WorldWideScience

Sample records for denial processing cost

  1. Disability Reconsideration Average Processing Time (in Days) (Excludes technical denials)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A presentation of the overall cumulative number of elapsed days (including processing time for transit, medical determinations, and SSA quality review) from the date...

  2. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  3. Global Warming Denial: The Human Brain on Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrouch, N.; Johnson, B. T.; Slawinska, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Future assessments of climate change rely on multi-model intercomparisons, and projections of the extreme events frequency are of particular interest as associated with significant economic costs and social threats. Notably, systematically simulated increases in the number of extreme weather events agree well with observational data over the last decade. At the same time, as the climate grows more volatile, widespread denial of climate change and its anthropocentric causes continues to proliferate (based on nationally representative U.S. polls). Simultaneous increases in both high-impact exposure and its denial is in stark contrast with our knowledge of socio-natural dynamics and its models. Disentangling this paradox requires an understanding of the origins of global warming denial at an individual level, and how subsequently it propagates across social networks of many scales, shaping global policies. However, as the real world and its dynamical models are complex (high-dimensional and coupled), separating the particular feedback of interest remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate this feedback in a controlled experiment, where increasing unpredictability using helplessness-training paradigms induces changes in global warming denial, and the endorsement of conservative ideology. We explain these results in the context of evolutionary theory framing self-deception and denial as remnants of evolutionary processes that shaped and facilitated the survival of the human species. Further we link these findings to changes in neural and higher-level cognitive processes in response to unpredictable stimuli. We argue that climate change denial is an example of an extreme belief system that carries the potential to threaten the wellbeing of both humans and other species alike. It is therefore crucial to better quantify climate denial using social informatics tools that provide the means to improve its representations in coupled socio-geophysical models to mitigate its

  4. Illness denial questionnaire for patients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Ferrario, Silvia; Giorgi, Ines; Baiardi, Paola; Giuntoli, Laura; Balestroni, Gianluigi; Cerutti, Paola; Manera, Marina; Gabanelli, Paola; Solara, Valentina; Fornara, Roberta; Luisetti, Michela; Omarini, Pierangela; Omarini, Giovanna; Vidotto, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Interest in assessing denial is still present, despite the criticisms concerning its definition and measurement. We tried to develop a questionnaire (Illness Denial Questionnaire, IDQ) assessing patients' and caregivers' denial in relation to their illness/disturbance. After a preliminary study, a final version of 24 dichotomous items (true/false) was selected. We hypothesized a theoretical model with three dimensions: denial of negative emotions, resistance to change, and conscious avoidance, the first two composing the actual Denial and the last representing an independent component of the illness denial behavior. The IDQ was administered to 400 subjects (219 patients and 181 caregivers) together with the Anxiety-Depression Questionnaire - Reduced form (AD-R), in order to assess concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency indices (Cronbach's α and McDonald's ω), and test-retest analysis were performed. CFA and internal consistency indices (Cronbach's α: 0.87-0.96) indicated a clear and meaningful three-factor structure of IDQ, for both patients and caregivers. Further analyses showed good concurrent validity, with Denial and its subscale negatively associated with anxiety and depression and avoidance positively associated with anxiety and depression. The IDQ also showed a good stability ( r from 0.71 to 0.87). The IDQ demonstrated good psychometric properties. Denial of negative emotions and resistance to change seem to contribute to a real expression of denial, and conscious avoidance seems to constitute a further step in the process of cognitive-affective elaboration of the illness.

  5. Environmental Denial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Grušovnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though today reliable information about the negative impact of humans on the environment is only two clicks away, a considerable number of people still deny it. Why? Research shows that what we might call 'environmental denial' is a consequence of specific social and psychological factors: if we were to admit the negative impact of our lifestyles on the environment, we would have to change our way of life founded on consumerism. However, consumerism is not simply a way of exchanging goods; it is also something around which we organize the meaning of our lives, as consumer research clearly shows. Therefore we deny the information on the negattive impact of human activity on the environment because admitting it would lead to a conflict between cognition (attitudes, beliefs and actions (behaviour around which we organize the meaning of our lives. Such an exposition points to wider sociopolitical effects. Firstly, it raises questions about education that have to take into account the non-rational nature of human beings, and secondly it raises questions about the directions and possible outcomes of social action.

  6. Coding for effective denial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jackie; Lineberry, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Nearly everyone will agree that accurate and consistent coding of diagnoses and procedures is the cornerstone for operating a compliant practice. The CPT or HCPCS procedure code tells the payor what service was performed and also (in most cases) determines the amount of payment. The ICD-9-CM diagnosis code, on the other hand, tells the payor why the service was performed. If the diagnosis code does not meet the payor's criteria for medical necessity, all payment for the service will be denied. Implementation of an effective denial management program can help "stop the bleeding." Denial management is a comprehensive process that works in two ways. First, it evaluates the cause of denials and takes steps to prevent them. Second, denial management creates specific procedures for refiling or appealing claims that are initially denied. Accurate, consistent and compliant coding is key to both of these functions. The process of proactively managing claim denials also reveals a practice's administrative strengths and weaknesses, enabling radiology business managers to streamline processes, eliminate duplicated efforts and shift a larger proportion of the staff's focus from paperwork to servicing patients--all of which are sure to enhance operations and improve practice management and office morale. Accurate coding requires a program of ongoing training and education in both CPT and ICD-9-CM coding. Radiology business managers must make education a top priority for their coding staff. Front office staff, technologists and radiologists should also be familiar with the types of information needed for accurate coding. A good staff training program will also cover the proper use of Advance Beneficiary Notices (ABNs). Registration and coding staff should understand how to determine whether the patient's clinical history meets criteria for Medicare coverage, and how to administer an ABN if the exam is likely to be denied. Staff should also understand the restrictions on use of

  7. Insurance denials for cancer clinical trial participation after the Affordable Care Act mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Christine B; Antonelli, Kaitlyn R; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Ellis, Shellie D

    2017-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes a mandate requiring most private health insurers to cover routine patient care costs for cancer clinical trial participation; however, the impact of this provision on cancer centers' efforts to accrue patients to clinical trials has not been well described. First, members of cancer research centers and community-based institutions (n = 252) were surveyed to assess the status of insurance denials, and then, a focused survey (n = 77) collected denial details. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine associations between the receipt of denials and site characteristics. Overall, 62.7% of the initial survey respondents reported at least 1 insurance denial during 2014. Sites using a precertification process were 3.04 times more likely to experience denials (95% confidence interval, 1.55-5.99; P ≤ .001), and similar rates of denials were reported from sites located in states with preexisting clinical trial coverage laws versus states without them (82.3% vs 85.1%; χ = 50.7; P ≤ .001). Among the focused survey sites, academic centers reported denials more often than community sites (71.4% vs 46.4%). The failure of plans to cover trial participation was cited as the most common reason provided for denials (n = 33 [80.5%]), with nearly 80% of sites (n = 61) not receiving a coverage response from the insurer within 72 hours. Despite the ACA's mandate for most insurers to cover routine care costs for cancer clinical trial participation, denials and delays continue. Denials may continue because some insurers remain exempt from the law, or they may signal an implementation failure. Delays in coverage may affect patient participation in trials. Additional efforts to eliminate this barrier will be needed to achieve federal initiatives to double the pace of cancer research over the next 5 years. Future work should assess the law's effectiveness at the patient level to inform these efforts

  8. Denial: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Denial was a mechanism that Sigmund Freud worked with in his clinical practice and in his formulation of personality. He considered denial, e.g., in his papers on Repression (1915) and on Fetishism (1927) in Collected Papers, Volumes IV and V respectively (London: Hogarth and The Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1925 and 1950 respectively). It would…

  9. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  10. Avoidable Technical and Clinical Denial Write-Off Management in Hospitals, Physician Offices, and Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Sandra Marlene; Byrne, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the various types of technical and clinical denials that are usually "written off" and proposes strategies to prevent this loss. For purposes of this writing, avoidable technical and clinical denial write-offs are defined as revenue lost from "first-pass" denials rejections. For example, a procedure that requires an authorization is performed without having had an authorization obtained. After appeals and attempts to recoup the revenue, often unsuccessful, the organization ultimately "writes off" the revenue as not collectable. The question to ask is: Are these claims really not collectable or can actionable steps be taken to conserve these dollars and improve the bottom line? Acute care hospitals, physician offices, and clinics. In today's environment, the need to manage costs is ubiquitous. Cost management is on the priority list of all savvy health care executives, even if margins are healthy, revenue is under pressure, and the magnitude of cost reduction needed is greater than what past efforts have achieved. As hospitals and physician clinics prioritize areas for improvement, reduction in lost revenue-especially avoidable lost revenue-should be at the top of the list. Attentively managing claim denial write-offs will significantly reduce lost revenue. There is significant interface between case management and the revenue cycle. Developing core competencies for reducing clinical and technical denials should be a critical imperative in overall cost management strategy. Case managers are well placed to prevent these unnecessary losses through accurate status determination and clinical documentation review. These clinical professionals can also provide insight into work flow and other processes inherent in the preauthorization process.

  11. Illness denial questionnaire for patients and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Ferrario S

    2017-03-01

    avoidance positively associated with anxiety and depression. The IDQ also showed a good stability (r from 0.71 to 0.87. Conclusion: The IDQ demonstrated good psychometric properties. Denial of negative emotions and resistance to change seem to contribute to a real expression of denial, and conscious avoidance seems to constitute a further step in the process of cognitive–affective elaboration of the illness. Keywords: assessment, denial, avoidance, chronic diseases

  12. Food irradiation : estimates of cost of processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Bongirwar, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    For estimating the cost of food irradiation, three factors have to be taken into consideration. These are : (1) capital cost incurred on irradiation device and its installation, (2) recurring or running cost which includes maintenance cost and operational expenditure, and (3) product specific cost dependent on the factors specific to the food item to be processed, its storage, handling and distribution. A simple method is proposed to provide estimates of capital costs and running costs and it is applied to prepare a detailed estimate of costs for irradiation processing of onions and fish in India. The cost of processing onions worked out to be between Rs. 40 to 120 per 1000 Kg and for fish Rs 354 per 1000 Kg. These estimates do not take into account transparation costs and fluctuations in marketing procedures. (M.G.B.). 7 tables

  13. A cost analysis: processing maple syrup products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil K. Huyler; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    A cost analysis of processing maple sap to syrup for three fuel types, oil-, wood-, and LP gas-fired evaporators, indicates that: (1) fuel, capital, and labor are the major cost components of processing sap to syrup; (2) wood-fired evaporators show a slight cost advantage over oil- and LP gas-fired evaporators; however, as the cost of wood approaches $50 per cord, wood...

  14. Demystifying the Cost Estimation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing today, nothing is more important than giving a customer a clear and straight-forward accounting of what their money has purchased. Many potentially promising return business orders are lost because of unclear, ambiguous, or improper billing. One of the best ways of resolving cost bargaining conflicts is by providing a…

  15. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.

  16. Denial of impending death: a discourse analysis of the palliative care literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2004-10-01

    Terminally ill patients and their families are often referred to as being "in denial" of impending death. This study uses the qualitative method of discourse analysis to investigate the usage of the term "denial" in the contemporary hospice and palliative care literature. A Medline search (1970-2001) was performed combining the text words "deny" and "denial" with the subject headings "terminal care", "palliative care" and "hospice care," and restricted to English articles discussing death denial in adults. The 30 articles were analysed using a constant comparison technique and emerging themes regarding the meaning and usage of the words "deny" and "denial" identified. This paper focusses on the theme of denial as an individual psychological process. Three dominant subthemes were distinguished: denial as an unconscious "defence mechanism", denial as "healthy" and denial as temporary. The analysis focusses on the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts on the denial of death. Elements of the psychoanalytic definition of denial as an unconscious defence mechanism are retained in the literature but are interwoven with new themes on patient choice. The result is an overall discourse that is conflictual and at times self-contradictory but overall consistent with the biomedical model of illness. I suggest that the representation of death denial elaborated in these articles may be related to a larger discourse on dying in contemporary Western society, which both invites patients to participate in the planning of their death and labels those who do not comply.

  17. A framework for cost-aware process management: cost reporting and cost prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynn, M.T.; Low, W.Z.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Nauta, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    Organisations are constantly seeking efficiency gains for their business processes in terms of time and cost. Management accounting enables detailed cost reporting of business operations for decision making purposes, although significant effort is required to gather accurate operational data.

  18. Sulphur sales should bear processing cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W

    1969-01-20

    In this analysis, all the pertinent costs of processing sulfur from sour gas are allocated to one item, the sulfur produced from the sour gas. Therefore, in the graphical representations, the sour gas fed to the amine unit was considered to be dry sour gas containing no carbon dioxide. Cases were considered for increasing percentages of hydrogen sulfide. Costs of amine units and sulfur units were estimated and updated from the literature both for capital investment and operating costs for plants sized to produce sulfur at rates ranging from 20 to 500 long tons per day. The figures shown on the graph for unit costs confirm that the sulfur industry in W. Canada has been selling its sulfur below cost until recently. The conditioning of the natural gas bore the cost of producing sulfur, a sign of unhealthy sulfur markets. Producers would be wise to replenish their sulfur stockpiles to obtain stable marketing conditions at good prices.

  19. Quality costs in the production process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Michalska

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is showing the relationship of the quality costs with a production process. In this paper it was worked out and introduced the way of marking the documents with regard to the quality costs.Design/methodology/approach: In the frames of own research it has been analysed the quality costs in the production process from the documents marked using the worked out way of marking.Findings: On the basis of the own research it can be stated, that the majority of the eleme...

  20. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisnant, R.A.; Sherring, C.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price

  1. Renewal processes with costs and rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasiou, M.; Cochran, J.J.; Cox, L.A.; Keskinocak, P.; Kharoufeh, J.P.; Smith, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    We review the theory of renewal reward processes, which describes renewal processes that have some cost or reward associated with each cycle. We present a new simplified proof of the renewal reward theorem that mimics the proof of the Elementary Renewal Theorem and avoids the technicalities in the

  2. Young Children's Understanding of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six children in…

  3. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  4. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  5. Low Cost Processing of Commingled Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Matthew Lee

    A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites. In particular, the vacuum consolidation behaviour of commingled polypropylene/glass fibre and commingled nylon/carbon fibre precursors were studied. Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure. During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. Through this analysis, it was determined that the nylon/carbon fibre blend was not suitable for vacuum consolidation, while the polypropylene/glass fibre blend is a viable option for vacuum consolidation. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.

  6. Assessment of d-RDF processing costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project are:- to define on optimum process flowline for the production of a densified (a hard pellet) form of refuse derived fuel, d-RDF, which includes an aerobic composting module and a non-ferrous metal module; to produce capital and operating cost data; to develop a computer model for economic analysis of the systems; and to develop a computer model for the economic analysis the system with the addition of an Anaerobic Digestion module. (author)

  7. Skepticism and Denial: Drawing a line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Brown, M. B.; Peacock, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate denialism is distinct from a merely skeptical attitude towards generally accepted views in climate science. But drawing the line between them takes care—there are similarities between skepticism and denial, including a shared reluctance to accept conclusions that nearly all qualified scientists take to be well-justified. Here we will explore both how to draw the line, and how to effectively communicate the differences between denial and skepticism. Identifying which of these two terms best describes someone's attitude turns on whether they reject a generally accepted view based on a `high threshold' for acceptance of conclusions in general, or from a preference that the conclusion in question be false. In most cases, denialism manifests in disregard and mistreatment of evidence, including selective quotation, credulous endorsement of bad sources and incredulous rejection of good sources. Historically, current accepted views became dominant as alternatives were excluded and arguments supporting current views accumulated. The accumulated record of evidence and successful application of those views sets a high bar for proposed alternatives to them. Pure skeptics may refuse to endorse generally accepted views without rejecting or distorting the strong evidence for those views, and typically support policy responses based on the implications of that evidence. But deniers who reject scientific conclusions reject the evidence for those views while endorsing views that a true skeptic would regard as less plausible and well-supported than the accepted views. Thus motivated cognition is the key to defining denial. Pascal's famous argument for belief in God illustrates the problem: even assuming God's existence to be extremely improbable, the expected value of believing is far higher than the expected value of disbelieving. But Pascal's argument undermines its own methodology: without reasons to rely on beliefs as reliable guides to successful action, cost

  8. Denial of Service Prevention for 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yao; Kaur, Bipjeet; Andersen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    5G wireless mobile communication is expected to include a large number of advanced technologies in order to further increase bandwidth, Quality of Service (QoS), improve usability and security, decrease delays and cost of service. Software Defined Radio (SDR) will be the platform for advanced...... terminals. Our focus is security and especially prevention of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks which we believe will become more common in commercial networks through increasing availability of easy programmable SDRs. We propose a secret version of Adaptive Frequency Hopping, as a possible 5G technology...

  9. The minimal work cost of information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faist, Philippe; Dupuis, Frédéric; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renner, Renato

    2015-07-01

    Irreversible information processing cannot be carried out without some inevitable thermodynamical work cost. This fundamental restriction, known as Landauer's principle, is increasingly relevant today, as the energy dissipation of computing devices impedes the development of their performance. Here we determine the minimal work required to carry out any logical process, for instance a computation. It is given by the entropy of the discarded information conditional to the output of the computation. Our formula takes precisely into account the statistically fluctuating work requirement of the logical process. It enables the explicit calculation of practical scenarios, such as computational circuits or quantum measurements. On the conceptual level, our result gives a precise and operational connection between thermodynamic and information entropy, and explains the emergence of the entropy state function in macroscopic thermodynamics.

  10. Nihilism: a benign denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros

    2003-06-01

    Nihilism is the belief that all possible knowledge on a given topic has been amassed and codified. Ranging from benign denial to deliberate attempts at excommunication, nihilism is often encountered in the history of medicine. Eustachius, Columbus, and Sylvius strongly criticized Vesalius and defended the authority of Galen. Riolan fervently rejected Harvey's monumental work on the circulation of blood. Gross stated that no honest and sensible surgeon would ever sanction thyroidectomy. Sandstrom's discovery of the parathyroids was met with silence. Transplantation of parathyroids by Mandl was not appreciated when announced. Aristotle's dictum that the heart cannot withstand serious injury led to Paget's statement that cardiac surgery had reached the limits set by nature, which no new techniques could overcome. The first Billroth I operation was welcomed as, "Hopefully, also the last." Pancreatic surgery was opposed because the organ was of no clinical interest and was impossible for surgeons to reach. Pancreatic transplantation was rejected for many years, despite good results. When Blundell used blood transfusion for postpartum hemorrhage, critics averred that his next exploit would be radical removal of the spleen. Bassini stated that it could be risky to publish more about radical treatment of inguinal hernias. Carcinomas of the lower sigmoid and upper rectum were deemed untreatable because of their inaccessibility. Colostomy during pediatric surgery was rejected many times. Although it is difficult for the human mind to move from a familiar point of view, this propensity should not infect science, thereby impeding advancement.

  11. Avoidance Denial versus Optimistic Denial in Reaction to the Threat of Future Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Suzanne C.; Ting, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Two distinctly different denial-based threat orientations (avoidance denial and optimistic denial) were examined using a message about the future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) for young adults. Participants (N = 101) completed measures of denial-based dispositional threat orientations, current eating, comparative risk, and objective risk…

  12. Animated-simulation modeling facilitates clinical-process costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelman, W N; Glick, N D; Blackmore, C C

    2001-09-01

    Traditionally, the finance department has assumed responsibility for assessing process costs in healthcare organizations. To enhance process-improvement efforts, however, many healthcare providers need to include clinical staff in process cost analysis. Although clinical staff often use electronic spreadsheets to model the cost of specific processes, PC-based animated-simulation tools offer two major advantages over spreadsheets: they allow clinicians to interact more easily with the costing model so that it more closely represents the process being modeled, and they represent cost output as a cost range rather than as a single cost estimate, thereby providing more useful information for decision making.

  13. Process Approach to Cost of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary understanding comprehending cost of quality is connected both with the sphere of the management, as well as the operational activity. Borders of considering the category of quality costs moved beyond the technical – technological area. Trial including costs let the quality for classifying them with reference to all action carried out in the modern enterprise. Standard models of quality costs and the activity – based costing appointed new prospects of economics of the quality in the business administration.

  14. Defending Science Denial in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, J.

    2013-12-01

    Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and other social media have proven themselves powerful vectors for science denial. Left unchecked, these attacks on foundational sciences like evolution and climate change undermine public confidence in science and spawn attacks on science-based policy and science education. Scientists can blunt such attacks by being vigorous advocates for their own research and their discipline's core findings, by seeking wide and unexpected audiences for discussions of their science, and by understanding and addressing the social, political, and cultural roots of science denial.

  15. 19 CFR 10.814 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.814... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.814 Direct costs of processing operations. (a) Items included. For purposes of § 10.810(b) of this subpart, the words “direct costs of processing operations”, with...

  16. 19 CFR 10.774 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.774... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.774 Direct costs of processing operations. (a) Items included. For purposes of § 10.770(b) of this subpart, the words “direct costs of processing operations”, with...

  17. Fundamental Work Cost of Quantum Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faist, Philippe; Renner, Renato

    2018-04-01

    Information-theoretic approaches provide a promising avenue for extending the laws of thermodynamics to the nanoscale. Here, we provide a general fundamental lower limit, valid for systems with an arbitrary Hamiltonian and in contact with any thermodynamic bath, on the work cost for the implementation of any logical process. This limit is given by a new information measure—the coherent relative entropy—which accounts for the Gibbs weight of each microstate. The coherent relative entropy enjoys a collection of natural properties justifying its interpretation as a measure of information and can be understood as a generalization of a quantum relative entropy difference. As an application, we show that the standard first and second laws of thermodynamics emerge from our microscopic picture in the macroscopic limit. Finally, our results have an impact on understanding the role of the observer in thermodynamics: Our approach may be applied at any level of knowledge—for instance, at the microscopic, mesoscopic, or macroscopic scales—thus providing a formulation of thermodynamics that is inherently relative to the observer. We obtain a precise criterion for when the laws of thermodynamics can be applied, thus making a step forward in determining the exact extent of the universality of thermodynamics and enabling a systematic treatment of Maxwell-demon-like situations.

  18. Fundamental Work Cost of Quantum Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Faist

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Information-theoretic approaches provide a promising avenue for extending the laws of thermodynamics to the nanoscale. Here, we provide a general fundamental lower limit, valid for systems with an arbitrary Hamiltonian and in contact with any thermodynamic bath, on the work cost for the implementation of any logical process. This limit is given by a new information measure—the coherent relative entropy—which accounts for the Gibbs weight of each microstate. The coherent relative entropy enjoys a collection of natural properties justifying its interpretation as a measure of information and can be understood as a generalization of a quantum relative entropy difference. As an application, we show that the standard first and second laws of thermodynamics emerge from our microscopic picture in the macroscopic limit. Finally, our results have an impact on understanding the role of the observer in thermodynamics: Our approach may be applied at any level of knowledge—for instance, at the microscopic, mesoscopic, or macroscopic scales—thus providing a formulation of thermodynamics that is inherently relative to the observer. We obtain a precise criterion for when the laws of thermodynamics can be applied, thus making a step forward in determining the exact extent of the universality of thermodynamics and enabling a systematic treatment of Maxwell-demon-like situations.

  19. 49 CFR 594.9 - Fee for reimbursement of bond processing costs and costs for processing offers of cash deposits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fee for reimbursement of bond processing costs and costs for processing offers of cash deposits or obligations of the United States in lieu of sureties on... indirect costs the agency incurs for receipt, processing, handling, and disbursement of cash deposits or...

  20. Protecting Dynamic Mobile Agent against Denial of Service Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Nipur, Pallavi

    2010-11-01

    Mobile Agents are softwares migrating from one node to another to fulfill the task of its owner. The introduction of mobile agents has reduced network latency, network traffic a lot but at the same time it has increased the vulnerability for attacks by malicious hosts. One such attack is `Denial of Service', once the agent is launched it is free to roam without any control of its owner, this on one hand decreases the cost of agent—owner interaction and on the other hand increases the chances of `Denial Of Service'. In Denial Of Service attack the malicious host may deny resources required by the agent and kill the agent, thus the result computed so far is lost and this may happen every time the agent visits any malicious host. In this paper we continued the work done in [10] in which the authors proposed techniques by which owner can detect the malicious host for `Denial Of Service' but they did not covered technique for dynamic routes i.e. where the host or agent initiate migrations to hosts which were not contained in the route composed by the owner. We introduced an algorithm and a model which can be useful for the above purpose.

  1. Process-based Cost Estimation for Ramjet/Scramjet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijendra; Torres, Felix; Nesman, Miles; Reynolds, John

    2003-01-01

    Process-based cost estimation plays a key role in effecting cultural change that integrates distributed science, technology and engineering teams to rapidly create innovative and affordable products. Working together, NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Canoga Park have developed a methodology of process-based cost estimation bridging the methodologies of high-level parametric models and detailed bottoms-up estimation. The NASA GRC/Boeing CP process-based cost model provides a probabilistic structure of layered cost drivers. High-level inputs characterize mission requirements, system performance, and relevant economic factors. Design alternatives are extracted from a standard, product-specific work breakdown structure to pre-load lower-level cost driver inputs and generate the cost-risk analysis. As product design progresses and matures the lower level more detailed cost drivers can be re-accessed and the projected variation of input values narrowed, thereby generating a progressively more accurate estimate of cost-risk. Incorporated into the process-based cost model are techniques for decision analysis, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and functional utility analysis. Design alternatives may then be evaluated not just on cost-risk, but also user defined performance and schedule criteria. This implementation of full-trade study support contributes significantly to the realization of the integrated development environment. The process-based cost estimation model generates development and manufacturing cost estimates. The development team plans to expand the manufacturing process base from approximately 80 manufacturing processes to over 250 processes. Operation and support cost modeling is also envisioned. Process-based estimation considers the materials, resources, and processes in establishing cost-risk and rather depending on weight as an input, actually estimates weight along with cost and schedule.

  2. Costs and Benefits of Software Process Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prenger, Karen

    1997-01-01

    There are numerous problems in DoD software development projects. The ad hoc practices used in the military services and in industry have resulted in unpredictable costs and schedules and low-quality products...

  3. Holocaust Denial among Slovenian Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Pavlič

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tendencies of Holocaust denial among secondary school pupils in Slovenia. It focuses on research implemented in January 2012, in which 400 Slovenian secondary school pupils were included. In spite of the assumption that Holocaust denial amongst the youth in Slovenia already exists, we also assumed that a degree of Holocaust denial amongs Slovenian pupils is lower that amongst their peers in other EU countries. Research also inquired about the level of anti-Semitism in conjunction with Holocaust denial. The research project confirmed that students on lower levels of high school education and with less history and sociology lessons in curriculum are more receptive for the Holocaust denial and anti-Semitism is more present in this demographic. The level of Holocaust denial amongst secondary school pupils is not negligible; it suggests that this topic should be more thoroughly discussed in secondary schools.

  4. Process-Improvement Cost Model for the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, Sheila R; Greenfield, Eric; Messimer, Sherri; Thotakura, Swati; Gholston, Sampson; Doughty, Tracy; Hays, Mary; Ivey, Richard; Spalding, Joseph; Phillips, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a simplified, activity-based costing approach for hospital emergency departments (EDs) to use with Lean Six Sigma cost-benefit analyses. The cost model complexity is reduced by removing diagnostic and condition-specific costs, thereby revealing the underlying process activities' cost inefficiencies. Examples are provided for evaluating the cost savings from reducing discharge delays and the cost impact of keeping patients in the ED (boarding) after the decision to admit has been made. The process-improvement cost model provides a needed tool in selecting, prioritizing, and validating Lean process-improvement projects in the ED and other areas of patient care that involve multiple dissimilar diagnoses.

  5. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium/TRU (TRansUranium metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning. The unit process cost was calculated by classifying the cost consumed at each process into raw material and conversion costs. The unit process costs of the pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning were calculated as 195 US$/kgU-TRU, 310 US$/kgU-TRU, 215 US$/kgU-TRU and 231 US$/kgU-TRU, respectively. Finally the total pyroprocess cost was calculated as 951 US$/kgU-TRU. In addition, the cost driver for the raw material cost was identified as the cost for Li3PO4, needed for the LiCl-KCl purification process, and platinum as an anode electrode in the electrochemical reduction process.

  6. Cost Risk Analysis Based on Perception of the Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Wood, Darrell A.; Moore, Arlene A.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    process parameters are elicited from the engineer/expert on the project and are based on that expert's technical knowledge. These are converted by a parametric cost model into a cost estimate. The method discussed makes no assumptions about the distribution underlying the distribution of possible costs, and is not tied to the analysis of previous projects, except through the expert calibrations performed by the parametric cost analyst.

  7. (Distributed) Denial-of-Service : deel 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    De afgelopen maanden zijn denial-of-service aanvallen op de Nederlandse bancaire sector, de KLM, dagblad de Telegraaf, de overheid (belastindienst, DigiD) en andere organisaties prominent in het nieuws. Wat is denial-of-service? Wie doet dat en waarom? Hoe sterk zijn de aanvallen? Wat kunnen of

  8. Collateral Damage: Interlibrary Loan Lending Denials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leykam, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to explore the potential of utilizing interlibrary loan (ILL) data relating to lending denials to improve ILL services while highlighting institutional policies that have a negative impact on lending fulfillment rates. Reasons for denial as well as the types of requests being denied are reviewed. In addition, the author…

  9. Target costing as an element of the hard coal extraction cost planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Segeth-Boniecka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Target costing as an element of the hard coal extraction cost planning process Striving for the efficiency of activities is of great significance in the management of hard coal extractive enterprises, which are constantly subjected to the process of restructuring. Effective cost management is an important condition of the increase in the efficiency of the researched business entities’ activity. One of the tools whose basic objective is conscious influencing cost levels is target costing. The aim of this article is to analyse the conditions of implementing target costing in the planning of hard coal extraction costs in hard coal mines in Poland. The subject area raises a topical and important problem of the scope of solutions concerning cost analysis in hard coal mines in Poland, which has not been thoroughly researched yet. To achieve the abovementioned aim, the theoretical works of the subject area have been referenced. The mine management process is difficult and requires the application of best suited and most modern tools, including those used in the planning process of hard coal extraction costs in order to support the economic efficiency of mining operations. The use of the target costing concept in the planning of hard coal mine operations aims to support the decision-making process, so as to achieve a specified level of economic efficiency of the operations carried out in a territorially designated site of hard coal extraction.

  10. Transplant recipients are vulnerable to coverage denial under Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lisa M; Maldonado, Angela Q; Lentine, Krista L; Schnitzler, Mark A; Zhang, Zidong; Hess, Gregory P; Garrity, Edward; Kasiske, Bertram L; Axelrod, David A

    2018-02-15

    Transplant immunosuppressants are often used off-label because of insufficient randomized prospective trial data to achieve organ-specific US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Transplant recipients who rely on Medicare Part D for immunosuppressant drug coverage are vulnerable to coverage denial for off-label prescriptions, unless use is supported by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)-approved compendia. An integrated dataset including national transplant registry data and 3 years of dispensed pharmacy records was used to identify the prevalence of immunosuppression use that is both off-label and not supported by CMS-approved compendia. Numbers of potentially vulnerable transplant recipients were identified. Off-label and off-compendia immunosuppression regimens are frequently prescribed (3-year mean: lung 66.5%, intestine 34.2%, pancreas 33.4%, heart 21.8%, liver 16.5%, kidney 0%). The annual retail cost of these at-risk medications exceeds $30 million. This population-based study of transplant immunosuppressants vulnerable to claim denials under Medicare Part D coverage demonstrates a substantial gap between clinical practice, current FDA approval processes, and policy mandates for pharmaceutical coverage. This coverage barrier reduces access to life-saving medications for patients without alternative resources and may increase the risk of graft loss and death from medication nonadherence. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Semantics and pragmatics of social influence: how affirmations and denials affect beliefs in referent propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenfeld, D H; Wyer, R S

    1992-01-01

    Ss read either affirmations or denials of target propositions that ostensibly came from either newspapers or reference volumes. Denials of the validity of a proposition that was already assumed to be false increased Ss' beliefs in this proposition. The effect generalized to beliefs in related propositions that could be used to support the target's validity. When denials came from a newspaper, their "boomerang effect" was nearly equal in magnitude to the direct effect of affirming the target proposition's validity. When Ss were asked explicitly to consider the implications of the assertions, however, the impact of denials was eliminated. Affirmations of a target proposition that was already assumed to be true also had a boomerang effect. Results have implications for the effects of both semantic and pragmatic processing of assertions on belief change.

  12. Treatment of Holocaust Denial Literature in Association of Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidal, Debra F.

    2012-01-01

    Holocaust denial literature has been treated inconsistently in library collections. At one time Holocaust denial literature was classed and subject headings assigned with Holocaust literature. After specific Library of Congress classification numbers and subject headings for Holocaust denial and Holocaust denial literature became available in the…

  13. Advances in cost effective processing of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recently an industry expert pointed out that one of the greatest hindrances to the growth of titanium usage has been the low percentage of material usable in the final product. Due to the extensive processing, forming, and machining operations typically performed on titanium, yield losses are high. This is especially true in aerospace applications where most titanium is used. In engine components, the start to finish ratio, known as the buy to fly ratio, is often as high as 7 to 1. This can be illustrated by looking at the use of titanium in Pratt and Whitney engines. In the JT-8D-217 used on Boeing's 737-200, the titanium buyweight is 5,385 pounds, whereas the finished titanium, flyweight is just 758 pounds. This start to finish ratio is 7.1:1, giving titanium 17.0% of total engine weight. (orig.)

  14. Reducing Design Cycle Time and Cost Through Process Resequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James L.

    2004-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, companies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of their design cycle. One method for reducing both time and cost is to develop an understanding of the flow of the design processes and the effects of the iterative subcycles that are found in complex design projects. Once these aspects are understood, the design manager can make decisions that take advantage of decomposition, concurrent engineering, and parallel processing techniques to reduce the total time and the total cost of the design cycle. One software tool that can aid in this decision-making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). The DeMAID software minimizes the feedback couplings that create iterative subcycles, groups processes into iterative subcycles, and decomposes the subcycles into a hierarchical structure. The real benefits of producing the best design in the least time and at a minimum cost are obtained from sequencing the processes in the subcycles.

  15. Process Cost Modeling for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.; Freeman, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This report outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are costed according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this report is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool. In successive sections, the report addresses the issues of cost modeling as follows. First, an introduction is presented to provide the background for the research work. Next, a quick review of cost estimation techniques is made with the intention to

  16. Assessment of Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality Process Measures and Associated Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Brenna L; Tkacz, Joseph; Meyer, Roxanne; Bolge, Susan C; Ruetsch, Charles

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to examine the relationship between health care costs and quality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Administrative claims were used to calculate 8 process measures for the treatment of RA. Associated health care costs were calculated for members who achieved or did not achieve each of the measures. Medical, pharmacy, and laboratory claims for RA patients (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 714.x) were extracted from the Optum Clinformatics Datamart database for 2011. Individuals were predominately female and in their mid-fifties. Measure achievement ranged from 55.9% to 80.8%. The mean cost of care for members meeting the measure was $18,644; members who did not meet the measures had a mean cost of $14,973. Primary cost drivers were pharmacy and office expenses, accounting for 42.4% and 26.3% of total costs, respectively. Regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations between biologic usage, which was more prevalent in groups attaining measures, and total expenditure across all measures (Ps < 0.001). Pharmacy costs were similar between both groups. Individuals meeting the measures had a higher proportion of costs accounted for by office visits; those not meeting the measures had a higher proportion of costs from inpatient and outpatient visits. These findings suggest that increased quality may lead to lower inpatient and outpatient hospital costs. Yet, the overall cost of RA care is likely to remain high because of intensive pharmacotherapy regimens.

  17. Processes of early stroke care and hospital costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Marie Louise; Ehlers, Lars H; Hundborg, Heidi H

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relationship between processes of early stroke care and hospital costs remains unclear. Aims: We therefore examined the association in a population-based cohort study. Methods: We identified 5909 stroke patients who were admitted to stroke units in a Danish county between 2005...... of hospitalization were $23352 (standard deviation 27827). The relationship between receiving more relevant processes of early stroke care and lower hospital costs followed a dose-response relationship. The adjusted costs were $24566 (95% confidence interval 19364-29769) lower for patients who received 75......-100% of the relevant processes of care compared with patients receiving 0-24%. All processes of care were associated with potential cost savings, except for early catheterization and early thromboembolism prophylaxis. Conclusions: Early care in agreement with key guidelines recommendations for the management...

  18. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Lisa R; Karayanidis, Frini; Fulham, Ross; Provost, Alexander; Michie, Patricia T; Heathcote, Andrew; Hsieh, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these "mixed" repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011). In this paper, we analyze stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. These findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  19. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  20. A study for the review of export license through the NSG denial notification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Do; Yang, Seung Hyo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    All NSG participating members that have rejected applications of export licenses for nuclear export control items within their respective countries must give notice of this to the point of contact at NSG. This is referred to as the Denial Notification, and each of the participating members must respect the denial notifications of the other member nations. When participating members seek to obtain approval for an export license that is essentially identical to the denial notification of other member nations, they must necessarily go through the process of prior discussion with the nation that gave the denial notification. Also, it is regulated that the export license must not be approved without the sufficient exchange of information. Thus, these records of denial notifications must be constantly checked and maintained as the latest updated information and these records must be utilized in related approval examinations. This study analyzes the denial notifications that have been recorded in the past 20 years and it describes the areas that must be mainly examined at the export and import licensing.

  1. Patient level costing in Ireland: process, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A; McElroy, B

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, the Department of Health released their policy paper on hospital financing entitled Money Follows the Patient. A fundamental building block for the proposed financing model is patient level costing. This paper outlines the patient level costing process, identifies the opportunities and considers the challenges associated with the process in the Irish hospital setting. Methods involved a review of the existing literature which was complemented with an interview with health service staff. There are considerable challenges associated with implementing patient level costing including deficits in information and communication technologies and financial expertise as well as timeliness of coding. In addition, greater clinical input into the costing process is needed compared to traditional costing processes. However, there are long-term benefits associated with patient level costing; these include empowerment of clinical staff, improved transparency and price setting and greater fairness, especially in the treatment of outliers. These can help to achieve the Government's Health Strategy. The benefits of patient level costing need to be promoted and a commitment to investment in overcoming the challenges is required.

  2. APPLICABILITY OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wanda MARUSZEWSKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to emphasis that activity based costing is a proper tool for engineers to enhance their deci-sion-making process while developing new product. The theoretical analysis shows that variety of factors shall be en-compassed into new product decision-making process and therefore engineers and management should pay great attention to proper cost allocation. The paper suggests the usage of Activity Based Costing methodology for new product development decision-making process. Author states that application ABC in the process of rational decision-making referring to new product development enables managers and engineers to prioritize possible solutions, and reallocate resources used in production process in order to meet wider organizational goals. It would also contribute in coopera-tion of managers and engineers for the sake of organizational goal.

  3. Processes of early stroke care and hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Marie Louise; Ehlers, Lars H; Hundborg, Heidi H; Ingeman, Annette; Johnsen, Søren P

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between processes of early stroke care and hospital costs remains unclear. We therefore examined the association in a population based cohort study. We identified 5909 stroke patients who were admitted to stroke units in a Danish county between 2005 and 2010.The examined recommended processes of care included early admission to a stroke unit, early initiation of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, early computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) scan, early physiotherapy and occupational therapy, early assessment of nutritional risk, constipation risk and of swallowing function, early mobilization,early catheterization, and early thromboembolism prophylaxis.Hospital costs were assessed for each patient based on the number of days spent in different in-hospital facilities using local hospital charges. The mean costs of hospitalization were $23 352 (standard deviation 27 827). The relationship between receiving more relevant processes of early stroke care and lower hospital costs followed a dose–response relationship. The adjusted costs were $24 566 (95% confidence interval 19 364–29 769) lower for patients who received 75–100% of the relevant processes of care compared with patients receiving 0–24%. All processes of care were associated with potential cost savings, except for early catheterization and early thromboembolism prophylaxis. Early care in agreement with key guidelines recommendations for the management of patients with stroke may be associated with hospital savings.

