960.204 Housing and Urban Development... HOUSING Admission § 960.204 Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members. (a) Required denial of admission—(1) Persons evicted for drug-related criminal activity. The...

  10. 78 FR 6839 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3 Denial of Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3 Denial of Amendment to Facility Operating License AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Denial; opportunity to request a...

  11. Denial-of-Service Security Attack in the Continuous-Time World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuling; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid systems are integrations of discrete computation and continuous physical evolution. The physical components of such systems introduce safety requirements, the achievement of which asks for the correct monitoring and control from the discrete controllers. However, due to denial-of-service...... security attack, the expected information from the controllers is not received and as a consequence the physical systems may fail to behave as expected. This paper proposes a formal framework for expressing denial-of-service security attack in hybrid systems. As a virtue, a physical system is able to plan...... for reasonable behavior in case the ideal control fails due to unreliable communication, in such a way that the safety of the system upon denial-of-service is still guaranteed. In the context of the modeling language, we develop an inference system for verifying safety of hybrid systems, without putting any...

  12. Research on Cost Index of Working Procedure in Manufacturing Process Based on Activity-Based Costing%基于作业成本法的制造过程工序成本指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解德凤; 王慧; 付秀丽; 聂金宁

    2011-01-01

    In order to control the quality cost of manufacturing process effectively, it proposes the method of cost index of working procedure based on activity - based costing. Taking the manufacturing process of transmission shaft in heavy duty machine tools enterprise as an example, it uses activity- based costing theory to distribute the loss cost of manufacturing process among the working procedures, formulates the maximum allowable quality loss index of working procedure. The results show that working procedure cost index can play an important part in improving the qualified rate of product, reducing the mass loss and quality cost of manufacturing process.%为给制造过程质量成本控制提供有效依据,提出了基于作业成本法的工序成本指标研究方法.以某重型机床制造企业一批传动轴的加工过程为例,采用作业成本法理论,将制造过程产生的损失费用分配到各工序,制定各工序最大允许质量损失指标.结果表明,工序成本指标研究对降低制造过程质量损失率、提高产品合格率、降低质量成本具有一定的指导作用.

  13. ICE: a scalable, low-cost FPGA-based telescope signal processing and networking system

    CERN Document Server

    Bandura, K; Cliche, J F; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Gilbert, A J; Griffin, S; Hsyu, G; Ittah, D; Parra, J Mena; Montgomery, J; Pinsonneault-Marotte, T; Siegel, S; Smecher, G; Tang, Q Y; Vanderlinde, K; Whitehorn, N

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the 'ICE' hardware and software framework that implements large arrays of interconnected FPGA-based data acquisition, signal processing and networking nodes economically. The system was conceived for application to radio, millimeter and sub-millimeter telescope readout systems that have requirements beyond typical off-the-shelf processing systems, such as careful control of interference signals produced by the digital electronics, and clocking of all elements in the system from a single precise observatory-derived oscillator. A new generation of telescopes operating at these frequency bands and designed with a vastly increased emphasis on digital signal processing to support their detector multiplexing technology or high-bandwidth correlators---data rates exceeding a terabyte per second---are becoming common. The ICE system is built around a custom FPGA motherboard that makes use of an Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA and ARM-based co-processor. The system is specialized for specific application...

  14. Ultra-low-voltage-trigger thyristor for on-chip ESD protection without extra process cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shan; Jun, He; Wenyi, Huang

    2009-07-01

    A new thyristor is proposed and realized in the foundry's 0.18-μm CMOS process for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. Without extra mask layers or process steps, the new ultra-low-voltage-trigger thyristor (ULVT thyristor) has a trigger voltage as low as 6.7 V and an ESD robustness exceeding 50 mA/μm, which enables effective ESD protection. Compared with the traditional medium-voltage-trigger thyristor (MVT thyristor), the new structure not only has a lower trigger voltage, but can also provide better ESD protection under both positive and negative ESD zapping conditions.

  15. Ultra-low-voltage-trigger thyristor for on-chip ESD protection without extra process cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan Yi [Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); He Jun; Huang Wenyi, E-mail: iamshanyi@163.co, E-mail: yi.shan@gracesemi.co [Grace Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A new thyristor is proposed and realized in the foundry's 0.18-{mu}m CMOS process for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. Without extra mask layers or process steps, the new ultra-low-voltage-trigger thyristor (ULVT thyristor) has a trigger voltage as low as 6.7 V and an ESD robustness exceeding 50 mA/{mu}m, which enables effective ESD protection. Compared with the traditional medium-voltage-trigger thyristor (MVT thyristor), the new structure not only has a lower trigger voltage, but can also provide better ESD protection under both positive and negative ESD zapping conditions.

  16. Data processing workflows from low-cost digital survey to various applications: three case studies of Chinese historic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Cao, Y. K.