  4. Cost analysis and cost justification of automated data processing in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, G E

    1983-03-01

    Prospective cost analysis of alternative data processing systems can be facilitated by proper selection of the costs to be analyzed and realistic appraisal of the effect on staffing. When comparing projects with dissimilar cash flows, techniques such as analysis of net present value can be helpful in identifying financial benefits. Confidence and accuracy in prospective analyses will increase as more retrospective studies are published. Several accounts now in the literature describe long-term experience with turnkey laboratory information systems. Acknowledging the difficulty in longitudinal studies, they all report favorable effects on labor costs and recovery of lost charges. Enthusiasm is also expressed for the many intangible benefits of the systems. Several trends suggest that cost justification and cost effectiveness will be more easily demonstrated in the future. These are the rapidly decreasing cost of hardware (with corresponding reduction in service costs) and the entry into the market of additional systems designed for medium to small hospitals. The effect of broadening the sales base may be lower software prices. Finally, operational and executive data management and reporting are destined to become the premier extensions of the LIS for cost justification. Aptly applied, these facilities can promote understanding of costs, control of costs, and greater efficiency in providing laboratory services.

  5. Producing optical (contact) lenses by a novel low cost process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Richard S.; Spencer, Ian D.

    2005-09-01

    The rapid and impressive growth of China has been achieved on the back of highly labour intensive industries, often in manufacturing, and at the cost of companies and jobs in Europe and America. Approaches that worked well in the 1990's to reduce production costs in the developed countries are no longer effective when confronted with the low labour costs of China and India. We have looked at contact lenses as a product that has become highly available to consumers here but as an industry that has reduced costs by moving to low labour cost countries. The question to be answered was, "Do we have the skill to still make the product in the UK, and can we make it cheap enough to export to China?" if we do not, then contact lens manufacture will move to China sooner or later. The challenge to enter the markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries is extremely exciting as here is the new money, high growth and here is a product that sells to those with disposable incomes. To succeed we knew we had to be radical in our approach; the radical step was very simple: to devise a process in which each step added value to the customer and not cost to the product. The presentation examines the processes used by the major producers and how, by applying good manufacturing practice sound scientific principles to them, the opportunity to design a new low cost patented process was identified.

  6. [Cost management: the implementation of the activity-based costing method in sterile processing department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Castilho, Valéria

    2010-09-01

    This exploratory case study was performed aiming at implementing the Activity-based Costing (ABC) method in a sterile processing department (SPD) of a major teaching hospital. Data collection was performed throughout 2006. Documentary research techniques and non participant closed observation were used. The ABC implementation allowed for learning the activity-based costing of both the chemical and physical disinfection cycle/load: (dollar 9.95) and (dollar 12.63), respectively; as well as the cost for sterilization by steam under pressure (autoclave) (dollar 31.37) and low temperature steam and gaseous formaldehyde sterilization (LTSF) (dollar 255.28). The information provided by the ABC method has optimized the overall understanding of the cost driver process and provided the foundation for assessing performance and improvement in the SPD processes.

  7. Implementing a least cost and risk focused maintenance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The paper will focus on the vital role maintenance, big ''M'' (spares, PM program, planning and scheduling, turning the wrench), has in preserving return of investment, and safety in operation of high risk high value facilities/platforms. The maintenance process of today and for the future must utilize risk assessment and reliability engineering techniques to prioritize plant resources. The new process must provide for high levels of safety assurance yet allow for improved generation and transmission capacity while maintaining adequate system reliability. This approach ultimately leads to continuous and sustained reduction in operating cost, improved production capacity, and a safety culture based upon a risk determent cost-beneficial decision process

  8. Climate change denial, freedom of speech and global justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Lavik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I claim that there are moral reasons for making climate denialism illegal . First I define climate denialism, and then I discuss its impact on society and its reception in the media.  I build my philosophical arguments mainly on John Stuart Mill and Thomas M. Scanlon.  According to Mill’s utilitarian justification of free speech, even untrue opinions are valuable in society’s pursuit of more truth. Consequently one might think that Mill’s philosophy would justify climate denialists’ right to free speech.  A major section of the paper argues against that view. The main arguments are: Climate denialism is not beneficial because its main goal is to produce doubt, and not truth. Climate denialism is not sincerely meant, which is a necessary condition for Mill to accept utterances. Climate denialists bring harm, by blocking necessary action on climate change.  Primarily they harm future generations and people in developing countries. Hence the case can be made in terms of global justice: Would future generations and people in developing countries support my claim? I think so, or so I argue. My argument from global justice is built on Scanlon’s distinction between the interests of participants, the interests of audiences, and the interests of bystanders.  The climate denialists have participant interests ‘in being able to call something to the attention of a wide audience’. Audience interests consist in ‘having access to expressions that we wish to hear or read, and even in being exposed to some degree to expressions we have not chosen’. Future generations and people in poor countries are bystanders to the climate debate. If the debate postpones necessary actions, it is the bystanders who must pay the price. I argue that bystanders’ costs outweigh participants’ and audiences’ interests, and that this is an argument for a statutory ban on climate denialism.Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 

  9. Operating cost budgeting methods: quantitative methods to improve the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Olegário Rodrigues da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Operating cost forecasts are used in economic feasibility studies of projects and in budgeting process. Studies have pointed out that some companies are not satisfied with the budgeting process and chief executive officers want updates more frequently. In these cases, the main problem lies in the costs versus benefits. Companies seek simple and cheap forecasting methods without, at the same time, conceding in terms of quality of the resulting information. This study aims to compare operating cost forecasting models to identify the ones that are relatively easy to implement and turn out less deviation. For this purpose, we applied ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average and distributed dynamic lag models to data from a Brazilian petroleum company. The results suggest that the models have potential application, and that multivariate models fitted better and showed itself a better way to forecast costs than univariate models.

  10. Organizational crisis-denial strategy: the effect of denial on public framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    By applying a framing perspective, this study explores the effect of a crisis-denial strategy on public response. The online public framing of a specific crisis is compared with the crisis-denial frame provided by the organization. An automated semantic-network analysis is used to identify frames

  11. Estimating the Cost for Executing Business Processes in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Ferme; Ana Ivanchikj; Cesare Pautasso

    2016-01-01

    Managing and running business processes in the Cloud changes how Workflow Management Systems (WfMSs) are deployed. Consequently when designing such WfMSs there is a need of determining the sweet spot in the performance vs. resource consumption trade off. While all Cloud providers agree on the pay as you go resource consumption model every provider uses a different cost model to gain a competitive edge. In this paper we present a novel method for estimating the infrastructure costs of running ...

  12. COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRANA MIHAELA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

  13. CALCULATION PECULIARITIES OF RE-PROCESSED ROAD COVERING UNIT COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara Kyazymovna Izmaylova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered questions of economic expediency of non-waste technology application for road covering repair and restoration. Determined the conditions of asphalt-concrete processing at plants. Carried out cost changing analysis of asphalt granulate considering the conditions of transportation and preproduction processing. Given an example of expense calculation of one conventional unit of asphalt-concrete mixture volume preparation with and without processing.

  14. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost in young and old adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Rebecca Whitson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost. These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs. Moreover, residual RT mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these ‘mixed’ repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011. In this study, we examine stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We argue that, together with evidence of greater proactive control and more cautious responding for these trials, these findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  15. Novel cost controlled materials and processing for primary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastin, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Textile laminates, developed a number of years ago, have recently been shown to be applicable to primary aircraft structures for both small and large components. Such structures have the potential to reduce acquisition costs but require advanced automated processing to keep costs controlled while verifying product reliability and assuring structural integrity, durability and affordable life-cycle costs. Recently, resin systems and graphite-reinforced woven shapes have been developed that have the potential for improved RTM processes for aircraft structures. Ciba-Geigy, Brochier Division has registered an RTM prepreg reinforcement called 'Injectex' that has shown effectivity for aircraft components. Other novel approaches discussed are thermotropic resins producing components by injection molding and ceramic polymers for long-duration hot structures. The potential of such materials and processing will be reviewed along with initial information/data available to date.

  16. The processing cost of scrambling and topicalization in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eImamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two reading comprehension experiments, using the sentence correctness decision task, that explore the causes of processing cost of Japanese sentences with SnomOaccV, StopOaccV, OaccSnomV, and OtopSnomV word orders. The first experiment was conducted in order to see if either syntax or frequency plays a significant role in the processing of these sentences. The results of the first experiment have shown that both the structure-building process and frequency directly affect processing load. We observed that there was no difference in processing cost between SnomnOaccV and StopOaccV, both of which are easier to process than OACCSNOMV, which is in turn easier to process than OtopSnomV: SnomOaccV = StopOaccV < OaccSnomV < OtopSnomV. This result is the mixture of the two positions. Specifically, the structure building cost of StopOaccV was neutralized by its high frequency. The aim of the second experiment was to investigate the interaction between syntactic structure, frequency, and information structure. The results showed that the processing cost of OaccSnomV was facilitated by given-new ordering, but SnomOaccV, StopOaccV, and OtopSnomV were not. Thus, we can conclude that information structure also influences processing cost. In addition, the distribution of informational effects can be accounted for by Kuno’s (1987: 212 Markedness Principle for Discourse Rule Violations: SnomOaccV and StopOaccV are unmarked/canonical options, and as such are not penalized even when they violate given-new ordering, OaccSnomV is penalized when it does not maintain given-new ordering because it is a marked/non-canonical option, and OtopSnomV is penalized even when it obeys given-new ordering possibly because more specific contexts are needed. Another reason for the increased processing cost of OtopSnomV is a garden path effect; upon encountering Otop of OtopSnomV, the parser preferentially (misinterpreted it as Stop due to a subject

  17. Solid municipal waste processing plants: Cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper performs cost benefit analyses on three solid municipal waste processing alternatives with plants of diverse daily outputs. The different processing schemes include: selected wastes incineration with the production of refuse derived fuels; selected wastes incineration with the production of refuse derived fuels and compost; pyrolysis with energy recovery in the form of electric power. The plant daily outputs range from 100 to 300 tonnes for the refuse derived fuel alternatives, and from 200 to 800 tonnes for the pyrolysis/power generation scheme. The cost analyses consider investment periods of fifteen years in duration and interest rates of 5%

  18. Remarks to a process-overlapping description of cost structures of energy conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1986-03-01

    The cost of energy conversion processes are more and more determined by capital expenses. These are partly used to improve the efficiency. With a mathematical formula for the relation between capital costs and efficiency a process-over-laping description is proposed and proved at 10 typically chosen energy conversion processes. The result is a classification of enery conversion processes in categories of efficiency-producing and efficiency-independent capital expenditures. Another result is that process-overlapping the relative capital cost supplement is described by the (1-eta)/eta-law. (orig.) [de

  19. The hand surgery fellowship application process: expectations, logistics, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Osterman, Meredith

    2015-04-01

    To investigate expectations, logistics, and costs relevant to the hand surgery fellowship application process. We sought to discover (1) what both applicants and program directors are seeking, (2) what both parties have to offer, (3) how both parties collect information about each other, and (4) the costs incurred in arranging each match. We conducted on-line surveys of hand surgery fellowship applicants for appointment in 2015 and of current fellowship program directors. Sixty-two applicants and 41 program directors completed the survey. Results revealed applicants' demographic characteristics, qualifications, method of ranking hand fellowship programs, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, ultimate match status, and suggestions for change. Results also revealed program directors' program demographics, rationale for offering interviews and favorably ranking applicants, application-related logistical details, costs incurred (both monetary and opportunity) during the application process, and suggestions for change. Applicants for hand surgery fellowship training are primarily interested in a potential program's academic reputation, emphasis on orthopedic surgery, and location. The typical, successfully matched applicant was a 30-year-old male orthopedic resident with 3 publications to his credit. Applicants rely on peers and Web sites for information about fellowships. Fellowship directors are primarily seeking applicants recommended by other experienced surgeons and with positive personality traits. The typical fellowship director offers a single year of orthopedic-based fellowship training to 2 fellows per year and relies on a common application and in-person interviews to collect information about applicants. Applicants appear to be more concerned than directors about the current state of the match process. Applicants and directors alike incur heavy costs, in both dollars and opportunity, to arrange each match. A nuanced

  20. Radium removal processes capital and operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, F.J.

    1979-09-01

    An estimate of the fixed capital and operating costs for two alternative processes for the removal of dissolved Ra-226 from uranium mill effluent in Elliot Lake, Ontario is presented. Process 1 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Process 2 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by gravity media filtration, sand filter backwashing and sedimentation. Cost estimates were prepared for 18 different plant configurations designed to treat 1000 and 4000 imperial gallons per minute (ig/m) of effluent, 24 hrs per day, 7 days per week and 365 days per year with several equipment options. The estimated fixed capital costs for plants equipped with gravity filters were less than those equipped with circular clarifiers. The capital costs ranged from $552,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $2,578,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m. Estimated annual operating costs, based on a plant life of 10 years, ranged from $298,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $1,061,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m

  1. 30 CFR 251.13 - Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information and certain processing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and information and certain processing costs. 251.13 Section 251.13 Mineral Resources MINERALS... third party for the reasonable costs of processing geophysical information (which does not include cost... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.13 Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information and...

  2. Contrast as denial in multi-dimensional semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spenader, Jennifer; Maier, Emar

    We argue that contrastive statements have the same underlying semantics and affect the context in the same way as denials. We substantiate this claim by giving a unified account of the two phenomena that treats contrast as a subtype of denial. We argue that earlier work on contrast-denial obscured

  3. Cost-efficient enactment of stream processing topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hochreiner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase of unbound streaming data poses several challenges to established data stream processing engines. One of the most important challenges is the cost-efficient enactment of stream processing topologies under changing data volume. These data volume pose different loads to stream processing systems whose resource provisioning needs to be continuously updated at runtime. First approaches already allow for resource provisioning on the level of virtual machines (VMs, but this only allows for coarse resource provisioning strategies. Based on current advances and benefits for containerized software systems, we have designed a cost-efficient resource provisioning approach and integrated it into the runtime of the Vienna ecosystem for elastic stream processing. Our resource provisioning approach aims to maximize the resource usage for VMs obtained from cloud providers. This strategy only releases processing capabilities at the end of the VMs minimal leasing duration instead of releasing them eagerly as soon as possible as it is the case for threshold-based approaches. This strategy allows us to improve the service level agreement compliance by up to 25% and a reduction for the operational cost of up to 36%.

  4. "But I didn't do it!": ethical treatment of sex offenders in denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S

    2011-09-01

    This article addresses ethical questions and issues related to the treatment of sex offenders in denial, using the empirical research literature and the ethical codes of American Psychological Association (APA) and National Association of Social Workers (NASW) to guide the ethical decision-making process. The empirical literature does not provide an unequivocal link between denial and recidivism, though some studies suggest that decreased denial and increased accountability appear to be associated with greater therapeutic engagement and reduced recidivism for some offenders. The ethical codes of APA and NASW value the client's self-determination and autonomy, and psychologists and social workers have a duty to empower individual well-being while doing no harm to clients or others. Clinicians should view denial not as a categorical construct but as a continuum of distorted cognitions requiring clinical attention. Denial might also be considered as a responsivity factor that can interfere with treatment progress. Offering a reasonable time period for therapeutic engagement might provide a better alternative than automatically refusing treatment to categorical deniers.

  5. Silence and Denial in Everyday Life—The Case of Animal Suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre Wicks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available How can we make sense of the fact that we live in a world where good people co-exist in silence about widespread animal suffering. How is it that sites of suffering such as laboratories, factory farms, abattoirs and animal transportation are all around us and yet we ‘do not, in a certain sense, know about them’ [1]. This ‘not knowing’ is one of the most difficult barriers for animal activists who must constantly develop new strategies in an attempt to catch public attention and translate it into action. Recent contributions from the ‘sociology of denial’ have elucidated many of the mechanisms involved in ‘not knowing’ in relation to human atrocities and genocide. In this context, ‘denial’ refers to the maintenance of social worlds in which an undesirable situation is unrecognized, ignored or made to seem normal [2]. These include different types of denial: personal, official and cultural, as well as the process of normalization whereby suffering becomes invisible through routinization, tolerance, accommodation, collusion and cover up. Denial and normalization reflect both personal and collective states where suffering is not acknowledged [3]. In this paper, I will examine insights from the sociology of denial and apply them to human denial and normalization of animal suffering. This will include an examination of denial which is both individual and social and the implications of these insights for theory and practice in the human/animal relationship.

  6. Cost analysis of simulated base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasić, Marija B.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two semi-continuous biodiesel production processes from sunflower oil are simulated. • Simulations were based on the kinetics of base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. • The total energy consumption was influenced by the kinetic model. • Heterogeneous base-catalyzed process is a preferable industrial technology. - Abstract: The simulation and economic feasibility evaluation of semi-continuous biodiesel production from sunflower oil were based on the kinetics of homogeneously (Process I) and heterogeneously (Process II) base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. The annual plant’s capacity was determined to be 8356 tonnes of biodiesel. The total energy consumption was influenced by the unit model describing the methanolysis reaction kinetics. The energy consumption of the Process II was more than 2.5 times lower than that of the Process I. Also, the simulation showed the Process I had more and larger process equipment units, compared with the Process II. Based on lower total capital investment costs and biodiesel selling price, the Process II was economically more feasible than the Process I. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using variable sunflower oil and biodiesel prices. Using a biodiesel selling price of 0.990 $/kg, Processes I and II were shown to be economically profitable if the sunflower oil price was 0.525 $/kg and 0.696 $/kg, respectively

  7. Rapid, low-cost, image analysis through video processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.A.; Marrs, R.W.; Grantham, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Remote Sensing now provides the data necessary to solve many resource problems. However, many of the complex image processing and analysis functions used in analysis of remotely-sensed data are accomplished using sophisticated image analysis equipment. High cost of this equipment places many of these techniques beyond the means of most users. A new, more economical, video system capable of performing complex image analysis has now been developed. This report describes the functions, components, and operation of that system. Processing capability of the new video image analysis system includes many of the tasks previously accomplished with optical projectors and digital computers. Video capabilities include: color separation, color addition/subtraction, contrast stretch, dark level adjustment, density analysis, edge enhancement, scale matching, image mixing (addition and subtraction), image ratioing, and construction of false-color composite images. Rapid input of non-digital image data, instantaneous processing and display, relatively low initial cost, and low operating cost gives the video system a competitive advantage over digital equipment. Complex pre-processing, pattern recognition, and statistical analyses must still be handled through digital computer systems. The video system at the University of Wyoming has undergone extensive testing, comparison to other systems, and has been used successfully in practical applications ranging from analysis of x-rays and thin sections to production of color composite ratios of multispectral imagery. Potential applications are discussed including uranium exploration, petroleum exploration, tectonic studies, geologic mapping, hydrology sedimentology and petrography, anthropology, and studies on vegetation and wildlife habitat

  8. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the status of the studies conducted on the 850 0 C ROT indirect cycle and the 950 0 C ROT direct cycle through the end of Fiscal Year 1981. Volume I provides summaries of the design and optimization studies and the resulting capital and product costs, for the HTGR/thermochemical pipeline concept. Additionally, preliminary evaluations are presented for coupling of candidate process applications to the HTGR system

  9. (Distributed) Denial-of-Service : deel 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Het geblokkeerd raken van een dienstverlening wordt in het Engels vaak aangeduid met de term Denial-of-Service (afkort: DoS). Al wordt de term veelal gebruikt in de cyberspace-omgeving, is deze feitelijk generieker, DoS kan zowel een technische oorzaak hebben, als bewust worden veroorzaakt door

  10. "LUDO" - Kids playing Distributed Denial of Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Cardoso de Santanna, José Jair; Spatharas, E.; Amler, H.; Breuer, N.; Graul, K.; Kuhnert, B.; Piontek, U.; Sperotto, Anna; Baier, H.; Pras, Aiko; Bergström, Johan; Hórvath, Gyöngyi; Schofield, Brook

    2016-01-01

    Distributed denial of service attacks pose a serious threat to the availability of the network infrastructures and services. GE̿ANT, the pan-European network with terabit capacities witnesses close to hundreds of DDoS attacks on a daily basis. The reason is that DDoS attacks are getting larger, more

  11. Inferring Internet Denial-of-Service Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, David

    2001-01-01

    .... During this period, we observe more than 2,000 attacks against more than 5,000 distinct targets, ranging from well known e-commerce companies such as Amazon and Hotmail to small foreign ISPs and dial-up connections. We believe that our work is the only publically available data quantifying denial-of-service activity in the Internet.

  12. Data denial experiments for extratropical transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Anwender

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Data denial experiments using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF model are designed to investigate the value of targeted observations for historical extratropical transition (ET cases over the Atlantic. The impact of removing data from specified locations linked to the ET development is therefore examined. It is shown that the impact of denying data in the near tropical cyclone (TC environment is, on average, as important as denying data in mid-latitude sensitive regions determined using extratropical singular vectors (SV. The impact of data denial over TC regions propagates downstream from the Atlantic towards Europe, with a maximum degradation at day 4. This degradation is mainly attributed to the data denial at the TC stage, i.e. before ET is completed. When data are denied on mid-latitude sensitive regions, the largest degradation is found around day 2 and also after the day 4 forecast. In general, the loss of information content is larger when data are denied in mid-latitude sensitive areas because these identify dynamically active regions. In both denial experiments, aircraft and satellite radiance data are the most influential observations. For the selected case of Hurricane Irene, the largest degradations are found for forecasts initialised while Irene reached its peak intensity. If observations are denied in the near storm environment, the TC mostly disappears from the analysis and the subsequent forecast. This allows the impact of Irene on the formation of the downstream cut-off low to be investigated.

  13. Denial of shipments of radioactive materials in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More Torres, Luis E.; Romero de Gonzalez, V.; Lopez Caceres, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Denials, Delays and Abandonment of the Radioactive Materials is a problem at world level that has been increased in the last times with more emphasis starting from the attack of September 11 the 2001 in the USA. From then radioactive materials have been denial or delayed and until abandoned. The materials of short periods used mainly in nuclear medicine as the 99m Tc or the 131 I, when they are rejected, delayed it usually causes the lost of the material because it has surpassed their useful life and in many cases they are abandoned. The rejections, delays and later abandonment of the materials in special of Medical use have originated serious damages for the nuclear medicine patients as much of diagnoses as of treatments, in Teleterapia for many patients of cancer who could not be treated. In the petroliferous prospecting and Industry has originated numerous economic damages due to the delays since most of the used sources they are of long period but the delay causes an important increase in the cost. (author)

  14. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  15. Denials and Delays of Radioactive Material Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2011-01-01

    delays of shipments of radioactive materials forms an important issue today. Radioactive materials need to be transported using all modes of transport for use in different applications such as public health, industry, research and production of nuclear power. The transport of radioactive materials is governed by national and international regulations, which are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (TS-R-1). These regulations ensure high standards of safety. Recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive materials even when complying with the regulations. The denials and delays can result in difficulties to patients and others who rely on products sterilized by radiation. Therefore there is an urgent need for a universally accepted approach to solve this problem. In response, the IAEA has formed an International Steering Committee (ISC) on denials and delays of radioactive materials. Also, it designate the National Focal Points (NFP) representative to help the ISC members and the IAEA by informing about denial operations and how they can help. The Steering Committee developed and adopted an action plan which includes the action to be taken. This plan is based on: Awareness, Training, Communication, Lobbying for marketing, Economic and Harmonization among member states. It is important to work within the mandate of the ISC and in the line of action plan on denials and delays. It identified the following network members such as: National Focal Points, Regional Coordinators, National Committee, National Representative for different modes of transport and similar bodies, Carriers, Producers and Suppliers, Different civil societies, NGO's, Ministry of transport and others.

  16. Cost Effective Process Monitoring using UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, B.; McDaniel, M.; Bryan, S.; Pratt, S.

    2015-01-01

    UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy is a simple and inexpensive measurement technology which has been proposed for process monitoring applications at reprocessing plants. The purpose of this work was to examine if spectroscopy could replace more costly analytical measurements to reduce the safeguards burden to the operator or inspector. Recognizing that the higher measurement uncertainty of spectroscopy makes it unsuited for the accountability tanks, the approach instead was to focus on replacing mass spectrometry for random samples that are taken in a plant. The Interim Inventory Verification and Short Inventory Verification (IIV/SIV) at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant utilize random sampling of internal process vessels and laboratory measurement using Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) to account for plutonium on a timely basis. These measurements are time-consuming, and the low uncertainty may not always be required. For this work, modelling was used to examine if spectroscopy could be used without adversely affecting the safeguards of the plant. The Separation and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was utilized to examine the replacement of IDMS measurements with spectroscopy. Modeling results showed that complete replacement of IDMS with spectroscopy lowered the detection probability for diversion by an unacceptable amount. However, partial replacement (only for samples from vessels with low plutonium content) did not adversely affect the detection probability. This partial replacement covers roughly half of the twenty or so sampling points used for the IIV/SIVA cost-benefit analysis was completed to determine the cost savings that this approach can provide based on lower equipment costs, maintenance, and reduction of analysts' time. This work envisions working with the existing sampling system and performing the spectroscopic measurements in the analytical laboratory, but future work could examine incorporating

  17. Transforming Pre-Service Teacher Education in Bolivia: From Indigenous Denial to Decolonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2012-01-01

    In line with a broader Latin American turn to the left, since 2006 Bolivia's "politics of change" of president Evo Morales includes a new "decolonising" education reform called "Avelino Sinani Elizardo Perez" (ASEP). With the aim to break down deep historical processes of indigenous denial and exclusion in education,…

  18. 40 CFR 123.30 - Judicial review of approval or denial of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permitting process. A State will meet this standard if State law allows an opportunity for judicial review... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review of approval or denial... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.30 Judicial review of...

  19. 7 CFR 54.1023 - Denial or withdrawal of appeal service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1023 Denial or withdrawal of appeal service...

  20. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by

  1. Pointo - a Low Cost Solution to Point Cloud Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Winkler, S.

    2017-11-01

    With advance in technology access to data especially 3D point cloud data becomes more and more an everyday task. 3D point clouds are usually captured with very expensive tools such as 3D laser scanners or very time consuming methods such as photogrammetry. Most of the available softwares for 3D point cloud processing are designed for experts and specialists in this field and are usually very large software packages containing variety of methods and tools. This results in softwares that are usually very expensive to acquire and also very difficult to use. Difficulty of use is caused by complicated user interfaces that is required to accommodate a large list of features. The aim of these complex softwares is to provide a powerful tool for a specific group of specialist. However they are not necessary required by the majority of the up coming average users of point clouds. In addition to complexity and high costs of these softwares they generally rely on expensive and modern hardware and only compatible with one specific operating system. Many point cloud customers are not point cloud processing experts or willing to spend the high acquisition costs of these expensive softwares and hardwares. In this paper we introduce a solution for low cost point cloud processing. Our approach is designed to accommodate the needs of the average point cloud user. To reduce the cost and complexity of software our approach focuses on one functionality at a time in contrast with most available softwares and tools that aim to solve as many problems as possible at the same time. Our simple and user oriented design improve the user experience and empower us to optimize our methods for creation of an efficient software. In this paper we introduce Pointo family as a series of connected softwares to provide easy to use tools with simple design for different point cloud processing requirements. PointoVIEWER and PointoCAD are introduced as the first components of the Pointo family to provide a

  2. Postmodernism, historical denial, and history education:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert John Parkes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available History educators frequently ignore, or engage only reluctantly and cautiously with postmodernism. This is arguably because postmodernism is frequently accused of assaulting the epistemological foundations of history as an academic discipline, fostering a climate of cultural relativism, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, and providing fertile ground for historical denial. In the Philosophy of History discipline, Frank Ankersmit has become one of those scholars most closely associated with ‘postmodern history’. This paper explores Ankersmit’s ‘postmodern’ philosophy of history, particularly his key notion of ‘narrative substances’; what it might do for our approach to a problem such as historical denial; and what possibilities it presents for history didactics.

  3. Data denial experiments for extratropical transition

    OpenAIRE

    Anwender, Doris; Cardinali, Carla; Jones, Sarah C.

    2012-01-01

    Data denial experiments using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model are designed to investigate the value of targeted observations for historical extratropical transition (ET) cases over the Atlantic. The impact of removing data from specified locations linked to the ET development is therefore examined. It is shown that the impact of denying data in the near tropical cyclone (TC) environment is, on average, as important as denying data in mid-latitude sensitive...

  4. Administrative and clinical denials by a large dental insurance provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Elias MIRANDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and the type of claim denials (administrative, clinical or both made by a large dental insurance plan. This was a cross-sectional, observational study, which retrospectively collected data from the claims and denial reports of a dental insurance company. The sample consisted of the payment claims submitted by network dentists, based on their procedure reports, reviewed in the third trimester of 2012. The denials were classified and grouped into ‘administrative’, ‘clinical’ or ‘both’. The data were tabulated and submitted to uni- and bivariate analyses. The confidence intervals were 95% and the level of significance was set at 5%. The overall frequency of denials was 8.2% of the total number of procedures performed. The frequency of administrative denials was 72.88%, whereas that of technical denials was 25.95% and that of both, 1.17% (p < 0.05. It was concluded that the overall prevalence of denials in the studied sample was low. Administrative denials were the most prevalent. This type of denial could be reduced if all dental insurance providers had unified clinical and administrative protocols, and if dentists submitted all of the required documentation in accordance with these protocols.

  5. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S, Visual Management (VM, Kaizen, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM, Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED, leading to a critical appraisal of their application in the metallurgical industry.

  6. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Chartier, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints.

  7. 19 CFR 10.178 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations performed in... processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country. (a) Items included in the direct costs of processing operations. As used in § 10.176, the words “direct costs of processing operations...

  8. Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhang, Pu [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2016-11-30

    For this Vehicle Technologies Incubator/Energy Storage R&D topic, Lambda Technologies teamed with Navitas Systems and proposed a new advanced drying process that promised a 5X reduction in electrode drying time and significant reduction in the cost of large format lithium batteries used in PEV's. The operating principle of the proposed process was to use penetrating radiant energy source Variable Frequency Microwaves (VFM), that are selectively absorbed by the polar water or solvent molecules instantly in the entire volume of the electrode. The solvent molecules are thus driven out of the electrode thickness making the process more efficient and much faster than convective drying method. To evaluate the Advanced Drying Process (ADP) a hybrid prototype system utilizing VFM and hot air flow was designed and fabricated. While VFM drives the solvent out of the electrode thickness, the hot air flow exhausts the solvent vapors out of the chamber. The drying results from this prototype were very encouraging. For water based anodes there is a 5X drying advantage (time & length of oven) in using ADP over standard drying system and for the NMP based cathodes the reduction in drying time has 3X benefit. For energy savings the power consumption measurements were performed to ADP prototype and compared with the convection standard drying oven. The data collected demonstrated over 40% saving in power consumption with ADP as compared to the convection drying systems. The energy savings are one of the operational cost benefits possible with ADP. To further speed up the drying process, the ADP prototype was explored as a booster module before the convection oven and for the electrode material being evaluated it was possible to increase the drying speed by a factor of 4, which could not be accomplished with the standard dryer without surface defects and cracks. The instantaneous penetration of microwave in the entire slurry thickness showed a major advantage in rapid drying of

  9. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a

  10. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  11. Delay and Denial of Shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, T. de; Gray, P.; Sobriera, A.C.F.; Xavier, C.C.; Schwela, U.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the strong safety and security record for shipments of Radioactive Material (RAM), Class 7 goods, transportation often continues to provide challenges as many carriers and ports (air and sea) choose not to engage in RAM product transportation. This paper discusses factors impacting the availability of regular air and sea transport routes for RAM, including: negative perception about radiation due to a lack of awareness and information about the industry; concerns about the cost and extent of training required of those who handle radioactive materials; multiplicity and diversity of regulations governing the handling, use and transport of these products; lack of harmonisation between governments in applying international regulations; and, a lack of outreach and public awareness about the needs and applications of radioactive materials. The particular issues involved in sea transport of: relatively small trade volumes; additional requirements or bans on port access, both for transit and trans-shipment; and scheduling difficulties due to commercial carrier routing decisions are also discussed. Initiatives being taken internationally, regionally and nationally to overcome these issues and examples of success are described. (author)

  12. Distributed Denial of Service Detection with IPFIX Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mukhtarov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the existing methods of detecting Distributed Denial of Service attacks based on the analysis of network traffic or Netflow data is examined. Advantages and disadvantages of anomaly detection methods are listed. Authors suggest to use a method of maximum entropy estimation for the analysis of IPFIX data and propose an approach for detecting Distributed Denial of Service attacks.

  13. 7 CFR 205.405 - Denial of certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.405 Denial of certification. (a) When the certifying... organic program. (e) An applicant for certification who has received a written notification of... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial of certification. 205.405 Section 205.405...

  14. 12 CFR 404.17 - Appeal of denials of access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal of denials of access. 404.17 Section 404.17 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.17 Appeal of denials of access. (a) Appeals to the Assistant General...

  15. 45 CFR 5.34 - Appeal of denials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Release and Denial of Records § 5.34 Appeal of denials. (a) Right of appeal. You have the right to appeal... reasons why you believe that the FOIA exemption(s) we cited do not apply to the records that you requested... designated review official will consult with the General Counsel to ensure that the rights and interests of...

  16. Denials of Racism in Canadian English Language Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Trevor; Thurrell, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    This critical discourse analysis examines denials of racism in descriptions of Canada and Canadians from English language textbooks. Denials of racism often accompany racist and nationalist discourse, preempting observations of racism. The study finds that in representations of Canada or Canadians, English language texts minimize and downplay…

  17. Does facial processing prioritize change detection?: change blindness illustrates costs and benefits of holistic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, Miko M; Wells, Gary L

    2010-11-01

    There is broad consensus among researchers both that faces are processed more holistically than other objects and that this type of processing is beneficial. We predicted that holistic processing of faces also involves a cost, namely, a diminished ability to localize change. This study (N = 150) utilized a modified change-blindness paradigm in which some trials involved a change in one feature of an image (nose, chin, mouth, hair, or eyes for faces; chimney, porch, window, roof, or door for houses), whereas other trials involved no change. People were better able to detect the occurrence of a change for faces than for houses, but were better able to localize which feature had changed for houses than for faces. Half the trials used inverted images, a manipulation that disrupts holistic processing. With inverted images, the critical interaction between image type (faces vs. houses) and task (change detection vs. change localization) disappeared. The results suggest that holistic processing reduces change-localization abilities.

  18. Analysis of capital and operating costs associated with high level waste solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1978-03-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of annual operating costs and capital costs of waste solidification processes to various parameters defined by the requirements of a proposed Federal waste repository. Five process methods and waste forms examined were: salt cake, spray calcine, fluidized bed calcine, borosilicate glass, and supercalcine multibarrier. Differential cost estimates of the annual operating and maintenance costs and the capital costs for the five HLW solidification alternates were developed

  19. Processing cost of RVNRL (Radiation Vulcanised Natural Rubber Latex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Meor Yahya Razali; Norjanah Mohd

    1996-01-01

    The main components contributing to the cost of building a pilot plant for RVNRL are highlighted. The fixed cost and operating cost of a pilot plant were determined and the production capacity and the cost to prepare I kg of RVNRL were calculated. Two sets of calculations were presented. A set was based on a pilot plant installed with cobalt-60 source of 150 kCi and another set was based on a plant installed with cobalt-60 source of I MCi. The effect of different power utilisation efficiencies and the effect of different vulcanization doses on the production capacities are presented.In general, a small difference in the vulcanization dose and power utilisation efficiency result in a significant change in the production capacity and the cost for RVNRL preparation. Depending on the production capacity, the cost for preparing RVNRL of 50% total solid content can be as low as RM 0.242 per kilograms

  20. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L Orbán

    Full Text Available Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints.

  1. process setting models for the minimization of costs defectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    determine the mean setting so as to minimise the total loss through under-limit complaints and loss of sales and goodwill as well as over-limit losses through excess materials and rework costs. Models are developed for the two types of setting of the mean so that the minimum costs of losses are achieved. Also, a model is ...

  2. The practice of quality-associated costing: application to transfusion manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, P M; Dixon, R

    1997-01-01

    This article applies the new method of quality-associated costing (QAC) to the mixture of processes that create red cell and plasma products from whole blood donations. The article compares QAC with two commonly encountered but arbitrary models and illustrates the invalidity of clinical cost-benefit analysis based on these models. The first, an "isolated" cost model, seeks to allocate each whole process cost to only one product class. The other is a "shared" cost model, and it seeks to allocate an approximately equal share of all process costs to all associated products.

  3. Grouping eucalyptus species in kraft pulp process for cost reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiwan Pichayadecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the level of the important factors that can decrease total cost of pulp production. First of all, experts and experienced users identify the factors that affect the total production cost by applying the principle of 4M 1E cause and effect diagram. Then the primary factors were chosen based on 80% of their significance and tested by hypothesis for two population means. It was found that at the 95% confidence level the significant factors that have effects on the total production cost are amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. However, the proportion of easy delignification according to Eucalyptus species is considered as a significant factor based on various studies. Box-Behnken experiment is designed with respect to 3 mentioned factors and 3 levels of each factor. The response surface method (RSM is employed to determine the non-linear relation between the total cost as the response and the proportion of easy delignification, amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. To minimize the total cost, the optimal values of each factor are 75% of easy delignification, 112 grams per liter of Effective alkali in white liquor and 13.5 of kappa number. Under this optimal condition, the average total cost per ton of Eucalyptus is 13,393.91 Baht which is significantly less than the total cost of 15,517.06 Baht per ton before improvement.

  4. INTEGRATION OF COST MODELS AND PROCESS SIMULATION TOOLS FOR OPTIMUM COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Seongchan [General Motors; Wilson, Daniel [General Motors; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors; Kia, Hamid [General Motors; Yu, Hang [ESI, Group.; Doroudian, Mark [ESI Group

    2017-09-05

    Manufacturing cost of resin transfer molded composite parts is significantly influenced by the cycle time, which is strongly related to the time for both filling and curing of the resin in the mold. The time for filling can be optimized by various injection strategies, and by suitably reducing the length of the resin flow distance during the injection. The curing time can be reduced by the usage of faster curing resins, but it requires a high pressure injection equipment, which is capital intensive. Predictive manufacturing simulation tools that are being developed recently for composite materials are able to provide various scenarios of processing conditions virtually well in advance of manufacturing the parts. In the present study, we integrate the cost models with process simulation tools to study the influence of various parameters such as injection strategies, injection pressure, compression control to minimize high pressure injection, resin curing rate, and demold time on the manufacturing cost as affected by the annual part volume. A representative automotive component was selected for the study and the results are presented in this paper

  5. The denial of cancer interview: development and first assessment of psychometric properties in lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Martina S.; Putter, Hein; Leurs, Amber; Rooijmans, Harry G. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Houwelingen, Hans C.

    2007-01-01

    Based on Weissman and Hackett's comprehensive definition of denial, a semi-structured interview was developed to measure denial in cancer patients. The denial in cancer interview (DCI) covers both the patients' recount of their illness experience and the expert's impression of the level of denial in

  6. Development of a Cost Estimation Process for Human Systems Integration Practitioners During the Analysis of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    processes. Novice estimators must often use of these complicated cost estimation tools (e.g., ACEIT , SEER-H, SEER-S, PRICE-H, PRICE-S, etc.) until...However, the thesis will leverage the processes embedded in cost estimation tools such as the Automated Cost Estimating Integration Tool ( ACEIT ) and the

  7. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...... in raw material prices, process designs and enzyme cost and performance....

  8. Systematic methodology for estimating direct capital costs for blanket tritium processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed for estimating the relative capital costs of blanket processing systems. The capital costs of the nine blanket concepts selected in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study are presented and compared

  9. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Producibility Cost Reductions through Alternative Materials and Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsmon, Jr., Albert W; Johnson, Karl; Gans-Devney, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    This report describes research into the use of alternative materials and processes to reduce material and labor costs while also looking at the influence of these choices on the life cycle costs of the vessel...

  10. Denial of illness in schizophrenia as a disturbance of self-reflection, self-perception and insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Nicholas J; David, Anthony S

    2014-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia patients deny aspects of their illness to others, which may indicate a deeper disturbance of 'insight' and a self-reflection deficit. The present study used a 'levels-of-processing' mnemonic paradigm to examine whether such patients engage in particularly brief and shallow self-reflection during mental illness-related self-evaluation. 26 schizophrenia patients with either an overall acceptance or denial of their illness and 25 healthy controls made timed decisions about the self-descriptiveness, other-person-descriptiveness and phonological properties of mental illness traits, negative traits and positive traits, before completing surprise tests of retrieval for these traits. The acceptance patients and denial patients were particularly slow in their mental illness-related self-evaluation, indicating that they both found this exercise particularly difficult. Both patient groups displayed intact recognition but particularly reduced recall for self-evaluated traits in general, possibly indicating poor organisational processing during self-reflection. Lower recall for self-evaluated mental illness traits significantly correlated with higher denial of illness and higher illness-severity. Whilst explicit and implicit measures of self-perception corresponded in the healthy controls (who displayed an intact positive>negative 'self-positivity bias') and acceptance patients (who displayed a reduced self-positivity bias), the denial patients' self-positivity bias was explicitly intact but implicitly reduced. Schizophrenia patients, regardless of their illness-attitudes, have a particular deficit in recalling new self-related information that worsens with increasing denial of illness. This deficit may contribute towards rigid self-perception and disturbed self-awareness and insight in patients with denial of illness. © 2013.