    2015-08-01

    The paper focuses on the versatility of data processing workflows ranging from BIM-based survey to structural analysis and reverse modeling. In China nowadays, a large number of historic architecture are in need of restoration, reinforcement and renovation. But the architects are not prepared for the conversion from the booming AEC industry to architectural preservation. As surveyors working with architects in such projects, we have to develop efficient low-cost digital survey workflow robust to various types of architecture, and to process the captured data for architects. Although laser scanning yields high accuracy in architectural heritage documentation and the workflow is quite straightforward, the cost and portability hinder it from being used in projects where budget and efficiency are of prime concern. We integrate Structure from Motion techniques with UAV and total station in data acquisition. The captured data is processed for various purposes illustrated with three case studies: the first one is as-built BIM for a historic building based on registered point clouds according to Ground Control Points; The second one concerns structural analysis for a damaged bridge using Finite Element Analysis software; The last one relates to parametric automated feature extraction from captured point clouds for reverse modeling and fabrication.

  17. Key parameters influencing the NOx reduction process by low-cost char pellets: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Soriano-Mora; A. Bueno-Lopez; A. Garcia-Garcia; R. Perry; C.E. Snape [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    High potassium content char briquettes prepared from a bituminous coal have shown to be remarkably selective towards NOx reduction by the carbon contained within them. For the present work, it was decided to pursue the preparation of a number of pelletised formulations as well as testing reaction temperatures and lifetime tests. Low-cost carbon feedstocks were selected for pellet preparation (a metallurgical coke breeze, petroleum coke fines and a medium temperature domestic coke), two coals (an anthracite and a high volatile bituminous coal), a scrap tyre pyrolysis char and a carbon concentrate from PFA. Pellets were prepared from a solid mixture containing 65% of air-dried carbon, 30% potassium hydroxide and 5% of cashew nut shell liquid as binder. The results show that good and constant values of NOx reduction are kept after 2 hours of reaction as well as satisfactory selectivity factors (up to 0.45). This parameter is highly dependent on potassium content of the samples and on reaction temperature. The most efficient pellets in terms of high selectivity and high amount of NOx reduced were analysed under lifetime tests at 400{sup o}C. Very encouraging results were obtained showing that high values of NOx conversions (well above O{sub 2} conversions), long lifetimes, no uncontrolled increase in sample temperature and very low CO emissions, (leading to an optimum sample efficiency) were observed throughout lifetime tests. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  19. Polymer Microfluidics: Simple, Low-Cost Fabrication Process Bridging Academic Lab Research to Commercialized Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wen Tsao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using polymer materials to fabricate microfluidic devices provides simple, cost effective, and disposal advantages for both lab-on-a-chip (LOC devices and micro total analysis systems (μTAS. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer and thermoplastics are the two major polymer materials used in microfluidics. The fabrication of PDMS and thermoplastic microfluidic device can be categorized as front-end polymer microchannel fabrication and post-end microfluidic bonding procedures, respectively. PDMS and thermoplastic materials each have unique advantages and their use is indispensable in polymer microfluidics. Therefore, the proper selection of polymer microfabrication is necessary for the successful application of microfluidics. In this paper, we give a short overview of polymer microfabrication methods for microfluidics and discuss current challenges and future opportunities for research in polymer microfluidics fabrication. We summarize standard approaches, as well as state-of-art polymer microfluidic fabrication methods. Currently, the polymer microfluidic device is at the stage of technology transition from research labs to commercial production. Thus, critical consideration is also required with respect to the commercialization aspects of fabricating polymer microfluidics. This article provides easy-to-understand illustrations and targets to assist the research community in selecting proper polymer microfabrication strategies in microfluidics.

  20. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  1. Reducing the computational cost of the authentication process in SET protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Satizábal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SET es un protocolo seguro de pago, con tarjeta de crédito, que proporciona un modelo robusto de seguridad para entregar información personal y financiera a través de Internet, basado en la integridad de los datos, su confidencialidad y la autenticación mutua. Sin embargo, las partes involucradas en una transacción deben llevar a cabo diversas operaciones criptográficas, lo que puede ser un problema cuando se usan dispositivos móviles con baja capacidad de almacenamiento y procesamiento. Este artículo muestra como se puede reducir el coste computacional de SET, mediante el uso de otro protocolo llamado TRUTHC en conjunto con una Infraestructura de Clave Pública (PKI. Los resultados muestran que, usando TRUTHC, el tiempo total de ejecución puede ser reducido un 3% desde el punto de vista del cliente. Esta reducción se mantiene aunque aumente la longitud del camino de certificación.

  2. Investigation of Low-Cost Surface Processing Techniques for Large-Size Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuang-Tung Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present work is to develop a simple and effective method of enhancing conversion efficiency in large-size solar cells using multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si wafer. In this work, industrial-type mc-Si solar cells with area of 125×125 mm2 were acid etched to produce simultaneously POCl3 emitters and silicon nitride deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD. The study of surface morphology and reflectivity of different mc-Si etched surfaces has also been discussed in this research. Using our optimal acid etching solution ratio, we are able to fabricate mc-Si solar cells of 16.34% conversion efficiency with double layers silicon nitride (Si3N4 coating. From our experiment, we find that depositing double layers silicon nitride coating on mc-Si solar cells can get the optimal performance parameters. Open circuit (Voc is 616 mV, short circuit current (Jsc is 34.1 mA/cm2, and minority carrier diffusion length is 474.16 μm. The isotropic texturing and silicon nitride layers coating approach contribute to lowering cost and achieving high efficiency in mass production.

  3. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS-MULTIPLE NETWORKS WITH BENEFITS,COSTS,OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas L. SAATY

    2004-01-01

    The general theory of the ANP enables one to deal with the benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (the BOCR merits) of a decision, by introducing the notion of negative priorities for C and R along with the rating (not comparison) of the top priority alternative synthesized for each of the four merits in terms of strategic criteria to enable one to combine the four B, O, C, and R values of each alternative into a single outcome. Strategic criteria are very basic criteria individuals and groups use to assess whether they should make any of the many decisions they face in their daily operations.They do not depend on any particular decision for their priorities but are assessed in terms of the goals and values of the individual or organization. Synthesis is made with two formulas, one multiplicative and one additive subtractive that can give rise to negative overall priorities. This paper summarizes and illustrates basic complex decisions involving several control criteria under each of the BOCR merits.

  4. A low cost fluorescence lifetime measurement system based on SPAD detectors and FPGA processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, N.; Alonso, O.; Canals, J.; Vilà, A.; Dieguez, A.

    2017-02-01

    This work presents a low cost fluorescence life time measurement system, aimed at carrying out fast diagnostic tests through label detection in a portable system so it can be used in a medical consultation, within a short time span. The system uses Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC), measuring the arrival time of individual photons and building a histogram of those times, showing the fluorescence decay of the label which is characteristic of each fluorescent substance. The system is implemented using a Xilinx FPGA which controls the experiment and includes a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) to perform measurements with a resolution in the order of tenths of picoseconds. Also included are a laser diode and the driving electronics to generate short pulses as well as a HV-CMOS implemented Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) as a high gain sensor. The system is entirely configurable so it can easily be adapted to the target label molecule and measurement needs. The histogram is constructed within the FPGA and can then be read as convenient. Various performance parameters are also shown, as well as experimental measurements of a quantum dot fluorescence decay as a proof of concept.

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Planning Processes: An Interactive Instrument in an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, A.J.; Gaaff, A.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing pressure on space demands careful assessment between competing functions in a planning process. Especially, in metropolitan landscapes, space is in short supply and hence expensive. Housing, industrial sites and office parks, and infrastructure are strong drivers of landscape change, ofte

  6. The Palomar Transient Factory: High Quality Realtime Data Processing in a Cost-Constrained Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Surace, J; Masci, F; Grillmair, C; Helou, G

    2015-01-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is a synoptic sky survey in operation since 2009. PTF utilizes a 7.1 square degree camera on the Palomar 48-inch Schmidt telescope to survey the sky primarily at a single wavelength (R-band) at a rate of 1000-3000 square degrees a night. The data are used to detect and study transient and moving objects such as gamma ray bursts, supernovae and asteroids, as well as variable phenomena such as quasars and Galactic stars. The data processing system at IPAC handles realtime processing and detection of transients, solar system object processing, high photometric precision processing and light curve generation, and long-term archiving and curation. This was developed under an extremely limited budget profile in an unusually agile development environment. Here we discuss the mechanics of this system and our overall development approach. Although a significant scientific installation in of itself, PTF also serves as the prototype for our next generation project, the Zwicky Transien...

  7. Processing Trade Tariff Reductions Lead to a Decline in Copper Smelting Enterprises’ Export Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Notice of the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation on Labor VAT and Consumption Tax Policy on Export Goods(Cai Shui 〔 2012 〕 39) was released. Three percent consolidated tax on copper concentrate processing export trade under the proc-

  8. BM/C3 Force Model VLSI/VHSIC Digital Processing: A Cost Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    instructions per second. Three module types from the 1750A program are planned for use in CSP configurations. These are the 1750A central processing unit (CPU...number of produccions lots is increased. This is similar to a learning curve effect. Quantity demanded largely explains the reason why memory chips are

  9. Fractionation of whey protein isolate with supercritical carbon dioxide – process modeling and cost estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) containing 55% ...

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Planning Processes: An Interactive Instrument in an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, A.J.; Gaaff, A.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing pressure on space demands careful assessment between competing functions in a planning process. Especially, in metropolitan landscapes, space is in short supply and hence expensive. Housing, industrial sites and office parks, and infrastructure are strong drivers of landscape change, ofte

  11. Item Unique Identification Capability Expansion: Established Process Analysis, Cost Benefit Analysis, and Optimal Marking Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    materials surface. d. Ideal Application Alloys , metals, and plated products, too numerous to mention are all able to be marked using this method...plastic, and phenolic, ferrous , and nonferrous metals” (2-14). 11. Laser Bonding The Secretary of the Air Force (2008) states: This process

  12. Incorporating Cost-Effectiveness Data in a Fair Process for Priority Setting Efforts; Comment on “Use of Cost-Effectiveness Data in Priority Setting Decisions: Experiences from the National Guidelines for Heart Diseases in Sweden”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitaporn Youngkong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness data is useful for use in priority setting decisions in order to improve the efficiency of resources used. This paper thereby responds to Eckard et al. which addressed the use of cost-effectiveness data in the actual prioritization decisions in the Swedish national clinical guidelines for heart diseases. Based on a set of experiences on the use of economic evaluation in priority setting processes, this paper emphasizes the potential approach to incorporating cost-effectiveness data in the prioritization process to enhance transparency of the decisions, and highlights the importance of designing a fair decision-making process that can enforce the sustained implementation of cost-effectiveness data.