  11. Science and the Public: Debate, Denial, and Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Lewandowsky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When the scientific method yields discoveries that imperil people’s lifestyle or worldviews or impinge on corporate vested interests, the public and political response can be anything but favorable. Sometimes the response slides into overt denial of scientific facts, although this denial is often claimed to involve “skepticism”. We outline the distinction between true skepticism and denial with several case studies. We propose some guidelines to enable researchers to differentiate legitimate critical engagement from bad-faith harassment, and to enable members of the public to pursue their skeptical engagement and critique without such engagement being mistaken for harassment.

  12. Alliancing process helps BP control Prudhoe Bay costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darley, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Production and revenues from America's largest oil field are declining. The cost of operating it is rising. If both trends were to continue unchecked, oil production at Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's North Slope could become uneconomic in the next decade. Simply maintaining operating expenditures at current levels - barring a dramatic, lasting increase in oil prices - would postpone the day of reckoning by only a few years. Despite ongoing investments in tempering the decline - gas and water handling expansions, development drilling, enhanced oil recovery, and well maintenance and repair programs - production will continue to decline. That's why it's imperative we reverse the tide of rising costs. This paper reports that to continue to produce oil at Prudhoe well into the 21st century, we must immediately - and continually - cut costs to reflect declining production and revenues

  13. Impact of Capital and Current Costs Changes of the Incineration Process of the Medical Waste on System Management Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanta Walery, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The article describes optimization studies aimed at analysing the impact of capital and current costs changes of medical waste incineration on the cost of the system management and its structure. The study was conducted on the example of an analysis of the system of medical waste management in the Podlaskie Province, in north-eastern Poland. The scope of operational research carried out under the optimization study was divided into two stages of optimization calculations with assumed technical and economic parameters of the system. In the first stage, the lowest cost of functioning of the analysed system was generated, whereas in the second one the influence of the input parameter of the system, i.e. capital and current costs of medical waste incineration on economic efficiency index (E) and the spatial structure of the system was determined. Optimization studies were conducted for the following cases: with a 25% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process, followed by 50%, 75% and 100% increase. As a result of the calculations, the highest cost of system operation was achieved at the level of 3143.70 PLN/t with the assumption of 100% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process. There was an increase in the economic efficiency index (E) by about 97% in relation to run 1.

  14. "Fufu" flour processing in Ghana: Costs, returns and institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of "fufu" flour is an innovative business venture that young entrepreneurs should explore. However, the level of costs and returns as well as institutional support to sustain the industry is not well understood. This study was conducted to determine the profitability of "fufu" flour and the strength of the ...

  15. Denial of shipments - myth or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrette, M.A.; McInnes, D.

    2004-01-01

    The global healthcare community depends on shipments of radioisotopes. MDS Nordion manufactures and distributes radioisotopes used in the medical, research and sterilization industries throughout the world. With a growing demand for radiation and radiation technology to prevent, diagnose and treat disease, it is important that the global health care industry have a secure and reliable supply of such important materials. Despite this ever increasing need, shipments of radioisotopes are being increasingly delayed and outright denied. This paper outlines the importance of radioisotopes to global healthcare. It also details examples of shipment denials and how this evolving situation has impeded the efficient transport of radioactive material which risks preventing the delivery of essential radioisotopes to many member states. Denial of shipments was identified as a key issue at the 2003 International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, the 2003 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference and at an IAEA Technical Meeting in January 2004. The outcome is that the IAEA is focused on better documenting the problem and is starting to develop ideas to address it. Moreover, governments, associations and modal organizations are becoming more aware of the matter. As a responsible partner in a unique industry, MDS Nordion encourages all IAEA Member States, commercial carriers, airports and ports to be engaged in this matter and accept the transport of radioactive material without additional requirements. In this respect, the collaboration of all organizations involved in this highly interactive global system of transport is vital to assure the effective transport of radioactive material for global health care

  16. Denial of shipments - myth or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrette, M.A.; McInnes, D. [MDS Nordion, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The global healthcare community depends on shipments of radioisotopes. MDS Nordion manufactures and distributes radioisotopes used in the medical, research and sterilization industries throughout the world. With a growing demand for radiation and radiation technology to prevent, diagnose and treat disease, it is important that the global health care industry have a secure and reliable supply of such important materials. Despite this ever increasing need, shipments of radioisotopes are being increasingly delayed and outright denied. This paper outlines the importance of radioisotopes to global healthcare. It also details examples of shipment denials and how this evolving situation has impeded the efficient transport of radioactive material which risks preventing the delivery of essential radioisotopes to many member states. Denial of shipments was identified as a key issue at the 2003 International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, the 2003 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference and at an IAEA Technical Meeting in January 2004. The outcome is that the IAEA is focused on better documenting the problem and is starting to develop ideas to address it. Moreover, governments, associations and modal organizations are becoming more aware of the matter. As a responsible partner in a unique industry, MDS Nordion encourages all IAEA Member States, commercial carriers, airports and ports to be engaged in this matter and accept the transport of radioactive material without additional requirements. In this respect, the collaboration of all organizations involved in this highly interactive global system of transport is vital to assure the effective transport of radioactive material for global health care.

  17. An Approach to quantify the Costs of Business Process Intelligence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Bumiller, J.; Reichert, M.U.; Desel, J.; Frank, U.

    2005-01-01

    Today, enterprises are forced to continuously optimize their business as well as service processes. In this context the process-centered alignment of information systems is crucial. The use of business process intelligence (BPI) tools offers promising perspectives in this respect. However, when

  18. Keeping the Cost of Process Change Low through Refactoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS) large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are

  19. 33 CFR 135.223 - Certificates, denial or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.223 Certificates, denial or revocation... false statement to the Fund Administrator in connection with establishing or maintaining evidence of...

  20. In House HSV PCR, Process Improvement and Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    TYPE 09/15/2017 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cost-Analysis: In-hous(l HSV P(’R capabilities 6. AUTHOR(S) Ma.i Nich() las R CaJT 7. PERFORMING...ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMIT A TIC ".’ OF 18. NUMBER a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT OF PAGES 3

  1. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data.

  2. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC OBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data

  3. Silicon web process development. [for low cost solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Hopkins, R. H.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, a single crystal ribbon shaped during growth by crystallographic forces and surface tension (rather than dies), is a highly promising base material for efficient low cost solar cells. The form of the product smooth, flexible strips 100 to 200 microns thick, conserves expensive silicon and facilitates automation of crystal growth and the subsequent manufacturing of solar cells. These characteristics, coupled with the highest demonstrated ribbon solar cell efficiency-15.5%-make silicon web a leading candidate to achieve, or better, the 1986 Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project cost objective of 50 cents per peak watt of photovoltaic output power. The main objective of the Web Program, technology development to significantly increase web output rate, and to show the feasibility for simultaneous melt replenishment and growth, have largely been accomplished. Recently, web output rates of 23.6 sq cm/min, nearly three times the 8 sq cm/min maximum rate of a year ago, were achieved. Webs 4 cm wide or greater were grown on a number of occassions.

  4. Activity-based costing as an information basis for an efficient strategic management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC provides an information basis for monitoring and controlling one of two possible sources of competitive advantage, low-cost production and lowcost distribution. On the basis of cost information about particular processes and activities, management may determine their contribution to the success of a company, and may decide to transfer certain processes and activities to another company. Accuracy of cost information is conditioned by finding an adequate relation between overhead costs and cost objects, identifying and tracing cost drivers and output measures of activities, and by monitoring cost behaviour of different levels of a product. Basic characteristics of the ABC approach, such as more accurate cost price accounting of objects, focusing on process and activity output (rather than only on resource consumption and on understanding and interpretation of cost structure (rather than on cost measurement, enable managers to estimate and control future costs more reliably. Thus the ABC methodology provides a foundation for cost tracing, analysis, and management, which entails making quality and accurate operative and strategic decisions as a basis for the longterm orientation of a company. ABC is also complementary to the widely accepted technique of strategic planning and strategy implementation known as Balanced Scorecard (BSC.

  5. 48 CFR 30.604 - Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosed or established cost accounting practices. 30.604 Section 30.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.604 Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices...

  6. Waste Processing Cost Recovery at Los Alamos National Laboratory-Analysis and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, St. R.

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is implementing full cost recovery for waste processing in fiscal year 2009 (FY2009), after a transition year in FY2008. Waste processing cost recovery has been implemented in various forms across the nuclear weapons complex and in corporate America. The fundamental reasoning of sending accurate price signals to waste generators is economically sound, and leads to waste minimization and reduced waste expense over time. However, Los Alamos faces significant implementation challenges because of its status as a government-owned, contractor-operated national scientific institution with a diverse suite of experimental and environmental cleanup activities, and the fact that this represents a fundamental change in how waste processing is viewed by the institution. This paper describes the issues involved during the transition to cost recovery and the ultimate selection of the business model. Of the six alternative cost recovery models evaluated, the business model chosen to be implemented in FY2009 is Recharge Plus Generators Pay Distributed Direct. Under this model, all generators who produce waste must pay a distributed direct share associated with their specific waste type to use a waste processing capability. This cost share is calculated using the distributed direct method on the fixed cost only, i.e., the fixed cost share is based on each program's forecast proportion of the total Los Alamos volume forecast of each waste type. (Fixed activities are those required to establish the waste processing capability, i.e., to make the process ready, permitted, certified, and prepared to handle the first unit of waste. Therefore, the fixed cost ends at the point just before waste begins to be processed. The activities to actually process the waste are considered variable.) The volume of waste actually sent for processing is charged a unit cost based solely on the variable cost of disposing of that waste. The total cost recovered each year is the

  7. AMC Model for Denial of Sleep Attack Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattasali, Tapalina; Chaki, Rituparna

    2012-01-01

    Due to deployment in hostile environment, wireless sensor network is vulnerable to various attacks. Exhausted sensor nodes in sensor network become a challenging issue because it disrupts the normal connectivity of the network. Affected nodes give rise to denial of service that resists to get the objective of sensor network in real life. A mathematical model based on Absorbing Markov Chain (AMC)is proposed for Denial of Sleep attack detection in sensor network. In this mechanism, whether sens...

  8. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  9. Guidelines and cost analysis for catalyst production in biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Nordblad, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Biocatalysis is an emerging area of technology, and to date few reports have documented the economics of such processes. As it is a relatively new technology, many processes do not immediately fulfill the economic requirements for commercial operation. Hence, early-stage economic assessment could...

  10. Computer Simulation of Bound Component Washing To Minimize Processing Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Janáčová

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focused on the optimization of the washing processes because many technological processes are characterizedby large consumption of water, electrical energy and auxiliary chemicals mainly. For this reason it is very important to deal withthem. For the optimization of process of washing it is possible to set up an access of the indirect modeling that is based on make-up ofmathematical models coming out of study of the physical operation mechanism. The process is diffusion character it is characterizedby the value of diffusion effective coefficient and so called structure power of the removing item to the solid phase. The mentionedparameters belong to input data that are appropriate for the automatic control of washing process.

  11. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  12. Vehicle Lightweighting: Mass Reduction Spectrum Analysis and Process Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, Anthony [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Hannibal, Ted [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ivanic, Ziga [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Clark, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. In the first two phases of this effort examined combinations of strategies aimed at achieving strategic targets of 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. These results have been reported in the Idaho National Laboratory report INL/EXT-14-33863 entitled Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting published in March 2015. The data for these strategies were drawn from many sources, including Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. lightweighting studies, U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc./Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, many United States Council for Automotive Research’s/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs, and IBIS Associates, Inc.’s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses.

  13. Vehicle Lightweighting: Mass Reduction Spectrum Analysis and Process Cost Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarin, Anthony; Hannibal, Ted; Raghunathan, Anand; Ivanic, Ziga; Clark, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. In the first two phases of this effort examined combinations of strategies aimed at achieving strategic targets of 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. These results have been reported in the Idaho National Laboratory report INL/EXT-14-33863 entitled Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting published in March 2015. The data for these strategies were drawn from many sources, including Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. lightweighting studies, U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc./Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, many United States Council for Automotive Research's/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs, and IBIS Associates, Inc.'s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses.

  14. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusen, III, L C [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research Div.

    1997-06-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author).

  15. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusen, L.C. III

    1997-01-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author)

  16. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Zhang

    Full Text Available How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers' destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big

  17. In search of low cost titanium: the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, SJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available delivering a sponge product, aimed at replacing Kroll sponge alone, does not have potential for large reduction in overall titanium cost. Significant cost savings can only be achieved by also reducing the large number of process steps required to process... the sponge to mill product, including sponge purification, comminution, electrode forming, Vacuum Arc Re-melting, Hot and cold rolling. Presently, economy of scale in the production of titanium dictates that it is most cost effective to cast the largest...

  18. In search of low cost titanium: the fray farthing chen (FFC) cambridge process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, SJ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available delivering a sponge product, aimed at replacing Kroll sponge alone, does not have potential for large reduction in overall titanium cost. Significant cost savings can be achieved only by also reducing the large number of process steps required... to process the sponge to mill product, including sponge purification, comminution, electrode forming, vacuum arc re-melting, and hot and cold rolling. Presently, economy of scale in the production of titanium dictates that it is most cost...

  19. Utilisation of Cost Type Information in Decision Making Process Approaches on Public Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai (Andreescu) Gabriela; Ionescu (Eftene) Nicoleta; Uta Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Managerial decisions and decision making process stand for the key issues of each entity around which all activities of financial information collection, processing, review, construing, summarizing, and not only, gravitate within every organisation. Moreover, costs (calculation, review and optimization of such) are important as the whole activity of an organisation reflects itself in costs, respectively based on information concerning costs based on which managers may decide on purchasing, pr...

  20. SISTEM PERHITUNGAN HARGA POKOK PRODUKSI PADA PERUSAHAAN FARMASI PT. BALATIF DENGAN METODE PROCESS COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Handojo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, PT. Balatif has the calculation system for production cost that can only include the calculation of cost of materials based on standard Bill of Material (BOM, while record of factory overhead cost, direct labor cost and report that relating to the calculation of Cost of Goods Manufactured of product still cannot be handled by the system. So that the current costs that really occurred in the production process will be difficult to trace and the production cost not based on reality process. Based on that problem, this research design a system to calculate production cost that can handle that problem. This application used Microsoft Visual Studio .Net 2005 as the programming tool and Oracle 10g as the database. Results that obtained from the application that have been made are raw material usage can be saved based on BOM or additional, machine usage, operator usage, and so on associated with the production process. In addition, the application that has been made can be used to allocate the costs that occur during the production process and to generate reports related to the calculation of Cost of Goods Manufactured of a product automatically.

  1. Cost information in succeeding stages of the design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelmans Plat, H.; Deiman, E.P.; Beheshti, M.R.; Zreik, K.

    1993-01-01

    Adequate decision making in the design process needs information about oost oonsequences over the life of the designed object. In succeeding stages the types of decisions change; as a consequence the type of oost information will differ as well. For each stage oost information about realized

  2. Process-Costing, Job-Order-Costing, Operation Costing (også kaldet Batch Costing og Functional Costing - Når Systemtankegangen ligger til grund for økonomistyringen og dens beslutninger)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    De tre begreber process-costing, job-order-costing, operation-costing samt functional-based costing er faktisk historiske begreber som stammer langt tilbage i økonomistyringslitteraturen, faktisk tilbage til Scientific Management bevægelsen fra 20'erne og 30'erne. Man kan derfor ikke sige, at disse...... ordreregnskabet, f.eks. som dette er analyseret hos Palle Hansen og Vagn Madsen. Begrebet operational costing anvendes også, men dette dækker i realiteten over, hvordan og hvilke elementer der indgår i hele virksomhedens regnskabs-information-system. Dvs. at dette mere er et spørgsmål om, hvordan systemerne er...... Aktivitets-Baseret Cost Management systemerne. Det er derfor vigtigt dels at kende sin historie på området, dels at gøre sig klart, om de under visse antagelser stadig har deres berettigelse. De samme begreber har også deres pendant til de danske begreber, afdelings- eller funktionsregnskabet samt...

  3. Expert system for minimising the cost of logistic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Hlavenka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates how to use the theory of causal position in practice for evaluation, systematic design, mechanization and automation in logistic processes namely in manipulation with material. For a broader usage of this complicated theory we started designing an expert system „KAUZA – X“, which will be easy to operate even for non expert. The theoretical bases of a system are: the systems approach (Logistic system is made up of a set of elements and relationships. and the theory of cauzal position (The cause of the motion of an object lies in the types of its position and in the relationships between them. The properties of the object and its utilization result in individual positions, which form a continual chain in space and are technically and organizationally interrelated. For each of many linkages, there is a process of searching for the rationality of technical – economic optimums.

  4. Thermo-ecological cost (TEC evaluation of metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stanek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy represents a complex production system of fuel and mineral non-renewable resources transformation. The effectiveness of resource management in metallurgical chains depends on the applied ore grade and on the irreversibility of components of the system. TEC can be applied to measure the influence of metallurgy on the depletion of natural resources. The paper discusses the possibility of application of TEC in metallurgy and presents illustrative example concerning blast-furnace process.

  5. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  6. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teagan, W P; Bentley, J; Barnett, B [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-03-15

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R and D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under $150/kW in stationary applications and $30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories. (orig.)

  7. [Process-oriented cost calculation in interventional radiology. A case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, A H; Bruners, P; Günther, R W; Rasche, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently used costing methods such as cost centre accounting do not sufficiently reflect the process-based resource utilization in medicine. The goal of this study was to establish a process-oriented cost assessment of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver and lung metastases. In each of 15 patients a detailed task analysis of the primary process of hepatic and pulmonary RF ablation was performed. Based on these data a dedicated cost calculation model was developed for each primary process. The costs of each process were computed and compared with the revenue for in-patients according to the German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system 2010. The RF ablation of liver metastases in patients without relevant comorbidities and a low patient complexity level results in a loss of EUR 588.44, whereas the treatment of patients with a higher complexity level yields an acceptable profit. The treatment of pulmonary metastases is profitable even in cases of additional expenses due to complications. Process-oriented costing provides relevant information that is needed for understanding the economic impact of treatment decisions. It is well suited as a starting point for economically driven process optimization and reengineering. Under the terms of the German DRG 2010 system percutaneous RF ablation of lung metastases is economically reasonable, while RF ablation of liver metastases in cases of low patient complexity levels does not cover the costs.

  8. Costs of Quality: Exploratory Analysis of Hidden Elements and Prioritization using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cost of Quality analysis is emerged as an effective tool for the industrial managers for pinpointing the deficiencies in the system as well as for identifying the improvement areas by highlighting the cost reduction opportunities. However , this analysis will be fully effective only if it is further extended to identify the cost incurred in ensuring quality in all areas of the supply chain including the hidden costs and costs of missed out opportunities. Most of the hidden elements of quality costs are difficult to track and not accounted by the traditional accounting tools. An exploratory analysis is made in this research to identify the hidden elements of quality costs in manufacturing industry. Further, the identified cost elements are classified into various groups for better analysis and, finally, prioritized to identify the vital few among them. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique which is one of the most popular Multi Criteria Decision Method (MCDM and Pareto analysis were used in this study for prioritizing the hidden quality cost elements based on their degree of impact on overall cost of quality. By this analysis, the key cost elements which are to be addressed to reduce the overall cost of quality are identified.

  9. Denials of Shipments for Radioactive Material - Indian Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Khaidem Ranjankumar; Hussain, S.A; Panda, G.K.; Singh, T. Dewan; Dinakaran, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive material (RAM) needs to be transported for use in public health and industry and for production of nuclear power. In India, transport of RAM is governed by national and international regulations which are based on the IAEA Regulations for the safe transport of RAM. However, recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipment of RAM, reported by many countries worldwide including India, despite compliance with regulations. In Indian experience, the reasons for denials of shipment of RAM by the carriers are varied in nature. From the feedback received from the participants (airport operators, airlines, courier and cargo service providers, cargo forwarding agents, port authorities and sea carriers) of awareness programmes on safe transport of RAM conducted from year 2008 onwards by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) it became clear that the denials of shipments in India are mainly due to (1) perception of unnecessary fear for transport of RAM (2) lack of confidence and awareness on the procedures for acceptance of shipment of RAM (3) fear of risk during accidents with packages containing RAM (4) policy of the carriers not to accept consignment of dangerous goods (5) poor infrastructure at the major/transit ports (6) problems of transshipments and (7) shippers not having undergone dangerous goods training. In this paper, the Indian experience in dealing with the problems of denial/delay of shipments containing radioactive material and identified possible consequences of such denials including economical impact are discussed in detail. (author)

  10. Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The conservative movement and especially its think tanks play a critical role in denying the reality and significance of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), especially by manufacturing uncertainty over climate science. Books denying AGW are a crucial means of attacking climate science and scientists, and we examine the links between conservative think tanks (CTTs) and 108 climate change denial books published through 2010. We find a strong link, albeit noticeably weaker for the growing number of self-published denial books. We also examine the national origins of the books and the academic backgrounds of their authors or editors, finding that with the help of American CTTs climate change denial has spread to several other nations and that an increasing portion of denial books are produced by individuals with no scientific training. It appears that at least 90% of denial books do not undergo peer review, allowing authors or editors to recycle scientifically unfounded claims that are then amplified by the conservative movement, media, and political elites. PMID:24098056

  11. The making of a civic discourse on controversial historical past: from denial to parrhesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna LEONE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the pragmatic effects of different rhetoric strategies conveying evidence of past ingroup violence after a long lasting social denial (Cohen, 2001. In particular, a case study is presented on the making of a civic discourse on controversial historical past: war crimes committed by the Italian Army during the colonial invasion of Ethiopia (1935-36. Although very well proved (Del Boca, 2005, these facts were only recently inserted in Italian history textbooks (Leone & Mastrovito, 2010; Cajani, 2013. In this same period, evidence of these crimes was officially presented during discussions of the Italian Parliament. In spite of these recent acknowledgments of the Italian responsibilities for these crimes, a social myth is still widely shared by the public opinion, representing Italians as good fellows (Italiani, brava gente: cfr. Del Boca, 2005, unable to be cruel both in everyday life and in wartimes (Volpato et al., 2012. This specific situation, denying even the reality of facts happened, has been defined literal social denial, i.e. the deepest among the three possible states of denial (literal, interpretive, implicative: cfr. Cohen, 2001. The issue of literal social denial of past ingroup violence is at the intersection among theories on narratives on national past (László, 2003, social representations of history (Liu et al., 2014, conflict ethos (Bar-Tal et al., 2012; Kelman, 2008, group-based emotions (Allpress et al., 2010; Leone, 2000 and intergroup reconciliation processes (Nadler et al., 2008. Namely, understanding how a social denial could break down implies the theorization of human mind’s reflexivity as grounded on historical awareness (Ortega y Gasset, 1930, and the notion of social change as primarily rooted in natality, i.e. the fact that each birth represents a new beginning (Arendt, 1958. Drawing on this theoretical background, we will present an ongoing research program (Leone, in press on the

  12. Comparative costs of hydrogen produced from photovoltaic electrolysis and from photoelectrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The need for hydrogen produced from renewable energy sources is the key element to the world's large-scale usage of hydrogen and to the hydrogen economy envisioned by the World Hydrogen Energy Association. Renewables-produced hydrogen is also the most technically difficult problem to be solved. Hydrogen will never achieve large-scale usage until it can be competitively produced from renewable energy. One of the important questions that has to be addressed is: What are the economics of present and expected future technologies that will be used to produce hydrogen from renewables? The objective of this study is to give an answer to this question by determining the cost of hydrogen (in U.S.$/MBtu) from competing renewable production technologies. It should be noted that the costs and efficiencies assumed in this paper are assumptions of the author, and that the values are expected to be achieved after additional research on photoelectrochemical process technologies. The cost analysis performed is for three types of hydrogen (H 2 ) produced from five different types of renewable processes: photovoltaic (PV) electrolysis, three photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes and higher temperature electrolysis (HTE). The costs and efficiencies for PV, PEC and HTE processes are established for present day, and for expected costs and efficiencies 10 years into the future. A second objective of this analysis is to set base case costs of PV electrolysis. For any other renewable process, the costs for PV electrolysis, which is existing technology, sets the numbers which the other processes must better. (author)

  13. Electron beam processing in food industry - technology and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, Cl.L.; Ferradini, C.; Paquin, J.; Sadat, T.

    1985-01-01

    After nearly 40 years of research and thousands of positive experimentations, the fact that ionising radiations could be used for food preservation has been taken into account by the joint Expert Committee of the UN agencies, FAO, WHO and IAEA, who recommended this type of treatment in 1981 allowing doses up to 10 kGy. The market for irradiated food is actually small, but it could develop rapidly. National authorities who establish the regulations are becoming very active: so, in 1984, the US FDA has issued a proposed rule to regulate the commercial applications of food irradiation. It is timely to propose a MODEL that should really convince administration, food industry executives and consumers organizations that food irradiation is more than academic speculation: an industrial processing and an economical imperative. To this aim, we have defined an integrated model assembling (a) a sample product; (b) the optimal treatment conditions for this product, including a reliable dosimetry control system; and (c) a most efficient and competitive treatment unit that can suit a wide range of industrial needs. (author)

  14. Competitive investments in cost reducing process improvement : The role of managerial incentives and spillover learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, Gerard J.c.

    2015-01-01

    We study the rivalry between two firms and consider the effect of spillovers when the firms' operations and technology managers are given bonuses for cost reduction. We model a game in which the firm owners independently offer their manager a bonus to stimulate cost reducing process improvement

  15. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  16. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  17. Application of the TDABC model in the logistics process using different capacity cost rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The understanding of logistics process in terms of costs and profitability is a complex task and there is a need of more research and applied work on these issues. In this research project, the concepts underlying Time-Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC have been used in the context of logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach: A Distribution Centre of wood and carpentry related materials has been studied. A multidisciplinary team has been composed to support the project including the researchers and three employees of the company responsible for accounting, logistics and warehousing. The design and implementation of the costing model asked for a deep understanding of the different tasks and processes that should be considered. Accordingly, a TDABC model for the logistics function was developed. Findings: The cost model presented here is supported on a series of time equations designed for the logistics function which allow the analysis and discussion of costs and profitability of different cost objects namely, products, clients, distribution channels, processes and activities. The cost of unused capacity and the effectiveness of logistics processes are also highlighted in this model. Research limitations/implications: In a case study, results and implications cannot be directly or immediately generalized. Nevertheless, the proposed time equations and cost model can be easily adapted to explain other types of logistics functions and it gives the foundations or other TDABC models with more than one capacity cost rate. Practical implications: The TDABC model developed in this case study can be used in similar cases and as a basis for the analysis of logistics costs in other logistics processes. Furthermore, managers can rely on the proposed approach to analyze products’ profitability and logistics cost structure.  Originality/value: In this case, different capacity cost rates were computed in order to reflect appropriately the

  18. Application of the TDABC model in the logistics process using different capacity cost rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Paulo; Santana, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The understanding of logistics process in terms of costs and profitability is a complex task and there is a need of more research and applied work on these issues. In this research project, the concepts underlying Time-Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC) have been used in the context of logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach: A Distribution Centre of wood and carpentry related materials has been studied. A multidisciplinary team has been composed to support the project including the researchers and three employees of the company responsible for accounting, logistics and warehousing. The design and implementation of the costing model asked for a deep understanding of the different tasks and processes that should be considered. Accordingly, a TDABC model for the logistics function was developed. Findings: The cost model presented here is supported on a series of time equations designed for the logistics function which allow the analysis and discussion of costs and profitability of different cost objects namely, products, clients, distribution channels, processes and activities. The cost of unused capacity and the effectiveness of logistics processes are also highlighted in this model. Research limitations/implications: In a case study, results and implications cannot be directly or immediately generalized. Nevertheless, the proposed time equations and cost model can be easily adapted to explain other types of logistics functions and it gives the foundations or other TDABC models with more than one capacity cost rate. Practical implications: The TDABC model developed in this case study can be used in similar cases and as a basis for the analysis of logistics costs in other logistics processes. Furthermore, managers can rely on the proposed approach to analyze products’ profitability and logistics cost structure. Originality/value: In this case, different capacity cost rates were computed in order to reflect appropriately the logistics function which

  19. Application of the TDABC model in the logistics process using different capacity cost rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, Paulo; Santana, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: The understanding of logistics process in terms of costs and profitability is a complex task and there is a need of more research and applied work on these issues. In this research project, the concepts underlying Time-Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC) have been used in the context of logistics costs. Design/methodology/approach: A Distribution Centre of wood and carpentry related materials has been studied. A multidisciplinary team has been composed to support the project including the researchers and three employees of the company responsible for accounting, logistics and warehousing. The design and implementation of the costing model asked for a deep understanding of the different tasks and processes that should be considered. Accordingly, a TDABC model for the logistics function was developed. Findings: The cost model presented here is supported on a series of time equations designed for the logistics function which allow the analysis and discussion of costs and profitability of different cost objects namely, products, clients, distribution channels, processes and activities. The cost of unused capacity and the effectiveness of logistics processes are also highlighted in this model. Research limitations/implications: In a case study, results and implications cannot be directly or immediately generalized. Nevertheless, the proposed time equations and cost model can be easily adapted to explain other types of logistics functions and it gives the foundations or other TDABC models with more than one capacity cost rate. Practical implications: The TDABC model developed in this case study can be used in similar cases and as a basis for the analysis of logistics costs in other logistics processes. Furthermore, managers can rely on the proposed approach to analyze products’ profitability and logistics cost structure. Originality/value: In this case, different capacity cost rates were computed in order to reflect appropriately the logistics function which

  20. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  1. The Budgetary Process with a Use of Modern Approaches in Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hammer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State organisational units still compile their budget as incremental and as such it therefore disregards causes of the origination of costs and does not put a sufficient pressure on increase in efficiency of economy. This article aims to propose a budgetary setup for operating costs using the methods of ABC/ABM (Activity Based Costing/Activity Based Management in state organisational units (SOU. Essence of the proposed procedure towards budgetary setup as well as cost management is specification of such cost drivers that reflect the causal link between activities of the given organisation and indirect operating costs. Through a system of linear equations there is in turn resolved parity between demands on budgetary funding of a specific activity and full costs of activities. Using a multiple regression analyses, for selected cost groups there was also tested their dependence upon criteria that may act as general cost drivers. Undertaken research has also uncovered that frequently used variable “number of workers” cannot explain the analysed cost groups. Benefit of proposed solutions is increase in efficiency of SOU economy. This way, the management receives a tool for budgeting and cost control not only within the process structure based on activities, but also within individual items of the budgetary classification.

  2. 17 CFR 9.12 - Effective date of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.12 Effective date of disciplinary or access denial action. (a) Effective date. Any disciplinary or access denial action taken by an... cause a disciplinary action to become effective prior to that time if: (1) As authorized by § 8.25 of...

  3. 2 CFR 2424.1125 - How does a limited denial of participation start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does a limited denial of participation start? 2424.1125 Section 2424.1125 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and... of Participation § 2424.1125 How does a limited denial of participation start? A limited denial of...

  4. 22 CFR 51.61 - Denial of passports to certain convicted drug traffickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Denial of passports to certain convicted drug... Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.61 Denial of passports to certain convicted drug... felony conviction for a Federal or state drug offense, if the individual used a U.S. passport or...

  5. Main means for reducing the production costs in process of leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lang

    2000-01-01

    The production costs in process of leaching uranium have been reduced by controlling mixture ratio of crudes, milling particle size, liquid/solid mass ratio of leaching pulp, potential and residue acidity, and improving power equipment

  6. An easy and low cost option for economic statistical process control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An easy and low cost option for economic statistical process control using Excel. ... in both economic and economic statistical designs of the X-control chart. ... in this paper and the numerical examples illustrated are executed on this program.

  7. Cost account in agriculture with particular accordance to requirements of decision making process and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kondraszuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents cost account applicability in the agricultural companies regarding the general theory of economic and organisation of enterprises. The main focus was laid down to analyse the unit total cost account with variable costs and their applicability in three spheres: stock valuation and profit, requirements of planning and decision making processes and controlling. It was concluded that cost calculation at the level of agricultural enterprise should be an inherent element of integrated information system at the level of registry, planning, decision making and control.

  8. Pyrimethanil degradation by photo-Fenton process: Influence of iron and irradiance level on treatment cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Reina, A; Miralles-Cuevas, S; Casas López, J L; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2017-12-15

    This study evaluates the combined effect of photo-catalyst concentration and irradiance level on photo-Fenton efficiency when this treatment is applied to industrial wastewater decontamination. Three levels of irradiance (18, 32 and 46W/m 2 ) and three iron concentrations (8, 20 and 32mg/L) were selected and their influence over the process studied using a raceway pond reactor placed inside a solar box. For 8mg/L, it was found that there was a lack of catalyst to make use of all the available photons. For 20mg/L, the treatment always improved with irradiance indicating that the process was photo-limited. For 32mg/L, the excess of iron caused an excess of radicals production which proved to be counter-productive for the overall process efficiency. The economic assessment showed that acquisition and maintenance costs represent the lowest relative values. The highest cost was found to be the cost of the reagents consumed. Both sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide are negligible in terms of costs. Iron cost percentages were also very low and never higher than 10.5% while the highest cost was always that of hydrogen peroxide, representing at least 85% of the reagent costs. Thus, the total costs were between 0.76 and 1.39€/m 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Explaining the reductions in US corn ethanol processing costs: Testing competing hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoguang; Khanna, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    The processing costs of US corn ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983 as production volumes have increased seventeen-fold. We investigate the role of various factors that could explain this, including economies of scale, cumulative experience, induced innovation in response to rising input prices, an autonomous technological change, and trade induced competition from imported ethanol. Using data on dry-mill ethanol processing costs over the 1983–2005 period, we find evidence to show that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale, that learning by doing played an important role in reducing these processing costs with a learning rate of 0.25, and that sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. Other factors such as the rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant. The inclusion of these competing explanations for the reduction in processing costs of US corn ethanol lead to a significantly higher learning rate than otherwise, and this learning rate is found to be robust across specifications. - Highlights: ► We investigate the role of various factors that could explain the reduction in US corn ethanol processing costs over the period 1983–2005. ► We find that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale. ► Learning by doing played an important role in reducing these costs with a learning rate of 0.25. ► Sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. ► Rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant.

  10. Concepts of increasing productivity and reducing the processing cost of machine parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Кленов

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic conditions to reduce the cost of processing technology and improve productivity through the use of modern cutting tools produced by leading foreign firms producing tools have been appraised from theory in the work. Theoretically, it has been found that an increase in the cost of processing varies according to extremum dependence, passing the minimum point. It is possible to reduce the minimum processing cost due to the increase of productivity using cutting edge tools, characterized by a high capacity for work in high cutting temperatures. The criterion showing the technological price cost minimum is the ratio of the expenditures on workers’ wages to the expenditures on the cutting tools, it being quite specific for various processing conditions. To analyze the possibilities of practical use of the proposed criterion, a complex of experimental researches of the technological prime cost and productivity of the processing with hard alloy cutting tools with wear-resistant coatings produced by the company «Iscar» has been carried out. It has been established that their use makes it possible by more than one half to reduce the labour consumption and overall costs as compared to the hard alloy cutting tools traditionally used in home industry. It has been shown that this effect is achieved by increasing the cutting speed and feed due to increased wear resistance and heat resistance of the «Iscar» company tools. It was established that it is much more possible to achieve low processing cost at milling than at turning. It was stated with regard to all major expenditures including the workers' wages, the cost of the cutting tools, equipment and other costs, allowing more correctly estimate the cost-effectiveness of mechanical processing. Experiments confirmed that the main condition for reducing the processing cost to its minimum value is to increase the processing performance through the use of a heat-resistant and wear-resistant cutting

  11. EVALUATION OF COSTS OF HARVESTER IN CUT AND PROCESSING OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Nunes dos Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Before performing any financial analysis costs must be calculated. These costs should allow the planning and control over the use of the machines as well as the comparison between different investments alternatives since this is easily calculated. Generally the operating costs of forest harvesting machines are estimated until the maximum of 25,000 hours of work, and it is not possible to know whether the activity remains profitable thereafter or not. For this reason the objective of this study was to evaluate the costs from cutting activities and wood processing carried out by a forestry tractor harvester up to approximately 30,000 hours of work. Ten forest machines composed of two models of harvester (John Deere, model 1270D and 1470D were used. A spreadsheet provided by a forestry company located in the state of Minas Gerais, containing the necessary data to estimate the operating cost of the machines and subsequent achievement of the sensitivity analysis was used. The operating cost was obtained by the sum of the fixed and variable costs. For sensitivity analysis the variation ± 20% of the most representative elements of the total cost of the machine was performed. The results for the operating cost of the harvester and forwarder was U.S. $ 190.85 h-1. Costs for repairs and maintenance, labor, fuel, and depreciation represented approximately 90% of the total cost of the machine. Despite the fact that the age of the machine has a direct influence on its operating cost, the costs did not behave in a linear fashion over the years.

  12. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume II. Waste form data, process descriptions, and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Thornhill, R.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains supporting information for the comparative assessment of the transuranic waste forms and processes summarized in Volume I. Detailed data on the characterization of the waste forms selected for the assessment, process descriptions, and cost information are provided. The purpose of this volume is to provide additional information that may be useful when using the data in Volume I and to provide greater detail on particular waste forms and processes. Volume II is divided into two sections and two appendixes. The first section provides information on the preparation of the waste form specimens used in this study and additional characterization data in support of that in Volume I. The second section includes detailed process descriptions for the eight processes evaluated. Appendix A lists the results of MCC-1 leach test and Appendix B lists additional cost data. 56 figures, 12 tables

  13. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the dairy processing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guide identifies and promotes opportunities for conserving energy and water, as well as reducing waste, in the dairy processing sector. The guide begins with an introduction and a profile of Ontario`s dairy processing sector, outlining the context for resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. It then outlines the rationale and the generic processes selected for careful examination of resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. Subsequent chapters describe the energy, water, and material resources commonly used in relation to the generic processes; the air, water, and solid waste residuals commonly derived from those processes; and new technologies with potential application in dairy processing. The generic processes covered in the guide are for fluid milk, cheese, ice cream and frozen products, cultured products such as yogurt, butter, and dried or evaporated products. The report ends with additional useful information for dairy processors.

  14. Hot forming and quenching pilot process development for low cost and low environmental impact manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roger W.; Foster, Alistair; Herrmann Praturlon, Anja

    2017-09-01

    The Hot Forming and in-tool Quenching (HFQ®) process is a proven technique to enable complex shaped stampings to be manufactured from high strength aluminium. Its widespread uptake for high volume production will be maximised if it is able to wholly amortise the additional investment cost of this process compared to conventional deep drawing techniques. This paper discusses the use of three techniques to guide some of the development decisions taken during upscaling of the HFQ® process. Modelling of Process timing, Cost and Life-cycle impact were found to be effective tools to identify where development budget could be focused in order to be able to manufacture low cost panels of different sizes from many different alloys in a sustainable way. The results confirm that raw material cost, panel trimming, and artificial ageing were some of the highest contributing factors to final component cost. Additionally, heat treatment and lubricant removal stages played a significant role in the overall life-cycle assessment of the final products. These findings confirmed development priorities as novel furnace design, fast artificial ageing and low-cost alloy development.