  13. Sustainability cost accounting, Part 1: A Monetary procedure to evaluate the sustainability of technologies in the South African process industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Engineering Nov 2006 Vol 17(2): 35-51 SUSTAINABILITY COST ACCOUNTING - PART 1: A MONETARY PROCEDURE TO EVALUATE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF TECHNOLOGIES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PROCESS INDUSTRY A.C. Brent1,2, R.P.G. van Erck1, and C. Labuschagne1 1Chair... and Systems Engineering, University of Pretoria. [8] Labuschagne, C., Brent, A.C. and van Erck, R.P.G. 2005. Assessing the sustainability performances of industries, Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(4), pp 373-385. 50 [9] Gray, R.H. 1992. Accounting...

  14. Low-cost digital image processing on a university mainframe computer. [considerations in selecting and/or designing instructional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. H. L.

    1981-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using university mainframe computers in digital image processing instruction are listed. Aspects to be considered when designing software for this purpose include not only two general audience, but also the capabilities of the system regarding the size of the image/subimage, preprocessing and enhancement functions, geometric correction and registration techniques; classification strategy, classification algorithm, multitemporal analysis, and ancilliary data and geographic information systems. The user/software/hardware interaction as well as acquisition and operating costs must also be considered.

  15. SUSTAINABILITY COST ACCOUNTING - PART 2: A CASE STUDY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PROCESS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A Sustainability Cost Accounting (SCA procedure has been introduced that expresses the impacts on sustainable development associated with a developed technology, by means of a common financial denominator. This paper uses a case study to demonstrate and assess the SCA procedure, which considers the construction and operation of a hypothetical Gas-to-Liquid (GTL fuelmanufacturing facility at a specific location in South Africa. The SCA indicators show that the negative environmental impacts associated with the GTL technology outweigh the internal economic benefits for the company. However, a net positive social benefit is associated with the technology, which decision-makers should consider with respect of the overall sustainability of the technology. Certain limitations of the SCA procedure are highlighted, and recommendations are made to develop such a methodology further.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Volhoubaarheid Koste-Rekeningkunde prosedure (VKR word voorgestel waarvolgens die impakte van ’n ontwikkelde tegnologie op volhoubaarheid in ’n gemeenskaplike finansiële waarde aangegee kan word. ’n Gevallestudie word hier gebruik om die VKR-prosedure te demonstreer. Die gevallestudie beskryf die konstruksie en bedryf van ’n hipotetiese Gas-tot-Vloeistof brandstofvervaardigingsfasiliteit (GTV in ‘n spesifieke area van Suid-Afrika. Die VKR-indikators dui aan dat die negatiewe omgewingsimpakte van die GTV tegnologie tot ‘n geringe mate groter is as die interne ekonomiese voordele vir die maatskappy. Die tegnologie het wel oorwegende positiewe sosiale voordele wat besluitnemers in ag moet neem wanneer die globale volhoubaarheid van die tegnologie ge-assesseer word. Sekere beperkinge van die VKR-prosedure word uitgelig en voorstelle word gemaak om dié tipe metodologie verder te ontwikkel.

  16. The Witch Navigator - A Low Cost GNSS Software Receiver for Advanced Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jakubov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The developement of advanced GNSS signal processing algorithms such as multi-constellation, multi-frequency and multi-antenna navigation requires an easily reprogrammable software defined radio solution. Various receiver architectures for this purpose have been introduced. RF front-end with FPGA universal correlators on ExpressCard connected directly to PC was selected and manufactured. Such a~unique hardware combination provides the GNSS researchers and engineers with a~great convenience of writing the signal processing algorithms including tracking, acquisition and positioning in the Linux application programming interface and enables them to reconfigure the RF front-end easily by the PC program. With more of these ExpressCards connected to the PC, the number of the RF channels, correlators or antennas can be increased to further boost the computational power. This paper reveals the implementation aspects of the receiver, named the Witch Navigator, and~gives the key test results.

  17. Risk-Sensitive Control of Pure Jump Process on Countable Space with Near Monotone Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh Kumar, K., E-mail: suresh@math.iitb.ac.in; Pal, Chandan, E-mail: cpal@math.iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Mathematics (India)

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we study risk-sensitive control problem with controlled continuous time pure jump process on a countable space as state dynamics. We prove multiplicative dynamic programming principle, elliptic and parabolic Harnack’s inequalities. Using the multiplicative dynamic programing principle and the Harnack’s inequalities, we prove the existence and a characterization of optimal risk-sensitive control under the near monotone condition.

  18. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs for alternative methods of processing fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Datta, N; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Sampedro, F; Bonnaillie, L M

    2014-07-01

    Computer simulation is a useful tool for benchmarking electrical and fuel energy consumption and water use in a fluid milk plant. In this study, a computer simulation model of the fluid milk process based on high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization was extended to include models for processes for shelf-stable milk and extended shelf-life milk that may help prevent the loss or waste of milk that leads to increases in the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for fluid milk. The models were for UHT processing, crossflow microfiltration (MF) without HTST pasteurization, crossflow MF followed by HTST pasteurization (MF/HTST), crossflow MF/HTST with partial homogenization, and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing, and were incorporated into the existing model for the fluid milk process. Simulation trials were conducted assuming a production rate for the plants of 113.6 million liters of milk per year to produce only whole milk (3.25%) and 40% cream. Results showed that GHG emissions in the form of process-related CO₂ emissions, defined as CO₂ equivalents (e)/kg of raw milk processed (RMP), and specific energy consumptions (SEC) for electricity and natural gas use for the HTST process alone were 37.6g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.14 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.13 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively. Emissions of CO2 and SEC for electricity and natural gas use were highest for the PEF process, with values of 99.1g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.44 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively, and lowest for the UHT process at 31.4 g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.17 MJ/kg of RMP. Estimated unit production costs associated with the various processes were lowest for the HTST process and MF/HTST with partial homogenization at $0.507/L and highest for the UHT process at $0.60/L. The increase in shelf life associated with the UHT and MF processes may eliminate some of the supply chain product and consumer losses and waste of milk and compensate for the small increases in GHG

  19. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-03-24

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In total 305 workers participated in the trial. Outcomes were retrieved during a WHS program, by multiple questionnaires, and from company registries. Primary outcomes were sickness absence, work ability, and productivity. Secondary outcomes were health, vitality, and psychosocial workload. Data were analyzed with linear and logistic multilevel models. Cost-benefit analyses from the employer's perspective were performed as well. Results Primary outcomes sickness absence (OR = 1.40), work ability (B = -0.63) and productivity (OR = 0.71) were better in the control condition. Secondary outcomes did not or minimally differ between conditions. Of the 12 secondary outcomes, the only outcome that scored better in the experimental condition was meaning of work (B = 0.18). Controlling for confounders did not or minimally change the results. However, our stepped wedge design did not enable adjustment for confounding in the last two periods of the trial. The WHS program resulted in higher costs for the employer on the short and middle term. Conclusions Primary outcomes did not improve after program implementation and secondary outcomes remained equal after implementation. The program was not cost-beneficial after 1-3 year follow-up. Main limitation that may have contributed to absence of positive effects may be program failure, because interventions were not deployed as intended.

  20. Use of Data Denial Experiments to Evaluate ESA Forecast Sensitivity Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Manobianco, J; Waight, K; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    wind speed and vertical temperature difference. Ideally, the data assimilation scheme used in the experiments would have been based upon an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that was similar to the ESA method used to diagnose the Mid-Colombia Basin sensitivity patterns in the previous studies. However, the use of an EnKF system at high resolution is impractical because of the very high computational cost. Thus, it was decided to use the three-dimensional variational analysis data assimilation that is less computationally intensive and more economically practical for generating operational forecasts. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the ESA observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach which is the focus of this task and report; and (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. The objective of the OSE task involves validating the ESA-MOOA results from the previous sensitivity studies for the Mid-Columbia Basin by testing the impact of existing meteorological tower measurements on the 0- to 6-hour ahead 80-m wind forecasts at the target locations. The testing of the ESA-MOOA method used a combination of data assimilation techniques and data denial experiments to accomplish the task objective.

  1. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Wood, Benjamin

    2014-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the flue gas of coal-fired powerplants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO2-capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a pilot-scale continuous CO2 absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. As part of that effort, an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a CO2-capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired powerplant was conducted. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP- 1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonicacid (DDBSA) were also identified foranalysis. An EH&S assessment was also completed for the manufacturing process for the GAP-1m solvent. The chemicals associated with the manufacturing process include methanol, xylene, allyl chloride, potassium cyanate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO), tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, Karstedt catalyst, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Aliquat 336, methyl carbamate, potassium chloride, trimethylamine, and (3-aminopropyl) dimethyl silanol. The toxicological effects of each component of both the CO2 capture system and the manufacturing process were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. Engineering and control systems, including environmental abatement, are described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  2. Hot-pressed transparent PLZT ceramics from low cost chemical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Santos

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT ceramics were obtained with high transmittance in the visible range by a combination of an inexpensive chemical processing and hot pressing. Optical, microstructural, pyroelectric, ferroelectric and dielectric properties characterized in this study attested the applicability of the employed method in the production of PLZT transparent ferroelectric ceramics. In fact, the corresponding analyzed physical parameters are in very good agreement with those obtained in samples traditionally prepared by other methods. Furthermore, due to high sample quality, a phenomenological analysis of the PLZT 10/65/35 relaxor features was performed in these ceramics.