  15. A conceptional design, cost and sensitivity analysis on adsorption process for uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Noboru

    1986-01-01

    The system model for a conceptional design and cost estimation was studied on a multi-layered fluidizing bed with a pump which used hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) and amidoxime resin (AOR) as adsorbents. The cost effect of some parameters, namely characteristics of adsorbent, operating conditions, price of materials and some others, were estimated, and finally there was shown a direction of improvement and a possibility of cost reduction. The conceptional design and operating condition were obtained from the balance point on expansion ratio, recovery and characteristics of adsorbent. A suitable plan was obtained from the minimum cost condition in some level of the expansion ratio and some parameters. HTO was heavy in density and cheap in price. The main results of the study indicated that the thickness of the bed was 1 m, the linear velocity of seawater was 52 m/hr, the number of bed layers was 4, the construction cost of a 100 t/y plant was 10 billion yen, and the uranium cost was 160 $/1b. AOR had a large adsorption capacity. As the main results, the thickness of bed was 0.08 m, the linear velosity of seawater was 11.6 m, the number of the bed layers was 27, the construction cost of a 100 t/y plant was 15 billion yen, and the uranium cost was 280 $/1b. The size of the 100 t/y plant was about 800 m length x 80 m depth x 30 m height at 80 % of recovery. An increase of adsorption capacity in HTO, and an increase of density and particle size in AOR had the greatest merit for cost reduction. Other effective parameters were the adsorption velocity, the recovery, temperature, the price of adsorbent, the manufacturing cost of instrument, and the rate of interest. The cost of uranium by this process had a possibility of cost reduction to 67 $/1b at HTO and 79 $/1b at AOR. (author)

  16. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.

    1964-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to help solve the problem of the selection of optimal sizes and sites for spent nuclear fuel processing plants associated with power capacity programmes already installed. Firstly, the structure of capital and running costs of irradiated natural uranium processing plants is studied, as well as the influence of plant sizes on these costs and structures. Shipping costs from the production site to the plant must also be added to processing costs. An attempt to reach a minimum cost for the production of a country or a group of countries must therefore take into account both the size and the location of the plants. The foreseeable shipping costs and their structure (freight, insurance, container cost and depreciation), for spent natural uranium are indicated. Secondly, for various annual spent fuel reprocessing programmes, the optimal sizes and locations of the plants are determined. The sensitivity of the results to the basic assumptions relative to processing costs, shipping costs, the starting up year of the plant programme and the length of period considered, is also tested. - this rather complex problem, of a combinative nature, is solved through dynamic programming methods. - It is shown that these methods can also be applied to the problem of selecting the optimal sizes and locations of processing plants for MTR type fuel elements, related to research reactor programmes, as well as to future plutonium element processing plants related to breeder reactors. Thirdly, the case where yearly extraction of the plutonium contained in the irradiated natural uranium is not compulsory is examined; some stockpiling of the fuel is then allowed some years, entailing delayed processing. The load factor of such plants is thus greatly improved with respect to that of plants where the annual plutonium demand is strictly satisfied. By including spent natural uranium stockpiling costs an optimal rhythm of introduction and optimal sizes for spent fuel

  17. The process of life-cycle cost analysis on the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.Y.; Jacoboski, J.A.; Fisher, L.A.; Beirne, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Estimating Services Department of the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) is formalizing the process of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The LCCA process is based on the concepts, principles, and guidelines described by applicable Department of Energy's (DOE) orders, pertinent published literature, and the National Bureau of Standards handbook 135. LCC analyses will be performed following a ten-step process on the FEMP at the earliest possible decision point to support the selection of the least-cost alternatives for achieving the FERMCO mission

  18. A low-cost vector processor boosting compute-intensive image processing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorf, Hans-Martin

    1992-01-01

    Low-cost vector processing (VP) is within reach of everyone seriously engaged in scientific computing. The advent of affordable add-on VP-boards for standard workstations complemented by mathematical/statistical libraries is beginning to impact compute-intensive tasks such as image processing. A case in point in the restoration of distorted images from the Hubble Space Telescope. A low-cost implementation is presented of the standard Tarasko-Richardson-Lucy restoration algorithm on an Intel i860-based VP-board which is seamlessly interfaced to a commercial, interactive image processing system. First experience is reported (including some benchmarks for standalone FFT's) and some conclusions are drawn.

  19. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  20. A low-cost photovoltaic cell process based on thick film techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, N.; Pepe, A.; Bunyan, S.; Edwards, B.; Olson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The low-cost, easily automated processing for solar cell fabrication being developed at Spectrolab for the DOE LSA program is described. These processes include plasma-etching, spray-on diffusion sources and antireflective coating, thick film metallization, aluminum back contacts, laser scribing and ultrasonic soldering. The process sequence has been shown to produce solar cells having 15% conversion efficiency at AM1 which meet the cell fabrication budget required for the DOE 1986 cost goal of $0.70 per peak watt in 1980.

  1. Process cost and facility considerations in the selection of primary cell culture clarification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felo, Michael; Christensen, Brandon; Higgins, John

    2013-01-01

    The bioreactor volume delineating the selection of primary clarification technology is not always easily defined. Development of a commercial scale process for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins requires scale-up from a few liters to thousands of liters. While the separation techniques used for protein purification are largely conserved across scales, the separation techniques for primary cell culture clarification vary with scale. Process models were developed to compare monoclonal antibody production costs using two cell culture clarification technologies. One process model was created for cell culture clarification by disc stack centrifugation with depth filtration. A second process model was created for clarification by multi-stage depth filtration. Analyses were performed to examine the influence of bioreactor volume, product titer, depth filter capacity, and facility utilization on overall operating costs. At bioreactor volumes 5,000 L, clarification using centrifugation followed by depth filtration offers significant cost savings. For bioreactor volumes of ∼ 2,000 L, clarification costs are similar between depth filtration and centrifugation. At this scale, factors including facility utilization, available capital, ease of process development, implementation timelines, and process performance characterization play an important role in clarification technology selection. In the case study presented, a multi-product facility selected multi-stage depth filtration for cell culture clarification at the 500 and 2,000 L scales of operation. Facility implementation timelines, process development activities, equipment commissioning and validation, scale-up effects, and process robustness are examined. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Improving Library Management by Using Cost Analysis Tools: A Case Study for Cataloguing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Siguenza-Guzman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available TTDABC is a relatively new costing management technique, initially developed for manufacturing processes, which is gaining attention in libraries. This is because TDABC is a fast and simple method that only requires two parameters, an estimation of time required to perform an activity and the unit cost per time of supplying capacity. A few case studies have been documented with regard to TDABC in libraries; all of them being oriented to analyse specific library activities such as inter-library loan, acquisition and circulation processes. The primary focus of this paper is to describe TDABC implementation in one of the most important library processes, namely cataloguing. In particular, original and copy cataloguing are analysed through a case study to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of TDABC to perform cost analysis of cataloguing processes.

  3. Resilient control under Denial-of-Service: Robust design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Shuai; Tesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study networked control systems in the presence of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, namely attacks that prevent transmissions over the communication network. The control objective is to maximize frequency and duration of the DoS attacks under which closed-loop stability is not

  4. Resilient Control under Denial-of-Service:Robust Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Shuai; Tesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study networked control systems in the presence of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, namely attacks that prevent transmissions over the communication network. The control objective is to maximize frequency and duration of the DoS attacks under which closed-loop stability is not

  5. 44 CFR 73.3 - Denial of flood insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance coverage. 73.3 Section 73.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... sufficient to confirm its identity and location; (2) A clear and unequivocal declaration that the property is...

  6. 9 CFR 2.11 - Denial of initial license application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... have violated any Federal, State, or local laws or regulations pertaining to animal cruelty within 1... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial of initial license application. 2.11 Section 2.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 7 CFR 97.105 - Denial of an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificates or rights are cited, as a reason for denial, their nationality or country, numbers and dates, and... to enable the applicant to identify the cited certificates or rights. (d) If printed publications are... shall be denied. (b) In denying an application, the examiner shall cite the reasons the application was...

  8. 9 CFR 362.4 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 362.4 Section 362.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., assaults, abuse, or any other improper means; (iv) has knowingly falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or...

  9. 11 CFR 4.8 - Appeal of denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... been received by the Commission, may appeal the adverse determination or the failure to respond by... writing, shall clearly and prominently state on the envelope or other cover and at the top of the first... will not entertain any appeal from an alleged denial or failure to comply with an oral request. Any...

  10. 78 FR 58519 - Denial of Export Privileges; Sixing Liu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701, et seq. (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)). I have received notice of Liu's conviction... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Denial of Export Privileges; Sixing Liu In the Matter of: Sixing Liu, a/k/a Steve Liu, Inmate 43102-424, FCI Oxford, Federal Correctional...

  11. Denials and delays of shipments in the transport of radioactive materials in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobreira, Ana Celia F.; Bemelmans, Denise

    2007-01-01

    REM Industria e Comercio is a Brazilian private company which has been performing transport of radioactive material in Brazil for more than 15 years and is also experiencing this situation. In Brazil, over 50,000 shipments of radioactive materials are carried out every year, mostly for medical purposes. There are 4 airlines companies operating the domestic routes and only is currently accepting material of Class 7 (radioactive) for transport. When transporting by road, REM uses its own vehicles or hires associated cargo companies. For the sea transport, there is not a certified vessel for this kind of material in Brazil which increases the prices and makes the transport by this mode very expensive and more difficult. Reasons for denials have been identified as misinterpretation of the regulations, lack of harmonization between regulations, fear of indemnity costs for accidents, restrictive rules at ports not allowing storage of radioactive material in transit, frequent changes in modal regulations, lack of education and training of cargo handlers and the misconception of public perception concerning radiation risks. Seeking for local solutions, REM has organized meetings involving medical societies, competent authorities and carriers and has taken part on commissions for revising standards and regulations and trained cargo handling personnel as well. This paper addresses causes for delays and denials and reports identified domestic solutions. (author)

  12. 19 CFR 10.197 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations performed in... TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.197 Direct costs of processing operations... operations. As used in § 10.195 and § 10.198, the words “direct costs of processing operations” mean those...

  13. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  14. A Model of Process-Based Automation: Cost and Quality Implications in the Medication Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Trent Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand how a set of systems, as defined by the business process, creates value. The three studies contained in this work develop the model of process-based automation. The model states that complementarities among systems are specified by handoffs in the business process. The model also provides theory to…

  15. Enhancing efficiency of production cost on seafood process with activity based management method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Tarigan, U. P. P.

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of production costs has an important impact maintaining company presence in the business world, as well as in the face of increasingly sharp global competition. It was done by identifying and reducing non-value-added activities to decrease production costs and increase profits. The study was conducted at a company engaged in the production of squid (seafood). It has a higher product price than the market as Rp 50,000 per kg while the market price of squid is only Rp 35,000 per kg. The price of the product to be more expensive compared with market price, and thereby a lot more consumers choose the lower market price. Based on the discussions conducted, the implementation of Activity Based Management was seen in the reduction of activities that are not added value in the production process. Since each activities consumers cost, the reduction of nonvalue-added activities has effects on the decline of production cost. The production’s decline costs mainly occur in the reduction of material transfer costs. The results showed that there was an increase after the improvement of 2.60%. Increased production cost efficiency causes decreased production costs and increased profits.

  16. Solar energy for process heat: Design/cost studies of four industrial retrofit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. L.; Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Five specific California plants with potentially attractive solar applications were identified in a process heat survey. These five plants were visited, process requirements evaluated, and conceptual solar system designs were generated. Four DOE (ERDA) sponsored solar energy system demonstration projects were also reviewed and compared to the design/cost cases included in this report. In four of the five cases investigated, retrofit installations providing significant amounts of thermal energy were found to be feasible. The fifth was rejected because of the condition of the building involved, but the process (soap making) appears to be an attractive potential solar application. Costs, however, tend to be high. Several potential areas for cost reduction were identified including larger collector modules and higher duty cycles.

  17. Early‐Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jean‐Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean‐Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil‐based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital‐intensive projects that involve state‐of‐the‐art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well‐documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early‐stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. PMID:27484398

  18. Multi objective optimization model for minimizing production cost and environmental impact in CNC turning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2018-02-01

    Minimizing production cost in a manufacturing company will increase the profit of the company. The cutting parameters will affect total processing time which then will affect the production cost of machining process. Besides affecting the production cost and processing time, the cutting parameters will also affect the environment. An optimization model is needed to determine the optimum cutting parameters. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact in CNC turning process. The model is used a multi objective optimization. Cutting speed and feed rate are served as the decision variables. Constraints considered are cutting speed, feed rate, cutting force, output power, and surface roughness. The environmental impact is converted from the environmental burden by using eco-indicator 99. Numerical example is given to show the implementation of the model and solved using OptQuest of Oracle Crystal Ball software. The results of optimization indicate that the model can be used to optimize the cutting parameters to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact.

  19. Parametric Cost Modeling of Space Missions Using the Develop New Projects (DMP) Implementation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Leigh; Hihn, Jairus; Roust, Kevin; Warfield, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a parametric cost model that has been built at JPL to estimate costs of future, deep space, robotic science missions. Due to the recent dramatic changes in JPL business practices brought about by an internal reengineering effort known as develop new products (DNP), high-level historic cost data is no longer considered analogous to future missions. Therefore, the historic data is of little value in forecasting costs for projects developed using the DNP process. This has lead to the development of an approach for obtaining expert opinion and also for combining actual data with expert opinion to provide a cost database for future missions. In addition, the DNP cost model has a maximum of objective cost drivers which reduces the likelihood of model input error. Version 2 is now under development which expands the model capabilities, links it more tightly with key design technical parameters, and is grounded in more rigorous statistical techniques. The challenges faced in building this model will be discussed, as well as it's background, development approach, status, validation, and future plans.

  20. Statistical and cost-benefit enhancements to the DQO process for characterization decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, D.

    1996-01-01

    The costs of characterization can comprise a sizeable fraction of a remediation program budget. The DQO Process has been instituted at DOE to ensure that the investment in characterization adds net value to each remediation project. Thoughtful characterization can be very important to minimizing the total cost of a remediation. Strategic information gained by characterization can reduce the remediation costs by reducing the unproductive investment in unnecessary remediation of portions of a site that really don't need to be remediated, and strategic information can reduce remediation costs by reducing the frequency of expensive rework or emergency action that result when remediation has not been pursued to the extent that really is needed

  1. Are breast biopsies adequately funded? A process cost and revenue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, M.; Fischbach, E.; Fehm, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine whether the various breast biopsy procedures specified in the S 3 guidelines are sensibly represented within the current German health system as considered from a cost evaluation perspective. Materials and Methods: This prospectively designed multicenter study analyzed 221 breast biopsies at 7 institutions from 04/2006 to 01/2007. Core needle biopsies, vacuum-assisted biopsies and surgical open biopsies under sonographic or mammographic guidance were evaluated. During an analysis of process costs, the individual process steps were recorded in diagrammatic form and assigned to the true consumption of resources. The actual resource consumption costs were entered. A process-related breakeven analysis was conducted to check whether the reimbursement of individual biopsy types covers the costs. Results: Only sonographically guided core needle biopsy and surgical open biopsy are adequately reimbursed in the current German health system. All other breast biopsies indicate a negative profit margin. The principal reasons for underfunding are found in the area of reimbursement of investment and non-personnel costs. Conclusion: The reimbursement of breast biopsies must be improved in order to guarantee nationwide care of the population using the breast biopsy methods recommended in the S 3 guidelines and to avoid disincentives with respect to breast biopsy indications. (orig.)

  2. A Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Controllable Processing Times to Optimize Total Cost of Delay and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mokhtari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flexible job shop scheduling problem with machine flexibility and controllable process times is studied. The main idea is that the processing times of operations may be controlled by consumptions of additional resources. The purpose of this paper to find the best trade-off between processing cost and delay cost in order to minimize the total costs. The proposed model, flexible job shop scheduling with controllable processing times (FJCPT, is formulated as an integer non-linear programming (INLP model and then it is converted into an integer linear programming (ILP model. Due to NP-hardness of FJCPT, conventional analytic optimization methods are not efficient. Hence, in order to solve the problem, a Scatter Search (SS, as an efficient metaheuristic method, is developed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerical experiments are conducted. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of a genetic algorithm (GA available in the literature for solving FJSP problem. The results showed that the proposed SS provide better solutions than the existing GA.

  3. Analysis on the consumer disposition to afford the cost of food processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaruzzi, Eliana Borba

    2012-01-01

    The concept of food quality, in the consumer point of view, reflects the satisfaction of characteristics such as flavor, aroma, appearance, packaging and availability. Economic and social factors, such as cost and eating habits, generally, also influence the choice of a product. Irradiation is an effective technique in food preservation because it reduces the losses caused by natural physiological processes, either reducing or eliminating microorganisms, parasites and pests without causing any damage to the foods and, thus, making them safer to consumers. Nevertheless, there may be an increase in the cost of foods. Research indicates that practicality is already a deep-rooted feature of consumers. The price may be a limiting factor to the popularization of the irradiated product, although some consumers consider that, due to the avoidance of waste, the increased cost may be feasible. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost of using food irradiation technology and verify (a) whether consumers, when informed of the benefits in food safety, are willing to pay for this treatment and (b) how much they are willing to pay. The methodology consisted of a study on the economic feasibility of food irradiation technology by means of a systematic survey of the literature, in order to verify the cost of this process implementation and the increase in costs for the producer. Also, a survey was conducted in an Institution of Superior Education about the consumer's willingness to pay for this higher price. The study results indicate a rise in costs to the producer, ranging from $ 0.01 to U.S. $ 0.25 per pound; it was also found that 75% of the consumers surveyed are willing to pay more for irradiated food. From these results it was concluded that the higher the consumption power is, the greater the willingness to afford the additional cost irradiated foods have. (author)

  4. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  5. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available to predict the cost structure of a newly developed manufacturing process if it is to be considered by manufacturing enterprises for development to substitute a process that is in use. The costs of the new SSM technologies was established by technical cost...

  6. Development of a low-cost cellulase production process using Trichoderma reesei for Brazilian biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellilä, Simo; Fonseca, Lucas; Uchima, Cristiane; Cota, Junio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Saloheimo, Markku; Sacon, Vera; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2017-01-01

    During the past few years, the first industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol plants have been inaugurated. Although the performance of the commercial cellulase enzymes used in this process has greatly improved over the past decade, cellulases still represent a very significant operational cost. Depending on the region, transport of cellulases from a central production facility to a biorefinery may significantly add to enzyme cost. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple, cost-efficient cellulase production process that could be employed locally at a Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery. Our work focused on two main topics: growth medium formulation and strain improvement. We evaluated several Brazilian low-cost industrial residues for their potential in cellulase production. Among the solid residues evaluated, soybean hulls were found to display clearly the most desirable characteristics. We engineered a Trichoderma reesei strain to secrete cellulase in the presence of repressing sugars, enabling the use of sugarcane molasses as an additional carbon source. In addition, we added a heterologous β-glucosidase to improve the performance of the produced enzymes in hydrolysis. Finally, the addition of an invertase gene from Aspegillus niger into our strain allowed it to consume sucrose from sugarcane molasses directly. Preliminary cost analysis showed that the overall process can provide for very low-cost enzyme with good hydrolysis performance on industrially pre-treated sugarcane straw. In this study, we showed that with relatively few genetic modifications and the right growth medium it is possible to produce considerable amounts of well-performing cellulase at very low cost in Brazil using T. reesei . With further enhancements and optimization, such a system could provide a viable alternative to delivered commercial cellulases.

  7. The health regionalization process from the perspective of the transation cost theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Leyla Gomes; Geremia, Daniela Savi; Dain, Sulamis; Geremia, Fabiano; Leão, Cláudio José Silva

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the incidence of transaction costs in the regionalization process of health policies in the Brazilian federal system. In this work, regionalized health actions contracted and agreed between federal agencies have assumed a transactional nature. A conceptual theoretical essay of reflective nature was prepared with the purpose of questioning and proposing new approaches to improve the health regionalization process. The main considerations suggest that institutional management tools proposed by the standards and regulations of the Unified Health System have a low potential to reduce transaction costs, especially due to hardships in reconciling common goals among the entities, environment surrounded by uncertainty, asymmetries and incomplete information, bounded rationality and conflict of interest. However, regionalization can reduce the incidence of social and/or operational costs, through improved access to health and the construction of more efficient governance models.

  8. A Model of An Integration System for Operations and Cost Data Designed to Control Logistics Processes in Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Wajszczuk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model of an integration system for operations and cost data designed for the needs of process controlling in agricultural enterprises, with special emphasis on logistics processes. The proposed model constituted the basis for the development of an IT tool to be used in the identification and analysis of logistics costs in agricultural enterprises in terms of the process based approach. As a result of research and programming efforts a model was developed, which made it possible in agricultural enterprises to determine the type-based relationship of cost dynamics and structure with realized actions, operating processes (including logistics processes and products, as well as the relationship of these costs with used resources, maintained stocks, applied materials and work methods. Moreover, this model facilitates cost allocation to products and processes as well as cost centers and points, and makes it possible to determine multidimensional dependencies of the result (divided into individual products on incurred costs.

  9. Production of Low Cost Carbon-Fiber through Energy Optimization of Stabilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelayol Golkarnarenji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To produce high quality and low cost carbon fiber-based composites, the optimization of the production process of carbon fiber and its properties is one of the main keys. The stabilization process is the most important step in carbon fiber production that consumes a large amount of energy and its optimization can reduce the cost to a large extent. In this study, two intelligent optimization techniques, namely Support Vector Regression (SVR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN, were studied and compared, with a limited dataset obtained to predict physical property (density of oxidative stabilized PAN fiber (OPF in the second zone of a stabilization oven within a carbon fiber production line. The results were then used to optimize the energy consumption in the process. The case study can be beneficial to chemical industries involving carbon fiber manufacturing, for assessing and optimizing different stabilization process conditions at large.

  10. Assessment of processes, facilities, and costs for alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Schuyler, R.L. III; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Butler, J.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation which assesses the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste forms is presented. The reference borosilicate glass process is rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete. The other processes evaluated in order of increasing complexity were: glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramic (Synroc-D and tailored ceramic), and coated ceramic particles. Cost appraisals are summarized for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities

  11. Milestones of mathematical model for business process management related to cost estimate documentation in petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamidullin, R. I.

    2018-05-01

    The paper is devoted to milestones of the optimal mathematical model for a business process related to cost estimate documentation compiled during construction and reconstruction of oil and gas facilities. It describes the study and analysis of fundamental issues in petroleum industry, which are caused by economic instability and deterioration of a business strategy. Business process management is presented as business process modeling aimed at the improvement of the studied business process, namely main criteria of optimization and recommendations for the improvement of the above-mentioned business model.

  12. WORKING MACHINE-HOUR COST COMPARISON OF MODERN ROAD COVERAGE PROCESSING MECHANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara Kyazymovna Izmaylova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are mentioned features of alternative mechanization machine-hour cost calculations. Also determined analytical dependencies of calculating the expenses of ownership and maintenance. Given a comparison of expense items of various options for the processing implementation. The analysis is based on the international organizing experience for these types of work.

  13. Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based approach for the development of a rural technology product. ... Since the project aims at technology transfer to the rural poor for generating rural livelihoods, appropriate financial models and the general sustainability issues for such an activity are briefly discussed ...

  14. 75 FR 71677 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium... in FY 2011 from eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under... approximately $24.3 million of Recovery Act funds available for reimbursement in FY 2011, as well as the $10...

  15. Digitizing Dissertations for an Institutional Repository: A Process and Cost Analysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorun, Mary; Palmer, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the Lamar Soutter Library's process and costs associated with digitizing 300 doctoral dissertations for a newly implemented institutional repository at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Methodology: Project tasks included identifying metadata elements, obtaining and tracking permissions, converting the dissertations to an electronic format, and coordinating workflow between library departments. Each dissertation was scanned, reviewed for quality control, enhanced with a table of contents, processed through an optical character recognition function, and added to the institutional repository. Results: Three hundred and twenty dissertations were digitized and added to the repository for a cost of $23,562, or $0.28 per page. Seventy-four percent of the authors who were contacted (n = 282) granted permission to digitize their dissertations. Processing time per title was 170 minutes, for a total processing time of 906 hours. In the first 17 months, full-text dissertations in the collection were downloaded 17,555 times. Conclusion: Locally digitizing dissertations or other scholarly works for inclusion in institutional repositories can be cost effective, especially if small, defined projects are chosen. A successful project serves as an excellent recruitment strategy for the institutional repository and helps libraries build new relationships. Challenges include workflow, cost, policy development, and copyright permissions. PMID:18654648

  16. Digitizing dissertations for an institutional repository: a process and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorun, Mary; Palmer, Lisa A

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the Lamar Soutter Library's process and costs associated with digitizing 300 doctoral dissertations for a newly implemented institutional repository at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Project tasks included identifying metadata elements, obtaining and tracking permissions, converting the dissertations to an electronic format, and coordinating workflow between library departments. Each dissertation was scanned, reviewed for quality control, enhanced with a table of contents, processed through an optical character recognition function, and added to the institutional repository. Three hundred and twenty dissertations were digitized and added to the repository for a cost of $23,562, or $0.28 per page. Seventy-four percent of the authors who were contacted (n = 282) granted permission to digitize their dissertations. Processing time per title was 170 minutes, for a total processing time of 906 hours. In the first 17 months, full-text dissertations in the collection were downloaded 17,555 times. Locally digitizing dissertations or other scholarly works for inclusion in institutional repositories can be cost effective, especially if small, defined projects are chosen. A successful project serves as an excellent recruitment strategy for the institutional repository and helps libraries build new relationships. Challenges include workflow, cost, policy development, and copyright permissions.

  17. Process, cost modeling and simulations for integrated project development of biomass for fuel and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Wolff, D.M.B.; Souza Melo, H.N.

    1998-01-01

    The construction of the models for biomass project development are described. These models, first constructed using QPRO electronic spread sheet for Windows, are now being developed with the aid of visual and object oriented program as tools using DELPHI V.1 for windows and process simulator SUPERPRO, V.2.7 Intelligent Inc. These models render the process development problems with economic objectives to be solved very rapidly. The preliminary analysis of cost and investments of biomass utilisation projects which are included for this study are: steam, ammonia, carbon dioxide and alkali pretreatment process, methane gas production using anaerobic digestion process, aerobic composting, ethanol fermentation and distillation, effluent treatments using high rate algae production as well as cogeneration of energy for drying. The main project under developments are the biomass valuation projects with the elephant (Napier) grass, sugar cane bagasse and microalgae, using models for mass balance, equipment and production cost. The sensibility analyses are carried out to account for stochastic variation of the process yield, production volume, price variations, using Monte Carlo method. These models allow the identification of economical and scale up problems of the technology. The results obtained with few preliminary project development with few case studies are reported for integrated project development for fuel and protein using process and cost simulation models. (author)

  18. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne's preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture's Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas

  19. Development of a low cost, low environmental impact process for disposal of nitrate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A uranium recycle process in the Y-12 Plant generates nitrate ions which must be discarded. Scrap enriched uranium is dissolved in nitric acid and solvent extracted to remove impurities from the uranium. Aluminum nitrate is also used in the process to remove the purified uranium from the solvent extraction process. Dilute nitric acid, aluminum nitrate, and metallic impurities must be discarded from this process. A program was started to develop a low cost, low environmental impact process for disposal of these nitrate wastes. Several disposal methods were considered. A process was selected which included: distillation and recycle of nitric acid; crystallization and recycle of aluminum nitrate; and biodegradation of the remaining nitrate waste solutions. For this presentation, only the biodegradation process will be discussed. A colony of Pseudomonas stutzeri, which is capable of using the nitrate ion as the oxygen supply, was used. An excess of organic material was used to insure that the maximum amount of nitrate was destroyed

  20. Profiling mild steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions and costs in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael J; Siert, Arlen; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel G

    2014-05-01

    To provide quantitative information to choose the best welding processes for minimizing workplace emissions, nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for mild steel were assessed for fume generation rates, normalized fume generation rates (milligram fume per gram of electrode consumed), and normalized generation rates for elemental manganese, nickel, and iron. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux-cored arc-welding (FCAW) processes were also profiled. The fumes were collected quantitatively in an American Welding Society-type fume chamber and weighed, recovered, homogenized, and analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for total metals. The processes included GMAW with short circuit, globular transfer, axial spray, pulsed spray, Surface Tension Transfer™, Regulated Metal Deposition™, and Cold Metal Transfer™ (CMT) modes. Flux-cored welding was gas shielded, and SMAW was a single rod type. Results indicate a wide range of fume emission factors for the process variations studied. Fume emission rates per gram of electrode consumed were highest for SMAW (~13 mg fume g(-1) electrode) and lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed spray (~1.5mg g(-1)) and CMT (~1mg g(-1)). Manganese emission rates per gram of electrode consumed ranged from 0.45 mg g(-1) (SMAW) to 0.08 mg g(-1) (CMT). Nickel emission rates were generally low and ranged from ~0.09 (GMAW short circuit) to 0.004 mg g(-1) (CMT). Iron emission rates ranged from 3.7 (spray-mode GMAW) to 0.49 mg g(-1) (CMT). The processes studied have significantly different costs, and cost factors are presented based on a case study to allow comparisons between processes in specific cost categories. Costs per linear meter of weld were $31.07 (SMAW), $12.37 (GMAW short circuit), and $10.89 (FCAW). Although no single process is the best for minimizing fume emissions and costs while satisfying the weld requirements, there are several processes that can minimize emissions. This study provides

  1. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasper, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions

  2. Cost reductions on a food processing plant identified by a process integration study at Cadbury Typhoo Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, R.W. (Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (UK))

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of a process integration study is to determine the minimum practical amount of energy required to operate a process and to identify the minimum cost schemes to maximise savings consistent with planning and operating criteria. The British-led development of Pinch Technology provides a more systematic approach. This technique involves the rigorous application of thermodynamic principles and cost accounting whilst taking account of practical engineering and operability constraints. Cadbury Typhoo Ltd is part of the Cadbury Schweppes Group. The company produces and markets hot and cold beverage products. A process integration study was carried out at the company's Knighton manufacturing site where 'instant' powder beverage ingredients are made and packaged. The total energy bill at the site is in the region of Pound 0.5 million/year. The process energy bill is around Pound 300-350,000/year. The first significant opportunity involves changing the actual process by a different piping arrangement. For a capital expenditure of around Pound 1,000, savings worth Pound 25,000/year can be achieved with a payback of approximately two weeks. (author).

  3. Security solution against denial of service attacks in BESIP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, Filip; Voznak, Miroslav; Safarik, Jakub; Partila, Pavol; Tomala, Karel

    2013-05-01

    This article deals about embedded SIP communication server with an easy integration into the computer network based on open source solutions and its effective defense against the most frequent attack in the present - Denial of Service. The article contains brief introduction into the Bright Embedded Solution for IP Telephony - BESIP and describes the most common types of DoS attacks, which are applied on SIP elements of the VoIP infrastructure including the results of defensive mechanism that has been designed.

  4. A taxonomy of distributed denial of service attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Donno, Michele; Giaretta, Alberto; Dragoni, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks which are now even more powerful and easier to achieve than the past. Understanding how these attacks work, in all their different forms, represents a first crucial step to tackle this urgent issue. To this end, in this paper we propose a new up-to-date taxonomy...... and a comprehensive classification of current DDoS attacks....

  5. Rolling Stock Planning at DSB S-tog - Processes, Cost Structures and Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    A central issue for operators of suburban passenger train transport systems is providing sufficient number of seats for the passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. The process of providing this is called rolling stock planning. This technical report documents the terminology......, the processes, the cost structures and the requirements for rolling stock planning at DSB S-tog, the suburban passenger train operator of the City of Copenhagen. The focus of the technical report is directed at practical train operator oriented issues. The technical report is thought to serve as a basis...... for investigating better methods to perform the rolling stock planning (to be the topic of later papers). This technical report is produced as a part of the current industrial Ph. D. project to improve the rolling stock planning process of DSB S-tog....

  6. Entropy-Based Economic Denial of Sustainability Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Sotelo Monge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an important increase in the amount and impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS threats has been reported by the different information security organizations. They typically target the depletion of the computational resources of the victims, hence drastically harming their operational capabilities. Inspired by these methods, Economic Denial of Sustainability (EDoS attacks pose a similar motivation, but adapted to Cloud computing environments, where the denial is achieved by damaging the economy of both suppliers and customers. Therefore, the most common EDoS approach is making the offered services unsustainable by exploiting their auto-scaling algorithms. In order to contribute to their mitigation, this paper introduces a novel EDoS detection method based on the study of entropy variations related with metrics taken into account when deciding auto-scaling actuations. Through the prediction and definition of adaptive thresholds, unexpected behaviors capable of fraudulently demand new resource hiring are distinguished. With the purpose of demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposal, an experimental scenario adapted to the singularities of the EDoS threats and the assumptions driven by their original definition is described in depth. The preliminary results proved high accuracy.

  7. Plant process computer replacements - techniques to limit installation schedules and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.D.; Olson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Plant process computer systems, a standard fixture in all nuclear power plants, are used to monitor and display important plant process parameters. Scanning thousands of field sensors and alarming out-of-limit values, these computer systems are heavily relied on by control room operators. The original nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendor for the power plant often supplied the plant process computer. Designed using sixties and seventies technology, a plant's original process computer has been obsolete for some time. Driven by increased maintenance costs and new US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations such as NUREG-0737, Suppl. 1, many utilities have replaced their process computers with more modern computer systems. Given that computer systems are by their nature prone to rapid obsolescence, this replacement cycle will likely repeat. A process computer replacement project can be a significant capital expenditure and must be performed during a scheduled refueling outage. The object of the installation process is to install a working system on schedule. Experience gained by supervising several computer replacement installations has taught lessons that, if applied, will shorten the schedule and limit the risk of costly delays. Examples illustrating this technique are given. This paper and these examples deal only with the installation process and assume that the replacement computer system has been adequately designed, and development and factory tested

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of mollusc eating in a shorebird I : Foraging and processing costs estimated by the doubly labelled water method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; van Gils, JA; Achterkamp, B; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    Although the energy costs of foraging and food processing in vertebrates may be considerable, they have rarely been quantified separately. Here we present estimates for both cost factors based on a series of trials with a shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus, fed natural and artificial prey

  9. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  10. A Survey of Denial-of-Service and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks and Defenses in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Bonguet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a computing model that allows ubiquitous, convenient and on-demand access to a shared pool of highly configurable resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services. Denial-of-Service (DoS and Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS attacks are serious threats to the Cloud services’ availability due to numerous new vulnerabilities introduced by the nature of the Cloud, such as multi-tenancy and resource sharing. In this paper, new types of DoS and DDoS attacks in Cloud Computing are explored, especially the XML-DoS and HTTP-DoS attacks, and some possible detection and mitigation techniques are examined. This survey also provides an overview of the existing defense solutions and investigates the experiments and metrics that are usually designed and used to evaluate their performance, which is helpful for the future research in the domain.

  11. Low-Cost Bio-Based Carbon Fibers for High Temperature Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Ryan Michael [GrafTech International, Brooklyn Heights, OH (United States); Naskar, Amit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-03

    GrafTech International Holdings Inc. (GTI), under Award No. DE-EE0005779, worked with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under CRADA No. NFE-15-05807 to develop lignin-based carbon fiber (LBCF) technology and to demonstrate LBCF performance in high-temperature products and applications. This work was unique and different from other reported LBCF work in that this study was application-focused and scalability-focused. Accordingly, the executed work was based on meeting criteria based on technology development, cost, and application suitability. High-temperature carbon fiber based insulation is used in energy intensive industries, such as metal heat treating and ceramic and semiconductor material production. Insulation plays a critical role in achieving high thermal and process efficiency, which is directly related to energy usage, cost, and product competitiveness. Current high temperature insulation is made with petroleum based carbon fibers, and one goal of this protect was to develop and demonstrate an alternative lignin (biomass) based carbon fiber that would achieve lower cost, CO2 emissions, and energy consumption and result in insulation that met or exceeded the thermal efficiency of current commercial insulation. In addition, other products were targeted to be evaluated with LBCF. As the project was designed to proceed in stages, the initial focus of this work was to demonstrate lab-scale LBCF from at least 4 different lignin precursor feedstock sources that could meet the estimated production cost of $5.00/pound and have ash level of less than 500 ppm in the carbonized insulation-grade fiber. Accordingly, a preliminary cost model was developed based on publicly available information. The team demonstrated that 4 lignin samples met the cost criteria. In addition, the ash level for the 4 carbonized lignin samples was below 500 ppm. Processing as-received lignin to produce a high purity lignin fiber was a significant accomplishment in that most industrial

  12. Low–Cost Bio-Based Carbon Fiber for High-Temperature Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Akato, Kokouvi M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tran, Chau D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paul, Ryan M. [GrafTech International Holdings, Inc., Brooklyn Heights, OH (United States); Dai, Xuliang [GrafTech International Holdings, Inc., Brooklyn Heights, OH (United States)

    2017-02-01

    GrafTech International Holdings Inc. (GTI), worked with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under CRADA No. NFE-15-05807 to develop lignin-based carbon fiber (LBCF) technology and to demonstrate LBCF performance in high-temperature products and applications. This work was unique and different from other reported LBCF work in that this study was application-focused and scalability-focused. Accordingly, the executed work was based on meeting criteria based on technology development, cost, and application suitability. The focus of this work was to demonstrate lab-scale LBCF from at least 4 different precursor feedstock sources that could meet the estimated production cost of $5.00/pound and have ash level of less than 500 ppm in the carbonized insulation-grade fiber. Accordingly, a preliminary cost model was developed based on publicly available information. The team demonstrated that 4 lignin samples met the cost criteria, as highlighted in Table 1. In addition, the ash level for the 4 carbonized lignin samples were below 500 ppm. Processing asreceived lignin to produce a high purity lignin fiber was a significant accomplishment in that most industrial lignin, prior to purification, had greater than 4X the ash level needed for this project, and prior to this work there was not a clear path of how to achieve the purity target. The lab scale development of LBCF was performed with a specific functional application in mind, specifically for high temperature rigid insulation. GTI is currently a consumer of foreignsourced pitch and rayon based carbon fibers for use in its high temperature insulation products, and the motivation was that LBCF had potential to decrease costs and increase product competitiveness in the marketplace through lowered raw material costs, lowered energy costs, and decreased environmental footprint. At the end of this project, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) remained at 5 for LBCF in high temperature insulation.

  13. From Physical Process to Economic Cost - Integrated Approaches of Landslide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, M.; Damm, B.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of landslides is complex in many respects, with landslide hazard and impact being dependent on a variety of factors. This obviously requires an integrated assessment for fundamental understanding of landslide risk. Integrated risk assessment, according to the approach presented in this contribution, implies combining prediction of future landslide occurrence with analysis of landslide impact in the past. A critical step for assessing landslide risk in integrated perspective is to analyze what types of landslide damage affected people and property in which way and how people contributed and responded to these damage types. In integrated risk assessment, the focus is on systematic identification and monetization of landslide damage, and analytical tools that allow deriving economic costs from physical landslide processes are at the heart of this approach. The broad spectrum of landslide types and process mechanisms as well as nonlinearity between landslide magnitude, damage intensity, and direct costs are some main factors explaining recent challenges in risk assessment. The two prevailing approaches for assessing the impact of landslides in economic terms are cost survey (ex-post) and risk analysis (ex-ante). Both approaches are able to complement each other, but yet a combination of them has not been realized so far. It is common practice today to derive landslide risk without considering landslide process-based cause-effect relationships, since integrated concepts or new modeling tools expanding conventional methods are still widely missing. The approach introduced in this contribution is based on a systematic framework that combines cost survey and GIS-based tools for hazard or cost modeling with methods to assess interactions between land use practices and landslides in historical perspective. Fundamental understanding of landslide risk also requires knowledge about the economic and fiscal relevance of landslide losses, wherefore analysis of their

  14. Perceptual grouping does not affect multi-attribute decision making if no processing costs are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt

    2015-05-01

    Adaptive strategy selection implies that a decision strategy is chosen based on its fit to the task and situation. However, other aspects, such as the way information is presented, can determine information search behavior; especially when the application of certain strategies over others is facilitated. But are such display effects on multi-attribute decisions also at work when the manipulation does not entail differential costs for different decision strategies? Three Mouselab experiments with hidden information and one eye tracking experiment with an open information board revealed that decision behavior is unaffected by purely perceptual manipulations of the display based on Gestalt principles; that is, based on manipulations that induce no noteworthy processing costs for different information search patterns. We discuss our results in the context of previous findings on display effects; specifically, how the combination of these findings and our results reveal the crucial role of differential processing costs for different strategies for the emergence of display effects. This finding describes a boundary condition of the commonly acknowledged influence of information displays and is in line with the ideas of adaptive strategy selection and cost-benefit tradeoffs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Continuous Process for Low-Cost, High-Quality YSZ Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott L. Swartz; Michael Beachy; Matthew M. Seabaugh

    2006-03-31

    This report describes results obtained by NexTech Materials, Ltd. in a project funded by DOE under the auspices of the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). The project focused on development of YSZ electrolyte powder synthesis technology that could be ''tailored'' to the process-specific needs of different solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) designs being developed by SECA's industry teams. The work in the project involved bench-scale processing work aimed at establishing a homogeneous precipitation process for producing YSZ electrolyte powder, scaleup of the process to 20-kilogram batch sizes, and evaluation of the YSZ powder products produced by the process. The developed process involved the steps of: (a) preparation of an aqueous hydrous oxide slurry via coprecipitation; (b) washing of residual salts from the precipitated hydroxide slurry followed by drying; (c) calcination of the dried powder to crystallize the YSZ powder and achieve desired surface area; and (d) milling of the calcined powder to targeted particle size. YSZ powders thus prepared were subjected to a comprehensive set of characterization and performance tests, including particle size distribution and surface area analyses, sintering performance studies, and ionic conductivity measurements. A number of different YSZ powder formulations were established, all of which had desirable performance attributes relative to commercially available YSZ powders. Powder characterization and performance metrics that were established at the onset of the project were met or exceeded. A manufacturing cost analysis was performed, and a manufactured cost of $27/kg was estimated based on this analysis. The analysis also allowed an identification of process refinements that would lead to even lower cost.