  3. Evaluation of Selected Chemical Processes for Production of Low-cost Silicon, Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, J. M.; Browning, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Refinements of the design of the 50 MT/year Experimental Process System Development Unit were made and competitive bids were received from mechanical, electrical, and structural contractors. Bids on most of the equipment were received and cataloged. Emergency procedures were defined to counter a variety of contingencies disclosed in operations and safety reviews. Experimental work with an electrolytic cell for zinc chloride disclosed no significant increase in power efficiency by steps taken to increase electrolyte circulation. On the basis of materials compatibility and permeability tests, 310 stainless steel was chosen for the shell of the fluidized-bed reactor and SiC-coated graphite for the liner.

  4. Low cost silicon solar array project large area silicon sheet task: Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Growth configurations were developed which produced crystals having low residual stress levels. The properties of a 106 mm diameter round crucible were evaluated and it was found that this design had greatly enhanced temperature fluctuations arising from convection in the melt. Thermal modeling efforts were directed to developing finite element models of the 106 mm round crucible and an elongated susceptor/crucible configuration. Also, the thermal model for the heat loss modes from the dendritic web was examined for guidance in reducing the thermal stress in the web. An economic analysis was prepared to evaluate the silicon web process in relation to price goals.

  5. Just-in-time preemptive single machine problem with costs of earliness/tardiness, interruption and work-in-process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers preemption and idle time are allowed in a single machine scheduling problem with just-in-time (JIT approach. It incorporates Earliness/Tardiness (E/T penalties, interruption penalties and holding cost of jobs which are waiting to be processed as work-in-process (WIP. Generally in non-preemptive problems, E/T penalties are a function of the completion time of the jobs. Then, we introduce a non-linear preemptive scheduling model where the earliness penalty depends on the starting time of a job. The model is liberalized by an elaborately–designed procedure to reach the optimum solution. To validate and verify the performance of proposed model, computational results are presented by solving a number of numerical examples.

  6. An alternative cost-effective image processing based sensor for continuous turbidity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Matthew Min Enn; Ng, Sing Muk; Chua, Hong Siang

    2017-03-01

    Turbidity is the degree to which the optical clarity of water is reduced by impurities in the water. High turbidity values in rivers and lakes promote the growth of pathogen, reduce dissolved oxygen levels and reduce light penetration. The conventional ways of on-site turbidity measurements involve the use of optical sensors similar to those used in commercial turbidimeters. However, these instruments require frequent maintenance due to biological fouling on the sensors. Thus, image processing was proposed as an alternative technique for continuous turbidity measurement to reduce frequency of maintenance. The camera was kept out of water to avoid biofouling while other parts of the system submerged in water can be coated with anti-fouling surface. The setup developed consisting of a webcam, a light source, a microprocessor and a motor used to control the depth of a reference object. The image processing algorithm quantifies the relationship between the number of circles detected on the reference object and the depth of the reference object. By relating the quantified data to turbidity, the setup was able to detect turbidity levels from 20 NTU to 380 NTU with measurement error of 15.7 percent. The repeatability and sensitivity of the turbidity measurement was found to be satisfactory.

  7. A HIgh Current Density Low Cost Niobium 3 Tin Titanium Doped Conductor Utilizing A Novel Internal Tin Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A Zeitlin

    2005-02-23

    An internal tin conductor has been developed using a Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) with an integral Nb barrier surrounding the Nb filaments. High current densities of 3000 A/mm2+ at 12 T and 1800 A/mm2 at 15 T have been achieved in conductors as small as 0.152 mm with the use of Nb7.5Ta filaments and Ti in the Sn core. In contrast, conductors with pure Nb and Ti in the Sn achieved 2700 A/mm2 at 12 T. Two internal fins, developed and patented on the project, were introduced into the filament array and reduced the effective filament diameter (Deff) by 38%. Additional fins will further reduce Deff The conductor was produced from 152.4 mm diameter billets to produce wire as small as 0.152 mm. The process promises be scaleable to 304 mm diameter billets yielding wire of 0.304 mm diameter. The MEIT process wire was easy to draw with relatively few breaks. The cost of this conductor in large production quantities based on the cost model presented could meet the 1.5 $/kilo amp meter(KAM) target of the HEP community

  8. Low-cost adaptive square-root cubature Kalman filter for systems with process model uncer tainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Zhang; Shuida Bao; Wenhao Bi; Yuan Yuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel low-cost adaptive square-root cubature Kalman filter (LCASCKF) is proposed to enhance the robustness of pro-cess models while only increasing the computational load slightly. It is wel-known that the Kalman filter cannot handle uncertainties in a process model, such as initial state estimation errors, parameter mismatch and abrupt state changes. These uncertainties severely affect filter performance and may even provoke divergence. A strong tracking filter (STF), which utilizes a suboptimal fading fac-tor, is an adaptive approach that is commonly adopted to solve this problem. However, if the strong tracking SCKF (STSCKF) uses the same method as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) to introduce the suboptimal fading factor, it greatly increases the computational load. To avoid this problem, a low-cost introductory method is proposed and a hypothesis testing theory is applied to detect uncertainties. The computational load analysis is performed by counting the total number of floating-point operations and it is found that the computational load of LCASCKF is close to that of SCKF. Experimental results prove that the LCASCKF performs as wel as STSCKF, while the increase in computational load is much lower than STSCKF.