  16. Eat now, pay later? Evidence of deferred food-processing costs in diving seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, Carol E; Fedak, Mike A; Thompson, Dave

    2007-02-22

    Seals may delay costly physiological processes (e.g. digestion) that are incompatible with the physiological adjustments to diving until after periods of active foraging. We present unusual profiles of metabolic rate (MR) in grey seals measured during long-term simulation of foraging trips (4-5 days) that provide evidence for this. We measured extremely high MRs (up to almost seven times the baseline levels) and high heart rates during extended surface intervals, where the seals were motionless at the surface. These occurred most often during the night and occurred frequently many hours after the end of feeding bouts. The duration and amount of oxygen consumed above baseline levels during these events was correlated with the amount of food eaten, confirming that these metabolic peaks were related to the processing of food eaten during foraging periods earlier in the day. We suggest that these periods of high MR represent a payback of costs deferred during foraging.

  17. Diazo processing of LANDSAT imagery: A low-cost instructional technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusch, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Diazo processing of LANDSAT imagery is a relatively simple and cost effective method of producing enhanced renditions of the visual LANDSAT products. This technique is capable of producing a variety of image enhancements which have value in a teaching laboratory environment. Additionally, with the appropriate equipment, applications research which relys on accurate and repeatable results is possible. Exposure and development equipment options, diazo materials, and enhancement routines are discussed.

  18. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task: A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Several major modifications were made to the design presented at the PDR. The frame was deleted in favor of a "frameless" design which will provide a substantially improved cell packing factor. Potential shaded cell damage resulting from operation into a short circuit can be eliminated by a change in the cell series/parallel electrical interconnect configuration. The baseline process sequence defined for the MEPSON was refined and equipment design and specification work was completed. SAMICS cost analysis work accelerated, format A's were prepared and computer simulations completed. Design work on the automated cell interconnect station was focused on bond technique selection experiments.

  19. Uncertainties in early-stage capital cost estimation of process design – a case study on biorefinery design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which......) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design...

  20. Low-cost digital image processing at the University of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in remote sensing at the University of Oklahoma involves two separate approaches and is dependent upon initial preprocessing of a LANDSAT computer compatible tape using software developed for an IBM 370/158 computer. In-house generated preprocessing algorithms permits students or researchers to select a subset of a LANDSAT scene for subsequent analysis using either general purpose statistical packages or color graphic image processing software developed for Apple II microcomputers. Procedures for preprocessing the data and image analysis using either of the two approaches for low-cost LANDSAT data processing are described.

  1. Development of the silane process for the production of low-cost polysilicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iya, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    It was recognized that the traditional hot rod type deposition process for decomposing silane is energy intensive, and a different approach for converting silane to silicon was chosen. A 1200 metric tons/year capacity commercial plant was constructed in Moses Lake, Washington. A fluidized bed processor was chosen as the most promising technology and several encouraging test runs were conducted. This technology continues to be very promising in producing low cost polysilicon. The Union Carbide silane process and the research development on the fluidized bed silane decomposition are discussed.

  2. Optimal dividend policies with transaction costs for a class of jump-diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunting, Martin; Paulsen, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    his paper addresses the problem of finding an optimal dividend policy for a class of jump-diffusion processes. The jump component is a compound Poisson process with negative jumps, and the drift and diffusion components are assumed to satisfy some regularity and growth restrictions. Each dividend...... payment is changed by a fixed and a proportional cost, meaning that if ξ is paid out by the company, the shareholders receive kξ−K, where k and K are positive. The aim is to maximize expected discounted dividends until ruin. It is proved that when the jumps belong to a certain class of light...

  3. Universal gas metal arc welding - a cost-effective and low dilution surfacing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahi, AS.; Pandey, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a new variant of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process, termed u niversal gas metal arc welding (UGMAW), for the weld cladding of low carbon steels with stainless steel. The experimental work included single layer cladding of 12 mm thick low carbon steel with austenitic stainless steel 316L solid filler wire of 1.14 mm diameter. Low dilution conditions were employed using both mechanised GMAW and UGMAW processes. Metallurgical aspects of the as welded overlays were studied to evaluate the suitability of these processes for service conditions. It was found that UGMAW claddings contained higher ferrite content; higher concentrations of chromium, nickel and molybdenum; and lower carbon content compared to GMAW claddings. As a result, the UGMAW overlays exhibited superior mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. The findings of this study establish that the new process is technically superior and results in higher productivity, justifying its use for low cost surfacing applications

  4. The costs of seasonality and expansion in Ireland’s milk production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinschink K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland’s milk production sector relies on grass-based spring-calving systems, which facilitates cost advantages in milk production but entails a high degree of supply seasonality. Among other implications, this supply seasonality involves extra costs in the processing sector including elevated plant capacities and varying levels of resource utilisation throughout the year. If both the national raw milk production increased substantially (e.g. post-milk quota and a high degree of seasonality persisted, extra processing capacities would be required to cope with peak supplies. Alternatively, existing capacities could be used more efficiently by distributing the milk volume more evenly during the year. In this analysis, an optimisation model was applied to analyse the costs and economies arising to an average Irish milk-processing business due to changes to the monthly distribution of milk deliveries and/or the total annual milk pool. Of the situations examined, changing from a seasonal supply prior to expansion to a smoother pattern combined with an increased milk pool emerged as the most beneficial option to the processor because both the processor’s gross surplus and the marginal producer milk price increased. In practice, it may however be the case that the extra costs arising to the producer from smoothing the milk intake distribution exceed the processor’s benefit. The interlinkages between the stages of the dairy supply chain mean that nationally, the seasonality trade-offs are complex and equivocal. Moreover, the prospective financial implications of such strategies will be dependent on the evolving and uncertain nature of international dairy markets in the post-quota environment.

  5. Cost comparison of very high temperature nuclear reactors for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Newman, J.B.

    1975-03-01

    In April 1974, the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) authorized General Atomic Company, General Electric Company and Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory to assess the available technology for producing process heat utilizing very high temperature nuclear reactors. General Electric and Westinghouse produced concepts for the entire nuclear system, including the balance of plant. The General Atomic assessment included only the nuclear reactor portion of the nuclear plant. United Engineers and Constructors Inc. (UE and C) was requested by the USAEC in November 1974 to prepare an economic comparison of the three conceptual plants. The comparison is divided into three tasks: (1) Develop a balance of plant conceptual design to be combined with the General Atomic concept as a basis for comparison, and estimate the cost of the General Atomic/UE and C concept in July 1974 dollars; (2) Normalize the overall plant costs for the General Atomic/UE and C, General Electric and Westinghouse concepts, compare the costs, and identify significant differences between the concepts; and (3) Estimate the operation and maintenance costs for the General Atomic/UE and C plant and compare with the other concepts. The results of these task studies are discussed

  6. Denial technology, the neglected security element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauney, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Even though there has been an increased concern over providing adequate security during the past decade, and even though some aspects of existing security systems have been enhanced during this period, much remains to be done to provide that balance which is so necessary to have all elements function as an effective unit. The area that primarily has been neglected is the delay element - the part of the system which makes possible the needed time for the security force to respond after an intrustion is detected and prior to the adversary attaining his desired goal. The purpose of this paper is to address the vulnerabilities of a security system which exist without the proper delay elements and to suggest how current technology can provide, through the use of activated barriers, that needed delay time to bring the system into balance. Security managers desire reliability and effectiveness; plant managers require safety, non-interference with operations, cost considerate capability, and aesthetic application - these characteristics will be addressed in the context of providing the required delay. This paper, hopefully, will set the stage for dialogue between developer and user, yielding a mutally acceptable approach to balanced security protection

  7. Combined solar organic Rankine cycle with reverse osmosis desalination process: Energy, exergy, and cost evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafey, A.S.; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Engineering Science, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have unique properties that are well suited to solar power generation. In this work design and performance calculations are performed using MatLab/SimuLink computational environment. The cycle consists of thermal solar collectors (Flat Plate Solar Collector (FPC), or Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC), or Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)) for heat input, expansion turbine for work output, condenser unit for heat rejection, pump unit, and Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit. Reverse osmosis unit specifications used in this work is based on Sharm El-Shiekh RO desalination plant. Different working fluids such as: butane, isobutane, propane, R134a, R152a, R245ca, and R245fa are examined for FPC. R113, R123, hexane, and pentane are investigated for CPC. Dodecane, nonane, octane, and toluene are allocated for PTC. The proposed process units are modeled and show a good validity with literatures. Exergy and cost analysis are performed for saturation and superheated operating conditions. Exergy efficiency, total exergy destruction, thermal efficiency, and specific capital cost are evaluated for direct vapor generation (DVG) process. Toluene and Water achieved minimum results for total solar collector area, specific total cost and the rate of exergy destruction. (author)

  8. Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.; Wilson, W. J.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Plant construction costs and manufacturing costs were estimated for the production of solar-grade silicon by the reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles, and several modifications of the iodide process using either thermal decomposition on heated filaments (rods) or hydrogen reduction in a fluidized bed of seed particles. Energy consumption data for the zinc reduction process and each of the iodide process options are given and all appear to be acceptable from the standpoint of energy pay back. Information is presented on the experimental zinc reduction of SiCl4 and electrolytic recovery of zinc from ZnCl2. All of the experimental work performed thus far has supported the initial assumption as to technical feasibility of producing semiconductor silicon by the zinc reduction or iodide processes proposed. The results of a more thorough thermodynamic evaluation of the iodination of silicon oxide/carbon mixtures are presented which explain apparent inconsistencies in an earlier cursory examination of the system.

  9. 26 CFR 1.585-5 - Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.585-5 Denial of bad debt... other section for an addition to a reserve for bad debts. However, for these years, except as provided...

  10. 12 CFR 303.223 - Applicant's right to hearing following denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Criminal Offenses) § 303.223 Applicant's right to hearing following denial. An applicant may request a... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant's right to hearing following denial. 303.223 Section 303.223 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Denial, suspension or revocation of... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND...-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01 Denial...

  12. 22 CFR 214.51 - Administrative review of denial for public access to records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative review of denial for public access to records. 214.51 Section 214.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Administrative Remedies § 214.51 Administrative review of denial for public access to...

  13. 22 CFR 212.36 - Denial of request for access to records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 212.36 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC INFORMATION Access to Agency... responsible for the denial, and the right of the person to appeal the adverse determination. (b) The denial of... Administrative Services, Bureau for Management, Room 803, SA-2, Agency for International Development, 21st and...

  14. 24 CFR 2002.21 - Authority to deny requests for records and form of denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a record or information compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a...) Be in writing; (2) State simply the reasons for the denial; (3) State that review of the denial by the Inspector General of HUD may be requested; (4) Set forth the steps for obtaining review consistent...

  15. 78 FR 71032 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...-0063; Notice 2] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...). ACTION: Denial of Petition. SUMMARY: Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS), as importer for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited, has...

  16. 78 FR 71030 - Ford Motor Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...-0005; Notice 2] Ford Motor Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance...). ACTION: Denial of Petition. SUMMARY: Ford Motor Company (Ford) has determined that certain model year 2011 Ford E-150, E-250, E-350 and E-450 motor vehicles manufactured [[Page 71031

  17. Evaluation of process costs for small-scale nitrogen removal from natural gas. Topical report, January 1989-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echterhoff, L.W.; Pathak, V.K.

    1991-08-01

    The report establishes the cost of producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from high nitrogen subquality natural gas. Three processing technologies are evaluated: cryogenic, Nitrotec Engineering Inc.'s pressure swing adsorption (PSA), and lean oil absorption. Comparison of the established costs shows that the cryogenic process exhibits the lowest total plant investment for nitrogen feed contents up to about 22%, above which the PSA process exhibits the lowest investment cost. The lean oil process exhibits the highest total plant investment at the 25% nitrogen feed studied. Opposite to the total plant investment for the cryogenic process, the total plant investment for the PSA process decreases with increasing nitrogen content primarily due to increasing product gas compression requirements. The cryogenic process exhibits the lowest gas processing costs for the nitrogen content range under study. However, the difference between the gas processing costs for the PSA and cryogenic processes narrows as the nitrogen content approaches 15-25%. The lean oil gas processing cost is very high compared to both the cryogenic and PSA processes. The report verifies that nitrogen removal from natural gas is expensive, especially for small-scale applications, and several avenues are identified for improving the cryogenic and PSA technologies

  18. 17 CFR 9.11 - Form, contents and delivery of notice of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notice of disciplinary or access denial action. 9.11 Section 9.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.11 Form, contents and delivery of notice of disciplinary or access denial action. (a) When required...

  19. Indirect Transportation Cost in the border crossing process: The United States–Mexico trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Obed Figueroa Ortiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a Social Accounting Matrix as database, a Computable General Equilibrium model is implemented in order to estimate the Indirect Transportations Costs (ITC present in the border crossing for the U.S.–Mexico bilateral trade. Here, an “iceberg–type” transportation function is assumed to determine the amount of loss that must be faced as a result of border crossing process through the ports of entry existing between the two countries. The study period covers annual data from 1995 to 2009 allowing the analysis of the trend of these costs considering the trade liberalisation that is experienced. Results show that the ITC have experienced a decrease of 12% during the period.Test

  20. MINIMIZE ENERGY AND COSTS REQUIREMENT OF WEEDING AND FERTILIZING PROCESS FOR FIBER CROPS IN SMALL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out through agricultural summer season of 2014 at the experimental farm of Gemmiza Research Station, Gharbiya governorate to minimize energy and costs in weeding and fertilizing processes for fiber crops (Kenaf and Roselle in small farms. The manufactured multipurpose unit performance was studied as a function of change in machine forward speed (2.2, 2.8, 3.4 and 4 Km/h fertilizing rates (30,45 and 60 Kg.N.fed-1,and constant soil moisture content was 20%(d.b in average. Performance of the manufactured machine was evaluated in terms of fuel consumption, power and energy requirements, effective field capacity, theoretical field capacity, field efficiency, and operational costs as a machine measurements .The experiment results reveled that the manufactured machine decreased energy and increased effective field capacity and efficiency under the following conditions: -machine forward speed 2.2Kmlh. -moisture content average 20%.

  1. The Relation of Design Parameters, Plant Capacity and Processing Costs in Cobalt-60 Sterilization Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.G.

    1967-01-01

    The paper describes the main features of three basic types of cobalt-60 sterilization plants which have been designed to provide a complete range of capacities for radiosterilization of medical products. The smallest plant has a capacity of up to 50 000 cubic feet of medical products a year, the intermediate size plant has a capacity of up to 500 000 cubic feet a year, and the largest plant has a capacity in excess of 1000 000 cubic feet a year. The relations between capital costs, rate of production, efficiency and unit processing costs for each type of plant are discussed. The method of selecting the best type of plant for a particular need will also be outlined. (author)

  2. Development of processes for the production of low cost silicon dendritic web for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hill, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    High area output rates and continuous, automated growth are two key technical requirements for the growth of low-cost silicon ribbons for solar cells. By means of computer-aided furnace design, silicon dendritic web output rates as high as 27 sq cm/min have been achieved, a value in excess of that projected to meet a $0.50 per peak watt solar array manufacturing cost. The feasibility of simultaneous web growth while the melt is replenished with pelletized silicon has also been demonstrated. This step is an important precursor to the development of an automated growth system. Solar cells made on the replenished material were just as efficient as devices fabricated on typical webs grown without replenishment. Moreover, web cells made on a less-refined, pelletized polycrystalline silicon synthesized by the Battelle process yielded efficiencies up to 13% (AM1).

  3. The Consent Solution to Punishment and the Explicit Denial Objection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Imbrisevic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, David Boonin has put forward several objections to Carlos S. Nino's 'Consensual Theory of Punishment'. In this paper I will defend Nino against the 'explicit denial objection'. I will discuss whether Boonin's interpretation of Nino as a tacit consent theorist is right. I will argue that the offender's consent is neither tacit nor express, but a special category of implicit consent. Further, for Nino the legal-normative consequences of an act (of crime are 'irrevocable', i.e. one cannot (expressly and successfully deny liability to them. I will suggest an explanation for Nino's irrevocability claim.

  4. Cascading Denial of Service Attacks on Wi-Fi Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Liangxiao; Starobinski, David; Noubir, Guevara

    2016-01-01

    We unveil the existence of a vulnerability in Wi-Fi, which allows an adversary to remotely launch a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack that propagates both in time and space. This vulnerability stems from a coupling effect induced by hidden nodes. Cascading DoS attacks can congest an entire network and do not require the adversary to violate any protocol. We demonstrate the feasibility of such attacks through experiments with real Wi-Fi cards, extensive ns-3 simulations, and theoretical analysis....

  5. The probability distribution of maintenance cost of a system affected by the gamma process of degradation: Finite time solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Tianjin; Pandey, Mahesh D.; Weide, J.A.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    The stochastic gamma process has been widely used to model uncertain degradation in engineering systems and structures. The optimization of the condition-based maintenance (CBM) policy is typically based on the minimization of the asymptotic cost rate. In the financial planning of a maintenance program, however, a more accurate prediction interval for the cost is needed for prudent decision making. The prediction interval cannot be estimated unless the probability distribution of cost is known. In this context, the asymptotic cost rate has a limited utility. This paper presents the derivation of the probability distribution of maintenance cost, when the system degradation is modelled as a stochastic gamma process. A renewal equation is formulated to derive the characteristic function, then the discrete Fourier transform of the characteristic function leads to the complete probability distribution of cost in a finite time setting. The proposed approach is useful for a precise estimation of prediction limits and optimization of the maintenance cost.

  6. The denial of death thesis: sociological critique and implications for palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Camilla; Rodin, Gary

    2004-03-01

    It has become commonplace to say that contemporary western society is 'death-denying'. This characterization, which sociologists have termed the 'denial of death thesis', first arose in the social science, psychological and clinical medical literature in the period between 1955 and 1985. During the same time period, the hospice and palliative care movements were developing and in part directed themselves against the perceived cultural denial of death in western society. While the denial of death has been taken for granted by the lay public as well as by clinicians, in the sociological literature it has been increasingly questioned. In this paper we use sociological critiques of the denial of death thesis to raise critical questions about the theory and practice of contemporary palliative care. In particular, we argue that the emphasis of palliative care should not be on extinguishing the denial of death but on the relief of suffering.

  7. Analysis and prediction of dimensions and cost of laser micro-machining internal channel fabrication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabazon D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utilisation of Response Surface Methodology (RSM as the prediction tool for the laser micro-machining process. Laser internal microchannels machined using pulsed Nd:YVO4 laser in polycarbonate were investigated. The experiments were carried out according to 33 factorial Design of Experiment (DoE. In this work the three input process set as control parameters were laser power, P; pulse repetition frequency, PRF; and sample translation speed, U. Measured responses were the channel width and the micro-machining operating cost per metre of produced microchannels. The responses were sufficiently predicted within the set micro-machining parameters limits. Two factorial interaction (2FI and quadratic polynomial regression equations for both responses were constructed. It is proposed that the developed prediction equations can be used to find locally optimal micro-machining process parameters under experimental and operational conditions.

  8. Successful pilot of thermosyphon process heater reduces GHG emissions and operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.A.; Neulander, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    A joint pilot study was conducted by Hudson Products Corporation and PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. to test the feasibility of using a thermosyphon as a part of a thermal recovery process for cold heavy oil reservoir exploitation in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. A thermosyphon process heater can transfer heat from an external combustion chamber to a liquid inside a tank. This paper described the pilot project in which such a heater was successfully tested in a heavy oil field production tank. The field trial was conducted at the Marwayne Field in northeastern Alberta. The results of the pilot study demonstrated that the thermosyphon not only improved process efficiency, but also reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, lowered operating costs and improved safety. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig., 3 appendices

  9. Investment Cost Model in Business Process Intelligence in Banking And Electricity Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Moro Sundjaja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher demand from the top management in measuring business process performance causes the incremental implementation of BPM and BI in the enterprise. The problem faced by top managements is how to integrate their data from all system used to support the business and process the data become information that able to support the decision-making processes. Our literature review elaborates several implementations of BPI on companies in Australia and Germany, challenges faced by organizations in developing BPI solution in their organizations and some cost model to calculate the investment of BPI solutions. This paper shows the success in BPI application of banks and assurance companies in German and electricity work in Australia aims to give a vision about the importance of BPI application. Many challenges in BPI application of companies in German and Australia, BPI solution, and data warehouse design development have been discussed to add insight in future BPI development. And the last is an explanation about how to analyze cost associated with BPI solution investment.

  10. Craniofacial Reconstruction by a Cost-Efficient Template-Based Process Using 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Msallem, MD, DMD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Craniofacial defects often result in aesthetic and functional deficits, which affect the patient’s psyche and wellbeing. Patient-specific implants remain the optimal solution, but their use is limited or impractical due to their high costs. This article describes a fast and cost-efficient workflow of in-house manufactured patient-specific implants for craniofacial reconstruction and cranioplasty. As a proof of concept, we present a case of reconstruction of a craniofacial defect with involvement of the supraorbital rim. The following hybrid manufacturing process combines additive manufacturing with silicone molding and an intraoperative, manual fabrication process. A computer-aided design template is 3D printed from thermoplastics by a fused deposition modeling 3D printer and then silicone molded manually. After sterilization of the patient-specific mold, it is used intraoperatively to produce an implant from polymethylmethacrylate. Due to the combination of these 2 straightforward processes, the procedure can be kept very simple, and no advanced equipment is needed, resulting in minimal financial expenses. The whole fabrication of the mold is performed within approximately 2 hours depending on the template’s size and volume. This reliable technique is easy to adopt and suitable for every health facility, especially those with limited financial resources in less privileged countries, enabling many more patients to profit from patient-specific treatment.

  11. An Empirical Study of Agricultural Product Logistics Cost Control Evaluation via Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Qianxia Lu; Yazhou Xiong; Ling Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is one of the core agricultural logistics cost control to establish a reasonable and effective evaluation system of agricultural logistics cost control. In this study, based on the cost basis of the value chain, an agricultural logistics cost control evaluation system is established from three levels, including the logistics costs of agricultural pre-value chain, logistics costs of agricultural mid-value chain, logistics costs of agricultural late-value chain. AHP theory and expert investi...

  12. 30 CFR 206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 206.181 Section 206.181 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Processing Allowances § 206.181 How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? Where accounting for comparison (dual accounting) is required for gas production...

  13. Systematic process synthesis and design methods for cost effective waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegler, L.T.; Grossman, I.E.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    We present progress on our work to develop synthesis methods to aid in the design of cost effective approaches to waste minimization. Work continues to combine the approaches of Douglas and coworkers and of Grossmann and coworkers on a hierarchical approach where bounding information allows it to fit within a mixed integer programming approach. We continue work on the synthesis of reactors and of flexible separation processes. In the first instance, we strive for methods we can use to reduce the production of potential pollutants, while in the second we look for ways to recover and recycle solvents

  14. Systematic process synthesis and design methods for cost effective waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegler, L.T.; Grossman, I.E.; Westerberg, A.W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We present progress on our work to develop synthesis methods to aid in the design of cost effective approaches to waste minimization. Work continues to combine the approaches of Douglas and coworkers and of Grossmann and coworkers on a hierarchical approach where bounding information allows it to fit within a mixed integer programming approach. We continue work on the synthesis of reactors and of flexible separation processes. In the first instance, we strive for methods we can use to reduce the production of potential pollutants, while in the second we look for ways to recover and recycle solvents.

  15. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  16. Process Simulation and Cost Analysis for Removing Inorganics from Wood Chips using Combined Mechanical and Chemical Preprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongqiang; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert; Aston, John E.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Thompson, David N.

    2016-10-01

    Naturally occurring and introduced inorganic species (ash) in biomass feedstocks negatively impact thermochemical energy conversion processes such as pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, gasification and combustion to biopower. As such, it is desirable to better understand the cost:benefit ratios of various ash reduction processes. Here, a novel process simulation model was developed using AspenPlus to reduce the ash content of Loblolly logging residues using both air classification and a dilute-acid leaching process. For costing purposes, a throughput of 25 tons/hour was selected. At this scale, the process cost for a standalone air classification process was $3 per ton for a biomass feedstock. Ash reduction via dilute –acid leaching was simulated based on experimentally determined kinetics of ion diffusion at an acid concentration of 0.5% H2SO4 and temperature of 75°F. The total estimated processing cost for leaching at these conditions was approximately $14/ton of dry biomass. Sensitivity analysis of three parameters on mineral reduction in the leaching process revealed that increasing leaching temperature was not economically feasible, while it was viable to apply a longer retention time in leaching for higher ash removal or achieve a lower water content in final products with reasonable extra costs. In addition, scenarios combining air classification with leaching were examined. A whole process cost of approximately $16/ton of biomass at a biomass feedstock rate of 25 ton/hour considering a 9% of biomass classified as light fraction to be leached. The leaching operating costs constituted 75% of this amount, of which the heating costs of dryer was 44%. This suggests that the process costs would be substantially reduced if more efficient drying methods are applied in future.

  17. Production of solidified high level wastes: a cost comparison of solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Differential cost estimates of the annual operating and maintenance costs and the capital costs for five HLW Waste Solidification Alternates were developed. The annual operating and maintenance cost estimates included the cost of labor, consumables, utilities, shipping casks, shipping and disposal at a federal repository. The capital cost included the cost of the component, installation and building. The differential cost estimates do not include equipment and facilities which are either shared with the reprocessing facility or are common between all of the alternates. Total annual cost differential between the five waste form alternates is summarized in tabular form. The Borosilicate Glass Alternate has the lowest total annual cost. The other alternates have higher costs which range from $6.6 M to $7.4 M per year higher than the Glass alternate with the Supercalcine being the highest cost at $7.4 M per year differential. The major items in the cost estimates are then disposal costs in the operating cost estimates and the HLW Storage Tanks in the capital cost estimates. The Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate ships 180 canisters per year more than the other alternates and consequently has a significantly higher operating cost. However, off-setting this the Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate does not require HLW Storage Tanks for decay because of the high heat conductivity of this product and correspondingly the capital cost for this alternate is significantly lower than the other alternates. The radiological risk values are correlated with the cost evaluation normalized to cost ($)/MWe-yr

  18. Cost reduction in the production process using the ABC and Lean tools: Case Study in the refrigeration components industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi da Silva Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on production management with respect to operating costs that relate directly to the value of the product. For this study, three methods were used, ABC - Activity Based Costing, which provides accurate information about the knowledge of the real costs, VSM - Value Stream Mapping and Lean Manufacturing. The method adopted for this research was the case study. The study was conducted at a refrigeration components company in the Industrial Center of Manaus. The analyses and observations initially went through the process of mapping the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc.. After analysis it was possible to map the cost for each activity and finally calculate the cost of the product before and after the improvements resulting from the lean methodology. The results obtained in this study showed a 20% reduction in product costs resulting from operational improvements. The activity-based cost led to a discovery of the real costs of waste. The steps for this study include process mapping through the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc., establishing the cost driver for each activity, and finally calculating the cost of the product before and after the application of lean improvements. The paper was conducted through literature and descriptive review, and used a case study method. It describes the model that has been tested in a production line for a refrigeration components company from the Manaus Industrial Center, achieving a 20% reduction in product cost.

  19. The Marley hypothesis: denial of racism reflects ignorance of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica C; Adams, Glenn; Salter, Phia S

    2013-02-01

    This study used a signal detection paradigm to explore the Marley hypothesis--that group differences in perception of racism reflect dominant-group denial of and ignorance about the extent of past racism. White American students from a midwestern university and Black American students from two historically Black universities completed surveys about their historical knowledge and perception of racism. Relative to Black participants, White participants perceived less racism in both isolated incidents and systemic manifestations of racism. They also performed worse on a measure of historical knowledge (i.e., they did not discriminate historical fact from fiction), and this group difference in historical knowledge mediated the differences in perception of racism. Racial identity relevance moderated group differences in perception of systemic manifestations of racism (but not isolated incidents), such that group differences were stronger among participants who scored higher on a measure of racial identity relevance. The results help illuminate the importance of epistemologies of ignorance: cultural-psychological tools that afford denial of and inaction about injustice.

  20. [Cost-effectiveness of the deep vein thrombosis diagnosis process in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Camps, Eva; Luis del Val García, José; Bellmunt Montoya, Sergi; Hmimina Hmimina, Sara; Gómez Jabalera, Efren; Muñoz Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-04-01

    To analyse the cost effectiveness of the application of diagnostic algorithms in patients with a first episode of suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in Primary Care compared with systematic referral to specialised centres. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study. Patients from hospital emergency rooms referred from Primary Care to complete clinical evaluation and diagnosis. A total of 138 patients with symptoms of a first episode of DVT were recruited; 22 were excluded (no Primary Care report, symptoms for more than 30 days, anticoagulant treatment, and previous DVT). Of the 116 patients finally included, 61% women and the mean age was 71 years. Variables from the Wells and Oudega clinical probability scales, D-dimer (portable and hospital), Doppler ultrasound, and direct costs generated by the three algorithms analysed: all patients were referred systematically, referral according to Wells and Oudega scale. DVT was confirmed in 18.9%. The two clinical probability scales showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 85.1 to 100) and a specificity of about 40%. With the application of the scales, one third of all referrals to hospital emergency rooms could have been avoided (P<.001). The diagnostic cost could have been reduced by € 8,620 according to Oudega and € 9,741 according to Wells, per 100 patients visited. The application of diagnostic algorithms when a DVT is suspected could lead to better diagnostic management by physicians, and a more cost effective process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A Decision Processing Algorithm for CDC Location Under Minimum Cost SCM Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, N. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, W. Y.; Tian, Z. M.; Kim, D. J.

    Location of CDC in the matter of network on Supply Chain is becoming on the high concern these days. Present status of methods on CDC has been mainly based on the calculation manually by the spread sheet to achieve the goal of minimum logistics cost. This study is focused on the development of new processing algorithm to overcome the limit of present methods, and examination of the propriety of this algorithm by case study. The algorithm suggested by this study is based on the principle of optimization on the directive GRAPH of SCM model and suggest the algorithm utilizing the traditionally introduced MST, shortest paths finding methods, etc. By the aftermath of this study, it helps to assess suitability of the present on-going SCM network and could be the criterion on the decision-making process for the optimal SCM network building-up for the demand prospect in the future.

  2. Cost estimation of a specifically designed direct light processing (DLP) additive manufacturing machine for precision printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    creating new opportunities for manufacturers in a variety of industrial sectors. AM is an essentialprototyping technique for product design and development that is used in many different fields. However, the suitability of AMapplications in actual production in an industrial context needs to be determined......Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a portfolio of novel manufacturing technologies based on a layer-by-layer fabrication method.The market and industrial application of additive manufacturing technologies as an established manufacturing process have increasedexponentially in the last years....... This study, presents a cost estimation model forprecision printing with a specifically designed Digital Light Processing (DLP) AM machine built and validated at the Technical Universityof Denmark. The model presented in this study can be easily adapted and applied to estimate within a high level...

  3. A low-cost technique to manufacture a container to process meiofauna for scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolafia, J

    2015-09-01

    An easy and low-cost method to elaborate a container to dehydrate nematodes and other meiofauna in order to process them for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is presented. Illustrations of its elaboration, step by step, are included. In addition, a brief methodology to process meiofauna, especially nematodes and kinorhynchs, and illustrations are provided. With this methodology it is possible to easily introduce the specimens, to lock them in a closed chamber allowing the infiltration of fluids and gases (ethanol, acetone, carbon dioxide) but avoiding losing the specimens. After using this meiofauna basket for SEM the results are efficient. Examples of nematode and kinorhynch SEM pictures obtained using this methodology are also included. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Low-Cost System Based on Image Analysis for Monitoring the Crystal Growth Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Fabrício; Rosário, Francisca F do; Cajaiba, João

    2017-05-31

    Many techniques are used to monitor one or more of the phenomena involved in the crystallization process. One of the challenges in crystal growth monitoring is finding techniques that allow direct interpretation of the data. The present study used a low-cost system, composed of a commercial webcam and a simple white LED (Light Emitting Diode) illuminator, to follow the calcium carbonate crystal growth process. The experiments were followed with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), a common technique for obtaining information about the formation and growth of crystals. The images obtained in real time were treated with the red, blue, and green (RGB) system. The results showed a qualitative response of the system to crystal formation and growth processes, as there was an observed decrease in the signal as the growth process occurred. Control of the crystal growth was managed by increasing the viscosity of the test solution with the addition of monoethylene glycol (MEG) at 30% and 70% in a mass to mass relationship, providing different profiles of the RGB average curves. The decrease in the average RGB value became slower as the concentration of MEG was increased; this reflected a lag in the growth process that was proven by the FBRM.

  5. Modeling the Downstream Processing of Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals Cost Advantages for Continuous Methods for a Broad Range of Manufacturing Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Jonathan; Pagkaliwangan, Mark; Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Davidovits, Terence; Stock, Rick; Ransohoff, Thomas; Gantier, Rene; Schofield, Mark

    2018-01-17

    The biopharmaceutical industry is evolving in response to changing market conditions, including increasing competition and growing pressures to reduce costs. Single-use (SU) technologies and continuous bioprocessing have attracted attention as potential facilitators of cost-optimized manufacturing for monoclonal antibodies. While disposable bioprocessing has been adopted at many scales of manufacturing, continuous bioprocessing has yet to reach the same level of implementation. In this study, the cost of goods of Pall Life Science's integrated, continuous bioprocessing (ICB) platform is modeled, along with that of purification processes in stainless-steel and SU batch formats. All three models include costs associated with downstream processing only. Evaluation of the models across a broad range of clinical and commercial scenarios reveal that the cost savings gained by switching from stainless-steel to SU batch processing are often amplified by continuous operation. The continuous platform exhibits the lowest cost of goods across 78% of all scenarios modeled here, with the SU batch process having the lowest costs in the rest of the cases. The relative savings demonstrated by the continuous process are greatest at the highest feed titers and volumes. These findings indicate that existing and imminent continuous technologies and equipment can become key enablers for more cost effective manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; Ellis, David L.; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. Fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of shrinking budgets. Three technologies have been combined to produce an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Copper alloy NARloy-Z was replaced with a new high performance Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. Functional gradient technology, developed building composite cartridges for space furnaces was incorporated to add oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. NiCrAlY, utilized to produce durable protective coating for the space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (BPFTP) turbine blades, was used as the functional gradient material coating (FGM). The FGM not only serves as a protection from oxidation or blanching, the main cause of engine failure, but also serves as a thermal barrier because of its lower thermal conductivity, reducing the temperature of the combustion liner 200 F, from 1000 F to 800 F producing longer life. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost VPS process. VPS formed combustion chamber test articles have been formed with the FGM hot wall built in and hot fire tested, demonstrating for the first time a coating that will remain intact through the hot firing test, and with

  7. Thermoecological cost of electricity production in the natural gas pressure reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Usón, Sergio; Stanek, Wojciech; Bargiel, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a novel concept for thermodynamic evaluation of a selected energy system. The presented method has been developed by integration of the Thermo-Economic Analysis with the theory of Thermo-Ecological Cost. It can be applied as a thermodynamic evaluation method of rational resources management within any production system. It takes into account both the interrelation of irreversibility within the analyzed system and its influence on the global effects related to the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The proposed method has been applied to evaluate the production of electricity in the process of natural gas transmission at pressure reduction stations. The expansion system is based on an existing plant integrated with a CHP module, characterized by a performance ratio of 89.5% and exergy efficiency of 49.2%. Within the paper, this expansion plant is supplied with natural gas transported from a natural deposit through a case-study transmission system with 4 compressor stations. The TEC (thermoecological cost) method was applied in conjunction with thermoeconomic analysis. As a result, TEC of the electricity generated in the expanders was determined at 2.42 kJ/kJ, TEC of electricity from the CHP module is 1.77, and the TEC of medium-pressure natural gas distributed to consumers is 1.022. - Highlights: • The chain of NG transmission with an exergy recovery expansion plant was analyzed. • New methodology coupling the TEC (thermoecological cost) and thermoeconomics. • Decomposition of the TEC formation process. • Case-study transmission system yields TEC of natural gas = 1.0222. • Expansion plant yields TEC of electricity 2.42 (expanders) and 1.77 (CHP module)

  8. Oligopoly games with nonlinear demand and cost functions: Two boundedly rational adjustment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimzada, Ahmad K.; Sbragia, Lucia

    2006-01-01

    We consider a Cournot oligopoly game, where firms produce an homogenous good and the demand and cost functions are nonlinear. These features make the classical best reply solution difficult to be obtained, even if players have full information about their environment. We propose two different kinds of repeated games based on a lower degree of rationality of the firms, on a reduced information set and reduced computational capabilities. The first adjustment mechanism is called 'Local Monopolistic Approximation' (LMA). First firms get the correct local estimate of the demand function and then they use such estimate in a linear approximation of the demand function where the effects of the competitors' outputs are ignored. On the basis of this subjective demand function they solve their profit maximization problem. By using the second adjustment process, that belongs to a class of adaptive mechanisms known in the literature as 'Gradient Dynamics' (GD), firms do not solve any optimization problem, but they adjust their production in the direction indicated by their (correct) estimate of the marginal profit. Both these repeated games may converge to a Cournot-Nash equilibrium, i.e. to the equilibrium of the best reply dynamics. We compare the properties of the two different dynamical systems that describe the time evolution of the oligopoly games under the two adjustment mechanisms, and we analyze the conditions that lead to non-convergence and complex dynamic behaviors. The paper extends the results of other authors that consider similar adjustment processes assuming linear cost functions or linear demand functions

  9. Energy and costs scoping study for plasma pyrolysis thermal processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, K.E.; Findley, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information in support of an investigation of thermal technologies as possible treatment process for buried wastes at the INEL. Material and energy balances and a cost estimate were generated for a representative plasma torch-based thermal waste treatment system operating in a pyrolysis mode. Two waste streams were selected which are representative of INEL buried wastes, large in volume, and difficult to treat by other technologies. These streams were a solidified nitrate sludge waste stream and a waste/soil mix of other buried waste components. The treatment scheme selected includes a main plasma chamber operating under pyrolyzing conditions; a plasma afterburner to provide additional residence time at high temperature to ensure complete destruction of hazardous organics; an off-gas treatment system; and a incinerator and stack to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and vent the clean, oxidized gases to atmosphere. The material balances generated provide materials flow and equipment duty information of sufficient accuracy to generate initial rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) system capital and operating cost estimates for a representative plasma thermal processing system

  10. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069357; Blank, Thomas; Colombo, Fabio; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Husemann, Ulrich; Kudella, Simon; Weber, M

    2016-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15 μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30 μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The sh...

  11. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  12. A comparison of Danish listeners’ processing cost in judging the truth value of Norwegian, Swedish, and English sentences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Askjær-Jørgensen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    that the processing cost for native Danish listeners in comprehending Danish and English statements is equivalent, whereas Norwegian and Swedish statements incur a much higher cost, both in terms of response time and correct assessments. The results are discussed with regard to the costs of inter......The present study used a sentence verification task to assess the processing cost involved in native Danish listeners’ attempts to comprehend true/false statements spoken in Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and English. Three groups of native Danish listeners heard 40 sentences each which were...... translation equivalents, and assessed the truth value of these statements. Group 1 heard sentences in Danish and Norwegian, Group 2 in Danish and Swedish, and Group 3 in Danish and English. Response time and proportion of correct responses were used as indices of processing cost. Both measures indicate...

  13. A Novel Protective Framework for Defeating HTTP-Based Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of web technology has brought convenience to our life, since it has become the most important communication channel. However, now this merit is threatened by complicated network-based attacks, such as denial of service (DoS and distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks. Despite many researchers’ efforts, no optimal solution that addresses all sorts of HTTP DoS/DDoS attacks is on offer. Therefore, this research aims to fix this gap by designing an alternative solution called a flexible, collaborative, multilayer, DDoS prevention framework (FCMDPF. The innovative design of the FCMDPF framework handles all aspects of HTTP-based DoS/DDoS attacks through the following three subsequent framework’s schemes (layers. Firstly, an outer blocking (OB scheme blocks attacking IP source if it is listed on the black list table. Secondly, the service traceback oriented architecture (STBOA scheme is to validate whether the incoming request is launched by a human or by an automated tool. Then, it traces back the true attacking IP source. Thirdly, the flexible advanced entropy based (FAEB scheme is to eliminate high rate DDoS (HR-DDoS and flash crowd (FC attacks. Compared to the previous researches, our framework’s design provides an efficient protection for web applications against all sorts of DoS/DDoS attacks.

  14. Uncertainties in Early Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Process Design – A case study on biorefinery design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan eSin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early stage design is a challenging task. This is especially important in biorefinery research, where available information and experiences with new technologies is limited. A systematic methodology for uncertainty analysis of cost data is proposed that employs (a Bootstrapping as a regression method when cost data is available and (b the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data is not available. Four well-known models for early stage cost estimation are reviewed an analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early stage process design is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable robust decision making under uncertainties. One of the results using an order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with economic risks of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a due to uncertainties in cost estimations, respectively.

  15. Streamlining the process: A strategy for making NEPA work better and cost less

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P.; Hansen, J.D. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States); Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-05-01

    When the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was enacted in 1969, neither Congress nor the Federal Agencies affected anticipated that implementation of the NEPA process would result in the intolerable delays, inefficiencies, duplication of effort, commitments of excessive financial and personnel resources, and bureaucratic gridlock that have become institutionalized. The 1975 Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, which were intended to make the NEPA process more efficient and more useful to decision makers and the public, have either been largely ignored or unintentionally subverted. Agency policy mandates, like those of former Secretary of Energy Hazel R. O`Leary, to ``make NEPA work better and cost less`` have, so far, been disappointingly ineffectual. Federal Agencies have reached the point where almost every constituent of the NEPA process must be subjected to crisis management. This paper focuses on a ten-point strategy for streamlining the NEPA process in order to achieve the Act`s objectives while easing the considerable burden on agencies, the public, and the judicial system. How the ten points are timed and implemented is critical to any successful streamlining.

  16. Methodology of life cycle cost with risk expenditure for offshore process at conceptual design stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Kiil; Chang, Daejun; Chang, Kwangpil; Rhee, Taejin; Lee, In-Beum

    2011-01-01

    This study proposed a new LCC (life cycle cost) methodology with the risk expenditure taken into account for comparative evaluation of offshore process options at their conceptual design stage. The risk expenditure consisted of the failure risk expenditure and the accident risk expenditure. The former accounted for the production loss and the maintenance expense due to equipment failures while the latter reflected the asset damage and the fatality worth caused by disastrous accidents such as fire and explosion. It was demonstrated that the new LCC methodology was capable of playing the role of a process selection basis in choosing the best of the liquefaction process options including the power generation systems for a floating LNG (Liquefied natural gas) production facility. Without the risk expenditure, a simple economic comparison apparently favored the mixed refrigerant cycle which had the better efficiency. The new methodology with the risk expenditure, however, indicated that the nitrogen expansion cycle driven by steam turbines should be the optimum choice, mainly due to its better availability and safety. -- Highlights: → The study presented the methodology of the LCC with the risk expenditure for the conceptual design of offshore processes. → The proposed methodology demonstrated the applicability of the liquefaction unit with the power generation system of LNG FPSO. → Without the risk expenditure, a simple economic comparison apparently favored the mixed refrigerant cycle which had the better efficiency. → The new methodology indicated that the nitrogen expansion cycle driven by steam turbines is the optimum choice due to its better availability and safety.

  17. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available . It has been well established that over 70% of the total development cost of a product and its manufacturing process is decided during the design phase, although this phase accounts for less than 7% of the total costs. It is thus important to be able...

  18. Analysis and evaluation of process and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the Low Cost Solar Array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible cost through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. A format for techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format. The accumulated Cz process data are presented.

  19. Low-cost, solution processable carbon nanotube supercapacitors and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Suvi; Tuukkanen, Sampo; Pörhönen, Juho; Moilanen, Pasi; Virtanen, Jorma; Honkanen, Mari; Lupo, Donald

    2014-06-01

    We report ecological and low-cost carbon nanotube (CNT) supercapacitors fabricated using a simple, scalable solution processing method, where the use of a highly porous and electrically conductive active material eliminates the need for a current collector. Electrodes were fabricated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate from a printable multi-wall CNT ink, where the CNTs are solubilized in water using xylan as a dispersion agent. The dispersion method facilitates a very high concentration of CNTs in the ink. Supercapacitors were assembled using a paper separator and an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and the devices were characterized with a galvanostatic discharge method defined by an industrial standard. The capacitance of the 2 cm^2 devices was 6 mF/cm^2 (2.3 F/g) and equivalent series resistance 80 Ω . Low-cost supercapacitors fabricated from safe and environmentally friendly materials have potential applications as energy storage devices in ubiquitous and autonomous intelligence as well as in disposable low-end products.

  20. INDEX - a solution to the high cost of processing transient workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroupe, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985 twelve midwestern utilities formed the Nuclear Employee Data System for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Region III (NEDS III) group. These utilities are Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company, Commonwealth Edison Company, Consumers Power Company, Detroit Edison Company, Illinois Power Company, Indiana and Michigan Electric Company, Iowa Electric Light and Power Company, Northern States Power Company, Toledo Edison Company, Union Electric Company, and Wisconsin Public Service Corporation. Early in 1986, Kansas Gas and Electric of NRC's Region IV joined the group and a cost-benefit study of a nuclear employee data system was initiated. The purpose of this system is to reduce the cost of processing workers requiring unescorted access to nuclear power plants. The involved utilities continued this project as the Integrated Nuclear Data Exchange (INDEX). In 1987 the following additional utilities joined INDEX: Houston Lighting and Power, Pacific Gas and Electric, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Arkansas Power and Light, Louisiana Power and Light, Systems Energy Resources Inc., and Southern California Edison. This paper summarizes the results of the study and discusses the current status of the program

  1. An overview of recent progress using low-cost and cost-effective composite materials and processes to produce SSC magnet coils and associated non-metallic parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morena, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermoplastic and thermoset polymer systems have been used in high-energy physics applications throughout the world for many years. Like other industries and industrial communities, the materials and processes requirements of these polymers have recently taken on new meanings. New accelerators and other machines are pushing all material parameters beyond limits. New polymeric and composite materials are being developed, invented, and formulated, as is new process and application equipment. This is a decade of change. Composite materials are being chosen for performance characteristics and cost-effective processing as well. The information that follows will note some of the recent progress in the development of composite materials and processes for producing low-cost and cost-effective, high-quality, non-metallic composite components for use in SSC magnets and in other accelerators. The materials and methods for making composite molds, tools, and structural parts for magnet coils and other components are demonstrated. New, unique, and innovative approaches for processing thermoset polymers are presented. The formulated polymer systems are used to form semi and structural insulators, spacers, supports, coil end parts, blocks, housings, adhesives, and other composite applications

  2. New is not always costly: Evidence from online processing of topic and contrast in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luming eWang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two visual ERP experiments were conducted to investigate topic and contrast assigned by various cues such as discourse context, sentential position and marker during referential processing in Japanese. Experiment 1 showed that there was no N400-difference for new vs. given noun phrases (NPs when the new NP was expected (contrastively focused based on its preceding context and sentential position. Experiment 2 further revealed that the N400 for new NPs can be modulated by the NP’s contrastive meaning (exhausitivity induced from the marker. Both experiments also showed that new NPs engendered an increased Late Positivity. The reduced N400 for new vs. given supports an expectation-based linking mechanism. In addition, costs that were consistently observed for new vs. given entities emerged in a subsequent process, in which the new NP's occurrence requires updating and correcting of the discourse representation built so far, which is indexed by an enhanced Late Positivity. We argue that the overall data pattern should be best explained within a multi-stream model of discourse processing.

  3. Development of a compact and cost effective multi-input digital signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish-Molla, Sahar; Chin, Kenrick; Prestwich, William V.; Byun, Soo Hyun

    2018-01-01

    A prototype digital signal processing system (DSP) was developed using a microcontroller interfaced with a 12-bit sampling ADC, which offers a considerably inexpensive solution for processing multiple detectors with high throughput. After digitization of the incoming pulses, in order to maximize the output counting rate, a simple algorithm was employed for pulse height analysis. Moreover, an algorithm aiming at the real-time pulse pile-up deconvolution was implemented. The system was tested using a NaI(Tl) detector in comparison with a traditional analogue and commercial digital systems for a variety of count rates. The performance of the prototype system was consistently superior to the analogue and the commercial digital systems up to the input count rate of 61 kcps while was slightly inferior to the commercial digital system but still superior to the analogue system in the higher input rates. Considering overall cost, size and flexibility, this custom made multi-input digital signal processing system (MMI-DSP) was the best reliable choice for the purpose of the 2D microdosimetric data collection, or for any measurement in which simultaneous multi-data collection is required.

  4. New is not always costly: evidence from online processing of topic and contrast in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luming; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2013-01-01

    Two visual ERP experiments were conducted to investigate topic and contrast assigned by various cues such as discourse context, sentential position, and marker during referential processing in Japanese. Experiment 1 showed that there was no N400-difference for new vs. given noun phrases (NPs) when the new NP was expected (contrastively focused) based on its preceding context and sentential position. Experiment 2 further revealed that the N400 for new NPs can be modulated by the NP's contrastive meaning (exhaustivity) induced from the marker. Both experiments also showed that new NPs engendered an increased Late Positivity. The reduced N400 for new vs. given supports an expectation-based linking mechanism. In addition, costs that were consistently observed for new vs. given entities emerged in a subsequent process, in which the new NP's occurrence requires updating and correcting of the discourse representation built so far, which is indexed by an enhanced Late Positivity. We argue that the overall data pattern should be best explained within a multi-stream model of discourse processing. PMID:23825466

  5. Uncertainties in Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Process Design – A Case Study on Biorefinery Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist V.; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which is especially relevant in biorefinery research where information about new technologies and experience with new technologies is limited. A systematic methodology for uncertainty analysis of cost data is proposed that employs: (a) bootstrapping as a regression method when cost data are available; and, (b) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is indeed found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable robust decision-making under uncertainties. One of the results using order-of-magnitude estimates shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with the lowest economic risks (among the alternatives considered) of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a, respectively.

  6. Uncertainties in Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Process Design – A Case Study on Biorefinery Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist V.; Sin, Gürkan, E-mail: gsi@kt.dtu.dk [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-06

    Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which is especially relevant in biorefinery research where information about new technologies and experience with new technologies is limited. A systematic methodology for uncertainty analysis of cost data is proposed that employs: (a) bootstrapping as a regression method when cost data are available; and, (b) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is indeed found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable robust decision-making under uncertainties. One of the results using order-of-magnitude estimates shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with the lowest economic risks (among the alternatives considered) of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a, respectively.

  7. Cost-Efficient Methods and Processes for Safety Relevant Embedded Systems (CESAR) - An Objective Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Graham

    For developing embedded safety critical systems, industrial companies have to face increasing complexity and variety coupled with increasing regulatory constraints, while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently (addressing only a part of the complexity: e.g. Safety) in the absence of internationally recognized open standards. CESAR has been established under ARTEMIS, the European Union's Joint Technology Initiative for research in embedded systems, with the aim to improve this situation and this pa-per will explain what CESAR's objectives are, how they are expected to be achieved and, in particular, how current best practice can ensure that safety engineering requirements can be met.

  8. Cost-effective large-scale fabrication of diffractive optical elements by using conventional semiconducting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seunghwan; Song, Ho Young; Lee, Junghoon; Jang, Cheol-Yong; Jeong, Hakgeun

    2012-11-20

    In this article, we introduce a simple fabrication method for SiO(2)-based thin diffractive optical elements (DOEs) that uses the conventional processes widely used in the semiconductor industry. Photolithography and an inductively coupled plasma etching technique are easy and cost-effective methods for fabricating subnanometer-scale and thin DOEs with a refractive index of 1.45, based on SiO(2). After fabricating DOEs, we confirmed the shape of the output light emitted from the laser diode light source and applied to a light-emitting diode (LED) module. The results represent a new approach to mass-produce DOEs and realize a high-brightness LED module.

  9. A novel cell autolysis system for cost-competitive downstream processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnal, Ivan; Chen, Xiangbin; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The industrial production of low value-added biological products poses significant challenges due to cost pressures. In recent years, it has been argued that synthetic biology approaches will lead to breakthroughs that eliminate price bottlenecks for the production of a wide range of biological products including bioplastics and biofuels. One significant bottleneck lies in the necessity to break the tough cell walls of microbes in order to release intracellular products. We here report the implementation of the first synthetic biology standard part based on the lambda phage SRRz genes and a synthetic ribosome binding site (RBS) that works in Escherichia coli and Halomonas campaniensis, which enables the producer strains to induce lysis after the addition of small amounts (1-5 %) of solvents or to spontaneously lyse during the stresses of downstream processing, and thus has the potential to eliminate the mechanical cell disruption step as both an efficiency bottleneck and a significant capex barrier when implementing downstream bioprocesses.

  10. Adventures in Private Cloud: Balancing Cost and Capability at the CloudSat Data Processing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, P.; Finley, S.; Fluke, J.; Haynes, J. M.; Cronk, H. Q.; Miller, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Since the beginning of the CloudSat Mission in 2006, The CloudSat Data Processing Center (DPC) at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) has been ingesting data from the satellite and other A-Train sensors, producing data products, and distributing them to researchers around the world. The computing infrastructure was specifically designed to fulfill the requirements as specified at the beginning of what nominally was a two-year mission. The environment consisted of servers dedicated to specific processing tasks in a rigid workflow to generate the required products. To the benefit of science and with credit to the mission engineers, CloudSat has lasted well beyond its planned lifetime and is still collecting data ten years later. Over that period requirements of the data processing system have greatly expanded and opportunities for providing value-added services have presented themselves. But while demands on the system have increased, the initial design allowed for very little expansion in terms of scalability and flexibility. The design did change to include virtual machine processing nodes and distributed workflows but infrastructure management was still a time consuming task when system modification was required to run new tests or implement new processes. To address the scalability, flexibility, and manageability of the system Cloud computing methods and technologies are now being employed. The use of a public cloud like Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud or Google Compute Engine was considered but, among other issues, data transfer and storage cost becomes a problem especially when demand fluctuates as a result of reprocessing and the introduction of new products and services. Instead, the existing system was converted to an on premises private Cloud using the OpenStack computing platform and Ceph software defined storage to reap the benefits of the Cloud computing paradigm. This work details the decisions that were made, the benefits that

  11. Reducing of thermal power energy-intensive pro-cesses costs in the mixed fodders technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approach to the creation of energy-efficient processes with direct involvement in the produc-tion process of heat pump technology for the preparation of of energy resources in obtaining of mixed fodders of the given particle size distribution was formed. Completed experimental and analytical studies paved the way for the development of energy efficient technolo-gies of mixed fodders with a vapor compression connection (VCHP and steam ejector (SEHP heat pumps on the closed thermody-namic schemes. It was shown that the strategy of the operational management of process parameters in the allowable technological properties of the resulting mixed fodder production does not allow a compromise between the conflicting technical and economic param-eters and let the main technical contradiction between productivity and power consumption. The control problem becomes much more complicated when there is no practical possibility of a detailed description of thermal processes occurring in the closed thermodynamic recycles based on the phenomenological laws of thermodynamics considering a balance of material and energy flows in the technologi-cal system. There is a need for adaptive control systems based on the extreme characteristics of the controlled object. The adaptation effect is achieved by obtaining information about the processes occurring in the conditions of technological line of mixed fodders pro-duction equalized particle size distribution, which allows to generate a control signal for the extreme value of the objective function. The scheme of automatic optimization ensuring continuous monitoring of the minimum value of the specific heat energy costs is proposed. It provides optimal consumption of the starting loose mixed fodder and rational strain on the line equipment.

  12. Integrating Efficiency of Industry Processes and Practices Alongside Technology Effectiveness in Space Transportation Cost Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents past and current work in dealing with indirect industry and NASA costs when providing cost estimation or analysis for NASA projects and programs. Indirect costs, when defined as those costs in a project removed from the actual hardware or software hands-on labor; makes up most of the costs of today's complex large scale NASA space/industry projects. This appears to be the case across phases from research into development into production and into the operation of the system. Space transportation is the case of interest here. Modeling and cost estimation as a process rather than a product will be emphasized. Analysis as a series of belief systems in play among decision makers and decision factors will also be emphasized to provide context.

  13. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin; Hancu, Dan; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    This report presents system and economicanalysis for a carbon-capture unit which uses an aminosilicone-based solvent for CO₂ capture in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The aminosilicone solvent is a 60/40 wt/wt mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. Forcomparison purposes, the report also shows results for a carbon-capture unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). The first year removal cost of CO₂ for the aminosilicone-based carbon-capture process is $46.04/ton of CO₂ as compared to $60.25/ton of CO₂ when MEA is used. The aminosilicone- based process has <77% of the CAPEX of a system using MEA solvent. The lower CAPEX is due to several factors, including the higher working capacity of the aminosilicone solvent compared the MEA, which reduces the solvent flow rate required, reducing equipment sizes. If it is determined that carbon steel can be used in the rich-lean heat exchanger in the carbon capture unit, the first year removal cost of CO₂ decreases to $44.12/ton. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a higherthermal stability than MEA, allowing desorption to be conducted at higher temperatures and pressures, decreasing the number of compressor stages needed. The aminosilicone-based solvent also has a lowervapor pressure, allowing the desorption to be conducted in a continuous-stirred tank reactor versus a more expensive packed column. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a lowerheat capacity, which decreases the heat load on the desorber. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages overconventional systems using MEA.

  14. Denial of Service Attack Techniques: Analysis, Implementation and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elleithy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A denial of service attack (DOS is any type of attack on a networking structure to disable a server from servicing its clients. Attacks range from sending millions of requests to a server in an attempt to slow it down, flooding a server with large packets of invalid data, to sending requests with an invalid or spoofed IP address. In this paper we show the implementation and analysis of three main types of attack: Ping of Death, TCP SYN Flood, and Distributed DOS. The Ping of Death attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 95 computer. The TCP SYN Flood attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 2000 IIS FTP Server. Distributed DOS will be demonstrated by simulating a distribution zombie program that will carry the Ping of Death attack. This paper will demonstrate the potential damage from DOS attacks and analyze the ramifications of the damage.

  15. Coping with stereotype threat: denial as an impression management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Courtney; Conway, Leanne; Preacher, Kristopher J; Schooler, Jonathan W; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2005-07-01

    Four experiments tested the hypothesis that people who are concerned with impression management cope with stereotype threat through denial. Consistent with this hypothesis, temporary employees threatened by a stereotype of incompetence (Study 1) and hostel-dwelling older adults (Study 2) were more likely to deny incompetence if they were high in impression management. African Americans (Study 3) showed a similar pattern of denying cognitive incompetence, which emerged primarily when they were interviewed by a White experimenter and had attended a predominantly Black high school. In Study 4, White students who expected to take an IQ test and were threatened by a stereotype of being less intelligent than Asians were more likely to deny that intelligence is important if they were high in impression management.

  16. Defending networks against denial-of-service attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Gellman, Michael; Loukas, George

    2004-11-01

    Denial of service attacks, viruses and worms are common tools for malicious adversarial behavior in networks. Experience shows that over the last few years several of these techniques have probably been used by governments to impair the Internet communications of various entities, and we can expect that these and other information warfare tools will be used increasingly as part of hostile behavior either independently, or in conjunction with other forms of attack in conventional or asymmetric warfare, as well as in other forms of malicious behavior. In this paper we concentrate on Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDoS) where one or more attackers generate flooding traffic and direct it from multiple sources towards a set of selected nodes or IP addresses in the Internet. We first briefly survey the literature on the subject, and discuss some examples of DDoS incidents. We then present a technique that can be used for DDoS protection based on creating islands of protection around a critical information infrastructure. This technique, that we call the CPN-DoS-DT (Cognitive Packet Networks DoS Defence Technique), creates a self-monitoring sub-network surrounding each critical infrastructure node. CPN-DoS-DT is triggered by a DDoS detection scheme, and generates control traffic from the objects of the DDoS attack to the islands of protection where DDOS packet flows are destroyed before they reach the critical infrastructure. We use mathematical modelling, simulation and experiments on our test-bed to show the positive and negative outcomes that may result from both the attack, and the CPN-DoS-DT protection mechanism, due to imperfect detection and false alarms.

  17. The cerebral neurobiology of anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be

  18. A Mechanism Denial Study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sik Kang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO mechanism-denial experiments is performed using an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM. Daily climatological seasonal cycles of i surface latent heat flux, ii net radiative heating rate, and iii surface wind stress are obtained from a control simulation and prescribed in place of the normal interactive computations of these fields in order to turn off the i wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE, ii cloud-radiation interaction (CRI, and iii frictional wave-CISK (FWC mechanisms, respectively. Dual and triple mechanism denial experiments are also conducted by switching off multiple mechanisms together. The influence of each mechanism is assessed by comparing experiments with that mechanism turned off to those in which it is not. CRI and WISHE are both found to be important to the simulated MJO amplitude and propagation speed, while FWC has weaker and less systematic effects. The MJO is weakened when CRI is turned off, but strengthened when WISHE is turned off, indicating that CRI amplifies the MJO in the control simulation while WISHE weakens it. The negative influence of WISHE is shown to result from simulated phase relationships between surface winds, surface fluxes and convection which differ significantly from those found in observations, and thus is not interpreted as evidence against a positive role for WISHE in the development and maintenance of the observed MJO. The positive influence of CRI in the model is consistent with a strong simulated relationship between daily grid-point column-integrated radiative and convective heating; the mean ratio of the latter to the former exceeds 0.2 for rain rates less than 14 mm d-1. CRI is also shown to suppress an excessive excitation of the convectively coupled Kelvin wave so that the amplitude and frequency of the MJO is maintained.

  19. Measuring the value of process improvement initiatives in a preoperative assessment center using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katy E; Albright, Heidi W; Frenzel, John C; Incalcaterra, James R; Rubio, Augustin C; Jones, Jessica F; Feeley, Thomas W

    2013-12-01

    The value and impact of process improvement initiatives are difficult to quantify. We describe the use of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) in a clinical setting to quantify the value of process improvements in terms of cost, time and personnel resources. Difficulty in identifying and measuring the cost savings of process improvement initiatives in a Preoperative Assessment Center (PAC). Use TDABC to measure the value of process improvement initiatives that reduce the costs of performing a preoperative assessment while maintaining the quality of the assessment. Apply the principles of TDABC in a PAC to measure the value, from baseline, of two phases of performance improvement initiatives and determine the impact of each implementation in terms of cost, time and efficiency. Through two rounds of performance improvements, we quantified an overall reduction in time spent by patient and personnel of 33% that resulted in a 46% reduction in the costs of providing care in the center. The performance improvements resulted in a 17% decrease in the total number of full time equivalents (FTE's) needed to staff the center and a 19% increase in the numbers of patients assessed in the center. Quality of care, as assessed by the rate of cancellations on the day of surgery, was not adversely impacted by the process improvements. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  1. 7 CFR 330.204 - Denial or cancellation of permits; reconsiderations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.204 Denial or... ground it will involve a danger of dissemination of the plant pest into the State, Territory or...

  2. 20 CFR 404.981 - Effect of Appeals Council's decision or denial of review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... decision or denial of review. The Appeals Council may deny a party's request for review or it may decide to... law judge if the request for review is denied, is binding unless you or another party file an action...

  3. 44 CFR 6.55 - Appeal of denial of request to amend a record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an employee of FEMA and the denial to amend involves a record maintained in the employee's Official... right to file a Statement of Disagreement for distribution in accordance with § 6.56. (4) Notice of the...

  4. 75 FR 8193 - Jeri Hassman, M.D.; Denial of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... is buying drugs on the street. Id. at 1006. With respect to requests for early refills, Dr. Hare... Part II Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration Jeri Hassman, M.D.; Denial of...; [[Page 8194

  5. Technology Estimating: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Reeves, John D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Greenberg, Marc; Comstock, Doug; Olds, John R.; Wallace, Jon; DePasquale, Dominic; Schaffer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA is investing in new technologies that include 14 primary technology roadmap areas, and aeronautics. Understanding the cost for research and development of these technologies and the time it takes to increase the maturity of the technology is important to the support of the ongoing and future NASA missions. Overall, technology estimating may help provide guidance to technology investment strategies to help improve evaluation of technology affordability, and aid in decision support. The research provides a summary of the framework development of a Technology Estimating process where four technology roadmap areas were selected to be studied. The framework includes definition of terms, discussion for narrowing the focus from 14 NASA Technology Roadmap areas to four, and further refinement to include technologies, TRL range of 2 to 6. Included in this paper is a discussion to address the evaluation of 20 unique technology parameters that were initially identified, evaluated and then subsequently reduced for use in characterizing these technologies. A discussion of data acquisition effort and criteria established for data quality are provided. The findings obtained during the research included gaps identified, and a description of a spreadsheet-based estimating tool initiated as a part of the Technology Estimating process.

  6. Newly patented process enables low-cost solution for increasing white light spectrum of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie

    2017-10-01

    A newly patented process for completing the spectral light array emitted by LED bulbs provides a low-cost method for producing better human centered lighting (HCL). This process uses non-luminescent colorant filters, filling out the jagged LED spectral emission into a full, white light array. While LED bulbs have the distinct economic advantages of using less energy, producing less heat and lasting years longer than traditional incandescent bulbs, the persistent metameric failure of LED bulbs has resulted in slower, and sometimes reluctant, adoption of LED lighting by the residential, retail and architectural markets. Adding missing wavelengths to LED generated bulbs via colorant filters increases the aesthetic appeal of the light by decreasing current levels of metameric failure, reducing the `flatness', `harshness', and `dullness' of LED generated light reported by consumers. LED phosphor-converted light can be successfully tuned to "whiter" white light with selective color filtering using permanent, durable transparent pigments. These transparent pigments are selectively applied in combination with existing manufacturing technologies and utilized as a final color-tuning step in bulb design. The quantity of emitted light chosen for color filtering can be adjusted from 1% to 100% of emitted light, creating a custom balance of light quantity with light quality. This invention recognizes that "better light" is frequently chosen over "more light" in the consumer marketplace.

  7. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  8. Process development and exergy cost sensitivity analysis of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Ansarinasab, Hojat; Moftakhari Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-10-01

    An integrated power plant with a net electrical power output of 3.71 × 105 kW is developed and investigated. The electrical efficiency of the process is found to be 60.1%. The process includes three main sub-systems: molten carbonate fuel cell system, heat recovery section and cryogenic carbon dioxide capturing process. Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic methods are used for analyzing the process. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is a comprehensive evaluation tool which combines an exergetic approach with economic analysis procedures. With this method, investment and exergy destruction costs of the process components are divided into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts. Results of the conventional exergoeconomic analyses demonstrate that the combustion chamber has the largest exergy destruction rate (182 MW) and cost rate (13,100 /h). Also, the total process cost rate can be decreased by reducing the cost rate of the fuel cell and improving the efficiency of the combustion chamber and heat recovery steam generator. Based on the total avoidable endogenous cost rate, the priority for modification is the heat recovery steam generator, a compressor and a turbine of the power plant, in rank order. A sensitivity analysis is done to investigate the exergoeconomic factor parameters through changing the effective parameter variations.

  9. Profiling stainless steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions, hexavalent chromium emissions and operating costs in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Siert, Arlen; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T

    2016-01-01

    Nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for stainless steel were assessed for fume generation rates, fume generation rates per g of electrode consumed, and emission rates for hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Elemental manganese, nickel, chromium, iron emissions per unit length of weld, and labor plus consumables costs were similarly measured. Flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc (SMAW) processes were also studied. The objective was to identify the best welding processes for reducing workplace exposures, and estimate costs for all processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, weighed, recovered, and analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for metals, and by ion chromatography for Cr(6+). GMAW processes used were Surface Tension Transfer, Regulated Metal Deposition, Cold Metal Transfer, short-circuit, axial spray, and pulsed spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding; SMAW used E308 rods. Costs were estimated as dollars per m length of a ¼ in (6.3 mm) thick horizontal butt weld; equipment costs were estimated as ratios of new equipment costs to a 250 ampere capacity SMAW welding machine. Results indicate a broad range of fume emission factors for the processes studied. Fume emission rates per g of electrode were lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed-spray mode (0.2 mg/g), and highest for SMAW (8 mg fume/g electrode). Emission rates of Cr(6+) ranged from 50-7800 µg/min, and Cr(6+) generation rates per g electrode ranged from 1-270 µg/g. Elemental Cr generation rates spanned 13-330 µg/g. Manganese emission rates ranged from 50-300 µg/g. Nickel emission rates ranged from 4-140 µg/g. Labor and consumables costs ranged from $3.15 (GMAW pulsed spray) to $7.40 (SMAW) per meter of finished weld, and were measured or estimated for all 11 processes tested. Equipment costs for some processes may be as much as five times the cost of a typical SMAW welding machine. The results show that all of the GMAW processes in this

  10. Workplace Suicide and States of Denial: The France Telecom and Foxconn Cases Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Waters

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Workplace suicides are sharply on the rise and reflect a generalised deterioration in working conditions across the globalised economy. Despite their growing prevalence, workplace suicides are subject to specific modes of repression that tend to keep them hidden from public view. Suicides and their social recognition threaten the vested interests of corporate and political elites by giving material embodiment to relations of production in the form of extreme human suffering. This article focuses on 'suicide waves' at two distant corporations in the information and communications sector: in France, the telecoms provider, France Télécom (rebranded Orange in 2013 and in China, electronics supplier, Foxconn. Drawing on Stanley Cohen's notion of 'states of denial', the article examines the tactics used by corporate and political elites in an effort to keep the suicides concealed. These include discourses that denied the suicides, individualised their causes and repressive tactics intended to control information and impede investigations. Recognising workplace suicides and the forms of repression that seek to occlude them, is crucial if we are to confront the profound human costs of a new international division of digital labour on lived experiences of work.

  11. Rapid mapping using low-cost structure-from-motion photogrammetry expedites the lahar modeling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Jacqueline; Pyle, David; Mather, Tamsin

    2014-05-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) is a branch of photogrammetry that triangulates points in digital photos to produce a 3D model. When applied to topographical modeling, SfM presents a powerful tool for rapid terrain mapping. At little to no cost and on a timescale of hours, a metric-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) can be produced; the resultant DTM can be used for many types of hazard scenario modeling and is here applied to lahars and floods. This study demonstrates the robustness of the SfM method through two case studies. First, an SfM DTM of Boscastle, UK, is compared against LiDAR and SRTM DTMs in a flood simulation model. Resolution is found to be more robust than for satellite based DTMs, and though less precise than the most detailed LiDAR survey, still perfectly adequate for the purposes of modeling flows. Next, the same method is applied to a region of Ecuador lacking the regionally comprehensive LiDAR survey available in the UK. Compared against the only other topographical data available, (SRTM, ASTER, 1956 topographical map), the SfM DTM is shown to have a higher resolution and is a preferable alternative for modeling lahars. The advantages of this study for emergency management are to provide a cheap and rapid metric-resolution alternative to low resolution or costly topography data sets. In regions such as Ecuador where scientific resources are scarce, SfM assists in providing a thorough, but otherwise unattainable, understanding of potential disaster scenarios that is accessible to local authorities to be used in the disaster prevention and mitigation processes.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  13. [Statistical Process Control (SPC) can help prevent treatment errors without increasing costs in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Llueguera, E; Melero, A; Molero, J; Soler, N; Rueda, C; Paradinas, C

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) was applied to monitor patient set-up in radiotherapy and, when the measured set-up error values indicated a loss of process stability, its root cause was identified and eliminated to prevent set-up errors. Set up errors were measured for medial-lateral (ml), cranial-caudal (cc) and anterior-posterior (ap) dimensions and then the upper control limits were calculated. Once the control limits were known and the range variability was acceptable, treatment set-up errors were monitored using sub-groups of 3 patients, three times each shift. These values were plotted on a control chart in real time. Control limit values showed that the existing variation was acceptable. Set-up errors, measured and plotted on a X chart, helped monitor the set-up process stability and, if and when the stability was lost, treatment was interrupted, the particular cause responsible for the non-random pattern was identified and corrective action was taken before proceeding with the treatment. SPC protocol focuses on controlling the variability due to assignable cause instead of focusing on patient-to-patient variability which normally does not exist. Compared to weekly sampling of set-up error in each and every patient, which may only ensure that just those sampled sessions were set-up correctly, the SPC method enables set-up error prevention in all treatment sessions for all patients and, at the same time, reduces the control costs. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of process costs for small-scale carbon dioxide removal from natural gas. Topical report, September 1989-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changela, M.K.; Reading, G.J.; Echterhoff, L.W.

    1991-08-01

    The report establishes the cost of producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from high carbon dioxide subquality natural gas. Two processing technologies are evaluated: conventional diethanolamine (DEA) absorption and membrane separation. Comparison of the established costs shows both capital and operating cost advantages for small-scale membrane applications. Membranes offer higher cost savings at low feed flow rates and high carbon dioxide feed contents. Membranes are produced in modules, thus they do not exhibit economies of scale. This works to their advantage for removing carbon dioxide on a small scale. Processing costs for amine systems are more sensitive to economies of scale, and thus decrease more rapidly than for membranes at higher feed flow rates. The report shows that membranes have a definite market niche within the natural gas processing arena. For economic reasons, membranes will likely become the technology of choice for small-scale systems that treat high carbon dioxide content natural gas streams. However, amines will continue to service large-scale systems and applications where deep carbon dioxide removal is required. A related report (GRI Report No. GRI-91/0093 entitled, 'Technical Evaluation of Hybrid Membrane/DEA Modeling') shows that hybrid systems, the integration of membranes and amines, also offer the potential to lower processing costs

  15. Electrodialysis reversal: Process and cost approximations for treating coal-bed methane waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajtar, E.T.; Bagley, D.M. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Brackish waters with total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations less than 10,000 mg/L are extracted from coal-beds in the Wyoming Powder River basin to facilitate the production of coal-bed methane. These waters frequently require treatment before disposal or use. Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) has not yet been used to treat these waters but this technology should be suitable. The question is whether EDR would be cost-effective. The purpose of this work, then, was to develop models for predicting the cost of EDR for brackish waters. These models, developed from data available in the literature, were found to predict actual EDR costs as a function of TDS removal, influent flow rate, chemical rejection efficiency, water recovery, electricity use, and labor cost within 10% of reported values. The total amortized cost for removing 1,000 mg/L of TDS from 10,000 m{sup 3}/day of influent assuming no concentrate disposal costs was predicted to range from $0.23/m{sup 3} to $0.85/m{sup 3} and was highly dependent on capital cost and facility life. Concentrate disposal costs significantly affected total treatment cost, providing a total treatment cost range from $0.38/m{sup 3} to $6.38/m{sup 3}, depending on concentrate disposal cost and water recovery. Pilot demonstrations of EDR in the Powder River basin should be conducted to determine the achievable water recovery when treating these waters.

  16. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar cell metallization pattern design on solar cell performance and the costs and performance effects of different metallization processes are discussed. Definitive design rules for the front metallization pattern for large area solar cells are presented. Chemical and physical deposition processes for metallization are described and compared. An economic evaluation of the 6 principal metallization options is presented. Instructions for preparing Format A cost data for solar cell manufacturing processes from UPPC forms for input into the SAMIC computer program are presented.

  17. With timing options and heterogeneous costs, the lognormal diffusion is hardly an equilibrium price process for exhaustible resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.

    1992-01-01

    The report analyses the possibility that the lognormal diffusion process should be an equilibrium spot price process for an exhaustible resource. A partial equilibrium model is used under the assumption that the resource deposits have different extraction costs. Two separate problems have been pointed out. Under full certainty, when the process reduces to an exponentially growing price, the equilibrium places a very strong restriction on a relationship between the demand function and the cost density function. Under uncertainty there is an additional problem that during periods in which the price is lower than its previously recorded high, no new deposits will start extraction. 30 refs., 1 fig

  18. Improved Process Used to Treat Aqueous Mixed Waste Results in Cost Savings and Improved Worker Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, D.S.; Preuss, D.E.; Belcher, K.J.; Rock, C.M.; Bray, W.S.; Herman, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an improved process implemented at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to treat aqueous mixed waste. This waste is comprised of radioactively-contaminated corrosive liquids with heavy metals. The Aqueous Mixed Waste Treatment System (AMWTS) system components include a reaction tank and a post-treatment holding tank with ancillary piping and pumps; and a control panel with pumping/mixing controls; tank level, temperature and pH/Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) indicators. The process includes a neutralization step to remove the corrosive characteristic, a chromium reduction step to reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and a precipitation step to convert the toxic metals into an insoluble form. Once the toxic metals have precipitated, the resultant sludge is amenable to stabilization and can be reclassified as a low-level waste if the quantity of leachable toxic metals, as determined by the TCLP, is below Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). To date, six batches in eight have passed the UTS. The AMWTS is RCRA permitted and allows for the compliant treatment of mixed waste prior to final disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE) or commercial radioactive waste disposal facility. Mixed wastes eligible for treatment include corrosive liquids (pH 12.5) containing EPA-regulated toxic metals (As, Ba, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ag, Se, Hg) at concentrations greater than the RCRA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit. The system has also been used to treat corrosive wastes with small quantities of fissionable materials. The AMWTS is a significant engineered solution with many improvements over the more labor intensive on-site treatment method being performed within a ventilation hood used previously. The previously used treatment system allowed for batch sizes of only 15-20 gallons whereas the new AMWTS allows for the treatment of batches up to 75 gallons; thereby reducing batch labor and supply costs by 40-60% and reducing analytical

  19. Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

  20. Evaluation of Costs in Asparagus Production in Relation to Different Technological Processes in Conditions of Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with analysis structure of cost on the production of asparagus in relation to three different technological processes in conditions of Slovak Republic. Obtained results can be used as a template to prepare budgets and make production decisions to estimate potential returns and to analyze investment and financial analysis decisions in the asparagus cultivation. Production practices used in the budget are based on typical practices for asparagus in this country. From the analysis of the cost structure of assessed variants different technological procedures follows that the largest share of the costs fall to purchased material and labor.

  1. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    2017-09-01

    The activated sludge (AS) process is a type of suspended growth biological wastewater treatment that is used for treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, three configurations containing conventional activated sludge (CAS), extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes for a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran city were proposed and the total project construction, operation labor, maintenance, material, chemical, energy and amortization costs of these WWTPs were calculated and compared. Besides, effect of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) amounts on costs of WWTPs was investigated. Results demonstrated that increase of MLSS decreases the total project construction, material and amortization costs of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS. In addition, increase of this value increases the total operation, maintenance and energy costs, but does not affect chemical cost of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS.

  2. Visual representation of costs in the productive process: a case study on a footwear industry in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi da Silva Guimarães

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, conventional production systems have gone through changes in the face of intensified competition among companies. The occurrence of these changes has boosted the development of decision-making assistance tools for the production systems. However, most of these instruments do not allow the visualization of the costs involved throughout industrial operations. This study comprises the integration of the "Waste Identification Diagrams" (WID, current tool for visualization and analysis of production processes, along with "Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing" (TDABC, strategic management cost tool, seeking to create a model that visually demonstrates waste and relate its occurrence to operating costs. For that, the research adopted a descriptive-exploratory approach, based on a case study carried out in a footwear industry. The analysis showed that the integration of tools allowed for the representation of costs based on the time equations from the TDABC, associated with the visualization of the production process by the WID. The study concludes that the WID can be integrated to the TDABC tool, creating a management model for making decisions based on the operating costs of the production process.