  9. High-Performance Flexible Transparent Electrode with an Embedded Metal Mesh Fabricated by Cost-Effective Solution Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad; Lee, Sangeon; Jang, Taehee; Xiong, Ze; Zhang, Cuiping; Tang, Jinyao; Guo, L Jay; Li, Wen-Di

    2016-06-01

    A new structure of flexible transparent electrodes is reported, featuring a metal mesh fully embedded and mechanically anchored in a flexible substrate, and a cost-effective solution-based fabrication strategy for this new transparent electrode. The embedded nature of the metal-mesh electrodes provides a series of advantages, including surface smoothness that is crucial for device fabrication, mechanical stability under high bending stress, strong adhesion to the substrate with excellent flexibility, and favorable resistance against moisture, oxygen, and chemicals. The novel fabrication process replaces vacuum-based metal deposition with an electrodeposition process and is potentially suitable for high-throughput, large-volume, and low-cost production. In particular, this strategy enables fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio (thickness to linewidth) metal mesh, substantially improving conductivity without considerably sacrificing transparency. Various prototype flexible transparent electrodes are demonstrated with transmittance higher than 90% and sheet resistance below 1 ohm sq(-1) , as well as extremely high figures of merit up to 1.5 × 10(4) , which are among the highest reported values in recent studies. Finally using our embedded metal-mesh electrode, a flexible transparent thin-film heater is demonstrated with a low power density requirement, rapid response time, and a low operating voltage.

  10. Application of a Hybrid Uf-Ro Process to Geothermal Water Desalination. Concentrate Disposal and Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available M embrane-based water desalination processes and hybrid technologies are often considered as a technologically and economically viable alternative for desalination of geothermal waters. This has been confirmed by the results of pilot studies concerning the UF-RO desalination of geothermal waters extracted from various geological structures in Poland. The assessment of the feasibility of implementing the water desalination process analysed on an industrial scale is largely dependent on the method and possibility of disposing or utilising the concentrate. The analyses conducted in this respect have demonstrated that it is possible to use the solution obtained as a balneological product owing to its elevated metasilicic acid, fluorides and iodides ions content. Due to environmental considerations, injecting the concentrate back into the formation is the preferable solution. The energy efficiency and economic analysis conducted demonstrated that the cost effectiveness of implementing the UF-RO process in a geothermal system on an industrial scale largely depends on the factors related to its operation, including without limitation the amount of geothermal water extracted, water salinity, the absorption parameters of the wells used to inject water back into the formation, the scale of problems related to the disposal of cooled water, local demand for drinking and household water, etc. The decrease in the pressure required to inject water into the formation as well as the reduction in the stream of the water injected are among the key cost-effectiveness factors. Ensuring favourable desalinated water sale terms (price/quantity is also a very important consideration owing to the electrical power required to conduct the UF-RO process.

  11. Treatment of urban river contaminated sediment with ex situ advanced oxidation processes: technical feasibility, environmental discharges and cost-performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dickson Y S; Liu, Tongzhou; Lo, Irene M C

    2015-01-01

    The technical feasibility, environmental discharges and cost-performance of urban river contaminated sediment treatment with ex situ advanced oxidation processes were evaluated for the purpose of achieving an ideal treatment goal (for marine disposal) and a cost-performance treatment goal (for beneficially reusing as a filling material). Sediment samples were collected from a river located in southern China. To achieve the ideal treatment goal, sequential treatments (Fenton's reaction+activated persulphate oxidation) were carried out. One-step Fenton's reaction was applied to achieve the cost-performance treatment goal. The resulting effluent was treated and discharged, and sludge generated in wastewater treatment was characterized. The resources input throughout the treatment processes were recorded for cost estimation. After the treatment designed for achieving the ideal treatment goal, most pollutants fulfilled the treatment goal except Pb, Cd, Hg and Ag, probably because these four metals were present mainly in stable fractions of the sediment. The cost-performance treatment goal was achieved in view of low pollutant contents in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure leachate of treated sediment. The cost for achieving the cost-performance treatment goal is much less than that for achieving the ideal treatment goal. The major cost difference is attributed to chemical cost. Stringent sediment treatment goals based on existing standards would lead to massive chemical use, complex treatment and hence huge cost. A simpler treatment with fewer chemicals is adequate for sediment beneficially reused as a filling material, and is economically more advantageous than handling sediment for marine disposal.