  3. Low Computational-Cost Footprint Deformities Diagnosis Sensor through Angles, Dimensions Analysis and Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodolfo Maestre-Rendon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Manual measurements of foot anthropometry can lead to errors since this task involves the experience of the specialist who performs them, resulting in different subjective measures from the same footprint. Moreover, some of the diagnoses that are given to classify a footprint deformity are based on a qualitative interpretation by the physician; there is no quantitative interpretation of the footprint. The importance of providing a correct and accurate diagnosis lies in the need to ensure that an appropriate treatment is provided for the improvement of the patient without risking his or her health. Therefore, this article presents a smart sensor that integrates the capture of the footprint, a low computational-cost analysis of the image and the interpretation of the results through a quantitative evaluation. The smart sensor implemented required the use of a camera (Logitech C920 connected to a Raspberry Pi 3, where a graphical interface was made for the capture and processing of the image, and it was adapted to a podoscope conventionally used by specialists such as orthopedist, physiotherapists and podiatrists. The footprint diagnosis smart sensor (FPDSS has proven to be robust to different types of deformity, precise, sensitive and correlated in 0.99 with the measurements from the digitalized image of the ink mat.

  4. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiopoulou, E.; Melidis, P.; Aivasidis, A.

    2011-01-01

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m 3 d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m 3 d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO 2 contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO 2 content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  5. A High Density Low Cost Digital Signal Processing Module for Large Scale Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang; Walby, Mark D.; Breus, Dimitry; Harris, Jackson T.; Grudberg, Peter M.; Warburton, William K.

    2013-06-01

    A 32-channel digital spectrometer PIXIE-32 is being developed for nuclear physics or other radiation detection applications requiring digital signal processing with large number of channels at relatively low cost. A single PIXIE-32 provides spectrometry and waveform acquisition for 32 input signals per module whereas multiple modules can be combined into larger systems. It is based on the PCI Express standard which allows data transfer rates to the host computer of up to 800 MB/s. Each of the 32 channels in a PIXIE-32 module accepts signals directly from a detector preamplifier or photomultiplier. Digitally controlled offsets can be individually adjusted for each channel. Signals are digitized in 12-bit, 50 MHz multi-channel ADCs. Triggering, pile-up inspection and filtering of the data stream are performed in real time, and pulse heights and other event data are calculated on an event-by event basis. The hardware architecture, internal and external triggering features, and the spectrometry and waveform acquisition capability of the PIXIE- 32 as well as its capability to distribute clock and triggers among multiple modules, are presented. (authors)

  6. A Broker Framework for Secure and Cost-Effective Business Process Deployment on Multiple Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Goettelmann , Elio; Dahman , Karim; Gateau , Benjamin; Godart , Claude

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Security risk management on information systems provides security guarantees while controlling costs. But security risk assessments can be very complex, especially in a cloud context where data is dis-tributed over multiple environments. To prevent costs from becoming the only cloud selection factor, while disregarding security, we propose a method for performing multiple cloud security risk assessments. In this paper we present a broker framework for balancing costs a...

  7. Cost reductions on a titanium dioxide plant identified by a process integration study at Tioxide UK Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of a process integration study is to determine the minimum practical amount of energy required to operate a process and to identify the most appropriate investment strategy which will realise the maximum energy cost savings consistent with a particular company's financial and operating criteria. The process integration method involves the rigorous application of thermodynamics and cost accounting, tempered by practical plant engineering and operability considerations. Tioxide UK Ltd is part of Tioxide Group plc and operates two UK sites for the production of titanium dioxide pigment. The site in question, Greatham works near Hartlepool, produces pigment via the chloride route. The energy costs at Greatham works can amount to pound5 - 6 million/year depending on production levels. (author).

  8. Energy- and cost-efficient lattice-QCD computations using graphics processing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Quarks and gluons are the building blocks of all hadronic matter, like protons and neutrons. Their interaction is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), a theory under test by large scale experiments like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and in the future at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. However, perturbative methods can only be applied to QCD for high energies. Studies from first principles are possible via a discretization onto an Euclidean space-time grid. This discretization of QCD is called Lattice QCD (LQCD) and is the only ab-initio option outside of the high-energy regime. LQCD is extremely compute and memory intensive. In particular, it is by definition always bandwidth limited. Thus - despite the complexity of LQCD applications - it led to the development of several specialized compute platforms and influenced the development of others. However, in recent years General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) came up as a new means for parallel computing. Contrary to machines traditionally used for LQCD, graphics processing units (GPUs) are a massmarket product. This promises advantages in both the pace at which higher-performing hardware becomes available and its price. CL2QCD is an OpenCL based implementation of LQCD using Wilson fermions that was developed within this thesis. It operates on GPUs by all major vendors as well as on central processing units (CPUs). On the AMD Radeon HD 7970 it provides the fastest double-precision D kernel for a single GPU, achieving 120GFLOPS. D - the most compute intensive kernel in LQCD simulations - is commonly used to compare LQCD platforms. This performance is enabled by an in-depth analysis of optimization techniques for bandwidth-limited codes on GPUs. Further, analysis of the communication between GPU and CPU, as well as between multiple GPUs, enables high-performance Krylov space solvers and linear scaling to multiple GPUs within a single system. LQCD

  9. Energy- and cost-efficient lattice-QCD computations using graphics processing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Quarks and gluons are the building blocks of all hadronic matter, like protons and neutrons. Their interaction is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), a theory under test by large scale experiments like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and in the future at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. However, perturbative methods can only be applied to QCD for high energies. Studies from first principles are possible via a discretization onto an Euclidean space-time grid. This discretization of QCD is called Lattice QCD (LQCD) and is the only ab-initio option outside of the high-energy regime. LQCD is extremely compute and memory intensive. In particular, it is by definition always bandwidth limited. Thus - despite the complexity of LQCD applications - it led to the development of several specialized compute platforms and influenced the development of others. However, in recent years General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) came up as a new means for parallel computing. Contrary to machines traditionally used for LQCD, graphics processing units (GPUs) are a massmarket product. This promises advantages in both the pace at which higher-performing hardware becomes available and its price. CL2QCD is an OpenCL based implementation of LQCD using Wilson fermions that was developed within this thesis. It operates on GPUs by all major vendors as well as on central processing units (CPUs). On the AMD Radeon HD 7970 it provides the fastest double-precision D kernel for a single GPU, achieving 120GFLOPS. D - the most compute intensive kernel in LQCD simulations - is commonly used to compare LQCD platforms. This performance is enabled by an in-depth analysis of optimization techniques for bandwidth-limited codes on GPUs. Further, analysis of the communication between GPU and CPU, as well as between multiple GPUs, enables high-performance Krylov space solvers and linear scaling to multiple GPUs within a single system. LQCD

  10. Development of SAP-DoA techniques for GPR data processing within COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, Simone; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the use of Sub-Array Processing (SAP) and Direction of Arrival (DoA) approaches for the processing of Ground-Penetrating Radar data, with the purpose of locating metal scatterers embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. Research activities have been carried out during two Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in May 2015 and January 2016. In applications involving smart antennas and in the presence of several transmitters operating simultaneously, it is important for a receiving array to be able to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the incoming signals, in order to decipher how many emitters are present and predict their positions. A number of methods have been devised for DoA estimation: the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) and Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT) are amongst the most popular ones [1]. In the scenario considered by us, the electromagnetic sources are the currents induced on metal elements embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. GPR radargrams are processed, to estimate the DoAs of the electric field back-scattered by the sought targets. In order to work in near-field conditions, a sub-array processing (SAP) approach is adopted: the radargram is partitioned in sub-radargrams composed of few A-scans each, the dominant DoA is predicted for each sub-radargram. The estimated angles are triangulated, obtaining a set of crossings with intersections condensed around object locations. This pattern is filtered, in order to remove a noisy background of unwanted crossings, and is processed by applying the statistical procedure described in [2]. We tested our approach on synthetic GPR radargrams, obtained by using the freeware simulator gprMax implementing the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method [3]. In particular, we worked with

  11. An integrated TQM-model for continuous cost, process and product improvement. Konferencebidrag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsberg, Flemming

    Paperet beskriver hvorledes de tre teknikker: kvalitetsomkostningssystemer, target costing og benchmarking kan anvendes til at skabe bedre resultater i forbindelse med TQM.......Paperet beskriver hvorledes de tre teknikker: kvalitetsomkostningssystemer, target costing og benchmarking kan anvendes til at skabe bedre resultater i forbindelse med TQM....

  12. Flexible embedded circuitry : a novel process for high density, cost effective electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den J.; Kusters, R.; Barink, M.; Dietzel, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible electronics are starting to emerge with all-printed but also hybrid cost effective, smart electronic products that will find a wide range of applications in large quantities in our society. Such products have to be built on low cost substrate materials like PEN or PET foils. Because of the

  13. An assessment of the commercial cost of farm scale wood fuel procurement and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The capital cost of small scale biomass fired systems is currently significantly higher than equivalent rated fossil fuel fired systems. If the cost of producing willow or poplar coppice derived fuel can be shown to offer significant savings over the cost of conventional fossil fuel alternatives, the resultant total cost of energy production could in fact be less. The production of ''home grown'' fuel should always, in theory, be cheaper than bought in supplies due to the removal of cost components such as profit and risk and the possible use of labour during traditionally quiet periods on the farm. However, it has not been shown to date that small scale coppice plantations can successfully produce cost effective wood fuel to displace fuel that would otherwise be 'bought in'. It is likely that fuel from coppice will be harvested on a semi-manual basis using brush cutters and farm loaders etc. This report identifies appropriate systems and provides estimates of the key costs to a grower. Particular emphasis is given to operations surrounding cut-back, harvesting and comminution. The report provides an outline of the statutory requirements of employers engaged in coppice management. Key costs have been presented in their most useful form for a potential grower to compile enterprise gross margins. (Author)

  14. How to design the cost-effectiveness appraisal process of new healthcare technologies to maximise population health: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Kasper M; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark J; Wailoo, Allan J

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyse the design of the cost-effectiveness appraisal process of new healthcare technologies. The framework characterises the appraisal processes as a diagnostic test aimed at identifying cost-effective (true positive) and non-cost-effective (true negative) technologies. Using the framework, factors that influence the value of operating an appraisal process, in terms of net gain to population health, are identified. The framework is used to gain insight into current policy questions including (a) how rigorous the process should be, (b) who should have the burden of proof, and (c) how optimal design changes when allowing for appeals, price reductions, resubmissions, and re-evaluations. The paper demonstrates that there is no one optimal appraisal process and the process should be adapted over time and to the specific technology under assessment. Optimal design depends on country-specific features of (future) technologies, for example, effect, price, and size of the patient population, which might explain the difference in appraisal processes across countries. It is shown that burden of proof should be placed on the producers and that the impact of price reductions and patient access schemes on the producer's price setting should be considered when designing the appraisal process. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  16. Teenage sexuality and rights in Chile: from denial to punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them.

  17. Words as masks: About the importance of denial in management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Vandevelde-Rougale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on a socio-anthropological research, which questions the effects of managerial discourse on the individual by considering experiences of workplace bullying. It studies the observation that despite the gap between what management says and what management does, words of managerial discourse are still widely used, by managers and employees alike. French philosopher, ethnologist and psychoanalyst Octave Mannoni (1899-1989, reworking Freud’s concept of fetishism, showed in an article entitled “I know very well, but nonetheless…” that a belief can survive the denial (disavowal of reality. Recognizing fantasy as a fantasy is not sufficient to reduce its power over the individual. Based on a case study, the present article demonstrates that the paradoxical logic phrased by Octave Mannoni can help us understand how managerial discourse can exercise its influence on individuals, despite discrepancies between what is said and what is implemented in the organisations. It presents the hypothesis that words can work as “masks” do in some traditional tribes, thus being the means supporting a belief that sustains management authority.

  18. High-performance polymer waveguide devices via low-cost direct photolithography process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Shustack, Paul J.; Garner, Sean M.

    2002-09-01

    All-optical networks provide unique opportunities for polymer waveguide devices because of their excellent mechanical, thermo-optic, and electro-optic properties. Polymer materials and components have been viewed as a viable solution for metropolitan and local area networks where high volume and low cost components are needed. In this paper, we present our recent progress on the design and development of photoresist-like highly fluorinated maleimide copolymers including waveguide fabrication and optical testing. We have developed and synthesized a series of thermally stable, (Tg>150 oC, Td>300 oC) highly fluorinated (>50%) maleimide copolymers by radical co-polymerization of halogenated maleimides with various halogenated co-monomers. A theoretical correlation between optical loss and different co-polymer structures has been quantitatively established from C-H overtone analysis. We studied this correlation through design and manipulation of the copolymer structure by changing the primary properties such as molecular weight, copolymer composition, copolymer sequence distribution, and variations of the side chain including photochemically functional side units. Detailed analysis has been obtained using various characterization methods such as (H, C13, F19) NMR, UV-NIR, FTIR, GPC and so forth. The co-polymers exhibit excellent solubility in ketone solvents and high quality thin films can be prepared by spin coating. The polymer films were found to have a refractive index range of 1.42-1.67 and optical loss in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 dB/cm at 1550nm depending on the composition as extrapolated from UV-NIR spectra. When glycidyl methacrylate is incorporated into the polymer backbone, the material behaves like a negative photoresist with the addition of cationic photoinitiator. The final crosslinked waveguides show excellent optical and thermal properties. The photolithographic processing of the highly fluorinated copolymer material was examined in detail using in

  19. Low-cost copper complexes as p-dopants in solution processable hole transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellermann, Renate [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Taroata, Dan; Maltenberger, Anna; Hartmann, David; Schmid, Guenter [Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    We demonstrate the usage of the Lewis-acidic copper(II)hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(hfac){sub 2}) and copper(II)trifluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(tfac){sub 2}) as low-cost p-dopants for conductivity enhancement of solution processable hole transport layers based on small molecules in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The materials were clearly soluble in mixtures of environmentally friendly anisole and xylene and spin-coated under ambient atmosphere. Enhancements of two and four orders of magnitude, reaching 4.0 × 10{sup −11} S/cm with a dopant concentration of only 2 mol% Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 1.5 × 10{sup −9} S/cm with 5 mol% Cu(tfac){sub 2} in 2,2′,7,7′-tetra(N,N-ditolyl)amino-9,9-spiro-bifluorene (spiro-TTB), respectively, were achieved. Red light emitting diodes were fabricated with reduced driving voltages and enhanced current and power efficiencies (8.6 lm/W with Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 5.6 lm/W with Cu(tfac){sub 2}) compared to the OLED with undoped spiro-TTB (3.9 lm/W). The OLED with Cu(hfac){sub 2} doped spiro-TTB showed an over 8 times improved LT{sub 50} lifetime of 70 h at a starting luminance of 5000 cd/m{sup 2}. The LT{sub 50} lifetime of the reference OLED with PEDOT:PSS was only 8 h. Both non-optimized OLEDs were operated at similar driving voltage and power efficiency.

  20. Effectiveness of bone cleaning process using chemical and entomology approaches: time and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh Soon; Khoo, Lay See; Mohd Hilmi, Saidin; Ahmad Hafizam, Hasmi; Mohd Shah, Mahmood; Nurliza, Abdullah; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal examination is an important aspect of forensic pathology practice, requiring effective bone cleaning with minimal artefact. This study was conducted to compare between chemical and entomology methods of bone cleaning. Ten subjects between 20 and 40 years old who underwent uncomplicated medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Malaysia were randomly chosen for this descriptive cross sectional study. The sternum bone was divided into 4 parts, each part subjected to a different cleaning method, being two chemical approaches i.e. laundry detergent and a combination of 6% hydrogen peroxide and powder sodium bicarbonate and two entomology approaches using 2nd instar maggots of Chrysomyia rufifacies and Ophyra spinigera. A scoring system for grading the outcome of cleaning was used. The effectiveness of the methods was evaluated based on average weight reduction per day and median number of days to achieve the average score of less than 1.5 within 12 days of the bone cleaning process. Using maggots was the most time-effective and costeffective method, achieving an average weight reduction of 1.4 gm per day, a median of 11.3 days to achieve the desired score and an average cost of MYR 4.10 per case to reach the desired score within 12 days. This conclusion was supported by blind validation by forensic specialists achieving a 77.8% preference for maggots. Emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation also revealed that maggots especially Chrysomyia rufifacies preserved the original condition of the bones better allowing improved elucidation of bone injuries in future real cases.

  1. Basic factors to forecast maintenance cost and failure processes for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Elmira; Yu, Wei; Kee, Ernie; Sun, Alice; Richards, Drew; Grantom, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Two types of maintenance interventions are usually administered at nuclear power plants: planned and corrective. The cost incurred includes the labor (manpower) cost, cost for new parts, or emergency order of expensive items. At the plant management level there is a budgeted amount of money to be spent every year for such operations. It is very important to have a good forecast for this cost since unexpected events can trigger it to a very high level. In this research we present a statistical factor model to forecast the maintenance cost for the incoming month. One of the factors is the expected number of unplanned (due to failure) maintenance interventions. We introduce a Bayesian model for the failure rate of the equipment, which is input to the cost forecasting model. The importance of equipment reliability and prediction in the commercial nuclear power plant is presented along with applicable governmental and industry organization requirements. A detailed statistical analysis is performed on a set of maintenance cost and failure data gathered at the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) in Bay City, Texas, USA

  2. Are breast biopsies adequately funded? A process cost and revenue analysis; Ist die Mammabiopsie ausreichend finanziert? Eine Prozesskosten und Erloesbetrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, M.; Fischbach, E.; Fehm, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (DE). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology] (and others)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine whether the various breast biopsy procedures specified in the S 3 guidelines are sensibly represented within the current German health system as considered from a cost evaluation perspective. Materials and Methods: This prospectively designed multicenter study analyzed 221 breast biopsies at 7 institutions from 04/2006 to 01/2007. Core needle biopsies, vacuum-assisted biopsies and surgical open biopsies under sonographic or mammographic guidance were evaluated. During an analysis of process costs, the individual process steps were recorded in diagrammatic form and assigned to the true consumption of resources. The actual resource consumption costs were entered. A process-related breakeven analysis was conducted to check whether the reimbursement of individual biopsy types covers the costs. Results: Only sonographically guided core needle biopsy and surgical open biopsy are adequately reimbursed in the current German health system. All other breast biopsies indicate a negative profit margin. The principal reasons for underfunding are found in the area of reimbursement of investment and non-personnel costs. Conclusion: The reimbursement of breast biopsies must be improved in order to guarantee nationwide care of the population using the breast biopsy methods recommended in the S 3 guidelines and to avoid disincentives with respect to breast biopsy indications. (orig.)

  3. Increasing Consistency and Transparency in Considering Costs and Benefits in the Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advance notice of proposed rulemaking for standardizing terminology and specificity provided in each law regarding the nature and scope of the cost and benefit considerations when setting pollution standards.

  4. Adaptive Radar Signal Processing-The Problem of Exponential Computational Cost

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2003-01-01

    .... Extensions to handle the case of non-Gaussian clutter statistics are presented. Current challenges of limited training data support, computational cost, and severely heterogeneous clutter backgrounds are outlined...

  5. EFFECTS OF CARBURIZING AND NITRIDING PROCESSES ON THE COST AND QUALITY OF GEARS PRODUCED WITH AISI 4140 AND 8620 STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio José Leitão

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of nitriding and carburizing processes applied to gears subjected to contact stresses below 1300 MPa. The manufacturing cost, as well the depth of hardened layer and the distortion produced by two processes are analyzed. AISI 4140 gears quenched, tempered, liquid and gas nitriding and AISI 8620 gears after liquid carburizing, quenching and tempering are analyzed. The dimensional control of the gears was carried out before and after heat and thermochemical treatments. It is concluded that liquid or gas nitriding processes are about 30% more economical than liquid carburizing an also they reduce the dimensional changes. By the other hand liquid carburizing achieves greater case depth. Liquid nitriding process presents the lowest cost, dimensional changes and case depth.

  6. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, van Berry J.; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  7. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  8. Cost and productivity of new technology for harvesting and in-woods processing small-diameter trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael B Lambert; James O. Howard

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted on the productivity and cost of an integrated harvesting and processing system operating in small-diameter timber (western hemlock-type) on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington. The system uses a new steep-slope fellerbuncher, a clam-bunk grapple-skidder (forwarder), a prototype chain-flail debarker delimber, a chipper, a conveyor system,...

  9. The Effects of the Use of Activity-Based Costing Software in the Learning Process: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrea; Ferreira, Aldónio

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the use of accounting software in teaching activity-based costing (ABC) on the learning process. It draws upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour and uses the end-user computer satisfaction (EUCS) framework to examine students' satisfaction with the ABC software. The study examines students' satisfaction with…

  10. Low cost and conformal microwave water-cut sensor for optimizing oil production process

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2015-08-01

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut) which is extracted out of a production well as a byproduct. Traditional water-cut (WC) laboratory measurements are precise, but are incapable of providing real-time information, while recently reported in-line WC sensors (both in research and industry) are usually incapable of sensing the full WC range (0 – 100 %), are bulky, expensive and non-scalable for the variety of pipe sizes used in the oil industry. This work presents a novel implementation of a planar microwave T-resonator for fully non-intrusive in situ WC sensing over the full range of operation, i.e., 0 – 100 %. As opposed to non-planar resonators, the choice of a planar resonator has enabled its direct implementation on the pipe surface using low cost fabrication methods. WC sensors make use of series resonance introduced by a λ/4 open shunt stub placed in the middle of a microstrip line. The detection mechanism is based on the measurement of the T-resonator’s resonance frequency, which varies with the relative percentage of oil and water (due to the difference in their dielectric properties). In order to implement the planar T-resonator based sensor on the curved surface of the pipe, a novel approach of utilizing two ground planes is proposed in this work. The innovative use of dual ground planes makes this sensor scalable to a wide range of pipe sizes present in the oil industry. The design and optimization of this sensor was performed in an electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) solver, i.e., High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) and the dielectric properties of oil, water and their emulsions of different WCs used in the simulation model were measured using a SPEAG-dielectric assessment kit (DAK-12). The simulation results were validated through characterization of fabricated prototypes. Initial rapid prototyping was completed using copper tape, after which a

  11. Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks: Exploring the Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E; Jacques, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    The conservative movement and especially its think tanks play a critical role in denying the reality and significance of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), especially by manufacturing uncertainty over climate science. Books denying AGW are a crucial means of attacking climate science and scientists, and we examine the links between conservative think tanks (CTTs) and 108 climate change denial books published through 2010. We find a strong link, albeit noticeably weaker for the growing number of self-published denial books. We also examine the national origins of the books and the academic backgrounds of their authors or editors, finding that with the help of American CTTs climate change denial has spread to several other nations and that an increasing portion of denial books are produced by individuals with no scientific training. It appears that at least 90% of denial books do not undergo peer review, allowing authors or editors to recycle scientifically unfounded claims that are then amplified by the conservative movement, media, and political elites.

  12. Technology Estimating 2: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark; May, M. Scott; Greenberg, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    As a leader in space technology research and development, NASA is continuing in the development of the Technology Estimating process, initiated in 2012, for estimating the cost and schedule of low maturity technology research and development, where the Technology Readiness Level is less than TRL 6. NASA' s Technology Roadmap areas consist of 14 technology areas. The focus of this continuing Technology Estimating effort included four Technology Areas (TA): TA3 Space Power and Energy Storage, TA4 Robotics, TA8 Instruments, and TA12 Materials, to confine the research to the most abundant data pool. This research report continues the development of technology estimating efforts completed during 2013-2014, and addresses the refinement of parameters selected and recommended for use in the estimating process, where the parameters developed are applicable to Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) used in the parametric cost estimating analysis. This research addresses the architecture for administration of the Technology Cost and Scheduling Estimating tool, the parameters suggested for computer software adjunct to any technology area, and the identification of gaps in the Technology Estimating process.

  13. Optimal Medical Equipment Maintenance Service Proposal Decision Support System combining Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.

  14. 78 FR 22876 - Rodenticides; Notice of Intent To Cancel Registrations of, and Notice of Denial of Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FIFRA Docket No. 661; FRL-9804-2] Rodenticides; Notice of Intent To Cancel Registrations of, and Notice of Denial of Applications for, Certain Rodenticide Bait... to the Notice of Intent to Cancel Registration of, and Notice of Denial of Application for, Certain...

  15. 78 FR 49411 - Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...-AR55 Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass... Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume. DATES: EPA's denials of the petitions... requires that EPA determine the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel to be used in setting annual...

  16. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. Before a QIO reaches an initial denial determination or makes a change as a result of a DRG validation, it must— (a) Promptly notify the...

  17. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures in...

  18. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1) An...

  19. 24 CFR 960.204 - Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activity or drug abuse by household members. 960.204 Section 960.204 Housing and Urban Development... HOUSING Admission § 960.204 Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members. (a) Required denial of admission—(1) Persons evicted for drug-related criminal activity. The PHA...

  20. Denial-of-Service Security Attack in the Continuous-Time World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuling; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    -of-service security attack, the expected information from the controllers is not received and as a consequence the physical systems may fail to behave as expected. This paper proposes a formal framework for expressing denial-of-service security attack in hybrid systems. As a virtue, a physical system is able to plan......Hybrid systems are integrations of discrete computation and continuous physical evolution. The physical components of such systems introduce safety requirements, the achievement of which asks for the correct monitoring and control from the discrete controllers. However, due to denial...... for reasonable behavior in case the ideal control fails due to unreliable communication, in such a way that the safety of the system upon denial-of-service is still guaranteed. In the context of the modeling language, we develop an inference system for verifying safety of hybrid systems, without putting any...

  1. System justification, the denial of global warming, and the possibility of "system-sanctioned change".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygina, Irina; Jost, John T; Goldsmith, Rachel E

    2010-03-01

    Despite extensive evidence of climate change and environmental destruction, polls continue to reveal widespread denial and resistance to helping the environment. It is posited here that these responses are linked to the motivational tendency to defend and justify the societal status quo in the face of the threat posed by environmental problems. The present research finds that system justification tendencies are associated with greater denial of environmental realities and less commitment to pro-environmental action. Moreover, the effects of political conservatism, national identification, and gender on denial of environmental problems are explained by variability in system justification tendencies. However, this research finds that it is possible to eliminate the negative effect of system justification on environmentalism by encouraging people to regard pro-environmental change as patriotic and consistent with protecting the status quo (i.e., as a case of "system-sanctioned change"). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of slicing processes and junction formation processes are presented. A simple method for evaluation of the relative economic merits of competing process options with respect to the cost of energy produced by the system is described. An energy consumption analysis was developed and applied to determine the energy consumption in the solar module fabrication process sequence, from the mining of the SiO2 to shipping. The analysis shows that, in current technology practice, inordinate energy use in the purification step, and large wastage of the invested energy through losses, particularly poor conversion in slicing, as well as inadequate yields throughout. The cell process energy expenditures already show a downward trend based on increased throughput rates. The large improvement, however, depends on the introduction of a more efficient purification process and of acceptable ribbon growing techniques.

  3. A stochastic process model for life cycle cost analysis of nuclear power plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weide, J.A.M.; Pandey, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a general stochastic model to analyze the life cycle cost of an engineering system that is affected by minor but repairable failures interrupting the operation and a major failure that would require the replacement or renewal of the failed system. It is commonly observed that the

  4. Changing the way employee benefit communications are produced: outsourcing, a more efficient, less costly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, K

    1995-12-01

    Outsourcing may offer employers an efficient, cost-effective way to produce employee benefit communications. It offers a way to utilize the latest technology to produce personalized benefit statements or to target an announcement of benefit changes to a specific group of employees.

  5. Performance, Process, and Costs: Managing Service Quality with the Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Roswitha

    2001-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project among three German libraries that used the Balanced Scorecard as a concept for an integrated quality management system. Considers performance indicators across four perspectives that will help academic libraries establish an integrated controlling system and to collect and evaluate performance as well as cost data…

  6. 77 FR 3460 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... available funding, the approved claim amounts will be reimbursed on a prorated basis. All reimbursements are...., statutory increases in the reimbursement ceilings). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium...

  7. 76 FR 30696 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... in the reimbursement ceilings). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium... reimbursement under Title X of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. In our Federal Register Notice of November 24...

  8. 76 FR 24871 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... in the reimbursement ceilings). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium... reimbursement under Title X of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. DATES: In our Federal Register Notice of November...

  9. Quantifying short run cost-effectiveness during a gradual implementation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, G. van de; Woertman, W.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Adang, E.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the short run inefficiencies that arise during gradual implementation of a new cost-effective technology in healthcare. These inefficiencies arise when health gains associated with the new technology cannot be obtained immediately because the new technology does not yet supply

  10. Influence of material choice on cost estimation of some key components of the Sulfur Iodine thermochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilardi, T.; Rodriguez, G.; Gomez, A.; Leybros, J.; Borgard, J.M.; Carles, P.; Anzieu, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the preliminary design of an sulfur/iodine thermochemical plant coupled with a 600 MWth Helium cooled High Temperature Reactor, CEA has pre-designed all the components of the I/S plant and has started to the cost estimation of all the key components with some industrial cost evaluation methods proposed by CHAUVEL or PETER and TIMMERHAUS. The purpose of the paper is to present the strong influence of material choice on final cost estimation of these key components by comparing price with standard material (steel) and the most appropriate material selected to support the strong corrosion involved by several chemical reactions of the I/S process. These results reinforce the fact that material selection must be done with the best accuracy and that it will be a key factor in the global economy of these plant investment. (authors)

  11. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  12. Mathematical Modeling and a Hybrid NSGA-II Algorithm for Process Planning Problem Considering Machining Cost and Carbon Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Process planning is an important function in a manufacturing system; it specifies the manufacturing requirements and details for the shop floor to convert a part from raw material to the finished form. However, considering only economical criterion with technological constraints is not enough in sustainable manufacturing practice; formerly, criteria about low carbon emission awareness have seldom been taken into account in process planning optimization. In this paper, a mathematical model that considers both machining costs reduction as well as carbon emission reduction is established for the process planning problem. However, due to various flexibilities together with complex precedence constraints between operations, the process planning problem is a non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP hard problem. Aiming at the distinctive feature of the multi-objectives process planning optimization, we then developed a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II to tackle this problem. A local search method that considers both the total cost criterion and the carbon emission criterion are introduced into the proposed algorithm to avoid being trapped into local optima. Moreover, the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS method is also adopted to determine the best solution from the Pareto front. Experiments have been conducted using Kim’s benchmark. Computational results show that process plan schemes with low carbon emission can be captured, and, more importantly, the proposed hybrid NSGA-II algorithm can obtain more promising optimal Pareto front than the plain NSGA-II algorithm. Meanwhile, according to the computational results of Kim’s benchmark, we find that both of the total machining cost and carbon emission are roughly proportional to the number of operations, and a process plan with less operation may be more satisfactory. This study will draw references for the further research on green

  13. Analogous selection processes in declarative and procedural working memory: N-2 list-repetition and task-repetition costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Miriam; Souza, Alessandra S; Druey, Michel D; Oberauer, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) holds and manipulates representations for ongoing cognition. Oberauer (Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 51, 45-100, 2009) distinguishes between two analogous WM sub-systems: a declarative WM which handles the objects of thought, and a procedural WM which handles the representations of (cognitive) actions. Here, we assessed whether analogous effects are observed when participants switch between memory sets (declarative representations) and when they switch between task sets (procedural representations). One mechanism assumed to facilitate switching in procedural WM is the inhibition of previously used, but currently irrelevant task sets, as indexed by n-2 task-repetition costs (Mayr & Keele, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129(1), 4-26, 2000). In this study we tested for an analogous effect in declarative WM. We assessed the evidence for n-2 list-repetition costs across eight experiments in which participants switched between memory lists to perform speeded classifications, mental arithmetic, or a local recognition test. N-2 list-repetition costs were obtained consistently in conditions assumed to increase interference between memory lists, and when lists formed chunks in long-term memory. Further analyses across experiments revealed a substantial contribution of episodic memory to n-2 list-repetition costs, thereby questioning the interpretation of n-2 repetition costs as reflecting inhibition. We reanalyzed the data of eight task-switching experiments, and observed that episodic memory also contributes to n-2 task-repetition costs. Taken together, these results show analogous processing principles in declarative and procedural WM, and question the relevance of inhibitory processes for efficient switching between mental sets.

  14. Steam Explosion and Vibrating Membrane Filtration to Improve the Processing Cost of Microalgae Cell Disruption and Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Lorente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore an innovative downstream route for microalgae processing to reduce cost production. Experiments have been carried out on cell disruption and fractionation stages to recover lipids, sugars, and proteins. Steam explosion and dynamic membrane filtration were used as unit operations. The species tested were Nannochloropsis gaditana, Chlorella sorokiniana, and Dunaliella tertiolecta with different cell wall characteristics. Acid-catalysed steam explosion permitted cell disruption, as well as the hydrolysis of carbohydrates and partial hydrolysis of proteins. This permitted a better access to non-polar solvents for lipid extraction. Dynamic filtration was used to moderate the impact of fouling. Filtration enabled two streams: A permeate containing water and monosaccharides and a low-volume retentate containing the lipids and proteins. The necessary volume of solvent to extract the lipids is thus much lower. An estimation of operational costs of both steam explosion and membrane filtration was performed. The results show that the steam explosion operation cost varies between 0.005 $/kg and 0.014 $/kg of microalgae dry sample, depending on the cost of fuel. Membrane filtration cost in fractionation was estimated at 0.12 $/kg of microalgae dry sample.

  15. VA Construction: Improved Processes Needed to Monitor Contract Modifications, Develop Schedules, and Estimate Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    the Handbook.36 VA headquarters officials told us that regional CFM offices monitor change- order - processing time frames for projects in their...visited collected different types of data on change orders. Because VA lacks the data on the change order processing timeframes required by the Handbook...goals of processing change orders in a timelier manner, especially given our previous findings that change- order - processing time frames caused

  16. A low-cost system for graphical process monitoring with colour video symbol display units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, H.; Jarsch, V.; Mueller, W.

    1977-01-01

    A system for computer controlled graphic process supervision, using color symbol video displays is described. It has the following characteristics: - compact unit: no external memory for image storage - problem oriented simple descriptive cut to the process program - no restriction of the graphical representation of process variables - computer and display independent, by implementation of colours and parameterized code creation for the display. (WB) [de

  17. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Cost Growth 13th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Graduate School of Business and Public Policy Naval Postgraduate School May 4, 2016 David L...Quantitative Analyses of Acquisition Outcome Drivers Wednesday, May 4, 2016 1:45 p.m. – 3:15 p.m. Chair: William Gates, Dean, Graduate School of Business...ida.org] Abstract Institute for Defense Analyses Paper P-5126 found that additional acquisition reforms after those introduced in mid- 1969 by then Deputy

  18. Quantifying short run cost-effectiveness during a gradual implementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, Gijs; Woertman, Willem H; Verbeek, Andre L; Broeders, Mireille J; Adang, Eddy M M

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines the short run inefficiencies that arise during gradual implementation of a new cost-effective technology in healthcare. These inefficiencies arise when health gains associated with the new technology cannot be obtained immediately because the new technology does not yet supply all patients, and when there is overcapacity for the old technology in the short run because the supply of care is divided among two mutually exclusive technologies. Such efficiency losses are not taken into account in standard textbook cost-effectiveness analysis in which a steady state is presented where costs and effects are assumed to be unchanging over time. A model is constructed to quantify such short run inefficiencies as well as to inform the decision maker about the optimal implementation pattern for the new technology. The model operates by integrating the incremental net benefit equations for both the period of co-existence of mutually exclusive technologies and the period after complete substitution of the old technology. It takes into account the rate of implementation of the new technology, depreciation of capital of the old technology as well as the demand curves for both technologies. The model is applied to the real world case of converting from screen film to digital mammography in the Netherlands.

  19. Development of low cost silicon solar cells by reusing the silicon saw dust collected during wafering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, Z.I.; Raza, B.; Ahmed, M.; Sheikh, H.; Qazi, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon material due to its abundance in nature and maximum conversion efficiency has been successfully being used for the fabrication of electronic and photovoltaic devices such as ICs, diodes, transistors and solar cells. The 80% of the semiconductor industry is ruled by silicon material. Single crystal silicon solar cells are in use for both space and terrestrial application, due to the well developed technology and better efficiency than polycrystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells. The current research work is an attempt to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon solar cells by reusing the silicon saw dust obtained during the watering process. During the watering process about 45% Si material is wasted in the form of Si powder dust. Various waste powder silicon samples were analyzed using inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) technique, for metallic impurities critical for solar grade silicon material. The results were evaluated from impurity and cost point of view. (author)

  20. 5 CFR 581.307 - Compliance with legal process requiring the payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs. 581.307 Section 581.307 Administrative... payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs. Before complying with legal process that requires withholding for the payment of attorney fees, interest, and/or court costs, the governmental entity must...

  1. Use of Data Denial Experiments to Evaluate ESA Forecast Sensitivity Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Manobianco, J; Waight, K; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    wind speed and vertical temperature difference. Ideally, the data assimilation scheme used in the experiments would have been based upon an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that was similar to the ESA method used to diagnose the Mid-Colombia Basin sensitivity patterns in the previous studies. However, the use of an EnKF system at high resolution is impractical because of the very high computational cost. Thus, it was decided to use the three-dimensional variational analysis data assimilation that is less computationally intensive and more economically practical for generating operational forecasts. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the ESA observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach which is the focus of this task and report; and (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. The objective of the OSE task involves validating the ESA-MOOA results from the previous sensitivity studies for the Mid-Columbia Basin by testing the impact of existing meteorological tower measurements on the 0- to 6-hour ahead 80-m wind forecasts at the target locations. The testing of the ESA-MOOA method used a combination of data assimilation techniques and data denial experiments to accomplish the task objective.

  2. Driving Down HB-LED Costs. Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, William [Veeco Process Equipment, Inc., Plainview, NY (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LED's into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield

  3. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.

  4. Supporting Situation Assessment through Attention Guidance: A Cost-Benefit and Depth of Processing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Factors, 30(1), 15-24. Craik , F.I.M. & Lockhart , R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and... processing ( Craik & Lockhart , 1972) for a particular unit (i.e., whether cueing would increase or decrease the memory for separate attributes of the cued...without processing these cues at a deeper level . Yeh and Wickens (2001, in press) found a similar response bias (beta) in observers who believed the

  5. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    Information is presented concerning the 850 0 C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850 0 C IDC plant; 950 0 C DC reactor vessel; 950 0 C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones

  6. The Joint Confidence Level Paradox: A History of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Glenn; Linton, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a reliable methodology for those tasked with generating price tags on construction (C0F) and research and development (R&D) activities in the NASA performance world. This document consists of a collection of cost-related engineering detail and project fulfillment information from early agency days to the present. Accurate historical detail is the first place to start when determining improved methodologies for future cost and schedule estimating. This paper contains a beneficial proposed cost estimating method for arriving at more reliable numbers for future submits. When comparing current cost and schedule methods with earlier cost and schedule approaches, it became apparent that NASA's organizational performance paradigm has morphed. Mission fulfillment speed has slowed and cost calculating factors have increased in 21st Century space exploration.

  7. Lightweight, high-opacity paper : process costs and energy use reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Klungness; Fabienne. Pianta; Mathew L. Stroika; Marguerite. Sykes; Freya. Tan; Said. AbuBakr

    1999-01-01

    Fiber loading is an environmentally friendly, energy efficient, and economical method for depositing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) partly within pulp fibers. Fiber loading can easily be done within the existing pulp processing system. This paper is a review of the process development from bench-scale to industrial-scale demonstrations, with additional...

  8. A Low Cost Microcomputer System for Process Dynamics and Control Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowl, D. A.; Durisin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a video simulator microcomputer system used to provide real-time demonstrations to strengthen students' understanding of process dynamics and control. Also discusses hardware/software and simulations developed using the system. The four simulations model various configurations of a process liquid level tank system. (JN)

  9. Die casting copper motor rotors: mold materials and processing for cost-effective manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.T.; Cowie, J.G.; Brush, E.F. Jr.

    2000-07-01

    This project seeks to demonstrate mold materials for copper pressure die-casting that are cost-effective and practical for production use in die-casting copper motor rotors. The incorporation of die-cast copper for conductor bars and end rings of the induction motor in place of aluminum would result in attractive improvements in motor energy efficiency through reductions in motor losses ranging from 15% to 20%. Die-cast motor rotors are produced in aluminum today because rotor fabrication by pressure die-casting is an established practice. Lack of a durable and cost-effective mold material has been the technical barrier preventing manufacture of the die-cast copper rotor. This project tested H-13 steel die inserts that establish the baseline. Nickel-, tungsten-, and molybdenum-based high temperature alloys were extensively tested. Results indicate that substantially extended die life is possible using high temperature die materials, pre-heated and operated at elevated temperatures. Pre-heating and high operating temperatures were shown to be critical in extending the die life by decreasing the cyclic stresses associated with thermal expansion. Extended die life provides the opportunity for economically viable copper motor rotor die-casting. (orig.)