  12. The Joint Confidence Level Paradox: A History of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Glenn; Linton, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a reliable methodology for those tasked with generating price tags on construction (C0F) and research and development (R&D) activities in the NASA performance world. This document consists of a collection of cost-related engineering detail and project fulfillment information from early agency days to the present. Accurate historical detail is the first place to start when determining improved methodologies for future cost and schedule estimating. This paper contains a beneficial proposed cost estimating method for arriving at more reliable numbers for future submits. When comparing current cost and schedule methods with earlier cost and schedule approaches, it became apparent that NASA's organizational performance paradigm has morphed. Mission fulfillment speed has slowed and cost calculating factors have increased in 21st Century space exploration.

  13. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  14. OPEN SOURCE IMAGE-PROCESSING TOOLS FOR LOW-COST UAV-BASED LANDSLIDE INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Niethammer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has become more common and the availability of lightweight digital cameras has enabled UAV-systems to represent affordable and practical remote sensing platforms, allowing flexible and high- resolution remote sensing investigations. In the course of numerous UAV-based remote sensing campaigns significant numbers of airborne photographs of two different landslides have been acquired. These images were used for ortho-mosaic and digital terrain model (DTM generation, thus allowing for high-resolution landslide monitoring. Several new open source image- and DTM- processing tools are now providing a complete remote sensing working cycle with the use of no commercial hard- or software.

  15. What’s blocking sustainability? Human nature, cognition, and denial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rees

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, 1,700 of the world’s top scientists issued a public statement titled The World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity. They reported that “a great change in our stewardship of the Earth and the life on it is required if vast human misery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet is not to be irretrievably mutilated.” More than a decade later, the authors of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment were moved to echo the scientists’ warning asserting that “[h]uman activity is putting such a strain on the natural functions of the Earth that the ability of the planet’s ecosystems to sustain future generations can no longer be taken for granted.” Ours is allegedly a science-based culture. For decades, our best science has suggested that staying on our present growth-based path to global development implies catastrophe for billions of people and undermines the possibility of maintaining a complex global civilization. Yet there is scant evidence that national governments, the United Nations, or other official international organizations have begun seriously to contemplate the implications for humanity of the scientists’ warnings, let alone articulate the kind of policy responses the science evokes. The modern world remains mired in a swamp of cognitive dissonance and collective denial seemingly dedicated to maintaining the status quo. We appear, in philosopher Martin Heidegger’s words, to be “in flight from thinking.” Just what is going on here? I attempt to answer this question by exploring the distal, biosocial causes of human economic behavior. My working hypothesis is that modern H. sapiens is unsustainable by nature—unsustainability is an inevitable emergent property of the systemic interaction between contemporary technoindustrial society and the ecosphere. I trace this conundrum to humanity’s once-adaptive, subconscious, genetic predisposition to expand (shared with all other species, a tendency reinforced by

  16. Eco-costs and Eco-costs/Value Ratio in Construction Process%建设施工过程生态成本及EVR模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉然; 郑磊

    2016-01-01

    为衡量施工方案和施工过程的绿色化程度,定量分析建设施工阶段的环境破坏预防成本,在生命周期评价的基础上,引入了生态成本指标以及EVR计算模型,分析了建设施工生态成本的计算范围及具体方法。计算出我国普通建筑工程项目施工中涉及的主要有害排放物、能源、建筑原材料的生态成本及其 EVR。选取南京某普通住宅项目作为案例,计算其施工过程的生态成本和EVR,并根据计算结果分析各项生态成本的比例,探讨减少生态成本的有效方式及应用方向。%In order to evaluate green degree and pollution prevention costs in building construction,a single LCA-based indicator for sustainability and the eco-costs/value ratio(EVR)model are proposed. The calculation scope and method of construction eco-costs is analyzed. Eco-costs and EVR of toxic emissions,energy and construction materials related to ordinary project construction in China are listed. By calculating eco-costs and EVR of a case of residential project in Nanjing,the proportion of each part of eco-costs is analyzed. Solutions to reduce eco-costs are discussed.

  17. 10 CFR 95.20 - Grant, denial or termination of facility clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant, denial or termination of facility clearance. 95.20 Section 95.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... termination of facility clearance. The Division of Security Operations shall provide notification in...

  18. Older People and Poverty in Rural Britain: Material Hardships, Cultural Denials and Social Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Paul; Doheny, Shane

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relations between older people, poverty and place in rural Britain. It develops previous work on rural poverty that has pointed both to the significance of older people within the rural poor population and to their denials of poverty. The paper also connects with recent discussions on the complexity of relations between…

  19. The Role of Denial and Defensiveness in Drug Use Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed drug use and defensiveness among 28 adolescents, grades 9-12, using a six-month tracking study of alternative school adolescents. Defensiveness correlated with school credit deficiency and a high rate of legal trouble and discipline problems in defensive males. Suggests that denial and defensiveness are risk factors for drug use and…

  20. Third-Person Effects on Publication of a Holocaust-Denial Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Vincent; Tewksbury, David; Huang, Li-Ning

    1998-01-01

    Investigates college students' judgments about a controversial Holocaust-denial advertisement and its suitability for publication in their college newspaper. Finds that those with interests at stake perceived the advertisement as especially likely to influence others, and that third-person effects and publication decisions were a function of…