  10. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  11. Cost-effective parallel optical interconnection module based on fully passive-alignment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong Hoon; Heo, Young Soon; Park, Hyoung-Jun; Kang, Hyun Seo; Kim, Sung Chang

    2017-11-01

    In optical interconnection technology, high-speed and large data transitions with low error rate and cost reduction are key issues for the upcoming 8K media era. The researchers present notable types of optical manufacturing structures of a four-channel parallel optical module by fully passive alignment, which are able to reduce manufacturing time and cost. Each of the components, such as vertical-cavity surface laser/positive-intrinsic negative-photodiode array, microlens array, fiber array, and receiver (RX)/transmitter (TX) integrated circuit, is integrated successfully using flip-chip bonding, die bonding, and passive alignment with a microscope. Clear eye diagrams are obtained by 25.78-Gb/s (for TX) and 25.7-Gb/s (for RX) nonreturn-to-zero signals of pseudorandom binary sequence with a pattern length of 231 to 1. The measured responsivity and minimum sensitivity of the RX are about 0.5 A/W and ≤-6.5 dBm at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-12, respectively. The optical power margin at a BER of 10-12 is 7.5 dB, and cross talk by the adjacent channel is ≤1 dB.

  12. Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.; Wilson, W. J.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Potential designs for an integrated fluidized-bed reactor/zinc vaporizer/SiCl4 preheater unit are being considered and heat-transfer calculations have been initiated on versions of the zinc vaporizer section. Estimates of the cost of the silicon prepared in the experimental facility have been made for projected capacities of 25, 50, 75, and 100 metric ton of silicon. A 35 percent saving is obtained in going from 25 metric ton/year to the 50 metric ton/year level. This analysis, coupled with the recognition that use of two reactors in the 50 metric ton/year version allows for continued operation (at reduced capacity) with one reactor shut down, has resulted in a recommendation for adoption of an experimental facility capacity of 50 metric ton/year or greater. At this stage, the change to a larger size facility would not increase the design costs appreciably. In the experimental support program, the effects of seed bed particle size and depth were studied, and operation of the miniplant with a new zinc vaporizer was initiated, revealing the need for modification of the latter.

  13. Input-to-State Stabilizing Control Under Denial-of-Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The issue of cyber-security has become ever more prevalent in the analysis and design of networked systems. In this paper, we analyze networked control systems in the presence of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, namely attacks that prevent transmissions over the network. We characterize frequency

  14. 77 FR 11190 - Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., endurance and low inflation pressure performance. The tires also meet all of the physical dimension...-0115; Notice 2] Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance...: Yokohama Tire Company (YTC),\\1\\ has determined that certain P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger car...

  15. Conceptualizing Sex Offender Denial from a Multifaceted Framework: Investigating the Psychometric Qualities of a New Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sandy; Daniels, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of a clinician-rated measure of sex offender denial. Convergent and discriminant validity for the measure was supported, and given its relationship to treatment attitudes, the measure demonstrated utility for assessing treatment change and readiness. (Contains 3 tables.)

  16. 76 FR 15985 - Hartech Corporation; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...] (Formerly Docket No. 91F-0111) Hartech Corporation; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition...) is denying a food additive petition (FAP 1M4246) proposing that the food additive regulations be... of April 16, 1991 (56 FR 15373), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 1M4246) had been...

  17. 76 FR 15986 - Alpha Omega Technology, Inc.; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...] (Formerly Docket No. 90F-0074) Alpha Omega Technology, Inc.; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is denying a food additive petition (FAP 0M4181) proposing that the food additive... 15, 1990 (55 FR 9772), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 0M4181) had been filed by...

  18. A system for denial-of-service attack detection based on multivariate correlation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Zhiyuan; Jamdagni, Aruna; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Liu, Ren Ping

    Interconnected systems, such as Web servers, database servers, cloud computing servers and so on, are now under threads from network attackers. As one of most common and aggressive means, denial-of-service (DoS) attacks cause serious impact on these computing systems. In this paper, we present a DoS

  19. Denial-of-service attack detection based on multivariate correlation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Zhiyuan; Jamdagni, Aruna; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Liu, Ren Ping; Lu, Bao-Liang; Zhang, Liqing; Kwok, James

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and availability of network services are being threatened by the growing number of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. Effective mechanisms for DoS attack detection are demanded. Therefore, we propose a multivariate correlation analysis approach to investigate and extract second-order

  20. Applying IPFIX Protocol for Detection of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks against Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mukhtarov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The way of monitoring deviations in network traffic behavior inside “Cloud Infrastructure” using IPFIX protocol is suggested in the paper. The proposed algorithm is applied for registration of “Distributed Denial of Service” attacks against “Cloud Infrastructure”.

  1. 15 CFR 285.13 - Denial, suspension, revocation, or termination of accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertising during the suspension period in the area(s) affected by the suspension. (2) NVLAP will not require... reasons for the proposed denial or revocation and the procedure for appealing such a decision. (1) The... appeal the decision to the Director of NIST. If the laboratory appeals the decision to the Director of...

  2. Transport of radioactive materials by air: a national approach to cope with denials and delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Pijuan, Saul; Izquierdo Perez, Jorge; Rodriguez Martinez, Mercedes; Guillen Campos, Alba

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Around 300 nuclear medicine services in the Greater Caribbean depend, almost exclusively, on the airlines to receive radiopharmaceuticals. Less than 20 % of the regional airlines accept radioactive materials in addition to delays and denials, altogether, result in hardships to patients undergoing diagnosis and treatment, despite compliance with regulations. In the international framework leaded by the IAEA to alleviate the difficulties encountered, national approaches are needed to support this effort. The paper presents the Cuban experience regarding statistics of denials and delays by air, generic examples and classification of causes. The role of a Facilitation Working Group and actions taken in communication, awareness, harmonization of regulations, education and training are discussed. The results show a sensitive improvement in the reported instances of denials and delays at domestic level, strongly influenced by the corporative social responsibility of the main national airline and the actions underway. On the other hand, the increasing number of reported denials by international airlines in the last two years, demonstrate how much work must be done at regional and international level. (author)

  3. 24 CFR 982.552 - PHA denial or termination of assistance for family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family has committed fraud, bribery, or any other corrupt or criminal act in connection with any Federal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PHA denial or termination of... terminate assistance for a participant under the programs because of the family's action or failure to act...

  4. 36 CFR 1270.42 - Denial of access to public; right to appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; right to appeal. 1270.42 Section 1270.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... Denial of access to public; right to appeal. (a) Any person denied access to a Presidential record... library director at the address cited in part 1253 of this chapter. (b) All appeals must be received by...

  5. 77 FR 11189 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...-0056; Notice 2] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential... Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: Yokohama Tire Corporation, (YTC),\\1\\ replacement tires for passenger cars... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 139, New Pneumatic Radial Tires for Light Vehicles. YTC...

  6. 9 CFR 352.6 - Denial or withdrawal of inspection service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... improper means; (4) has knowingly represented that any exotic animal carcass, or exotic animal product, has... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of inspection service. 352.6 Section 352.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  8. 11 CFR 9405.8 - Appeals of denials of requests for records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... received by the Commission, may appeal the adverse determination or the failure to respond by requesting... occur. (b) The appeal request shall be in writing, shall clearly and prominently state on the envelope... not entertain any appeal from an alleged denial or failure to comply with an oral request. Any person...

  9. ‘Not My Child’: Parents’ Denial About Adolescent Sexuality in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manase Kudzai Chiweshe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out adult views on adolescent sexualities in Zimbabwe and how adults construct sexual cultures that deny adolescence access to sex.Materials and methods: The paper uses qualitative methodologies, with purposively selected parents and key informants. A total of ten in depth interviews, four focus groups and six key informant interviews with purposively sampled male and female respondents were conducted. Key informants included a headmaster, teacher, social worker, nurses and a member of traditional healers association.Results: Parents that were interviewed denied that their adolescent children were sexually active. This denial of adolescent sexuality was seen throughout the interviews. The denial of adolescent sexuality was linked to the other themes that emerged including sexual surveillance and sexual communication, school pregnancy, STIs and sexual education, and adult anxiety on adolescent sex.Conclusion: The denial of youth sexuality has serious impacts on youths’ access to information and ability to protect themselves from sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. We argue that government policies and lack of comprehensive sex education in schools are based on this denial of adolescent sexuality and should be addressed.

  10. 77 FR 43216 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition and Petition for a Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... hearing to address whether Ford Motor Company (Ford) and Mazda North American Operations (Mazda) met their... Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition and Petition for a Hearing AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... petitioned NHTSA to open defect investigations on Model Year (MY) 2002-2004 Ford Escape and 2001-2004 Mazda...

  11. 16 CFR 1014.8 - Appeal of initial denial of access, correction or amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal of initial denial of access, correction or amendment. 1014.8 Section 1014.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... Federal District Court for judicial review of the decision; and (3) The right of the requester to file...

  12. 40 CFR 89.126 - Denial, revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conformity. 89.126 Section 89.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.126 Denial, revocation of certificate of conformity. (a) If... issued certificate of conformity if the Administrator finds any one of the following infractions to be...

  13. 40 CFR 90.123 - Denial, revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conformity. 90.123 Section 90.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.123 Denial, revocation of certificate of conformity... conformity if the Administrator finds any one of the following infractions to be substantial: (1) The engine...

  14. 40 CFR 91.123 - Denial, revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conformity. 91.123 Section 91.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Certification Provisions § 91.123 Denial, revocation of certificate of conformity. (a) If, after review of the... conformity if the Administrator finds any one of the following infractions to be substantial: (1) The engine...

  15. 2 CFR 801.1105 - Cause for a limited denial of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cause for a limited denial of participation. 801.1105 Section 801.1105 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements... (Department of Veterans Affairs Optional Subpart for OMB Guidance at 2 CFR Part 180). § 801.1105 Cause for a...

  16. 17 CFR 8.15 - Denial of charges and right to hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE PROCEDURES FOR DISCIPLINARY, SUMMARY, AND MEMBERSHIP DENIAL ACTIONS Disciplinary Procedure § 8.15... a charge which is denied, or on a penalty set by the disciplinary committee under § 8.14(a)(2), he... denied and/or penalties set by the disciplinary committee under § 8.14(a)(2) for which a hearing has been...

  17. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  18. Fluctuating confidence: the dynamic consequences of true/false affirmatives and denials on how a listener appraises their personal past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jolee; Bayantemur, Sharon Y; Seecharan, Sasha; Unger, Leslie D; Hellgren, Johanna; Stone, Charles B

    2018-08-01

    The present study examined the mnemonic consequences of true/false denials and affirmatives on how a listener appraises their personal past. To this end, participants (listeners) rated the extent to which they were confident certain events occurred during their childhood. They rated these events both before and after a confederate (speaker) denied or affirmed the occurrence of four different childhood events each, for a total of eight "rehearsed" events. For each set (denials and affirmatives) of events, half were true and half were false. In turn, this created four types of events (two each): true denials, true affirmatives, false denials, and false affirmatives. Additionally, half of the participants were told that the speaker was provided independent information about the veracity of the event's occurrence ("expert" condition). Overall, listeners were less confident in the occurrence of false denial events, but more so when they believed the speaker to be more knowledgeable of the listeners memories, more confident in false affirmative events and, counter intuitively, more confident in the occurrence of true denial events. These results underscore the importance of a nuanced approach to the mnemonic consequences of true and false denials and affirmations in the course of social interactions.

  19. Smart Low-Cost Electronic Module for Simultaneous Sensor and Process Faults Moni, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection and isolation of air vehicle process failures is difficult because air vehicle dynamics are nonlinear and the vehicle has many important and...

  20. CESAR cost-efficient methods and processes for safety-relevant embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The book summarizes the findings and contributions of the European ARTEMIS project, CESAR, for improving and enabling interoperability of methods, tools, and processes to meet the demands in embedded systems development across four domains - avionics, automotive, automation, and rail. The contributions give insight to an improved engineering and safety process life-cycle for the development of safety critical systems. They present new concept of engineering tools integration platform to improve the development of safety critical embedded systems and illustrate capacity of this framework for end-user instantiation to specific domain needs and processes. They also advance state-of-the-art in component-based development as well as component and system validation and verification, with tool support. And finally they describe industry relevant evaluated processes and methods especially designed for the embedded systems sector as well as easy adoptable common interoperability principles for software tool integratio...

  1. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  2. All solution-processed micro-structured flexible electrodes for low-cost light-emitting pressure sensors fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Rie; Takumi, Takahiro; Vohra, Varun

    2017-07-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated the advantage of developing pressure-sensitive devices with light-emitting properties for direct visualization of pressure distribution, potential application to next generation touch panels and human-machine interfaces. To ensure that this technology is available to everyone, its production cost should be kept as low as possible. Here, simple device concepts, namely, pressure sensitive flexible hybrid electrodes and OLED architecture, are used to produce low-cost resistive or light-emitting pressure sensors. Additionally, integrating solution-processed self-assembled micro-structures into the flexible hybrid electrodes composed of an elastomer and conductive materials results in enhanced device performances either in terms of pressure or spatial distribution sensitivity. For instance, based on the pressure applied, the measured values for the resistances of pressure sensors range from a few MΩ down to 500 Ω. On the other hand, unlike their evaporated equivalents, the combination of solution-processed flexible electrodes with an inverted OLED architectures display bright green emission when a pressure over 200 kPa is applied. At a bias of 3 V, their luminance can be tuned by applying a higher pressure of 500 kPa. Consequently, features such as fingernails and fingertips can be clearly distinguished from one another in these long-lasting low-cost devices.

  3. Process Evaluation and Costing of a Multifaceted Population-Wide Intervention to Reduce Salt Consumption in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Pillay, Arti; Suku, Arleen; Gohil, Paayal; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Schultz, Jimaima; Wate, Jillian; Trieu, Kathy; Hope, Silvia; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Jan, Stephen; Bell, Colin

    2018-01-30

    This paper reports the process evaluation and costing of a national salt reduction intervention in Fiji. The population-wide intervention included engaging food industry to reduce salt in foods, strategic health communication and a hospital program. The evaluation showed a 1.4 g/day drop in salt intake from the 11.7 g/day at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. To better understand intervention implementation, we collated data to assess intervention fidelity, reach, context and costs. Government and management changes affected intervention implementation, meaning fidelity was relatively low. There was no active mechanism for ensuring food companies adhered to the voluntary salt reduction targets. Communication activities had wide reach but most activities were one-off, meaning the overall dose was low and impact on behavior limited. Intervention costs were moderate (FJD $277,410 or $0.31 per person) but the strategy relied on multi-sector action which was not fully operationalised. The cyclone also delayed monitoring and likely impacted the results. However, 73% of people surveyed had heard about the campaign and salt reduction policies have been mainstreamed into government programs. Longer-term monitoring of salt intake is planned through future surveys and lessons from this process evaluation will be used to inform future strategies in the Pacific Islands and globally.

  4. Incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems under random conditions: The effect on the maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This note investigates the effect of the incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems that operates under random environmental conditions on the costs of a periodic replacement maintenance. The motivation of this paper is given by a recently published paper, where a wrong formulation of the expected cost for unit time under a periodic replacement policy is obtained. This wrong formulation is due to the incorrect assumption that the intensity function of minimally repaired systems that operate under random conditions has the same functional form as the failure rate of the first failure time. This produced an incorrect optimization of the replacement maintenance. Thus, in this note the conceptual differences between the intensity function and the failure rate of the first failure time are first highlighted. Then, the correct expressions of the expected cost and of the optimal replacement period are provided. Finally, a real application is used to measure how severe can be the economical consequences caused by the incorrect modeling of the failure process.

  5. Process Evaluation and Costing of a Multifaceted Population-Wide Intervention to Reduce Salt Consumption in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Webster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the process evaluation and costing of a national salt reduction intervention in Fiji. The population-wide intervention included engaging food industry to reduce salt in foods, strategic health communication and a hospital program. The evaluation showed a 1.4 g/day drop in salt intake from the 11.7 g/day at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. To better understand intervention implementation, we collated data to assess intervention fidelity, reach, context and costs. Government and management changes affected intervention implementation, meaning fidelity was relatively low. There was no active mechanism for ensuring food companies adhered to the voluntary salt reduction targets. Communication activities had wide reach but most activities were one-off, meaning the overall dose was low and impact on behavior limited. Intervention costs were moderate (FJD $277,410 or $0.31 per person but the strategy relied on multi-sector action which was not fully operationalised. The cyclone also delayed monitoring and likely impacted the results. However, 73% of people surveyed had heard about the campaign and salt reduction policies have been mainstreamed into government programs. Longer-term monitoring of salt intake is planned through future surveys and lessons from this process evaluation will be used to inform future strategies in the Pacific Islands and globally.

  6. Erosion processes by water in agricultural landscapes: a low-cost methodology for post-event analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Calligaro, Simone; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the world, agricultural landscapes assume a great importance, especially for supplying food and a livelihood. Among the land degradation phenomena, erosion processes caused by water are those that may most affect the benefits provided by agricultural lands and endanger people who work and live there. In particular, erosion processes that affect the banks of agricultural channels may cause the bank failure and represent, in this way, a severe threat to floodplain inhabitants and agricultural crops. Similarly, rills and gullies are critical soil erosion processes as well, because they bear upon the productivity of a farm and represent a cost that growers have to deal with. To estimate quantitatively soil losses due to bank erosion and rills processes, area based measurements of surface changes are necessary but, sometimes, they may be difficult to realize. In fact, surface changes due to short-term events have to be represented with fine resolution and their monitoring may entail too much money and time. The main objective of this work is to show the effectiveness of a user-friendly and low-cost technique that may even rely on smart-phones, for the post-event analyses of i) bank erosion affecting agricultural channels, and ii) rill processes occurring on an agricultural plot. Two case studies were selected and located in the Veneto floodplain (northeast Italy) and Marche countryside (central Italy), respectively. The work is based on high-resolution topographic data obtained by the emerging, low-cost photogrammetric method named Structure-from-Motion (SfM). Extensive photosets of the case studies were obtained using both standalone reflex digital cameras and smart-phone built-in cameras. Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from SfM revealed to be effective to estimate quantitatively erosion volumes and, in the case of the bank eroded, deposited materials as well. SfM applied to pictures taken by smartphones is useful for the analysis of the topography

  7. Economic analysis of hydrogen production through a bio-ethanol steam reforming process: Sensitivity analyses and cost estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hua; Ozkan, Umit S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the hydrogen selling price from ethanol steam reforming has been estimated for two different production scenarios in the United States, i.e. central production (150,000 kg H 2 /day) and distributed (forecourt) production (1500 kg H 2 /day), based on a process flowchart generated by Aspen Plus registered including downstream purification steps and economic analysis model template published by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE). The effect of several processing parameters as well as catalyst properties on the hydrogen selling price has been evaluated. 2.69/kg is estimated as the selling price for a central production process of 150,000 kg H 2 /day and 4.27/kg for a distributed hydrogen production process at a scale of 1500 kg H 2 /day. Among the parameters investigated through sensitivity analyses, ethanol feedstock cost, catalyst cost, and catalytic performance are found to play a significant role on determining the final hydrogen selling price. (author)

  8. Low cost tooling material and process for graphite and Kevlar composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, William I.

    1987-01-01

    An Extruded Sheet Tooling Compound (ESTC) was developed for use in quickly building low cost molds for fabricating composites. The ESTC is a very highly mineral-filled resin system formed into a 6 mm thick sheet. The sheet is laid on the pattern, vacuum (bag) is applied to remove air from the pattern surface, and the assembly is heat cured. The formed ESTC is then backed and/or framed and ready for use. The cured ESTC exhibits low coefficient of thermal expansion and maintains strength at temperatures of 180 to 200 C. Tools were made and used successfully for: Compression molding of high strength epoxy sheet molding compound, stamping of aluminum, resin transfer molding of polyester, and liquid resin molding of polyester. Several variations of ESTC can be made for specific requirements. Higher thermal conductivity can be achieved by using an aluminum particle filler. Room temperature gel is possible to allow use of foam patterns.

  9. Process-Based Cost Modeling of Photonics Manufacture: The Cost Competitiveness of Monolithic Integration of a 1550-nm DFB Laser and an Electroabsorptive Modulator on an InP Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Bruce, E. J.; Ram, R. J.; Kirchain, Randolph E.

    2006-08-01

    The monolithic integration of components holds promise to increase network functionality and reduce packaging expense. Integration also drives down yield due to manufacturing complexity and the compounding of failures across devices. Consensus is lacking on the economically preferred extent of integration. Previous studies on the cost feasibility of integration have used high-level estimation methods. This study instead focuses on accurate-to-industry detail, basing a process-based cost model of device manufacture on data collected from 20 firms across the optoelectronics supply chain. The model presented allows for the definition of process organization, including testing, as well as processing conditions, operational characteristics, and level of automation at each step. This study focuses on the cost implications of integration of a 1550-nm DFB laser with an electroabsorptive modulator on an InP platform. Results show the monolithically integrated design to be more cost competitive over discrete component options regardless of production scale. Dominant cost drivers are packaging, testing, and assembly. Leveraging the technical detail underlying model projections, component alignment, bonding, and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are identified as processes where technical improvements are most critical to lowering costs. Such results should encourage exploration of the cost advantages of further integration and focus cost-driven technology development.

  10. Using "Making Sense of Climate Science Denial" MOOC videos in a college course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, K. C.; Cook, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) "Denial101x: Making Sense of Climate Science Denial" teaches students to make sense of the science and respond to climate change denial. The course is made up of a series of short, myth-debunking lecture videos that can be strategically used in college courses. The videos and the visuals within have proven a great resource for an introductory college level climate change course. Methods for using the videos in both online and in-classroom courses will be presented, as well as student reactions and learning from the videos. The videos introduce and explain a climate science topic, then paraphrase a common climate change myth, explain why the myth is wrong by identifying the characteristic of climate denial used, and concludes by reinforcing the correct science. By focusing on common myths, the MOOC has made an archive of videos that can be used by anyone in need of a 5-minute response to debunk a myth. By also highlighting five characteristics of climate denial: fake experts, logical fallacies, impossible expectations, cherry picking, and conspiracy theories (FLICC), the videos also teach the viewer the skills they need to critically examine myths they may encounter in the real world on a variety of topics. The videos also include a series of expert scientist interviews that can be used to drive home points, as well as put some faces to the science. These videos are freely available outside of the MOOC and can be found under the relevant "Most used climate myths" section on the skepticalscience.com webpage, as well as directly on YouTube. Discover ideas for using videos in future courses, regardless of discipline.

  11. Technological support of tool wear resistant qualities and cost saving of process of planetary grinding of flat parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Lyupa, D. C.; Revenko, N. F.; Berkutova, T. A.; Silivanova, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    parameter Ra during the processing using the planetary grinding device is 35 - 40% less than when using the tool with the solid cutting surface. This phenomenon can be accounted for more uniform work of the cutting grains of the planetary grinding tool as the number of meetings of diamond grains with the surface being processed increases. At the same time, it should be noted that during the planetary grinding more intensive smoothing of tops of microroughnesses is observed that provides the creation of steadier cutting shape. The given method of calculation of cost value of grinding operation allows solving various manufacturing problems: to compare cost value of grinding different materials, grinding wheels of different parameters; to define the optimum grinding conditions.

  12. Low Cost SU8 Based Above IC Process for High Q RF Power Inductors Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannam, A.; Bourrier, D.; Viallon, Ch.; Parra, Th.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new process for integration of high-Q RF power inductors above low resistivity silicon substrates. The process uses the SU8 resin as a dielectric layer. The aim of using the SU8 is to form thick dielectric layer that can enhance the performance of the inductors. The flexibility of the process enables the possibility to realize complex shaped planar inductors with various dielectric and metal thicknesses to meet the requirements of the application. Q values of 55 at 5 GHz has been demonstrated for an inductance value of 0.8 nH using a 60 μm thick SU8 layer and 30 μm thick copper ribbons. (author)

  13. Intelligent systems/software engineering methodology - A process to manage cost and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Carl; Lehrer, Nancy

    1991-01-01

    A systems development methodology is discussed that has been successfully applied to the construction of a number of intelligent systems. This methodology is a refinement of both evolutionary and spiral development methodologies. It is appropriate for development of intelligent systems. The application of advanced engineering methodology to the development of software products and intelligent systems is an important step toward supporting the transition of AI technology into aerospace applications. A description of the methodology and the process model from which it derives is given. Associated documents and tools are described which are used to manage the development process and record and report the emerging design.

  14. Aspen HYSYS process simulation and Aspen ICARUS cost estimation of CO2 removal plant

    OpenAIRE

    Vozniuk, Ievgeniia Oleksandrivna

    2010-01-01

    An Aspen HYSYS model of CO2 removal was developed and modified with a split-stream configuration in order to reduce energy consumption in the reboiler. The model has been calculated with variation of parameters to optimize the process and find an optimum solution. For the selected base cases the heat exchanger minimum temperature difference was specified to 10K and the removal efficiency was 85%. The reboiler duty of 3.8 MJ/kg CO2 removed for the standard process without split-stream was ...

  15. Improvement in current density of nano- and micro-structured Si solar cells by cost-effective elastomeric stamp process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kiseok; Jee, Hongsub; Lim, Sangwoo; Park, Min Joon; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2018-03-01

    Effective incident light should be controlled for improving the current density of solar cells by employing nano- and micro-structures on silicon surface. The elastomeric stamp process, which is more cost effective and simpler than conventional photolithography, was proposed for the fabrication of nano- and micro-structures. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was poured on a mother pattern with a diameter of 6 μm and a spacing of 2 μm; then, curing was performed to create a PDMS mold. The regular micropattern was stamped on a low-viscosity resin-coated silicon surface, followed by the simple reactive ion etching process. Nano-structures were formed using the Ag-based electroless etching process. As etching time was increased to 6 min, reflectance decreased to 4.53% and current density improved from 22.35 to 34.72 mA/cm2.

  16. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  17. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  18. Adoption Costs Associated with Processing Strengths and Weaknesses Methods for Learning Disabilities Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Miciak, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the relative merits of cognitive assessment for the identification of learning disabilities. Proponents of cognitive assessment have suggested that multitiered systems of support (MTSS) should be supplemented with routine, systematic assessment of cognitive processes following a determination of inadequate response…

  19. Application of cost-benefit analysis for the selection of process-industry related security measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villa, V.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.; Cozzani, V

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, several accidental events have highlighted the importance of major manmade hazards,
    either accidental or deliberate by nature, within chemical and process facilities. Moreover, many plants are
    located in unstable geo-political areas, where the risk of major accidents

  20. Fractionation of whey protein isolate with supercritical carbon dioxide – process modeling and cost estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) containing 55% ...

  1. Supporting Situation Assessment through Attention Guidance: A Cost-Benefit and Depth of Processing Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horrey, William J; Wickens, Christopher D

    2001-01-01

    ...). For half the trials, an automated system guided their attention to high-threat units. On two trials a memory probe was administered to assess the depth of processing of information, and on the final trial an automation failure was presented...

  2. Control of Cost in Prospective Memory: Evidence for Spontaneous Retrieval Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Michael K.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the processes that support prospective remembering, previous research has often examined whether the presence of a prospective memory task slows overall responding on an ongoing task. Although slowed task performance suggests that monitoring is present, this method does not clearly establish whether monitoring is functionally related to…

  3. Low cost and conformal microwave water-cut sensor for optimizing oil production process

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2015-01-01

    Efficient oil production and refining processes require the precise measurement of water content in oil (i.e., water-cut) which is extracted out of a production well as a byproduct. Traditional water-cut (WC) laboratory measurements are precise

  4. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue. PMID:26594619

  5. Investigation of Low-Cost Surface Processing Techniques for Large-Size Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuang-Tung Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present work is to develop a simple and effective method of enhancing conversion efficiency in large-size solar cells using multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si wafer. In this work, industrial-type mc-Si solar cells with area of 125×125 mm2 were acid etched to produce simultaneously POCl3 emitters and silicon nitride deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD. The study of surface morphology and reflectivity of different mc-Si etched surfaces has also been discussed in this research. Using our optimal acid etching solution ratio, we are able to fabricate mc-Si solar cells of 16.34% conversion efficiency with double layers silicon nitride (Si3N4 coating. From our experiment, we find that depositing double layers silicon nitride coating on mc-Si solar cells can get the optimal performance parameters. Open circuit (Voc is 616 mV, short circuit current (Jsc is 34.1 mA/cm2, and minority carrier diffusion length is 474.16 μm. The isotropic texturing and silicon nitride layers coating approach contribute to lowering cost and achieving high efficiency in mass production.

  6. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  7. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  8. Depth treatment of coal-chemical engineering wastewater by a cost-effective sequential heterogeneous Fenton and biodegradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yili; Yin, Weizhao; Jiang, Yanbin; Ge, Hengjun; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a sequential Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction and biological process was employed as a low-cost depth treatment method to remove recalcitrant compounds from coal-chemical engineering wastewater after regular biological treatment. First of all, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency of 66 and 63% was achieved at initial pH of 6.8, 25 mmol L -1 of H 2 O 2 , and 2 g L -1 of Fe 0 in the Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis, the recalcitrant compounds were effectively decomposed into short-chain organic acids such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Although these acids were resistant to the Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction, they were effectively eliminated in the sequential air lift reactor (ALR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h, resulting in a further decrease of COD and color from 120 to 51 mg L -1 and from 70 to 38 times, respectively. A low operational cost of 0.35 $ m -3 was achieved because pH adjustment and iron-containing sludge disposal could be avoided since a total COD and color removal efficiency of 85 and 79% could be achieved at an original pH of 6.8 by the above sequential process with a ferric ion concentration below 0.8 mg L -1 after the Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction. It indicated that the above sequential process is a promising and cost-effective method for the depth treatment of coal-chemical engineering wastewaters to satisfy discharge requirements.

  9. Risk-Sensitive Control of Pure Jump Process on Countable Space with Near Monotone Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, K.; Pal, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study risk-sensitive control problem with controlled continuous time pure jump process on a countable space as state dynamics. We prove multiplicative dynamic programming principle, elliptic and parabolic Harnack’s inequalities. Using the multiplicative dynamic programing principle and the Harnack’s inequalities, we prove the existence and a characterization of optimal risk-sensitive control under the near monotone condition

  10. A Study on the Cost-Effectiveness of a SemiAutomated Cutting Process at a Garment Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Mark Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study, Company X, has been experiencing variations in the quantity report from the cutting department and the transmittal reports. The management found that these processes are hugely affected by manual labor. To reduce the system's proneness to human error, the management decided to explore the possibility of adapting a semi-automated spreading and cutting process in the system. This research aims to evaluate the pre-sewing processes of Company X and whether introducing automation can be beneficial to the company and the garments industry. The researchers used process mapping tools, descriptive research, and process flowchart to assess the current and proposed systems, and engineering economics to evaluate the cost and benefits of implementing the semi-automated system. The results showed that with the implementation of the semi- automated system; the company will incur 66.61% more savings per year than the current system. In terms of cycle time, the semi-automated system eliminated the relaxation of fabric before the cutting process, thereby greatly reducing cycle time. In addition, the researchers found that as long as the company produce more than 4,140 pieces per day for the system will be economically feasible. Unquantifiable benefits are also identified on introducing the semi- automated system to the company. The company can have a cleaner work environment that will lead to more productivity and greater quality of goods. This will lead to a better company image that will encourage more customers to place job orders.

  11. Novel micronized woody biomass process for production of cost-effective clean fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Gu, Bon-Jae; Wang, Jinwu; Gao, Johnway; Ganjyal, Girish M; Wolcott, Michael P

    2018-03-29

    Thermo-chemical pretreatments of biomass typically result in environmental impacts from water use and emission. The degradation byproducts in the resulting sugars can be inhibitory to the activities of enzymes and yeasts. The results of this study showed that combining existing commercial comminution technology can reduce total energy consumption with improved saccharification yield while eliminating chemical use. Impact mill was found to be the most efficient milling for size reduction of forest residual chips from ca. 2 mm to a specific value below 100 µm. The further micronization effectively disrupted the recalcitrance of the woody biomass and produced the highly saccharifiable substrates for downstream processing. In addition, extrusion can be integrated into a clean cellulosic sugar process for further fibrillation in place of the conventional mixing processing. The highest energy efficiency was observed on the impact-milled samples with 0.515 kg sugars kWh -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs for alternative methods of processing fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Datta, N; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Sampedro, F; Bonnaillie, L M

    2014-07-01

    Computer simulation is a useful tool for benchmarking electrical and fuel energy consumption and water use in a fluid milk plant. In this study, a computer simulation model of the fluid milk process based on high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization was extended to include models for processes for shelf-stable milk and extended shelf-life milk that may help prevent the loss or waste of milk that leads to increases in the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for fluid milk. The models were for UHT processing, crossflow microfiltration (MF) without HTST pasteurization, crossflow MF followed by HTST pasteurization (MF/HTST), crossflow MF/HTST with partial homogenization, and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing, and were incorporated into the existing model for the fluid milk process. Simulation trials were conducted assuming a production rate for the plants of 113.6 million liters of milk per year to produce only whole milk (3.25%) and 40% cream. Results showed that GHG emissions in the form of process-related CO₂ emissions, defined as CO₂ equivalents (e)/kg of raw milk processed (RMP), and specific energy consumptions (SEC) for electricity and natural gas use for the HTST process alone were 37.6g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.14 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.13 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively. Emissions of CO2 and SEC for electricity and natural gas use were highest for the PEF process, with values of 99.1g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.44 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively, and lowest for the UHT process at 31.4 g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.17 MJ/kg of RMP. Estimated unit production costs associated with the various processes were lowest for the HTST process and MF/HTST with partial homogenization at $0.507/L and highest for the UHT process at $0.60/L. The increase in shelf life associated with the UHT and MF processes may eliminate some of the supply chain product and consumer losses and waste of milk and compensate for the small increases in GHG

  13. SUSTAINABILITY COST ACCOUNTING - PART 2: A CASE STUDY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PROCESS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A Sustainability Cost Accounting (SCA procedure has been introduced that expresses the impacts on sustainable development associated with a developed technology, by means of a common financial denominator. This paper uses a case study to demonstrate and assess the SCA procedure, which considers the construction and operation of a hypothetical Gas-to-Liquid (GTL fuelmanufacturing facility at a specific location in South Africa. The SCA indicators show that the negative environmental impacts associated with the GTL technology outweigh the internal economic benefits for the company. However, a net positive social benefit is associated with the technology, which decision-makers should consider with respect of the overall sustainability of the technology. Certain limitations of the SCA procedure are highlighted, and recommendations are made to develop such a methodology further.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Volhoubaarheid Koste-Rekeningkunde prosedure (VKR word voorgestel waarvolgens die impakte van ’n ontwikkelde tegnologie op volhoubaarheid in ’n gemeenskaplike finansiële waarde aangegee kan word. ’n Gevallestudie word hier gebruik om die VKR-prosedure te demonstreer. Die gevallestudie beskryf die konstruksie en bedryf van ’n hipotetiese Gas-tot-Vloeistof brandstofvervaardigingsfasiliteit (GTV in ‘n spesifieke area van Suid-Afrika. Die VKR-indikators dui aan dat die negatiewe omgewingsimpakte van die GTV tegnologie tot ‘n geringe mate groter is as die interne ekonomiese voordele vir die maatskappy. Die tegnologie het wel oorwegende positiewe sosiale voordele wat besluitnemers in ag moet neem wanneer die globale volhoubaarheid van die tegnologie ge-assesseer word. Sekere beperkinge van die VKR-prosedure word uitgelig en voorstelle word gemaak om dié tipe metodologie verder te ontwikkel.

  14. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Wood, Benjamin

    2014-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the flue gas of coal-fired powerplants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO2-capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a pilot-scale continuous CO2 absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. As part of that effort, an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a CO2-capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired powerplant was conducted. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP- 1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonicacid (DDBSA) were also identified foranalysis. An EH&S assessment was also completed for the manufacturing process for the GAP-1m solvent. The chemicals associated with the manufacturing process include methanol, xylene, allyl chloride, potassium cyanate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO), tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, Karstedt catalyst, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Aliquat 336, methyl carbamate, potassium chloride, trimethylamine, and (3-aminopropyl) dimethyl silanol. The toxicological effects of each component of both the CO2 capture system and the manufacturing process were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. Engineering and control systems, including environmental abatement, are described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  15. Evaluation of Selected Chemical Processes for Production of Low-cost Silicon, Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, J. M.; Browning, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Refinements of the design of the 50 MT/year Experimental Process System Development Unit were made and competitive bids were received from mechanical, electrical, and structural contractors. Bids on most of the equipment were received and cataloged. Emergency procedures were defined to counter a variety of contingencies disclosed in operations and safety reviews. Experimental work with an electrolytic cell for zinc chloride disclosed no significant increase in power efficiency by steps taken to increase electrolyte circulation. On the basis of materials compatibility and permeability tests, 310 stainless steel was chosen for the shell of the fluidized-bed reactor and SiC-coated graphite for the liner.

  16. Low cost silicon solar array project large area silicon sheet task: Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Growth configurations were developed which produced crystals having low residual stress levels. The properties of a 106 mm diameter round crucible were evaluated and it was found that this design had greatly enhanced temperature fluctuations arising from convection in the melt. Thermal modeling efforts were directed to developing finite element models of the 106 mm round crucible and an elongated susceptor/crucible configuration. Also, the thermal model for the heat loss modes from the dendritic web was examined for guidance in reducing the thermal stress in the web. An economic analysis was prepared to evaluate the silicon web process in relation to price goals.

  17. Low cost fabrication and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Kevin J. Land, Mesuli B. Mbanjwa, Klariska Govindasamy, and Jan G. Korvink Citation: Biomicrofluidics 5, 036502 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3641859 View online: http... polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Kevin J. Land,1,2,a) Mesuli B. Mbanjwa,1,3 Klariska Govindasamy,1 and Jan G. Korvink2,4 1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa 2University of Freiburg, Department...

  18. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2018-03-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In total 305 workers participated in the trial. Outcomes were retrieved during a WHS program, by multiple questionnaires, and from company registries. Primary outcomes were sickness absence, work ability, and productivity. Secondary outcomes were health, vitality, and psychosocial workload. Data were analyzed with linear and logistic multilevel models. Cost-benefit analyses from the employer's perspective were performed as well. Results Primary outcomes sickness absence (OR = 1.40), work ability (B = -0.63) and productivity (OR = 0.71) were better in the control condition. Secondary outcomes did not or minimally differ between conditions. Of the 12 secondary outcomes, the only outcome that scored better in the experimental condition was meaning of work (B = 0.18). Controlling for confounders did not or minimally change the results. However, our stepped wedge design did not enable adjustment for confounding in the last two periods of the trial. The WHS program resulted in higher costs for the employer on the short and middle term. Conclusions Primary outcomes did not improve after program implementation and secondary outcomes remained equal after implementation. The program was not cost-beneficial after 1-3 year follow-up. Main limitation that may have contributed to absence of positive effects may be program failure, because interventions were not deployed as intended.

  19. Just-in-time preemptive single machine problem with costs of earliness/tardiness, interruption and work-in-process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers preemption and idle time are allowed in a single machine scheduling problem with just-in-time (JIT approach. It incorporates Earliness/Tardiness (E/T penalties, interruption penalties and holding cost of jobs which are waiting to be processed as work-in-process (WIP. Generally in non-preemptive problems, E/T penalties are a function of the completion time of the jobs. Then, we introduce a non-linear preemptive scheduling model where the earliness penalty depends on the starting time of a job. The model is liberalized by an elaborately–designed procedure to reach the optimum solution. To validate and verify the performance of proposed model, computational results are presented by solving a number of numerical examples.

  20. Silicon materials task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project: Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R.; Rohatgi, A.; Hanes, M. H.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of impurities and processing on the characteristics of silicon and terrestrial silicon solar cells were defined in order to develop cost benefit relationships for the use of cheaper, less pure solar grades of silicon. The amount of concentrations of commonly encountered impurities that can be tolerated in typical p or n base solar cells was established, then a preliminary analytical model from which the cell performance could be projected depending on the kinds and amounts of contaminants in the silicon base material was developed. The impurity data base was expanded to include construction materials, and the impurity performace model was refined to account for additional effects such as base resistivity, grain boundary interactions, thermal processing, synergic behavior, and nonuniform impurity distributions. A preliminary assessment of long term (aging) behavior of impurities was also undertaken.